In Russian
Contents Alans
Contents Huns
Contents Scythians
Ogur and Oguz
Zakiev M. Z. Who Are Alans?
L.Zgusta Zelenchuk Inscription
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Burial place of a Massagetan warrior 8-7 c. BC
Russian Version needs a translation
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline


Alans, Alani, Alanliao, Aorses, As, Asii, Asses, Balanjar, Barsils, Belenjers, Burtas, Gelons, Halans, Iass, Iazyg, Ishkuza, Ishtek, Jass, Jats, Lan, Ostyak, Ovs, Rhoxolani, Steppe Alans, Yass, Yancai and other variations
Subdivisions and ethnic affiliates
Alans, Burtas, Rhoxolani, Wusüns, Yasses, Yazygs
Türkic alan “field, plain”, hence Ch. calque Yancai/ Yantsai 奄蔡 “vast steppe”, Alan 阿蘭
Generally synonymous with  Türkic as, yas “Low-Lander”
Synonymous with Türkic sabana, saban “field, steppe”
Contrasted with Tochar, Tokhar, Togar, Dagar, Taur, Togarmah “mountaineer” from Türkic Tag/Dag/Tau/Tay “mountain” + ar “people, men”, and Saka “piedmonter, foot-hiller”, the people of the mountains

650 BC-1400 AD

  Yancai Alans
300 BC - 0 AD
Yazyg Alans
0-500 AD
500 - 1400 AD
Amortica Alans
400-600 AD
Caucasus Alans
900-1000 AD
Caucasus Alans
1000-1400 AD


Time Events
650 BC Ases are first mentioned in Assirian sources as the Scythian name Ishkuza = Ish-Oguz or Ish-kiji, with the same semantic, where Ish is a variation of ethnonym As, and Oguz or kiji stand for people
500 BC Tribe of Aderbics, part of Masguts/Massagetae, sent 40 thousand infantrymen and 2 thousand horsemen to the camp of Darius the Great at the Babylon. It is evidence of the large nomadic population living on the banks of the Uzboy. Period from 7th c. BC to 5th c. AD was flourishing for Aral-Caspian area, combining settled agricultural and tribes specializing in sheep or horse animal husbandry. Symbiosis of farmers and nomads.
500 BC Indian sources identify Alans-Ases as Jats called Asiaghs and relate that Assyria was called after the Asiagh Jats. The Asii Jats founded Jutland as their homeland in Scandinavia. Scandinavian “Edda” tells that ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jats or Jits who were Asi people who came to that land from Asirgarh. Pliny relayed that Sindhu Jats from Sindh were called upon during a conflict between Anatolia and Babylonia. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii
300 BC From Chinese sources Alans are listed as one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favored by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C. (ToOD 146). Hiu-bu and Siu-lin are Ch. coding variations for Yui tribes, Uigurs; Lan stands for Alan = Tr. alan, yalan = steppe, synonymous with  Tr. yaziq = plain, plateau (Yazygs, Ases, Yases). Alt. name for Alans (probably, a W.Europe subtribe) is Gu-alan, Tr. quw alan = dry steppe; both names indicate part of clans living in steppe, while other part lives by river, mountain, forest etc. 1
220 BC End 3rd c. BC Earliest notable Sarmatian migration to Scythia
210 BC ca 310- 100 BC Second, largest stage of Sarmatian migration to Scythia, ended with crush of Scyths and Sarmatian dominance in N.Pontic
204 B.C - 216 A.D
Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
Founder - Mete (Bagatir, Maotun, Batur) of Suy-Lyanti clan with a bull totem establishes Hunnic Empire
107 BC First historical appearance of Rhoxolani, between Dnieper and Don: Tasius, leader of Rhoxolani, ally of Palacus, King of Crimean Scythians, against Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus
64 BC 64/47 B.C. First historical appearance of Aorsi, between Don and North-West of Caspian Sea: Spadines, King of Aorsi at time of Pharnaces, King of Bosporus
48 BC - 216 A.D
Founder – Panu
Area - area over present Central Asia
16 BC Consul Lucius Rufus repulsed first attack of Iazyges on Moesia
6 Iazyges and Dacians again attacked Moesia
35 35-36 AD Alan participation in Ibero-Parthian (Artabanus II) war on side of Iberia.
49 Eunones, King of Aorsi, ally of Romans and of Cotys I, King of Bosporus, against Mithridates, latter's brother
50 Iazyges  are noted on Tissa plain
50 Farzoy's empire formed in Middle Dniester coin
56 56-63 Plautius Sylvanus repulsed onslaught of Sarmatians on Lower Danube
60 60/67 Embassy to ”Greatest Kings of Aorsia”, perhaps from Olbia
62 Vologeses inscription: Parthian king Vologeses (51–80AD) in his 11th year battled Kuluk (Külük ), king of Alani.
67 67-68 Roxolans devastated Moesia
69 Rhoxolan raid against Moesia checked by Third Legion of Mark Antonius
69 Roxolans in alliance with Dacians again attacked Moesia. Farzoy resumes minting of gold coins
72 Alans invade S.Caucasus. Külük defeated Medians and Armenians in a raid south
72 Alan raid against Parthian vassal kingdoms of Media and Armenia.
75 In area between Dniester and Prut appeared Roxolans and Aorses-Amakeobies
89 89-92 Iazyges together with German tribe Suebi attacked Domitian, who suffered a crushing defeat. This is first successful attack of barbarians against empire
93 93/123Possible alliance between local Barbarian chieftains and Alans at time of Sauromates I, King of Bosporus
102 Roxolan cavalry participates in Decibal's raid to Lower Moesia
117 117-118 Roxolans from E., Yazygs from W., attack Roman Dacia
117 117/38 Sarmatian and Rhoxolan raids in Moesia under Hadrian. Peace with king of Rhoxolani, probably P. Aelius Rasparaganus.
124 Dionysius Periegetes (the Guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii
128 Tacitus: Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) pays Rhoxolani annual tribute and allows their transit by the Roman roads through Dacia with Iazyges, who lived along Tissa
135 Alan campaign in Transcaucasus and Media. Alan raid against Albania, Media, Armenia and Cappadocia, repelled by Flavius Arrianus of Nicomedia
138 138/61 Alan raids under Antoninus Pius
139 Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Tr. agach ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) live Huns
150 Hou Han shu: In China, Alans were earlier known as Yancai (奄蔡 ”Vast Steppe”). They have about 100,000 bowmen and same way of life and clothes as Kangju (Kangars) and identical with Ta Yüeh-chih (”Great Tochars”). Yancai changed its name to kingdom of Alanliao with capital Di.
“Weishu” referring to 457: “Country of Sute (Sogdiana, with Samarkand) is situated west of Pamirs. In ancient times it was Yancai.”
150 Hou Han shu: Alans are a dependency of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins). The climate is temperate. Wax trees, pines, and aconite are plentiful
150 Mid. 2nd century Alans defeated by Roman army at Olbia
160 ca 160 First appearance of Alans in Lower Danube
160 Lucianus Samosatensis (ca 120-180AD) and scholia to Lucianus mention “barbaric Kona” in the east of Sarmatian lands around lower Danube, thought to refer to Kangars (see Besenyo Dateline)
161 During reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180), Alans joined Sarmatian federation and Sarmatians became dangerous again. Romans had to fight several bloody wars against Sarmatians and their allies, Marcomanni
167 167/80 Alans in Germanic wars of Marcus Aurelius
167 ca 167-175 First Markoman War. Markomans, Quads, Yazygs in Middle Danube, Roxolans, Alans, Costoboks and Free Dacians in Lower Danube
175 Marcus Aurelius defeats Iazyg tribe of Alans, takes 8000 into Roman service and himself settles with 5,500 of them in Northern Britain at Ribchester south of Lancaster. Alans were assigned to VI Legion Victrix commanded by Alani warlord who was renamed Lucius Artorius Castus. When these auxiliary cataphracti (heavy cavalrymen) retired from duty they were settled near the Lancashire village of Ribchester, known in Roman times as Bremetennacum Veteranorum. In 20th c population along Hadrian Wall  records elevated level of group B blood, 16% vs 8%
178 178-180 Second Markoman war Dacia was attacked from by Markomans, Quads, Iazyges from the west, Roxolans, Carps, and free Dacians from the east., Alans etc from the north
180 Rhoxolani North of East Danube border shortly before death of Marcus Aurelius
178 ca 178-180 Second Markoman War. Dacia is attacked by Markomans, Quads, Yazygs from W., Roxolans, Carpii, Free Dacians from E., Alans from N
185 185/89 Alan raid against Mc'xet'a, capital of Iberia, intercepted by Georgian king Amzasp II
193 193/208 Erakas, ”chief interpreter of Alans” at Panticapaeum
210 ca 210 Sarmatians (federated with Alans) occupied Dacia and from then on war against tribes on north bank of Danube was really dangerous
216 End of HUN EMPIRE
204 B.C - 48 BC (split) - 216 A.D
Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
Founder - Mete (Bagatir, Maotun, Batur)
216 Western Hun Empire separates into 5 successor states (215-290)
Tele (Gaogyuys)
225 Hou Han shu: Alans were vassals of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins). Now they are no longer vassals
225 Alans allied with Armenian king Xosrov I against Persians
230 ca 230 Goths come to NW Pontic. Roxolans arrive at Tissa plain to Yazygs. Archeology finds Yazygs in utter poverty, their only supplies coming from Roxolans, from whom they were cut off for generations. Combined Roxolans and Yazygs are somewhat better off, but now they both are cut off from commerce.
235 235-38 Reign of Maximinus, supposedly of Alan descent
238 238/44 Defeat of Gordianus III before Alans at Philippi
242 Alans allied with Goths and Carpi intrude Thrace and defeat Gordian II at Phyllipolys
243 243/73 Expansion of area of influence of Sasanian Persia as far as ”Gate of Alans” (Darial) under Sabuhr I
260 Death of usurper Regalianus in Moesia, at  request of Rhoxolani
274 Alans in triumph of Aurelian over Zenobia of Palmyra and Gallic usurper Esuvius Tetricus
276 276/82 Skirmishes between Rome and Alans under Probus
300 by 300, Ammianus, XXXI, 2, 12: Alans ”by repeated victories incorporated under their own national name Geloni, Agathyrsi, Melanchlaeni, Anthropophagi, Amazons, and Seres”, showing a leadership of powerful state by Ammianus time
300 Goths subjugated Alans with their subjects reaching to Don on E.
330 330/38 Alans allied with Sanesan, king of ”Massagetae” (Mazk'owtk'), against Armenian king Xosrov II Kotak
330's  King Sanesan of Maskuts/Masguts/Massagets ~ Sanatruk (Truk ~ Türkic) ruler of Paitakaran (~Bai Tarhanlyk)
351 351/67 Alans allied with Armenian king Arsak II against Persians
354 Earliest known European record about Bulgarians is “Anonymous chronograph“, a list of tribes and peoples in Latin. He mentions a certain 'Ziezi ex quo Vulgares'
356 356/7 Shapur II repulses Chionite Huns on border of Persia
359 Chionite King Grumbat took part in siege of Amida as federati of Persian Shah Shapur II 
360 Huns cross Volga and attack Alans. Part of Alans retreat to N. Caucasus, part is absorbed in Huns Horde, part retreat to N. Donets. Most likely, after conquest a part of Bulgars joins Huns, and a part remains
360 Jordanes: With approach of Huns Alans revolt against Goths, helping Huns to move against Ostrogoths under Ermanaric. Alans concluded concordia with Huns to move against Ermanaric under unknown terms of alliance
360 Hunno-Alanic alliance guaranteed Alan partner considerable degree of independence and large share of loot. Alans are part of Hunnic confederation (ca 360-398)
370 370-376 War between Alans and Goths.
370 Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais and N. Caspian steppes. Living there Alans join Huns.
371 Huns invade Goths' possessions in N.Pontic
372 Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns to Europe
375 – 454 A.D
Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars
Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N.Hungary to Byzantine Empire (Area - 4,000,000 Km2)
375 Ammianus Marcellinus bk. XXXI, 12 considers Alans to be descendents of Masguts (Massagets)
375 Battle between Alans under Bülümar (Jordanes, XLVIII, 249) and Ostrogoths at river Erac (present Tiligul). After death of Vitimir young Vidirix bacame a King. Alatei and Safrac ruled under his name. Both names Alatei and Safrac sound more Türkic then Germanic, they may be Hun's viceroys. Ostrogoths retreated to Dniester.
375 Ammianus Marcellinus: ”After his (Hermanaric) departure, Vitimir was made a King, and resisted Halans for some time… But after many defeats he suffered, he was subdued by arms and died in battle”
375 375-383 Alans serve in Gratian's guards. Alania in Lower Danube
375 Subjection of Alans by Huns, Destruction of Ostrogothic realm of Ermanaric by Huns and Alans
376 Huns captured Atel-Kuzu (Bessarabia). Alans remained in Dacia. Vestgoths and Ostrogoths, defeated by Huns and Alans, retreated to Danube
376 With Ermanaric's Ostrogoths, Hun's Bülümar (Balamber) acquired not only Alans, but other Ostrogoth subjects. Jordanes: ”thirteen peoples which the Amalung ruler Ermanaric conquered in north: Golthescytha (Goths Scyths), Thiudos (Germ. People), Inaunxis?, Vasinabroncae?, Merens (Merya,), Mordens (Mordvins), Imniscaris?, Rogas (Germ.), Tadzans?, Athaul (Türk. Atagul=Archers), Navego?, Bubegenes?, Coldas”, plus Heruli, Aesti (Ests, Estonians) and Venethi, numerous people Taifali who before 370 held Oltenia and western part of Muntenia. In Gaul Taifali, probably Türkic, and Sarmatians were settled together
376 Huns and Alans appeared in Pannonia
377 377/8 Alliance of Huns and Alans with XXX or Barbarians in Moesia
377 Ammianus: Romans had their Saracen horses. This is before Kumans=Kipchaks show up under a name Saracen by 500 years. Ptolemy's Geography refers to distinct from Arabs Σαρακηνός Sarakenoi people in north-western Arabian peninsula
377 Romans cornered Visigoths against Danube, and Ammianus stresses that number of Huns and Alans was small, but threatening rear of Romans, they removed Roman siege. Strategic move on such scale required more than agreement between Visigoths and Huns. Very first account of Hun raid into Balkan provinces shows their cohesion and abilities
378 Oldest son of Hun's Bulyumar (Balamber) Alyp-bi defeats Sadums (Goths/Scandinavians), crossed Danube and with Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Alans defeats 80K Byzantium army at Andrianopole. Precise maneuvering and overreaching encirclement of Roman forces and supplies by Huns and Alans shows immaculately coordinated strategic campaign.
378 Valeria, the easternmost province of Pannonia, overrun by Goths, Huns, and Alans
378 Visigoths overrun Taifali in Oltenia, and Sarmatae Limigantes, the ”slaves” of Sarmatae Argaragantes, join Visigoths sent by Huns to capture Banat (Caucaland), turned against their Argaragante lords. Pannonia Sarmats join Huns
378 Gratian, attacked by Alans in Pannonia. Alans in army of Fritigern, king of Visigoths, in  battle of Adrianople (Aug. 9th). Defeat and death of Emperor Valens. Raids by Goths, Huns and Alans as far as Constantinople
379 Victories of Emperor Theoodosius over Alans, Huns and Goths
380 New Roman Emperor Theodosius settles Gothic problem diplomatically. Goths become federates, and Alans move north
380 380-395 Alans clear Dacia and Bessarabia from Vestgoths, Taifals, Gepids, Burgunds and other peoples. Huns went to Pontic steppes
380 Recruitment of Alans into Roman army by Gratian. Settling of Alan, Hun and Gothic auxiliary troops in Pannonia by Theodosius
383 383/4Alan and Hun auxiliary troops called on by  Frankish magister militum Bauto against Juthungi in Raetiae
390 Ethnographic excursus on Alans by historian Ammianus Marcellinus
394 Saul, general of Theodosius' Alan auxiliary troops in battle of River Frigidus against Arbogast and usurper Flavius Eugenius
395 Hun campaign in Transcaucasus and even raid Syria (Caucasus, Syria, Cappadocia, and Mesopotamia ). Alans, Ostrogoths and Geruls, retreated earlier to Transcaucasus, subordinate to Huns
398 Alan auxiliary troops in Norrn Italy,
400 Alans and Bolgars live between Itil and Don
401 401/10Alans in army of Visigothic king Alaric in Norrn Italy
402 Ruler of Western Empire Stilihon allied with Huns and Alans, who help Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes
402 Alan auxiliary troops in Stilicho's army in battle of Pollentia against Alaric. Internecine strife between Alans and Huns (location unknown)
402 Orosius: between federates in Roman service after 402... ”I say nothing of the many internecine conflicts, when two cunei of Goths, and then Alans and Huns, destroyed one another in mutual slaughter”
402 Hunnic noblemen, Attila's relatives and retainers, have either Turkish or Germanic names. There evidently were few, if any, Alans among leading group
405 New help by Huns and Alans to Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes (Sweves).
405 Alan and Hun auxiliary troops in army led by Stilicho against Ostrogothic king Radagaisus
406 Alans join Vandals in invasion to Gallia (modern France). Migration of Pannonia Alans and Vandals to Gaul
406 Crossing of Rhine by Vandal king Godigisel and Alan king Respendial. Battle against Prankish foederati in Roman service (Dec.31st). Earlier defection of Alan Goar
406 Disintegration of Hun's confederation: Alans left Huns. From 360 to 398 Huns and Alans are constantly named together, Huns mostly, though not always, in first place. In 394 only transdanubian Alans, led by Saul, joined Emperor Theodosius; of the Huns only those in Thrace marched under imperial dragons. Alans, but no Huns, served Stilicho in 398 and, still under Saul, in 402. In 406, however, Stilicho's barbarian auxiliaries consisted of Huns and Goths; his bodyguard was formed by Huns. Huns, but no Alans, served in the Roman army in 409
406 After 406, Western writers knew of Alans only in Gaul, Spain, and Africa. No author of fifth century mentions Alans as allies of Huns
407 Alans settled extensively north of Loire river, once called Armorica, now called Brittany. Alans arrived at about same time as Celtic Britons were fleeing to France after Saxon takeover of England. Alans and Celtic Britons intermarried extensively. Legacy of Alans includes French name ”Alain” and its many variations, and cultural foundation of chivalric warfare (armored knights on horseback) =>see 436
407 Invasion of Gaul by Alans, Suebi and Vandals
409 Alans and Vandals moving from Gallia to Spain
409 Part of Alans, with Respendial at helm, intruded into Pyrenean peninsula, where they formed Alanian state. Captured lands were shared between Alans and German tribes of Vandals and Svevs taking part in the invasion
409 Invasion of Spain by Alans, Suebi and Vandals
410  Alania in Lower Danube
410 Bulgars attack Lombards (Longobards)
411 Goar (Goarchur) (?- 415) leads Alans who abandoned his Vandal allies
411 Dividing up of Spain among invaders:  Alans, lords of Lusitania and Carthaginiensis. Failed attempt at an agreement with Emperor Honorius
411 Alans in service of Gerontius, magister milltum of usurper Maximus in Tarraco
411 Proclamation of usurper Jovinus in Mundiacum (Germania Secunda) by Alan Goar and Burgundian Gunthiarius
412 Byzantine Embassy to Western Huns in Pontic area
414 Defection of Alans allied to Visigoths during siege of Vasatae (Aquitaine)
415  Attaces (Addak) (415 - 426) Alanian King killed in battle against the Visigoths
416 Alans were followed into Spain by numerous tribes of Westgoths
416 416/7 Campaigns led by Vallia, king of Visigoths, against Alans and Vandals in Spain
418 Westgoths defeated Alans. Alanian Chief Addak perished in combat. With his doom Alanian state on Pirenean peninsula ceased to exist. From this we can see a possible explanation how ht35 haplotype may have arrived in Spain and subsequently in Spanish Netherlands, which may be of interest in evaluating the DYS393=12 allele
418 Addac, king of Alans in Spain, defeated and killed by Vallia, perhaps at Gibraltar (”in Tartessian lands”). Submission of surviving Alans to Gunderic, king of Asding Vandals in Gallaecia
418 Alans in 418 subjugated themselves to the patrocinium of the Vandal king, they retained their tribal organization until the end of Vandal kingdom
420 Huns occupied Pannonia. Western Huns settle in middle Danube. Rulers were Yabgu Roila (Rugila), Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk) and Kagan Oktar
422 Byzantine peace treaty with Persia
424 424-71 Activity and pre-eminence of family of  Alan Flavius Ardabur Aspar in Byzantium
428 428-77 Geiseric, King of Vandals and Alans. Orga nization of Vandal army in chiliarchies
429 Crossing of Vandals and Alans from Spain to North Africa
434 Huns siege Constantinople. Death of Rugila. Beginning of joint rule by Atilla and Bleda
436 St. Germanus pleads with Alanic King to spare Armoricans. Alans begin to settle in Armorica  =>see 407
440 Settling in Valence of Alans under chieftain Sambida
442 Settling of Alans in Transalpine Gaul by Aetius
445 Beginning of Attila sole reign  Attila's 8 years overshadowed previous and following centuries in memory of Romans 
447 447/8 Eochar, king of Alans, sent by Aetius against Bacaudae of Armorica as a reprisal for their revolt, and stopped by St. Germanus, bishop of Auxerre
448 Attila's defeat of Akatsir Scythians and appointment of Ellak as ruler of Pontus Huns. Eastern Roman ambassadors in Attila's camp
450 Lazar Parbetsi: Allied armies of S.Caucasian countries capture fortifications named “pahane Honsü“ (defense against Hons)
Destruction of Chor (future Derbent) fortress by rebellious Armenians and Albanians
450 450/60 Expedition of Georgian king Vaxtang Gorgasali against Alans
451 451.06.15 ”Battle of Peoples” at Catalaun ravine near present Trua. On Atilla's side are Huns, Geruls, and part of Franks Ostrogoths, on Aecius side Roman legions recruited from Gaul and Germany, Vestgoths, Burgunds, Franks, Armorician Alans headed by Sanhiban. No definite result.
451 Sangiban, king of Alans in Orleans, ally of Aetius and Visigothic king Theodoric in battle of Catalaunian Fields against Attila, king of Huns
452 Huns invasion in Azerbaijan
453 Subjection of [part of] Alans in [Transalpine] Gaul by Visigothic king Thorismud
454 Jordanes: You could see Goth with lances, Gepids with mad with sword, Rug breaking spears in his wounds, and Swev bravely acting with bat, and Hun with arrow, Alan with heavy, Gerule with light weapons
454 Atilla's son Ellak tried to suppress rebellion, was defeated and died in battle at Nedao. Remains of Ellak's army retreated east of Carpathians. Two other sons Dengizik and Ernak remained in Dacia and Bessarabia. Alans, led by ruler Kandak were forced to go to Dobrudja
275 – 454 A.D
Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars
Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N.Hungary to Byzantine Empire (Area - 4,000,000 Km2)
455 Alans in battle at Nedao River (Pannonia) between Ardaric, king of Gepids, and sons of Attila. Later settling in Scythia Minor and Lower Moesia of Alan chieftain Candac
455 Abdaly (Hephthalites) conquer Kushans and invade India
456 Byzantine captures Lazika
457 “Weishu” referring to 457: “Country of Sute (Sogdiana, with Samarkand) is situated west of Pamirs. In ancient times it was Yancai. It is also called Wennasha. It lies on an extensive swamp northwest of Kangju (Kangar). It is 16,000 li distant from Dai. Formerly, the Xiongnu (Eastern Huns) killed their king and took their country. King Huni was third ruler of the line.”
458 Alan auxiliary troops in Majorian's army
463 Saragurs subjugate Akatsirs
464 Beorgor, king of Alans, defeated and killed at Bergamo by patrician Ricimer (Feb. 6th)
466 Invasion of Saragurs and Onogurs in Transcaucasia
468 468 - 469 Danube war between Huns and Byzantium. Bel-Kermek (Hernach) after Dengizik death leads army. Byzantium beats off invasion with difficulty. Byzantium mercenary army consists of Slavs and Alans commanded by Aspar, whose father was Alan
468 ”in some respect Danube war of 468 - 469 was a war of Alans and Ants against their former masters, Huns.” (G.V.Vernadsky). After Byzantian victory Huns left Dacia and Bessarabia. These provinces opened for Slavic colonization.
468 Huns offer alliance to East Roman empire
469 Death of Dengizih (Diggiz) Áëþäî ñ íàäïèñüþ ñ èìåíåì Äèããèçèõà.
477 477-84 Huneric, King of Vandals and Alans
478 Attempted murder of consul Illus, counselor of Emperor Zeno, by an Alan
481 Goths' Theodoric, son of Triariya, victory over Bulgars
487 487/8 Expedition from Ravenna against Rugi led by Scirian king Odoacer with an army of Alans
530 530-33 Gelimer, King of Vandals and Alans
531 531/78 Foundation of Darband and fortification of Eastern and Central Caucasus by Sasanian king Husrav Anosruvan against incursions of Northern nomads. Creation of March of Alans
534 Destruction of Vandal kingdom of Africa by Belisarius
548 Alliance made by Gubazes, king of Lazi, with Alans and Sabirs against Iberia at time subjected to Sasanian Persia
549 Alans in expedition of Sasanian general Chorianes (Farroxan) against Lazica
550 Mid. 6th century. Period of king Sarosius' government in Alania. Establishment of tight contacts between Alania and Byzanthia.
550 Geographical description of Caucasus by Procopius of Caesarea
551 Zachariah Ritor: Bulgars and Alans are mentioned once as settled populations with towns, and once as nomads. He points that Bulgarian towns, inhabited lands are immediately next to Caspian gates, while nomads are in steppes north of Caucasus
551 Z. Ritor: ”Thirteen peoples Avnagur (Onogur), Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Hasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasir, Kulas, Abdel and Hephtalite live in tents, earn their living on meat of livestock and fish, of wild animals and by their weapons.”
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
555 Description of Caucasus by Pseudo-Zacharias Rhetor
556 Possible territorial conflicts between Alans and Misimians, subjects of king of Lazica
557 Arrival of Avars in land of Sarosius (Sarodius, Saroes), king of Alans
558 Gumilev: Vars (Ugrian tribe, related to Hungarian ancestors Ogors/Ugrs which lived between Itil and Ural rivers, and to Hungarians living in Bashkiria up to XIII c.) and Huni (Khionites = Sarmato-Alanians), both from North of Aral Sea, become known as Avars.
561 Fifty years peace between Justinian and Husrav Anosruvan. Alans and Huns forbidden to cross Darial and Darband to attack Byzantine territory
563 In 563-567 Persians run successful military actions against Ephtalites, to about same time belongs defeat by Khosrow Anushirvan of Savir tribes residing in S.Caucasus.  Savirs lived in the plains N. and S. of Derbend, Southern Savirs lived next to or interspersed with Masguts (Alans)
566 Between 566 and 571 Istemi Djabgu subjugated peoples Banajar, Balanjar (Belenjer) and Khazar. Baranjar (Balanjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bolgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Turks closest allies and assistants.
569 569-571/2 Embassy of Zemarchus to Khanate of Western Turks. Persian attempt to intercept Zemarchus through Alans. On way back, tension between Sarodius, king of Alans, and Turkic ambassadors
572 Saroes, king of Alans, ally of John, strategos of Armenia, against Persians
574 574/78 Alans (allies of Persians) captured and taken as hostages to Byzantium under Tiberius Constantine
576 Byzantine foray into Sassanid-controlled Albania, Byzantine generals Kurs and Theodor relocated Albanian Savirs and Alans on other sode of Kura. Beginning of Alan control of Daryal Pass, it becomes Alan Pass
576 Possible subjection of [part of] Alans by Western Turks
580 Incursion of Alans in pay of Byzantium against Persian Azerbaijan
581 “Sui shu“ (581 to 618) chapter 84 “Description Of Tele“ lists 45 tribes of Asian steppe, including a-lan (Alans). Alans are included in listing of Turkic-speaking Tele tribes.
642 Campaign of Hudaifa b. Asid (Asad), general of Caliph 'Umar I, in mountains of Alans. Fortification of passes of Central Caucasus by Arabs
651 With loss of W.Khaganate rule, former confedrate Khazaria with attached Bolgar Kutugurs, Alans, Slavs and Itil Bolgars gain independence. Khazars keep Khagan from dynasty Ashina.
651 Defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euphrates battle
655 Gumilev: Khazars cooperate with Iranian speaking Alans
662 662/3 Muslim expedition against Alans
670 Bat-Boyan Bolgars are defeated by Khazars. Khazars recover territory with east Bolgar (Utugur) and Alan populations.
682 Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes ”Kingdom of Huns” (Belenjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Baranjar (Balanjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bolgars, subordinated to Khazars
705 705/15 Adventures of spatharius Leo (future Emperor Leo III) in Caucasus. Alan raids against Abasgia (under Arab rule) instigated by Justinian II
715 715/20 Arab expedition against Alans under Caliph 'Umar II
721 721/2 Invasion of country of Alans by Turks (Khazars)
722 Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737) First campaign of Arabian troops led by Zh. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars
722 722/3 Defeat of Arab general Tabit al-Nahram by Alans and Khazars
723 Khazars lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar
723 723/4 Expedition against Alans and Khazars led by al Jarrah b. 'Abdallah al-Hakami
724 724/5 Alans, tributary people to Umayyad Caliphate as a result of expedition against them led by al-Hajjaj b. 'Abd al-Malik
728 728/9 Expedition against Turks (Khazars) led by Maslamah b. 'Abd al-Malik through Gate of Alans (Darial)
730 730/1 Defeat and death of al-Jarrah b. 'Abdallah al Hakami at hands of Turkic (Khazar) invaders from country of Alans
735 Campaign of Arabian military leader Mervan Kru in Alania. Alanian king Itaz
735 735/6 Conquest of three fortresses in country of Alans by Marwan b. Muhammad
737 737/8 Expedition against country of Khazars led by Marwan b. Muhammad through Gate of Alans
751 Alan auxiliary troops in Armenia serving in army of Constantine V
758 Conquest of Gate of Alans by Yazid b. Usayd b. Sulami
770 Oguzes came to Transoxania in 770's
772 War between Greeks and Bulgars. Khazaria unites with Alania
776 St. Beat map between estuaries of Danube and Dniester shows country Alania
820 820/23 Alans in army of Thomas Slav, leader of revolt against Byzantine Emperor Michael II
842 842/47 Travel of Sallam, interpreter to court of king of Khazars, through country of Alans
851 851/2 Expedition of Turk Abu Musa Buga Elder against Georgians, Abkhaz, Alans and Khazars. One hundred Alan households deported to Dmanisi (Tasiri)
888 888-907--Alan I the Great, King of Brittany
888 888/923 Alan Baqat'ar, ally of Bagrat I of Abkhazia against Georgian king Adarnase II
895 Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power
900 Alano-Khazar war during reign of Aaron, king of Khazaria
903 903/13 Geographical description of kingdom of Alania by Ibn Rustah
905 905/15 Conversion of king of Alans to Christianity through intercession of exusiastes of Abasgia. Beginning of mission of Peter, Archbishop of Alania
910 First missions of Christian preachers from Byzantine to Alania. Establishing Alan arch-episcopate. Peter a first arch-bishop of Alania
920 Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or As), Oghuz, Byzantines, Kengeres and Kara Bolgars
924 Attempt at an anti-Bulgarian alliance by Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus with Ruses, Pechenegs, Alans and Magyars
930 Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage
931 Christian religion abjured by Alans. Expulsion of bishops and priests sent by Byzantine Emperor
943 943/56 Geographical description of kingdom of Alania by al-Mas'udi. First recorded appearance of its capital city, Magas. Alliance between king of Alans and king of Daghestan Avars
943 Al-Masoudi ”Meadows of gold and mines of precious stones”: ”King of Alans furnishes 30,000 cavalry ... He is a powerful king, strong, and he enjoys more influence than other kings”. By that account, at ca 900 AD Alania has 150,000 population
944 944/5 Incursion of Alans, Russians and Lesghians against Arran
945 945/59 First recorded appearance of exusiocrator of Alania (dated during reign and literary activity of Constantine Porphyrogenitus)
965 Destruction of Khazar Empire and defeat of Alans and Circassians by Rus prince Svyatoslav of Kyiv
977 Ibn Haukal in the ”Face of the Earth” records that Azeri and Persian languages were being used as Lingua Franca across the Caucasus
1014 1014/27 Alda, Alan princess, wife of Giorgi I of Georgia
1029 Death of Urdure, king of Alans, slain in battle by Kwirike III, king of Kaxet'i
1029 Expedition led by prince Yaroslav Wise of Kyiv against Alans
1032 1032-33 Failed incursions of Alans, Avars and Ruses against Muslim city-states of Sarwan and Darband, in East Transcaucasia
1050 1050/55 Love affair between Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus and a daughter of king of Alania
1062 1062/65 Alan raids through Darial against Saddadid emirate of Arran (East Transcaucasia). Dorgoleli, king of Alans. Marriage of Georgian king Bagrat IV with Alan princess Borena
1065 Visit of Alanian king Durguleit Great to Georgian king Bagrat IV in Kutais
1066 Many Bretons of Alanic ancestry joined William The Conqueror in the conquest of Britain, contributing military tactics inherited from their forebears, and later spread their genetic influence across Britain into Scotland and elsewhere. One of the highest frequencies of R1b Haplotype 35 anywhere in the Y-STR database is among sample from Paris, France, adjacent to Normandy, and even more so, among Americans of ”Cajun” descent. ”Cajun” is actually a colloquial contraction of the word ”Acadian” (now Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and portions of northern Maine). Majority of early French Canadian settlers of both Acadia and Quebec were of Norman or Breton origin. Many Scottish families who exhibit DYS393=12 marker are as likely to be descended from the Alans who arrived with the Normans, as from the Sarmatians who came with the Romans
1072 Marriage of Maria of Alania with Byzantine emperor Michael VII Duca Parapinaces (1071-1078 d. 1078). Marriage of Georgian king George III with Alanian princess Burduhan
1072 1072/75 Recruitment of mercenary troops in Alania by Michael VII Ducas in order to face revolt of Norman Roussel of Bailleul. Alan mercenaries in service of Comneni brothers in Anatolia
1075 1075/95 Intrigues in Byzantium of Maria of Alania, wife of Michael VII Ducas and Nicephorus III Botaneiates. Irene of Alania, wife of Sebastocrator Isaac Comnenus
1085 Adam of Bremen (ca 1050-1085) described ancient Scythian tribes in eastern Baltic region, pointed out: "'There live Alans or Albans, who in their own language are called Vizzes. The last are very cruel Ambrones born with white hair". (Vizzes/Wizzes could be Vizigoths,or Türkic bizə with semantics of “painted”, e.g. Acathyrsi-type or Issyk kurgan or Pazyryk-type tatoo)
1089 King of Ovs (As, Alans) David Soslan's son marries Queen Tamar
1099 Formation of Karachai-Balkarian (Alan) people completed.
1107 1107/8 Rhosmices, exusiocrator of Alania, in service of Byzantines during invasion of Epirus by Norman prince Bohemund of Antioch
1116 Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Russian Princes. Cities Sharukhan, Sugrov and Balin with Alano-Bulgar populations are taken
1116 Rus expedition against Cumans. Marriage of Yaropolk, son of Vladimir II Monomah of Kyiv, to Alan princess
1116 Alan mercenaries in army recruited by Alexius I Comnenus to face Turks of Seljuq Sultan Melik Shah
1118 Kipchaks make peace with Alans. Khan Otrak has 40K army and is allied with Georgian King David IV the Builder, and participates in war with Seljuks. Many Kipchaks settle in Georgia
1130 Abu Hamid al-Garnatfs stay in Darband
1150 Khuddan, king of Alans. Marriage of Georgian prince Giorgi to Alan princess Burdukhan
1150 Hieronim's map names Danube tributary r. Pruth ”Alanus”.
1153 Ibn al-Azraq's journey to Alania together with Georgian king Demetre I
1155 1155/6 Alan mercenaries in expedition to re-conquer Italy sent by Emperor Manuel I Comnenus
1160 1160/73 Benjamin of Tudela's journeys. Evidence for Jewish communities in Alania
1173 1173/4 Incursion of Alans, Ruses, Cumans and Avars in service of Bekbars of Darband against Sirwansah Ahsatan b. Manucehr
1175 Brother of the ”Yasian Princess” (brother-in-law of Prince) Alanian majordomo Küchük Anbal (Turk. ”small” + ”son of concubine”) killed Prince A. Bogolubsky
1184 1184/1212 Marriage of Georgian queen T'amar with Alan Davit Soslan
1185 Alan mercenaries in defence and reconquest of Thessalonica against Normans of Sicily
1189 Annihilation of a corps of Alan mercenaries near Philippopolis (Plovdiv) by crusaders of German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa
1222 Defeat of Alans and Kipchaks in first fight against Mongol-Tatars. Mongol-Tatars seizing capital of Alania Magas (Meget)
1222 First Mongol expedition against Caucasus: defeat of Alans and Cumans
1225 1225/30 Alans in service of Georgian queen Rusudan against invasion of Hwarezmsah Galal al-Din
1226 1226/40 Pastoral journey of bishop Theodore to metropolitan see of Alania
1229 1229/59 Subjection and transfer to China of Alan families by Mongols during reigns of Ogodei and Mongke
1236 1236/7 Qachir-Ukule, amir of Ases, captured and executed by Mongke on shores of Volga
1239 Annexation of Alania into Ulus Juchi
1239 1239/40 Alans and their capital *Magas conquered by Mongols
1243 1243/69 Marriage of Georgian king Davit VII Ulu (Turk. ”David Uĝlu = Great”) to Alan [princess?] named Altun (Turk. ”Gold”)
1245 1245/55 Reported resistance to Mongols by part of Alans in Caucasus
1253 1253/55 Journey of Friar William of Rubruck to Mongol Empire. Alans in Qara Qorum.
1258 1258/1368 Military activity of Alan mercenaries in service of Mongol Yuan dynasty in China
1261 Diplomatic relations between Mamluk Sultan al-Malik al-Zahir and Berke, Khan of Kipchak Khanate, through Alan merchants
1263 1263/64 Reported Alan settlements in Crimea
1275 Massacre of a garrison of [Christian] Alans in service of Mongol general Bayan in Chinese city of Zhenchao (Jiangsu)
1277 1277/78 Expedition of Rus princes against Alans sent by Khan of Kipchak Khanate Mongke Termir
1278 Mongol-Tatars and Ruses seize Alanian town Dediakov.
1280 1280/1300 Alans in service of Mongol chieftain Noyai in Kipchak Khanate
1290 1290/1300 Raids led by Alan prince Parejan to Georgia
1298 1298/99 Alan merchants in Caffa (Crimea) during sacking of city by Mongol chieftain Noyai
1300 1300/1 Civil war in Kipchak Khanate. Levy of army by Jöge, son of Nogai, in ”country of Alans”, probably in Moldavia
1300 1300/10 Raids led by Alan Bagatar in Georgia
1301 1301/65 Trading of Alan slaves from Italian colonies in North of Black Sea to Europe
1302 1302/4 Arrival of of Alanian mercenaries contingent in Byzantium. Military activity against Turks
1304 Byzantines recruit Caucasus Alans as proxy allies
1304 1304/6 Clashes between Alanian mercenaries and Catalan Grand Company in lands of Byzantine Empire
1310 1310/23 Thirty thousand Alans in service of Mongol Yuan Emperors in China
1314 1314/46 Defeat and expulsion of Alans from Georgia by king Georgi V Illustrious
1318 First recorded testimony of presence of Alans (Yasses/Jasses) in Hungary
1322 Itiles (i.e. Itil) and Temeres (i.e Timur) Alans in service of Bulgarian Tsar George II Terter, in charge of defence of Philippopolis against Byzantines
1329 Death of Sayf al-Din Bahadur As (i.e. Asian Bogatyr), renowned Alan Mamluk in Egypt
1333 Ibn Battuta's stay in Kipchak Khanate. Muslim Alans in Sarai al Djadid, capital city of Özbeg Kagan
1336 1336-53 Embassy sent by Mongol Emperor Togon Temur and five Alan princes in China to Pope Benedict XII. Mission of Friar John of Marignolli in Khan Baliq (Beyjing)
1349 John Cantacuzenus, ”Emperor of Alans”
1395 Tamerlan army invasion in Northern Caucasus, mass murder of Alanian population
1400 1400/34 Activity of Alan chieftain Arugtai in Mongolia
1690 2nd half 17 - beg. 18 century Kabardins (Adyg group) populate plains of Alania
1890 Alans, like Scythians and Sarmatians, are suggested to be re-classified as Ossetian/Iranian/Indo-European speakers, and gradually become titled always only as “Iranian-speaking Alanians”, while the simple ”Alans” totally disappear


1. The name ”Alan” does not necessarily mean Caspian Alans/Masguts/Massagetes, because it may serve as locative adjective, which is seen in ethnically unrelated transparent ethnicon Yalan Kathai ( Steppe Kathai), as opposed to ”Ulu Kathai” (Great Kathai) and ”Bala Kathai” (Small Kathai) among Bashkir Kathai tribe, and similar type names ”Tungaur Yalan”, Yalan Yylayyr, Kuvakan Yalan, Yalan Isley, etc. Alan is one of Turkmen ethnic units, that is definitely a part of Caspian Alans/Masguts/Massagetes.
In Russian
Contents Alans
Contents Huns
Contents Scythians
Ogur and Oguz
Zakiev M. Z. Who Are Alans?
L.Zgusta Zelenchuk Inscription
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Burial place of a Massagetan warrior 8-7 c. BC
  Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline