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Contents Türkic Roots

Listing of  Türkic Tribes L.Gumilev scheme of
Türkic Tribes in 400 AD
Türkic Archeological Cultures  
Ogur and Oguz Languages  
Origin of Türks and Tatars

Origin of Türks-Contents Introduction First chapter Second chapter Third chapter Fourth chapter Fifth chapter ORIGIN OF TATARS

Part 2 - ORIGIN OF TATARS First chapter Second chapter Third chapter Fourth chapter Conclusion Name and Ethnic Index Literature

Mirfatyh Zakiev
Origin of Türks and Tatars

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents Next=>
Publication
Origin of Türks and Tatars
Moscow, Publishing house Insan, 496 pp., 2002, ISBN 5-85840-317-4
Zakiev M.Z., 2002
Published by decision of Tatarstan  Republic Academy of Sciences Humanities Branch Bureau
Work performed per research  plan of NIOKR RT

Editor: Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Ya.S.Sharapov
Reviewers: Doctor of Philosophy, Professor R.Kh.Bariev
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor D.K.Sabirov

Publisher Summary
The first part of this book attempts to reveal the most ancient ethnic roots of Türkic-speaking tribes and peoples: Subars, Sumers, Kangars, Horasmians, Parthians, Sogdians, Arians, Tocharians-Taurians, Kusans-Kushans, Sakas-Scythians, Sarmatians, Etruscans, Onogurs, Alans-Ases, Huns-Süns, etc. The ethnic roots of the Türks in the ethnically Turkic states of late  period are mentioned only in general, because they are relatively well addressed in other works. The first part of the book can be useful in retracing ethnic history not solely for Bulgaro-Tatars, but also for other Türkic-speaking peoples.

The second part of the book is devoted to ethnogenetical tracing and main questions of ethnopolitical history specifically for Bulgaro-Tatars, who historically composed the Tatars of the Ural-Itil region, Siberian Tatars and Lithuanian Tatars, leaving aside the subject of Tatars in general. It also brings  some clarity in several ethnogenetical aspects for the Ancient Tatars, Mongolo-Tatars, Tatars, Kipchak Khanate (Altyn Orda) Tatars, Türko-Tatars, Crimean Tatars and Dobrudja (Budjak) Tatars.

Table of Contents

Page numbers refer to the respective book publication.

Paragraph

 

Page.

  From the author 3
     

First Part

ORIGIN OF TÜRKS

 

     
Introduction 5
1 Phonetic variety and semantics of the ethnonym Türk 5
2 Location, ethnical composition and enumeration of Türks 10
3 Place of Türks among other nations of the world and their pre-Türkic ethnic roots 15
First chapter Traditional historical science about the ancient ethnic history of Türks 19
4 Origin of the traditional historical science and its influence on non-Indo-European research 19
5 Eurocentrism and colonial policy 22
6 Were the Türks  un-historical? 23
7 Traditional historical science about the ethnic roots of Türks 25
8 Should the ancient ethnic history of Türks be studied? 27
9 Were the Türks solely nomadic? 29
10 Were Türks  inclined to constant migrations? 31
11 Were Türks Mongoloids only, and spreaders of Turkic language to non-Mongoloids? 34
12 Dwellers of the Eastern Europe, Near and Central Asia before the arrival of the Türks 36
13 Where was the ancestral home of Türks  and when? 39
Second chapter Detection means for the ethnic roots of the Türks 43
14 Primary sources and historical works 43
15 The sources of ethnogenesis and their mutual relationship 45
16 The role of ethnonyms in tracing the ethnical roots 48
17 Ethnonyms and ethnic composition of population 51
18 Primary Türkic ethnonyms and their specifics 53
19 Secondary Turkic ethnonyms and semantics of their roots 57
20 Ethnonym-producing affixes 61
21 Ethymology, semantics and function of the ethnonym Türk 64
22 Ethymology, semantics and function of the ethnonym  Tatar 67
23 Ethymology, semantics and function of the ethnonym  Madjgar > Magyar 69
24 Mutual relation between the history of ethnonym and the history of ethnos 73
Third chapter Ancient Türkic-speaking areas 76
25 General information 76
26 Role of Türkic language in detecting ancient Türkic areas 78
27 Most ancient Türkic traces in American Indians' languages and possible most ancient Türkic-speaking areas 80
28 Bright traces of Türks  in the Sumerian language 83
29 Ancient Türkic-speaking area in Near East 86
30 Ancient Türkic-speaking area in Central Asia 90
31 Ancient Türkic-speaking areas in Caucasus, Black Sea Coast, Ural-Itil region and Western Siberia 99
32 Hunnish ethnic roots of Türks and their areas 107
33 Türkic ethnic roots in Hunnish tribes Syanbi, Usun, Tabgach, Jujan, Ephthalite 112
34 Antique Türks by the rock and cave pictograms and inscriptions, and destinies of the Turkic peripheral areas 114
35 Traces of Türks  in Etruscan culture, or one more disappeared Türkic area 117
36 Some arguments of  Adilya Aida demonstrating the Türkic-speaking of Etruscan ancestors 121
Fourth chapter Scytho-Sarmatian ethnic roots of Türks 125
37 General information 125
38 Reliability of ancient sources reports about Scythians 128
39 Herodotus about Scythians 131
40 Briefly about the history of Scythian studies in the general history 134
41 Briefly about the history of Scythian studies in the Türkology 137
42 Basic flaws in the Scytho-Iranian theory 139
43 Some arguments of the Scytho-Iranian theory 141
44 Ethnic composition of Scythians based on etymology of Scythian ethnonyms Scyth, Ishguza, Skolot, Sarmat, Agathir, Gelon, Saka 145
45 Ethnic composition of Scythians based on etymology of Scythian-related ethnonyms Kaspi, Traspi, Argippei, Iirk, Melanhlen, Katiar, Paralat, Massaget 148
46 Ethnic composition of Scythians based on etymology of Scythian ethnonyms Tauri (Tochar/Togar/Tagarma) and Angarean 152
47 Ethnic composition of Scythians based on Scythian words with etymology given in ancient sources 155
48 Ethnic composition of Scythians and Sarmatians from archeological, ethnological, religious-mythological and artistic facts 157
49 Do ancient sources corroborate Irano-linguality of Scythians? 160
50 Do ancient sources corroborate Türkic-linguality of Scythians? 163
Fifth chapter Alano-As ethnic roots of Türks 166
51 General information 166
52 Reasons for initial opinion about Ossetian-linguality of Alans/Ases? 167
53 Is Ossetian-linguality of Alans confirmed by the text of Zelenchuk epitaph and Ioan Tsets phrase? 168
54 Were the Hungarian Alans Ossetian-lingual Ases, as argues Ju. Nemeth? 170
55 How were Alans classified by their contemporaries? 172
56 Türkic-speaking of Alans by specifics of the use of ethnonyms 174
57 Ethno-linguistic characteristics of Alans by facts of the ethnonym Alan 177
58 Ethno-linguistic characteristics of Alans by facts of the ethnonym As/Yas 178
59 Ethnic structure of Alans /Ases by their close mutual relations with Huns 181
60 Ethnic structure of Alans /Ases by their close mutual relations with Khazars and Kypchaks 183
Conclusion 186
61 Recap 186
     

Second Part

ORIGIN OF TATARS

192

Introduction General information about Tatars 192
62 Who were called and are called Tatars 192
63 About ethnonym Bulgars and its meanings 198
64 Names of Tatar and Bulgar as internal and external ethnonyms 201
65 Ethnonym Bulgaro-Tatarians and its semantics 204
66 Composition of Bulgaro-Tatarians and their numbers 207
First chapter History of study the ethnogenesis of Tatars 212
67 First attempts to study the ethnogenesis of Tatars 212
68 History of study the ethnogenesis of Tatars in the Mongolian Chingizid states 215
69 History of study the ethnogenesis of Tatars and Bulgars by Russian scientists 218
70 Origin and development of the Magyaro-Misharo-Tatarian concept in the history of study the ethnogenesis of Tatars 223
71 Origin and development of the Bulgaro-Tatarianian concept in the history of study the ethnogenesis of Tatars 225
72 Renewal of the Bulgaro-Tatarianian concept in the study of the ethnogenesis of Tatars 228
73 Emergence of need to define the essence of the Bulgaro-Tatarianian concept 231
74 Further complete confirmation of the correctness of the Bulgaro-Tatarian concept 234
75 Origin and development of the Tataro-Tatar concept in study the ethnogenesis of Tatars 239
76 Origin and development of the Bulgaro-Chuvash concept in study the ethnogenesis of Tatars and Chuvashes 242
77 Campaign for returning of the ethnonym Bulgar and against use of the name Tatars 244
78 New attempts to revive the Tataro-Tatar concept and their side motivations 248
79 Why Tataro-Tatarists fear a complex study of the Tatars' ethnogenesis? 249
80 Methods of protection the Tataro-Tatar concept 251
81 Is so-called new concept in study the history of Tatars new 258
82 Historical science, like any science, must be objective 256
83 What would result from predetermined ethnogenetical fabrications of the Tataro-Tatarists? 260
Second chapter Ancestors of Bulgaro-Tatars 265
84 General information 265
85 Whose ancestors were Bulgars: of Chuvashes or Tatars? 268
86 Ancestors of the Bulgarian people were local Subars, Kumans and others 274
87 Ancestors of the Bulgarian people were local Huarasmians (Suars and Ases), Huns 274
88 Ancestors of the Bulgarian people were local Skl's, Barsuls, Bards 279
89 Ancestors of the Bulgarian people were local Koshans/Kasans, Usuns, Avars, Alans 281
90 Ancestors of the Bulgarian people were local Ases, Burtases, Ostyaks, Suases and Vedas 283
91 Ancestors of the Bulgarian people were local Baylars/Bilyars/Bigers/Biars, Bashkirs, Mishars/Madjgars 286
92 Ancestors of the Bulgarian people were Kumans, Sarymans, Besermyans, Khazars, Ugors 289
93 Early Bolgars/Bulgars in studies of the Danube Bulgarian scientists 291
94 Early Bulgars per Bulgarian annals Dzhagfar Tarihy and Legend About Shan's Daughter 294
95 Tribes of the archeological cultures in the formative regions of the Bulgaro-Tatars 298
Third chapter Linguo-ethnical distinctivenesses of Itil Bulgars 302
96 General information 302
97 From the history of study of Itil Bulgars 303
98 First phase of study of the Bulgar epigraphics and launch of the Bulgaro-Chuvash concept 308
99 Beginning of systematical study of the Bulgar epigraphics 310
100 Analysis of the language of the 2nd style of the Bulgar epigraphics 316
101 How and why A. P. Kovalevsky found Chuvashizms in Ibn-Fadlan's work? 320
102 Chuvashizing of the Bulgarian words in the records of Ibn-Fadlan 322
103 Are any Chuvash words in Slavo-Bulgarian Nominalia? 326
104 Are any Chuvashizms in ancient Balkarian runic inscriptions? 331
105 Are any Chuvashizms in the Hungarian language? 336
106 Finno-Ugrians of the Itil region borrowed words with rhotacism not from Bulgarian, but from Chuvash language 339
107 Are any Bulgaro-Chuvashian loanwords in Russian? 340
108 Itil-Bulgarian language in primary sources 342
109 Bulgars are a part of Sakaliba people, and Sakaliba are Kypchaks 346
110 Were the Slavs Sakaliba? 351
111 Classification of the Bulgarian language 356
Fourth chapter Rise and development of Bulgaro-Tatarian statehood 358
112 General information 358

Ancient Türkic states with contacts with Bulgar's ancestors

361
113 States in Near East and traces of their links with Bulgar's ancestors 361
114 Ancient Khoresm and traces of its links with Bulgar's ancestors 365
115 Parthian, Aryan, Sogdian, Kangaras, Greko-Baktrian, Kushan, Ephtalite and Kimak states and traces of their links with Bulgar's ancestors 368

Pre-Bulgarian states with control over future Bulgarian regions

373
116 Scythian, Bosporian states and their contacts with Bulgar's ancestors 373
117 Sarmatian, Alanian, Western Hunnish, Avarian and Khazarian states and their contacts with Bulgar's ancestors 377

Pre-Bulgarian state Biarmiya

378
118 General information 378
119 Problems of locating Biarmiya 382
120 Concept Biarm-Perm 384
121 Matching facts in the history of Biarmiya and Bulgar 388
122 Identification of Biarmiya with Itil Bulgaria reflected in the material culture 389
123 Identification of Biarmiya with Itil Bulgaria reflected in the spiritual culture 391
124 Traces of Biarmiya's links with Scandinavia in the history of Bulgaria? 392
125 Is Perm related to Biarm? 393
126 Was Biarmiya independent or Bulgaria was called Biarmland? 395

States Madjgar, Bashkurt, Burtas, and Bulgar

396
127 Does the Madjgar state belong to the Bulgaro-Tatarian state? 396
128 Bashkurt state and its relation to the Bulgaro-Tatarian state 398
129 Was there a Burtas state and what relation it had with the Bulgar state? 402
130 First Bulgar/Bolgar states 405
131 Danube Bulgaria and its links with Itil Bulgaria 408
132 Rise of Pre-Mongolian Itil Bulgaria 410
133 Territory of Itil Bulgaria 413
134 Results of the sovereign development of the Itil Bulgaria 416

Rise and disintegration of the Tatar states

420
135 Ulus Djuchi in the system of Chingizid empires and problems of its study 422
136 Ethnic processes in Ulus Djuchi 423
137

States formed after dissolution of the Djuchi Ulus

425
 

Bulgarian and Kazan Khanaates

427
138 Transformation of the Bulgarian Khanaate into Kazan Khanaate and its fall 429

Drive of Bulgaro-Tatars to revive their state

432
139 Struggle of Bulgaro-Tatars for survival in the conditions of the tsarist Russia 432
140 October coup and acquisition of statehood by Tatars 435
141 Struggle for the Tatarstan's state sovereignty, revival and development of the Tatar nation 437
Conclusion 441
142 Recap 441
Literature listing 446
Ethnonym Index 474
Name Index 480
Publisher's data

Zakiev Mirfatyh Zakievich

ORIGIN OF TÜRKS  AND TATARS
Scientific publication.
Published by the decision of the Bureau of the Humanities Branch of AN RT

Color illustrations in the text::

Avars and Bulgars (6-8 centuries),
Southwest steppes (10-13 centuries),
Türks  (6-8 centuries),
Kirghizes (8-9 centuries)

are borrowed from the book: Attila and Nomad Hordes (Elite Series No 30)
under an agreement with Publishing House Osprey Publishing ltd

Artist: Angus McBraid.

On the cover:
Front: Griffons tormenting horses. Scythian animal style. 4-th century BC
On the back: Black hall. Bulgar city, 14th century.
Editor
Technical editor
Typesetting
Cover and illustrations
Proof-reader
E.Sh. Gibadulina
 L.I. Dubkova
N.T.Abdullina
L.Ya.Ovchinnikova
S.K.Ahmetshina

Sent to print 20.08.2002. Signed for print 15.01.2003.
Format 60x90/16. Offset printing. Conditional print pages 31.5.
Print 3000 copies. Order 9919.
Information Publishing center INSAN
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Book shop www.Bookseller.ru
E.mail: info@bookseller.ru

Printed in full conformance with quality of the slides provided to OAO Mojaysky polygraphic combinate.
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Contents Next=>

Origin of Türks-Contents Introduction First chapter Second chapter Third chapter Fourth chapter Fifth chapter ORIGIN OF TATARS

Part 2 - ORIGIN OF TATARS First chapter Second chapter Third chapter Fourth chapter Conclusion Name and Ethnic Index Literature
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