In Russian
Khazar synopsis
Contents Huns
Contents Alans
Ogur and Oguz
Kurgan Culture
Andronov Culture
Afanasiev Culture
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Ephthalite Dateline
Russian Version needs a translation
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline


Ch. Kesa, Asa, and Gejie; and other variations

Subdivisions and ethnic affiliates - none known

750 BC-1349 AD

W Huns
5th c. AD
6th c. AD
6th c. AD
W. Goktürk Kaganate
7th c. AD
ca AD 650-850
Kangar Union
Kangar  Anabasis
Oghuz Yabgu state
ca AD 800
per Gumilev
AD 850
Kagan Domain
10th c. AD
and Bosnyak state
ca 850
Itil Bulgaria
ca AD 800
AD 900
AD 950.gif (92K)
AD 1050.gif (92K)
ca 1200 AD
Itil area
1367 AD



Sabirs, Sabaroi, Sabiri, Savari, Sabans, Sibirs, Suvars, Zubur, Subartuans, Aksuvars, Aksungurs and other variations

In the merry-go-around of the nomadic coalitions, the Kayi Huns supplanted Massagets (Masguts, Alans), or Massagets (Masguts, Alans) supplanted Kayi Huns at the head of the Northeast Caucasian Türkic tribes. Then Savirs supplanted  Kayi or Masguts, and became an umbrella term in the Byzantine-Persian confrontation, then Huns supplanted  Savirs and became a dominating force in the Caucasus till the the Arabs decimated them, and forced them to ally with Khazars. From then on, the North Caucasian Türkic tribes appear under the umbrella term of Khazars, although the Bulgar and Suvar magnates continued running the Khazar Empire.

a little nugget at www.hostkingdom.net/siberia.html

SABIR A Hunnic tribe that briefly established a powerful state north of the Caucasus. They may have been attested to as early as 124 BCE, in which case they are ultimately Sarmatian or Scythian in origin. They were allied with Sassanid Persia until c.550, when they were enticed to join a Byzantine-led coalition.

To the Huns.395-460 CE
Independent Khanate 460-560
 Belek...early 500's-520's
 Bogharik (fem.)...520's-550's
 To the Avars...560-600
 To the Gok Turks...600-630
Possibly one of the component peoples of the Khazar Kaganate  


Historians who follow the Arabic-Islamic writers get confused by their retroactive use of the term “Khazars”. Being a politonym, the term is de facto umbrella term for the people of the Khazar Kaganate, and its use outside of the context of the Khazar-Arab wars and outside of the Khazar period (660 - 1016) keeps causing endemic confusion by attributing to the “Khazars” the Khazar-time events unrelated to the Khazars. That is particularly misleading for the Jewish history. Diachronic traditions preceding the Arab conquests, and individual histories of Armenia, Georgia, Agvania, Great Bulgaria (Bulgar Empire), Horezm, Türkic and Western Türkic Kaganates allow to discern events and wade though the confusion compiled by misled and misleading historians. The posted dateline is illustrative of that confusion, same events are repeated with different dates, dating not only varies between sources, but at times also gets inverted, with effects preceding causes. Historical synopses on the background of specific events are notable for their omnivorousness, with the Khazars, Bulgars, Huns, Savirs, Masguts, Kayi, Kök Türks and Western Türks indiscriminately thrown in all in in a single pile, and further notoriously tainted with inaccurate dates that roam wildly and often conflict with individual histories of neighboring states and nations. Errors in esteemed sources get rebroadcasted and re-recited. The ignorant idea that Khazars are somehow connected with Akathyrsi is still floating around, in spite of being discarded eons ago. A river of ink was spilled on the etymology of the name “Khazar”, with most ideas slanted by the Arabic spelling with the initial kh, like in khagan for kagan. Of the many speculations, the synonymy of the term kazak (qazaq) and khazar (qazar, dialectal Ogur form qarar) appear to be most credible, both denote a freelance fortune seeker, i.e. a mercenary; the word Kazakh is just another spelling of the same word, invented in the Stalinist Russia for political reasons to discriminate it from what in English is spelled Cossak. These spellings ascend to the root qaza “destiny, fate, predestination, fortune, lot, luck”, a cognate of the English case “what befalls one, state of affairs”; the suffixes -aq and -ar produce synonymous derivatives. Many critical terminological inaccuracies are corrected in the text, Cf.  Khazar - Arab vs. Savir - Arab war.

Khazar history starts with the tribes Barsil and Khazar splitting off from the confederation On Shadapyt (弩失畢) “right/western wing”, in the modern Han dialect colloquially articulated as Nushibi. The On Shadapyt was a coalition of five tribes within the Western Türkic Kaganate also dubbed On-Ok (Ten Tribes) union, which used to be a right/western wing of the First Türkic Kaganate. Ca. 600, the Sir (Seres) tribes left the On-Ok union after a dispute with the Esegel tribe also dubbed Red Huns “Hermihions” and simply Chionites, yielding control of the remaining Tokuz-Oguz “Nine tribes” union to the Jalair (Yaglakar) family of Uigurs. Barsils (Bersils) and Khazars (可萨 Kosa, pin. Kesa) belonged to those Sir (Seres) secessionists. A part of the Khazar tribe remained in the Yaglakar's Tokuz-Oguz confederation, after 600 AD the Yaglakars, Tokuz-Oguzes, and Uigurs have their own history (Uigur history), which eventually produced Uigur Kaganate and the line of Chingiz Khan. In 630 Bulgaria, including Caspian Huns and Khazars, seceded from Western Türkic Kaganate to form Great Bulgaria in N Pontic under Kurbat (630-660). The Western Türkic Kagan Bagadur Kutlug Sibir-Khan (630-631) (14) of Ashina line recognized independence of Bulgaria under his nephew Kurbat of Dulo (Tele) feminine line dynasty, the dynasty of Attila the Hun. Khazars, however, retained links with the troubled Western Türkic Kaganate, which, following Ili river treaty, in 638 split into two independent states, On Shadapyt and Tele. In 660, Bedi Bersil and Kadyr Kasar revolted, split from On Shadapyt confederation, conquered Ak-Bulgars (Eastern Bulgars of N. Pontic) and allied with Caspian Huns to form their their own Khazar Kaganate. Khazar federation unified Ogur, Savir, and As–Alan tribes, in opposition to the Dulo state of Kurbat. Formation of the Khazar Kaganate was a consequence of the conflict within the Western Türkic Kaganate, a scion of the Ashina dynasty assumed the title Kagan, closed Khazar prehistory and started a brand new page of the Khazar history.

Prior to the formation of the Khazar Kaganate, information on the Khazar prehistory is scarce. Their presence in the N. Caucasus is attested at ca. 200 AD (Movses Khorenatsi), ca. 434 (Sidonius Apollinaris, European Huns), ca. 470s (Movses Khorenatsi), ca. 540 (Karnamag), ca. 552, ca. 553 (Zacharias Rhetor), ca. 560-652, ca. 570-659 as tribe of Western Kaganate, ca. 581on (“Sui shu“), ca. 582 (Byzantine annals), ca. 589.

The ethnic affiliation of Khazars is deduced from their nearest companions and associates. Khazars started as a Sir tribe, Bulgars and Khazars are described as blood relatives with a common or similar language, they are companions of Basils, and they enter compacts or neighboring with various Türkic tribes. Khazar's participation with Attila at the Catalaunian Plains indicates that in the 5th.c. AD the eastern territories and tribes of the Western Hunnic Empire overlapped the territories and tribes of the Western Türkic Kaganate of the 7th c. AD.

Time Events
750 BC Hesiod, 7th Century BC, writes: Inventors of bronze working were Scythians. The early Mesopotamian name for metal is Zubur, indicating that northern Mesopotamian Subartuans or a people of that region were indeed inventors of process.
124 BC

Asi (Yazig) (Pasiani is Asiani with a typo p), Tocharian, Sabir (Sabaroi) tribes break into Sogdiana and Bactria. In next five years two Parthian emperors loose their lives in wars. Later Sakauraka (Türkic ‘Saka-farmers’) tribe is also conquered by them.

93AD Western (Northern) Huns move their center to Dzungaria
93AD Huns essentially divided into four groups with separate political centers:
1. European Huns went to the West
2. Central Asian Huns - Yueban
3. Huns who submitted to Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), 100,000 families numbering 500,000+ people, with Syanbi a ruling minority.
4. Southern Huns that submitted to China and later took an active part in 16 states and Wu-hu epoch (five “barbarian” tribes Huns (Xiongnu 匈奴), Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), Tele (Di 氐), Kiyan Huns (Qiang 羌), and Kiyan Huns (Jie 羯); at that time Uigurs Hui/Sui/Yui were a part of Tele/Di.
From that point on, the histories of European Huns branch and Central Asian Huns branch are independent from the Eastern Huns, but are linked
124AD Dionysius Periegetes (the Guide), during emperor Hadrian (117-138), “Orbis terrae descriptio“ map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii
139 Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Türkic agach eri ‘Forest People’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) live Huns
155 155-160 Syanbiys displace northern Huns beyond  Tarbagatai (Syanbi are predominantly Huns)
160 First mention of Huns in European literature (Dionysius Periegetes) (but see 124AD)
175 175 - 182 Mention of Huns in Ptolemy (but see 139AD) 
200 First mentioning of Khazars in annals, by Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi (ca 410 - 480) in “History of Armenia” writes about reign of King Valarsh, at the turn of 2nd and 3rd cc., “united hordes of mountaineers, namely Khazars and Basils (Barsil)” came out of Chor gate (Derbent) and crossed Kura. “Valarsh drove them beyond Chor gate”. They battled there, and “Valarsh perished at the hands of skilled archers.” Khazars and Bersilia are noted second time in Byzantine annals (582). M.Khorenatsi's 470s record could not be an anachronism
227 Agafangel: Huns participated in joint military campaign of Armenians and Caucasian peoples against Persians
307 Agafangel: Second mention of the Huns dated by time of reign of Tiridat III (287-330.)
300 Bulgars and Khazars are blood relatives, with a common or similar language.
330 330's  King Sanesan of Maskuts/Masguts/Massagets ~ Sanatruk (Truk ~ Türkic) ruler of Paitakaran (~Bai Tarhanlyk)
330/38 Alans allied with Sanesan, king of ”Massagetae” (Mazk'owtk'), against Armenian king Xosrov II Kotak
350 War (350-359) between Chionite Huns and Sasanids (Harmatta)
350 Moisei Khorensky: Armenian “heretic“ refugees expelled by Christians find refuge with Huns (“Heretic“ refugees are probably pre-Christian Tengrians)
354 Bulgars mentioned in “Chronograph”
356 356/7 Shapur II repulses Chionite Huns on border of Persia
359 Chionite King Grumbat participates in Persian Shah Shapur II campaign to city Amida
360 Favstos Buzand: Huns, together with Alans, participated in fight of Armenians headed by king Arshak II (350-368) against armies of Persian king Shapur II (309-379)
370 Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais and N. Caspian steppes. Living there Alans join Huns. Start of Byzantine annual tribute to Huns
371 Huns invade Goths' possessions in N.Pontic
372 Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns to Europe
376 Goths relocated to East Roman Empire south of Danube, joint attack with Huns, battle at Adrianople, emperor Valens killed (Magnificent pinching operation with 1000 km encircling maneuver and perfect time coordination)
390 End of 4th c. Ostrogoths' war with Antes (Suvar confederation with Slavic subjects/partners) and defeat of Ostrogoths by Balamber (Bülümar)  (363-378)
395 395-397 Euseus Hieronymus and Ieshu Stilit: intrusion of Caspian Huns to Asia Minor: Caucasus, Syria, Cappadocia, and Mesopotamia
399 Euseus Hieronymus: intrusion of Caspian Huns to Syria 399.
400 Arab and Pers. authors mention town Varachan (Belenjer), capital of Hun state, at Sulak valley near Upper Chir-Ürt in Dagestan. Later authors refer to Balanjar as native land of Khazars. Balanjar is native land of Kayis (“Old” Belenjer, capital of Kayis and later of Suvars, aka future Khamzin), Bülün “guard (army)” (or Balan “tributor”) Jar “head, leader, headquarter”, lit. “Military Headquarters” (or “(Tribute) Collection Center, Customs Office”)
400 Among Huns Khazar ancestors called selves Basils (bas “head”, il/el “country” ~ head of land?  prime land? domain? one of few etymologies)
406 Migration of Pannonia Alans and Vandals to Gaul
410 Moisei Chorenatsi (modern distortion of Movses Kagankatvatsi, Kaganati): in 410es Caucasian “land of Huns” is populated by people with ethnonym “Basils” among other participants in events in S.Caucasia . Basils/Barsils are Khazar partner tribe. Caucasian “Huns” at that time were Kayis (now Haitaks ~ Mountain Kayis). Tribe Kayi (aka Kai), Ch. Hi (霫) and Si (pin. Xi 奚, < yiei < haj~qaj),  No 2 Kaiyg on Mahmud Kashgari list, was subjugated by Maodun in 200 BC, it played leading role in history of Kimeks, Western Kumans, China, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Persia, and Russia. Kashgari list depicts two more nearly identical tamgas, No 18 Tügers (also spelled Düver and Düğer, Töker or Tüker, these are Tochars of Strabon and Digor component of Ossetes) , and No 19 Becheneks (also spelled Bechenek, Pechenek, Pecheneg) . These three tamgas have an element of Kipchak tamga I and V element that also includes No 1 Kınıks “Today they are kagans”, these are Kangar dynastic tribe , No 16 Tutırkas (Dondurgas) and No 7 Begtilis (Begdilis or Beydilis) .
410 Bulgars attack Lombards (Longobards)
412 Byzantine embassy to Huns (Caspian Huns?) (Karaten 402-414, Attila's uncle?)
420 Huns occupied Pannonia.  Western Huns settle in middle Danube. Rulers were Yabgu Roila (Rugila, 414-434), Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk, fr. Muenchak Aibat) and Kagan Oktar
420 WHITE HUN EMPIRE 420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan
(Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)
422 Byzantine peace treaty with Persia
434 Huns siege Constantinople. Death of Rugila. Beginning of joint rule by Atilla and Bleda  (“Joint rule” is likely a consequence of non-understanding of the Hunnic dual administrative structure, but who is who is not known)
434 Sidonius Apollinaris: ca. 434 Khazars are Attila's tributary,  followed banners of Attila, and in 452 fought on the Catalaunian Plains (Châlons) in company with the Black Huns and Alans
439 In 439 Tobases ((Tabgach, Ch. Tuoba 拓拔) had victory over Eastern Huns and joined Chesi to Wey Empire, Khan Ashina with 500 families fled to Syanbinian Jujanes and settled south of Altai mountains, producing iron for Jujanes (i.e. collecting fr. locals tribute paid in iron). Flight of Ashina clan to Altai Mountains
445 Beginning of Attila sole reign  Attila's 8 years overshadowed all previous and following centuries in Romans' memory
448 Attila's defeat of Akatsir Scythians and appointment of Ellak as ruler of Pontus Huns (essentially Bulgars and Suvars). Eastern Roman ambassadors in Attila's camp
448 Ak Khazars are subject of Western Huns (if Khazars = Akathyrs, a wild stray idea)
450 Lazar Parbetsi: Allied armies of S.Caucasian countries capture fortifications named “pahane Honsü“ (defense against Hons)
Destruction of Chor (future Derbent) fortress by rebellious Armenians and Albanians against Persian yoke of Yazdegerd II
450 Egishe Vardapet: Caspian Huns support revolt by Armenians against Persians in 450-451
450 Per Priscus, Sabirs (Suvars) conquered lands of Onogurs (Onogur Bulgars), Saragurs and Ugors (Magyars) in steppes around north-western Caspian coast. After death of Attila, Sabirs (Suvars) would contest for leadership of Western Hunnic state. Sabirs (Suvars) expand northwest to confluence of Dnieper and Desna and establish their center in Karajar “Western Headquarters”, modern Chernigiv, and contend for leadership in Rus
451 Sidonius Apollinaris: Khazars follow banners of Attila, and in 452 fought on the Catalaunian fields in company with the Black Huns and Alans.
452 Huns invasion in Azerbaijan (Likely, Suvars, not Huns)
453 After death of Atilla, his 183 sons draw lots to divide Kaganate. To Ellak, eldest of Atilla sons, was given ulus (Oguz) of a horde called Sabirs (Suvars). To Tengiz (Dengizik), was given ulus (Oguz) of a horde called Kutrigurs (aka Kuturgurs/Kotrags “West Wing”, from köturi “behind, to the west”). To Bel-Kermek (Hernach), youngest, was given ulus (Oguz) of a horde called Utigurs (aka Utragurs/Utigurs “East Wing”, from utra “front, opposite”.
454 Coalition of Germanic clans defeats and kills Ellak in battle at Nedao. Sabirs without Ellak retreat to the East, through Pontic Steppes, from Dagestan to Desna. Kutriguri and Utiguri under Bel-Kermek (Hernach), fell back to Atil-Kuzu 'Ugol' place that roughly corresponds to Bessarabia.
456 Byzantine captures Lazika
463 Destunis G.C.:.Saragurs subjugate Akatsirs and want to become Roman federates (Attesting that Saragurs are located between Byzantine and Akatsirs (Sl. Drevlyans)
466 Invasion of Saragurs and Onogurs in Transcaucasia.  Sary = Ku = Ak = “pale, white, yellowish, pale gray”, hence Sary As, Sarir, Saragur, Saryg, Sarysün (Saryhün, White Huns), Kuman, Kipchak, and also Akkoyunly, Ak Nogai. Sar (white) and Ogur or Ugor makes White Ugors, lit. “White Tribe” of RPC, understood as Ugrians or Magyars.
468 Huns offer alliance to East Roman empire
469 Western Huns retreated. Utigurs “East Wing” to Azov-Taman SE of Sea of Azov. Kutrigurs “West Wing” to between Dniepr and Don Rivers, NW from Sea of Azov Utigurs. Sabirs in Dagestan SE of other two Hunnic hordes, between Daryal Gorge and Kuma River on Caspian Sea.
469 Death of Dengizih (Diggiz), head of  Kutrigurs “West Wing” Áëþäî ñ íàäïèñüþ ñ èìåíåì Äèããèçèõà.
481 Thracian Goths' Theodoric (Strabo “squinted”), son of Triarius, victory over Bulgars hired by Byzantine's newly appointed Emperor Zeno. Bulgars were Thrace or nearby Bulgars
481 Lazar Parbetsi: In anti-Persian revolt of 481-484 Armenians wanted to get support from Caspian Huns. Türkic Huns helped Armeniani in their revolt
488 Khazarian Khalifa (aka Bulgar sulifa, corresponds to Yabgu, Mandarin Pyn. Xielifa/Sylifa 苏李发?/葛李发?) begins rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus. Bulgar title khalifa is attested at Dagestani Bulgars before appearance of Islamic title Caliph and Caliphate
505 Sabirs from Pannonia begin to immigrate to North Caucasus and Itil valley (Sabirs initially are N. Mesopotamians/S. Caucasians)
505 Sabirs created a powerful federation of akin tribes, “Kingdom of Huns”. They were populous and had an army of 20,000 well equipped cavalrymen. They were masters of art of war and build siege machines unknown to Persians and Byzantines
515 515-516 Hunno-Savirs attack Persians in Armenia
531 Khazar Khalifa (Yabgu) loses rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus to Persian Sasanid Chosroes I (531-578) (Either “Khazar” is a reverse projection, or Khazars were members of Hun Kingdom in Caucasus)
531 End of reign of Sassanid Persian Shah Kobad (Kavad) I, beginning of Shah Khusrau Anushirvan (531-579)
540 Hunno-Savirs attack S.Caucasia
540 First reference to Khazars in Karnamag ca 540 (Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan/Book of Deeds of Ardeshir, Son of Babak)
550 Khazars are suzerains of Türko-Huns
552 End of WHITE HUN EMPIRE 420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan
(Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)
552 Sabirs switch allying with Persia to Byzantine, and conquer Agvania (aka Albania). Byzantine conquer Italy
552 Savir-Khazars attack Albania, occupied important merchant city of Derbent
552 GOKTÜRK KAGANATE (First Türkic Kaganate)
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
552 Army of  Türkic Kaganate forces Aral tribes War/Uar (Chionites) to flee west under moniker Avar. Avars cross N. Pontic to Pannonia, subjugating Bulgars and Türkic and non-Türkic tribes.
553 553-568 Türks and Sassanids ally to destroy Hephthalite (Ephthalites, White Huns) Empire
553 Second reference of Khazars in annals, by Zacharias Rhetor (Pseudo-Zacharius, d. 536 - 553).  13 nomadic peoples living north of Caspian Gate (Derbent): “Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Khasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasik, Kulas, Abdel, Ephtalit”. Zacharias Rhetor's 540s-550s record could not be an anachronism
554 Persians defeat Sabirs in Agvania.
555 555-567 Struggle of Türkic Kaganate with White Huns (Abdaly, Ephtalites, Kushans)
558 Invading Avars attack Hunno-Bulgars. Utiguri, Kutriguri, and Sabiri conquered (559-560).
558 Avars first crushed Türkic Sabirs, allies of Byzantine, who lived by Kuma river and in Dagestan. Avars then crushed Uturgurs (Utigurs, Hunnic “East Wing”), Bulgarian tribe and also allies of Byzantine, living between Itil and Don, then crushed Zals and Antes (Suvar, aka Sabir confederation with Slavic subjects/partners) on both sides of Don.
558 Avars defeat Sabirs in N Caucasus
558 Avar embassy to Byzantium. Avars defeat Sabirs and Antes.
558 Avar Kaganate in Europe
558-805 AD
Founder - Khan Bayan
Area - From central Europe to Itil and from Balkans to Baltic, essentially western half of Attila Khandom (Total Area - ?,000,000 Km2)
560 Avar Kaganate extended from Itil to mouth of Danube. Bulgars are split, with Kuturgur Huns (also listed are Onogundurs (10 Ogur Confederation), Hunnogurs, Sabirs belonging to Avar Kaganate, and Utugur Huns (Utigurs, Hunnic utra “East (Left) Wing” and/or otra “Center Wing” misinterpreted as 30 Ogur) and Khazars loyal to  First Türkic Kaganate (Alternate reference point is 568 AD under particular chronological classification). The Avar-Türkic border runs along Don river
560 Utigurs' Left wing of European Hunnic state in 560s joined Türkic Kaganate, and remained in Kaganate till dismemberment of Western Türkic Kaganate in 660s, and subsequently remained in Khazar splinter of Western Türkic Kaganate with a status of constituent tribal union ruled by an appointed Elteber viceroy.
561 Sosroi Nushirvan (throne names Khosrow I, Chosroes I, and Kasra) crushes Sibirs
562 Defeat of Savir-Khazars by Khusrau Anushirvan
565 Avars subjugate Hunnugur and Sabir, and other Hunnic hordes, assimilating them under Avar Kaganate.
565 After defeat of their forces by Avars, Khazars took lead in Sabir-Khazar federation (??). Part of Sabirs move north, to Middle Itil region, among settled there Bulgarian tribes. Their main city Suvar is a great center of Itil Bulgaria (but Suvar (future Nur-Suvar was established in 922) .
566 Between 566 and 571 Istemi Djabgu (Yabgu) subjugated peoples Bandjar, Balandjar (Belendjer) and Khazar. Barandjar (Balandjar) =  Kayis ≠ Onogur ≠ Utigur Bulgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Turks closest allies and assistants (?? reverse projection). Avar-Türkic Kaganate border pushed west, to Don river.
567 End of Türkic Kaganate struggle with White Huns (Abdaly, Ephtalites, Kushans)
567 567-571 Conquest by Türkic Kaganate of Khazars and Eastern Bulgars. Western (Kara) Bulgars remain in Avar Kaganate. The Avar-Türkic border runs along Don river.
570 Khazars are ruled by Western Kaganate (570-659)
571 Khazars and Ak-Bulgars (eastern) are confederated with Türkic Kaganate
576 Türks establish Khazar Khanate.
576 Beginning of war in Caucasus between Byzantium and Türkic Kaganate
581 581-593 Civil strife in Türkic Kaganate
581 “Sui shu“ (581 to 618) chapter 84 “Description Of Tele” lists 45 tribes of Asian steppe, including a-lan (Alans). Alans are included in listing of Turkic-speaking Tele tribes. “Sui shu“ called Khazars Türkic Kesa, Asa, and Gejie
582 Split of First Türkic Kaganate into East (552-840) and West (582-659) states (See date 604AD).
582 582 - 602 Rule of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. First mention of Khazars in Byzantium annals, along with Bulgars and Barsils. Noted their coming from Bersilia, supposedly in Caspian steppe
582 Byzantine emperor Mauritius (582-602)
589 W. Kaganate campaign against Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars.
Both Khazars and Ak-Bulgars are confederated (jointed voluntarily, not as conquered) into W. Kaganate.
589 W. Kaganate's Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth.
Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.
589 Invasion of Khazars, Greeks and Georgians to Agvania is repelled by Persians
600 Split of On-Ok (10 tribes) confederation into Tokuz-Oguz (9 tribes) confederation and Saka tribes of Red Huns “Hermihions” (Chionites) that includes Khazars (Kosa可萨 pin. Kesa) and Bersils (Barsils)
600 Klyashtorny: Ca 600 due to internal wars with Siker dynstic tribe of the Red Huns “Hermihions” (Esgil/Ezgel/Esegil/Eseg/Izgil/Ishkil/Ichgil/Äsägel/ /Askel/Askil/Sekler/Szek(ler)/Ch. Asitsze/Pin. Asijie, Sijie/Hermihions), the Sirs ( = Saka =  Türks) left the On-Ok union, yielding control of the Tokuz-Oguz “Nine tribes” union to Jalair (Yaglakar) family of Uigurs. The Khazars (Kosa可萨  pin. Kesa) and the Bersils (Barsils) belonged to the Seres/Sir secessionists. A part of the Khazar tribe remained in the Yaglakar's Tokuz-Oguz “Nine tribes” confederation, and these Khazars, Yaglakars, Tokuz-Oguzes, and Uigurs after 600 AD have their own history (Uigur history).
604 First Türkic Kaganate split into Western and Eastern Kaganates (See date 582 AD)
610 Byzantine emperor Heraclius (610-641)
610 Future Gokturk’s Sibir-Khan (14), Mokhodu, of the most western ulus, is baptized in Constantinople. This starts his fight with Buri-shad (34) (610-618) and Tardu Yabgu (Tun(g)-Yabgu) (23) (618-630). Kurbat is not baptized.
618 “Chiu Tang shu” (“Old chronicle of Tang state”, 618-907 provides material on Khazars
625 Khazars first noted in history records/by Byzantine
626 Conclusion of alliance between Heraclius and W Türkic Kagan Tun-Yabgu-Kagan (618-630), intrusion of Türco-Khazar armies into S.Caucasia
626 (Onogur?) Bulgars live in N. Caucasus on right bank of Kuban' to Don
Different fr. Khazars
Rival to Khazars.
626 Avars controlled all Kuturgur Hun lands
Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars did not participate in Khazars' war raids into Caucasus. Khazars is apparent backward projection, a misnomer for Hunno-Savirs
Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars guarded western border of Western Kaganate
Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars are allied with Tele (Dulu).
626 W. Kaganate campaign against Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars. Khazars is apparent backward projection, a misnomer for Hunno-Savirs
626 Khazars and (Onogur?) Bulgars confederated (voluntarily, not conquered) into W. Kaganate.
Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth.
Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.
626 626 or 628 Byzantine Heraclius enters alliance with Western Türks and then their subjects Khazars, to cross Caucasus and attack attacking Persians
626 Khazars ally with Byzantine vs Arabs under Emperor Heraclius (626-630)/Arran ~ Agvania ~ Azarbaijan
627 Siege of Tbilisi by Türks and Byzantines
627 Byzantine and Khazars defeat Persians at Nineveh . “Khazars” must be Hunno-Savirs with Kayis and Masguts/Alans, collectively called Huns before the fall of Semender in 723.
627 Khazars (i.e. Hunno-Savirs) and Byzantine attack Sasanids/win terms
628 Capture of Tbilisi/Tiflis and conquest of Albania by Khazars (i.e. Hunno-Savirs). Savirs did not conquer Aguania, it allied with Savirs against Arabs.
629 Khazars (i.e. Hunno-Savirs) sack and loot Tiflis/through Arran . Arran = Aguania
630 Khazars (i.e. Western Türkic Kaganate) begin taxation of South Caucasus .
630 630-634 Civil strife in Western Türkic Kaganate
630 End of rule of Khazars by Western Türkic Kaganate, Khazars ruled by rebellious Ashina viceroy who assumed title Kagan, the first Khazar Kagan. Khazar federation unified Ogur, Savir, and As–Alan tribes, in opposition to Dulo state of Kurbat
630 W Türkic Kagan Sibir-Khan (630-631)
630 Bulgars/Barsils are incorporated into elite of W. Kaganate horde
630 In 630 Bulgaria, including Caspian Huns and Khazars, seceded from Western Türkic Kaganate to form Great Bulgaria in N Pontic under Kurbat (630-660). W Türkic Kagan Bagadur Kiuliug Sibir-Khan (630-631) (14) of Ashina line recognized independence of Bulgaria under Kurbat of Dulo dynasty, his nephew of feminine line Dulo (Tele) clan (ancestors of the Kazakh Dulats). Khazars remain loyal to troubled W Türkic Kaganate. Nushibi coalition included Khazars in N. Caucasus, and Bulgars in N. Pontic steppes.
630 Gokturk Kaganate’s Sibir-Khan (14) recognized independence of Bulgaria under Kurbat of Dulo dynasty, his nephew of feminine line.
630 Qarluqs rebel against Gokturk Kaganate, Tung Yabgu (23) dies, W. Kaganate split, SW and NE. SW run by Nushibis, under Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) (631-631), installed by Nishu Khan Shad (32), son of Baga Shad (24). NE run by Tele (Dulu), under Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) (630-631).
631 SW of W. Kaganate Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) replaced by Nishu Khan Shad (32) as Dulu Khan (631-634). NE of W. Kaganate Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) killed. W. Gokturk Kaganate reunited.
635 Kurbat (Gr. Kubrat) escaped dominance of Gokturks and Khazars, by supporting Sibir-Khan in 630. He became independent, defeated Avars. Controlled area near Pontic steppes
635 Kurbat (Gr. Kubrat, Kuvrat) sent embassy to Constantinople and received title of Patrician.
Kurbat's Bulgaria joins Byzantium as Federatae.
Byzantium becomes a bordering state with Khazaria of W. Kaganate, controlling former Khazar territories.
636 Bulgaria hostile with Khazars of W. Kaganate on East, with Avars on West, with Byzantium on South.
638 Pursuant to Ili River treaty (alt. date 647) Western Turkic Kaganate split into two independent Nushibi and Tele states. Bedi Bersil and Kadyr Kasar revolted, split from Nushibi confederation, and conquered Ak-Bulgars (Eastern Bulgars) and Caspian Huns to form their own Khazar Kaganate in 660.
641 Khazars crush Bulgars (i.e. Great Bulgaria of Kurbat, or Bulgar Empire)/ Ukraine  (Too early dating, grossly incongruent with Asparukh migration, Khazar-Bulgar conflict was settled in 668 only partially, without Asparukh acceptance))
642 First Khazar - Arab (i.e. Savir - Arab) war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman. Reference to Khazars in Arabic sources is apparent backward projection. The first Khazar-Arab war is Savir-Arab war. Series of Arab campaigns Abd Al Rahman (642-652), Jarrah (721/722), Maslama (727/728), Marwan (737/738),
646 Son of Buri (Bulan) Shad, Ashina prince Khallyg (62) is mentioned as Eastern Djabgu in connection with leading Dulu revolt
647 Pursuant to Ili River treaty (alt. date 638) Western Turkic Kaganate split into two independent Nushibi and Tele states. Bedi Bersil and Kadyr Kasar revolted, split from Nushibi confederation, and conquered Ak-Bulgars (Eastern Bulgars) and Caspian Huns to form their own Khazar Kaganate in 660.
650 Son of Irbis Shegui Khan, name unknown, becomes first Kagan of Khazar Kaganate (650?-….)
650 Pletneva: 650 (provisional date) Formation of Khazar Kaganate ?
651 Son of Buri Shad, Khallyg (62) leading Bishbalyk Türkut horde captured control of W. Türkic Kaganate, and personally killed its last Kagan Irbis Sheguy Khan from Ashina dynasty ( -651), and proclaimed himself Kagan Yshbara Khan
651 With Ashina dynasty loss of rule in W.Türkic Kaganate, former confederate Khazaria with attached Bulgar Kutugurs (“West Wing”), Alans, Slavs (i.e. Antes) and Itil Bulgars gain independence.
Khazars keep Kagan from Ashina dynasty, likely younger son XXX of Irbis Sheguy Khan (46) (610 – 618 AD), who was a former governor of Chach and grandson of Tardū Kagan (Kara Churīn), he was a brother of Tun Yabgu Kagan and El-Tigin Buyuruq (Nili Khan, Parmuda). XXX brothers were....
651 Khazaria with center in Semender (Semender - Hunnic/Suvar capital till 723) bordered in the east with W.Türkic Kaganate of  Kagan Yshbara Khan with center in Bin-Bulak (Thousand Springs) S of r. Talas. In 651, Khazaria is still a minor splinter of W.Türkic Kaganate (Instead of unrelated Semender, Khazar domain wedged between southern and northern Savirs, creating separate Karajar/Chernihiv and Caucasian Savirs' domains - S.Pletneva)
651 Defeat of Hunno-Alan (Masgut) (erroneously called Khazar army) army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euphrates battle
651 Fall of the Sassanid Empire, in which the Pahlavi script was official (Aramaic remained medium of everyday writing and provided scripts for writing Middle Persian/Sassanid)..
652 Conquest of and recognition by S. Caucasian countries of Arab Caliphate dominance. Agvania suffers double tribute duty (652-664), to Huns and Arabs, appeal to Huns for liberation
652 End of first Khazar-Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman. Reference to Khazars in Arabic sources is apparent backward projection. The first Khazar-Arab war is Savir-Arab war
652 Khazars (i.e. Hunno-Savirs) smash Arab army at Balanjar
653 653-654 Arab first campaign against Hunno-Savir state, defeat of Arab army
654 Albania (Aguania) reverted back to Huns
655 Pletneva: Capture by Khazars of part of Crimea from Kurbat Bulgaria ?
655 Gumilev: Khazars cooperate with Iranian speaking Alans. Khazars is apparent backward projection, a misnomer for Hunno-Savirs. Alan is a member of Türkic Tele confederation, Türkic speaking, see “Sui shu“ (581 to 618) chapter 84 “Description Of Tele”
656 Campaign of  Chinese Tang Empire (Toba/Tabgach Empire) against W Türkic Kaganate. Sogdiana (Chinese “Kang-chu“) occupied by Chinese (657-700). Resistance of Baiyrku, Sige, Bugu and Tonra tribes against Chinese occupation (Bugu is speculated to be a distortion of Bulgar)
656 Murder of Osman. Civil war in Caliphate. Founded Khazar state
657 657-659 Demise of W Türkic Kaganate
659 W Türkic Kagan Yshbara Khan died. W Türkic Kaganate ceased to exist
659 Unnamed members of W Türkic Kaganate royal Ashina clan move to western ulus E of Itil
660 Pletneva: 660 (provisional date) Migration of Khan Asparuh horde to Danube ?
660 Post-Kurbat 8 year period (643-650) after which Khazars overrun Bulgar homelands.
660 Kurbat's 1st son Bayan (Batbayan) remains in Great Bulgaria confederated with Khazars
660 Agvanian Djevanshir defeats Khazars
660 - 1016 (618?–1048?)
N.Pontic, N.Caspian, tributaries in Eastern Europe (Total Area - 1,000,000 Km2)
Founder - Kagan Kaban (boar) (Ashina dynasty), maternal dynastic tribe - Barsil
661 Albanian Prince defeats Khazars/Arran . Albanian Prince Djuansher (aka Javanshir, Djevanshir), 636-669.
662 Arabs fight Khazars (i.e. Huns) for Derbent
664 Another Huns' military campaign in Caucasus Albania, Arabs kicked out of Albania (occupied 652-664), Alp Ilitver sent to Djuansher (aka Javanshir) his brothers with request for restoration of alliance
667 150K Kumans, Turkmens, Kuk-Oguses and Kyrgises confederated as Khazars cross Idel.
Shambat and Asparukh battle Khazars, loose and flee to Bashtu, present Kiev.
668 Peace treaty between Khazars'  Kagan Kaban and Kara Bulgar's Baltavar Bat-Boyan.
Kara Bulgar with Onogurs is subordinated to Khazar.
669 Palace coup and fratricide in Aguania, Savirs interfere but are satisfied with confirmation of anti-Arab alliance by Djuansher's brother Varaz-Trdat (669-699).
670 Bat-Boyan Kurbat Bulgars are defeated by Khazars.
Khazars recover territory with east Bulgar (Utugur, former
East/Left Wing) and Alan (Masgut) populations.
670 Khazars under Alp-Ilitver (Alp Elteber) defeat Bulgars
679 Kurbat's Bulgaria is split into independent (Byzantium Federatae) west Khanaate under Asparukh, controlling from Donets on East to Danube on West, and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, subject to Khazar Kagan from Itil to Donets, with capital Phanagoria (Banja).
680 Avar empire peaked at end of 7th century (680 AD), after division of Kurbat Bulgaria between Avars and Khazars, when Avaria extended from Volga to Danube.
682 Mission of Albania bishop Israil to Hunno-Savirs
682 Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes “Kingdom of Huns“ (Belendjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars, subordinated to Khazars.
683 Khazar raid to Armenia
683 683-685 Khazars invaded S.Caucasia, inflicted much damage and took much booty. Khazar invaders killed rulers of Armenia and Georgia
684 Khazar (i.e. Hunnic-Masgut) raid to  to S.Caucasia occupied by Arabs; Arran, Armenia, and Georgia looted 
688 Khazar Kagan Busir Glavan; fl.  688–711, ally of Byzantine Emperor Rhino  ~ Justinian II, 669 – 711, nickmed Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus “the slit-nosed” of Heraclian Dynasty
689 Khazars occupied Bulgarian capital Banja (Phanagoria, Tamatarcha, Tmutarakan). Bulgars rebuilt their capital Banja in a new place, at the Samara Bend on Itil (Murom fortress, 53.35°N 49.30°E)
692 692-693 Arab ruler of Armenia Mahmet II invaded Albania, occupied Derbent, but could not hold it
695 Dethronement of Justinian II Cut-nose (685-695 d. 711) and his refuge in Kherson
695 Khazars in full control of Crimea
700 Khazars are frequently allied with Huns of North Caucasus.
Alp Elteber (Viceroy) of Huns of North Caucasus, is a vassal of Khazars (El “land, country”, teber “halberd, double-bitted ax” fr. teb-/tep- “kick, stamp”).
Huns' (Kayi Huns) capital city is Varachan (late 10 c).
700 700-750 Khazars at their peak
703 Busir (Ibousir-Glavan) becomes Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate (703?-….).
703 Khazar (unnamed) royal princess, Kagan Busir Glavan's sister, ...marries Byzantine emperor Justinian II to become Empress Theodora.
705 Byzantine emperor Justinian II Cut-nose (705-711 restored)
711 Byzantine Emperor Justinian II reoccupied Cherson and captured there Khazar tudun.
711 Execution of Justinian II Cut-nose, Khazars attack of S.Caucasia
711 Khazars help to install Phillipicus as an Byzantine Emperor
711 End (??) of Khazar Kagan Busir Glavan; fl.  688–711, new Kagan...Kuk-Kuyan (693?-745) (??), then Khazar Kagan Bulan (...730...)
713 Second Arab–Khazar war (710–737). Capture of Derbent by Arab commander Maslama and intrusion of his armies into depth of Khazaria
714 Khazars (i.e. Huns-Suvars) lose Derbent to Arabs
715 Khazar (i.e. Huns-Suvars) army of 80K liberates Albania (under codename Arran) from Arabs
717 Byzantine emperor Leo III from Isaurian mountains (717-741) with strong Türkic domestic and foreign orientation
718 Khazars (Huns-Masguts) invade (raid Arab vassal) Azerbaijan.
721 Arab commander Jerrah campaign to Khazaria, capture of Belendjer/Balanjar (Karatay O. reads Balanjar as Groznyi: beliŋ “panic, terror” (Clauson, ED, p. 343) + jer “place, earth”). Khazars moved their capital near to Itil. Campaigns of Arab generals Abd Al Rahman (642-652), Jarrah (721/722), Maslama (727/728), Marwan (737/738),
721 Khazar arms take Alan/Central Caucasus , i.e. Khazar army comes to help Masguts against Jerrah army.
721 Khazars smash Arabs In Armenia/defunct Persia
722 Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737), still a Savir - Arab war
First campaign of Arabian troops led by J. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars
722 722/723 battle of Arab forces led by Jarrah with Khazars on river Ar-Rana, Arabs defeated Khazars, took Balanjar and Vabandar, and ransacked Haidak (Kayi country)
723 Khazars (Huns-Masguts) lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar (modern Mahachkala)
723 Khazars move capital to Itil from Samandar . Semender was a Hunnic capital, not Khazar's; Khazars used Semender as field command center during war time.  Semandar (Semender),  Derbent, and Balanjar were abandoned in course of 727/728 campaign of Arab commander Maslama.
723 723-724 Arab commander Jerrah campaigns against Alans (Masguts)
723 723-944 Start of massive Jewish emigration to Khazaria
723 ca 723 First reference to name Ungaria as a country-name in a source: “a tyrannide et decimis regis Ungariae liberare (to set free from tyranny and tithes of king of Hungary(Onogurs in Europe?)
724 Jarrah raids Khazaria N. of Balanjar . Jarrah was killed at Balanjar, his body was mummified, and kept as relict
725 Abdallah al-Hakami (Jarrah) defeats Khazars at Balanjar . Jarrah was killed at Balanjar, his body was mummified, and kept as relict
725 Abdallah al-Hakami (Jarrah) takes Dariel pass / Alan (Masgurs)
725 725 - 729 Maslamah campaign raids Khazaria/loot and slaves
727 Khazars invade Azerbaijan. Muslama's raid against Khazars
727 In 727/728 Arab commander Maslama entered into abandoned by their residents cities Derbent, Balanjar, and Semandar (Semender).
729 729 - 730 Jarrah reaches Volga delta / loot and slaves . Jarrah was long dead, it was Maslama who reaches Itil delta
730 Khazar commander Barjik led Khazar troops through Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At Battle of Ardabil, Khazars defeated entire Arab army. Battle of Ardabil lasted for three days, and resulted in death of major Arab general Jarrah. Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time
730 Khazar's Barjik leads 300K army to raid Azerbaijan (Albania?).
At Arbadil, Khazars defeat entire Arab army.
730 Acceptance of Judaism by Khazar Kagan Bulan of Ashina dynasty
730 730-731 Khazar campaigns against Albania, capture of its capital Ardebil, defeat of Jerrah Arab army
730 Khazars kill Governor Jarrah /Ardabil city
730 Khazars loot and pillage Tabriz / Armenia
730 Khazars smash Arab army at Ardabil city / Armenia
732 Caliph pays Khazars for service annually 100k dirhams
732 Leo III Isaur's son prince Constantin Copronim's (Constantine V, 741-775) dynastic marriage to sister Chichak (Empress Irina) of Khazar Kagan from Ashina clan. (Daughter of Kagan )
732 Khazar princess Chichek marries Byzantine emperror Constantine V to become Empress Irene.
732 Arab commander Mervan campaign to Derbent and Belendjer (“Muddy Campaign“)
732 Khazars defeat Arabs again / loot and slaves
732 Marwan raids Khazaria / loot and slaves . Campaigns of Arab generals Abd Al Rahman (642-652), Jarrah (721/722), Maslama (727/728), Marwan (737/738).
735 Arab commander Mervan campaign to Khazaria, catastrophic defeat of Khazar army
737 Arabs defeat Khazars with aid from Armenian allies . (Marwan (737/738)? Christian Armenians in cahoots with Moslem Arabs against their traditional patron and defender Huns?)
737 Arabs (Marwan (737/738)?) occupy Dagestan littorals / on Caspian
737 Arabs force conversion to Islam. …... Kagan Kuk-Kuyan (“Blue Rabbit”) becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam for political reasons (703?-….).
737 Acceptance by Khazar Kagan Bardjil of Islam as a condition of staying in power
737 Marwan, an Arab general, captured the Khazar Kagan and forced him to pledge support to the Caliphate and convert to Islam
737 Initially converted to Islam, Khazar princes adopted Judaism towards 740 and were eventually converted to Christianity by St Cyril (non-existent post-mortem title  of Constantine, ca. 826/7–869) in the ninth century (Don't bet your house on this kind of scholarship)
737 Khazars (i.e. Huns) loose Samandar to Arabs, move capital to Itil.
740 Byzantine emperor Constantine V (741-775), half Khazar and partially Türk on father's side
740 Local kingdoms pay wheat tribute to Arabs / Caucasus
740 Khazars adopt Judaism / state religion  (Khazar Kagan just agreed to personally adopt Islam as a condition of being left a Kagan and evacuation of Marwan army; no concept of state religion in Khazaria, in a free society the Khazarian tradition is religious tolerance and freedom of religion; both timing and event are incredible, timing is a whole century off)
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
743 Civilization created by Great Türkic Kaganate was carried on by many peoples: Kypchaks, Kimaks, Uigurs, Bechens, Oguzes, Karluks, Kyrgyzes, Türgeshes, Khazars, Bulgars and others who inherited it after destruction of Kaganate
747 Khan Marduan of Dagestani Bulgars, Burjans, build a small wooden city, named city Marduan at confluence of Kama and Itil. Khazars called it Mardukan. Present Bulgar (Great Bulgar)
749 Abbasid Caliph comes to power, Abu al-Abbas . Khazars (i.e. Moslem Khazars) do not recognize the Abbasid coup or their version of Islam. For next century, Khazars remain true to Umayyad version of Islam
750 700-750 Khazars at their peak
750 Oguzes migrate to Aral basin, displace nomadic Kangars and Besenyo/Bajinaks/Bosnyaks to west of Itil. Unstoppable mass migration of Kangars and Besenyo/Bajinaks/Bosnyaks into Khazar Kaganate territory
750 Displaced Kangars and Besenyo/Bajinaks/Bosnyaks settle in Eastern Europe.
Eventually, Kangars wedge between southern domain and northern dependent Khazar possessions, spitting Khazaria in two, cutting off northern part from southern part, and making northern part “no man's land” in respect to Khazaria but remaining Bulgarian dependents
751 Arabs and Khazars stop Chinese at Samarkand
754 Name of Khazars in Türkic script contemporary record Qasar in the Terh Inscription. Same name of Khazars in Achik-Tash Inscription (8th c.). That inspires a doomed speculation that Khazar is an allophone of Caesar
758 Second Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur (714 AD – 775 AD) marries Yazid (Caliphate high official?) to Khazar Kagan’s daughter .
758 Arab–Khazar war
760 Khazar Kagan Boghatur ( Bogatur, i.e. “Hero”, 760?-…)
761 Record of a name hungarus
762 Khazars, led by As Tarkhan, re-conquer S.Caucasia
762 Khazar invasion into Sis-Caucasia.
764 Khazars take Tbilisi
772 War between Greeks (Constantine V, 741–775) and Bulgars (Telerig ,768–777, of unknown birth (Djagfar Tarihi identifies Telerig as Dilyarek, a son of the Khan Telets/Teles of Ugain tribe). Khazaria unites with Alania
775 Leo IV “Khazar“ emperor of Byzantine Empire (775-780)
780 Leo II, greatson of Khazar Kagan, ruler of Abkhazia. (780-….)
786 Khazars help Abkhazia to free from Byzantine and Abkhazia becomes Khazar dependency.
786 Baghdad Caliph Harun-ar-Rashid (786-809)
786 786-787 Confrontation between local Crimean Christian church authority and Khazar garrison in Gothic capital Doros (Dori, present Mangup Kale, Ukraine) near Kherson (present Sevastopol, Ukraine). Gothia population rose up and expelled garrison. Khazars defeated Goths.
787 Onogurs loyal to Khazars settle near Southern Buh river (eastyern part of Atilkuzu lit. “Fatherland folk”)
787 787-791 John the Goth revolt in Byzantine Crimea supported by Khazars
795 Tudun, an Avar leading officer, went to Charlemagne and declared himself ready for converting to Christianity.
797 797–809 Occurrence of the name Hungarius
798 798 or 799 Last Khazar campaign against Arab-ruled S. Caucasia
799 799-809 Reforms of Khazar Kagan Obadia, official acceptance of Judaism as a state religion with continued policy of religious tolerance. Spread of Jewish religion in Kaganate. Khazar ruling house called with Hebrow Togarmah (or just Türkic people)???
799 Upper and middle leaders and a part of Khazar population converted to Judaism (recalculated to 1000 AD population, 100,000 Türkic Judaic Ashkenazim people marked by R1b and R1a migrated to Europe after 1000 AD, or 1.5. mln modern Ashkenazim of 2000 AD)
810 810-820 Revolt of Tengrian Kabars in Khazar Kaganate. Kabar clans eventually migrate to Pannonia, join Hungarians, and assimilate. Three tribes of Türkic Kubars are Baryn (Bereny, dynastic tribe of Suvars/Savirs), Savirs (Sabar ~ Szabar), Ases (Eslar-Oslar ~ Eszlar-Oszlar), Khazar (Kazar), Esgels (Seklers ~ Szekely), Alat (Khalaj ~ Kaliz-Kalaz). Six ethnic names are listed as three tribes, so some tribes had ethnically different tribes under a single tribal head. The three Türkic tribes constituted the armed forces of the alliance, they were to rule and to perish in battles. Kabars were headed by Ulubek aka Ulugbek, in Hu. Gyula.
817 Inhabitants of Samandar revolt against attempts by Khazar Kagan Karak to introduce Judaism
820 Khazars found Sambata (sam “high”, bat “stronghold”) and Kyiv (kui “low”, or kuu “white”, ev “settlement”), settled by Khazars and Magyars.
822 822-836 Intrusion of Hungarians into Black Sea Coast where? against whom?
829 Byzantine emperor Theophilus (829-842)
830 Khazar Kagan Xan-Tuvan (Dyggvi) (830?-…)
830 Construction of Sarkel fortress by Khazars with Byzantium's help. Speculations against whom? Ruses? Kangars? Magyars (Hungarian version)?
833 833 or 838 Fortress Sarkel is built by Khazars and Byzantines.
834 Byzantine mission to Khazaria purportedly for construction of fortress in Sarkel, but not doing it
837 837-838 Khazar envoys in Byzantine successful in lobbying for Khazar fortress to be built by Byzantines, at the strategic point of Don named Sarkel (White Fortress), it was erected by Byzantine engineers transported and protected by Byzantine fleet from Paphlagonian theme (military district). Conflict with other earlier dates: 830, 833, 834
842 Muhamad ibn Musa Al Khwarizmi works in Khazar Kagan's palace, sent there by Caliph Al-Wathiq.
850 Itil Bulgarian Empire ally of Khazars
850 9th c. Personal name of Poznan (present-day Poland) Bishop Uuunnigerus has ethnic name Onogur.
859 Shilki lost battle to Khazar Kagan Iskhak at Baltavar (Poltava)
859 Kara Bulgar lost Bashtu (Kiev) and Urus (Novgorod) uluses to Khazars.
Khazars organize them as ulus Rus.
Kagan Iskhak appoints Norman Dir (Bulg. Djir), head of Slavic militia in Bashtu, a ruler (governor) of Rus, and Norman Ascold (Bulg. As-Khalib) a Viceregent of Rus
859 Vikings pay Khazars tribute
860 860-862 Kushtan (Constantine)-Baksan (baptized Cyril on his deathbed), brother of Bandja (baptized Methodius), travel to Khazaria
860 ca 860's-870's Earliest source on Khazar Judaic conversion, Druthmar of Aquitaine commentary on Matthew Expositio in Matthaeum Evangelistam calls “Hunnic people who call themselves Gazari,... a tribe more brave than the others,... already been circumcised, and they profess all dogmata of Judaism... Bulgars are also from those seven tribes”
861 Religious debate in Khazar court (Khazar Polemic) between Cyril (Constantine of Thesalonica (826-869 A.D.), reportedly seventh child of Leo the Drungar) and Methodius, Rabbi Yitzhak Ha Sangari, and Muslem cleric Farabi Ibn Kora, plus Ateh, Khazar Princess (Christian version).
861 Khazar Bulan Bek, nobility and some common people convert to Judaism.
861 Khazar kings converted to Judaism. A Jewish dynasty of kings presided over the Khazar kingdom until the 960s
862 Chronist Nestor gives 862 as year of creation of Rus.
Ruses are rulers of Slavs. Ruses live in military settlements and “feed“ by spoils, a part of which was rendered to Jewish Khazars.
Slavs are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry.
875 Khazars built a glass factory in Hrodna (present Belarus)
880 Benjamin, Kagan of Khazars 10 Years / Itil
882 Khan Alabuga of a Baryn line of Sabans starts a city, named later Bilyar.
883 883-885 Conquest of Acathyrs (Slav. Drevlyan, i.e. Foresters), and switch of some Seber clans (Slav. Severyan) and Radimiches to Salahbi Yolyg (yolyg means “divinator, prophet“) (Slav. Oleg, aka Veschiy Oleg, i.e Oleg the Seer, 882-916) of incipient Kyiv Rus
886 Leo VI, Emperor of Byzantium
889 After 889. Besenyos break through Khazar border guards and replace Magyars from Levedia
889 Intrusion of Badjanks (Besenyos), displaced by Oguses from Yaik steppes, into N.Pontic steppes
890 Allied with Khazars Oguzes harassed Bechens, who at the end of 9-10 cc hurriedly proceeded to the west. Bechens' migration was accompanied by plundering and fires. Bechens stopped in Dnepro-Don interfluvial. Second branch of Bechens stopped in foothills of N.Caucasus
890 Arbat (Arpad) Madjar of Dulo clan (ca 895-907), senior son of Bulgarian Kaan Almysh (895-925, baptized Djafar in 922) displaced chieftain Kurszán of Magyars (Madjars) as Prince of Magyars, future Hungarians, and established Arpad dynasty. Kurszán is moved to sacral figurehead position of the horde's tribal confederation. Hungarians escape Khazar domination after 3-years stay in Lebedia in  Khazar territory, and moving to Atelkuzy (future Bessarabia). Arbat (Arpad) Madjar must have been Bulgarian governor of N.Pontic ulus where Magyars led by chieftain Lebed stayed for 3-years.
894 Magyar Prince Levente leads Khazar Kabars against Bulgaria (??) (Must be the Bulgar (Simeon)-Magyar war of 895-896 initiated by Greeks, Greeks (Leo) betrayed Magyars, Simeon beat off Magyars and incited Kangars/Bechens to attack Magyars. Magyars, defeated in Bulgaria, had to flee to Pannonia (896))
894 Hungarian campaign to Danube (After Simeon gave his cousin Arbat and his Magyars a shelter in Atilkuzu, Greeks (Leo) incited Magyars to turn against Danube Bulgars by promising allied campaign using Greek fleet. Simeon wields 40,000 cavalry, attesting to 200,000 nomadic population)
895 Defeat of Hungarians by Badjanks (Besenyos), retreat of Hungarians to Atelkuzu (future Bessarabia)
895 Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power
895 Itil Bulgaria census lists 550K, 200K are Saban-speaking Bulgars, 180K-Ars (Udmurts, Finno-Ugors), 170K-Modjars
895 Some Khazar Kabars settle in Transilvania/Hungary with Magyars.
895 Magyars expelled from Russia . There was no Russia from 895 to 1450, Magyars were expelled first from Levedia a Khazar territory, then Atilkuzu, a Bulgarian territory
896 Khazar Magyars move west toward  Hungary  via Atelkuzu
896 Founding date of Hungary. Seven tribes of Magyars settled in Carpathian Basin. Kingdom of Hungary was formed by seven Magyar and three Khazar tribes. Actually, most of tribes have Türkic names, leaders are also Türkic: “Khazars” - Kubars (in Hungarian spelling) are Baryn (Bereny, dynastic tribe of Suvars/Savirs), Savirs (Sabar ~ Szabar), Ases (Eslar-Oslar ~ Eszlar-Oszlar), Khazar (Kazar), Esgels (Seklers ~ Szekely), Alat (Khalaj ~ Kaliz-Kalaz); “Magyar” tribes are Jenő, Kér (Chir), Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat (Başkurt Yurmati, allophone of Sarmat), Megyer, Nyék and Tarján (Türkic Tarkhan “nobleman of highest rank”), of them Kesi, Ker, Kürt, and Tarkhan also carry Türkic appellations.
901 “Khazar” campaign against Derbent led by K_sa son of B_l_dj_an (Bulčan, Bulchan)
902 Varangian Rus mentioned serving in Byzantine naval expedition to Crete. Rus also serve Khazars and mercenaries.
904 Oleg, Prince of Kiev (882-916), remains a vassal of Avar Kaganate, divided between Bulgarian principalities. (In 859 to Khazars??)
909 With Varyag allies Rus cohort captures Khazar fort Abezgun on Caspian
909 Capture by Ruses of Abesgun island in Caspian Sea and destruction of local merchant fleet
912 Reign of Ummayad Caliph Abdarrahman III (912-961)
913 Joined attack of Badjanks (Besenyos), Oguzes and Ases (Alans) on Khazars
913 Raid of Rus state pirates on Caspian Sea coastal population headed by Salahbi Yolyg (Slav. Oleg, aka Veschiy Oleg, i.e Oleg the Seer, 882-916)
913 Khazars demolish Rus marauding expedition fleet
915 First encounter of Badjanks (Besenyos) with Rus and their peace with prince Ugyr Lachini (916-945, Slav. Igor the Old, son of Lachyn Dulo, aka Rürik, 855-882)
916 Al-Istahri reports that in 916 Semender king professed Judaism and was a relative of  Khazar Kagan (king/malik, which could be Bek)
920 Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or As), Oguz, Byzantines, Kengeres and Kara Bulgars.
920 Itil Bulgar Baltavar (Elteber) Almush (Almas) allies with Caliphate as counterbalance to Khazars.
Beginnng of minting Itil Bulgar money - dirham
920 Constantine VII employs foreign guards from Khazaria
922 Khazaria army composed of Burtases and Kumans revolted, overthrew Khakan (Kagan) Arslan (-922) and installed Modjar (922-), son of ruling Bek, as Khakan (Kagan)
922 Travel of Ibn-Fadlan to Itil Bulgaria
922 City Nur-Suvar founded (922-1246). Present name Tatarskiy (Sham-Suar).
925 Sarkal (Sarkel) fort rebuilt in Khazaria
930 Itil Bulgaria has 30 cities. Khasan built: Matak, Nukrat, Bandja (Samara) (Center of Mardan-Bellak ulus), Bulyar (citadel in Bilyar), Kamysh, Simbir, Gazan-Deber, Kashan, Tukhcha, Tau-Kerman (Sviyajsk), Tash-Bulgar, Subash-Simbir, Karadjar, Djilan
930 Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage
932 Khazar-Alan war ends with victory of Khazars. Alans remain in  Khazar sphere as autonomous state and multiple Alanian colonies along Don-Sever Donets area
932 Khazars ally with Oguzes.
939 Khazar Baliqchi (city major) Pesakh defeats Ruses
939 Khazar baliqchi (city major) Pesakh defeated Ruses. According to anonymous letter written by Khazarian Jew in the 940s, Rus prince Oleg captured Khazar-held city Tmutorokan one night. Pesakh, a prominent Khazar baliqchi (governor), learned of Oleg’s actions and conquered several Crimean cities belonging to Byzantines and also did away with many Ruses. Oleg was badly defeated, and was forced to surrender to Governor-General Pesakh. This was a major Khazar victory over Rus
943 943-944 Raid of Rus state pirates on Caspian Sea coastal population including a winter in captured city Berda
944 Gali, son of Horezm Turkmen Khan Kuruk, organized a raid of his son Kubar heading troops of Turkmen mercenaries in Bulgar service under command of Yunus, to seize Khazar capital Itil and install  their protégé Ugez-Bek (Uzbek, son of Modjar) as Khazar Khakan (Kagan), with Kubar serving as his Bek
944 723-944 End of massive Jewish emigration to Khazaria
950 Magyars living in Lebedia are vassals of Khazars.
950 By the middle of 10th c. Bechens occupied large territory from Itil to Danube. Bechens played significant role in life of neighboring peoples. Bechens helped in demise of Khazar Kaganate. Byzantium maneuvered to collide Bechens with Rus. Bechens attacked Rus in 915, 920 and 968
950 Kagan Joseph rules Khazars / Itil
954 954-961 Correspondence of Hasdai Ibn-Shafrut with Khazar Kagan Joseph
960 …... becomes second Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam (960?-….).
964 Bulgarian annals provide background information on the Rus campaign against Khazaria, depicting it as a Bulgar liberation war of joint Bulgar-Rus alliance, where Bulgaria paid Ruses for the campaign by leasing out provinces Djir (future Rostov province and city of Russia), Kan (future Murom province and city) and the western Kortdjak (future Moscow, Vladimir and Ivanovo provinces), for an annual tribute equal in size to the tribute from Djir (Bulgar-Rus Treaty of 964). In the campaign participated Turkmens (Oguzes), recently defeated in the lengthy Bulgar-Turkmenian war (ca. 947-ca. 960), and Bajanaks, whose territory the Rus army had to cross, as Rus allies in the campaign. The annals describe Rus army as consisting of 20 thousand Vikings and 50 thousand Slavs.
964 Itil Bulgar Khan Mohamed's Vizier Talib signs a treaty with Rus Knyaz Svyatoslav (Barys Lachini, 945-972) promising to relinquish Djir, Kan and western part of Kortjak ulus ( Russ. Moscow, Vladimir and Ivanov provinces) in exchange for attack on Khazars and anual tribute
964 Byzantine Chersonesus governor (strategos) asks Svyatoslav (Barys Lachini, 945-972) for aid against Khazars. Svyatoslav campaign to Don. En route he attacks Volga Bulgars, raids Sarkel (Belya Veja), Itil and Tmutorakhan, also captures Chersonesus (Itil=Atil, Sarkel=Belya Veja)
964 Kengeres (Kangars) seriously threaten Khazaria
965 Part of Khazaria was conquered by the Kievan Rus prince Svyatoslav (Barys Lachini, 945-972)
965 Svyatoslav (Barys Lachini, 945-972) possibly signed agreement with Besenyos before crossing their territory. He allies with Oguz (Torks). Purpose to gain tribute from Viatchi on Oka by removing their Khazar overlords. He also conquers Yases (Ases) and Kasogs (Adygs) in Taman-Kuban area
965 Itil Bulgars gain independence after defeat of Khazars. Itil Bulgars gain independence after defeat of Khazars. 
965 Campaign of Kyiv Prince Barys (945-972, Slav. Svyatoslav I, son of Ugyr-Igor) on Khazars, capture of Itil and Sarkel. In Russian historiography this event is termed a dissolution of Khazar Kaganate and disappearance of its peoples
966 Switch of Nukrat (Slav. Vyatka, from Bulgarian Batysh = western, i.e Western Kipchaks) province's Khazar tribute obligations from Khazaria to Kyiv Rus scored by Kyiv Prince Barys (945-972, Slav. Svyatoslav I)
966 Bandja (Fanagoria), capital of Great Bulgaria in 7th c, destroyed by Kiev Knyaz Svyatoslav. Escaped inhabitants established New Bandja in Jiguli on Itil (Murom setlement). During campaign were devastated cities in the North-East Caucasus, including Semender.
967 Knyaz Svyatoslav of Kiev seizes Khazar capital Itil
969 Khazaria, broken by Svyatoslav (called Barys by Bulgars), is divided between Itil Bulgaria and N. Caucasus Saklans.
969 Northern inflow of silver dirhams from Bulgaria and Khazaria stops
972  8 Besenyo tribes (Russ. Pecheneg), under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Rus prince Svyatoslav (Barys Lachini, 945-972) and make a drinking cup of his scull. Besenyo's continuous figts with Khazars, Byzantines and Russians.
977 977-985 Khazars turn to Horesm for help, Horesm help comes conditioned by conversion of Khazars to Islam and with occupation of Khazaria's Itil and some other cities by Horesmians
981 981-982 Conquest campaign of prince Kyiv Prince Vladimir son of Barys (Svyatoslavich) against western (Slav. Vyatka, from Türk. Batysh = western) Kipchak tribe
985 Kyiv Prince Vladimir's raid against Itil Bulgaria and Khazaria
986 Khazars present Judaism to Knyaz Vladimir of Kiev, Itil Bulgars present Islam.
1000 Khazars in Kievan Rus are Slavicized and adopt East Slavic language (1000-1300)
1016 Last Khazar Kagan Georgius Tzul is captured by combined army of Byzantine Basil II and Sfengus, brother of Kiev's Grand Prince Vladimir.
Khazaria loses last independence and territories of Crimea and Taman.
660 - 1016 (618?–1048?)
N.Pontic, N.Caspian, tributaries in Eastern Europe (Total Area - 1,000,000 Km2)
Founder - Kagan Kaban (boar)
1030 Khazars destroy Kurd army / 10K Kurds
1035 Established fort Khazar (Voronej)
1048 Itil renamed Saksin /Caspian . City Saksin or Saksin Bulgar (aka Sarai Batu, 48.5°N 45.0°E, since Batu located his palace sarai there) was the Khazarian Itil according to S.Pletneva. The alternate location in delta of Itil, according to Gumilev, is presently submerged, but reports of its findings in delta of Itil show up regularly. The delta location is per Moslem reports.
1050 Before 800, Alans or Asses lived, together with Besenyos, around lower reaches of the Amu-darya (Uzboy) flowing into Caspian Sea, and later, after river changed its course, they migrated to coast of Sea of the Khazars
1079 Khazars take prisoner Rus prince Oleg (Slav. Oleg Svyatoslavich) who was prince of captured city Tamiya-Tarkhan (Slav. Tmutarakan) ship him to Byzantium
1083  Rus prince Oleg returned to city Tamiyatarkhan (Slav. Tmutarakan) and retaliated to Khazars
1096 Per Rabbi Nissim, seventeen Khazar communities join nomads (Kengeres, Bulgars, Oguses)
1206 Khazar Jews are reported to use a form of Cyrillic script.
1222 Kotyan Khan's Cumans, Bulgars, Khazars and Alans in first fight with Mongol-Tatars, accept promise not to harm them as speakers of the same Kipchak dialect to withdraw, but are attacked and defeated. Capital of Alania Magas (Meget) is seized
1242 End of Dagestani Khazar kingdom.
1246 City Nur-Suvar destroyed (922-1246). Present name Tatarskiy (Sham-Suar).
1300 Descendants of Jewish Khazars in Eastern Europe adopt Yiddish language (1300-1500).
1309 Hungarian Christian clergy edicts that Catholics cannot marry “Khazars“.
1349 Hungarian Jews, partly of Khazar origin, resettle in Poland and Austria.
In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans
Ogur and Oguz
Kurgan Culture
Andronov Culture
Afanasiev Culture
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Ephthalite Dateline Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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