Contents Türkic languages
Classification of Türkic languages
Noun Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Sir Gerard Clauson (1891–1974)
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
Oxford аt the Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Ely House, Glasgow, New York, Toronto, 1972
Posting Introduction see the Preface page
About 2/3 of the English suffixes ascend to the Türkic origin; some that are marked as “rare” may be
specific to the western dialects that largely escaped attention of the written sources. Some
suffixes denoted as “rare” are quite popular in English. Most Türkic
suffixes have not survived into the English stage; many were elided in the last 500 years. Most likely these elements are stragglers from the western Türkic languages into the
easter-based sources, they frequently not only remain quite active in the Germanic languages, but
also may serve as pointers to the western Türkic and Germanic languages. Many
suffixes did not survive into Türkic languages (aka East Old Turkic, most inadequately referred to
as simply Old Turkic), they are now observed as components of the roots,
and others were revived with a new function after a period of obsolescence. The notion that
“something did not appear till the medieval period” or “is obsolescent” is based on the limitations of the sources used,
and is unrelated to the periodization of the language. It is a descriptive observation, not an
interpretaion, and pertains only to the short timespan of the sources; mighty changes had occurred
before and after that period. Suggestions on “borrowed from Persian” is dubious for a number of reasons:
The listing omitted or conflated a whole category of denominal and deverbal affixes, the
-ɣ/-g/-q group. The group is cardinal in the Türkic morphology as a main building block. The
problem with conflation is that it obscures word-forming role by infectional functions. The
forms and functions are:
|PDF and ASCII Files • PDF и ASCII Файлы|
|Sir Gerard Clauson
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
ASCII text pages xl - xlviii
The importance of Suffixes in the formation of the Turkish vocabulary needs no explanation, and nearly every Turkish grammar contains lists of the Suffs. (excluding declensional and conjugational Suffs.) used to form derived words. There are, for example, extensive lists in v. G., A TG, paras. 44 to 167 and Brockelmann, paras. 20 to 121 and 148 to 176. I included such a list in Studies, pp. 143 ff. and made some corrections and additions to it in Three Notes on Early Turkish, Türk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı, 1966, pp. 1 ff. The following is a more complete list of the Suffs. identified in this dictionary. It is divided into five parts, each arranged in a reversed alphabetical order from the last letter backwards. The first two parts contain the Suffs. attached to Nouns (including under this heading all words which are not Verbs) and Verbs respectively to form derived Nouns, and the next two parts the Suffs. attached to Nouns and Verbs respectively to form derived Verbs. The fifth is a list of Noun endings, which are not technically Suffs., since if they are removed what is left is not a recognizable Turkish word, but are found at the end of a sufficient number of Nouns with similar meanings to suggest that they form a class of some sort. Two of these endings are known Iranian Suffs., and the words to which they are attached must be Iranian loan-words. Some other endings are not recognizably, or even probably, foreign and seem to go back to a period far beyond our ken, when the Turkish vocabulary was being built up by methods which have long since been forgotten. Between these two classes are some endings which might be, but are not necessarily, foreign. It is noticeable that there is a high proportion of names of animals, insects, and plants in words with these endings.
It should be noted that, although there is commonly supposed to be a clear distinction between Denominal and Deverbal Suffs., the division is not at all clear cut; several Suffs. which might be regarded as properly Denominal, like -çı:, -duruk, also occasionally occur as Deverbal Suffs., and the Deverbal Suffix -ma:k occasionally as a Denominal Suffix
Scattered through Kâşğari are several remarks on the functions of some of these Suffs.; the relevant references are given in the lists below.
The concept of Active, Passive, Transitive, and Intransitive Verbs is a familiar one in all grammars; in Turkish the same terms must necessarily also be applied to Nouns and Noun/Adjectives, since, for example, Deverbal Noun/Adjectives like çınuk (sin- -uk) ‘broken’, köçürme: (köçür- -me-:) ‘travelling (stove)’, and eşidüt (eşid- -üt) ‘hearing’ can be translated only by Participles.
The word ‘dominant’ applied to a Suffix beginning with a vowel means that this vowel is an integral part of the Suffix and if the word to which it is attached ends in a vowel it is the latter that is elided, e.g. tarmut (tarm(a:-) -ut).
When a Suffix consisting of, or beginning with, a vowel is attached to a Dissyllable or
Dissyllable Verb ending in a consonant the second vowel of the Verb is usually, but not
always, elided, e.g. adrı: (ad(ı)r-i:), but biriki: (birik-i:).
It should be noted that when a Suffix beginning with -ğ-/-g- is attached to a word ending with -n the two sounds are combined as -ŋ-, e.g. yaŋak (yan-ğak) and that when such a Suffix is attached to a word ending in -ğ/-g or -k in both cases the two sounds are combined as -kk-, which became in practice -k -, e.g. baku: (bak-ğu:), tiken (tik-gen), yaku: (yağ-ğü:).
I. NOMINAL SUFFIXES
(a) denominal (Denominal Noun)
(Denominal Noun) -ça: about half a dozen words carry this Suffix, which is more in the nature of an Equative Case-ending than a Suffix Most are Adverbs, like ança:, but at least one, barça: is used as a Noun/Adjective. The Diminutive Suffix -ça:/-çe:, which did not appear till the medieval period, was borrowed from Persian. (-ke: -kina:/-kine: -ç ( )/-aç/-eç/-ıç/-iç (after consonants) -k/ (after vowels and -r) -ak /-ek (the normal forms)/-ik/-ik/-uk/-ük (all rare) -çuk/-çük (rare) -nak (rare) -iŋ/-üŋ (rare)) (Anglo-Saxon -incel a diminutive suffix, e. g. rap-incel, scip-incel, hus-incel)
(Denominal Noun) - ı/-i participle see -u participle
(Denominal Noun) -ɣa-/-gä- (-qa-/-ka-) forms verbs: erinčkä- to be merciful, clement (erinč miserable, unhappy), yarlïɣqa- prescribe, preach (yarlïɣ prescription, sermon), qïzɣan- (< qïzɣa -n-) greedy (qïz greedy).
(Denominal Noun) -q-/-k- (-ïq-, -ik-; -uq-, -ük-) forms intransitive verbs: aɣuq- to be poisoned (aɣu- poison), taɣïq- ascend mountains (taɣ mountain), kirik- to get dirty (kir grime), učuq- to end (uč end), tariq- to narrow (tar narrow), ačïq- get hungry (ač hungry).
(Denominal Noun) -ke: Diminutive Suffix, only (?) in siŋirke: (sinew), yipke: (cord, thread, string), perhaps a crasis of -kine:.
(Denominal Noun) -la:/-le: very rare; forms Adverbs in ayla: (thus, like that), tünle: (yesterday, night, north), and perhaps birle: (with), and Adjectives in körkle: (beautiful)/körtle: (beautiful) if these are not loan-words.
(Denominal Noun) -kına:/kine: Diminutive Suffix; very rare. (Arlequin: ar (man) + le (adj., adv.) + kin (little), also ar- (deceive) + le (adj., adv.) + kin (little) ~ small trickster) (kleine ~ small)
(Denominal Noun) -ra:/-re: forms Locative Adverbs, e.g. içre: 'inside, within’; very rare.
(Denominal Noun) -ya:/ye: only in berye: (berü: here), yirya: (yir north), prob. Secondary form of -ra:/-re: (Locative Adverbs).
(Denominal Noun) -çı:/-çi: forms Noun Ag.s (Agent Noun); see Kâşğari II 48; very common.
(Denominal Noun) -nçı:/-nçi: See -nç (-nç/-ınç/-inç/-unç/-ünç Ordinals).
(Denominal Noun) -tı:/-ti: forms Adverbs from Adjectives., e.g. edgü:ti: (edgü: good); very rare; ? also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -nti: forms an Ordinal, only in ekkinti: ‘second’; perhaps an earlier form of -nç.
(Denominal Noun) -tırtı:/-türti:, etc. forms Locative Adverbs, e.g. içtirti: (inside, within) which is practically syn. with içre: (inside, within); very rare.
(Denominal Noun) -kı:/-ki: forms Noun/Adjectives describing position in time or space, e.g. aşnu:ki: ‘former’; üze:ki: ‘situated on or above’; fairly common in the early period; later the practice grew up of attaching this Suffix only to words in the Locative, e.g. evdeki: ‘in the house’.
(Denominal Noun) -du: dubious; only (?) in kardu: (ka:r snow > to mix) which might be a Deverbal Noun
(Denominal Noun) -ğu:/-gü very rare as a Denominal Suffix; forms Abstract Nouns like ençgü: (enç tranquil, at peace, at rest), Concrete Nouns like tuzğu: (tuz solt, tuzğu: gift of food given to a traveler), and Adjectives like buğra:ğu: (woodwork); also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -a:ğu:/-e:gü: dominant; forms Collectives, usually fr. Numerals e.g. üçe:gü: ‘three together’, but see also içe:gü: (iç interior of human body) (cf. içe:gü:), yüze:gü: (yü:z hundred).
(Denominal Noun) -ŋü: only (?) in esriŋü: syn. with esri: ‘dappled’; also a Deverbal Suffix, but this word can hardly be a Deverbal Noun/Adjective
(Denominal Noun) -ru:/-rü: Directive Suffix meaning ‘towards’; very rare; syn. with -ğaru:/-gerü:.
(Denominal Noun) -ğaru:/-ğerü: Directive Suffix like -ru:/-rü:; hardly to be explained as that Suffix attached to the Dative, since it is attested in dialects earlier than those in which the Dative Suffix -ka:/-ke: became -ğa:/-ge:; rather rare.
(Denominal Noun) -layu:/-leyü: meaning ‘like’, e.g. börileyü: ‘like a wolf’; properly Gerund in
-u:/-ü: fr. a Denominal Verb in -la:-/-le:-, but usually the only recorded form of the
(Denominal Noun) -ç (after vowels)/-aç/-eç/-ıç/-iç (after consonants) Diminutive Suffix; very rare, esp. the last two.
(Denominal Noun) -ğaç, etc. function obscure; only (?) in odğuç (o:t/o:d fire > kindling), kuşğaç (?), and perhaps sügiç (sü- to fight > fighter, fighting); also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -leç certainly Turkish in üçleç (üç arrow > type of arrow, like featherless); otherwise see List III. (Anglo-Sax. -lic, Engl. -like)
(Denominal Noun) -nç/-ınç/-inç/-unç/-ünç the ordinary early Suffix of Ordinals; replaced in the medieval period by -nçı:/-nçi:, etc.; see also -ntl:.
(Denominal Noun) (F) -t a Sogdian Plural Suffix found in tegit, tarxat Plurals of tegin, tarka:n which are prob. very old loan-words. (I.e. found in OT, Mong., and Sogdian, borrowed whole with pl. suffix)
(Denominal Noun) (-ta:ğ/-teg in words like antağ ‘thus’ is not a Suffix but the Postposition te:g fused with the stem of ol.)
(Denominal Noun) -liğ/-liğ/-luğ/-lüg forms Poss. Noun/Adjectives, see Kâşğari I 500; very common. (Anglo-Sax. -lic)
(Denominal Noun) -sığ/-sig forms Noun/Adjectives meaning ‘resembling (something)’ and the like; properly Deverbal Noun/Adjectives in -ğ/-g fr. Simulative Denominal Verbs in -sı:-/-si:-, but the actual Verbs are seldom recorded; rare.
(Denominal Noun) -k/ (after vowels and -r) -ak/-ek (the normal forms)/-ik/-ik/-uk/-ük (all rare) usually forms Diminutive Nouns, but also less restricted words like ortuk (ortu: middle > ortuk partner); fairly common.
(Denominal Noun) -çak/-çek forms Concrete Nouns, usually Instrumental Nouns, e.g. a ğırçak ‘spindle-whorl’; rare.
(Denominal Noun) -çuk/-çük as correctly stated in Kâşğari III 226 forms Diminutive Nouns, but generally with a metaphorical sense; e.g. baka: ‘frog’, baka:çuk ‘muscle’; very rare in the early period, later became the commonest Diminutive Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -dak/-dek and also(?) -duk/-dük both very rare with uncertain functions, see bağırdak (bağır bodice > wrap), beligdek (belig frightful > terrifying), burunduk (burun nose-piece > nose-ring); in the last perhaps a crasis of -duruk; beligdek might be a Deverbal Noun/Adjective in -k fr. a Denominal Verb in -de:- fr. beliŋ.
(Denominal Noun) -ğa:k/-ge:k usually forms Concrete Nouns, e.g. eŋek (eŋ cheek > chin), kidizge:k (kidiz felt > felt-like), müŋüzge:k (müŋüz horn > scale), yaŋak (ya:n cheek-bone > cheek, side); very rare, but a common Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -ğuk dubious, only (?) in çamğuk (objectionable); commoner as a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -lik/-lik/-luk/-lük usually forms Abstract Nouns, but quite often Concrete Nouns; its various usages are analyzed in Kâşğari I 505; 510-11. (Anglo-Sax. -lic)
(Denominal Noun) -mak/-mek forms Concrete Nouns, e.g. kögüzmek (köğüz chest, breast > breastplate), but the connection with the basic Noun is sometimes tenuous; very rare, but common as a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -muk/-a:muk forms Nouns some of which seem to be pejorative, e.g. kara:muk (kara: tares > weeds, litter), sola:muk (sola:k on the left >left-handed); very rare.
(Denominal Noun) -nak perhaps Diminutive; only (?) in baka:nak ‘the frog in a horse’s hoof’ (baka: frog).
(Denominal Noun) -rak/-rek forms Comparative Adjectives; common.
(Denominal Noun) -duruk/-dürük usually forms Nouns describing pieces of equipment, e.g. boyunduruk ‘yoke’ (boyun yoke); rather rare; also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -sa:k/-se:k properly Deverbal Noun/Adjective fr. a Denominal Verb in -sa:-/-se:- but the Verb itself is sometimes not recorded; very rare attached to basic Nouns, e.g. tavarsa:k (tavar property > crave for property), less rare attached to Deverbal Nouns in -ğ, etc., e.g. barığsa:k (bar is > wishing to go away); see Kâşğari I 24; I I 55-6.
(Denominal Noun) -suk/-sük function obscure; forms Concrete Nouns, e.g. ilersük
(ilk forwards > waist-belt), bağırsuk
(bağır liver> entrails),
siŋarsuk (siŋa:r side > something on one side) and Instrumental Nouns, e.g.
taŋsuk (taŋ wonder, surprise > marvellous, precious); perhaps Deverbal
Suffix in -uk/-ük fr. Simulative Denominal
Verbs in -si:-/-si:-.
(Denominal Noun) -çıl/-çil forms Noun/Adjectives of addiction, e.g. igçil ‘sickly’ fr. i:g ‘disease’; rare.
(Denominal Noun) -ğıl/-gil (a) attached to Numerals, e.g. üçgil ‘triangular’; (6) otherwise forms Noun/Adjectives relating to color or shape, e.g. başğil (baş head > with white spot on the head), tarğıl (ta:r with narrow (stripes) > striped), kırğıl (kır grey > grey haired), yipgil (yip cord ? > purple), yalğıl (ya:l mane > in, within mane); rare; also Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -sıl in arsil (a:r auburn, bay > auburn, bay), syn. with a:r, ‘auburn’; prob. a Deverbal Noun/Adjective in -ıl fr. a Simulative Denominal Verb in -sı:-; the alternative spelling arsal is improbable; both words are Hap. leg.
(Denominal Noun) -im/-im forms Concrete Nouns, only (?) in edrim (eder pursue > saddle-pod), barım (bar is> property, wealth); a common Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -dam/-dem forms Noun/Adjectives meaning ‘resembling (something)’, e.g. tegridem ‘god-like’; rare (tegri Heaven). (Survived into English -dom: kingdom, officialdom, saintdom, etc.)
(Denominal Noun) -a:n/-e:n/-un an obsolete Plural Suffix (see Kâşğari I 76); only (?) in oğla:n (children), ere:n (men, gentlemen), bodun (Herodotus' Budini “bodies, people”), and perhaps öze:n. (ö:z spirit, soul > souls) (Obs. Engl. pl. suff. -en)
(Denominal Noun) -çın/-çin (-şin) function obscure; only (?) in balıkçın (balık fish > ~ (adj.) fisher, cf. nap > napkin, pip > pipkin, lamb > lambkin, etc.), kökçin/kökşin (kök bluish, greyish > blue-beard, grey-beard, cf. ) nap > napkin, rame > ramekin). (-çın/-çin, aka -sın/-sin, English -kin ~ -like)
(Denominal Noun) -tın/-tun/-dın/-dun, etc. a Locative Suffix, e.g. taştın ‘outside’; to be distinguished fr. the partially homophonous Abl. Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -ğa:n/-ge:n forms Concrete Nouns with a more restricted meaning than the basic N .; e.g. arpağa:n (arpa: barley > wild barley), temürgen (temür/temir iron > arrow-head); very rare; also a Deverbal Suffix and an Ending.
(Denominal Noun) -ğun/-a:ğun etc. (also -ge:n in yettige:n) forms Collectives, e.g. alkuğun (alku: all > all together), kadna:ğun (kadin ‘related by marriage > by marriage), keliŋün (kelin ‘related by marriage > by marriage); very rare; cf. -a:ğu:/-e:gü:.
(Denominal Noun) -ka:n/ke:n forms an Adjective in teprüken ‘devout’, and Temporal Adverbs in amtıkan (amti: now > present), ançağınçakan (ança thus > present); very rare; also an Ending.
(Denominal Noun) (-man)/-men function obscure in (PU) kükmen (kük or 6 küg ? suffering, distress > sufferer), közmen (kö:z burning embers > baked); in Türkmen prob. a corruption of Persian Suff, -mand ‘resembling’; also a Deverbal Suff (the version “like” is more popular with linguists than the version “man” fr. min “I”)
(Denominal Noun) -şin. See -çin. in balıkçın (balık fish > ~ (adj.) fisher, cf. nap > napkin, pip > pipkin, lamb > lambkin, etc.), kökçin/kökşin (kök bluish, greyish > blue-beard, grey-beard, cf. ) nap > napkin, rame > ramekin). (-çın/-çin, aka -sın/-sin, English -kin ~ -like)
(Denominal Noun) -iŋ/-üŋ Adjective Suffix in yeliŋ ‘windy’; Diminutive Suffix in kölüŋ ‘puddle’; also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -daŋ/-duŋ, etc. forms Concrete Nouns only (?) in otuŋ (o:t fire > firewood), uldaŋ (u:l foundation, basis > the sole), and perhaps izdeŋ (i:z (? i:z) footprint, track, trace > ?).
(Denominal Noun) -ar/-er (also -rer in ikkirer)/-şar/-şer (after vowels) forms Distributives after Numerals, e.g. birer ‘one each’, and Adjectives of quantity, e.g. azar ‘a few each’; very rare; also a Deverbal and Conjugational Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -ş/-ış/-uş, etc. function obscure; see ödüş (ö:d time > period of 24 hours), bağış (ba:ğ bound > bounded (n.)), 2 ba:ş (baš рана), kökiş (kö:k blue-grey > blue-grey crane); very rare; also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -da:ş/-de:ş forms Nouns of Association indicating that two persons have a common possession of some kind, e.g. kada:ş ‘kinsman’, yerde:ş ‘compatriot’; see Kâşğari I 406. It has been plausibly suggested that this Suffix is a crasis of the Locative Suffix -da:/-de: and Ğ:ş ‘companion’. Rather rare. (Engl. debase, defibrillation, dismount, destiny, etc.)
(Denominal Noun) -mış/-miş only in altmış, yetmiş ‘sixty, seventy’, a common Conjugational Suffix.
(Denominal Noun) -gey only (?) in küçgey ‘violent’ fr. kü:ç ‘violence’.
(Denominal Noun) -z demonstrably a Denominal Noun Suffix only in ekkiz ‘twin’ fr. ekki:; also a Deverbal Suffix and an Ending. (ertimiz, basdimiz, eçürmiz, apa:miz, bermez)
(Denominal Noun) (-tüz in küntüz (daytime, time), q.v., is prob. a separate word not a Suffix, cf. -ta:ğ.)
(Denominal Noun) -sız/-siz/-suz/-süz forms Privative Noun/Adjectives connoting the non-possession of a
thing, quality, etc.; the opposite of -lığ (Anglo-Sax. -lic,
Eng. -like), etc.; cognate to the Denominal Verb
-sıra:-, etc.; very common.
(b) DEVERBAL (Deverbal Nouns)
(Deverbal Nouns) -a:/-e:/-ı:/-i:/-u:/-ü taken together fairly common; there is no discoverable rule prescribing which Suffix should be attached to any given Verb, all being attached to Verbs with unrounded and with rounded vowels; when one is attached to a Verb ending in a vowel a euphonic -y- is inserted, e.g. ula:yu:. Usually forms Adverbs, less often Conjunctions, like ötrü:(then, so, ...; because of, following on), Postposns. like tapa:, Concrete Nouns like oprı: (hollow, valley), adrı: (branched, forked), Abstract Nouns like 3 keçe: (evening, night, murk, yesterday) or Adjectives like egri: (crooked), köni: (straight; upright, true, truthful, honestly, loyal, faithful, righteous, lawful).(Deverbal Nouns) -ğa:/-ge: forms Adjectives, e.g. kısğa: (short); Noun/Adjectives, usually Active, e.g. öge: (wise), bilge: (wise); and Nouns either Intransitive e.g. köli:ge: (shadow, shade) or Passive, e.g. tilge: (slice); rare and obsolescent; also an Ending.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ma:/-me: forms Passive Nouns and Noun/Adjectives; fairly common pits'use as an ordinary Deverbal Noun, NounAc. (Nomen actionis), etc., prevalent in Osm., did not develop till the medieval period.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğma:/-gme: properly a Conjugational Suffix; occasionally forms Nouns like tanığma: ‘riddle’. (tanığma: “riddle” << tanı “know”, the deverbal suffix -g (-ɣ, -g; -ïɣ; -ig; -uɣ, -üg; -aɣ, -äg) makes it a noun/adj. “knowledge, understanding, knowing, knowable, known”, and the negation suffix -ma- turns it to the opposite “unknowing, puzzling”, cognates: conundrum, enigma, mystery, brain-teaser, problem; this is a faulty example; -ğma: means “(something (n.)) is not”: not known, not red, not flying)
(Deverbal Nouns) -çı:/-çi: forms Nomen agentes, e.g. ota:çı: (ota:- mow, cure > physician), okı:çı: (oki:- summon, read > priest, preacher); common Denominal Suffix, very rare as a Deverbal Suffix.(Deverbal Nouns) -ğu:çı:/-gü:çi: properly a Conjugational Suffix, see Kaş. 7/49, but occasionally forms Nomen agentes, e.g. ayğu:çı (councilor), bitigü:çi: (scribe, secretary).
(Deverbal Nouns) -dı:/-di:, etc. a common Conjugational Suffix, sometimes used to form Passive Noun/Adjectives, usually attached to Reflexive Verbs, e.g. üdründi: (üdür- choose, part, separate, scatter > chosen, parted, separated, scattered), occasionally to basic Verbs, e.g. ögdi: (customs), alka:dı: (alka:- praise > praised), sökti: (1 sök- tear > bran). (The only Passive suffix that survived into English)
(Deverbal Nouns) -tı:/-ti: different fr. the foregoing; used to form Adverbs, e.g. arıtı: (completely, clean), uza:tı: (lengthily), tüke:ti: (completely); very rare; also a Denominal Suffix.(Deverbal Nouns) -çu:/-çü: forms Passive Noun/Adjectives; attached only to Refl, forms; syn. with -dı:, etc.; rare.
(Deverbal Nouns) -du:, etc. in eğdü: (eğ- curved: curved knife), umdu: (um desire: covetousness, desire), süktü: (süke:- to the campaign: campaigning) seems to be a Secondary form of -di:. (-du is recoreded in Assyrian cuneiform documents from the Sus area dated to 23rd c. BC in daldu, modern Türkic doldur “fill” (v) in respect to Ashkuza Scythians [A. Chay, 2002, Scythians//The Turks, Ankara, p. 155, ISBN 975-6782-55-2, 975-6782-56-0, ref. to Mordtmann A.D. 1870, Über die Keilinschriften zweiter Gattung // Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, ZDMG XXIV, p. 50.])
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğu:/-gü: properly a Conjugational Suffix but forms a good many Nouns and Noun/Adjectives; rather more than half are Nomen instrumentes, e.g. bile:gü: ‘whetstone’; most of the remainder are Concrete Nouns, e.g. kedgü: ‘clothing’; the rest are miscellaneous, e.g. oğla:ğu: ‘gently nurtured’; it appears in crasis in words like ertigü: (very, maximally, extremely) and yaku: (raincoat).
(Deverbal Nouns) -ingü: Reflective Gerund Abstract Suffix forming state notions: bilingü fr. bilin- know: be in knowing, etingü fr. etin- set up, fix: be prepared, yeringü fr. yerin- annoyed, disgusted (несчастлив): be annoyed, salingü: fr. sal- move violently: be moving violently.
(Deverbal Nouns) (-yu:, etc.; see -a:, etc.)
(Deverbal Nouns) -ç forms ordinary Nomen actiones, Noun/Adjective Secondary forms, etc.; attached only to Reflexive forms (and tin-); prob. a crasis of -iş etc. which seems not to be attached to Reflexive forms in the early period; common.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğa:ç/-geç only (?) in bösgeç (bös- beat > bösgeç flattened), a Concrete Noun, and kısğaç (kıs- squeeze > kısğa:ç pincers), a Nomen instrumenti in the early period but commoner later; perhaps merely a Secondary form of -ğuç.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğuç/-güç normally forms Nomen instrumentes, e.g. bıçguç (biç- cut > bıçgu:ç scissors); rare; also a Denominal Suffix.
(Deverbal Nouns) -maç/-meç forms names of foodstuffs, e.g. tutmaç (tut- keep (saved) > tutma:ç noodle dish (of saved noodles)); rare.
(Deverbal Nouns) -t (only after -r-)/-ut/-üt dominant; forms Nomen actiones, Abstract Nouns, and Concrete Nouns which are usually Active; rare.
usually describes persons, e.g.
(alp hero, *alpa:- to hero, to war > alpa:ğut warrior), uruŋut
(uruŋu: flag, standard > uruŋut (general, army commander), baya:ğut
(ba:y (rich (man)) > baya:ğut (rich merchant)), and
(etymologically obscure) ura:ğut
(üre- multiply, uri:
son, ur- set up > ura:ğu:t (woman)); also forms Abstract Nouns, etc. in
öğüt (), çapğut
kızğut (), etc.; very rare and obsolescent.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğ/-ığ/-ig/-uğ/-üğ the commonest Deverbal Suffix; forms a wide range of Deverbal Nouns and Noun/Adjectives, Nomen actiones, etc.; see Kaş. I 26-7.
(Deverbal Nouns) -çığ/-çiğ forms Intransitive and Passive Noun/Adjectives; attached only to Reflexive forms; perhaps a crasis of -çsığ/-çsig, in which case the words concerned are Noun/Adjectives in -ğ fr. Simulative Verbs in -si:-/-si:- fr. Deverbal Nouns in -ç.
(Deverbal Nouns) -k (after vowels and -r-)/-ak/-ek/-ık/-ik of these -k is rather common, the rest rather rare. Practically syn. with -ğ ; there does not seem any discoverable rule for deciding which Suffix should be used, but on the whole most words ending in -ğ, etc. are Nouns and most words ending in -k, etc. are Noun/Adjectives, but it also forms Abstract Nouns, e.g. emge:k (), kılık (); Concrete Nouns, e.g. kesek (), and Nomen instrumentes, e.g. bıçak (). See Kaş. I 27.
(Deverbal Nouns) -uk/-ük (-ok/-ök) dominant (e.g. in a ğruk (), esruk ()); usually forms Intr. or Passive Noun/Adjectives; also a few Passive Nouns, e.g. buyruk (), köpük (), kölük (). Common.
(Deverbal Nouns) -çak/-çek and -çuk/-çük not direct variants since the first is also attached to Verbs containing rounded vowels and the second to Verbs containing unrounded vowels; the semantic difference may be the same as that between -ak and -uk. Both form Concrete Nouns and Nomen instrumentes; rare. Also a Denominal Suffix.
(Deverbal Nouns) -dak/-dek it is doubtful whether this is a Deverbal as well as a Denominal Suffix, but ördek () looks more like a Deverbal Noun than a Denominal Noun
(Deverbal Nouns) -duk, etc. properly a Conjugational form (Perfect Participle, etc.) but Kaş. I 65 may well be right in defining ağduk () as a Deverbal Noun/Adjective with this Suffix.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğa:k/-ge:k usually forms Noun/Adjectives connoting habitual or repeated action; also a few Concrete Nouns, e.g. içgek (), kudurğa:k (), and Nomen instrumentes, e.g. bıçğa:k (), tarğa:k () with the same connotation implied; cf. -ğa:n/-ge:n.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğuk/-gük forms Concrete Nouns and some Nomen instrumentes; rare.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ma:k/-me:k properly the Infinitive Suffix, but also used to form a few Concrete Nouns, e.g. çakma:k, and, with vocalic assimilation, ügrümük.
(Deverbal Nouns) -duruk/-dürük forms Nouns describing pieces of equipment, e.g. tizildürük; very rare; also a Denominal Suffix.
(Deverbal Nouns) -sık/-sik forms Nomen actiones, usually Intransitive; properly the Suffix -k attached to a Simulative Verb in -si:-/-si:-, but the Verbs themselves are not noted; rare.
(Deverbal Nouns) -yuk/-yük properly a Conjugational Suffix, see von Gabain, Alttürkische Grammatik, para. 20 (z) (e), para. 218, but forms some Intransitive Noun/Adjectives; note the -n-y- crasis in bıılğanuk, etc.; rare.
(Deverbal Nouns) -l (after vowels)/-il/-il forms Noun/Adjectives usually Intransitive or Passive; rare. (Survived into English as adjectival/adverbal affix found on this page: adjectival, usually, properly, practically, etymologically, etc.)
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğıl/-gil in kızğıl relates, like the Denominal Suffix, to colour; in bıçğıl forms a Nomen instrumenti; very rare. (Survived into English: cudgel, strangle; Anglo-Saxon cycgel “cudgel”, wingel “fan, blower”, strengel “ruler, chief”, snagel “snail”, etc.; -gel is popular in German: schweigel, spiegel, vogel, etc.; )
(Deverbal Nouns) -m/-ım/-im/-ura/-üm properly describes a single action, e.g. ölüm ‘death’ (you can only die once) or içim ‘a single drink’, but sometimes used less precisely as a Nomen actionis or Concrete Noun; common.
(Deverbal Nouns) -n/-en- (?only in evren, tevren)/-ın/-in/-un/-ün partially dominant, see, e.g. uzun, tütün fr. uza:-, tüte:-, but after vowels -n is more usual; forms Noun/Adjectives and Concrete Nouns, usually Intransitive; not very common. (But still popular and productive in Germanic languages, with notable relicts in English: children, oaten, oven)
(Deverbal Nouns) -ga:n/-ge:n properly a Conjugational form, Present Participle, but, at any rate
in Kaş., connoting repeated or habitual action, see Kaş. I 24; I I 53; fairly
common; cf. -ğa:k/-ge:k; also a Denominal Suffix and Ending. (This
universality has been partially inherited by the Northern European, now the “IE” languages)
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğın/-gin (after unrounded vowels)/-ğun/-gün (after rounded vowels) forms Nouns and Noun/Adjectives, usually Intransitive or Passive; not very common; -ğun/-gün also a Denominal Suffix.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ma:n/-me:n forms Nomen instrumentes; very rare; also a Denominal Suffix. (Survived into English, actually it is the most active and productive English suffix, complemented by recent innovation woman: congressman/congresswoman, serviceman/servicewoman, anchorman/anchorwoman, human, humanity, etc. Specialization into agent noun is observed in EOT (tümän armada, dushman enemy), but it developed in WOT, reaching us in Germanic languages)
(Deverbal Nouns) -ŋ/-aŋ (in çalaŋ)/-üŋ (in bürüŋ) very rare; the full phonetic range is prob. wider; forms Nouns and Noun/Adjectives, exact function obscure.
(Deverbal Nouns) -çaŋ only (?) in ayançaŋ (); perhaps connotes habitual action.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ar/-er/-ır/-ir/-ur/-ür properly an Aorist (past tense) Participial Suffix; forms a few Nouns and Noun/Adjectives. (ODT p. 650: 1st pers. verbal active voice base (from base intrans. verb))
(Deverbal Nouns) -mur only (?) in yağmur () and perhaps çağmur ().
(Deverbal Nouns) -s only (?) in öles; ? Secondary form of -z.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ğas only (?) in bıçğas; perhaps Secondary form of -ğaç.
(Deverbal Nouns) -ş/-ış/-iş/-uş/-üş there are perhaps two different series here, cf. -k, etc. and -uk/-ük; in some cases a vowel is followed by -ş but in others the -iş, etc. are dominant, e.g. alkış (praise), ülüş (share, portion), arviş (), busuş (), fr. alka:- (),üle:- (), arva:- (), busa:- (), and, although these words are Nomen actiones, in some cases, e.g. uruş- 'hitting one another’, the action is reciprocal, in others, e.g. ağiş ‘rising’ it is neutral or at most co-operative; cf. the Deverbal Verb Suffix -ş-, etc. The connotation of ‘a way of (doing something)’, prevalent in Osm., is unknown in the early period. Common.
(Deverbal Nouns) -z/-ız/-iz/-uz/-üz forms Nouns and Noun/Adjectives, usually Intransitive or Passive, but precise function obscure; it is doubtful whether 1 ö:z and uz should be regarded as Deverbal Nouns fr. ö:- and u:- as Bang suggested; very rare and obsolescent. (OTD p. 668 noun, adj., isolated cases: uz 'master' (u- 'can, be able').
(Deverbal Nouns) -duz forms an Intransitive Noun/Adjective; only (?) in munduz.
II. VERBAL SUFFIXES
(a) denominal (Denominal Verbs)
(Denominal Verbs) -a:-/-e:-/-ı:-/-i:-/-u:-/-ü:- the first two fairly common, the rest rare; attached only to consonants; prob. the oldest Denominal Verb Suffix, forms Intransitive and less often Transitive Verbs; see Kaş. I 20.
(Denominal Verbs) -da:-/-de:-/-ta:-/te:- rare and attached only to a limited range of consonants, forms only (?) Transitive Verbs. (Survived into English as the most active and productive English suffix -ed and -t: abandoned, slept)
(Denominal Verbs) -ka:-/-ke:- very rare; only (?) in irınçke:- () and yarlika:- (), and, in the Reflexive form, ağrıkan- (); in the last two the -k- is a crasis of -ğk-, -irka:-/urka:-, etc. function obscure, very rare; see tagirka:- (), tsoyorka:- (), and, in the Reflexive form, alpırkan- (), özirken- (); see the Deverbal Suffix -irkan-.
(Denominal Verbs) -la:-/-le:- attached to all vowels and consonants; forms Trans, and Intransitive Verbs; when attached to the names of parts of the body means ‘to strike-on the...’; see Kaş. I 22; much the commonest Denominal Suffix.
(Denominal Verbs) -ra:-/-re:- a very rare Secondary form of -la:-/-le:- (forms Trans, and Intransitive Verbs), e.g. kekre:- (), kökre:- (). sayra:- (twitter, sing)
(Denominal Verbs) -sı: Poss. Suff. (Poss. Suff. ı:sı: p. 75) (Hard to take that this omission is accidental: Eng. 's Poss. Suff., Türkic -sı: Poss. Suff., visible to naked eye)
(Denominal Verbs) -sıra:-/-sire:- forms Privative Denominal Verbs meaning ‘to be without, or deprived of, something’,
(); cognate to the Denominal Noun Suffix -siz, etc.; rare and obsolescent.
(Denominal Verbs) -sa:-/-se:- forms Desiderative Denominal Verbs; fairly common; these Verbs form two classes: (1) those derived fr. basic Nouns, e.g. evse:- ‘to long for home’; (2) those derived fr. Nomen actiones, e.g. barığsa:- ‘to wish to go’. Also a Deverbal Suffix, equally common; in Kaş. I 281, I1 it is said that barsa:- is permissible, but barığsa:- the more usual form. See also I 279 ff.
(Denominal Verbs) -lı:- (-li:-) very rare Secondary form of -la:-/-le:-, e.g. tumli:- (to be cold) (The form donli/donla, associated with the Eastern European form don, somehow escaped the attentive ear of the lexicologist).
(Denominal Verbs) -sı:-/-si:- forms Simulative Denominal Verbs, e.g. açığsı:- (); very rare in the basic form but see -sın-/-sin- (and -sığ/-sig); see Kaş. I 282; also a Deverbal Suffix (Survived as English -sy: clumsy, clumsily, folksy)
(Denominal Verbs) -d- (after vowels)/a:d-/-e:d- (after consonants) these Verbs are usually Intransitive and mean ‘to be, or become (something)’, but occasionally Transitive, e.g. köze:d- (); as in the Perfect the -d- merged with the Suffix -tı:/-ti: and became -ttı:/-tti:, Kaş. erroneously indexed some of these Verbs with final -t- but it is unlikely that this was the pronunciation except in the Perfect.
(Denominal Verbs) -it- (? -id-) the nature of this Suffix in töŋit- and terit- is obscure.
(Denominal Verbs) -k- (only after vowels)/-ık-/-ik-/-uk-/-ük- forms Intransitive, and occasionally Passive, Verbs; see Kaş. I 20; I I 118, 165; rather common.
(Denominal Verbs) -l- forms Intransitive Verbs, e.g. tusul- (tusu use, usage > to use); very rare; also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Verbs) -sın-/-sin- the Reflexive form o f -sı:-/-si:- forming Intransitive Simulative Verbs; rare when attached to basic Nouns, e.g. uluğsın- (), but fairly common when attached to Single Action Nouns in -m, etc., e.g. alimsin- () translated in Kaş. I 20 ‘to pretend to take, without actually taking’; see also II 202, 259; there are several hybrid forms like begimsin- () in which -im- is inserted between the basic Noun and the Suffix.
(Denominal Verbs) -r- (after vowels)/-ar-/-er- (the ordinary form after consonants)/-ır-/-ir- (very rare, after Dissyllable Nouns in which the second vowel, -ı-/-i-, is elided, e.g. kurğır- () fr. kurığ ()) forms Intransitive Verbs; see Kaş. II 163; fairly common.
(Denominal Verbs) -ğar-/-ğer-/-kar- (after -)/(-ker-ŋ) normally forms Transitive Verbs, occasionally Intransitive; fairly common.
(Denominal Verbs) -ğır-/-ğir- forms Inchoative Verbs meaning ‘almost to do (something); to be on the point of doing (something)’, (see Kaş. II 200, which relates to Deverbal Verbs); e.g. tazğır- (), tozğır (); very rare; also a Deverbal Suffix.
(Denominal Verbs) -ş- identical with the Deverbal Suffix -ş- , etc.; noted only in arkaş- ()
(b) deverbal (Deverbal Verbs)
(Deverbal Verbs) -sa:-/-se:- forms Desiderative (Intentional) Verbs; see Kaş. I 21; also a Denominal Suffix; fairly common.
(Deverbal Verbs) -sı:-/-si:- forms Simulative Verbs, e.g. emsi:- (); very rare; also a Denominal Suffix.
(Deverbal Verbs) -d- Transitive and prob. Emphatic in to:d- (), ko:d- (), yo:d- (), yüd- (), -t- (after vowels and -r-)/-ıt-/-it/-ut-/-üt- the only common Suffix of Causative Verbs fr. basic Verbs ending in vowels; the other forms are rather rare. See Kaş. I 20.
(Deverbal Verbs) -k- (after vowels and -r-)/-ık-/-ik-/-uk-/-ük- when attached to Intrans, Verbs
intensifies the meaning, e.g. a:ç- ‘to be hungry’; açık- ‘to be famished’, see
(Deverbal Verbs) -tik-/-duk- forms Emphatic Passive Verbs, onIy (?) in bulduk- (), bastık- ().
(Deverbal Verbs) -sık-/-sik-/-suk-/-sük- forms Emphatic Passive Verbs, e.g. bil- ‘to know’; bilsik- ‘ to be well known, notorious’; see Kaş. I 21; II 138, 237; rare.
(Deverbal Verbs) -1-/-ıl-/-il-/-ul-/-ül- the normal Suffix for Passive Verbs; see Kaş. I 21; I I 138, 237; very common.
(Deverbal Verbs) -n-/-ın-/-in-/-un-/-ün- forms Reflexive Verbs, which according to Kaş. had four shades of meaning ‘to do something to oneself, for oneself, or by oneself; or pretend to do something but not actually do it’ (the last practically unknown elsewhere); it was also used to form Intransitive and sometime Passive Verbs fr. Transitive; see Kaş. I 21,II 168, 254; very common.
(Deverbal Verbs) -ırkan-/-irken- in isirken- (), kisirkan- (); function obscure; see Denominal Verb Suffix -ırka:-. (-ırka:- verb intrans. + -n/-ın/-in/-an/-än noun result)
(Deverbal Verbs) -r- (in one or two Verbs, ürper- (), kurır- (), yelpir- (), etc.)/-çır-/-çir- (in tamçırkülçir - ())/-ğır-/-gir- (perhaps occasionally -ğur-/-gür-; rare)/-sir- (in külsir- ()) all form Inchoative Verbs; see the Denominal Suffix -ğır-/-gir-, (ar-)/-er-/-ur-/-ür-, attached only to consonants, the first two very rare, the second two fairly common, form Causative Verbs, see Kaş. II 87, 199.
(Deverbal Verbs) -dur-/-dür-/-tur-/-tür-, attached only to consonants, the commonest Suffix for forming Causative Verbs; see Kaş. I 20; I I 197.
(Deverbal Verbs) -ğur-/-gür- attached only to a limited range of consonants, forms Causative Verbs; see Kaş. II 198; rather rare.
(Deverbal Verbs) -şur-/-şür- (occasionally in the Secondary form -çur-/-çür-) is not a primary Suffix but a combination of -ş- and -ur-, the preceding vowel often being elided, e.g. tap- (), tapış- (), tapşur- ().
(Deverbal Verbs) -ş- (only after vowels)/-ış-/-iş-/-uş-/-üş- forms Co-operative and Reciprocal Verbs which, according to Kaş., meant ‘to do (something) together (with a Plural Subject); to do (something) in every part (with a Sing. Subject); to do (something) to one another (with a Plural Subject); to help (someone Dat.) to do (something Accusative); to compete with (birle:, someone) in doing (something Accusative). Noun. See Kaş. I 20; II 113 ff., 225; common.
(Deverbal Verbs) -uz-/-üz- (dominant, e.g. tüte :-, tütüz-)/-duz-/-düz-/-ğuz-/-güz- form Causative Verbs; obviously cognate to -ur-, etc. (cf. -sız , -sıra:-); according to Kaş. II 87 -duz- was an Oğuz Suffix; see also II 164; all rare in the early period; became commoner, and in some languages almost standard, in the later period.
ENDINGS (Ending is the final morpheme added to a word base to make an inflectional form. Suffix is a morpheme or a group of morphemes attached to the end of a word to form a new word (i.e. new semantics of the base word) or to alter grammatical function of the base word. Inflection is modification of a word (verbs - conjugation, nouns, adjectives, and pronouns - declension) to form different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case. Thus, ending changes grammatical function of the word by inflecting it. Accordingly, none of the following suffixes listed as endings are endings; that is acknowledged by the author, who seeks new words for each suffix)
(Endings) -ğa:/-ge, which was a rare and obsolescent Deverbal Noun suffix, also appears at the end of a larger number of words which cannot be so explained. Some are pretty certainly not loan-words, others, like sırıçğa: ‘crystal, glass’ prob. are. The list includes one, perhaps significant, pair, avıçğa: ‘old man’, kurtğa: ‘old woman’, and several names of animals and insects çekürge: (locust), (PU) çınçırğa: (sparrow), torı:ğa: (sky-lark, hoopoe), kumursğa: (ant), karğa: (crow, rook, raven), karınçğa: (ant), kaşğa: (light spot on head), sarıçğa: (locust), etc.
(Endings) -va:ç/-wa:ç in sanduwa:ç
(Prophet) is the Iranian word (and Suffix)
‘voice’. (Combination yalarvaç “Prophet” of Türkic word yal-,
yalar- “shine” with Persian word -va:ç/-wa:ç “voice”, i.e. “shining voice”, is a speculation
(Endings) -dıç occurs in tardıç (unknown meaning, possibly Der. of tartaq “comb” or därd “suffering”), savdıç (basket), sağdıç (best man (wedding)).
(Endings) -la:ç/-lıç in ıkı:la:ç (), iŋliç (), todlıç (), karğıla:ç (), sokarlaç (), sondılaıç (), three of them names of birds, is probably, but not demonstrably, foreign.
(Endings) -ğa:n/-ge:n (also Denominal and Deverbal Suffixes)/-ka:n/-ke:n occurs at the end of several names of animals: tavışğa:n () (a very old word), tayğa:n (), sıçğa:n (), sağızğa:n (), sıkırkan (), etc., and of plants: çıbıka:n (), tuturka:n (rice), kara:kan (), kövürgen (wild onion), etc.
(Endings) -la:n occurs at the end of the names of several animals arsla:n (lion), bakla:n (lamb), bularn (), bursla:n (tiger), kapla:n (leopard), kula:n (wild ass), sirtla:n (‘hyaena’, first noted in the medieval period), yila:n (snake), and one title çoğla:n (Karluk title).
(Endings) -va:r in çığılva:r (cross-bow?), yala:var (envoy) is an Iranian Suffix meaning ‘carrying’. (With Türkic bar, bar-, ber, and ber- expressing notions close to “carrying”, the idea of borrowing individual suffixes is incongruous. Languages borrow suffixes as realization of borrowed morphological system, or as entire words with their native suffixes, thus the to be a borrowing the stem of the words must be a borrowing too.)
(Endings) -z occurs at the end of three numerals: ottuz (uç three > thirty), tokkuz (nine), sekkiz (eight); several names of parts of the human or animal body: ağız (mouth), boğuz (throat), bünüz (horn), tiz (knee), köküz (chest, breast; mind, thought), köz (eye); and several names of animals and insects: uyaz (gnat), topuz (pig, swine), kunduz (beaver), etc., as well as miscellaneous words like yıltız (root) and yultuz (star). None of these are likely to be loan-words.
4 -ma:-/4 -me:- (verbal negation suffix, negation clitic -ma-): yemegil ‘do not eat it’, yemezünler ‘not eat’, kizlemez ‘does not hide it’, yummadı ‘did not shut’, etc. Identical to prohibitive Skt. mā and Gk. mē.
Contents Türkic languages
Classification of Türkic languages
Noun Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek