In Russian
Kangars Index

Zakiev M. Z. Who Are Alans?
Ogur and Oguz
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Russian Version needs a translation
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Beçen-Besenyo-Badjanak-Patzinaks-Kangar - Table of Contents


Badjanak tamga is modified Kipchak tamga I , which confirms their Kipchak origin and their Kipchak language

Coalition known under its Latin appellation Besenyo, and Greek appellation Patzinak, consisted of three distinct subdivisions, each one with its own culture, traditions, technical proficiency, and literacy, united by the dominant Kangar tribes. Before their joint migration to the Eastern Europe, a part of Kangars allied with a branch of Kipchaks into a matrimonial union, with Kipchaks as junior “in-law” Bechen (Tr.) or Badjanak (Arab.) partner. In the N.Pontic, the coalition defeated Ak Bulgars (Eastern Bulgars, essentially Onogur tribal union aka as Eastern Wing/Utragur or Utra Kanat, Gr. Utigurs) and Kara Bulgars (Western Bulgars aka as Western Wing/Köturgur or Kötur Kanat, Gr. Cuturgurs). Ak Bulgars melted away, and Kara Bulgars joined Besenyo coalition, which occupied Kara Bulgar territory west of Donets river. The Besenyo Confederation thus for a time became a political heir to the Great Bulgaria and Western Hun states. The Kara Bulgars were descendent of the tribes of the Atilla's state Right Wing, known under the name of the right wing tribes, Köturgur, which gave us the Greek appellation Kuturguri and its variations. The Right Wing in turn consisted of a collection of western N.Pontic Scythian and Bulgarian tribes, most numerous of which was a tribal union with their Türkic name Agach-eri, in Greek Acathyrsi Scythians, who became dominated by Bulgars. Bulgars, in turn, have preserved their traditional appellation of Ases, under which they were known in the Middle Asia as a dynastic tribe of the As-Tochar-Suvar (Gr. Sabaroi) confederation. In the Middle Age literary records, the rainbow of meronyms is barely distinguishable, and only archeology and authentic inscriptions may allow to trace the fate of the subdivisions. The complexity of the composition also explains the difficulties encountered in the deciphering of inscriptions, which may belong to three distinct genera rooted in three distinct literary and linguistic traditions.

The linguistic proximity of the Besenyo Bulgar and Kipchak majority may explain the ease with which they re-united in the 11th century with the east European Kipchak confederation.

A mute story, apparently not for the absence of sources, but for the absence of illumination and layers of fakes created in the shadows, is how the Besenyo-Badjanaks became Bosnyaks, how the princely Kangar tribe  Chor-Chorbat became Harvats and Croats, and what tribe or tribes stand behind the princely possession Herzegovina.

Badjanak, Badyanak, Badzinags, Beçen, Beçenek (pl), Peçenekler (pl), Bejen, Bejenek (pl), Besenyo, Beshenye, Bissenus, It-Bechene, Kangar, Kangju,
K'ang-chu, Kangly, Kyr-Badyanak, Patzinaks, Peçenek, Pecheneg, Pechenachi, Pachenase, Pezengs, and other variations

Subdivisions and ethnic affiliates
Alan, Beçen, Burtas, Kangar

Kangar clans: Ertim/Ertin/Erdem (Bulgarian princely clan), Chor (Princely), Yula (Road)
Iabdierti, and Kouartzitzour, and Chabouxingyla (Khabuksigyla): Kangar clan names = horse hue + title of leader
Syroukalpei, and Charaboi (Karabai), and Borotalmat (i.e. tolmach Buri/Boro), and Giazichopon (i.e. zopan Giazi), and Bou[i]lat zopon (i.e. zopan Bulat), Paguman and Belermen
Beçen clans: Kukhey, Karabai (Black/Western Bai), Tolmach (Translator), Kapan, Choban (Shepherd, or Zopan - Prince)

Generally accepted Beçen/Besenyo is Türkic Pachanag < Bachanag = "brother-in-law"
Tribal name of Besenyo ruling stratum was Kangar
Etymology of < Kang + Ar = Kang People, Kangaras < Kang + Ar + As = As People of Kang, Kang = area of Tashkent, and “ancestor”

Mesopotamia Kangars 7 c. BC Serbs bordering on Kangars 2c AD W Huns 5c AD Kushan 6c AD Kushan 6c AD Avaria 6c AD Kyrgyz Kaganate
ca 600 AD
ca 700 AD
Uigur Kaganate
ca 740 AD
Kimak Kaganate
ca 750 AD
Kangar-Besenyo Levedia ca 830 AD Kangar-Besenyo N.Pontic ca 840 AD Besenyo
ca 840-1040 AD
ca 900 AD
ca 900
  Ural Bajanaks
ca 950
Ural Bajanaks
ca 1050
830AD Besenyo area in Levedia 840AD Besenyo area   950AD Besenyo territory
  Bosnia expansion
ca 1100 AD
Demography Kangar-Besenyo ca 1100 AD Modern Bosnyaks in Turkey        
Time Events
1766 BC Eventually recorded Chinese traditions tell of Kia, 17th member of old Chinese Hia dynasty, dethroned due to evil ways. His son Sunni went with 500 members of his Hia nationality to Hun relatives. Hia still has many common words with Altaic languages
1766 BC Oldest Türkic words are in Chinese annual chronicles noting cultural and political events. Hun’s (Hsiung-nu) words tanry, kut, byoryu, ordu, tug, kylych etc are oldest monuments of Türkish language. State rulers endoethnonyms Hun, Türkic “man, male, people” (Hun = kün = kin)
1390 BC First elements of Hun state in highlands of Ordos
1200 BC First Hun state in highlands of Ordos
800 BC Sword myths traditions are all early Anatolian, are also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst early Scythians.
800 BC Greeks associated invention of iron working with northern Mesopotamian and Anatolian Scythian tribes like Kalybs tribe which gave steel its name in many early European languages. In time Kalybs are absorbed by Sarmatians and Yazig.
801 BC Kalybs are absorbed by Sarmatians and Yazig, via Yazig cavalry taken by Romans to Britain and were foundation of King Arthur myths of Ex-Calibur, and sword myths which are all early Anatolian traditions
700 BC Akkadian records name region south of Bagdad Kienkir (Kangar), inhabited by Sumerians, and region north of Bagdad Subartu, inhabited by Subars. Sumerian's endoethnonym was Kangarli or Kangar. Herodotus gives this ethnonym as Angareon. Akkadians and other peoples called Kangars “Sumerians” or “Shumerians”, borrowed from Subars, i.e. Akkadians called both Kangars (Sumerians), and Subars by ethnonym Subar
685 BC 685 - 643 BC Rule in Tsi of Huan - hun
679 BC 679 BC Huan - hun organizes a congress of rulers in Tsi, taking that right from Chjou
659 BC 659 - 621 Rule of Mu-hun in Tsin
500 BC Persepolis inscription text is “Darius Hystapes (522-486) rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia [Sabir], Hunae.” attest to Sabirs and Huns bordering Mesopotamia
318 BC First historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC
300 BC In Chinese Tanhu sources Alans are one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favored by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century BC(ToOD 146).
(Türk. alan field, akin to 'fieldman', 'polyane', 'polovets')
300 BC Hun state consists of 24 clans tribes or pasturing routs, some of them:
Kuyan (Kian/Kiyan/Qiang Jack rabbit oldest nomadic tribe that preceded Zhou and became its marital partner tribe, later replaced by Sui/Hui/Yui tribe)
Lan (A-lan = Tr. alan, yalan = steppe, Ch. phonet. Lan 阿蘭 = A 阿 + Lan 蘭, synonymous with Ch. semantical Yancai 奄蔡 = Vast steppe Orchard)
Suybu (Sui/Hui/Yui = Uigurs, Ch. bu部 = division, branch, Sui/Hui/Yui replaced Kian/Qiang as Hunnic maternal dynastic tribe)
Suylyanti (Sui + Luanti = maternal dynastic tribe + paternal dynastic tribe, Uigurs)
Tsulin (generic toponymic name, by their location in Qunlun uplands)
124 BC Asi or Aasiani (Ases, Azes, Yazig), Tocharian, Sabir (Sabaroi) tribes break into Sogdiana (Chinese “K'ang-chu” = Kangar) and Baktria (Chinese “Ta-hsia”). In next five years two Parthian emperor die in wars. Later they also conquer Sakauraka tribe
110 BC

Chinese Han shu recorded presence of Kangars (K'ang-chu) in Tashkent region

40 BC Pompey (Gaeus Pompeius Magnus, 106 - 48 BC), Roman general, had to march against Alans/Ases, crossing the Caspian gates. Nomadic pastoralists Alans lived in Asia and Europe around Caspian Sea and documented to have their hinterlands N of Derbent
36 BC Turanian coins were minted north of Jaxartes (Yaxart, Syr-Darya, Seihun) river before the Scythian invasion into Baktria, and a large number of these anonymous coins are collected in the British museum
35 BC Archaeological work shows that both Bactria and Sogdia contained large nomadic populations well in advance of Yu-chi migration
35AD Joseph Flavius: “Alan people were a Scythian tribe”
127 Ptolemy's map showed Serbs bordering on Kangar/Yancai/Alanliao possessions in vicinity of Itil - N.Caspian area. The following 500 years do not show traces of Serbs, Kangars, and Besenyo until they are reported in C.Europe in ca. 630 as Sorbs and Horvats divided into White and Black Horvats (Croats)
150 Hou Han shu: Alans were earlier known as Yancai 奄蔡 (“Vast Steppe”). They have about 100,000 bowmen and same way of life and clothes as the Kangju and identical with Great Uezhi (Tokhars, Ta Yüeh-chih). Yancai changed its name to kingdom of Alanliao 阿蘭聊 (Lesser Alan) with capital Di. Chinese Yancai is suspiciously close to Iyrk/Iurcae/Hyrcae, with “n” substituting for “r”, in Chinese Confucian transliterations. We have a continuous semantic chain: Iyrk/Iurcae (Steppe Nomad) - Yancai/Yartsai 奄蔡 (“Vast Steppe”) - Alan 阿蘭 (Türkic “Field, Plain”), three close cognates
150 Hou Han shu: Alans are a dependency of Kangju (Kangar, Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) basins). The climate is temperate. Wax trees, pines, and aconite are plentiful
160 Lucianus Samosatensis (ca 120-180AD) and scholia to Lucianus mention “barbaric Kona” in the east of Sarmatian lands around lower Danube, thought to refer to Kangars
225 Hou Han shu: Alans were vassals of Kangju (Kangar, Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) basins). Now they are no longer vassals


Genealogy: Gaogüys =>Tele =>15 tribes =>
1 Uange (Uigurs)
2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)
3 Kibi (Kibirs)
4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)
5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)
6 Dolange (Telengits)
7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uigurs)
8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)(Uigurs)
9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uigurs)
10 Hun
11 Sygye (Uigurs)
12 Husye
13 Higye
14 Adye (Eduz)
15 Baysi (Barsil Bulgars)
Modern people related to Besenyos via Tele tribe:

Saka (Sakha/Yakut)

Kangar in one version are thought to be a geographical name, of a federation located in the Kang region, which in turn is etymologized as related to ancestors and/or ancestor land

420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)
440 Atilla has a full control in N. Caucasus. Treaty with Persian Shakh Yazdagar
490 Armenian Lazar Parpeci locates Kangars between lake Sewan and river Kura in Caucasus
540 Syriac Mir Aba, d. 552 and Mar Grigor, d. 542 name Kangaraye and Hangaraye on border of Arran (aks Albania) and Iberia in Caucasus
420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
600 Chinese Sui-shu (581-618, compiled in 629-636), list branches of Tele (Ch. Tie-le) confederation, among four peoples east of Byzantium (Ch. Fu-lin) and west of Caspian Sea appears (second, geographically in region of Tashkent) name Bechen/Bajanak (Ch. Pei-ju) (Tashkent west of Caspian Sea ??)
625 625-635 Migration of Croats and Serbs to Balkans (Byzantine sources, F. Curta, 2001). Emperor Heraclius (610–641) sent clergy to baptize Croatians and Serbs.
630 Around 630, during reign of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (610–641), Serbs and Croats (supposedly largely Slavic tribes) led by their respective aristocracies with approval of Emperor entered western Balkans from north. They settled areas devastated by  Avars, where Byzantium had been reduced to a nominal ruler.  Serbs settled in Zahumlje. Some time earlier much of Dalmatia was settled by Croats, with Zahumlje bordering their territory on the north.
This allows to trace Ptolemy's Serboi from banks of Itil in 1st c. AD to headwaters of Vistula in 5th c.
This allows to trace princely Kangar princely or dynastic tribe Chor~Chorbat from Hunnic times to headwaters of Vistula in 5th c.
630 Chor~Chorbat tribe of Kangars was a neighbor of Serboi tribe in Itil region ca. 100 AD.
Chor~Chorbat tribe of Kangars was a neighbor of Serbs in Northern Pannonia ca. 600 AD
Horvat Croats remained neighbors of  Serbs in Western Balkans, Serbs followed Croats; in Sl. Serb has connotation of “serf”, indicating their dependent status
Both Croats and Serbs lost their native language and switched to Slavic, like many other Türkic tribes that ruled Slav majority
630 Constantine Porphyrogennetus in De Administrando Imperio tells that Emperor Heraclius (610–641) sent for clergy from Rome to baptize Croatians and Serbs, which was successfully achieved. Constantine connects Conversion with Heraclius’s political dealings with Slavs, his recognition of their occupation of his country on condition of their recognition of his suzerainty.
659 KANGAR UNION centered on Syrdarya
Founder -
Area - ca 5,000,000 km2
692 Kipchaks mixed with Besenyos between Black Irtysh and Syr-Darya in Deshtikipchak
700 In the south Kypchaks bordered Bechens, who in 8th - beginning of 9th c. lived in basin of Seyhun and Aral area. Later Kypchaks drifted toward Urals. In 7-12 cc. Kypchak and Kimak culture was identical
701 Amu-Darya flowed into Caspian sea until 8-th c. ? Climatic change caused relocation of Oguz Besenyos and Alans or Ases, from lower reaches of Amu-darya (Uzboy) flowing into Caspian Sea. After Uzboy dried, they migrated to coast of Sea of Khazars
732 Kül Tigin Inscription lists confederation Kangaras as ally of Eastern (main line) Türküt and enemy of Western Türküt, at that time under leadership of Turgish clan (Türküt is L.Gumilev's invented term for Ashina Türks)
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
744 Türküt empire in Mongolia fell and hegemony over steppe passed to Uigurs, whose allies Karluks evicted Oguz tribal confederation from northwestern Mongolia. Oguzes resettled near Aral lake and lower Syr-Darya, becoming Bechen neighbors, and determining further course of Bechen history.
743-1050 AD
Founder -
Area - From
750 Besenyos (Kengeres/Pecheneg/Kangar) neighboring Uigurs on the west and hostile to them
750 Source with name Bajanak (in form Be-cha-nag) is Tibetan translation of mid-eight century report by five Uighur diplomat-explorers about “Western Lands”
750 END of KANGAR UNION centered on Syrdarya. Kangars and their allied Besenyo cross Itil and move into E. European Khazaria
Founder -
Area - ca 5,000,000 km2
750 KANGAR UNION in Eastern Europe. By 630, Kangar dynastic tribe of Chorbat (Harvat/Croat) has advanced as far as N.Pannonia  apparently as subject allies of Samo (Shambat) state of Kara Bulgars (Western Bulgars) during 630-658 period
Founder -
Area - ca 5,000,000 km2
800 Besenyos live between rivers Emba and Yaik, took control of trading route from Itil to Khorezm, dealt a hard blow to Khazarian trade, and became their dangerous neighbors. Besenyos natural allies are Bulgars, who also suffer from Khazars, their western neighbors and successors of Western Türkic Kaganate. Besenyos enemies are Oguzes in the east, Khazars in the west, Kipchaks-Kimaks in the north.
815 Part of Dalmatia ruled by new Croat kingdom
820 In the south Kypchaks bordered Bechens, who in 8th - beginning of 9th c. lived in basin of Seyhun and Aral area. Later Kypchaks drifted toward Urals. In 7-12 cc. Kypchak and Kimak culture was identical
830 Around the 830s Khazars and Oguzes finally decided to liquidate Bechens
The descriptions of the following 100 years in the literature are skimpy and obsolete, with few and often contradictory dates.
However, all descriptions follow the same basic sequence of events
840 Defeated Magyar 7-tribe confederation, led by the Onugur-Bulghar clan Arpad of Dulo lineage fled first to Atilkuzu “Mesopotamia”, i.e. southern Dnieper Right Bank Ukraine, through which flow five big rivers Dnieper, Boh, Dniester, Prut and Seret. Three years later Bechens advanced again and as allies of Danube Bulgarian Tsar Shamgun (aka Simeon/Symeon) they forced Magyar confederation to flee further west 830AD Besenyo area in Levedia
840 Bechens then took possession of N.Pontic, over which they ruled for over 150 years. Approximate borders of their realm were Don River in the east and Danube in the west. 840AD Besenyo area
860 860-880 Allied forces of Khazars and Oguzes displace Besenyos because of threat to their trading routs. Crossing Itil, they settled instead of Magyars, whom they displaced from Lebedia, in the vicinity of Don and Kuman
Magyars under leadership of Türkic clan Kabars were in the service of the Khazars in “” composed of two parts, basin of upper Suvarian Donets, and the present-day Kuban' region
830AD Besenyo area in Levedia
870 In second half of 9 c. Kimaks began drifting westwards. They occupied lands of Bechens (Besenyo, Badjinak, Patsinak), whose nucleus were tribes of Kangar (i.e. Kangals, Kangly, Kungurs, Kangars, Kangüys, Kanjüys etc.) political union, in formation of Bechen tribal union participated Türkic tribes of Bashkirs/Masguts, Sarmatian and Finno-Ugrian tribes. Bechens lived by cattle breeding in a tribal society
889 After 889 Besenyos break through Khazarian border guards and replace Magyars from Levedia 830AD Besenyo area in Levedia
889 889-893 Besenyos, displacing Magyars from Atil-Kuzü toward Carpathian mountains, settle down on plains from Don to western Dniepr 830AD Besenyo area in Levedia
889 Lotharingian (i.e. Frankish-state) monk Regino (d. 915) in ca. 889 makes first mention of Bechens in European sources mentioning Thanais
893 Besenyos stop their pursuit of Majars at Dniepr, winter near the mouth of the river Buh
893 Catastrophically cold winter of 892-893 froze Itil and Don made it possible for Besenyos, whom the Oguzes attacked, to flee across the frozen rivers into Atelkuzu, although some of them were stuck east of Yaik river
894 Oguz takeover of Bosnyak's Ak Bulgar lands, which Bosnyaks/Besenyo took from Eastern Bulgars, essentially Onogur tribal union aka Eastern Wing/Utragur or Utra Kanat, Gr. Utigurs. Bosnyak center moves from Ak Bulgar to Kara Bulgar
894 Besenyos allied with Bulgars start a second attack of Majar tribes forcing them to leave Atilkiji for Transylvania and the Upper Tisza region
895 End of 9th century: Besenyos allied with Khan Shamgun/Tsar Simeon of Danube Bulgaria, assisting in driving Magyars into modern day Hungary (Battle of Southern Buh), and forcing Leo VI of Byzantine Empire to pay humiliating annual tribute to Danube Bulgaria (after Danube Bulgar/Byzantine Battle of Bulgarophygobattle of Bulgarophygon (896)
895 After Magyars attacked Danube Bulgaria and reached, pillaging and destroying, gates of Preslav where they met Byzantine's Nicephorus Phocas and sold him thousands of Bulgarian captive, Danube Bulgaria Symeon led army deep into Magyar territory, cornered Magyar cavalry army against river Buh, and crushed them in Battle of Southern Buh. Bosnyaks were left to occupy the now defenseless Atilkuzu, but Danube Bulgaria did not cede suzerainty over Atilkuzu territory. Symeon signed treaty with Bosnyaks, of which terms we are only told that “Symeon bribed Bosnyaks”, which distorts significance of pact.
896 When Magyars, defeated by Danube Bulgaria, returned to their homes, they found their Atelkuzu lands across Dniester were occupied by Petchenegs/Bosnyaks
900 Magyars and Kabars evacuate Atelkuzu, moving northwest toward Pannonia. Kangars and Bechens/Bosnyaks occupy Danube Bulgaria's Atelkuzu, and proceed to occupy Danube Bulgaria's Wallakhia. No reports on significant population transfers allow to conclude that Atelkuzu and Wallakhia Türkic (Kara-Bulgarian) and Slavic populations remained in situ under Kangar/Bosnyak rule
913 Ibn Ruste, ca. 912: Purdas/Burtas are a branch (kin) of Besenyos, they are Khazars' vassals, the Besenyos fight a continuous war with Khazars and their kins Burtases, who allied with Khazars and who by extension are from Kangar stock
913 Besenyos, once a part of confederation of W. Khaganate, were driven toward lower Syr-Darya and Aral Sea by Karluk Türks. They were grazing their herds between Yaik and Itil rivers
913 North of Sea of Azov Besenyos occupied Levedia, taking it from Magyars, and then drove them from area between Dnieper and Lower Danube - Atelkuzu (Itil-Kiji ?)
915 Besenyos appear before Kyiv for first time in force. Kyiv Prince Ingvar (Igor/Ugyr Lachini) I the Old signs peace treaty with them establishing a frontier between Don and Dniestr (? In 915 Kyiv was controlled by Olaf (Oleg I the Seer, 882-916 )?)
917 Danube Bulgaria Symeon attempted to win support of Petchenegs/Bosnyaks, his friends of previous war with Magyars; but his ambassadors were outbid by Byzantine Imperial agent John Bogas, whose financial resources were larger. In 917 or 918 Petchenegs/Bosnyaks devastated and probably half-occupied Wallachia. John Bogas led Petcheneg army to ferry across Danube, but there he quarreled with Byzantine admiral Romanus Lecapenus who refused to transport them across Danube. Petchenegs/Bosnyaks retreated back home, gaining Wallachia

Contemporary Islamic sources preserved in Gardizi, ca. 1050 report: “Bechens are nomads following rain and pasturage. Their territory extends a distance of thirty days in either direction (i.e. 1,000x1,000 km), bordering Kipchaks in the north, Khazars on southwest, Oguz in the east, and Saqlabs (bilad as-Saqaliba, Bulgars) to the west. All these peoples raid Pechenegs, who likewise raid them... Between Pechenegs and Khazars distance of ten days, of steppes and forest, with no roads, and they travel by stars, landmarks or at random.”

920 Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or As), Oguzes, Byzantines, Besenyos and Kara Bolgars
924 Besenyos in Itil-Yaik interfluvial live in Badjanak suba (djien district) in Bellak Province of Itil Bulgaria, neighboring Kinel suba in the north, and Arbuga and Burtas subas of Bellak Province across Itil, Tubjak Province in the east, and Saksin Province in the south, controlled by descendants of steppe Besenyo (Kyr-Badjanak) princes (Kan Almysh time, ca 895-925).
925 ca 925 Formation of Oguz Yabgu state with center in city of Eni-Kent, they first adopted a political name ”Türkmens”. Consisting of two sub-confederations, Besh-Ok and Uch-Ok, Mahmud Kashgari (ca 1070) and Reshidud-din Fjami-ut-tevarih (ca 1320) list Pechene, Chepni and Baindyr among Uch-Ok 12 tribes. Oguz Yabgu state dissolves under attacks of Kipchaks ca 990 and departure of Seljuk branch together with tribes allied with them.
930 Mas'udi (ca. 930): Oguz coalition (with Karluks and Kimaks) defeated Bechens and their allies (Chepni, Bashgird and Navkarda) in battle near Aral Sea, and drove Bechens from their native land and compelled them to search for a new home
934 Besenyos join in Hungarian invasion of Byzantium. Thrace.
944 Besenyos join in Kyiv Prince Ingvar (Igor/Ugyr Lachini) I the Old raid on Byzantium
948 Constantine Porphyrogenitus (ca. 948-952): Besenyos (Patsinaks) settled in territory between Yaik-Emba (Geeh) and Itil rivers 950AD Besenyo territory
948 P.Golden explanation of Besenyo tribal names: Names of 8 tribs consist of two parts, a name proper, usually a horse color, and with some possible exceptions, titles of their rulers, e.g. Xaboujin-gula  => Qabuqàin-Yula => “Yula tribe with bark-colored horses”, Suroukoulpey => Suru Kül Bei => “Kül Bei tribe with grayish horses”.
948 Emperor C.Porphirogenesos (948-952)D’Administrando Imperio: Besenyos consist of communities:
Ertim (or (Irtim, Erdem; leader - Baicha, then - Yavdy),
Chor (leader - Kyugel, then - Kuerchi),
Yula (Gyula, Gila) (leader - Korkutkhan, then - Kabukschin),
Kukhey (leader - Ipa, then - Sura),
Karabai (leader - Karduxm),
Tolmach (leader - Kortan, then - Boru),
Kapan (leader - Yazy),
Choban (leader - Batahan, then - Bula).
948 Besenyo communities, with three Kangar meaning “brave” (Ertim, Chor and Yula), occupied banks of rivers running into Black Sea:
Kangar Besenyo-Bosniak
Chor (Charavon, Charvat < Chor-bat = Prince-Ruler, Harvat, Croat) (east of Dnieper),
Ertim (Irtim, Erdem) (Dniestr),
Yula (Gyula, Gila = Great) (Prut)
Choban (Tsopon, = Shepherd) (Don area),
Kapan (lower Danube),
Karabai (= Western Prince) (between Dnieper and Buh),
Kulbei (Kyulbey = Great Prince, Kulpei, Kukhey) (Donets),
Tolmach (+ Translator) (in area of Don flowing into sea)
Confederation of Kangars/Besenyo-Bosniaks may be seen as alliance of independent Kangar/Croat state and Besenyo-Bosniak state.
Constantine Porphyrogenitus does not address what tribes controlled Wallakhia, westernmost was Kangar's Yula
948 First three Besenyo communities had contacts with Oguzes, Khazars, Alans, and Crimea;
Yula bordered on “Türkey” (Hungary),
Kapan bordered with Danube Bolgars.
A part of names are Türkic title ranks (Yula, Chor, Kapan = Kapĝan = Kapgan, Kul, Bey), and names of leaders in most cases mean colors:
Kuerchi = blue, Kakhushkin = wood bark, Sulu = ash, Boru = grey, Yazy = swarty, Bula = multi-colored (Ala), Yavdy = brilliant
950 Al Mas'udi (died in 956) describes 4 Türkic peoples: Ydjni, Badjkurt (Maskurts, Masguts, Herodotus (5-th c. BC), Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20), and C. Plinius Secundus (62-113 AD) Massagetae Scythians), Badjanak (Besenyos), Nukardi)
960 Fortress Chalap-Kerman, located at influence of rivers Djaik (Yaik, Ural) and Ilak (Ilek) on the Bukhara trading road from Bulgar city to Khoresm becomes center of Illak district of Badjanak (Besenyo) Ulus in Itil Bulgaria's Mardan-Bellak Beylik. Fortress operates till 1236
960 Besenyos live in Moldova (10th cent.-1171)
964 Besenyos seriously threaten Khazaria
965 Svyatoslav possibly signed agreement with Besenyos before crossing their territory. He allies with Oguz (Russ. Torks/Uzes). Purpose to gain tribute from Viatchi on Oka by removing their Khazar overlords. He also conquers Yases and Kasogs in Taman-Kuban area.
965 Knyaz Svyatoslav of Kyiv seizes Sarkel
969 Besenyo Khan Kura captures Kyiv
972 8 Besenyo tribes, under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Russian prince Svyatoslav and make a drinking cup of his skull. Besenyos continuous fights with Khazars, Byzantines and Rus
990 Estimated start of massive Kipchak migration into E.Europe, supplanting Kanfars-Bosnyaks in the east of Kangar state
990 END of KANGAR UNION in Eastern Europe. Under pressure from Kipchak-led alliance of Kipchaks and Oguzes, center of Kangar/Bechen/Bosnyak state merge westward to Balkans
Founder -
Area - ca 5,000,000 km2
993 Rus defeat Besenyos and found city Pereyaslavl (Sl. “Super-Glorious”)
996 Besenyo attack Belogorod (reference to fortress Askal - “White Fortress”/“Belogorod”, first built ca 630 on a Kyiv hill, by 996 it still was a separate fortification occupied by local ruler. The name “White Fortress” survived in the name Kyiv, which is the same “White Fortress” , where Ky is “White”, iv/ev/ov is “Fortress”). Probably the same event as event recorded under 969
1026 Besenyo invasion of Byzantium is repulsed by Constantine Diogenes
1033 Besenyos raid Byzantium Empire's Balkan territories
1036 Besenyos raid Byzantium Empire's Balkan territories
1036 Yaroslav's treacherous raid on Besenyos at defenseless moment when their army fights Byzantium
1040 Early 1040s: Besenyos began feeling pressure in the east from Oguzes, who themselves were forced to migrate westward by Kipchaks
1045 Byzantine-Besenyo agreement. Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus (1042-1055) accepts part of Besenyos, led by Kegenes, to settle down in Dobruja, they received land and three fortresses, as federates, against attacks of other Besenyo tribes, led by Tyrach
1045 Byzantines call Besenyos and Kumans “Skythicon”
1048 By 1048 Besenyo were left with only thirteen districts on Dniper right bank, with a population of 800,000, Kagan Tyrach (Tyrakh?) with his subjects was forced to quickly cross Danube and move into Byzantine territory.
1048 Besenyo began exodus across Danube into Byzantine Empire territory, mainly into Bulgaria (e.g. in 1048) where they were settled as federates
1048 From 1048 to 1053 Besenyos raid Byzantium Empire's Balkan territories almost continuously
1050 Biruni of Khwarezm: Language of Alans is a compound Khwaresmian and Besenyo-Türkish
743-1050 AD
Founder -
Area - From
1050 Before 800, Alans or Ases lived, together with Besenyos, around lower reaches of the Amu-Darya (Uzboy) flowing into Caspian Sea, and later, after river changed its course, they migrated to coast of Sea of the Khazars
1050 1050es: by 1060es, Oguzes harass Besenyos into flight from entire left bank of Dniper
1050 By 1050 Besenyos evacuating from Oguzes reached Adrianopole
1051 Besenyos invade Byzantium.
1053 Last raid by Besenyos against Byzantium Empire's Balkan territories
1055 Following disappearance of their state, large segment of N.Pontic Besenyos became dominated by Oguzes. and later, from 1055 on, by Kumans, and became ethnically absorbed by these peoples
1057 Cedrenos (Historiarum compendium, 1057) reports 13 Besenyo tribes in 11th century (see year 1250 below)
1059 Joint Besenyos-Hungarian raid repulsed by Byzantium Isaac I
1060 Oguzes complete expulsion from left bank of Dniper of Besenyos, who completely evacuate from entire left bank of Dniper
1060 Kipchaks replace Besenyos from N Caucasus steppes. Stan of Kipchak Khans is located on river Sunj. N Caucasus steppe is an important component of Deshti-Kipchak.
1063 Oguzes complete expulsion from Atelkuzu and right bank of Dniper of Besenyos, who completely evacuate west from Atelkuzu
1063 Besenyos enter anti-Byzantine alliance with Seljüks Oguzes (who after 1071 succeeded in conquering a greater part of Byzantium's territories in Asia Minor), and eventually with enterprising Turkic pirate Caxa (Tzakhas)
1064 Besenyo invade Byzantium across Thrace to gates of Constantinople
1065 600K Oguzes crossed Danube and devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Besenyos and Bolgars annihilated them. remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipchaks
1071 Besenyo, in service of Byzantium, desert Emperor Romanus Diogenes V (1067-1071) in favor of Seljuk Oguz Sultan Alp Arslan.
1071 After disaster at Manzikert, Byzantines recruited large numbers of Besenyos cavalry into service as mercenaries, forming a standing regiment known as “Skythikon”. Byzantium succeeded in splitting Besenyos to make them fight on both sides of a frontline
1087 Besenyo invade Byzantium across Thrace, are driven back, and defeat Alexius Comneus.
1091 Kumans under Tugorkhan (?-1096) (Grousset's Togortak) and Bonyak (Grousset's Maniak) are allied with Byzantium under Alexius Comnenus, and together crushed Besenyo army at Mount Lebunion, pushed Besenyos across Danube into Wallachia, and occupied their Crimean territory
1096 Per Rabbi Nissim, seventeen Khazarian communities join nomads (Besenyo, Bolgars, Oguses)
1100 Coherent and autonomous tribes of Kangars and Besenyo/Bosnyaks occupy territories in N-W Bakans, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzogovina, and Karatag (Montenegro)
1117 Kipchaks under Khan Otrok retreat to N Caucasus steppes. Kipchak Khan Syrchan remains in Don Steppes. Kipchaks under Khan Otrok on way to N Caucasus destroy Sarkel. Its inhabitants with Besenyos and Oguz Türks migrate to Russian principalities
1121 Vladimir Monomakh defeats Berendeys, Oguzes (Torks), and Besenyos. The latter flee from Rus
1122 Kuman Khan Bonyak defeats Besenyos at battle of Eski Zagra. At Eski Zagra Viking Guard and mercenary knights led by John II Comnenus broke into Besenyos wagon-laager and wholesale slaughtered Besenyos and their dependants. Kumans subsequently occupy their lands. Besenyos completely ceased to exist as independent group, becoming diffused among Bulgars and Kumans
1123 Scyths/Besenyos were really wiped out by Byzantine Emperor John II in 1123
1123 Many Besenyo captives were forcibly resettled in military colonies in Thrace and Macedonia
1139 Besenyos mercenaries are recorded in Byzantine service
1169 Last mention of Besenyos in Rus sources
1171 Besenyos lose control of Moldova-Atelkuzu to Kumans (1171-1241). “Besenyos apparently absorbed by Kumans”, a dubious speculation, since Türkic-speaking population survived in Croatia, Bosnia, and Herzogovina till the Ottoman Turks' Kangar-Oguz dejavu after 700 years of separate development
1172 Besenyo migrants establish important Besenyo settlements in Hungary
1220 Gengiz Khan conquest of Bukhara, Samarkand, Tirmidh and Gurganj. Kangli garrisons slaughtered
1237 Invasion of Ases and Kipchaks in N.W. Caspian and N. Caucasus. Leading Kipchak warrior Bachman killed, Khan Kotyan retreat beyond Tanais. Batu starts encircling maneuver going through Burtases, Erzya Moksha, and Rus
1239 Assimilation of Alania into Ulus Juchi
1250 In 13th century number of Besenyo communities grew to 13, and among names were Aba, Balchar, Bator, Bychkyly, Eke, Ilbeg, Kure, Karaja, Temir, Teber, Sol. Besenyo fortresses are named: Salma, Saga, Kerbak. From these words it is clear that Besenyo language most of all resembled Türkic Kipchak dialect
Kngar and Besenyo/Bosnyak principalities ca 1300
Croatia Bosnia Herzegovina Karatag (Montenegro)

Bosnyak expansion
1463 During Ottoman times, Kangar-Besenyo commixed Ogur/Kipchak language amalgamated with Turkish Oguz language, retaining a rich pre-Turkish vocabulary, and possibly morphological elements. Kangar-Besenyos readily embraced Islam, quickly becoming Moslem-majority country that endured massive influx of Slavic peoples and Slavic subjugation without losing their language and religion until Communist nationalistic excesses
2000 Kangar-Besenyo became Bosnyaks, in the Middle Ages their Bosnia state became a unique island of tolerance and cooperation in the Balkans that survived assaults and nationalistic frenzy of the 20th century. Kangar-Besenyo were among the tribes that migrated to Khorasan from Oguz Yabgu state and then to Anatolia, settling in the territory of the ancient Cilicia. In the late 19th c., in the early 20th c., and in the second half of 20th c., many refugees from the Balkan Bosnia flowed to Anatolia, adding to the Tyrkey Kangar-Bosnyak descendents http://www.worldcat.org/title/muslims-of-bosnia-herzegovina-their-historic-development-from-the-middle-ages-to-the-dissolution-of-yugoslavia/oclc/35295795&referer=brief_results.
In Russian
Kangars Index
Zakiev M. Z. Who Are Alans?
Ogur and Oguz
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Genetics: Lingo-Ethnical Tree
Genetics: Blood Types

Russian Version needs a translation

Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Updated on: 11/15/2002, 2/26/2006.

One of the tribes participating in the last big wave of Türkic resettlement from Central Asia to the west (9-11 cc.) were Besenyos, who were one of the groups in the Kok-Türkic Kaganate. It is probable that they lived in areas of Issyk Kul and Balkhash, as a part of the On-Oks (Turgishes), and after disintegration of the Western Kok-Türkic Kaganate (middle of the 7 c.), probably, retreated to western Siberia (second half of the 8-th c.) because of Oguz relocation to Syr-Darya as a result of pressure from Karluks.

a little nugget, historically somewhat confused, at at http://my.raex.com/~obsidian/siberia.html#Pecheneg
The PECHENEGS A semi-nomadic people of Turkic stock, emerging out of Central Asia from the 7th century CE. Their Kagans were apparently Manichaean refugees from Transoxiana, and may have had a connection to the Oguz. In control of much of the land between the Don and the lower Danube by the 10th century, they forced the Magyars before them into central Europe and were harried incessantly by the Khazars behind them. Slowly driven southward by the Kipchaks, they repeatedly raided Thrace, and were in almost continual conflict with the Byzantines (who referred to them as "Patzinaks"). Their power was broken once and for all in 1092, by a combined Byzantine-Cuman army, but they did not completely disappear before about 1200. They are fairly poorly documented, and the following list is very fragmentary.

The first eight entries, from Choban to Tolmach, represent local tribes or septs...

I cannot forebear from mentioning that Kurya is notorious for having a drinking goblet made of Knyaz Svyatoslav of Kiev's skull, following his demise in battle, 972. This use for enemy skulls seems to have been something of a tradition on the steppes; Herodotus mentions the same custom among the Scythians in the same region, 1500 years before Kurya.

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