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Russian version needs a translation

Bulgar Archeology and Anthropology

Links

http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/p_bulgar/p_bulg2a.htm

Summary

Bulgar Early Middle Age Citadels in Eastern Europe and on Lower Danube
This list is a far cry from a complete list, it has to be complemented with at least such major citadels as Bilyar, Bulgar, "Murom", Suvar, Tamyatakhan, and with the citadels covered by the present cities of Kiev, Chernigov, Rostov, Tula, and many others
No Citadel Name Conditional Name Period
1 Unknown Humarin
2 Unknown Cimlyansk Citadel (Right-bank)
3 Unknown Mayak Citadel 
4 Sarkel  Cimlyansk Citadel (Left-bank)
5 Pliska Pliska
6 Unknown Madara
7 Preslav Preslav
8 Unknown Han Krum
9 Silistra Silistra
10 Unknown Pyjkul luj Soare
11 Unknown Slon
12 Unknown Devnja

Fig. 1 Map of Bulgarian fortresses in Eastern Europe and on Lower Danube, built of ashlar blocks and with inscriptions
1. Humarin 2. Cimlyansk Citadel (Right-bank) 3. Mayak Citadel  4. Sarkel 5. Pliska
6. Madara 7. Preslav  8. Han Krum 9. Silistra 10. Pyjkul luj Soare 11. Slon 12. Devnja

Map of the Proto-Bulgarian fortresses in Eastern Europe and on the Lower Danube

Fig. 2 Map of Bulgarian sites in Central Asia

Balkh, Amu Darya - Bulkhar-Balkh, Dagestan

Fig 3. Area of Saltovo-Mayak culture
 (Per M. Gimbutas, 'The Slavs', 1971)

Saltovo-Majack culture

Fig 4. Body Orientation map of Bulgarian necropolises in N. Pontic area in the 7-9 cc.
1. Verhnij Chirjurt 2. Novo-Labinskaja 3. Borisovo 4. Pashkovskaja 5. Djurso 6. Jasenovaja poljana 7. Artuganovo
8. Sarkel 9. Semikarakori 10. Phanagorija 11. Bagaevskaja 12. Zilgi 13. River Kardan 14. Kashkatau (Sovetskoe)
15. Zlivki 16. Zalimanie 17. Shejkovka 18. Pokrovskoe 19. Krimskij 20. Krivjanskij 21. Nedvigovskij 22. Volokonovka
 23. Jutanovka 24. Netajlovska 25. Dmitrievka 26. Zholtoe 27. Novolimarevka 28. Dronovka 29. Kamensk 30. Mayaki 
31. Right-bank Cimljanskoe 32. Gukovo

Proto-Bulgarians finds on middle and low Don river. Key

Bulgar Archeological Traits

Trait Desription
Culture Codeword Saltovo-Mayak
Dwellings Portable yurts, felt and leather. Stationary yurts, clay and wood. Round/oval, open hearth, roof vent
Foundations Indigenous construction without foundations, based on leveled ground 
Lifestile Pastoral Nomadic
Burials Almost exclusively inhumations, some cremations
Kurgan Small
Grave Type Pit Grave (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). Some with niche.
Sarcophagus Some primitive rock or thick wooden slabs sarcophagus, or cover of boards or stones.
Burial Position Stretched bodies on their backs
Orientation Western and northern
Stone Fill Niche blocking, grave pit fill, surface stone cover, double shutting by niche blocking and stone cover
Grave Goods One, rarely two, earthenware pots and a spot of meat
Sacrificed Animals Dogs and horses in some graves
Special features Bound legs, chopped off feet
Religion Tengrianism, with significant exposure to Bactrian Buddism and Christianity
Script Euro Asiatic- Don, Euro Asiatic- Kuban
Utensils
Armour
Ceramocs Earthen cauldrons with inner lugs
Cranial Deformation 50-80 % 
Examples Babashov necropolis, located on the right bank of Cheyhun, N. Bactria, 
Examples Bishkek valley, basin of river Kafir-nigan, right tributary of Cheyhun, N. Bactria, 2nd c. BC to 3rd c. AD
Examples Necropolis Zlivka near village of Ilichevki, district of Donetsk, N. Pontic

 

Fig 5 Pit grave with a niche from the Bishkek valley, N. Bactria.
(D.Dimitrov, The Bulgarians north and west of the Black Sea, Varna, 1987, p. 63)

Bishkek valley, Tajikistan

Fig 6 P it grave with a niche from Devnja necropolis No1, Bulgaria
 (The lid of stones was removed before drawing the sketch.) 
(D.Dimitrov, The Bulgarians north and west of the Black Sea, Varna, 1987, p. 64)

 

Devnja necropolis, Bulgaria

 Common Anthropological Traits

Trait Desription
Cranial Type Brachiocranic/mesobrachiocranic Europoids with small Mongoloid admixtures
Body Type Not studied/Not reported/Not documented/Not classified

Ceramic Cauldrons

The ceramic cauldrons with inner lugs, frequently found in the central N.Caucasus area, are often attributed to Bulgars. Bulgars settled in these ( assumed abandoned by the Alans) lands at the end of 7th c  These cauldrons are found in many locations around Kislovodsk. Similar caudrons are also found in the newly drawn borders of the Karachaevo-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria. Similar cauldrons with inner lugs appeared no later than at the end of the 9 c. in the Danube Bulgaria, at the pottery production center near the village of Topola, in the district of Dobrich (Tolbuhin). Some of the Meotida Bulgars fled from the Khazars and settled in the central N. Caucasus, in the Alanian lands suitable for cattle-breeding. Three pit necropolises in the Kabardino-Balkaria, one near aul Zilgi, second at the right bank of the river Kardan, and the third at the hill Keshene-aly near the village Kashkatau (Sovetskoe) in the valley of the river Cherek are interpreted as Bulgarian. The graves are of western and south-western orientation. In one grave at Keshene-aly the legs of the deceased were apparently bound. The way of burial and the grave artifacts in these necropolises are quite distinct from the local culture of northern Caucasus and have parallels with the 'Zlivka' type necropolises.

References

A.M. Mandelshtam, Pamjatniki kushanskogo vremeni v Severnoj Baktrii, p.130.
T.P. Kijatkina, Kraniologicheskie materialy iz kurgannyh mogilnikov Severnoj Baktrii. - Trudy Tadj. arheol. eksp., 7, p.211
More references at http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/p_bulgar/p_bulg2a.htm

Home
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In Russian
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Contents Huns
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Roots
Writing
Language
Religion
Genetics
Geography
Archeology
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Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
Bulgar Ethnonym
Saltovo-Mayak
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline

4/24/2003

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