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AVARS

Abars, Abdals, Abdally, Abdaly, Aores, Aorses, Asi, Asii, Avars, Assuns, Awars, Beçen, Budini, Ephtalites, Gushans, Gushanas, Güsans, Hantals, Juan-juan, Jujuan, Kasans, Kashans, Kushanas, Kushans, Koshans, Kusans, Kusüns, Küsans, Kyusüns, Obres, Oghondors, Olhontor-Blkars, Onogurs, Pasiani, Peçenek, Sacarauli, Sacarauli, Sakauraka, Tochari, Tochars, Tocharians, Turgesh, Uars, Wars, Usuns, Ussuns, White Huns, White Süns, Yazig, Yu-chi, Yüeh-chih, and other variations

Subdivisions and ethnic affiliates

300 BC-922 AD

Most references to European Avars, retained in the Avar dateline, erroneously link them with Jujans, who in fact have only indirect connection to the Uar Avars, via political association with the Abdaly (Ephtalite) state (M.&M. Whitby The History of Theophylact Simocatta). The listings pertaining to the internal life of the Jujans have no bearing on the Avar history.

Parthia 2c BC

Parthia 14 AD
Kushan 2c AD
E Huns 5c AD
W Huns 5c AD
Ephtalites 5c AD
Jujans 5c AD
Ephtalites 6c AD
Türks 6c AD
 
Avaria 6c AD

Avaria
ca 804 AD

Krum Bulgaria
ca 812

Krum Bulgaria
ca 814

Avaria 9c AD

         
DATELINE
Time

Events

-300 Earliest occurrence of Parthian name in form of Aparnoi or Parnoi in Turan. According to Armenian historians who served Armenian dynasty of Parthian origin, Parthian Arsac who founded dynasty was of White Hun (Ephtalite, i.e. Türk.: Abdal, Abdally, Hantal) origin.
-300 In 300-200 BC Sacae were gradually overrun by Turkic-speaking Usun (future Turgesh) group of allied tribes of pastoral nomads. Accounts of their emergence appear in Chinese sources from second and first centuries BC 
-246 Antiochus 11th year Parthians (Türk.: Pardy, Parthy) shook off Macedonians and Abdaly (Ephtalite) king's son is new ruler. All nations of Eastern and Northern Asia accepted his rule. King Arsac had four sons. One received Abdaly (Ephtalites), second Hindus, third Parthians, fourth Armenians.
-174 Kokkhan (Laoshan-Giyui-Shanyu (Aga-Yui Shanyu: Ch. “Laoshang“ = “old and elevated” =. Türkic “Aga”, “[A]Giyui“ = “Aga-Yui”, 174-161 BC) Huns (Hsiung-nu) attack Tocharians (Yüeh-chih, Yuezhi, White Huns), driving them from Gansu. In 160 AD on behalf of Huns the war is run by Usuns, supposedly in retribution for their displacement and genocide by Tochars in 410 BC. Usuns presented Laoshan Shanyu with head of Tochar leader, which was made into drinking cup and used for sacral ceremonies, including oath on heqin treaty with China.
-174 Nomadic Tocharians (Yu-chi, Yuezhi), a powerful force west of China, were attacked and defeated by Huns and driven west, into Sogdia (K'ang-chu), from where they invade Bactria (Ta-hsia). Strabo 11.8.2 names them Asii, Tochari, and Sacarauli (“Pasiani” = “or Asiani”, misinterpretation).
-141 141-128 BC
Tochars (Yüeh-chih), fleeing from Huns (Hsiung-nu), overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.
-124 Asi (Yazig), Pasiani (Budini/Beçen/Peçenek), Tocharian, Sabir (Sabaroi) tribes break into Sogdiana (Chinese “K'ang-chu“) and Baktria (Chinese “Ta-hsia“). In next five years two Parthian emperors die in wars. Later Sakauraka tribe is also conquered by them
-73 Usuns, headed by a hereditary ruler, Kunmi, number over 600,000. They are 2 groups, Kangly (many of whom were sedentary farmers) in Karatau region and middle course of Syr Darya, and Alani migrated from N shores of Aral Sea to N banks of Caspian Sea
-73 Excavations at Aktyubinsk (on right bank of Syr Darya) reveal that Usun erected permanent dwellings as winter residences for tribal notables; most elaborate of these were two-story dwellings with enclosed courtyards
150 AD Ptolemy places Avarini ~ supposedly Avars ~ in Sarmatia near Vistula river. Ptolemy's Avars may be the same Avars ~  Uar/War ~ that returned to Pannonia from Afganistan, India, and Turfan after Ashina Türks defeated Ephthalites and took control of their state in ca. 555
185 AD Erroneously called in Western literature Avar (Juan-juan) (Jujan) state on the NW border of China, to the Mtn. Altai (Identification of Avars with Jujans is fanciful and unrealistic. Avars must be traced to Ephthalite tribes Uar/War and Huni/Huns. Jujan history is largely unrelated to European Avars)
350 ca. 350 Juan-juans (Jujans) take the Sien-pi (Syanbi) lands.
400 Fifth and sixth centuries AD Usun (Turgesh) union began to disintegrate, after successive invasions by Altai Türks. Türks is anachronic, century before their appearance in Ch. annals
402 Juan-juans take Cungaria (Djungaria) and Upper Irtis (Irtysh).
410 Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday died (-410), his brother Khulyuy (410-414) becomes Khan.
410 Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday unlimitedly controlled steppes from Khingan to Altai. Tele were subjugated. Central Asian Huns, after winning battle at river Ili, recognized suzerainty of Jujans and bought peace by submissiveness.
414 Jujan Khan Khulyuy (410-414) died, his cousin Datan (414-4 )becomes Khan.
418 Jujanes penetrated Tarbagatay area,
420 WHITE HUN EMPIRE known as Ephtilite Empire, where Ephtilite is a distortion of Abdaly,
thus Abdaly Empire, in modern terms Durrani Empire, or Afganistan
420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur), indicating tribal belonging to Suvars (Subaroi of Strabon)
Area - Half of northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)
430 Major campaign by Tabgach Empire Wei army, under Emperor Tay-u-di (Toba Dao) disperse Jujanes. Kagan Datan disappears, leadership taken by his son Udi. Udi agrees to pay tribute to Empire Wei . 
437 Jujanes under Udi resume attacks on Empire Wei. In 439 Empire Wei counterattacks, without decisive battle. In 440 Udi attacks border and flees. Then again in 445.
439 In 439 Tobases had victory over Huns and joined Chesi to Wei Empire, Khan Ashina with 500 families fled to Jujanes and settled south of Altai mountains and produce iron for Jujanes. Hence, in 439 Huns controlled Chesi area west of Ordos, between bends of Chuanche and Nanshan, and Ashina was one of Hunnic chieftains (from Saka [Saka/Se/Sai/ Sək 塞] tribes)
439 The Türk (in Chinese texts T'u-küe) tribe, led by the Asina clan, is admitted into the Juan-juan state, and settles the S. slopes of Altai.
440 Abdaly Ephthalites (White Huns, aka Hephthalites/Ephtilites, later known in West as Avars) move south from Altai region to occupy Transoxiana, Bactria, Khorasan, and eastern Persia. First mentioning of Abdaly in written records
445 Jujan Khan Udi (430-445) died, his son Tukhechjen becomes Khan. Empire Wei undertakes punishment raids into steppes against Jujanes.
463 According to Priscus in 463 Byzantium was visited by an embassy of Saragurs, Ugors and Onogurs, who, dislodged by Avars (Uars) drive to west, are conquered
463 Saragurs, Ugors and Onogurs sent embassy to Byzantine, they were expelled by Savirs, who fled Avars (Uars), who fled from people living on the shores of ocean. They said that Saragurs subjugated Akacirs and want to become Roman federates. (Destunis G.C.)
470 Peace between Jujan and Tabgach-Northern Wei Empire
485 Jujan Khan Yuychen died, his …??... Doulun becomes Khan.
492 Jujan Khan Doulun killed, end of Jujan overlordship over steppes and Tele.
Nagay becomes Khan
493 Jujan Khan Nagay died, his son Futu becomes Khan.
498 Altynoba's Djurash Masgut in winter 498-499 annihilate Byzantium Illyrium army and extends to left bank of Danube.
Altynoba subordinates to Avar (Uar) overlordship.
500 Gaochan in Turfan oasis, under ethnically Chinese lord, under overlordship of Jujanes, breaks with their allies Jujanes.
500 Usun (Turgesh) population remained, but came first under rule of Western Türkic Kaganates and then under their successor, the Turgesh Kaganate, with its center at Shash (Chach), near present-day Tashkent
505 Altynoba's Djurash Masgut (465-505) dies, Tatra becomes Baltazar subordinated to Avar (Uar) overlordship.
505 Altynoba's Tatra (505-545) dies, Boyan Chelbir (545-590) becomes Baltazar subordinated to Avar (Uar) overlordship
508 Mivotu is a lord of Teles (Teleutes), in vassalage to Abdaly (Ephtalites). Helps Empire Wei 's 3K army defeat Jujanes at lake Puley, after being paid 60 pieces of silk by Empire Wei . Futu dies in struggles.
Mivotu is rewarded with musical instruments.
508 Cheunu becomes Jujan Khan.
513 Buddhism penetrates to Jujanes.
Khan converts to Buddhism.
Religious divisions in ruling clan.
516 Jujan Khan Cheunu attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogyuy, captures Tele (Teleut) lord Mivota, Tele escape to Abdaly (Ephtalites)
519 Jujan Khan Cheunu makes a treaty with Abdaly (Ephtalites), gives Abdaly (Ephtalite) lords his princesses as wives.
Allies with Korea (Gao-Guyli) against Empire Wei , and together smash Manju tribe Dideugan.
519 Empire Wei recognized suzerainty of Turfan's Gaochan, and Jujanes continue to trade with them, receiving bread and cloth.
Iron goods are provided to Jujans by their vassals Turkuts (Turks-tuku) in Altai (Gumilev came up with term Turkut for Ashina Türks to connote their difference from other Türkic peoples; this conditional term is not related to their ethnonym, which was Türk headed by Ashina tribe)
520 In written sources name Bavaria first appear in c. 520, reportedly a distortion of Bohemia, homeland of Celtic Boii: Bohemia > Bavaria, if you can believe your eyes, and reportedly unrelated to Ptolemy's (125) Avarini, Priscus (463) Avars (Uars), Djurash Masgut's (498) Avars (Uars) who ruled over all Bulgars till 630, and over Pannonia Bulgars till 796. Prosthetic v/b is a trait of Slavic (Or at first Germanic) assimilation of Türkic lexicon: Avar > Bavar, arata > vorota, otag > vataga, etc.
520 Jujan Khan Cheunu killed by his mother, installed her another son, Anahuan, replaced by Polomyn.
521 Teles rebel and defeat remaining Jujanes under Polomyn, and Polomyn moves to Empire Wei with remains of his Horde.
Anakhuan escaped to Empire Wei in 520, so both branches of Jujan horde ended up in Empire Wei.
522 522-552 Kagan A-na-kuei (A-na-kui)
540 Split of Empire Wei makes Jujan Khan Anakhuan a hegemon for both halves of Empire Wei .
545 Jujan lord Anakhuan, allied with Syanbinian Eastern Wei , together with Eastern Wei 's emperor Gao Khuan, and Togon's king Kualyuy, attack Syanbinian Western Wei , but do not defeat Syanbinian Western Wei decisively.
545 Emperor of Syanbinian Western Wei Ven-di sends ambassador An Nopanto to Turkut lord Bumyn.
Bumyn displays disloyalty to their suzerain Jujanes and sends a reciprocating embassy to Syanbinian Western Wei capital Chanan.
546 Abdaly (Ephtalite) embassy came to W. Wei
550 550-600 Uars (Avars) at their peak
550 West Tele tribes revolt against Jujan dominance, and attack from western Djungaria toward Khalka in Jujan heartland.
550 Bumyn, by accepting West Tele tribes vassalage, displays another disloyalty to Jujan suzerainty.
551 551-552 Türkic revolt, starting in Altai
551 Turkut Lord Bumyn (1) provokes Jujanes to a war by asking for a Jujan princess as a wife.
Anakhuan refuses, calling him slave-smelter daring for such an offer.
April 552 Jujan (Juan-juan) defeat; a part of the fleeing Juan-juans enter C'i  (Xi and Hi, Chinese for Kayi) lands in China, the Kagan is K'u-t'i (552-554), then An-lo-ch'en, son of A-na-kui. The majority (?) starts to West. On the old Juan-juan territory starts the First Türkic Kaganate
552 Turkut Khan Bumyn executes Jujan's ambassador, and in winter of 552 attacks Jujanes and defeats them.
552 Jujanes, defeated by Turkuts, elect Anakhuan's uncle Dynshuttsy as Khan and continue fighting. In a battle near mountain Lyanshan they are defeated by Kara Issyk Khan.
552 WHITE HUN EMPIRE known as Ephtilite Empire, where Ephtilite is a distortion of Abdaly,
thus Abdaly Empire, in modern terms Durrani Empire, or Afganistan
420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)
553 Jujanes are defeated by new Turkut Khan Mugan Khan.
They flee to Syanbinian Eastern Wei under dynasty of Bey-Tsi, who accepted them and repulsed Turkuts pursuit.
553 553-568 Turks and Sassanids ally to destroy Hephthalite Empire (Avars).
553 Kidanes defeated by Tsists. Abdaly (Ephtalite) embassy to W.Wei
554 Jujanes do not have their herds, and are unable to work. They terrorize and rob population, and Syanbinian Eastern Wei Bey-Tsi sends an army against Jujanes.
554 Destruction of Jujanes weakened Syanbinian Eastern Wei Bey-Tsi.
At same time, Syanbinian Western Wei Bey-Chjou was growing and more powerful.
554 Jujans started looting in Tsi, but are repelled by Chinese.
 555 Jujans flee from Bey-Tsi to W Wei , given to Turkuts and decimated. Lyan attacks Bey-Tsi
555 Jujanes are expelled from Syanbinian Eastern Wei Bey-Tsi by army to steppes.
Jujanes are beaten by Turkuts and Kidanes.
555 Zacharias Rhetor, in report of mission sent to Huns before 523 by bishop Kardust of Arran (Agvania): “Thirteen peoples 1. Όνογουροι Onogurs 2. Οΰγωροι Ogurs 3. Σάβιροι Sabirs 4. Βούλγαροι Bulgars 5. Κουτριγουροι Kutrigurs 6. Αβαροι Avars 7. Άκατζιροι Acatziri 8. Ίτίμαροι (?) Itimari 9. Σαραγουροι Saragurs 10. Βαρσήλτ (?) Barselt 11. Χολιάται (?) Choliatae 12. Άβδˆλαι Abdelae 13. Έφθαλιται Hephthalites (another reading: Avnagur (Onogur), Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Hasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasir, Kulas, Abdel and Hephtalit) live in tents, earn their living on meat of livestock and fish, of wild animals and by their weapons.“
555 Turkuts defeat Uars (Avars, Abars).
First encounter of Turkuts with Abdaly (Ephtalites).
556 Jujanes flee to Syanbinian Western Wei , which surrenders 3K army to Turkut's ambassador, who orders decapitation of all except children and servants.
End of Jujan dominance of steppes.
557 Avar's ambassador Kandikh to Byzantium Justinian demands lands and tribute. Byzantian sources take credit for directing Avars against Kutrigurs and Utigurs, when in fact Avars already crossed Kutrigur and Utigur lands, and must have subjugated them
558 Avars then confederated Kuturgurs and proceeded to attack Byzantium.
Perso-Avar union lasted to 628 and almost destroyed Byzantium.
558 Avars devastating Thessalia, Hellas, Epirus Vetus, and Attica invading Peloponnesus and killing “the noble and Hellenic race“ruled over Peloponnese for 218 years (558-776)
558 Avars are lead by Khan Bayan, first crushed Turkic Sabirs, allies of Byzantine, who lived on Kuma river and in Dagestan.
Avars then crushed Uturgurs, a Bulgarian tribe and also allies of Byzantine, living between Itil and Don, then crushed Bulgarian Zals and Slavic Ants on both sides of Don.
558 Avars negotiate with Persia and Byzantium to find an ally.
Avars conclude agreements with both Persia and Byzantium.
Avars proceed to play in their own interests.
558 Hunno-Bulgars are attacked by invading Avars. Utiguri, Kutriguri, and Sabiri conquered (559-560).
558 Turks conquered Volga and Urals areas. Remains of Huni, Var, and Obr tribes went west to Danube, creating united Avar people (This is Gumilev's misinterpretation of Avars and Huns). Their first task was to escape from enemy. They managed it only because that Abdaly (Ephtalites) were active in C Asia and distracted Istemi
558 Istemi Yabgu stops at Itil, allowing Vars and Huni, both from North of Aral Sea to escape to west and become known as Avars. (This is Gumilev's misinterpretation of Avars and Huns)
558 Avars defeat Sabirs in N Caucasus and Ants. Avarian embassy to Byzantium.
558 Vars (Ugrian tribe, related to Hungarian ancestors Ogors/Ugrs which lived between Itil and Ural rivers, and to Hungarians living in Bashkiria up to XIII c.) and Huni (Khionites = Sarmato-Alanians), both from North of Aral Sea, become known as Avars (This is Gumilev's misinterpretation of Avars and Huns)
558 Abdaly (Hephthalites/Avars) move west to Black Sea steppe to form Avar Kaganate. Evidently, Europeans did not know title “Kagan“before Avars' Kagans
558 Avar Kaganate in Europe
558-805 AD
Founder - Khan Bayan
Area - From central Europe to Itil and from Balkans to Baltic, essentially western half of Atilla Khandom (Total Area - ?,000,000 Km2)
558 Discovered in Mongolia late in 20c inscription Var-guni (Bar-guni) mention Europian Avars.
Majority of Avar time skeletons from Hungary are Mongoloids, Bayan was probably Mongolian word, evidence that Avars were Mongol Jujuns
558 Istemi: When I finish with Abdaly (Ephtalites), I will go after Uars (Avars), they can't escape. .
558 Avars led by Khan Bayan invaded N Caucasus and faced Byzantium's allies. First Avar mention in Byzantian sources.
558 Avars show up on Danube. In Jan-Feb embassy of Kagan Boyan negotiates in Constantinopole. Justinian hires them to guard against “barbarians“, same Turkic nomadic hordes as Avars, continued to erupt from N China.
558 Avar embassy in Constantinople; alliance against Sabirs & Utigurs. The Kagan may be Kandik 552?-562.
559 Kutugurs under Zabergan, with Avars, made a treaty with Sklavins(?), cross Danube on ice, raid Byzantine, in three directions.
Via Macedonia to Ellada to Thermopile, to Thracian Chersones, under Zabergan through a break in Long Wall to Constantinople.
559 After unsuccessful storm of city, Bulgars ans Slavs were trapped. Byzantines cut their retreat. Justinian magnificently spared them. Velizarius pushed them behind Long Wall. Zabergan retreated because Avars were coming fron east.
560 Avar Kaganate extended from Itil to mouth of Danube.
Bulgars are split, with Kuturgur Huns (also listed are Onogundurs (10 Oghur Confederation), Hunnogurs, Sabirs belonging to Avar Kaganate, and Utugur Huns (30 Oghur) and Khazars loyal to W. Kaganate
560 Türkic ambassadors to Iran killed by Abdaly (Ephtalites) on the way
560 Avars invaded land of Utigurs on east shore of Meotida. Utigurs recognized Avarian rule.
Avars invaded Kutigurs. Kutigurs defeated and became Avarian vassals too. Bayan proclames himself Kagan.
561 Avars captured Atil-kuzi (future Bessarabia), execute local ruler Mesamer
561 Avars captured Pannonia with its Bulgarian (probably Kutigur) population. Avars drive Bulgars to Atil-Kuzu (later Bessarabia/Moldova) and Wallachia, from which they will be driven to Moesia hundred years later by Magyars
561 One of sons of Francs king Klotar I Sigibert (535-575) received Austrazia (Rheims). Attack of Avars (561?) on Sigibert lands is repulsed, resulting in peace treaty. During Sigibert war against Avars, his brother Hilperik temporarily seized Rheims and others Austrazian cities.
562 Second Avarian embassy to Byzantium
562 Avars came to Dobrudja and decided to stay there
562 AVAR EMPIRE
562 - 796 AD (or 558-805 AD)
Founder - Bayan Khan
Area - area between Volga, Hungary and Bessarabia. From central Europe to Itil and from Balkans to Baltic, essentially western half of Attila Khandom (Total Area - ?,000,000 Km2)
The seat of the Avar Kagan and his warlords east of the Danube in Pannonia, known as the Rhing (Ring), near old stan of Atilla
562 East Romans start to pay annual tax to the Avars. Avars defeat King Gisebert of Thuringy. Then they start to go to the East for the Carpathian Basin, incorporating large numbers of Slavic peoples as secondary, foot warriors.
562 562-602 Avar Kagan Bayan
562 Persians defeat Abdaly (Ephtalites)
562 Avar Kagan Kandich (?-562) died and was replaced by Kagan Bayan (562-602)
563 Turkic armies, supported by Khosrov attack on Balkh, invade Abdaly (Ephtalite) lands south of Amudarya. Per 'Shah-Name', decisive battle near Bukhara. Abdaly (Ephtalite) army of King Gatifar is crushed
565 Avars subjugate Hunnugur and Sabir, and other Hunnic hordes, assimilating them under Avar Kaganate.
565 After defeat of their forces by Avars, Khazars took lead in Sabir-Khazar federation.
Part of Sabirs move north, to Middle Itil region, among settled there Bulgarian tribes. Their main city Suvar is a great center of Itil Bulgaria.
565 Pannonia came under pressure from the Avars, Lombardian new king, Alboin, found support from Constantinople less then he had hoped for.
565 End of 565 With the death of Emperor Justinian Roman tax ceases.
566 New war of one of Frankish minor kings Sigibert with Avars (566 to 568?). In 570 Sigibert suffers defeat and falls in captivity, but pays off and concludes with a peace with Kagan. Franks often called Avars “Huns“
567 Spring 567 Turks, pursuing Avars, cross R. Itil (Volga)
567 April 567 Avars and Lombards crush Gepidia, E. of R. Tisia. The Sirmium garrison capitulates to E. Rome; Avar conquest on the remaining Gepid lands.
567 Gepidic kingdom defeated by Avars
567 Avars ally with Longobards
567 Avars brought a great number of Slavs to Pannonia. Possible start of association Slav=slave. Start of Slavic settlements in Pannonia, recorded in Slavic annals as “When Slavs were sitting by Danube“. Slavs start slowly extending their settlements in Pannonia and out of Pannonia.
568 Avars occupy Pannonia
568 As Lombardian King Alboin advanced, the vacuum left behind them was filled by Avars, Bulgars and Slavs
568 April 2, 568 Lombards evacuate the territories W. of Danube and start to N. Italy. All the Basin is Avaria. The E. border of Avaria is somewhere N. of Black Sea
570 Frankish king Sigibert suffers defeat and falls in captivity, but pays off and concludes with a peace with Kagan Bayan
570 Kutugurs, as all people on Itil ruled by Turkuts, are encouraged by rise of Avars as alternative to Turkut suzerainty.
570 Jujan horde keeps robbing neighbors.
Language = Syanbinian
Consider themselves to be ethnically Tobases.
578 Byzantium allies with Avars. Avars defeat Slavs, killing their Prince Davrit
579 Avarian ultimatum by Kagan Bayan to secede city Sirmium. Tiberius refuses. Avars capture Sirmium after a two year siedge
580 Presence of hostile Slavs and Avars in Istria. Avars were partly responsible for the southward migration of the Serbs and Croats
580 Avars conquered and plundered cities and strongholds in Hellas
580 Avars capture Singidunum (Belgrade)
582 Avar Kagan Bayan attacks Byzantium in Thrace.
582 Byzantine Emperor Tiberius I Constantine died and was replaced by Emperor Maurice (582-602 AD) who agreed to pay the Avars an annual tribute of 100,000 gold coins, or roughly 1,000 lb of gold a year, to Kagan Bayan.
582 Avar Kagan Bayan appointed Gostun as the Khan of the Kutriguri (582-584 AD) (House Ermi) after Khan Zabergan's death in an invasion of Byzantium in northern Illyricum. Here the Avars and the Hunno-Bulgars attacked and seized the Fortress of Sirmium on the lower Sava River. Byzantium hastily concluded a peace treaty with the Avars, promising to give them an annual 80,000 gold coins, or roughly 800 lb of gold a year.
583 Avarian attack on Byzantium
586 Avars and Slavs besieged Thessalonica
587 Byzantium Emperor Maurice (582-602 AD) peace with Avars. Anonimous author in name of Emperor Maurice in Strategokon noted that Avars and Huns were really one nation, differing in hairstyle: Avars wore two braids down their backs.
589 W. Kaganate's Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth.
Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.
600 550-600 Avars at their peak
601 Priskos, Byzantine general, defeated Avars in Banat and collected 9.000 prisoners, 3000 Avars, 800 Slavs, 3200 Gepidae, and 2.000 barbarians
602 Bayan (562-602) dies. Avar dynasty of Bayan; two sons in sequence 602-617 & 617-c. 630, names unknown. Next Khan rules (602-617)
614 Avars and their Croat allies destroy Epidaurus & Salona in Dalmatia.
603 Kushans rebel against Iran with help from Turks. Tocharistan separates from Iran
610 610-620 Avar Slavs raided Thessalia, Hellas, the Aegean Islands, Achaia, and Epirus
617 617(?) A defeat from Byzantines resulted in deterioration of situation for Avar’s Khakan. Change of guards in Kaganate. Another Kagan Boyan's son inherits Kagan's crown (617-630), name unknown
617 Alburi killed at court of Avar’s Khakan. “Gostun (i.e. “kushtan“- “custodian“) is Kurbat's Ilchiubek (regent), 2 years. His clan is Ermi, and his year is Dokhs Tvirem (i.e. Boar 9th month, as November)“
619 Kurbat (Gr. Kubrat) allies with Byzantium against Avars after murder of his father Alburi. “Kur(ba)t reigned (for) 60 years. His clan is Dulo, and his year is Shegor Vechem (i.e. Bull 3rd month)“
619 Baptism of “Hunnish Khan“in Constantinople. Avars reach Constantinople.
620 Avarian retreat from Constantinople
623 Several successful uprisings of Slavic tribes against Avars are recorded, for example revolt of Vends in 623.
623 Avars reigned over a vast territory between Alps, Adriatic Sea and Black Sea
623 Kurbat's younger brother Shambat starts war against Avars, with Ulchiys (Slavs) and Ugrs.
Shambat captures Pannonia and calls his ulus Duloba (623-658). Event is recorded in writing in 623 as “Samo State“, in Slavic annals as “Duleby“. Baltavar Kurbat calls him Kyi (Separated).
623 Byzantine authors recorded ethnic composition of Avar Empire as Avars, Gepidae, and Slavs
623 Shambat (Samo) state birth is credited as first political formation of Slavs, first mentioned in writing in 623. Slavs in 631 beat Frank Army of King Dagobert near Vogatisburg and gained their independence from Franks and Avars. With death of Prince Samo state disappear in 665 (i.e. Duloba ulus is returned under Kurbat's control, Shambat lives on to become Bulgar Kagan in 663)
625 Joint attack of Persians and Avars repelled by Heraclius
626 Avars controlled all Kuturgur Hun lands
Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars did not participate in Khazars' war raids into Caucasus
Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars guarded western border of Western Kaganate
Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars are allied with Tele (Dulu).
626 Khazars and (Onogur?) Bulgars confederated (voluntarily, not conquered) into W. Kaganate. Bulgars break allegiance with Avaria, splitting Avarian kaganate
Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth.
Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.
626 While Heraclius with W. Türkic Kaganate fights Persians in Caucasus, Persians with Avars attack Constantinople.
Avars retreat with heavy losses and in disgrace.
Kur-bat suggests sucking Avar Kagan and replacing him.
End of Avar-Persian union.
626 626-629 Campaigns (Avars incl. Slavic peoples of Avaria, Croats, Lower Danube Slavs, Persian Empire) against Constantinople; unsuccessful. Avars suffered a crushing defeat at Constantinople
626 Bulgarian Kur-bat proclaims independence from W. Goktürk Kaganate and assumes title of Kagan, controlling W. part of state, while Shambat wrestles from Avars E. part. Beginning of “Great Bulgaria“
627 Series of revolts against Avars starts among subjugated tribes. Uprising of the western Slavs was led by Shambat (Samo), and resulted in founding of a Slavic state on the territory of present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia (Off-date record?627 instead of 623?).
627 Avars and Persians besiege Constantinople (Off-date record?627 instead of 626?)
629 629-635 Troubles in Avar Kaganate, then restoration.
630 New Avar Kagan inherits Kagan's crown, name unknown
630 Avars treat Bulgars/Barsils badly as conquered people.
Western Bulgars/Kuturgurs move to Bavaria, and are annihilated by Frankish king Dagober.
Eastern Bulgars/Kuturgurs joint with Bulgars/Uturgur
630 Samo, a Frankish merchant led a Slavic revolt against Avar rule, and ruled a wide region for a time c. 625/30 ?-c. 660 (another reference to Shambat (Samo) state)
630 630es Dagober I is entrusted to repulse attacks of Slavs. Slavic threat forces Dagobert to seek alliance with Saxons. Dagobert armies invade Bavaria flooded by Bulgarian (Avarian?) refugees (In one night slaughtered 10,000 people). After that the German lands are included in Frankish state down to Saal and middle course of Elba
631 Kutugur's rebelion against Avars and defeat of Kutugurs by Avars
631 Samo Slavs in 631 beat Frank Army of King Dagobert near Vogatisburg and gain their independence from Franks and Avars. However, the state disappeared in 665 with death of Prince Samo
631 631/632 (630) War of Dagobert I with the predominantly Slavic Samo (i.e. Shambat) state in territory of present Czechia and Croatia (in territory of Southern Poland and Northern Moravia and from about 631 in the lands of Lusacian (Lujitan) Serbs of Prince Dervan). War began after Slavs robbed Frankish merchants and negotiations failed. In addition to the main army consisting of Austrazians, in Frankish campaign participated Alemans and Langobards, who were devastating Slavic lands. The main Frankish army advanced from Metz along Main, got stuck besieging Vogastiburg, (probably hill Rubin at Jatts in Czech territory) where Frankish army after three-day battle was crushed. Then Slavs started devastating attacks on the Franks' state and the lands of its vassals.
635 635-c. 680 End of troubles in Avar Kaganate (629-635), restoration.
Second Avar Kaganate, names unknown. Restored Kaganate does not control Bulgarian territories.
635 Kurbat escaped dominance of Turks and Khazars, by supporting Sibir-Khan in 630.
He became independent, defeated Avars.
Controlled near- Black Sea steppes
c. 635 Avaria loses the Pontus area (to Bulgars & Khazars), see Note l. From this time Avaria is the Carpathian Basin, with marches outside: to R. Enns on W., the area of Uherské Hradiste & Uhersky Brod in Later Moravia and unknown territories E. of E. Carpathians; allies on N. & S.: White Croats & Adriatic Croats.
636 Bulgaria hostile with Khazars of W. Kaganate on East, with Avars on West, with Byzantium on South.
650 Famous treasury is found in village Nagi Szent Miklos in Hungary, 23 golden cups with Turkic inscriptions, dated by Avar period
658 Baltavar Kurbat 's state, Great Bulgaria, is divided into 2 uluses, Western Kara Bulgar and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, separated by river Shir (Don).
658 Great Bulgaria's capital Bandja, renamed fron Phanagoria. Summer stan is Khorysdan or Batavyl ( Lord's stan), present Putivl. In between two more stans, Tiganak and Baltavar, present Poltava.
660 Khan Kurbat Dulo (24) died (619-660) (594-642), buried 13 km from Baltavar, present Poltava, burial excavated in 1912, no anthropological, forensic examination.
His son Asparukh (25) becomes Khan (651?679?-702).
668 Peace treaty between Khazars' Kagan Kaban and Kara Bulgar's Baltavar Bat-Boyan.
Kara Bulgar is subordnated to Khazar.
669 Split of Kara Bulgar into W. and E. of (Dnepr).
W. controlled by Shambat and Asparukh, E., including Bulyar, by Baltavar Bat-Boyan
677 April 677 According to the Vienna Illuminated Chronicle, Árpád, Dux of Hungarians conquers the Basin.
678 Kurbat 's 4th son Ultzindur (Balkor?) moved from S of Crimea his Ultzindurs and Ultzingurs of Hunnish stock to Pannonia under Avars
679 Territorially, split is along Kutugur/Utugur uluses, with Kutugurs independent of Avar and W. Kaganates, and Utugurs remaining in W. Kaganate sphere.
679 Kurbat 's 4th son Kuber (i.e. Kyzyl-Kubar of Ultzindurs) moved from Crimea his Huns Ultzindurs and Ultzinzurs to Pannonia under Avars
680 635-c. 680 End of Second Avar Kaganate, names unknown.
680 The empire of the Avars peaked at the end of the 7th century (680 AD), after devision of Kurbat Bulgaria between Avars and Khazars, when it reached from the Volga to the Danube.
680 In Avaria, men were laid down in tombs with their horses, arms and horse-trappings. Art reflected by tomb objects was characterized by geometrical ornaments pressed upon a print, with a certain degree of Byzantine influence.
724 In Avaria, after about 40 years, i.e., after 720 AD, figures of plants and animals were used more frequently, were cast and decorated. New art shows Turkic Asian features, probably a new population coming from east took place of earlier one
792 Franks met with little resistance on their 2 campaigns in the area of Austria and Slovenia because of Avar/Bulgar/Slav draught and famine
680 ca. 680 Kuber (i.e. Kyzyl-Kubar of Ultzindurs), 4th son of Kagan Kovrat (i.e. Kur-bat, Kurt~Wolf) of the Pontus Bulgars arrives with his fleeing people from S of Crimea Ultzindurs and Ultzingurs at the Basin (i.e. Pannonia). In a few years Bulgars revolt in the Basin. Kuber flees to Danube Bulgaria (founded in 681 by his elder brother Asparukh).
685 ca. 685-795 Third Avar Kaganate, names unknown.
791 Charlemagne attacks Avaria, is repelled with heavy losses. 90 percent of Charlemagne's horses that advanced as far as Gyõr perished. Following 20-year period is fateful for Avar Kaganate
792 Avar leaders fought each other between 792 and 795, but Kagan and Yugrush, his fellow ruler, were killed by their own men, who blamed them for Avar/Bulgar/Slav draught and famine
794 According to archaeological evidence, Avars populated Banat, Crishana, and parts of Transylvania. Their number in Transylvania is not very high, but this is difficult to estimate. As in other territories, they probably lived together with Slavic tribes.
795 Avars power is broken, Franks destroyed residence of Kagan. Nestor chronicle stipulates that all Avars died, but some retired east of Tisza. Last reliable mention of Avars is from 822, and from 873 there is a record of uncertain character.
795 Civil war btw. the Kagan (name unknown) and the Yugurrus (the 2nd man). The Tudun (Governor of the Western Lands) does not want anything of it, and allies with Erik, Margrave of Friuli against them. Charlemagne sends more than ample troops into the already friendly Avaria and sacs it. (The details are somewhat obscure.)
795 795-ca. 814 Tudun Kajd (?) takes office of Kagan, later, baptized, takes the name Theodorus. Or: Kajd, then Theodorus. (Probably, references to later Kagans pertain to his successors )
796 Avar Kagan and his warlords abandoned their capital Rhing before Frankish host reached it in 796, but 90 per cent of Charlemagne's horses that advanced as far as Gyõr in 791 also perished
796 Avar state, weakened by internal dissent, was destroyed by a combined Frankish and (Danube) Bulgarian Khan Kardam (777-803) attack in 796
796 After victory over Avars, Charlemagne's son, Pepin, founds Avar march with archbishopric in Salzburg
796 End of AVAR EMPIRE
562 - 796 A.D
Founder - Bayar Khan
Area - area between Volga, Hungary and Bessarabia. From central Europe to Itil and from Balkans to Baltic, essentially western half of Attila Khandom (Total Area - ?,000,000 Km2)
The seat of the Avar Kagan and his warlords east of the Danube in Pannonia, known as the Rhing
796 Leader of Pannonian Bulgars Krum, victor of Avar wars, takes control of Avaria east of Theiss (Tisza or Tisa) (796-803)
796 Theophanes: Emperor Constantine VI (780-797) led army in to raid Danube Bulgaria. After battle in July 796 near fortress Markella in Eastern Thrace, he signed peace treaty with Danube Bulgaria Khan Kardam (777-803) to pay annual tribute (? how much?). When basileus cheated on treaty obligations, Bulgarian ruler sent him warning: ”Pay your dues or I'll ravage Thrace”
803 Krum (38) assumes (Danube) Bulgarian Khan-hood (803-814). Krum's origin is unknown, his record indicates royal line of Pannonian Bulgars, possibly descendant of fourth son Kuber of Khan Kurbat (Kubrat) from House of Attila of House of Dulo. Krum rose from Pannonian Bulgar princeling to Sublime Khan of Balkan Bulgaria with throne of Pliska
Bulgars under Kagan Krum unite with Franks to crush Avar Kaganate.
803 The Bulgar chieftain that conquered the Avars was called Krum (803–814). [1] His origin is unknown. From his apparent security on the throne throughout his life, it is tempting to see in him the scion of an old-established royal race — for only monarchs of undoubtedly higher birth could long maintain themselves over the jealous Bulgar boyars — the royal race of the Bulgars of Pannonia. He may even have been a descendant of the fourth son (Kuber) of King Kubrat (Kurbat), a child of the House of Attila (I.e. House of Dulo). But more important than his birth were his ambitions and his ability. Krum was not going to remain a Pannonian princeling. By the year 808 he was firmly placed upon the, Sublime Khan of Balkan Bulgaria.
803 Kagan Krum of Bulgaria occupies Eastern Avaria.
804 Khan Krum venture to become independent suzerain, lay off federatae status, become Tzar, and absorb Slavic and Avar territories and populations. Policy program for next half century
804 Charlemagne and then Pepin defeat and subjugate Avar Khan in Pannonia, rob 2 centuries of treasuries
804 Joint forces of Franks and (Danube) Bulgars crush and annihilate Avar Kaganate.
805 Avar Kagan Zodan baptized with name Theodore. Theodore continued ruling as a subject of Charlemagne
813 In 813, Krum led a large army of Slavs and Avars against Byzantium and besieged Constantinople without success. He died in following year.
814 ca. 814 - ca. 835 Avar Kagans Abraham & Isaac.
814 Death of Khan Krum, leaving young son Omurtag (816-831). Danube Bulgaria experienced hiatus period, Omurtag was not eligible for succession, three boyars wore the crown before Omurtag: Dukum who died almost immediately, Ditzeng and Tsok for a short time controlled government at Pliska. In 815 Omurtag was firmly seated on Bulgarian throne. Krum left Danube Bulgaria one of four great powers in Europe, reigning over joint Danube Bulgars and Avars state (805–898)
822 Last reliable mention of Avars
835 835 - 899 (?) Avar Kagan Names unknown (B. Lukacs, questionable reference)
859 Gabdulla Shilki (855-882) lost battle to Khazar Kagan Iskhak at Baltavar (Poltava)
863 Gabdulla Shilki re-unites Bashtu (Kyiv) and Karadjar (Chernigov) with Kara Bulgar.
Knyaz Dir (Bulg Djir) submits to Shilki, Ascold (Bulg As-Khalib) escapes to Galidj (Novgorod? Galich?)
Gabdulla Shilki restores himself as Baltavar of Kara Bulgar with capital at Baltavar (Poltava)
865 Khan Barys of Itil Bulgaria beylyk founded by Tat-Ugek, died, and Shilki, Khan of Kara Bulgar with a capital in Baltavar (Poltava) is proclaimed Khan of Itil Bulgaria (865-882)
873 Record on Avars of uncertain character
882 Baltavar Bat-Ugyr (882-895) died, Almysh becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (895-925)
895 Avaria (Pannonia) is divided between Slavic state of Great Moravia under Svyatopolk, and Turkic Khanate of Bulgaria under either Bat-Ugyr or already Almysh. Bulgar Onogundur (or Onogur) settle there, possibly giving name to Hungary.
899 Conquering Magyars of Árpád take territories W. of Danube, and also territory of Rump Avaria. While Western texts for a while still mention Avars, it is possible that it is already an anachronism, while existence of ethnic Avars is rather sure. Medieval Magyar sources never mention Avars. Later fate of Avars is unknown, but in 10th c. Magyar tribal alliance incorporates other peoples as direct subjects of the Sublime Kagan. Hungarian archaeologists guess that some cemeteries are mixed Avar-Magyar ones. Some hypothesize Avar migration to Transylvania. By any probability fragments of the Avar society could have been incorporated into the Hetumoger=Hétmagyar=7 Magyar(s) without any problem. So this is the latest possible end of Avar state. Speculations exist that some self-organized Avar group may have existed in Transylvania since 803, i.e. Bulgarian incorporation of the Great Plains, but up to now we do not know anything about leaders, for any case. The connection of Avars with recent Avar ethnic group & language in Mtn. Caucasus is a matter of hypothesizes and may even have not ever existed.
904 Oleg, Prince of Kiev (882-916 ), remains a vassal of Avar Kaganate, divided between Bulgarian principalities. (In 859 to Khazars??)
920 Itil Bulgar Baltavar (Elteber) Almush (Almas) allies with Caliphate as counterbalance to Khazars.
Beginning of minting Itil Bulgar money - dirham
922 Baltavar Almush takes a title Emir obligated to rule in accordance with Quran.
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