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Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith

Russian Version needs a translation
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
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Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline

BULGARS

Bolgars, Bolghars, Bulgars, Bulghars, Bulhi, Bushki, Ba-go, Bao- guo, Nenders, Pu-ku, Bu-gu, Venenders, and other variations

Subdivisions and ethnic affiliates

Barsils, Barsilts, Bersulas, Belendzhers, Bandzhars, Balandzhars, Chdar-Bulgars, Duchi-Bulgar, Esegels, Hajlandurs, Hajlandurkh, Khazars, Kupi-Bulgars, Kotrags, Kutigurs, Kutrigurs, Oghondors, Olhontor-Blkars, Onogurs, Pugurs, Unoguns, Unogundurs, Venenders, Sabirs, Suvars, and other variations

Modern (surviving) endonyms

Apaas, Bersuly, Besermen, Biler, Bortas, Buler (Bulumer), Bulgars, Chalmaty, Kaepych (Kayi), Nohrat, Saba kul, Suar (Suvar), Tatars, Temtuz, Yskyly (Esegs, Scolots, Seklers/Szeklers)

Introduction

I attempted to collect events, records and facts pertaining to the Türkic history. There is an abundance of timelines. There are topic timelines in most of the history books, timeline encyclopedias and timeline dictionaries. The Türkic history, however, is there only incidentally, as a secondary-tertiary subject shown only at the time of the greatest impact on the central theme of the Greek and Roman world, or the center theme of a particular monograph. The Türkic history timeline lists the development of the Türkic societies, and includes the peoples and countries mutually impacted by the Türkic peoples. It gives the events in the Türkic world with the background of the neighboring societies.

Of many baseless and some demeaning etymologies, the most reasonable is derived from the Bulgars' original location in the Balkh valley, hence Balkhar ~  Bulgar.

Bulgars 4000 BC-336 AD
Bulgars 337-499 AD
Bulgars 500-599 AD
Bulgars 600-799 AD
Bulgars 800-1099 AD
Bulgars 1100-1299 AD
Bulgars 1300-1922 AD
Ku-Süns, Wu-Süns
Huns ca 200 BC
Ku-Süns, Huns
ca 0 AD
Bulgars
ca. 100-700 AD
Balkh
ca. 100-500 AD
Bactria-Balkh Kushan 2c AD W Hun Empire
ca 450 AD
Bel Kermek Bulgaria
ca 460 AD
Altyn Oba
ca 600 AD
 
     
  Kurbat Bulgaria
ca 650 AD
Bulgaria in Khazaria
ca 850 AD
Itil Bulgaria
ca 970 AD
Bulgaria
ca 1050
Bulgaria
ca 1150
Kipchak Kanate
ca 1237 AD
Bulgaria
ca 1367
   

 

       

4000 BC-336 AD

DATELINE
Time Events
4000 BC

4-3 millennium BC Ancient barrow (pit) archeological culture, formation of pra-Türks. Kurgans.

3450 BC

World's first cities appear along banks of Tigris and Euphrates. They make up Uruk culture, with principal city Uruk, Biblical Erech. This culture invents writing and lunar calendar, uses metals, develops medicine, builds monumental architecture.

3450 BC

In Uruk culture no unified government evolves, and they remain independent for almost one thousand years

3200 BC

Sumerians are making use of wheeled transportation

3100 BC

Cuneiform writing emerges in Mesopotamia. This form of writing, involving wedge-shaped characters, is used to record first epics in world history, including Enmerkar and Lord of Aratta and first stories about Gilgamesh

2700 BC

Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, rules city of Uruk, which has now grown to a population of more than 50,000. Gilgamesh is subject of many epics, including Sumerian ”Gilgamesh and Enkidu in Nether World” and Babylonian ”Epic of Gilgamesh”

2320 BC

Sargon conquers independent city-states of Sumer and institutes central government

2130 BC

Sumer regains its independence from Akkadian rule, though it does not revert back to independent city-states. At this time, Sumer is ruled from important city of Ur

2100 BC

Sumerian King List is written, recording all kings and dynasties ruling Sumer from earliest times. According to this list, Eridu is named as earliest settlement, a claim that seems to be confirmed by archeological evidence

2000 BC

2000-1600 BCE: Old Babylonian period begins after collapse of Sumer, probably due to increase in soil salt content thereby making farming difficult. Weakened by poor crops, lack of surplus goods, Sumerians are conquered by Amorites, situated in Babylon

2000 BC

Consequently, center of civility shifts north. Though they preserve most of Sumerian culture, Amorites introduce their Semitic language, an early ancestor to Hebrew, into region

1900 BC

Epic of Gilgamesh is redacted from Sumerian sources and written in Semitic language. Thus, though Gilgamesh was Sumerian, his Epic is Babylonian

1750 BC

Semitic group of nomads migrate from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt. They are led by a caravan trader, Patriarch Abraham, who will become father of Israel nation

1766 BC

Eventually recorded Chinese traditions tell of Kia, 17th member of old Chinese Hia dynasty, dethroned due to evil ways. His son Sunni went with 500 members of his Hia nationality to Hun relatives. Hia still has many common words with Altaic languages

1766 BC

Oldest Türkic words are in Chinese annual chronicles noting cultural and political events. Hsiung-nu words tanry, kut, byorü, ordu, tug, kylych etc are oldest monuments of Türkish language. State rulers' endoethnonym is Hun, Türkic ”man, male, people”

1763 BC

Amorite King, Hammurabi, conquers Sumer. He writes Code of Laws containing 282 rules including principles of ”an eye for an eye” and ”let buyer beware”. It is one of first codes of law in world history, predated only by Laws of Lipit-Ishta

1750 BC

Hammurabi empire lasts for another one hundred and fifty years, until 1600, when Kassites (Kas=Türk. ‘mountain’), a non-Semitic people, conquer most of Mesopotamia with help of light chariot warfare

1500 BC

15-9 centuries BC Frame culture. Kurgans.

1500 BC

First evidence of widespread organized pastoral nomadic economy in Bronze Age Andronovo culture (mid-second to early first millennium B.C.), found throughout steppe. Settlements of up to forty rectangular, semi-subterranean dwellings found at Atasu, Karkaralinsk and Alekseevka in Kazakhstan. In Dzhezkazgan and Zyryanovsk are found mines from this period

1390 BC First elements of Hun state in highlands of Ordos
1200 BC

First Hun state in highlands of Ordos

1200 BC

Cimmerians (Turk. Kam-er, Kim-er - ”river man”, akin to ”Suv-ar”, ”Bulak-ar” (”Bolkar, Bulgar”), ”Sub-ar”, ”Suv-ar”, ”Shum-er”) begin to occupy Pontic Steppe

800 BC

Assirian chronicles report about Cimmerian invasion to countries of Transcaucasus and Near East. Beginning of Scythian domination in East-European steppes. Assyrians called Cimmerians Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen. XI)

800 BC

Plinius of Scythian origins: ”Ultra sunt Scytharum populi, Persae illos Sacas in universum appellavere a proxima gente, antiqui Arameos”

800 BC

Hesiod, 7th Century BC, writes: Inventors of bronze working were Scythians. Early Mesopotamian name of metal Zubur, indicates that northern Mesopotamian Subartuan's or a people of region were indeed inventors of process.

800 BC

Herodotus on origin of Scythians from area of eastern Anatolia: ”nomad Scythians living in Asia (once only Near East) were attacked by Sarmatians and were forced to cross Araxes (modern Turkish Aras) and wander to land of Cimmerians.”

800 BC

Greeks associated invention of iron working with northern Mesopotamian and Anatolian Scythian tribes like Kalybs tribe which gave steel its name in many early European languages. In time Sarmatians and Yazig absorb Kalybs.

800 BC

Kalybs are absorbed by Sarmatians and Yazig, via Yazig cavalry taken by Romans to Britain and were foundation of King Arthur myths of Ex-Calibur, and sword myths, which are all early Anatolian traditions.

800 BC

Sword myths traditions are all early Anatolian, are also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst early Scythians.

723 BC Guesstimate 100 years before their migration, Tribes (Rongs) named by Chinese Shaohao, Taotang and Youyu can be respectively traced to Tribes (Rongs) later called Yun , Daxia and Yuzhi. Tribes (Rongs) Yun, Daxia, Yuzhi and Suoju appeared in pre-Chin/Qin (pre-221 BC) records and books, seem to be precursors of Asii, Tochari, Gaisani and Sacarauli.

Shaohao known as Yun state lived in Etsin Gol (Ruo Shui) valley. Shaohao who moved to Guazhou were branded “Yun villains”. “Yuns” split, some assimilating among Chinese tribes, and others migrating westwards. Easternmost migrants who reached Ili and Chu river valleys became Sai tribe, and west of Hami (Kumul) migrants became known as Wusuns.

722 BC

Pi-van moves capital to the East to Loi or Tsyaju, supposedly because capital with some Chjou territory was under ”barbarians” because of disturbances. Later Tsin rulers Syan-gun and Ben-gun captured this territory. Only a part of land returned to Chjou

710 BC

In late 8th century BC Cimmerian and Scythian troops fought against Assyrian king Sargon II, and at end of 6th century BC conflict arose between Scythians and Achaemenian King Darius I

700 BC

Scythians replace Cimmerians in Steppe region

700 BC

Cimmerian tombs of their kings were shown on Tyras (Dniestr), and on south-east another group threatened Assyrians

700 BC

Scyths (Assyrian Ashguzai, Heb. Ashkenax, fr. Türk. As - “nomad”, Güz, Kish, Kiji - “tribe, people”) whom Assyrians welcomed as allies and used against Cimmerians, against Medes and even against Egypt. Hence references to Scyths in Hebrew prophet (Jer. IV.3, VI. 7).

685 BC

685 - 643 BC Rule in Tsi of Huan - hun

679 BC

Huan - hun organizes a congress of rulers (i.e. kurultai) in Tsi, taking that right from Chjou

659 BC

659 - 621 Rule of Mu-hun in Tsin

653 BC

Scythian interregnum in Median Dynasty history. Herodotus dating of this event remains uncertain but traditionally it is seen as falling between reigns of Phraortes and Cyaxares and as covering years 653 to 625 BC.

633 BC

Scythian invasion to Transcaucasus and Fore-Asia.

623 BC Duke Mu of pre-China Chin dominated Western Tribes (Xi-rong/Hi-rong) extending for 1,000 li [416 km], possibly causing Saka (Sai) tribes to migrate west. Saka (Sai) tribes appeared in valleys of Ili and Chu rivers by end of seventh century BC possibly coming from east.
600 BC

F. Altheim ”Das Alte Iran” writes that Iranian Avesta's most archaic texts, Gathas, are still not understood by today's linguists.

600 BC 6th-7th centuries BC Onogurs (Honogurs, Phonogurs), direct ancestors of Bulgars, lived in Northern Pontic. Greeks, colonizing Northern Pontic, built cities of Phanagoria and Panticapaeum in place of same-named Türkic settlements: Phanagoria is city founded by Onogurs. Panticapaeum is Türkic name with meaning ‘Pontus Gate’.
600 BC

R. Stiehlel writes, it is quite obvious that language of old Avesta is closely tied to ancient Altaic languages. Since newcomers to Iran joined older settled inhabitants often associated with Scythians, Türks and Finno-Ugrians, and borrowed much

600 BC

Many of local people were Iranianized, today we call certain Scythian nations as Iraninan in origin. Much of Persian literature in Persepolis is not in Iranian but in aboriginals' Elamite language that up until last century was also called Scythian

600 BC

About 500-600 BC Hungarians moved south to steppes, where, according to linguistic evidence, they took animal breeding from Chuvash people, as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture in Hungarian language are of Chuvash origin

521 BC

Darius I ”the Great” succeeds Cambyses as emperor of Persia. He engages in many large building programs, including a system of roads. In addition, he institutes first postal system

520 BC

6th cent. BC Invasion of Transoxiana by Achaemenids of Persia under Darius I and Cyrus

516 BC

Darius' expedition (516 - 513 BC) against Scythians in N. Pontic is described in great detail by Herodotus, who provided first and perhaps most penetrating description of Europian great nomad empire

510 BC

Hecataeus (6th century B.C.) map showing Scyths

512 BC

Scythian war with army of Persian king Darius I Hystaspos invading Scythia

500 BC

Herodotus mentioned Sarmatians living to north of Scythians of N. Pontic regions and not close to their old homelands along Araxes, Sarmatians must have been a long time thorn in Scythian side.

500 BC

Herodotus: ”Anyone who does business with Scyths (Sakae) needs seven interpreters speaking seven languages”

500 BC

Scythians who make this journey (via Budini (Beçen/Peçenek, Budun=Türk. “clan, nation, people”), Thyssagetae (Tis-Saka-it =Türk. outer Sakas), Iyrcae (Yürük=Türk. nomad), Argippaeans (Arik-bay=Türk. pure+ bay=rich man) communicate with inhabitants by means of seven interpreters and seven languages.

500 BC

Sarmate (Sauromatae, Sarma-te=Türk. ‘with sac’) speak language of Scythia, live W of Palus Maeotis (Azov Sea). W of Tanais (Don) and fifteen days' journey N of Sarmate, dwell Budini, ”blue-eyed and bright red-haired”, whose territory is thickly wooded with trees of every kind

500 BC

Persepolis inscription text is ”Darius Hystapes (522-486) rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia [Sabir], Hunae.”

450 BC Herodotus World Map (ca. 450 B.C.) shows Agathirsi (Agach-ir=Türk. forest+people), Scythians and Massagets, Malanchleni, Neuri, Budini and Geloni, Thissagets and Jurcae
450 BC Herodotus (IV, 105) reports about wolf cult at Neuri (Nevrs) along Hypanis (Danube) and W. of Borisphen (Buri-Chay = Dnieper) to Tyras (Dniester) together with Budins (Tr. ”people, tribe, subjects”). Later wolf was on gold buckle fr Niconia by Dniester
450 BC

In Issyk fifth-century B.C. Sak's kurgan in town in Kazakhstan near Lake Issyk (Issiq), in a royal tomb, in 1970 is found a flat silver drinking cup jar with Türkic‘Issyk’ Inscription in Türkic alphabet, attesting that Sak-Massagetan tribes spoke Türkic

450 BC

In Issyk kurgan all human skeletons found in graves showed race characteristics very similar to today's Anatolian Turks, with no trace of Mongoloid features at all (Larousse)

400 BC

Sarmatians take leadership over Scythians.

350 BC

Macedonian burials in kurgans

339 BC

Macedonian raids to North in 339,335,331, 313 è 292 against Scythians and Celts. Celtic alliance with Scythians evidenced by Celtic artifacts in Scythian sites

339 BC

Defeat of Scythians led by king Ateios in battle with army of Philip of Macedonia. Death of Atheios.

338 BC

Macedonian barbarian Philip II defeated united Greek states at battle of Chaeronea in beginning of August 338 BC and appointed himself ”Commander of Greeks”

336 BC

Philip II of Macedonia (382-336 BC), king of Macedonia, is buried in kurgan per Macedonian custom. Greeks viewed Macedonians as barbarians (non-Greeks), and consequently treated them in same manner in which they treated all non-Greeks.

331 BC

In battle of Gaugamela with Alexander Macedonian, Darius had Scyths (35K Cavalry) and Bactrians in his army

320 BC Armenian sources in middle of 4th century BC, during campaigns of Alexander the Great, record Bulgars as neighbors of Türk tribes named Bunturk in Kura river basin, and as another name (apparently, endoethnonym) of Scythians note ethnonym Apahtark [Patkanov К., 1883, 29, 31] ”White Türks”
320 BC Date undefined. Aristov 1896, p. 279: In Chinese annals, long before our era south of Altai mountains lived Huns, in the north lived people So. Then So split up into 4 tribes: Kuman or Kuban, Kyrgyz, Chu-kishi and Turks
318 BC

First historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC

310 BC

Sirac(i), a Sarmatian tribe occupied Kuban region north of Caucasus shortly before 300 B.C. (Tr. Sarig=yellow, blond, Sirs are ansestors of Cumans/Kipchaks)

300 BC

Türkic language splits into 2 branches, Oguz (Eastern) and Ogur (Kipchak) (Western). Oguz 'z', 'y,i', (Oguz, yilan, Yaik) Ogur 'r', 'd, dj', (Ogur, djulan, Djaik)

300 BC

From Chinese sources Alans are listed as one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favoured by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C.

300 BC

In 300 BC Neapolis Scythia In Crimea (Simpheropol area) was capital of Royal Scyths

300 BC

Earliest occurrence of Parthian name in form of Aparnoi or Parnoi in Turan. According to Armenian historians who served Armenian dynasty of Parthian origin, Parthian Arsac who founded dynasty was of white Hun (Ephtalite) origin

290 BC

Hun state consists of 24 clans, some of them: Kuyan (Jack rabbit) Lan (Orchard) Suybu (West Tribe) Suylyanti Tsulin Taychi Uyti Tsetszuy…

290 BC

Hun state leader is titled Great Shanüy - ”Chenli gydu shanüy” - ”Son of endless sky” Succession is from father to eldest son.

247 BC

Start of Parthian Dynasty (ab. 247 B.C.-A.D. 226) which was one of longest in history

246 BC Cheng (246-?) of T'sin dynasty built great wall of China (Wan-li-ch'ang-ch'eng, or wall ten thousand lis long), which extends from Chi-li to Kan-su, to stop incursions of Huns (Hiung-nu)
246 BC

In Antiochus 11th year Parthians shook off Macedonians, and Ephtalite king's son is new ruler. All nations of Eastern and Northern Asia accepted his rule. King Arsac had four sons. One received Ephtalites, second Hindus, third Parthians, fourth Armenians.

231 BC

Parthian Arsac, lost to Persian king Selecud and retreats amongst Aspasiac Scythians, near Aral Sea. With their aid he reconquers his empire

230 BC

Touman (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), of clan Suylyanti with a bull totem establishes Hunnic Empire

214 BC

Chinese ruler Si Huang Ti (259-210 BC) builds Great Chinese Wall against attacks of Huns

209 BC

Touman died (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), accession to throne of Maotun (Batur, 210 - 174 BC), founder of Hun Empire. Expansion of Hun Empire.

204 BC HUN EMPIRE
204 B.C - 216 A.D
Founder - Mete (Bagatir, Maotun, Batur)
Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea, (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
200 BC

Emergence of Huns (Hsiung-nu) on western borders of China.

200 BC

A strong stone and mortar wall surrounds capital Neapolis Scythia of Royal Scyths in 200 B.C. Of note is a mausoleum that contains seventy-two richly furnished tombs, which are probably representative of royal Scythian house

177 BC

Mete Khan (Maotun, Maodun, Mode, ) letter to Chinese government describes that 26 nations are in Türkish sate and all of them became ”nations stretching bow-string”, or Huns

174 BC

Kokkhan (174-161 BC), Huns (Xiongnu, Hsiung-nu) attack Kushans (Ku-Süns, White Huns, Tocharians, Yüeh-chih, later Ephtalites), driving them from Gansu

174 BC Nomadic Ku Süns (Kushans, Yu-chi), a powerful force west of China in Gansu (Tr. Khan-Su = Khan's River) attacked and defeated by Huns and driven west, into Kangar (Sogdia, Kangüy, K'ang-chu), from where they invade Bactria (Ta-hsia). Strabo 11.8.2 names them Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli
162 BC Defeat of powerful Kushan confederation by the Huns near oasis Dunhuang on eastern edge of Taklimakan Desert. Kushan dynasty and loyal tribes commenced migration from Gansu, Kushans still have force of 100,000 archers. Planned strategic relocation by Kushans was to move 2,000 kilometers northwest and resettle in Ili River valley, i.e. region occupied by  Sakas (Scythians)
162 BC Kushans head northwest to Ili Valley, settle near Issyk Kül in present-day Kazakhstan. Ptolemy also mentions Tagouraioi (Tocharian). Kushans reside in Ili Valley for three decades (ca. 162-132). Kushans leave catacomb burials marking their route, whole Saka bury in kurgan pits.
161 BC

Kunkhan (161 - 126 BC)

150 BC

Rise of Hun Empire's puts pressure on territory of Iran dislodging many Scythian nations who were pushed west, including Saka-Uraka whose kings' title was Makar.

150 BC

Migration of a part of Sarmats (Bulgarians) from Northern Caucasus to Cis-Caucasus.

141 BC

141-128 BC Tochars (Yüeh-chih), fleeing from Huns (Hsiung-nu), overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.

132 BC Khan Mo of former Kushan neighbors Usuns in Gansu, retaliated for Kushan's attack in 173. With permission from his Huns overlord (the new Khan Junchen, successor to Jiju who died in 158) Khan Mo led a powerful force of mounted Usun archers to attack and rout surprised and dismayed Kushans, forcing them to once again uproot and resume their long march west.
131 BC Kushans (Tocharians, Yüeh-chih) arrive at Bactria
126 BC

El Chishi (126 - 114 BC)

124 BC

Asi (Yazig), Pasiani (Budini/Beçen/Peçenek), Tocharian, Sabir (Sabaroi) tribes break into Sogdiana and Baktria. In next five years two Parthian emperors loose their lives in wars. They also later conquer Sakauraka tribe.

121 BC

Chinese, under General Ho Chu-ping, defeat Huns (Hsiung-nu).

114 BC

Ovi (114 - 105 BC)

103 BC

Tribe Pu-ku/Bu-gu (Bulgar > Bu(l)gu 布谷/布库/布苏), is repeatedly mentioned in different Chinese sources from 103 BC up to 8-th century AD. They inhabit W and E parts of Central Asia, N and NW of Tien-Shan, Semirech'e and W of rivers Syr Darya and Amu Darya.

103 BC

One of tribal lords of Pu-ku - Sofu sulifa Kenan Bain, bears title sulifa, attested later among Dagestan Bulgarians.  Ch. “Sylifa” 苏李发?/葛李发? (> Arab. Salifan) is viceroy, Turkic “Elteber

100 BC

Diodorus Siculus, 1st c. B.C. Scythians ”lived in very small numbers at Araks River....they gained country in mountains up to Caucasus, in lowland on coast of Ocean (Caspian Sea) and Meot Lake (Azov Sea) and other territories up to Tanais River.

100 BC

”They won for themselves a country ”behind Tanais River up to Egyptian Nile River” (Diodorus II, 43).

75 BC

Scythian nomads from Central Asia conquered Kabul River Valley, with Taxila and Pushkalavati as their twin capital cities in Gandhara, from Greek kings of Bactria

56 BC

First split of Hun Empire into Western and Eastern branches Qoghoshar (Khukheniy I) (56 - 36 BC)

54 BC

Chinese chronicles mention Ogurs as separate people in vicinity of Edisu

53 BC

Parthian nomads from east of Caspian Sea conquered Kabul River Valley, with Taxila and Pushkalavati as their twin capital cities in Gandhara, from Scythians. After defeating Greeks in 53 BC, Parthians ruled northern Pakistan area. Parthians promoted art and religion, developed Gandhara school of art with Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian art influences

51 BC

Huns (Hsiung-nu) split into two hordes, with Eastern Horde subject to China.

50 BC

Dionisios Periegetos says, already in 1st century BC, Huns dominate over all Caspian lands

6 AD

Illirian rebelion (6-9 AD). Introduction of Roman provincial rule in Pannonia

20

Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20): Massagetae, [meaning hero-tribe] who also live in Balk are Kush. According to Armenians Baktria is land of Kush and Balkh is its capital city, where great Arsac set up his throne.

20

Strabo: Parthian Scythians became Persian and Armenian kings from which even Byzantines received capable rulers. In Armenia Arsac dynasty ruled for about 600 years.

21

Rebellion in Thrace and Gaul

35

35­36 AD Alanian participation in Ibero-Parthian war on side of Iberia (Geogia).

45

First record on arrival of Bulgars, Ases of As-Tokhar confederation, from Balkh to Armenia under leadership of Vanand, after whom the whole region in Armenia took its name. Vanand is probably unnamed king titled Ban/Van, -an/-and stands for land like later -stan. Bulgar name ascends to Balkh, Balkh tribes = Balkh gurs => Bulkh-gurs. Bulgarian remains in Armenia established link for millennia-long Bulgar-Armenian, and later Kipchak-Armenian symbiosis, continuing Türkic-Armenian Sakasena (Shakashena) established by Scythian Ases Ash-guzes Strabo located Σακασηνη Sakasena between Kura and lake Sevan

48

WESTERN HUN EMPIRE
48 - 216 A.D
Founder - Panu
Area - area over present Central Asia

50

Kujula Kadphises unites (Yüeh-chih) to establish Kushan Empire, stretching from Persia to Transoxiana to Upper Indus.

50

1st century AD (first half) Alans (Alani =Tr. ‘field’) mentioned by written sources of Ancient Rome (?) for first time.

50

Apostle Paul (Saul) begins spreading Christianity to the gentile world. Start of Christianity as a world event

64

Kushana king Kujula, ruler of Central Asian nomads, overthrew the Parthians and took over Gandhara. Kushans extended their rule into northwest India and Bay of Bengal, south into Bahawalpur and short of Gujrat, and north till Kashghar and Yarkand. They made their winter capital at Purushapura, City of Flowers, now called Peshawar, and their summer capital north of Kabul

72

Alans invade Transcaucasus

78

78-144 Reign of King Kanishka over Kushan Empire (territory extended to include Tarim Basin), with Buddhism as dominant religion.

93

Western (Northern) Huns suffer a major defeat from Mongols (Hsien-pi) and start westward migration (93-c.380).

97

Chinese armies reach Caspian Sea.

106

Jornand recalls that Nocopol on Danube was founded by Trayan after victory over Sarmats

124

Dionysius Periegetes (the guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii

124

Dionisus Periegetes (end of 1st - beginning of 2nd c.) maps and talks that on Northwestern side of Caspian sea live Scythians, Uns, Caspians, Albanians, and Kaduses, of Huns living next to Caspian Sea Sak (Gr. Sacae)=Türkco-Persian saka=water carrier

128

Kanishka, the greatest of Kushans, ruled from 128 to 151 AD

135

Alanian campaign in Transcaucasus and Media

139

Dionisus Periegetes: Huns living next to Dniepr in Eastern Europe. Calls them Khuni (Chuni) and Suni. (Khuni is clan/national designation while Suni is probably from Senü, their ruler)

139

Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Tr. Agach-ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae (Tr. Bash-t-er 'head people') and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) live Huns

150

Mid. 2nd century Alans defeated by Roman army at Olvia (Olbia)

155

End of Huns as a major power in inner Asia.

200

ca. AD 200-370: Invasions by Goths., who colonize and mix with local populations. Tervingi branch consolidated their realm between Dniestr and Danube, and became known as 'Visigoths'. Greutungi dominated west of Dniestr and became known as Ostrogoths

213

Roman war with German and Danubian tribes. Caracalla defeats Alemans

214

Edessa becomes a Roman colony

216

End of HUN EMPIRE
204 B.C - 216 A.D
Founder - Mete/Mode/Modu/Maodun (Bagatir)
Area - At At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

216

End of WESTERN HUN EMPIRE
48 - 216 A.D
Founder - Panu
Area - area over present Central Asia

226

End of Parthian Dynasty (ab. 247 B.C.-A.D. 226), it was one of longest in history

234

Roman war against Alemans. Maximin, a Thracian, is proclaimed Emperor by Pannonian army (ñ 235 to 238)

236

Roman war against Sarmatians and Dacians

236

Gothic invasion across Danube and invasion of Dacian Carps

260

In 60's of 3rd c, Caucasian Huns served in Persian army

266

Unification of China. Hun rebellion is suppressed

275

EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE
275 - 454 A.D
Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars
Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N.Hungary to Byzantine Empire
(Area - 4,000,000 Km2)

290

In 90's of 3rd c, Armenian sources write about Hun's wars in Trans-Caucasus (N.Caucasus )

293

Sasanid (Persian) inscriptions dated by 293 mention name of one of Türkic khakans from Caucasus

300

Tele left early Huns Horde, keeping patriarchal relations and nomadic life. They were not Sinified. They move in steppes on carts with high wheels.

300

Tele have 12 clans, each governed by aldermen, all living in peace

300

Genealogy: Gaogüys =>Tele/Chile/Tiele (Türk. ”Coach”) (both tele and coach derive from Turkic stems) =>15 tribes =>
1 Uange (Uygurs)
2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)
3 Kibi  (Kibir)
4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)
5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)
6 Dolange (Telengits)
7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)
8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)(Uygurs)
9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)
10 Hun
11 Sygye (Uygurs)
12 Husye 13 Higye
14 Adye(Eduz)
15 Baysi (Barsil)

300

Sirs and Türks live at Ordos

300

Bulgars and Khazars are blood relatives, with a common or similar language.

301

In 4-7c. Seyanto (Sir + Yanto) occupied steppes between Mongol Altai and E. Tianshan

304

Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China Khan Empire northern part and established a sequence of kingdoms. Toba tribe led predominantly Chinese population.

309

Hun's raid eased by rebellion of (Chinese) people against officials

309

Intrigues of Emperor Huai-di against Sym Yuy. Aliance with Tabgach Khan Ilu against Huns

311

Defeat of Sym Yuy. Fall of Loyan, Huns take Chanan

312

Small Syanbinian tribe with Khans from Muyun family moved from southern Manjuria to west and settled in proximity of lake Kukunor. They fought Tibetans successfully and Tobases unsuccessfully.

312

Syanbinian tribe with Muyun Khans were organized into kingdom Togon and became vassals of Empire Wey.

312

Chinese displace Huns from Chanan

320

Muyun Khoy becomes Great Shanuy

321

Tsu Ti dies, and Chinese advance against Huns stopped

325

China loses lands north of river Huai

334

First mention of Bulgars, they live in basin of Tanais and Cuban (First European reference, Anonymous Chronograph, Latin script of 334 AD “Ziezi ex quo Vulgares” i.e. [from line of Noah-Sym came one] Ziezi, of whom [descended] the Bulgars)

336

Beg. 4th c. Invasion of Armenia by Hun-Maskuts (Gr. Massagets), together with Sakas, led by king of Massagetae Sanesan (Tr. Sen-esen=you+storming (man))

336

Türkic names of Hun rulers
Karaton (kadadon= dress)
Mundjuk, Attila's father (bondjus = bead, tirquose)
Attila (Itil= birthplace, or Ata-il = father of country)
Illek, Attila's son (Il-Ek = country fortress)
Dengizik, Attila's son (Den(g)iz = Sea)
Irnek, Attila's son (=young soldier)
Aibars, Attila's uncle (= bars, lion)
Oktar, Attila's uncle (= )
Ary Kan (aryg-kan = beautiful quinn)
Basyk
Kursyk
Atakam
Eshkam

336

Türkic names of Hun rulers (cont'd)
Nation
Agacheri (Forrest people)
Shar (sary - ak, = yellow - white)
Ogur (Ok-gur = ten federates)
Potential link of ruling family with Asian Tankhu (king)

 Notes. 

  1. One of Chinese derogatory monikers for Huns, with a meaning “ferocious slaves”. There were more respectful names for Huns in Chinese, like “western nomads”, etc. Actually, over a first millennia Chinese used quite extensive nomenclature befor they came up with “ferocious slaves”. Chinese also had plenty of derogatory terms for themselves, but, unlike “Hsiung-nu”, these terms are not used to designate Chinese in the scientific literature.

  2. One of a number of versions that can be found in the literature.

  3. This is a nice pearl of the racial attitude found in a multitude of scientific works. Romans, Goths, and Persians are beautiful and merciful blessings, and Huns, Avars, and Tatars are ugly and cruel menace. That did not prevent multitudes on both sides from marrying each other and producing mixed populations, including attractive offsprings to become Caesars, Basileuses, Kings, Tsars, Khans and Sultans. The speculation on 'bulgha' is an another example of a scientific pearl, not unlike the Chinese’ selection of the hieroglyphs to denote a negative attitude. But in this scientific thought we go a step further, proclaiming a negative meaning for a self-ethnonym.

  4. Otrok (Russ. ”son, boy”) could be a Rus' nickname for the young Kipchak Khan, or a semantical distortion. Other sources give his name as Khan Otrak, no Russian semantics.

Bulgars Dateline 337-499 AD Continued
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Updated on: 12/12/2004
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