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HUNS

Huns 1766 BC-336 AD
Huns 337-439 AD
Huns 440-498 AD
Huns 500-552 AD
Huns 552-599 AD
Huns 600-649 AD
Huns 650-699 AD

Huns 700-749 AD
Huns 750-849 AD
Huns 850-949 AD
Huns 950-1099 AD
Huns 1100-1249 AD
Huns 1250-1349 AD
Huns 1350-1499 AD
Huns 1500-1922 AD

552-599 AD

DATELINE
Time Events
552

GOKTÜRK EMPIRE
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

552

End of WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE
420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)

558

Discovered in Mongolia late in 20c inscription Var-guni (Bar-guni) mention European Avars. Majority of Avar time skeletons from Hungary are Mongoloids, Bayan was probably Mongolian word, evidence that Avars were Mongol Jujuns

558

Avarian embassy to Byzantium. Avars defeat Sabirs and Ants.

558

Avars led by Khan Bayan invaded N Caucasus and faced Byzantium's allies. In Byzantian sources first time they are mentioned

558

Avars show up on Danube.In Jan-Feb embassy of Kagan Bayan negociates in Constantinopole. Justinian hires them to guard agains "barbarians", the same Türkic nomadic hordes as Avars, who continued to erupt from N China.

559

Utugurs under Sandilch attack returning Kutugurs, and start a war. War weakens both peoples.

559

Kutugur Bulgars under Zabergan, with Avars, made a treaty with Sklavins(?), cross Danube on ice, raid Byzantine, in three directions. Via Macedonia to Ellada to Thermopile, to Thracian Chersones, under Zabergan through a break in Long Wall to Constantinop

559

Velizarius led defense and repulsed Kutugurs. Kutugurs remained in Thracia until paid off and received "gifts" on same conditions as Utugurs. Kutugurs leave Thracia.

559

After unsuccessful storm of Constantinopol Bulgars and Slavs were trapped. Byzantines cut their retreat. Justinian magnificiently spared them. Velizarius pushed them behind Long Wall. Zabergan retreated because Avars were coming fron east.

560

Avar Khaganate extended from Itil to mouth of Danube. Bulgars are split, with Kuturgur Huns (also listed are Onogundurs (10 Ogur Confederation), Hunnogurs, Sabirs belonging to Avar Khaganate, and Utugur Huns (30 Ogur) and Khazars loyal to W. Khaganate

560

Avars invaded land of Utigurs on east shore of Meotida. Utigurs recognized Avarian rule. Avars invaded Kutigurs. Kutigurs defeated and became Avarian vassals too. Bayan proclames himself Kagan.

560

Goktürkic ambassadors to Iran killed by Ephtalites on the road

561

Embassy from Kucha to Bay-Chjou

561

Avars captured Bessarabia, execute local ruler Mesamer

561

Sosroi Nushirvan crushes Sibirs

562

Last incursion by Kutigur Bulgars into Byzantium, stopped by Byzantium's instigating internecine wars between two most powerful branches, Kutigur (Kutrigur) and Utigur.

562

Second Avarian embassy to Byzantium

562

Avars came to Dobrudja and settle there

562

Persians defeat Ephtalites

563

Western Wey dynasty Bey-Chjou was of Syanbinian descent, and relying on support of Syanbinian elite transformed into large landlords. They assimilated and used Chinese language.

563

Goktürkic emissary in Constantinopole

563

Goktürkic armies, supported by Khosrov, attack Balkh, invade Ephtalite lands south of Amudarya. Per 'Shah-Name', decisive battle near Bukhara. Ephtalite army of King Gatifar is crushed

563 In 563-567 Persians run successful military actions against Ephtalites, to about same time belongs defeat by Khosrow Anushirvan of Savir tribes residing in S.Caucasus.  Savirs lived in the plains N. and S. of Derbend, Southern Savirs lived next to or intersperced with Masguts (Alans)
564

Army service was made compulsory for simple people of Empire Wey, and two armies were organized. Army of nobles - fubin - was balanced by army of people. Fubin came from military organization of Syanbinian tribe Toba, who conquered Northern China in 4 c.

564

Service in army was mandatory for Syanbinian clansmen. In reward they received land parcels, and were released from any other obligations. Service was inherited, and with time soldiers become a privileged caste.

564

Initially army consisted exclusively of Syanbinians, but later it was supplemented by rich Chinese from Shansi and Shensi who accepted foreign dynasty after it adopted Chinese culture and language.

565

Avars under Khan Bayan (c. 565-602) subjugate Hunnugur and Sabir, and other Hunnic hordes, assimilating them under Avar Khaganate.

565

After defeat of their forces by Avars, Khazars took lead in Sabir-Khazar federation. Part of Sabirs move north, to Middle Itil region, among settled there Bulgarian tribes. Their main city Suvar is a great center of Itil Bulgaria.

565

Pannonia came under pressure from Avars, Lombardian new king, Alboin, found support from Constantinople less then he had hoped for.

565

Langobards destroys Gepidian Reign

565

Goktürkic Khagan Mugan Khagan and Istemi Yabgu defeat Ephtilites at Neseph. Considered fall year of Ephtilite state. Ephtilites traces lost in history

565

Hephthalite territory divided between Iran and Goktürk Khaganate. Border between them ran west of Balkh and east of Murgab

566

Between 566 and 571 Istemi Yabgu subjugated peoples Bandjar, Balandjar (Belendjer) and Khazar. Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Goktürks' closest allies and assistants.

567

Goktürks capture Bosphorus

567

Gepidic kingdom defeated by Avars

567

Avars ally with Longobards

567

Goktürk embassy to Sasanids, with a request for Silk Route transit trade through their territories is rejected

568

Sirs live in towns and have ports in Djurdjan, across Amu-Darya

568

Avars occupy Panonia

568

Lombardian King Alboin led a host of Lombards, Gepids, Sarmatians and other peoples (including Hunnic Bulgars, per Paul the Deacon) from Pannonia to Italy. Others, amongst them Bavarians, Saxons and Taifali, joined the invasion en route

568

As Lombardian King Alboin advanced, vacuum left behind them was filled by Avars, Bulgars and Slavs

568

Goktürk embassy to Constantinople led by a Soghdian Maniakh, proposing to ally against Sasanians

569

Goktürks invade and conquer Sirs.

569

Zemarkh embassy to Goktürks, with five further embassies exchanged by 576

569

Goktürk war agains Sasanians; penetration of Kabul and Gandhara regions

570

Kutugurs, as all people on Itil ruled by Goktürks, are encouraged by rise of Avars as alternative to Goktürk suzerainty.

570

Syanbinian Jujan horde keeps robbing neighbors. Language = Syanbinian Consider themselves to be ethnically Tobases.

570

Khazars are ruled by Western Goktürk Khaganate (570-659)

570

Goktürk rulers receive 100,000 pieces of silk tribute a year from China. Goktürks are the first Eurasian steppe empire to extend from Roman/Byzantine world in west, Iranian/Sasanian in south and Chinese in East

572

572-591 Goktürks and Byzantines ally against Sassanians

572

Goktürks subjugate Utiguri until about 581.

572

Western Goktürk Khaganate's "Ulus" on lower Itil and Yaik

572

Mugan Khan (4) dies in 572, his younger brother Tobo (5) becomes Khan (572-581)

572

Peace between Bey-Tsi and Goktürks

574

Embassy from Khotan to Bey-Chjou

575

Istemi Yabgu (2) dies, his son Dyangu (Tardu) Kara ChurinTürk (7) becomes Tardu Yabgu (575-603).

575

Uturgurs are allied with W. Goktürk Khaganate.

575

Alliance between Goktürks and Uturgurs

575 Byzantines entered Caucasian Albania in 575 to subdue residing there Savirs and Albans. Savirs revolted against Byzantine domination and Byzantine generals came forced Savirs and Alvans to move to this side of river Cyrus (Kura) and henceforth remain in Roman country
576

Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Byzantine in Crimea and Panticapeum (Kerch) as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai.

576

Utugurs under Khan Anagai, as auxiliaries of Goktürks, take Bospor. Utugurs remain on N. Caucasus from Dagestan to Derbent, under W. Goktürk Khaganate suzerainty

576

Goktürks establish Khazar Khanate.

576

Bulgars of lower Itil and Kuban are loyal to Goktürkish dynasty Ashina

576

Goktürks are on both sides of Kerch straight. Goktürkic army leader (Tma Tarkhan) on Taman peninsula, giving name to city Tmutarkhan

577

Goktürks invade Crimea

578

Slavs invade Ellada

578

Bysantium allies with Avars. Avars defeat Slavs, killing their Prince Davrit

578

Regions along lower Danube were in 6th and 7th centuries inhabited by Sclavinae, Antes, and Huns (probably Bulgarians). Moldavia and northeastern Muntenia were populated by Slavic tribe of Antes.

579

Avarian ultimatum by Kagan Bayan to sessede city Sirmiy. Tiberius refuses. Avars capture Sirmiy after a two tear siege

580

Presence in Istria of hostile to Bysantium Slavs and Avars. Avars were partly responsible for southward migration of Serbs and Croats

580

Slavic chieftain sacked Corinth

580

Avars conquered and plundered cities and strongholds in Hellas

580

Goktürks invade Lasica

580

Peace of Bay-djou with Kaganate

581

Tobo (5) dies, Shetu (9) becomes Khagan (581-587).

581

Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Cheronesus as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai.

581

Goktürks at Chersonessus walls

581

581-584 Devastating raid of Slavs through Thrace, Macedonia and Ellada. Settlement of Slavs in Thrace

581

Khans Ashina are Türks and are" wolves". Syanbian quean describes her husband Shabolio as Wolf by his personality.

581

Chinese revolt against Syanbinian dynasty. New dynasty received name Suy. Sinadized Syanbinian elite survived.

582

Avar Khagan Bayan attacks Byzantium in Thrace.

582

Kuturgur Hun Bolgars settle in Bessarabia and Wallachia, from which they will move to Moesia under pressure from Magyars, and make it Bulgaria.

582

Hunnic Khan Zabergan (558?-582) dies, Gostun becomes Hunnic Khan ruling over Kutigurs.

582

Shetu Kagan appoints Gostun Kutigurian Khan

582

Goktürkic Khaganate officially breaks up into Western and Eastern Khaganates. Khwarezm (lower part of Amu Darya R., S. of Aral Sea) and Sugd/Sogdiana (Zerafshan and Kashka Darya R., including area around Samarkand) likely autonomous kingdoms to become independent in next century with Tang defeat of Goktürks

582 EASTERN GOKTÜRK KAGANATE
582 - 840 A.D
Founder -
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
582 WESTERN GOKTÜRK KAGANATE
582 - 659 A.D
Founder -
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
 
582

582 - 602 Rule of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. First mention of Khazars in Byzantine annals, along with Bulgars and Barsils. Noted their coming from Bersilia, supposedly in Caspian steppe

582

Avar Khagan Bayan appointed Gostun as Kutriguri Khan (582-584 AD) (House Ermi) after Khan Zabergan's death in an invasion of Byzantium in northern Illyricum. Avars and Hunno-Bulgars attacked and seized Fortress of Sirmium on lower Sava River. Byzantium hastily concluded peace treaty with Avars, promising to give them an annual tribute of 80,000 gold coins

583

Avarian attack on Byzantium

584

Hunnic Khan Gostun (582-584) dies, Orchona (584-594) becomes regent of his nephew Kubrat

584

New Emperor recognizes queen Khan's wife as daughter, thus Shetu as son, thus recognizing previous traditions of trading with Goktürks as a form of paying tribute, and confirming privileges of Syanbinian elite. Shetu acknowledges vassalage to empire.

584

New Slav attack on Constantinople. Defeat and retreat

586

Avars and Slavs besieged Thessalonica

587

Shetu (9) dies, Moho (14) becomes Khagan, followed by Tulan (Ün-Ulug) (16) (587-599). Tulan has anti-khan Tuli (Jangar) (18) (600-609) supported by empire.

587

Byzantium peace with Avars

588

Shetu Khan (19) dies, Ün Ulug (Tulan) (Dulan) (16) (587-599) becomes Khan

588

China open markets for trade with Türks

588

582? Separation of Goktürkic Empire into East (Mongolia) and West (Turkestan) parts

589

W. Goktürk Khaganate campaign against Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars. Both Khazars and Bulgars are confederated (jointed voluntarily, not as conquered) into W. Goktürk Khaganate.

589

W. Goktürk Khaganate's Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth. Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.

589

Invasion of Khazars, Greeks and Georgians to Agvania is repelled by Persians

590

Under dynasty Suy position of fubin worsened. Soldiers were moved from "military" lists to "Civil household lists", thus exemption from taxes ended. This was aimed against Syanbinian privileges left from Syanbinian overlordship.

594

Hunnic Regent Orchona (584-594) dies, Kubrat accends to Khanship (594-642).

594

Judging from some eparchial lists from end of 7-th or beginning of 8-th century, in 7-th century there was an Onogurian episcopate in Gothic eparchy. This attests early spread of Christianity among Onogurs

594

Theophanes Confessor and Constantinus Porphyrogeneus explicitly state that Bulgarians, settled on Balkans, had been called earlier Unogundurs

594

Byzantine patriarch Nicephorus calls ruler of Great Bulgaria khan Kubrat "ruler of Unogundurs"

594

Heir of throne, Tulan Khagan's cousin, Tuli (Jangar), with a title of Toleses' Khan = Tuli Khan, was Khan of north-east territory. Tuli Khan had vassals ShiWey (Tatars), Kidanes, Khi (Tatabs).

598

Kara Churin embassy to Constantinipole

599

Tulan (Ün-Üylüy) (16) is killed, Kara Churin Türk (7) becomes Khan with title Boke Khan (599-604)

599

Chinese fight successfully in Ordos

Home
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In Russian
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Huns Dateline 600-649 AD Continued
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Russian Version needs a translation
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9/19/2005
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