In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Pazyryk Genetics
Contents Tele
Huns Dateline 337-439 AD Continued =>
Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Ogur and Oguz
Western Hun's Khan Dynasties
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
Kisamov N. Hunnic Oracle Phrase
Russian Version needs a translation
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline


Huns 1766 BC-336 AD
Huns 337-439 AD
Huns 440-498 AD
Huns 500-552 AD
Huns 552-599 AD
Huns 600-649 AD
Huns 650-699 AD
Huns 700-749 AD
Huns 750-849 AD
Huns 850-949 AD
Huns 950-1099 AD
Huns 1100-1249 AD
Huns 1250-1349 AD
Huns 1350-1499 AD
Huns 1500-1922 AD
Terminology in (Western) Classical Literature Terminology in Modern Literature

φρουροί, φρυνοι, φρυροι, Γρυνοι, φαυνοι (Strabo, born 63 or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD)
Huni, Phuni, Thuni (Pliny the Elder, 23 – 79 AD)
ουννοι, ωνοι, ωοννοι, θουννι, θουνοι (Dionisius Periegetus, before 138 AD)
φαυνοι  (Kalman Nemeti: “earliest and most stable form of spelling“)
Chuni, Phuni, Thuni, Funi (P.Orosius, c. 385–420)
Unnus, Thynus, Thinus, Thymus (Priscus of Panium, before 474 AD)
χγη/φυη, ουννοι, θουννοι (Eustathius of Thessalonica, ca. 1110 - 1198, describing Scythian tribe of Uns (ουννοι) or θουννοι, states that spelling “should be “ουννοι” without θ
Hins, Hons, Süns (E.European Türkic languages)

Additional terminology Karmichion, Chion,. Chionite, Huna, Akhun, Küsün/Kushan
Sogdian xwn
Additional terminology in Indian languages, Bactrian, Parthian, Korean, Manchu, Tibetan, probably more.

Huns, Huna, Hyon, Hsiung-nu, Hiung-nu, Xiong Nu, Xiahou, Xionites, Khuni, Chuni, Chyon, Suni, Sunni, Sünnu/Sunnu, Shunnu, Hunny, Gunny, Un, Unni, Khionites, Onogundurs, Onogur, Utigur, Hunnogurs, Hunnugurs, Hungars, Hungurs, Kuturgur, Kutrigur, Ultzindurs, Ultzingurs, Baranjar, Balanjar, Chue, Chumi, Chumuhun, Shato, Os, Ovs, Ephtalite, Hephthalite, White Huns, Red Huns, Karmichion, Karmikhion, Uygurs, [Uange, Bugu/Pugu, Bayegu/Baiyrku, Tunlo/Tongra, Sygye (Uygur tribes)], Seyanto (Sir + Yanto), Kibi, Tele/Tiele/Dubo/Tubalar/Dabo, Guligan/Kurykan (Yakuts), Dolange (Telengits), Husye, Higye, Adye/Eduz, Baysi/Barsil, Hunno-Bulgars, Guifang, and other variations


Huns have 24 clans, some of them: Kuyan (Jack rabbit), Lan (Orchard), Yui/Yuy/Syui/Sui/SuySui/Hui/Suybu (West Tribe) = Uigur, Suylyanti, Tsulin, Taychi, Uyti, Tsetszuy, Bayan
Ulohon/Uloxeu/Ulohu (Ulug Hun, Great Huns) [Óëóõîíü/Óëîõýó/Óëîõó (Óëóã Õóí, Áîëüøèå Õóíû)]


I attempted to collect dated events, records and facts pertaining to the Türkic history. There is an abundance of timelines. There are topic timelines in most of the history books, timeline encyclopedias and timeline dictionaries. The Türkic history, however, is there only incidentally, as a secondary-tertiary subject shown only at the time of the greatest impact on the central theme of the Chinese, Persian, Greek and Roman world, or the center theme of a particular monograph. This Türkic history timeline lists the development of the Türkic societies, and includes the peoples and countries mutually impacted by the Türkic peoples. It gives the events in the Türkic world with the background of the neighboring societies.

Significantly, all ancient Türkic tribes (Türks, Kirkuns, Agach-eri, On-ok, Tabgach, Comans, Yomuts, Tuhses, Kuyan, Sybuk, Lan, Kut, Goklan, Orpan, Ushin and others) carried the name of “Huns” 1 Etymology of the name Sün/Hün see note 3.

Messopotamia Türks
ca 2000 BC
Eastern Huns
ca 700 BC
Eastern Huns
ca 200 BC
Eastern Huns
ca 135 BC
Eastern Huns
ca 0 AD
Eastern Huns
ca 80 AD
Ku-Sün (Kushan)
ca 106 AD
Western Huns
by Ptolemy ca 127AD
Eastern Huns
ca 300 AD

1766 BC-336 AD

Time Events
1766 BC Legendary period, historiographical dating inconsistent with archeological dating. Eventually recorded Chinese traditions tell of Kia (Gui, 癸, legendary 1728–1675 BC), 17th member of old Chinese Xia (Hia) dynasty, dethroned "due to evil ways". His son Sunni (Sünni) went with 500 members of his Xia nationality to his Hun relatives. Xia people still have many common words with Altaic languages. But Huns reached China only after 16th c. BC, Altaic borrowing must have a different source
1766 BC Legendary period. Oldest Turkic words are in Chinese annual chronicles noting cultural and political events. Hun (Hsiung-nu) words tanry, kut, byoryu, ordu, tug, kylych etc are oldest monuments of Turkish language. State rulers’ endoethnonym is Hun, Turkic “kun” =  “kin” ~ “man, male, people“
1390 BC Legendary period. First elements of Hun state in highlands of Ordos
1350 BC Beginning of historically dicumented Lateral Succession order in Shang, based on kinship with ruler. Lateral Succession order continues for 25 successions, from Da Ding (ca 1400-1350 BC) to Kang Ding (1157-1131 BC), then abruptly changes to Chinese-type primogeniture. Previous dynastic lateral successions are of legendary nature (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family_tree_of_the_Zhou_Dynasty)
1300 BC Beginning of Yinxu period, mysterious period of Chinese history between 1300 and 1027 BC noted for revolutionary change in bronze production with no previous developmental history; period of sudden appearance of archeological artifacts that would later become “Chinese Bronze Art”. Yinxu period had increased warfare between Shang and “Northern Zone”, by that period  “Northern Zone” complex had evolved into a number of discrete cultural centers, which established a network of contacts both between them and with Central Plain
1250 BC Beginning of historical period in China. Inscriptions on oracle bones and bronze vessels corroborate written accounts. Shang archeological horizon consists of 1,000 pre-hegemon principalities, Shang is probably largest and most prominent, but far off from genealogy of Chinese continuum depicted in the Chinese annals
1205 BC Earliest Chinese reference to Huns in early 12th century BC about campaign of Shang king Wuding (武丁 wu3 ding1, d. 1195 BC) against Gui Fang 鬼方 (gui3 fang1, gui = gost, disappearing, i.e. nomads; fang = enemy, hostile) tribe, one of ancient names for Huns, in bronze inscriptions and oracle turtle-back bones, supported by vague archeological indicators (first chariots, first ring-handled and animal-headed knives, first bronze mirrors, seven-day calendar, Sumerian Dengir coming to China as Tian and later to Mongolia as Tengri, switch from ancestor-god Di to non-anthropical Tian, first chariot burials, horse and cart technology and skills with no traces of development, explosion in bronze production, conscription of population for mass production, Lateral Succession model, three-partite army, maternal uncle as state CEO, autonomous rule of possessions, rule based on familial ties, first elevation of dynastic women)
1200 BC First Hun state in highlands of Ordos
1117 BC 30th year of King of Shang Wu Yi 武乙 (1147-1112 BC), Zhou attacked Yiqu 义渠 and captured its king (Bamboo annals). Wang Guowei and Jian Bozhan concluded that Yuzhi was just the inflexion of Yushi, Yueh Chih/Yuezhi = Tokharians; and Yanju is Yanqi and Yiqu near later Qin kingdom
1112 BC 35th year of King of Shang Wu Yi 武乙 (1147-1112 BC), Jili attacked Guijung/Guirong/Guifang 鬼戎 at Xiluo 西落. According to Sima Qian, he captured 20 kings of that tribe.
1027 BC End of Yinxu period, mysterious period of Chinese history between 1300 and 1027 BC noted for revolutionary change in bronze production with no previous developmental history; a period of sudden appearance of archeological artifacts that would later become the “Chinese Bronze Art”
1000 BC Huns are already mentioned in the time of Zarathustra (1,000BC?) in the form Hunu, their ultimate origin in Zarathustra time is from Western Asia
957 BC Zhou king Zhao (Zhou and Zhao are synonyms) lost a campaign against Chu south of Zhou at Han river, is killed, lost western (right wing stationed at Xian) army.
956 BC Adventurous Zhou Mu Wang (956-918 BC) fell in remote romance with Yue queen, attacked Quan Jungs/Rongs (944 BC;  Jungs/Rongs = "Belligerents", vs. cusomary "barbarians") north and west of Zhou after passing Yanju[�ɾ�] and Yuzhi  (Biography of Emperor Mu, Chapter I, gives 989 BC date). Wang Guowei and Jian Bozhan concluded that Yuzhi was just the inflexion of Yushi, Yueh Chih/Yuezhi = Tokharians; and Yanju is Yanqi and Yiqu near later Qin kingdom. Shang Shu credits Mu with first legal code, M.Shaughnessy explains necessity to replace 3-rd-4th generation blood kins with beaurocracy to run colonies established 100 years earlier. Quan in Afro-Asiatic language means "son", possibly a reference to Zhou Türks dominating A-A Vietnamese-type Yi (akin to Rus deti = "children", chelyad = lesser folks). King Yan of Xu forged a confederation of 36 eastern and southern states, Quan Jungs = Yi captured eastern (left wing) capital Chengzhou. In ethnic terms, this is Türko-Viet war. Quan Jungs and Yi states gain independence of Zhou.
Yi Confederation and Zhou
ca 940 BC
800 BC Sword myths traditions are all early Anatolian, are also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst early Scythians
778 Undated - State of Qin (秦, 778–207 BC) is accused by its enemies of sharing the same customs and moral qualities as Rong (Jung) and Di: it had the heart of a tiger or a wolf, was greedy and cruel, untrustworthy when it came to making a profit, and did not behave according to protocol and virtuous conduct (Sharing the custom = nomadic state?) Qin is a southeastern extension of Ordos and Gansu
771 BC Huns (Ch. Jungs) invasion of Zhou China. Zhou capital Hao falls
713 BC Huns (Ch. Jungs) major invasion of China repulced by Zheng
685 BC 685 - 643 BC Rule in Tsi of Huan - hun
679 BC 679 BC Huan - hun organizes a congress of rulers (i.e. kurultai) in Tsi/Qi, taking that right from Chjou/Zhou
660 BC Ethnical Hun (Jung, pin. Rong 戎 = archer) named Yuyui (Üüi) held highest position during Chinese Qin dynasti ruler Mu-gun (660-621  BC)
659 BCC 659 - 621 Rule of Mu-hun in Tsin/Qin
650 BC Around 7th century BC, a nomadic tribe called Sai/Se in Chinese annals, Sakas in Persian, Scythians by the Greeks, pasturing in steppe between Issyk Kul and Balkhash Kul entered Mt. Tianshan area and established their country near Yili/Ili river  and Karkashen Kul, Hotan River and Kariya River Valley. Biography of Emperor Mu calls its leader Western Empress. Shen Fuwei suggested that because they were west of China, Xi (west) was rendition in pronunciation and meaning of "Scythia" or "Scyth", Usun east of Mt. Tianshan was their branch, caled Wuji in Warring States Book of Mountains and Seas, near Buluntuo Lake (47N87E). Wuji/Usun, called Issedonians by Greeks, were one of Eight Western Jung/Rong States of Mianzhu, Gunrong, Dirong, Huanrong, Yiqu, Dali, Wushi, and Quyan. Among them, Yiqu (Uigurs) was the strongest. Based on identity of pronunciation of "horse" in Yiqu and Tochar language, Lin Meichun speculated that Yiqu may be a sub-branch of Tocharians
600 BC Taohongbala and Maoqinggou cemeteries in Ordos region are identified as earliest Hun's sites in Northern China, ca 650-550 BC
500 BC Persepolis inscription text is “Darius Hystapes (522-486 BC) rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia [Sabir], Hunae [European, Caucasian, Middle Asian ?].“
450 BC Herodotus World Map (ca. 450 B.C.) shows Agathirsi (Agach-ir=Türk. forest+people), Scythians and Massagets, Malanchleni, Neuri, Budini and Geloni, Thissagets and Jurcae
450 BC Herodotus (IV, 105) reports about wolf cult at Neuri (Nevrs) along Hypanis (Danube) and W. of Borisphen (Buri-Chay = Dnieper) to Tyras (Dniester) together with Budins (Tr. “people, tribe, subjects“). Later wolf was on gold buckle fr Niconia by Dniester
327 BC Confederation of Western Jungs Yìqu  义渠 in Gansu submitted to Qin Zhou
320 BC Date undefined. Aristov 1896, p. 279: In Chinese annals, long before our era south of Altai mountains lived Huns, in the north lived people So. Then So split up into 4 tribes: Kuman or Kuban, Kyrgyz, Chu-kishi and Turks
318 BC First historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC
306 BC 306-304 BC Under the Qin's King Zhao 秦昭 (r. 306–251 BC), Qin expanded into the territory of the Yiqu Jung 義渠戎 semipastoral tribes, occupied later commanderies Longxi 陇西/隴西, Beidi 北地, and Shang 上, and then build “long walls” as a protection against the Hu Huns.
302 BC Under the Zhao's King Wuling (趙武靈, r. 325 BCE – 299 BC), Zhao defeated Lin Hu 林胡 and Loufan 樓煩 to the north and also built a wall from Dai 代, at the foot of the Yinshan Mountains, to Gaoque 高闕, establishing commanderies of Yunzhong 雲中, Yanmen 雁門, and Dai 代
300 BC State of Yan entertained diplomatic relations with Hu through General Qin Kai 秦开, then treacherously attacked them, defeating Dong Hu and pushing them back “a thousand li”. Yan also built a wall that went from Zaoyang 枣阳/棗陽 to Xiangping 襄平 for protection against Hu, and created commanderies of Shanggu 上谷, Yuyang 魚陽, Youbeiping 右北平, Liaoxi 遼西, and Liaodong 遼東
300 BC In Chinese sources Alans are one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favored by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C. (ToOD 146). ( Turk. alan ‘field’, akin to 'fieldman', Slav. 'polyane', 'polovets')
300 BC Earliest occurrence of Parthian name in form of Aparnoi or Parnoi in Turan. According to Armenian historians who served Armenian dynasty of Parthian origin, Parthian Arsac who founded dynasty was of white Hun (Ku-Hun/Ku-Sün/Ku-shan/Kushan ~ Abdaly/Ephtalite) origin
295 BC Zhao  conquered Di's state Zhongshan, continued its drive north and built fortifications along northern bank of Huanhe bend encircling Ordos steppe, creating a Chinese enclave deep into nomad territory. State of Qin also expanded into Ordos in Hetao 河套 ("bend") region, its line of fortifications ran from Shang commandery in eastern Hetao to Longxi commandery in southern Gansu, along northeast to southwest line, Longxi was westernmost point of China's northern frontier
290 BC Hun state consists of 24 clans tribes or pasturing routs, some of them:
Kuyan (Kian/Kiyan/Qiang Jack rabbit oldest nomadic tribe that preceded Zhou and became its marital partner tribe, later replaced by Sui/Hui/Yui tribe)
Lan (A-lan = Tr. alan, yalan = steppe, Ch. phonet. Lan 阿蘭 = A 阿 + Lan 蘭, synonymous with Ch. semantical Yancai 奄蔡 = Vast steppe Orchard)
Suybu (Sui/Hui/Yui = Uigurs, Ch. bu部 = division, branch, Sui/Hui/Yui replaced Kian/Qiang as Hunnic maternal dynastic tribe)
Suylyanti (Sui + Luanti = maternal dynastic tribe + paternal dynastic tribe, Uigurs)
Tsulin (generic toponymic name, by their location in Qunlun uplands)
290 BC Hun state leader is titled (Great) Shanuy ~ “Shan-uy” is a rendition of the Türkic “San-uy“, where “San” is “respect, honor“, and “uy” is “house“; “Shan-uy” = “San-uy” = “Respected or Honored House“. Full title - Tengri Güdü San Uy - “Tengri-Guided Respected House“, where“Güdü” means “drive, spur, motivate” ~ Chinese “Chenli gydu shanyuy“, nonliteral “Son of endless sky“, Ban Gu's simple “Great Yui“. Succession is from father to  eldest son Lateral Succession
272 BC King of Qin entrapped and conquered King of Yiqu in Ganquan Palace
-250 Huns are Yuezhi's dependents, pay tribute
-250 Yuezhi raid Usun Huns, decimate tribe. Legendary salvation of Usun Kunmo baby, saved by Usun yabgy from maternal clan (Yu.Zuev)
-250 Circa 3rd century BC Queen of Yuezhi confederation added to her possessions lands of Tuhsi (Tochar, Pinyin: Daxia “Greater Westerners“?) in the headwaters of the Huanghe. Since then Asii-Yuezhi and Tuhsi-Tochars became inseparable until 19th c. in S.Siberia where Tuhsi lived through millennia as a Tele tribe with their Az-kyshtyms (As-serfs)
246 BC Cheng (246-?) of T'sin dynasty, in twenty-sixth year of his reign assumed title of Shi Hwang-ti (first universal emperor), from then on, China sovereign called Wang. Cheng consolidated 4 feudal states into China, and divided empire into thirty-six kiun
246 BC Cheng (246-?) of T'sin (Qin) dynasty built great wall of China (Wan-li-ch'ang-ch'eng, or wall ten thousand lis long), which extends from Chi-li to Kan-su, to stop incursions of Huns (Hiung-nu)
240 BC Hun's revolt against Tochars (Yuezhi), and take over the  Tochar state. Part of  Tochars flee to Kangar, rulers of remaining Tochars are incorporated into Hun's ruling elite. West of Tochars/Yueh Chih were Usuns and Scythians  
230 BC Touman (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), of clan Suy-Lyanti with bull totem establishes Hunnic Empire. SuySui = Huy/Hui = Ui(gurs) = maternal dynastic tribe, Lyanti = Hun tribe = paternal dynastic tribe
214 BC Chinese ruler Si Huang Ti (259-210 BC) builds Great Chinese Wall against attacks of Huns
209 BC Touman died (Tumen, 240 - 209 BC), accession to throne of Maotun (Batur, 210 - 174 BC), founder of Hun Empire. Expansion of Hun Empire
204 B.C - 216 A.D
Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
Founder - Mete (Bagatir, Maotun, Batur)
200 BC Emergence of Huns on western borders of China
200 BC Mete/Modu Khan (Maotun) letter to Chinese government describes that 26 nations are in Turkish (i.e. Türkic) state and all of them became “nations stretching bow-string“, or Huns
198 BC Maodun concludes heqin 和亲 “peace marriage”, aka “peace and kinship” vassalage treaty, 198 BC - 129 BC. China is obligated to provide a royal princess to Shanyu in wives, and agreed upon quantity of tribute  “gifts”: malt from glutinous millet, gold, silk fabrics, silk, wool and other things
174 BC Kokkhan (Laoshan-Giyui-Shanyu (Aga-Yui Shanyu: Ch. “Laoshang” = “old and elevated” =. Türkic “Aga”, “[A]Giyui” = “Aga-Yui”, 174-161 BC) Huns (Hsiung-nu) attack Tocharians (Yüeh-chih, Yuezhi, White Huns), driving them from Gansu. In 160 AD on behalf of Huns the war was run by Usuns, supposedly in retribution for their displacement and genocide by Tochars in 410 BC. Usuns presented Laoshan Shanyu with head of Tochar leader, which was made into drinking cup and used for sacral ceremonies, including oath on heqin treaty with China
  "Tokhars/Yuezhi had army of ten to twenty thousand, were nomadic country, they move with their livestock, and share same customs with Huns" ( Shiji, Biography of Fegana/Davan/Dayuan). In 177BC, they were expelled by Huns.  
174 BC Nomadic Ku Süns (Kushans, Yu-chi/Yueh Chih), a powerful force west of China in Gansu (Tr. Khan-Su = Khan's River) attacked and defeated by Huns and driven west, into Kangar (Sogdia, Kangüy, K'ang-chu) for about 30 years, from where they invade Bactria (Ta-hsia). Strabo 11.8.2 names them Asii or Asiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli. Also Sibirs/Sabaroi/Savari
150 BC Rise of Hun Empire's puts pressure on territory of Iran (??) dislodging many Scythian nations who were pushed west, including Saka-Uraka whose kings' title was Makar
141 BC 141-128 BC Tochars (Yüeh-chih), fleeing from Huns, overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan
130 BC Zhang Qian: in 130 BC he was told that Huns killed Tokhar's ruler around Aral interfluvial, and enthroned his son, who fled from Arsl area and conquered Bactria (ca 140)
129 BC Chinese emperor Wu Di (武帝, 140 – 87 BC) abrogated heqin 和亲 “peace marriage”, aka “peace and kinship” vassalage treaty, 198 BC - 129 BC. Start of a series of military campaigns.
125 BC Zhang Qian returns to Chanan, submits report of his travels.
125 BC Usun capital is called Chigu
121 BC Chinese, under General Ho Chu-ping, defeat Huns
60 BC Hou Han Shu 96A.10b: Huns defeated Great Yüeh-chih, who went west, became rulers of Baktria, and Sai king (wang) went southwards and became ruler(s) of Chi-pin, forming several kingdoms (Asses dynasties?) NW of Kashgar (Su-le): Hsiu-hsiin and Yilan-tu
56 BC First split of Hun Empire into Western and Eastern branches Qoghoshar (Khukheniy I) (56 - 36 BC)
50 BC Dionisios Periegetos: Already in 1-st century BC, (European, Caucasian ?) Huns dominate over all Caspian lands
48 BC - 216 A.D
Founder – Panu
Area - area over present Central Asia
60 After Jazyges (Ases) left Pontic steppes, Rhoxolans' possessions began to border Lower Danube and Roman Moesia. During Nero time (69 AD.) they invaded Moesia
89 June 89 AD "Battle of Ikh Bayan" Southern Huns against Western (Nothern) Huns, who lost and opened negotiations with Chinese
90 Southern Huns under Shanyu Tuntuhe surprise attack on Western (Nothern) Huns court, capturing women and regalia, under cover of negotiations
91 Western (Nothern) Huns suffer an other major defeat from Chinese (i.e. Southern Hun) forces and disperse ("Battle of Ikh Bayan" June 89 AD)
93 Western (Nothern) Huns establish their center in Dzungaria
93 Huns essentially divided into four groups with separate political centers:
1. European Huns went to the West
2. Central Asian Huns - Yueban
3. Huns who submitted to Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), 100,000 families numbering 500,000+ people, with Syanbi a rulung minority.
4. Southern Huns that submitted to China and later took an active part in 16 states and Wu-hu epoch (five "barbarian" tribes Huns (Xiongnu 匈奴), Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), Tele (Di 氐), Kiyan Huns (Qiang 羌), and Kiyan Huns (Jie 羯); at that time Uigurs Hui/Sui/Yui were a part of Tele/Di.
From that point on, the histories of European Huns branch and Central Asian Huns branch are independent from the Eastern Huns, but are linked
100 Roxolans (Türk. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) pushed Romans on the Lower Danube in 2-nd and in 3-rd c. In the 2-nd c. AD. Rhoxolan nomads expanded their domination over local nomadic and settled tribes to the west, down to Lower Danube and Carpathians
124 Dionysius Periegetes (the guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing (European, Caucasian ?) Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets (on opposite bank of Itil from Huns), Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii

Dionisus Periegetes (end of 1st - beginning of 2nd c., at time of Adrian, r.117-138) maps and talks that on Northwestern side of Caspian sea live Scythians, Uns, Caspians, Albanians, and Kaduses, of Huns living next to Caspian Sea Saka (Gr. Sacae)=Turkco-Persian saka=water carrier? or more likely the same S'k => Scyth at Greeks and S'k => Sak at Ceantral Asians, and Sa/Se/Sai/So => Sak/Sek/Sək 塞 in pre-Chinese Chinese

126 Hephthalites helped Chinese General Ban Yung in his war against northern Huns, and settled in Jungaria . This appear to be a first mentioning of the Hephthalites
128 Ticitus: Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) pays Roxolans annual tribute and allows their transit by Roman roads through Dacia with Iazyges, who lived along Tissa
139 (European) Huns living next to Dnieper in Eastern Europe. Ptolemaus Claudius geographer, B.3 Ch.5 calls them Khuni (Chuni) and Suni. (Khuni is clan/national designation while Suni is probably from Senyu, their ruler)
139 Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Türk. agach ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani  live (European) Huns
139 Ptolemy lists Roxolans east from Alans-Scythians, i.e. between Lower Dniepr and Don, in steppes beyond Don, 
150 Burial rite of Scythians and Huns is strikingly uniform: same barrows, burial frames of logs and thick timbers, burial blocks, sacrificial horses etc. Relics of Hun burials are well known in whole space of former Scythian territory: on coast of Black Sea, along Danube (so called Scythia Minor), in Northern Caucasus and other areas
155 Between 155 and 166 Hsien-pi/Hsien-pei/Xienbi/Syanbinians (Tungus-future Mongols) confederates under Tian-Shih-huai (in Ch. rendition) conduct a series of campaigns against Western (Nothern) Eastern (Asian) Hun dominance, leading Huns to major defeat and start westward migration (93-c.380)
155 End of Eastern Huns as a major power in Inner Asia. 155-160 - Syanbiys displace Northern Eastern (Asian) Huns beyond  Tarbagatai
160 First mention of Huns in European literature (Dionysius Periegetus, 175 - 182 = Ptolemy)
166 Major defeat of Huns by Hsien-pi/Xienbi/Syanbinians, who shifted to Orkhon-Selenga basin and formed a nucleus replacing Huns as dominant tribe in Western (Nothern) Hun Empire, over old Hun's territory from Wusün in the west, Dinlins (Ch. Ting-ling) in the north, Fu-yü in the east, and Chinese Great Wall in the south, spanning approximately 4,000 li (1,663 km) east-west, and 7,000 li (2,911 km) north to south.
166 Hsien-pi/Xienbi/Syanbinian EMPIRE
216 End of HUN EMPIRE
204 B.C - 216 A.D
Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
Founder - Mete (Bagatir)
48 - 216 A.D
Founder – Panu
Area - area over present Central Asia
216 Western Hun Empire separates into 5 successor states (215-290)

Tele (Gaogyuys)

227 Agafangel "History of Trdat and conversion of Armenians to Christianity": Huns participated in joint military campaign in 227 of Armenians and Caucasians against Persians, the second mention of the Huns in Agafangel is to the reign of Trdat III (287-330).
260 In 60's of 3-rd century, Caucasian Huns served in Persian army of Sasanid Shapur I (241-272)
266 Unification of China. Hun rebellion is suppressed
A.D Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars of Dulo clan (Dulo = Tele)
Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N.Hungary to Byzantine Empire (Area - 4,000,000 Km2)
290 In 90's of 3-rd century, Armenian sources write about Hun wars in Trans-Caucasus (N.Caucasus)
290 ca 250-800 AD Archeological finds of Hinnish time in Itil and Urals area with inscriptions in Hunno-Kypchak (aka Turanian) alphabet
300 Tele left early Huns Horde, keeping patriarchal relations and nomadic life. They were not Sinadized. They move on steppes on carts with high wheels
300 In Chinese annals Gaogyuys – Tele are listed as branch of Huns
300 Genealogy: Gaogüys =>Tele/Chile/Tiele (Türk. ”Coach”) (both tele and coach derive from Turkic stems) =>15 tribes =>
1 Uange (Uygurs)
2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)
3 Kibi  (Kibir)
4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)
5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)
6 Dolange (Telengits)
7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)
8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)(Uygurs)
9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)
10 Hun
11 Sygye (Uygurs)
12 Husye
13 Higye
14 Adye(Eduz)
15 Baysi (Barsil)
300 Sirs and Türks live at Ordos
304 Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China Han Empire northern part and established a sequence of kingdoms. Predominantly Chinese population was led by Hun’s Toba tribe. Demographic estimates are: Southern Huns 340,000 (without Jie), Jie Huns, Wuhuans, Syanbi, Di (Tele), and Qiang (Tibetans) combined 1,000,000, Chinese 1,450,000
"Sixteen States" sequence in Chinese historiography:
Ethnicity indicates dominating group, not the the demography of population
Double dates indicates alternative periodizations
1 304-328 Former Zhao Southern Huns  
2 319-352 Later Zhao Kiyan Southern Huns Pin. Jie
3 303-347 Cheng Han, 成, 漢, 成漢 Ba/Tele (Tibeto-Burman/Türkic)  
4 351-394 Former Qin Di (Tele)  
5 337 - 370/307-370 Former Yan Mujun (Huns/Mongols)  
6 384-409 Later Yan Mujun (Huns/Mongols)  
7 398-410 Southern Yan Mujun (Huns/Mongols)  
8 384-417 Later Qin Kiyan Huns Pin. Qiang
9 407-431 Xia Chinese  
10 386-556/409-436 Northern Wei Toba (Huns/Mongols)  
11 313-376/320-376 Former Liang, pin. Qian Liang 前涼 Chinese  
12 385-403/386-403 Later Liang Di (Tele)  
13 397-414 Southern Liang Toba (Huns/Mongols)  
14 397-439 Northern Liang Free Huns  
15 400-421 Western Liang Chinese  
16 385-431 Western Qin Syanbi (Huns/Mongols) Pin. Xianbei
17 386-394/384-394 Western Yan, pin: Xiyan 西燕 Syanbi (Huns/Mongols) Pin. Xianbei
307 Rise of Former Yan headed by Syanbi tribe Mujun 337 - 370 (307?-370)
309 Hun's raid eased by rebellion of (Chinese) people against officials
309 Intrigues of Emperor Huai-di against Sym Yuy. Chinese aliance with Tabgach Khan Ilu against Huns
227 Second mention of (Caucasian or Caspian) Huns in Agafangel "History of Trdat and conversion of Armenians to Christianity" during reign of Trdat III (287-330)
310 Hun-Maskuts (Gr. Massagets), together with Sakas, led by king of Massagetae Sanesan invade Armenia in beg. of 4th century (336?) (Tr. Sen-esen=you+storming (man))
311 Southern Huns defeat  Syma Yuy, capture Luoyang, Huns take Chanan, collapse Jin dynasty. Northern China, comprising 80% of Chinese territory, is controlled by nomadic suzerains headed by Southern Huns. Shi Le main Hunnic personality
312 Chinese displace Huns from Chanan
312 Small Syanbinian tribe with Khans from Muyun family moved from southern Manjuria to west and settled in proximity of lake Kukunor. They fought Tibetans successfully and Tobases unsuccessfully
312 Syanbinian tribe with Muyun (Mujun) Khans were organized into kingdom Togon and became vassals of Toba state (Ch. Empire Wei)
313 313-376 Rise of Former Liang
319 Rise of  Southern Hun state Later Zhao 319-352
Moniker Later Zhao was given by Chinese historiographers to state of Southern Huns, ruled and apparently populated by Kian tribe of Huns (Ch. Jie). Liberation of Southern Huns coincided with a major upheaval among Eastern Hun tribes that resulted in their flow westward, fractionation, and takeover of principalities in Middle Asia, India, Afganistan, and former Bactria, called at that time Tokharistan/Tukharistan
320 Muyun Khoy becomes Great Shanuy
321 Tsu Ti dies, and Chinese advance against Huns stopped
323 First Uigur Kaganate was established in Khangai in 323, it lasted for 200 years
325 China loses lands north of river Huai
328 Fall of Southern Huns Former Zhao state 304-328
334 First mention of Bulgars, they live in basin of Tanais and Cuban
336 Türkic names of European Hun rulers
Karaton (kadadon= dress)
Mundjuk, Attila's father (bondjus = bead, tirquose)
Attila (Itil= birthplace, or Ata-il = father of country)
Illek, Attila's son (Il-Ek = country fortress)
Dengizik, Attila's son (Den(g)iz = Sea)
Irnek, Attila's son (=young soldier)
Aibars, Attila's uncle (= bars, lion)
Oktar, Attila's uncle (= )
Ary Kan (aryg-kan = beautiful Quinn)
336 Türkic names of Hun rulers (cont'd)
Agacheri (Forrest people)
Shar (sary - ak, = yellow - white)
Ogur (Ok-gur = ten federates)
Potential link of ruling family with Asian Tankhu (king)


  1. Yu.L.Zuev, Ethnic History of Usuns, Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House, Alma-Ata, 1960, p.12
  2. Hsiung-nu is one of Chinese derogatory monikers for Huns, with a meaning “ferocious slaves”. There were more respectful names for Huns in Chinese, like “western nomads”, etc. It is doubtful that scholars are not aware of the derogatory nature of the Chinese terms. Chinese also had plenty of derogatory terms for themselves too, but, unlike “Hsiung-nu/Hiung-nu/Xiong Nu etc.”, these terms are not used in the scientific literature to designate Chinese.
    Iakinf (Vol. 2. SPb, 1828) tells us that in Chinese hieroglyphic rendering, the sign selected for “Hun” is a “malicious slave” hieroglyph, and the sign for “Gun” is a “respectful slave” hieroglyph.
  3. Most ancient Chinese texts bearing information about Türkic-speaking tribes already contained a number of ethnonyms with distinctive ending, graphically usually conveyed by the same hieroglyphs: Hun (anc. reading giuən) and Kun (kiən), i.e. gün, kün. As shown by L.Bazen, the form of gün/ kün is identical to the ancient Türkic plural-collective affix -gün-/ -kgün- , ascending to the primary Türkic word kün - people - human collective - tribe - woman - custodian of home hearth - femininity.
    Affirming mutuality of gün/ kün = “woman” = “people” concepts, bound in the beginning by kinship bonds, and then by common ethnic origin, allows to add Chinese rendition of that term to the codex of ancient Türkic social terminology. Significantly, sporadically appearing in the ancient Türkic monuments kün - clan, family completely coincides with the translation of the Chinese transcription hun = gün/ kün in the group Lu-Hun (Six Hüns), equivalent to the group lu-si “six clans“, where si is generation, clan. And the compositions of the 5th-10th centuries have descriptions of tribes Hün (Gün) and Kün (Kgün), which names are compatible only with the Hün of the early Chinese chronicles and Kün of the Orhono-Enisei inscriptions. Folk legends of ethnic alliances which included these tribes ascend their origin to Sünnu-Hunnu, known in the western antique sources under a name Huns ( Yu.A.Zuev, Ethnic History of Usuns, Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House, Alma-Ata, 1960, p.11).
    In the transcription of the Greek and Syrian authors the term “Hun” is transmitted Hion (Gün) and Kionaye (Kion-Kün) (N.V.Pigulevskaya. Syrian sources on history of peoples of the USSR. M. - L., 1941, p. 37, 39)
          Huns Dateline 337-439 AD - Continued =>
In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Pazyryk Genetics
Contents Tele
Huns Dateline 337-439 AD Continued =>
Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Ogur and Oguz
Western Hun's Khan Dynasties
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
Kisamov N. Hunnic Oracle Phrase
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline