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Ptolemy's Europe

Ptolemy
Geography

Eastern Europe

1. Reconstruction of European Sarmatia Map, Book 3 Chapter 5
2. Reconstruction of European Sarmatia Map, Book 3 Chapter 5
3 European Sarmatia Coordinate Chart

1. , 3 5 ( )
2. , 3 5 ( )

3.

Links

http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/.Texts/Ptolemy/home.html
http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/.Texts/Ptolemy/3/5*.html

Source and Comments

A.D.Udaltsov TRIBES of EUROPEAN SARMATIA 2c. AD (Ethogenesis Questions, No 1, 1946, page 41-50)
. . II . . ( , No 1, 1946, . 41-50)

Introduction

Claudius Ptolemy was a geographer, astronomer and mathematician of the 2c AD, exact dates are not known, but he worked in Alexandria between 127 and 148 AD.

By Bill Thayer: Ptolemy's Geography was an atlas. Ptolemy was well aware of the copying errors, his maps have consequently disappeared, nothing remains but the index. Ptolemy suggested that people re-plot his data. Various people at various times have redrawn the maps from the coördinates given in the work

The edition in English translation with no original-language text, is hardly a scholarly one, which is sad, since I know of no other English translation. Anyway, it was clearly not proofread and introduces many errors of its own into the already unreliable manuscript tradition.

For European Sarmatia, Ptolemy lists 41 sets of coordinates, including 22 towns, and 61 population names, some of them variations of the same name. A few of the population names are readily recognizable:

Finnish: Finns.

Lituanian/Veneds: Veneds.

Türkic: Agathyrsi (Türk. Agach-er, forest people),
Aorsi (Avars),
Bodini (Türk. Budun, people),
Gelones (Türk. Gelon, snake),
Melanchlaeni (Türk. Kara Kalpak),
Rhoxolani (Türk. Uraksy Alani, settled Alans),
Savari (Türk. Su-ar, water people),
Sarmats (Türk. Sarma, sack).

Celtic Bastarns.

Germanic/Scandinavian Burgiones, Galindae.

A number of names are associated with the location: Carpiani, Tanaites, Tansmontani, Tauroscythae (Türk. Mountain Scythes), Tyrangitae (Gets of Tyre?).

There are exoethnyms like Hippopodes (Short-legged?).

The attribution of the a number of the names is purely speculative.

Claudius Ptolemy , 2 .., , 127 148 ...

By : . , , . , . . , , . , , .

E , 41 , 22 , 61 , . :

: .

/: Veneds

T: (T. Agach-er, ),
Alauni (T. Alani, ),
Aorsi (Avars),
Avarini (Avars),
Bodini (T. Budun, ),
Chuni (Huns),
Gelones (T. Gelon, ),
Iazyges (Ases, Jasses),
Melanchlaeni (T. Kara Kalpak),
Ossi (Ases, Jasses),
Rhoxolani (T. Uraksy Alani, Alans),
Sargati (T. Sary-Guzes, Guzes),
Savari (T. Su-ar, ),
Scyths (T. Ish-guz, /),
Sarmats (T. Sarma, ). Bastarns.

: /, , , , , , ,

/: Burgiones, Galindae, , , .

() : Carpiani, Tanaites, Tansmontani, Tauroscythae (T. ), Tyrangitae ( ?) .

Hippopodes (-?).

.

Book III, Chapter 5

Location of European Sarmatia
(from the Eighth Map of Europe)

N E

western mouth of the Tanais river

66*20

5420

eastern mouth

67*00

5430

Bend of the river

72*30

5600

Source of the river

64*00

5800

Above this the terminus, which I have mentioned, near the unknown land,

the location of terminus is

64*00

6300

Sarmatia is divided by other mountains, which are called

Peuce mountains

51*00

5100

Amadoci mountains

55*00

5100

Bodinus mountains

58*00

5500

Alanus mountains

62*30

5500

Carpathian mountains as we call them

46*00

4830

Venedici mountains

47*30

5500

Ripaei, the middle of which is in

63*00

5730

The part of the Borysthenes river which is near Amodoca lake is in

53*30

5020

The source of the Borysthenes river more toward the north is in

52*00

5300

Of the rivers which are below the Borysthenes

the Tyras separates parts of Dacia and Sarmatia at the bend which is located in 53*00 4830

The island located near the mouth of the Tanais river is Alopecia or Tanais island

66*30

5330

The Axiaces river flows thru Sarmatia not far above Dacia, and from the Carpathian mountains.

the Altars of Alexander

63*00

5700

and the Altars of Caesar

68*00

5630

and on the shore of the river is Tanais town

67*00

5440

The inland towns in the river regions around the Carcinitus river are:

Carcina town

59*30

4845

Torocca town

58*30

4900

Pasyris town

58*30

4910

Ercabum town

58*30

4915

Tracana town

58*30

4945

Navarum town

58*30

5000

Along the Borysthenes river are:

Azagarium town

56*00

5040

Amadoca town

56*00

5030

Sarum town

56*00

5015

Serimum town

57*00

5000

Metropolis town

56*30

4930

Olbia or Borysthenes town

57*00

4900

above the Axiaces river, Ordessus town

57*00

4830

And near the river which flows into the Borysthenes:

Leinum town

54*00

5015

Sarbacum town

55*00

5000

Niossum town

56*00

4940

Above the Tyras river near Dacia:

Carrodunum town

49*30

4840

Maetonium town

51*00

4830

Clepidava town

52*30

4840

Vibantavarium town

53*30

4840

Eractum town

53*50

4840

The island located near the mouth of the Tanais river is Alopecia or Tanais island

66*30

5330

Population

The Greater Venedae races inhabit Sarmatia along the entire Venedicus bay; and above Dacia are the Peucini and the Basternae; and along the entire coast of Maeotis are the Iazyges and the Rhoxolani; more toward the interior from these are the Amaxobii and the Scythian Alani.

Lesser races inhabit Sarmatia near the Vistula river. Below the Venedae are the Gythones, then the Finni, then the Sulones; below whom are the Phrungundiones; then the Avarini near the source of the Vistula river; below these are the Ombrones, then the Anartophracti, then the Burgiones, then the Arsietae, then the Saboci, then the Piengitae and the Biessi near the Carpathian mountains.

Among those we have named to the east: below the Venedae are the Galindae, the Sudini, and the Stavani, extending as far as the Alauni; below these are the Igylliones, then the Coestoboci and the Tansmontani extending as far as the Peuca mountains.

Back from the Ocean, near the Venedicus bay, the Veltae dwell, above whom are the Ossi; then more toward the north the Carbones and toward the east are the Careotae and the Sali; below whom are the Gelones, the Hippopodes and the Melanchlaeni; below these are the Agathyrsi; then the Aorsi and the Pagyritae; then the Savari and the Borusci to the Ripaeos mountains; then the Acibi and the Nasci; below whom are the Vibiones and the Idrae; and below the Vibiones bordering on the Alauni are the Sturni, and between the Alauni and the Amaxobii are the Cariones and the Sargati; near the bend of the Tanis river are the Ophlones and then the Tanaitae; below whom are the Osili extending as far as Rhoxolanis; between the Amaxobii and the Rhoxolani are the Rheucanali and the Exobygitae; and between the Peucini and the Basternae are the Carpiani, above whom are the Gevini, then the Bodini; between the Basternae and the Rhoxolani are the Chuni, and below the mountains named from these are the Amadoci and the Navari.

Near Lake Byce dwell the Toreccadae, and near Achilles Cursus the Tauroscythae; below the Basternae near Dacia are the Tigri and below these are the Tyrangitae.

Alphabetical List of peoples

1 Acibi 17 Cariones 33 Navari. 49 Stavani
2 Agathyrsi 18 Carpiani 34 Ombrones 50 Sturni
3 Alauni 19 Chuni 35 Ophlones 51 Sudini
4 Amadoci 20 Coestoboci 36 Osili 52 Sulones
5 Amaxobii 21 Exobygitae 37 Ossi 53 Tanaitae
6 Anartophracti 22 Finni 38 Pagyritae 54 Tansmontani
7 Aorsi 23 Galindae 39 Peucini 55 Tauroscythae
8 Arsietae 24 Gelones 40 Phrungundiones 56 Tigri
9 Avarini 25 Gevini 41 Piengitae 57 Toreccadae
10 Basternae 26 Gythones 42 Rheucanali 58 Tyrangitae.
11 Biessi 27 Hippopodes 43 Rhoxolani 59 Veltae
12 Bodini 28 Iazyges 44 Saboci 60 Venedae
13 Borusci 29 Idrae 45 Sali 61 Vibiones
14 Burgiones 30 Igylliones 46 Sargati
15 Carbones 31 Melanchlaeni 47 Savari
16 Careotae 32 Nasci 48 Alani Scythian

Attribution List of peoples

In some cases the attribution is undisputable. In most cases the attribution is based on the known semantical, etymological, and historical data.

Finnish/Ugrian

Türkic

Unattributed

17 Cariones 2 Agathyrsi 1 Acibi
22 Finni 3 Alauni 8 Arsietae
29 Idrae 4 Amadoci 11 Biessi
32 Nasci 5 Amaxobii 13 Borusci
61 Vibiones 7 Aorsi 15 Carbones

Lituanian/Veneds

9 Avarini 25 Gevini
16 Careotae 12 Bodini 26 Gythones
20 Coestoboci 14 Burgiones 27 Hippopodes
23 Galindae 19 Chuni 35 Ophlones
45 Sali 21 Exobygitae 38 Pagyritae
51 Sudini 24 Gelones 41 Piengitae
59 Veltae 27 Hippopodes 44 Saboci
60 Venedae 28 Iazyges 49 Stavani

31 Melanchlaeni 50 Sturni

German/Scandinav

33 Navari. 52 Sulones
23 Galindae 36 Osili 53 Tanaitae
40 Phrungundiones 37 Ossi 54 Tansmontani

Celtic

42 Rheucanali 58 Tyrangitae.

6

Anartophracti 43 Rhoxolani
10 Basternae 46 Sargati
18 Carpiani 47 Savari
39 Peucini 48 Alani Scythian
30 Igylliones 55 Tauroscythae
34 Ombrones 56 Tigri
57 Toreccadae

Footnotes

4 Amadoci - Madoks (Bk. 5 Ch. 8), living with 3 other Türkic peoples: Zakats (Scyth-Saks), Ases (Asiakes), Huns

5 Amaxobii - living in wagons - Sarmats east of Don/Donets

6 Anartophracti - Anart

14 Burgiones = Urgs/Ugrs, of Ugro-Finn group

17 Cariones - Kurs, Kurons, Karels (?), but also could be attributed to Türkic as listed living with 3 other Türkic peoples: Alans, Sarmats-Amaxobies and Sargats

18 Carpiani - listed living with 2 other Celtic peoples: Basternae and Peucini

20 Coestoboci - Dacian bright, Dacian belonging to Sanskrit, Persian and Baltic/Venedic language group

21 Exobygitae - listed living with 2 other Türkic peoples: Sarmats-Amaxobies and Rhoxolani

42 Rheucanali - Rhoxolani

56 Tigri - Taugurs, Türk. Mountain Tribe, same as Tauroscythae = Mountain Scyths

57 Toreccadae - listed living near Lake Byce and surrounded by Türkic peoples

And More Notes

1 Agathyrsi - the alternate spelling of the endoethnonym Akač-er(Oguz Türk. Agach - Tree, Er - People, in English we know this word as Acacia tree), present the best evidence of their Ogur affiliation. Historically, Akacirs are always next to their Ogur kin: Bulg-ars, Haz-ars, Maj-ars, Mish-ars, Suv-ars, etc.

3 Alauni - it is possible to discern the root Alanin other ethnonyms recorded by Ptolemy. With the Oguz initial consonant in front, the Alansounds like Galan, Yalan or Jalan. From this point of view, the Alani group may include the Galindae and Gelones, but for Galindae that contradicts the Ptolemy's counterposition of the Venedae, Galindae, Sudini, Stavani, extending as far as the Alauni. In the following listing, Ptolemy places the Gelones next to the presumably Türkic Melanchlaeni, and the Türkic Agathyrsi and Aorsi, which would be logical for the Türkic nomadic tribe Gelones .

To the same Alanian ethnic domain belong the Rhoxolani/Rheucanali, whose name incorporates an adjective noun. If Rhox/Rheuc reflects the Türk. Uraxy - Farmer, then this is an indication that these nomads had a traditional inclination to a combined pastoral and agrarian production, as opposed to the purely pastoral production. But then, they would not have the giant military prowess to make the Roman Empire their tributary. What is clear is that prior to the Gothic invasion, Rhoxolani were the Royal Scythians, having united multiple peoples into a multi-ethnic confederation under their leadership.

7 Aorsi - it is possible to view the Aorsas synonyms with Avarsand Alansbased on the linguistic correlations.

9 Avarini - Avars, together with Huns, were prominent Europeans at the time of Ptolemy, ca. 100 AD. If they were impacted or displaced by the expansion of the Roman Empire (Avars), or by the invading Goths (possibly were impacted both Avars and Huns, with their dependencies), it is no wonder that they were able to mobilize and venture on the reconquistacampaign to reposes their country under the leadership of Huns' Khan Muncuk. The Hunnish motherland was known as Atel-kuzu(Türk. Ata-El-Kuzu- Father-Country-People) well into the 15-th c. AD.

Ptolemy places another group that sounds like Avars, Navari, next to the Huns and surrounds by Türkic Yazigs and Toreccadae.

12 Bodini - the alternate spelling Budini, ( Türk. People, folk) is unlikely, as is believed, an endoethnonym, unless it had a connotation man, menidentical to Er, Ar, Ir. If it had not, it is more likely an ethnomorphless Peoplein a derogatory meaning of the servants, dependents, contributors, serfs. To exist in the symbiotic balance with the nomadic pastoralists, the Budins must be from a traditionally farming, and relatively settled, society. Alternately, they can be tributaries within the taxing sphere of the nomads. Note that semantically, Budinsoppose the typical endoethnonyms, like Alans - Steppe People, As-guz - As Nation, Akach-ir - Forest People, Suv-ar - Water People.

28 Iazyges - the alternate spelling, Jazyges, (As/Jas Guz, As People) hints at the initial din the endoethnonym, evidencing its appertaining to the Ogur group of the Türkic languages. Note the Ptolemy's spelling for Aksarmats, Yaksamats( Türk. White Sarmats), also hinting that at least the Whitedivision of the Sarmats was of the Oguric group.

36 Osili - it is possible to discern the root Asin other ethnonyms recorded by Ptolemy. The root Asis present in Ish-guz (Gr. Scyth), Osili, Ossi, Acibi (Türk. As-bey, or As-bi, Noble As), Iazyges, Arsietae (who lived next to the hypothetically Finno-Ugrian Burgiones = Urgs/Ugrs). As much as the endoethnonym Aswas spread in the Eastern Europe and the Middle East, so was its Ogur counterpart Jasspread in the North-Eastern Europe. Not all endoethnonyms can be etymologized nowadays, but one is with us, the Azeri people, are still As-Ers, As-People. They are Oguses, and pronounce it As, not Jasas were the Ogurs.

46 Sargati - Sarguzes (Türk. Sary-Guz - Yellow Tribe) is composed of the two ever present components of the Türkic endoethnonyms. Just pronounce the tas a voiced th. The adjective Saryis light, bright, or yellow, or eastern as opposed to western. Guzis a tribe, division, arrow, a component. Along with the Kara- black, western, powerful, lay (as in lay people), and Akis for white, superior, noble. These three adjectives were used innumerable times during the millenniums. Ptolemy lists Siracs, Sary-As, living in the North Caucasus Sarmatia.

38 Three groups have a root Getin their ethnonym: Exobygitae, Piengitae, and Tyrangitae. One more, Pagyritae, comes close too. The Piengitae, and Tyrangitae live close to the Dacia, and with a little doubt their endoethnonym can be associated with the surrounding Daco-Geto-Balto-Venedic group. The Exobygitae, in the northern plain of the Meotida, and the Pagyritae east of the Aorses and sandwiched between Melanchlaeni and Zakates, more likely would be the Türkic tribes. The Greek prefix Exo(Gr. Exo - out, outside) leads to read Exobygitae as a group located further of the phanthom Bygitae, confirming that the exoethnonym Exobygitae has a non-Gethic provenance. The root Pagyrin the endoethnonym Pagyritae can be read as Pa-Guzor Pag-Ir, consistent with their location in the midst of the Türkic tribes.

44 Two groups have a Dacian root Bocin their endoethnonym: Coestoboci and Saboci. The Ptolemy's placement of the Saboci in the vicinity of Dacia is consistent with their conjectural Daco-Geto-Balto-Venedic provenance.

50 Two groups have a Celtic suffix -ernin their endoethnonym: Basternae and Sturni. The Ptolemy's placement of the Sturni on the periphery of the Celtic belt is consistent with a notion that they are a Celtic group.

15 Five groups have a Greek suffix -ionin in their ethnonym: Cariones, Vibiones, Burgiones, Phrungundiones, and Igylliones. Another six groups potentially have a suffix -(i)onin their ethnonym: Carbones, Gelones, Gythones, Ombrones, Ophlones, Sulones. Aside from the ethnonyms whose providence is deduced from other considerations, the remaining Carbones, Gythones, Ophlones, and Sulones have the roots Carb, Gyth, Ophl, Sul. If we read Gythas Geth, we would expect then to be located close to the other Geto-Dacian-Venedic tribes, and in fact Ptolemy places them next to Veneds. If we read Sulas Sal, we would expect then to be located close to the other Saltribe. Ptolemy locates them next to the Finno-Ugrian Finns and the Venedic Veneds. This line of reasoning brings the topic back to the validity of the initial conjectures. The Carband Ophlsound enough Greek to be considered a part of the exoethnonyms.

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