Contents Türkic languages

Classification of Türkic languages
N. Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
 Türkic languages

Sir Gerard Clauson (1891–1974)
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
Oxford аt the Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Ely House, Glasgow, New York, Toronto, 1972

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Sir Gerard Clauson An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
Preface Abbreviations Suffixes A - EGE EGE - ARD ARD - BDD BDĞ - CCĞ CD - DLM DLS - ĞDĞ ĞDL - GCY GDE - SDĞ SDM - YĞĞ YĞL - ZR Full
Pp i - xxxi Pp xxxiii - xxxviii Pp xl - xlviii Pp 1-100 Pp 101-200 Pp 201-300 Pp 301-400 Pp 401-500 Pp 501-600 Pp 601-700 Pp 701-800 Pp 801-900 Pp 901-988 Pp 1-988
1 M 1 M 1M 7M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 7M
PREFACE Pp i - xxxi  v
ABBREVIATIONS, SHORT TITLES, ETC. Pp xxxiii - xxxviii xxxii
SUFFIXES Pp xl - xlviii xl
Mon. A Ä E I O Ö U Ü Pp 1-100; 101-200; 201-300 1
INITIAL LABIAL PLOSIVES B P V F W 201-300; 301-400 291
INITIAL DENTAL PLOSIVES D T 401-500; 501-600 433
INITIAL VELAR PLOSIVE Ğ K X 501-600; 601-700 578
L 701-800 763
M 701-800 765
N Ŋ Ñ 701-800 774
R 701-800 780
S 701-800; 801-900 781
Š Ș 801-900 866
Y 801-900; 901-988 869
Z 901-988 982
Sir Gerard Clauson
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
ASCII text pages 201 - 300



Mon. V. ARD- (Continued)

1 ert- (pass) normally Intrans., ‘to pass’ in all the usual meanings of that English word e.g. (of time) ‘to pass’; (of an illness) ‘to pass ofT’; (of physical movement) ‘to pass’ (from one place to another); occasionally Trans, ‘to pass’ (e.g. a place); in a few passages in Uyğ. Bud. it is a Trans, with ‘sin’ or the like as Object, and in this case seems to mean ‘to commit persistently’ (the conclusion in TT IV 14, note A. 11 that this must be a different verb is improbable). Survives only (?) in most NE languages. Türkü vııı (I mobilized the army of the On Ok; we, too, took the field and) am: ert(t)imiz ‘went past them’... (geographical name) tağtğ ertü ‘going past the... mountain’ T 44; vııı ff. Man. bu etözden ertigli ‘when he passes from this body (i.e. incarnation)’ M III 17, 2-3 (ı); 18, 13-14; a.o. TT II 15, 7-8 (erki:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit upetivftte ‘those who have passed away’ ertmišle:r TT VIII A.7; düratige ‘difficult to pass’ alp ertgülükle:r do. A. 14; kaltı altı kün ertıp bardı ‘when six days had passed’ PP 20, 1-2; kalın satığčılar yolayu ertgeli sakinsar ‘if a company of merchants contemplate passing (through, ara, hostile peoples) in the course of their journey’ Kuan. 43; o.o. U II 22, 22; 81, 69; U III S8, 3 (indin); Hüen-ts. 234, 2116; TT VIII A. 15, 45, etc. — ölüt ölürmek karmapatığ uzatı crtser ‘if he persists for a long time in the sin of killing’ U III 4, 13-14; on karmapat ertmek ayığ kılınč ‘the wicked deed of persisting in the ten sins’ UIV 40, 190-1; a.o. TTIV 4, x 1-12: Civ. adası erter ‘its danger passes over’ TT VII 14, 21 and 32, etc.; a.o. TT I 45 (uğra:-): Xak. xı tfdleg ertti: madal-zatnen ‘time passed’; and one says er evinden ertti: ceıvaza'1-racul min baytihi ‘the man passed out of his house’, also used of anyone or anything which mada wa cawaza ‘an mawdi' Kaš. III 425 (erte:r, ertme:k); (if difficulties arise, be patient) erter (sic) teyü ‘saying “they will pass” ’ III 233, 15: KB ol erter ödün ‘at the time when he passes on (to the next world)’ 1925: Čağ. xv ff. after art- ‘to increase’ a second meaning tayy šudan ‘to be crossed, traversed’ is added with a quotn., clearly a mispronunciation of ert- San. 35r. 5.

VUD 2 ert- (lead, reach, arrive; meet) in Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Hüen-ts. 1981 the Chinese phr. fa chiaitg (Giles 3,366 1,212) lit. ‘dharma general’ i.e. ‘a monk of outstanding character’ is translated nom ertgüsi ‘leader (?) of the doctrine’, chiang being taken as a verb ‘to lead’. If this is so, ert- seems to be the Caus. f. of 2 er- (reach, arrive; meet) and presumably survives in NC Kzx. ert- ‘to take (someone) with one, allow (him) to follow one’ R I 790; MM 144.

ört- (hide) ‘to cover, conceal (something Acc.)’. Survives in NVV Kaz. and SVV Az., Osm., Tkm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. yerig örtüp ‘covering the earth’ TT V 6, 45-6; Sanskrit praticchedayati ‘it covers’ ürte:r (sic, perhaps the original pronunciation) TT VIII G.69; yašurmazmen baturmazmen örtmezmen kizlemezmen ‘I do not hide, suppress, cover over or conceal’ (my sins) Suv. 138, 1-2: Xak. xı ol örtti: ne:gni: ‘he concealed (satara) the thing’ Kaš. III 425 (örte:r, örtme.k): KB  (clothing) etöz örtgü ‘to cover the body’ 4773 ; kiši ’aybı ačma sen örtüp yitür ‘do not reveal a man’s shame; cover it up and suppress it’ 6096; tišlde uvut kötti örtmez yüzin ‘women have lost their modesty and do not veil their faces’ 6474: xııı (?) Tef ört- (1) ‘to cover (something Dat. or üze) with (something Acc.); (2) ‘to suppress, i.e. forgive (sins Acc.) 248: xıv Muh. ğntte ‘to cover, conceal’ ö:rt- Mrl. 29, 7; Rif. 113; al-tağtiya örtmek (spelt -mak in error) 36, 1; 121: Xwar. xıı ört- ‘to cover’ ’AH 28; xıv ditto Qutb 124; MN 132; ‘to suppress (sins)’ Nahc. 240, 7: Kip.xin satara ğayrak ört- (vocalized öriit-) Hou. 36, 12: xıv ört- (‘with front vowel’) ğatte Id. 10; Bit!. 67b.: xv ditto Tuf. 27a. 12 (spelt öriit-).

Dis. ARD

D orut (reaped (grass)) (ard, орало) Pass. (?) Dev. N./A. fr. o:r- (mow (grass, etc.), to reap (crops)) (ard); lit. ‘reaped’, in practice (grass) ‘which has been reaped and left out on the ground to wither’. Pec. to Xak. Xak. xı orut (unvocalized) ot al-dazvll tea hmva'l-nabtu'l- emi ‘limp withered grass, that is last year’s grass’ Kaš. I 50; orut otın yašurdı: ğatnara'l-nabtu l-tariyu'1-da-uila'l-haniid ica hmva'l-nabtu'I-'ami ‘the fresh’ grass has covered the limp ragged grass, that ; is last year’s grass’ II 79, 19; küylirdi: orut (vocalized arut) ot (the fire) ’has burnt the limp withered grass’ II 133, 15: KB sakal boldı yazki gulaf teg orut ‘my beard has ; become withered like a spring rose’ 5639; same phr. ‘my hair’ 5697.

erte: (early (morning), tomorrow, earlier, past) (early) ‘the early morning’’; in the early period usually associated with 1 tač ‘dawn’; in the medieval period it developed two contrary meanings; (1) ‘early tomorrow morning; tomorrow’; (2) ‘earlier than this’, i.e. in the past. S.i.a.m.l.g. with variations in the initial vowel which point to an original erte: and sometimes ; with -n (erten, etc.). Cf. 2 yarın (aurora, sunrise, dawn, tomorrow, next year) (aurora). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tagda sayu erte turup ‘rising early every morning’ USp. 60, la. 15; o.o. Suv. 4, 9 (ölütči:); Iliien-ts. 1966 (ağtur-): Civ. tag erte TT VII 1, 24, and 31: Xak. xı erte: al-bukra ‘the early morning’ Kaš. I 124: KB tapuğda kıyılmadı erte turu ‘he did not fail in his duty, rising early in the morning’ 607: xııı (?) At. bu mel kelse erte barur bez keče ‘if this wealth comes early in the morning it goes away again late at night’ 184; Tef. erte ‘in the early morning’ 83: xıv Muh, al-ğade ‘tomorrow’ erte: Mel. 80, 1; Rif. 184; layla ğad ‘tomorrow night’ erte: gecesi: 80, 9 (Rif. 185 ! arın tünle:): Čağ. xv if. Ğrte by itself and in \203\ phr. like erte čağda all translated evvelki zamanda ve evvel gečenler ve qadim gelenler ‘in the (remote) past’, (quotns.), one containing har tag erte; and erte also means yarınki gün and yarınki šabelı ‘tomorrow; tomorrow morning’ (quotns.) Vef. 50; erte (spelt) (1) sabiq ‘former’ (quotns.); (2) awwal vcaqt ‘time past’ (quotns.); (3) metaph. (sic) ibtide-yi šubh ‘the start of the morning’, just as akšam is mowal-i šab ‘the beginning of the night’ (quotns.) San. ŋgr. 22; erteg awwal-i šubh do. 99V. 3: Xwar. xıır (?) andın sot) erte boldı tat) örte čağda keldi ‘after that it was the early morning, he came ^arly at dawn’ Oğ. 31-2; 35-6; o.o. 222, 331: xıv erteearly’ Qutb 51; (he used to pray) tünle (*o read) erteke tegl ‘at night until early morning’ Nahc. 233, 16; (no one knows) adam oğlı erte ne kılğusı turur ‘what a man is going to do tomorrow’ do. 234, 10: Kom. xıv ‘early, in due time’ erte; ‘in former times’ erte čakta; ‘dawn’ taŋ erte CCI, CCG; Gr. 93: Kip. xıı bukra erte:, also used for al-ğad ‘tomorrow’ Hon. 28, 13: xıv 4rte: al-ğad Id. 10; ğada (n) 4rte: (also tanda:, yarın) Bul. 13, e: xv sahar ‘dawn’ erte Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19a. 4: Osm. xıv ff. erte/erte c.i.a.p. in numerous phr.; at first ‘early morning’, by xvı usually ‘tomorrow’; no trace of ‘former times’ TTS I 274; II 393; III 261; IV 305; erdenearly’ occasionally in xv, xvi, II 389; III 257.

ordu:, ortu: (center, middle) Preliminary note. This is one of the few cases in which two words semantically different are, at any rate in Türkü and Xak., differentiated phonetically only by the difference between -rd- and -rt-; in Uyğ., owing to the ambiguity of the script, only the context can decide which word is intended. The second is spelt or to in TT VIII, and the fact that in most modern languages both words now end in -a suggests that originally both ended in -o:. It is prob. that the words, entered as 1 ordu: and 2 ordu:, have a common origin, but as they had developed quite different meanings by xı they have been entered separately; -rd- is atı unusual combination of sounds in Türkü and suggests that this is a l.-w., cf. 2 karšı:.

1 ordu: (ordo:) originally ‘a royal residence’, that is ‘palace’ or ‘royal camp’ as the circumstances demanded; in the religious (Bud. and Man.) texts also ‘a heavenly mansion’. An early l.-w. for ‘palace, royal camp’ as ordo in Mong. (Haenisch 125). Survives in NE Tuv. ordu; SE Türki orda Shazv 20, BŠ 761, Jarring 215 (with Sec. f.s); NC Kır. ordo; Kzx. orda; SC Uzb. ürda; NW Kk., Nog. orda; SW Az., Osm. ordu, Tkm. orda. In SW Az., Osm. it came to mean ‘a royal camp’, thence any ‘military camp’ and finally, in military terminology, the largest type of military formation, ‘army’. Elsewhere it retained its original meaning, but there are indications that in some languages it was reborrowed fr. Mong. See Doerfer II 452. Türkü vııı Oğuz yağı: ordu:ğ basdi: ‘hostile Oğuz attacked the royal camp’ IN 8; ordu:ğ bermedJ: ‘he did not surrender the royal camp’ IN 9: vııı ff. xan olu:rıpan ordu: yapmı:š ‘the xan came to the throne and erected a royal residence’ IrkB 28; a.o. do. 34: Man. iki yaruk ordu ičre ‘in the two palaces of light’ Chuas. 15: Uyğ. (vm ordu: in Šu. E 8 is an error, see E aksirak): vııı ff. Man.-A Ordu kent geographical name M I 26, 30; 27, 6 (see Xak.): Man. iki yaruk ordu MI 29, 9; 30, 1; anošağan orduta tuğku üčün ‘in order to be born (again) in the palace of immortality’ TT III 140; similar phr. do. 165; ay teŋri ordusi... kün teŋri ordusi ‘the heavenly mansion of the moon/sun god’ M III 7, 6-7 (v): Bud. ay teŋri ordusi TT V 4, 5; tušıt ordudaki maytrt ‘Maitreya (Buddha) in the Tušita palace’ TT IV 10, 31; o.o. PP 39, 3; 42, 7; 43. 5; U II 25, 19; USp. 30, 3-4 etc.: Civ. ordu ‘celestial mansion’ (in a calendar text) TT VII 4, 1 etc.: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. kung ‘palace’ (Giles 6,580) ordu Ligeti 188; R I 1072: Xak. xı ordu: qašabatıı'l-malik ‘a king’s capital’; hence the towTn of Kešğar is called Ordu: kend that is ‘the residence and capital of the kings’: Ordu: a qašaba near Balesegün; and Balesegün is also called Ku:z Ordu: from this; ordu: bašı: ismu’l- farreš li'1-mulük ‘the word for the kings’ personal servant’ Kaš. I 124: KB kelip tegdi el(l)ig turur orduka ‘the king arrived and took up residence in the capital’ 487; karšı ordu tura ‘the palace, the capital, the fortress’ 5263; a.o. 310 (ükül-): xıı (?) KB VP kayu kend, uluš, ordu, karšı, yer-e ‘every town, country, capital, palace, and place’ 2e: xıv Muh. deru'1-malik ‘royal residence’ ordu: Mel. 75, 15; Rif. 179 (adding ica hallatuhu ‘and his quarter of the town’): Čağ. xv ff. ordu (spelt) xaymagelı-i saletîn ‘royal encampment’ (quotns.); orda (spelt) haram, ya'nl xana ki zanen-i saletîn wa akeibîr dar enca bešand ‘the harem, that is the residence of the wives of kings and nobles’; orda begf kis-i safid-i haram ‘the white eunuch of the harem’ San. 7ir. 14 (orda is prob. a reborrowing from Mong.): Xwar. xıı kel orduka ‘come to the royal residence’ Oğ. 255; a.o. 270: xıv orda (sic) ‘palace’ Qutb 118: Kom. xıv ‘royal court’ orda (sic) CCI; Gr.: Osm. xiv, xv ordu (once ordl) ‘encampment’ in Dede (Rossi, p. 343; orda in TTS I 549 is a mistake); ‘military camp’ in two texts III 548.

2 ordu: (ordo:) ‘the hole of a rodent, etc.’. Survives as orda/ordo in NE Bar., Tel. R I 1072, and Khak.; NC Kır., Kzx. R 11072, and NW Kk. Xak. xı ordu: nafiqa’u’l-yarbu wa hucru’l-wabr wa maskan kull haytven tahta'l-ard ‘the hole of a jerboa, the burrow of a marmot, and the subterranean abode of any animal’ Kaš. I 124.

ortu: (orto:) (otra:) (center, middle) originally ‘the middle, or centre, of anything’, hence ‘situated in the middle, medium, middling’, with some extensions of meaning, esp. in SW. S.i.a.m.l.g., almost always as orta, with one or two forms with -n (ortan, etc.) which is always an Adj. and noted as early as Uyğ. \204\ A metathesized form otra: occurs at least as early as xi, but is now rare. See Doerfer II 587. Türkü vııı berge-rü: kün ortu:sı:garu:... yırğaru: tün ortu:sı:garu: ‘southwards towards midday... northwards towards midnight’ IS 2, II N 2: vııı ff. kün ortu:... tün ortu: IrkB 24; a.o. do. 49 (1 ımğa:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kün ortudun (sic) sigar ‘in a southerly direction’ M 111 10, 12-13 (0; Bavi[l balikmg] ortusıgaru bardı ‘he went towards the middle of the city of Babylon’ Mart.-Uig. Frag. 401, 11-12: Bud. ol Iinxvva ortusinda ‘in the middle of that lotus’ TT V 6, 20; kün ortu ödün kün ortu yıgak yüzlenip ‘facing south at mid-day’ do. 10, 88-90; o.o. do. 12, 125; PP 70, 4-5 etc. — otrasında Tiš. 50b. 5 (3 ög) — iki ortun ergek ‘the two middle fingers’ TT V 8, 55; ortun enetkek ilinde ‘in the country of central India’ Hüen-ts. 1765, 1864: Civ. kün ortuda TT VII 35, 4 — 5; teŋri ortosmda (sic) ‘in the middle of the sky’ TT VIII L.38: Čigil (sic) xı ortu: 'the middle (tcasnt) of anything’; hence one says ortu: er racul tawassata min 'umrihi ‘a middle-aged man’; and one says ev ortu:si: ‘the middle of the house’; and hence ‘midday’ (al-zuhŋ is called kü:n ortu: Kaš. I 124: Xak. xı otra: wasat kttll šay' lahu caıvenib ‘the middle of anything that has sides’; metathesis (qalb) of ortu: 1125; (two camel stallions fight) otra: kö:ke:gü:n yančılur ‘the blue fly is squashed between them’ (baynahume) I 188, 1; II 287, 21; o.o. I 308, 18 (ara:la:-); II 89, 13: KB bod’ ortu bolsa ‘if he is of medium stature’ 2083; similar phr. 2087; ortu kiši ‘the middle-class man’ (neither very rich nor pooŋ 5562 ff.: xıı (?) Tef. orta ‘the middle’ 238: xıv Muh. al-wasat o:rta: Mel. 14, 10; 83, 5; Rif. 90, 188; al-wusti ‘the middle finger)’ o:rta: barmak 47, 11; 141; al-kahl ‘middle aged’ o:rta: 48, 17 (143 ča:l (grey, mix of white and black, reddish-brown, roan, чалый)): Čağ. xv ff. orta (spelt) wasat if a miymi (‘middle’) (quotn.), and also an idiom (itineya) for awasitu l-nes ‘the middle classes’ (quotn.)... orta čağlığ hadd-i wasat ‘of moderate extent’ (quotn.) San. 7ir. 4: Xwar. xıv orta ‘middle’ Qutb 119; MN 82: Kom. xıv ‘middle’ orta; ‘normally, ordinarily’ orta kill CCI; Gr. 179 (quotn.): Kip. xııı al-wasat o:rta: Hou. 53, 18 (oblique cases follow); al-wusti orta: barmak do. 20, 15: xıv orta: (‘with back vowels’) al-wasat Id. 10; orta: barmak al-asbuul-wusti do. 12: xv aıvsat orta Kav. 35, 7; al-mu tadil ‘medium’ (stature) orja do. 59, 16; al-ivusti orfa barmak do. 61, 4; tvasat orta Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 73b. 10: Osm. xıv to xvı orta ‘middle, medium’, etc. c.i.a.p.; one or two early cases of ortu mistaken for 1 ordu: TTS I 549; II 735-6; III 548-9; IV 611-12.

artuč (? arduč) (juniper) a generic term for ‘the juniper tree’. In modem languages largely displaced by the syn. Mong. word arča (Kow. 161, Haltod 33) but survives in NE Tel. artıš R I 314; Tuv. ditto; S.E Türki ardač BŠ 30; SC Khokand artıš Shaw 5: NW Kar.K ardıč R 1323; Kaz. artıš; SW Az.,Osm. ardıc/ardıč. See Docrfcr II 448. Uyğ. vri 1 ff. Civ. artuč sögüt butıkı ‘the branches of a juniper tree’ TT I 165; artııč uruğı ‘juniper seed’ II II 30, 177: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘juniper’ artuč Ligeti 131; R I 315: Xak. xı artuč al-'ar'ar ‘juniper’, and two villages near Kashgar are f called Artuč Kaš. I 95; three o.o.: Čağ. xv ff. arduc tmm-i diraxt-i abhal ‘the name of the juniper tree’, in Pe. awirs and in Ar. 'ar'ar; it is a kind of mountain cypress (sarw-i kûhî) San. 37r. 4.

D ertüt Intrans. Dev. N. fr. 1 ert- (pass); ‘a gift’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. öz yüklerin ačtılar ertütin ačuğın ötündüer ‘they opened their baggage and presented their gifts (Hend.)’ U I 6, 11-13 (mistranslated): Xak. xı ertüt al-hadiya ‘a gift like a horse, etc. which passes between (tumadd bayn yaday) amirs and other persons’; thence it camc to be used for any kind of gift Kaš. o.o. 109; o.o. 114, 18 (1 oğurluk); 182, 6 (ıdıš-): KB neg ertiit ' kılıp ‘making things gifts’ 1769: xııı (?) At. men ertiit (spelt artut) kılayın šahımka am ‘I will present it to my king’ 42.

D arta:k N./A.S. fr. arta:-; ‘spoilt, decay- > ing, putrid’. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. ardak SDD 110. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if I have given to others) kirlig tapčalığ yaviz artak aš ičgülerig ‘dirty, damaged, bad, putrid food and drink’ Suv. 135, 13-14: Xak. xı artark ne:g al-šay'u'1-fesid ‘a rotten, decaying thing’ Kaš. I 119; II 40, 13 (tınığ): KB ukuš birle aslur kiši artakı ‘with the help of understanding corrupt men are hanged’ 221; (small but well organized is better than I numerous) telim tuštı artak üküš sü bile ‘much that is rotten meets you with a numerous army’ 2340; idi artak erdi tapuğ kodsa men ‘it would be very disgusting if I abandoned my duty’ 5752: xıı (?) At. sen , artak sen ‘you are corrupt’ 395; a.o. 413.3.

D artığ (loaded) Conc. N. fr. 1 art-; etymologically ‘something which is loaded, or put round something’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı artığ šudrattı’l- I mar'a ‘a woman’s bodice’; artığ ahad 'idlayi'l-himl ‘one of twro (equal) half loads’ Kaš. I 98.

D artuk (? artok) (excess) Pass. N./A.S. fr. 2 art- (increase, grow, expand, excessive); originally ‘additional, an extra amount’; in the earliest texts used chiefly in numerical expressions; later visually ‘a large additional amount’, less often ‘excess, excessive’. S.i.a.m.l.g. as artuk in SE and sometimes SC and artık elsewhere, with some extended meanings esp. in SW. The theory in TT V 33, note B. 71 that in a number of passages in Uyğ. Bud. the word read adruk is a metathesis of artuk is not at all plausible. Türkü vııı kirk artuki: yeti: ‘forty-seven’ (normally yeti: ellig) IE 15; artuk yılkı:ğ igit(t)i: 'he fed more livestock’ Ix. 25; ay artuki: tört kün 'a month and four days’ II SB7; o.o. I E 33 (ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать)); T 40 (1 u:č): vııı ff. Man. yüz artuki kirk ‘140’ Chuas. I 12; artuk erüš \\ erür 'it is extremely numerous’ TT II 8, 61 : Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A beš yüz artuki eki otuzunč yılka ‘in the 522nd year’ M I 12, 15-le: Bud. artuk in TT VIII spelt artok, arttok, a:rttok, is very common; (1) in numerical expressions, e.g. otuz artuk uluğ 61 ulušlarığ ‘more than thirty great realms and countries’ Suv. 3, 20; bir ay artuk ‘more than a month’ PP 68, 1; (2) meaning ‘a large amount’, e.g. kamuğ tınlığlarka artuk asığ kılu umağaymen ‘I shall not be able to do a great deal of good to all mankind’ PP 34, 6-7 a.o. do. 67, 8 (ačın-); (3) with some suggestion of excessivencss, e.g. Ig kem emgekin artuk bulup ‘fimling the pain of his illness (Hend.) excessive’ U 111 35, 19-20; (4) in Tıš. 46a. 3 ff. there is a string of identical phr. in which is seems to represent a step in amount tepredl artuk tepredi tiizii tepredl ‘he moved, he moved more, he moved as much as he could’: Civ. (if a particular remedy is applied) artuk edgü bolur ‘it becomes much better’ II I 133; artuk ičser bolmaz ‘if he drinks more than that, it does not help’ do. 171-2: Xak. xı artuk al-ziyeda ‘an increase, an excessive amount’ Kaš. I 99; ortuk erden artuk alma:s ‘a partner does not take too big a share (ziyada fil-qisma) from his partner’ I 99, 5; a.o. II 137, 6 (kösül-): KB üküš sözde artuk asığ körmedim ‘I never saw much advantage in verbosity’ 171; idi artuk erdem kerek ög bilig (a world-conqueroŋ ‘needs a very large amount of manly qualities, intellect, and knowledge’ 281; o.o., similar meaning, 629, 758, 837 (1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak)): xııı (?) At. artuk tileme ‘do not ask for more’ 190: Tef. artuk ‘very great; superior’; iki üč yüz artuk ‘over two or three hundred (years)’ 60; a.o. 72 (egsük): xıv Muh. al-ziyeda artuk Mel. 54, 14; Rif. 151: Čağ. xv ff. artuk (and artuksı) ziyada wa afsiln ‘excess, abundance’ San. 36V. 27: Xwar. xıı artukrak/artuğrak ‘more’ 'Ali 19: xıv artuk ‘more, superior (to others); excess’ Qutb 11 ; MN 173, etc.; Nahc. 411, 15: Kom. xıv ‘extremely, excessive (ly); (with preceding Abl.) more than’ artuk/artux CCI, CCG; Gr. 41 (quotns.): Osm. xıv ff. artuk (once artux) consistently till XVI, sporadically thereafter, then artık, c.i.a.p.: normally with preceding Abl. ‘more than’ (occasionally ‘other than’), also by itself ‘abundant, superfluous’; blŋ artuk ‘over 1000’ in xiv, yıl artuğun ‘over a vear’ in xv TTS I 42 ff.; II 56 ff.; III 39 ff-; İV42 ff.

D ortuk (ortok) (partner) apparently Den. N. fr. ortu:, but the function of the Suff., normally Diminutive, is obscure; ‘partner’. Became ortak at a fairly early date (the MS. of Kaš. where the scribe tended to substitute the later form must have been written during the transitional period). S.i.a.m.l.g., ortok in NE Alt., Tel. R I 1071 r NC Kır. and ortak elsewhere. See Doerfer II 446. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ortuk seems to occur in two damaged and obscure texts; in USp. 55, 26-7 Memet Mogğol čın. ötekči bile ortuk altı šık yer might mean ‘six šık of land held in common with Mehmed Mongol the true debtor’ (the last two words might be another Proper Name); in USp. 30, 7 ortaki looks like a N./A.S. in -ki ‘situated in the middle’, but ortuk in 30, 12 seems to be this word, meaning obscure: Xak. xı ortuk al-šarik ‘a partner’ Kaš. I 99 (prov. see artuk (excess)); böri:nig ortuk (vocalized ortak) kuzğu:nnut) yığa:č ba:šında: ‘meaning “the crow is the partner (yušerik) of the wolf in hunting and what the crow catches is (put) at the top of a tree” ’ I 439, 28; ortuk bolup bilišdi: ‘he was my partner (šeraka ma’ŋ and knew me intimately’ III 71, 17 (the first and last clearly vocalized ortuk, the second and third ortak)-. KB (a servant) begl birle ortuk ‘in partnership with his master’ 2997: xııı (?) Tef. ortak ‘partner’ 238: xıv Muh. al-šarik orta:k Mel. 49, 15; Rif. 144: Čağ. xv ff. ortağ/ortak (byimplication ‘with o-’) šarik tua sahim (‘associate’) San. jir. 9 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ortak ‘partner’ Qutb 119: Kom. xıv ‘partner’ ortak CCI, Gr.: Kip. xııı al-šarik orta:k Hou. 32, 11; 41, 6; šeraka mina'l-širka ma' ğayrak orta:k bol- do. 41, 5: xıv ortak (‘with back vowels’) al-šarik Id. n: xv širka ortak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21a. 10; muıvesita ‘mediation’ orfak do. 35b. 3: Osm. xv ortak (in phr.) ‘partner’ in two texts TTS II 735; IV 612.

D D ertig (beaten track) Hap. leg.; Conc. N. fr. 1 ert- (pass); lit. ‘something over which one passes’. Xak. xı ertig al-tariqu l-mash'tk ‘a beaten track’ Kaš. I 103.

D ertigü: (very, maximally, extremely) (ertäqü, ertigü, чрезвычайно, предельно, очень OTD p. 182)

?D ördek (duck) a generic term for ‘duck’, particular varieties being distinguished by qualifying Adjs. or Nouns. Exceptionally Kaš. consistently translates ördek ‘goose’ and ka:z ‘duck’, but this must be an error. Morphologically perhaps Dev. N. fr. 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-)(the bird) ‘which rises’ (from the water). The meta-thesized form in Suv. (of which the MS. is xvııı) must be a Sec. f.; it survives as ödürek in NE Tuv. and the eccentric forms in Xwar. and Kip. may also go back to it. S.i.a.m.l.g., normally as ördek and the like. See Doerfer II 450. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (oxen, sheep, swine) kaz ödirek takığu ‘geese, ducks, and poultry’ Suv. 4, 12: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘duck’ ördek Ligeti 190: Xak. xı ördek al-iivazz ‘goose’ Kaš. I 103 (prov.); I 222, 18 (yuğa:k) and 4 o.o.: KB ördek in a list of birds 72: xıv Muh. (?) al-batt ‘duck’ ördek Mel. 73, 5 (added to the text in one MS. only): Xwar. ördek ‘duck’ Qutb 123; ewrek ditto 23; evrek ditto 62; evek? ditto 53; övrek ditto 125: Tkm. xıı al-batt ö:rdek Hou. 10, e:xiv ördek al-batt Id. 10; Kip. (?) ewrek al-batt wa'1-axdar (‘green’) do. 26; al-batt ewrek (unvocaİized)/yördek (sic) Bui. 11, 13 :xv battördek Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 7b. 3.

D örtüg (covered) Conc. N. fr. ört- (hide); originally ‘covering’ in general (Uyğ. Man. ‘covered’ may be the Pass. Dev. N./A. in -ük, ‘covered’ not otherwise recorded); in modem languages usually more specifically ‘head-covering, veil’. \\ Survives in SE Tar. örtü: R I 1236; NC Kır. ürtük; SC Uzb. urtuk Bor. 480 (described as ‘literary’, Pmistranscribed): SVV Az., Osm. örtü; rI*km. örtük. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ol yaruk örtük (? «'c) sayu 'every time that light is obscured’ (the mansion of the moon god is near the mansion of the sun god) M III 7, 5 (v): Bud. örtüg tıdığlarığ ‘coverings and obstacles’ U II 33, 5; 42, 9: Civ. üč kıdığliğ bir kıdığsız tört örtügüg birdim ‘I gave four coverlets, three with borders and one without’ USp. 79, 11-12: Xak. xı örtüg ‘the covering’ (al-sutra) over anything, for example the saddle-cloth (al-ğešiya) over a saddle, and the brocade (al-dibec) which is laid on the tombs of notables; and also ğite’ kııll šay’ ‘the cover, lid, roof', etc. of anything Kaš. I 103: KB bayat tapğı barča kerek örtügün ‘God’s worship must always be performed under cover’ 3919; nıaga örtüg erdi bu sözler neče kötürdüg bu örtüg sen aydıg ača ‘these words were somewhat obscure to me; you have removed this obscurity and spoken explaining them’ 5818:x 111 (?) Tef. örtüg ‘covering, curtain’, etc. 249:xiv Muh. (among words relating to buildings) al-ğite’ ‘the roof’ ew ö:rtü:gi: Mel. 76, 3; Rif. 179; (among furnishings, etc.) al-nip' ‘leather floor-covering’ ö:zgü:g 67, 15; ö:r-gü:g 168 (both corruptions of ö:rtü:g): Čağ. xv ff. örtük (‘with -k’) örtülü... maxfi manesına ‘hidden, concealed’ Vel. 101; örtük lihef wa püštî ki ba-bele-yi xwud pušand ‘a covering or garment that people drape over themselves’ San. 7ir. 2: Kip. xıv örtü: (so read, most MSS. in error ortuk) al-ğite' Id. 10: xv (?) in margin in SYV (?) hand al-ğite’ örtü Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26b. 6.

D örtgünı Conc. N. fr. ört- (hide); etymologically ‘something covered’, in practice ‘haystack’ and the like. Survives only in NE Šor R I 1842 and Khak. ürtün ‘threshing-floor’. The status of the Kip. word is uncertain; it may belong here, but Mong. inder ‘balcony, raised platform’ (Koiv. 279, Haltod 62) was borrowed, as indir/indiŋ in some NW languages to represent ‘threshing-fioor’ and is listed in Kom. xıv Gr. 273; it survives in NW Kar. R I 1364, Kow. 194 and in SW xx Anat. SDD 771 (from one place only); the Kip. word might be a metathesis of this. Uyg. vııı ff. Civ. in a contract for the sale of land USp. 108, 18-20 the boundaries are described as: E. Burxan kulınıg örtgün; S. ‘the big road’; W. ‘Taijut’s land’; N. Buyančuknug örtgün; it must here mean ‘stackyard’ or the like: Xak. xı örtgü:n al-šııbra ‘a heap (of cut corn and the like)’ Kaš. III 412; sondılarč ı:šı: erme:s örtgü:n tepme:k ‘it is not the wren’s job to thresh the stacked corn’ (daqqu'l--kuds) I 526, 22: sabanda: sandrıš, bolsa: örtgü:nde: irte:š bolma:š ‘if there are quarrels at the plough, there will be no disputes ft helati'1-šubra wa’l-kuds I 402, 20; halata'l-kuds II 214, 5; waqta'l-kuds III 416, 23; these must all mean ‘when the crop is being stacked’: xıv Muh. (?) Rif. 159 (2 ot): Kip. xıv (VU) irdiıı (del unvocalized) al-baydar ’threshing-floor; barn’ Id. 10.

D örtlüg P.N./A. fr. ört; ‘blazing, flaming’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. avıš tamudaki örtlüg yalınlığ yörde ‘in a blazing (Hend.) place situated in the avici hell’ TT IV io, 25-6; örtlög (sic) tamu:da:ki ‘situated in the blazing hell’ TT VIII N.\z: Xwar. xıı örtlü ‘fiery’ 'Ali 4e: Kom. xıv ‘ilaming (hell)’ örtli/örtlik CCG; Gr. 184 (quotns.).

D erdem (virtue, goodness, manliness, bravery) Den. N. fr. 1 er; etymologically ‘manly qualities’, esp. ‘bravery’, but more commonly used in a broader sense for ‘goodness, virtue, good qualities’ and sometimes applied to things as well as people. In llyğ. sometimes appears metathesized as edrem. An early loan-word in Mong. where it was originally used for ‘competence, efficiency, capability’ (Hacnisch 44) and later also for ‘wisdom, knowledge’ (Kow. 260, Haltod 60). NE Tuv. ertem ‘knowledge, science’ Pal. 587 is no doubt reborrowed fr. Mong., but SW xx Anat. erdem/erdenvirtue, excellence’ SDD 542 is a direct survival. See Doerfer II 451. Türkü vııı alpı: erdemi: ‘his bravery and manliness’ Ix. 4; o.o. do. 7 and 12: vııı ff. erde:m occurs several times in the Toyok doct. (ETY II 57-9) as a technical term for ‘the magical quality, virtue’ of a precious stone: Yen. phr. like erdem üčün and er erdem üčün ‘because of his manly qualities’ are common Mal. 29, 4 and 7 etc.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A yeti törltig erdemte ötrü ‘by means of his (Xormuzda’s) seven kinds of (magic) powers’ MI 15,17-18: Man. erdem sevinč‘the special virtue and attractiveness’ (of the Wind God) Wind. 4, 24, 44: Bud. kuan šı ım pusar kutadmak erdemi ‘Kuan-šı ım Budhisattva’s power to bestow good fortune’ Kuan. 60; similar phr. 71, 218; erdemke (v.l. edremke) tükellig erdiler ‘they were perfected by the (magical) power’ (of the great dheram) TT VI 352; kentünüg yaruk küčlüg bögülüg erdemin (v.l. edremin) ‘by his own bright, strong, magic power’ do. 354; a.o.o.: Civ. otnug edremi ‘the virtue of the remedy’ IIII 6, 1: O. Kır. ıx ff. erdem and er erdem are common Mal. 2, 3; 5, 1 etc.: Xak. xı erdem al-adab iva'l-manqaba ‘refined manners, merits’ Kaš. I 107 (prov.); II 343, 19 (ögül-); about a dozen o.o. translated al-adab, al-manqaba or both; exceptionally in I 252, 18 translated al-hikm wa'l- 'ilm ‘wisdom, knowledge’: KB erdem is fairly common in the same meaning as in Kaš., e.g. (God created man, and chose him) agar bördi erdem bilig ög ukuš ‘He gave him refined manners, knowledge, intelligence, and understanding’ 148; similar phr. 278, 465; in 284-5, 672-3, 683 it means ‘merit, virtue’, as opposed to mün (defect, vice) ‘defect, vice’: xııı (?) At. aya šehım erdemlerin sanağan ‘oh you, who (try to) count my king’s virtues’ (can you count the grains of sand?) 59: Čağ. xv ff. erdem sipahilik wa silehšürluk maherat ‘skill in military matters and the use of arms’ Vel. 51 (quotn.); erdem (spelt) fıınûn-i furûslyat \207\ waedeb-i sipehikart ‘the scirnce of chivalry and the military arts' (quotns.); the Rûımî author (i.e. Vel.) in one place read erdem an eyrüm (spelt) and indexed it under alif maftüha and in another place read it as erdem and indexed it under alif mahsura, and in both places gave the following quotn. (quoted) as an example; Naširi followed him and rccognized eyrüm and erdem as synonyms, and gave them this meaning; both were in error San. 99V. 3 (the quotn. does in fact occur twice in Vel., but not under irdem, it occurs under eyrüm and ürüm spelt with alif madminna): Xwar. xıv erdem/erdemmanliness’, Qutb 21, 51: Kom. xıv ‘virtue, skill’ erflem CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv erdem al-fadîla ‘virtue, excellence’ Id. 11: xv (šana ‘art’ peše (Persian payše)); šelıib f unün ‘master of sciences’ (pešeker and) erdem iyesi Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22a. 6-7; Osm. xiv, xv erlik erdemi ‘manly virtues’ in two texts, and erdem ‘military skill’ in one TTS III 257.

D *ertim (transience) N.S.A. fr. 1 ert- (pass); ‘transitoriness’, see ertimlig.

D örtmen Conc. N. fr. ört- (hide); ‘roof’ and the like. Survives only in SW XX Anat. ‘the upper surface (of something)’ SDD 1117. Xak. xı örtmen al-safh ‘a (flat) roof’ Kaš. III 412: xııı (?) Tef. örtmen 88 (badıč) (and 248).

PU?F ardun (or artun?)cumin’, or the like. N.o.a.b.; prob. a foreign word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (PU) vibuni artun corresponds to yavani ‘Carum copticum’ in the Sanskrit text and ma ch'in (Giles 7,576 2,092) ‘cumin, ammium, pipercula’ in the Chinese translation Suv. 476, 12: Civ. ardun TT VII 22, 10; III 15, II IIS, 38 a.o.o.

S erten/erteg See erte, erte: (early (morning), tomorrow, earlier, past) (early)

S ortun See ortu:.

?S erdeš N. of Assn., ?fr. 2 er (ye:ŋ, pec. to KB and used only in conjunction with other similar words; in 1697 glossed yerdeš in the Fergana MS.; since Kaš. describes ye:rdeš as Oğuz and mentions 2 e:r as a Sec. f. of ye:r in Xak. this is possibly correct, since ‘fellow countryman’ is a likely meaning in the context and the meaning of a N. of Assn. fr. I er is not obvious. Xak. xı KB 1697, 2276 (adaš).

D irteš (inquire, seek, pursue) N.Ac. fr. irte:- (inquire, seek, pursue); etymologically ‘search’ or the like. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı irteš al-tafahhuš wa'l-mutelaba yaqa' bayna'l-qawm ft šay' ‘a close scrutiny and calling to account which takes place in a tribe about something’; hence pne says irteš kopdı: heca’l-baht ıva'1-tafahhuš ‘an investigation and close scrutiny was started’ Kaš. I 97; o.o. / 402, 20; II 214, 5; III 416, 23 (the same prov., see ortgürn; translated al-mušecara ‘quarrel, dispute’ in I and al-muxešama ‘mutual enmity’ in II end IID.

PU?F artiz (or artıš?) Hap. leg.; unidentified, prob. foreign. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. artiz in. a list-of drugs II II 20, 79.

Dis. V. ARD-

D arı:t- (clean, purify, castrate) Caus. f. of arı:-; 'to clean, or purify (something Acc.); to cleanse (something Acc., of dirt, etc. Abl.); ‘to clean (dirt, etc. Acc.) off (something Abl.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. minor phonetic changes like art- in some NE and NC languages. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (like a man who sweeps) arıtır ‘cleans’ (and sets in order a house) Wind. 35: Bud. Sanskrit nirdhentamale ‘whose impurities^ have been wiped away’ a:rıtmıš kirligler TT VIII E.48; angsizlarin arıtıp ‘wiping away his dirt’ (on the body of the sick monk) U III 38, 20-1; körjülüg süzer arıtur üčün 'because it purifies (Hend.) the mind’ TT V 26, 98; kentü özümüz arıp adınağuğ yeme arıtıp ‘being ourselves pure and purifying others’ USp. 10 r, 13-14; o.o. Suv. 139, 11-12; 140, 2-3 (alkindur-): Xak. xı ol tarığ arıttı: naqqa’l-hinfa ‘he cleansed the grain’ (etc.); and one says ol ku:zı: arıttı: naza'a xusyata’l-baraq ‘he castrated the lamb’ (etc.); also used when one circumcizes (xattana) a boy Kaš. I \\ (arıtur, arıtma:k); o.o. I 154, 23 and several in II 319-22: KB özügdin arıtğıl yazukuŋ münüg ‘cleanse yourself of your sins and faults’ 1440; o.o. 4407, 4997, 5505: xııı (?) Tef. arıt- ‘to cleanse’ 58: xıv Muh. athara ‘to cleanse’ ant- Mel. 28, 1 r; Rif. 103; tahhara ditto 40, 15; 112: Čağ. xv ff. arit-pak kardan ditto San. 34r. 15 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ant- ‘to cleanse, purify’ Qutb 12: Kom. xıv ‘to wipe (something Acc.) off (something Abl.) ant- CCG; ‘cleansing’ artimak (sic?) CCI; Gr. 42 (quotn.): Kip. xıv anf- nazzafa ‘to cleanse’ Id. 10; Bui. 87r.: xv qašara (‘to peel’) 10a nazzafa arıt- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 30a. 7: Osm. xıv ff. ant- usually ‘to wipe (something Acc.) off (something Abl.); c.i.a.p. TTS I 39; II 53; III 36 ; IV 38.

D ered- Intrans. Den. V. fr. 1 er; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı oğla:n eretti: ’udda'1-šabî mina'1-ricel ‘the boy was reckoned to be a man’; originally eredti: but assimilated, just as one says al-muddakir (i.e. for mudtakiŋ from al-dikr Kaš. I 208 (eredü:r, eredme:k); a.o. / 206 (atat-).

D erüt- (melt) Caus. f. of erü:- (melt); ‘to melt, liquefy (something Acc.)’. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as erit-. Xak. xı ol ya:ğ erütti: ‘he melted (adaba) the fat’ (etc.) Kaš. I 208 (erütür, erütme:k): xııı (?) Tef. 81 (dubious; Bor. enters the same quotn. under ant- and erit-, as the Object of the verb is altun kümiš kenlarını ‘gold and silver mines’ the first is the likelier): xıv Muh. adaba eri:t- Mel. 22, 5; Rif. 102: Čağ. xv ff. erit- Caus. f.; gudeze-ntdan ‘to melt’, in Ar. adaba San. qjv. 24 (quotn.): Kip. xıv (sızdır- adeba) this in the Kiteb Beylik, but our master Faxru’l-din said ‘this is wrong, adeba is erit- because deba is eri-, while sız- means nadica ft nafsihi “to be fully ripe” or the like’ Id. 57.

D ırat- Caus. f. of ıra:-; ‘to send (someone Acc.) away, or far away’. For the phonetics see \208\ ira:-; survives in the same languages as ira:- (not NW Kaz., where ırıt- R I 1368 is a Sec. f. of ırgat-). Xak. xı ol am: yırattı: ab'a-dahu ‘he sent him far away’ Kaš. II 315 (yıra-tu:r, yiratma:k); KB övke: özdin yırat ‘drive anger away from yourself’ 322; a.o. 381.

S üret- See üdret- (increase, multiply, flourish).

p örit- Caus. f. of 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-), N.o.a.b.; nearly always used in a metaph. sense ‘to arouse’ (thoughts, emotions, etc.). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT IX 41 (bedüttür-): Hud. yeg sa:kınč (jrltür ‘it arouses excellent thoughts’ TT vııı ff.2; bhawagraka tegi yeme: öritip ‘raising them also to bhavegra (the highest form of existence)’ do. N. 13; ters körüm öritdim erser 'if I have caused erroneous views to arise’ U II 76, 8-9; 85, 26; similar phr. TT IV 8, 74; Suv. 220, 6; o.o. U III 42, 12 (öpke:); TT V 22. 11-12; VII 40, 138; Hüen-ts. 147; Suv. 10, 12, etc.

arta:- (putrefy, ferment, go bad) ‘to putrefy, ferment, go bad’; normally of foodstuffs, but occasionally in a more general metaph. sense. Survives only (?) in NE Kač., Koib., Sag. and Tel. R I 309, 319, and Khak. and in SW xx Anat. arda-/ardi-SDD hi. Cf. iri:-/irü:- (decay, rot, putrefy). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ölmek artamak ‘death and decay’ M III 11, 13 (in: Man. (when the wicked, poisoned by the passion of lust) artayu yokadtururda ‘become corrupt and allow themselves to perish’ TT III 28: Bud. yemišigiz artamağay ‘your fruit will not be spoilt’ (by the birds) PP 80, 6-7; tegšil-rtiedin artamadın ‘without being changed or deteriorating’ U III 23, 3 (iii); a.o. Suv. 530, 3 (iri:-): Xak. xı arta:di: ne:g ‘the thing went bad’ (fasada) Kaš. I 272 (arta:r, arta:-rnn:k); kege:šlig bilig arta:ma:s translated ‘the intellect, when fertilized by advice does not deteriorate’ (/e yafsud) III 358, 16; o.o. II 17, 16 (ud-); / 272, 15: KB iši barča etlür törii artamaz ‘his affairs are all well arranged; the customary law does not deteriorate 429’; evi tepremezi üčün artamaz ‘because its (celestial) mansion does not move, it does not deteriorate’ 834; tadu artadi ‘his physical state deteriorated’ 1055; o.o. 2108 (of drinking water), 2284 (of an army), 2502, 4384, 4463 (ayigla:-), 5203 (of the people in general), 5862 (yıdı:-): xııı (?) At. ajun artadi ‘the world has become corrupt’ 395: (Čağ. xv ff. arta- in Vel. 16 is an error for artıl- (not an old word) San. 35V. 6).

irte:- (inquire, seek, pursue) described by Kaš. as syn. w. iste:- (izde:-) (wish; to wish for, desire, inquire, seek, pursue, investigate); ‘to seek, pursue (something Acc.)'. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. irde- SDD 794. Xak. xı er ı:štğ irte:di: al-racul talaba’l-amr wa tdbi'ahu ‘the man sought and pursued the affair’; (irte:r, irte:me:k) and iste:di: is like (mitŋ irte:di: (iste:r, iste:me:k) Kaš. I 272 (verse); o.o./ 245, 14; III 356, 2; biligni: Jrdedim (sic) ‘I sought (talabtu) wisdom and knowledge’ III 228, 12: xııı ff. At. (all men are brothers) tafawutlari yok öte irtese ‘there is no difference between them, if you investigate the matter closely’ 292; similar phr. 321; Osm. xıv to xvı irde- (sic) ‘to seek, inquire for’ occurs in several texts, sometimes in Hend. with sor- and İste-, but one xvı diet, translates I’e. custan ‘to seek' by iste- and irde- as if they had slightly different meanings TTS I 387; II 544; III 380; IV 434.

D örte:- (light (ignate), burn) Den. V. fr. ört ‘to light, or burn (something Acc.)’. S.i.a.m.l.g. (in SW only Tkm.) w. some phonetic changes; some NE and NC forms contain double -tt- which suggests that these go back not to this V. but to örtle- which survives in SW xx Anat. SDD 1116. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A otuguğ [gap] küyürür örteyür ‘burns (Hend.) the fire-wood’ M I 18, 1-2; a.o. M I 7, 3 (ığačč): Bud. kentü özümin örtep küyürüp (metaphorically) ‘burning (Hend.) myself’ U III 37, 4 — 5: Xak. xı ol otug örte:di: ‘he burnt (ahraqa) the firewood’ Kaš. I 272 (örte:r, örte:me:k); örter kül-e ‘burning cinders’ I 129, 4; II 26, 12; o.o. / 245, 12; III 356, 3: xııı (?) At. yeınišsiz yığačnı kesip örtegll ‘cut down and burn the tree that bears no fruit’ 324; Tef. örte- ‘to burn’ 249: Čağ. xv ff. örte- (-gen, etc.) yak- ‘to burn’ Vel. 101 (quotn.); örte- süzendan ‘to burn’ San. 68r. 28 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 119: Kip.xııı ahraqa (küyündür- and) ö:rte:- Hou. 35, 4: Osm. xıv örte- ‘to burn’ (metaph.) in one text TTS I 550.

D artat- Caus. f. of arta-; ‘to damage, or spoil (something Acc.)’ lit. or metaph. Survives only in the same NE languages as arta:-. Türkü vııı (oh Türkü people, if heaven had not been hostile) iliğin törö:gin kim artat (t)»: ‘who would have disrupted your realm and customary law?’ I E 32, II E iq: vııı ff. IrkB 59 (yıdıt*); Man. köŋülln biligin artatdmuz erser ‘if we have corrupted their minds’ Chuas. 107-8: Bıtd. kušlar artatir üčün ‘because the birds spoil’ (the fruit) PP 72, 7 — 8; similar phr. do. 75, 4; arığ šımnanč-larığ artatdımız erser ‘if we have corrupted pure nuns’ TT IV 6, 49; o.o. TT V 14, note A.23, 11; Suv. 134, 20: Civ. išigin küčügin artatur ‘it brings your efforts (Hend.) to nought’ TT I 64-5; and see buz-: Xak. xı ol ne:gni: artatti: ‘he spoilt (afsada) the thing’ Kaš. I 260 (artatur, artatma:k); ögüngü:či: üminde: (sic, ? error for ümini:) arta:tur (sic) medihtı l-nafs yufsidu'l-sarawi-lahu ‘the self-praiser spoils his drawers’ I 203, 14; a.o. II 360, n; in II 335, 6 artalu:r translated yutwi ‘it destroys him’ is an error for artatu:r: KB yüreksiz kišiler čerig artatur ‘cowards spoil an army’ 2284; a.o. 407e: Kip. xv (?) afsada (azdır- ; in the margin in a later hand) ardaf- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 6a. 1.

D irtet- (inquire, seek, pursue) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of irte:- (inquire, seek, pursue) (inquire, seek, pursue). Xak. xı ol am: irtetti: fahhaša 'anhu wa atlabahu ‘he had inquiries and a search made for him’ Kaš. I 260 (ırtetür, irtetme:k).

D örtet- (burn, ignite, жечь, гореть) Caus. f. of örte:- ‘to have (something Acc.) set on fire, or burnt’. Survives \\ only (?) in NE Khak., Tuv., and NC Kzx. Xak. xı ol bük örtetti: amara bi-tahriqi'l-acama ‘he gave orders that the thicket should he burnt’ Kaš. I 260 (örtetür, örtetme:k).

E artal- See artat- Xak.

D artıl- (ardıl-) Pass. f. of 1 art- (ard-); ‘to be loaded (on to something)’ and the like. Survives as artıl- in NE Khak.; SE Turki; NC Kır. and as ardıl- in SW xx Anat. SDD 111. Xak. xı er at ü:ze: artıldı: alqal-racul nafsahu 'alal-faras ‘the man threw himself across the horse’ in such a way that half his body was one side of it an^the other half the other side; and one says tağa:r ešye:k ü:ze: artıldı: 'the sack was loaded (humilat) on to the donkey’ Kaš. I 244 (artilü:r, artilma:k): Čağ. xv ff. artıl- (‘to increase’ fr 2. art-’, and) takepü hardan wa qatra zadan ‘to bustle about, make haste’ San. 35r. 24 ff.; this is a curious mistake, the translation having apparently been falsely deduced from two quotns.; one is t^giz eyleben qat‘ u tag artılıp ‘crossing the ocean and throwing himself over the mountains’ (mistranslated ‘hurriedly crossing the ocean and mountains’); it is said in 35V. 5 that Vel. read artayip or artamp and invented a verb arta-/artan-meaning ‘to cross’; in fact, although the reading is faulty, the translation is about right; the other is bu körür her kirpikimke artılıp bir qatra yaš (not translated) which clearly means ‘this man sees a drop of moisture loaded on each of my eyelashes’: Osm. xvı Ar. al-tmtflaq translated ‘an animal which is let loose after its halter has been put round its neck’ (yuları boynuna ardılmıš) TTS II47.

D irtel- (inquired, sought, pursued) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of irte:- (inquire, seek, pursue). Xak. xı irteldi: ne:ıj fuhhiša 'ani'1-šay' wa tuliba ‘the thing was inquired for and sought’ Kaš. I 245 (irtelü:r, irtelme:k).

D örtel- (burn, ignite, жечь, гореть) Pass. f. of örte:-; ‘to be set on fire, burnt’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak.; NC Kır., Kzx. Xak. xı bük örteldi: uhriqati’l-gaytala ‘the thick tangled trees were burnt’ Kaš. I 245 (örtelü:r, örtelme:k).

D örtül- Pass. f. of ört- (hide); ‘to be covered, concealed’, also in the early period ‘to be put over (üze: something) as a covering’. Survives in the same languages as ört-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit nivftenem ‘of those who are covered’ ürtülmišle:rke: (sic) TT VIII A15; bilimsizlik karagğu üze köŋülüm örtülüp ‘my mind being covered with the darkness of ignorance’ Suv. xoi, 16-17; similar phr., but mis-spelt örlütüp do. 136, 17: Xak. xı ı:š er üze: örtüldi: ubhima'I-amr 'ala'l-racul ‘the thing was put over the man as a covering’; and one says kö:k örtüldi: ‘the sky was overcast’ (tağayyamat); wa ašluhu hull šay' sutira tahta'1-šay' ‘basically (it is used of) anything that is concealed under something else’ Kaš. I 244 (örtülü:r, örtülme:k); second phr. repeated I 139, 18; ı:š örtüldi: ‘the thing was obscure, ambiguous’ (iltabasa) II 237, 13: Osm. xvı örtül- (of a port) ‘to be stormbound’ TTS II 568.

D artla:- (ardla:-) Den. V. fr. art (ard). Survives in NE Tuv. artta- ‘to step over (the back of something)’, SW xx Anat. ardla- ‘to follow up (something)’ SDD in. Xak. xı ol anı: artla:di: safa'ahu ‘he slapped him on the back of the neck’ Kaš. III 443 (artla:r, artla:ma:k).

D artın- (ardın-) Red. f. of 1 art- (ard-); ‘to load (something Acc.) for, or on to, oneself’. Survives as artın- in NE Alt., Tel., Khak., Tuv.; SE Türki and NC Kır., Kzx., and as ardın- in SW xx Anat. SDD 111. Xak. xı er arčısm artındı: ‘the man loaded (hamala) his saddle-bag on the pack animal’; also used of other things Kaš. /25o (artınur, arti:nma:k). .

D örten- (blaze, burn, burnt) Refl. f. of örte:-; ‘to blaze, burn (Intrans.); to be burnt’. Survives in much the same languages as örte:-. Türkü vııı ff. uluğ ev örtenmi:š ‘a big house was burnt down’ IrkB 9: Man. M III 7, 11-12 (ii) (sağurul-); küyürgey örtengeysen ‘you will be burnt (Hend.)’ do. 23, 4 (in: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tört yıgak örtendi ‘the four quarters of the world burst into flames’ U IV 40, 164; o.o. U II 8, 27 (ediz); III 5, 1-2 (ört); TT IV 4, x: Civ. karnı etözi örtenür ‘his stomach and whole body feel as if they wer burning’ HII 22, 30: Xak. xı örtendi: ne:g the thing was burnt’ (ihtar aqa)\ and one says built örtendi: ‘the cloud was red (ahmarrat) after the sunset’; the Turks take omens by this Kaš. I 251 (örtenür, örtenme:k; prov.); a.o. II 133, le: Čağ. xv ff. örten- (-üŋ yan- ‘to be burnt’, of something which is burnt so completely that no trace of it is left Vel. 100 (quotn.); örten-Refl. f.; siixta šudan ‘to be burnt’ San. 68v. 22 (quotns.).

D örtün- (covered) Refl. f. of ört- ; ‘to cover oneself, be covered’; survives only in SW. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. örtünıniš bös grahlar ‘the five hidden planets (Sanskrit l.-w.)’ TT VII x, 5 and 75: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. fou t'ien (Giles 3,723 \\ 11,208) ‘a cloudy sky’ teŋri örtünmiš Ligeti 190; R I 1239: Xak. xı ura:ğut yü:zin örtündi: safarati'l-mar'a wachaha wa kadelika ide satarat; obviously corrupt, safara means ‘to unveil’, Pread satarati and add ğayrahu at the end; ‘the woman hid her face’, also used when she hides anything else Kaš. I 250 (örtünür, örtünme:k): xııı (?) Tef. örtün-‘to cover oneself’ 250: Xwar. xıv ditto Nahc. 31, 7: Kip. xııı istatara 'to hide oneself’ örtün- Hou. 36, 12: xv tağatte ditto, (yapm- and) örtün- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9a. 5.

D artur-, etc. Preliminary note. It is morphologically almost impossible to distinguish between the Caus. f.s of a:r- and art-. Only those of 2 a:r- (deceive, trick) and 2 art- (increase, grow, expand, excessive) occur in the early period. Ardur- Caus.f. of 1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak) 'to tire (someone) out' is first noted in xıv Muh. Mel. 4-T, 12; 42, 2; Rif. 132 and survives in NW Kaz. Arttır-/ arttur- the Caus. f. of 1 art- (ard-) exists in \\ several NE, SE, and NC languages, but is not noted before xix.

D 1 artur- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 a:r- (deceive, trick); cf. the quotns. under that word, and artiz-. Türkü vııı süčig savirga: yımšak ağı:sı:rja: arturrup ükü:š türkü bodun öltig ‘letting yourselves be tricked by their honeyed words nnd luxurious treasures many of you Türkü people died’ I S 6; II N 5.

D 2 artur- Caus. f. of 2 art- (increase, grow, expand, excessive) (Arthur); ‘to cause (something) to increase, grow bigger’, with various extended meanings, esp. in SW. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as arttir-/arttur- Xak. xı o:n yarma:k üze: bi:r arturdı: zeda tcehid 'ale 'ašara darehim ‘he added one more on top of the ten silver coins’; and one says er arttırdı: 'ade'1-racul tawrahu ‘the man gave himself airs’; (verse) keldi: berü: arturu: be:rdi: e:lin (VU) ertürü: ‘he came towards us with an enormous army, boasting and giving himself airs (yašlaf wa ya’dü fatvrahu)-, then he surrendered his realm to us’ (the third and sixth words are vocalized the same, but must have different meanings; the first is obviously arturu: ‘boasting’; the second is not specifically translated, but the likeliest explanation is that it is the Ger. of 2 ertür- ‘letting it pass to us’) Kaš. I 219 (arturu:r, arturma:k): KB (he went every dav) tapuğ arturu ‘giving more and more service’ 610; šukur kılsa ni'mat bayat arturur ‘if (a man) gives thanks, God increases His favours to him’ 75e: xııı (?) At. akılık šaraf ceh carnal arturur ‘generosity increases a man’s honor, dignity, and grace’ 258; Tef. artur- ‘to make greater’ 60: Čağ. xv ff. artur- ziyed kardan ‘to increase (Trans.)’ San. 35r. 24: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 11: Kom. xıv ‘to surpass’ artır- CCG; Gr. 2.: Kip. xııı zeda artur- Hou. 40, 14: xıv (the Perf. of art- is arttı:, this is Intrans. (al-lezim)) but in the Trans, (al-muta'addŋ you say arturdı: Id. 10; (after arf-) zeda fVl-šay' ‘to increase the quantity in something’ artur- Bui. 45r.: xv zeda artır- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 18b. 4: Osm. xıv to xvıı artur- occurs in a few texts TTS I 45; II 58; /// 41.

D ertür-, etc. Preliminary note. As in the case of artur-, verbs of this form may be Caus.f.s of 1 er- (are, were, was), 2 er- (reach, arrive; meet) or 1 or 2 ert-, but all early forms seem to be explicable as Caus. f.s of 2 er- (reach, arrive; meet), which is rare, or 1 ert-(pass) which is not much commoner.

D 1 ertür- Caus. f. of 2 er- (reach, arrive; meet); ‘to cause to arrive, bring to a successful conclusion’ and the like. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. erdir-. Türkü vııı tokuz:nč ay yeti: otuzka: yoğ ertü:r-timiz ‘we brought the funeral ceremonies to a conclusion on the 27th of the 9th month’ I NE\ similar phr. IIS 10; a.o. IE40 (ükün:-).

D 2 ertür- Caus. f. of 1 ert-; ‘to cause to pass, pass by’, etc. with various extended meanings. Survives as erttir-/erttir- in most NE languages R I 793, Khak., Tuv., and perhaps NC Kzx. (R I 793, not MM). Uyğ. vı 11 tf. Hud. [gap] ertürür erdimiz ‘we have passed (our lives?)’ U III 16, 2; üč yavlak yoldın ertürgeli umakniŋ (a cause) ‘of being able to pass by (i.e. avoid) the three evil roads’ TT V 22, 32; ertünnezün ‘let (eîlabhadra) not allow (Huen-tsang) to pass (us) by’ Hüen-ts. 309: Civ. ertürmîš ke:re:k ‘one must pass (the time)’ TT VIII 1.18: Xak. xı anııj ya:zukın ertürdi: ‘he pardoned (šafaha ’an) his sins’; and one says anıŋ ı:šın ertürdi: ‘he authorized (aceza) his afFair, that is he agreed to it (qabilahu)'; also used of anyone who overlooks something (cetvaza šay' 'an tnaıvdi') Kaš. I 220 (ertürür, ertürme:k); a.o. (?) 1 219 (artur-).

D urtur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать) Caus. f. of ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать); with a corresponding range of meanings. Survives as urdur- in NE Khak.; NC Kır.; SC Uzb. (urdir-), some NW languages and SW Tkm. and vurdur- in SW Az., Osm. Türkü vııı iči:n tašı:n adınčığ bediz urtu:rtım ‘I have various decorations placed inside and outside’ (Kül T^gin’s tomb) I S 12: Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. bedük kanlılarda... urturup ‘having them placed on large waggons’ U III 40, 28-9: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. urdir-/urdur- ‘to order to put (something Acc., into something Dat.)’ 331: xıv Rbğ. urdur- ‘to let oneself be beaten’ (with something birle) R 11672 (quotn.): Čağ. xv ff. urdur- (‘with u-’) nıadrub sextan ‘to cause to be beaten’ San. 67V. 22: Xwar. xıv urdur-‘to order to put (something Acc., on something üze)’ Qutb 199: Osm. xv urdur- ‘to order that (a country Acc.) should be attacked’ in one text TTS III 710.

D örtür- (grow) Hap. leg. (?); Caus. f. of 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-); ‘to grow (a plant, etc. Acc.)’. LJyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A MI 14, 10-11 (t:).

D artaš- Co-op. f. of arta:-. Survives only (?) in NE Sag., Tel. ardaš-/artaš- ‘to fall out with one another’ R I 309, 322. Xak. xı yalrjuk İčin artašdı: fasada’l-nes ba’duhum bi-ru’ya ba'd ‘some of the people became corrupt in the view of the others (?)’; also used of a number of things (hull šay’ katiŋ when some of them become corrupt among the rest Kaš. I 230 (artašu:r, artašma:k); ıšı: anıg artašıp fasada amruhu ‘his n İla irs deteriorated’ II 219, 4.

D artıš- (ardıš-) (load, lade) Co-op. f. of 1 art- (ard-); ‘to help (someone Dat.) to load (something Acc.)’, and the like. S.i.s.m.l. Xağ. xı ol maga: arčı: artıšdı: ‘he helped me to load (a'enani 'ala ilqe’. . . wa hamlihŋ the saddle-bag on the baggage animal’; also used for ‘to compete’ Kaš. I 231 (artıšur, artıšma:k).

D ertiš- Recip., etc. f. of 1 ert-. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. Bas. 63. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: arsla:ndan ertišdi: ‘he competed with me in getting past (fl’l-mucawaza) the lion’, or anything else that is feared Kaš. I 231 (ertišü:r, ertišme:k); in the para, on the river Ertiš, / 97, it is said that the name is taken from the word ertiš meaning berinî fVl-mu ebara ‘compete with me in crossing’, no doubt a false etymology.

D irteš- (inquire, seek, pursue) Co-op. f. of irte:- (inquire, seek, pursue); n.o.a.b.; SW xx Aııat. irteš- ‘to quarrel, push one another about’ is a See. f. of örteš-, Xak. xı ola:r bu: sözüg lrtešti:le:r tafahhašû hedal-kalem ‘they scrutinized this statement’, or affair, or something else Kaš. I 230 (irtešü:r, irtešme:k); a.o. I 230, 4 (1 ö:č).

D örteš- (burn, ignite, жечь, гореть) Recip., etc. f. of örte:- ; lit. ‘to burn one another, to burn (something) together’, and the like. Survives in NE Khak.; NC Kır.; NW Kaz. (ürteš-), usually for ‘to be angry with one another’ or the like (and see SW irteš-). Xak. xı bo:dun bi:r ikindimig evle:rlr» örtešdi: ‘the peopte burnt (ahraqa) one another’s houses’; also used for ‘to compete’ and ‘to help’ Kaš. I 231 (örtešü:r, örtešme:k); Oğrak bile: örtešip ‘competing with the Oğrak in burning (each other’s property)’ II 219, 5 (the translation in Kaš. is obviously wrong).

D örtüš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of ört-, Xak. xı ola:r bu: ı:šığ örtüšdi: ‘they mutually agreed to conceal (lawata'u 'aid satŋ this affair’; also used for ‘to help someone to hide or conceal (t ığtiya .. . wa satŋ something’ Kaš. I 230 (örtüšu:r, örtüšme:k).

D artiz- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 a:r- (deceive, trick). Cf. 1 artur-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. tertrü yana igideyü teŋričimen nomčımen tegmeke artızıp ‘letting (myself) be deceived by one who says falsely and untruthfully “I am a man of God and a preacher” Chuas. 135-6.

Tris. ARD

D arıtı: (completely, clean) perhaps Ger. in -ı: fr. arıt-, cf. ula:ti:; etymologically it should mean ‘cleanly’, but normally means ‘completely’; usually, but not, as implied in v. G. ATG, paras. 214, 354, invariably, used with a Neg. Verb. Türkü vııı ff. Man. bir aykı čaxšapatığ edgüti: tüketi arıtı tutu umadımız erser ‘if we have been unable to keep one month’s commandments well, perfectly and completely’ Chuas. 282-4: Uyğ. vııı ff. Rud. amranmak mzvam olarda arıtı bultukmaz ‘the passion of (sensual) love is completely lacking in them’ TT V 16, note A.39, 4; o.o. U III 37, 331 55, 3! UIV 22, 273 (1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak)), etc.; in TT V 26, 109 the word erti (quite dear in the facsimile) is prob. a scriptio defectiva for arıtı, (if one has to get on without an army or food it is alright but) kirtgüncüg erti (? arıtı) titser ldalasar bolmaz ‘if one completely (?) renounces and abandons confidence, it is not’: Civ. arıtı yup ‘washing it clean’ H II 20, 6.

S orutğa See oğurğa: oğurğa: (spine).

PU?C ordu:ta:l al-nüra, presumably ‘depilatory paste’, the normal meaning. Pec. to Kaš. and entered twice, once, with a damma on the alif, among dissyllables between ordu: and egdü, which would imply that it was a compound word, and once, with a fatha on the alif and -d- for -d-, among the tri syllables after arkačak; possibly a l.-w. Xak. xı ordu:ta:I al-nüra in one of the two languages (luqatayn, ?‘Turkish’ and Oğuz/Kıp.) Kaš. I 124: ardu:ta:I al-nüra I 145.

D artukluk (abundance, excess) A.N. fr. artuk (excess); ‘abundance, excess’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE (?). Xak. xı yarağ bulup yağušdı: artuklukın söküšdi: Kaš. says that this describes a man’s partner who hid something from him after they had made a joint profit, and gives a translation which is not wholly intelligible, the words must mean ‘he found an opportunity and approached me, he stripped off the surplus (i.e. profit)’ Kaš. II 90, 9-10; n.m.e.: xııı (?) Tef. artukluk (1) ‘an additional amount’; (2) ‘outrage, excess’ 60: Osm. xıv to xvıı artukluk ‘excellence, surplus, superiority (over someone, üzere)’ TTS I 45; II 58; ///41.

D ortukluğ (ortokluğ) P.N./A. fr. ortuk.

Survives in NE Alt., Tel. ortoktu: R I 1071 and NW Kaz. urtaklik both meaning ‘jointly owned’ and the like. Cf. ortuluğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A men ol edgü megike ortukluğu bolayan ‘may I become his fellow participant in that good joy’ M I 12, 10-11: ( (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. artaklik ‘incitement’ 238).

D artğaru See art.

D artukrak Comparative f. of artuk (excess); mainly used as an Adv. meaning ‘extremely, excessively’. S.i.s.m.l. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (gap) artukrak dintarlar (gap) meaning uncertain TT II 8, 71: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the pleasant flavours in my mouth have disappeared and) artukrak ačığ bolup ‘become excessively bitter’ U III 37, 31-2; artukrak basutčı ‘extremely helpful’ TT V 22, 20; artukrak korksar beligleser ‘if he fears (Hend.) excessively’ Suv. 141, 7; o.o. Suv. 70, 20 and 21; 74, 23; 148, 15; USp. 60 Ila. 4 etc.: Civ. ay teŋri artukrak yaltndi ‘the moon shone particularly brightly’ TT VII 30, 5-e: Xwar. xııı (?) (the child drank the first milk from his mother’s breast but) mundin artukrak ičmedi ‘did not drink more than this’ Oğ. 9-10: Kip. xv eg artikrak le azyad minhu ‘more than anything else’ Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 55b. 11: Osm. xiv, xv artuğrak ‘more abundant’ and the like in several texts TTS I 43\ II 56;/// 39.

D örtüglüg (concealed, covered) P.N./A. fr. örtüg; ‘concealed, covered’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. örtülü. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. örtüglüg kizleglig ağır ayığ kılınčımız ‘our hidden (Hend.) grievous misdeeds’ USp. 101, 20-1; kop törlüg tsuyda irinčüde örtüglüg yazukluğ bolmalim ‘may we not become covered by and guilty of all sorts of sins (Hend.)’ TT IV 14, 64-5; a.o. Suv. 37, 18: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. örtüglüg/örtülüg ‘hidden, secret’ 249, 250: Čağ. xv ff. örtüklük (‘with -k-, -İt’) örtülmiš Vel. 101: Xwar. xıv örtüglüg sözüm ‘my secret words’ Nahc. 421, 7; a.o. \\ do. 57, 5 (ak-): Osm. xv, xvı örtülü ‘hidden, secret’ in several texts TTS 111 566; IV 629.

D örtgüsüz Hap. leg.?; Priv. N./A. fr. *örtgü, prob. a metathesis, metri gratia, of örtüg, but a possible Dev. N. fr. ört-, Xak. xı KB ešitti tüzü xalq anı örtgüsüz 'all the people listened to him without concealment’ 2685.

D orduluğ P.N./A. fr. ordu: ; noted only in Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. in two astrological texts TT VII 13 and 18 where it means ‘having, or belonging to (such and such) a heavenly mansion’.

D ortuluğ Hap. leg.; syn. with, and prob. a misreading or mis-spelling of, ortukluğ; if not, P.N./A. fr. ortu:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. Sati Yarakmg ortuluğ mal ‘goods jointly owned by Sati and Yarak’ USp. 62, 2.

D erdemlig P.N./A. fr. erdem (virtue, goodness, manliness, bravery) ; ‘possessing manly qualities, brave, virtuous’, etc. Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. ertemnig ‘learned, educated’, and SW xx Anat. erdemli ‘capable, dextrous’. SDD 542. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 10 (alp): Yen. (I could not remain with) erdemligime ‘my brave (followers)’ Mal. 28, 1; a.o. do. 48, 8; Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A tükel erdemlig ‘perfectly virtuous’ (one of the epithets of a high Manichaean dignitary) MI 12, 18: Bud. edgülüg edre:mligle:r (sic) ‘good and virtuous men’ TT VIII H. 10: Civ. erdemlig kiši ‘a virtuous, or worthy, man’ TT VII 42, 1: (Xak.) xıv Muh. al-musta'idd bi’l-a'mel (Rif., li'1-šay’) ‘a capable man of affairs’ e:rde:mlig Mel. 56, 1; Rif. 153: Kip. xııı al-'altm dul-fadlla ‘virtuous and wiseerdemlü: IIou. 26, 1: Osm. xıv erdemlübrave’ in one text TTS I 271.

D ertimlig P.N./A. fr. *ertim; ‘transitory, fleeting’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vrri ff. Man. TT III 50 (ilin-); do. 137 (etöz; in this case A.N. in -lik).

D erdemsiz Priv. N./A. fr. erdem (virtue, goodness, manliness, bravery); ‘lacking in manly qualities, bravery or virtue’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT VII 42, 1 (uldag): Xak. xı erdemsizden kut čertilü:r ‘good fortune is withheld from the man without merits or refined manners’ (alladi la manqaba tea le adab ma'ahu) II 229, 22; o.o. III 211, 3 (ša:); I 252, 19; n.m.e.: xıv Muh. al-daxil fVl-a'mel (Rif, al-xilw nıitıa'1-šay') ‘inexperienced in affairs’ e:rde:msiz Mal. 56, 3; W- 153.

aru:du:n See arumdu:n.

F ertini, etc. (jewel, precious)jewel’, more vaguely ‘precious (object)’; fr. Sanskrit ratna through some intermediate language, prob. Sogdian rtny, with prosthetic e-; the phonetic evolution fr. -rt -- -rd- is obscure, owing to the ambiguity of the Uyğ. alphabet, but the word became a l.-w. in Mong. as erdeni (Koto. 259, Haltod 60); the only modern form NE Tel. erdine R I 795 is prob. a re-borrowing fr. Mong. Uyğ. vııı ff. \\\ Man. rdnide (? sic) yeg ‘better than a jewel' M II 7, 6-7; a.o. TT 111 62-3 (oğat-): Chr. erdini berüp ermiš ‘he gave us a precious thing’ U 7 8, 18: Bud. čintamani erdini bulsar ‘if he finds the cintemani jewel’ PP 14, 7-8; etözlüg ağılıkııjıziardakı isig özlüg erdiniŋlzlerni (lie will stral and carry away) ‘your precious souls, which are in the treasury of your body’ U III 14, 10-12; and many o.o., esp. in such phr. as 110m ertini used instead of nom bitigi for Sanskrit siltra : Xak. xı erdini: al-durrul-yatim ‘a matchless pearl’; hence one calls a woman erlini: özük meaning ‘having a body like a matchless pearl’, the -d- being contracted into (udğimat fŋ -t-, as one says muddakir for mudtahir Kaš. I 141 (clearly both forms with -t- and -d- were current, but the ‘explanation’ is absurd); a.o. / 71 (özük): KB ajun merjzi boldı ürüıj erdini ‘the complexion of the world became (like) a white pearl’ 3840: xıv Muh. al-durr erden Mel. 77, 8; erdün Rif. 180: Xwar. xııı (?) (gold, silver, many rubies) kop telim erdini-ler ‘very many jewels’ Oğ. 120; a.o.o. (OTD p.

D ertiŋü: (extremely, very) Dev. Adj./Adv fr. *ertin- Refl. f. of ert-; but used only as an Adv. qualifying Adjs. and V.s and meaning ‘extremely, very much’. Common in Uyğ. but not noted later. Türkü vııı ertiŋü: uluğ törü:n ‘with a very great ceremony’ II N 9 and 10 (of a wedding); o.o. II S 14 and 15 (meaning obscure): vııı ff. Man. ertiıjü ögrünčülüg ‘very joyful’ TT II 8, 54: Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. U I 8, 4-5 (ağıŋ: Bud. Sanskrit subaha ‘very many’ ertiıjü üküš TT VIII D.40 \U II 15,6; 16,15; etriıjü (sic) a:rığ‘verv pure’ TT VIIIG.20; o.o. with Adj. PP 3, 8; 16, 1; 26, 5; 38, 8; TT VII 40, 32; Suv. 530, 7 etc. — ertiŋü katığlanıp ‘making great efforts’ U III 35, 29; o.o. do. 37, 2 (ağrı:-); Suv. 141, 4-5 (uya:d-).

D ortunki: Hap. leg.?; N./A.S. fr. ortun (ortu:); ‘situated in the middle, intermediate’. Replaced in the medieval period by ortanca/ ortancı (Čağ., Sarı. yır. 11; Kıp., Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 38a. 9; Osm., T'TS 1 550; II 736) which still survives in NC Kzx. ortaııši; SW Osm. ortanca, Tkm. ortancı. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ilki etözlerde ortunki kenki etözlerde ‘in their first bodies (i.e. incarnations) and intermediate and last bodies’ Suv. 134, 1-2.

DF ertinilig (jewelled) P.N./A. fr. ertini (jewel, precious); ‘jewelled, full of jewels’. Pec. to Uyğ. Bud. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. erdinilig otruğ ‘the island of jewels’ PP 33, 7; TT V 26, 91, and 94; erdinilig orunluk ‘a jewelled throne’ PP 46, 2; a.o.o.

Tris. V. ARD-

D artučlan- (covered) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. artuč. Xak. xı ta:ğ artučlandı: ‘the mountain was covered with junipers’ (al-'ar'ar) Kaš. I 312 (artučlanur, artučlanma:k).

D artukla:-

D artuklan- Refl. f. of artukla:- (which s.i.s.m.l with a wide range of meanings); ‘to give oneself airs’. Survives with the same meaning in NE Tel. R I 311 and Khak. artıktan- \213\ Xak. xı er artuklandi: 'ade'1-racul tazvrahu ‘the man gave himself airs’ Kaš. I 313 (artuklanur, artuklanma:k).

D erte:le:- Den. V. fr. erte:; originaly ‘to do (something) early’, with some extended meanings later. Survives in NIC Tuv. Pal. 587; NC Kır. and SW Osm. Xak. xı cr ı:ška: erte:le:di: bahhara'l-racul li'l-amr ‘the man started early on the affair’ Kaš. I 316 (erte:le:r, ertele:me:k, corrected from ma:k): xıır (?) Tef. ertele- same meaning 84: Osm. xıv toxvi ertele- ‘to get up early’ in a few texts TTS I 274; II 394.

D ortu:la:- Den. V. fr. o^u:; S.İ. s.m.l. with variations in the middle vowel, usually meaning ‘to reduce by half, split down the middle’, and the like. Xak. xı er yaršın ortu:la:di: tanaššafa'1-racul min 'umrihi ‘the man reached middle age’ Kaš. I 316 (ortu:la:r, orturla:ma:k).

D ordurlan- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 ordu:. Xak. xı beg bir ye:rig ordu:landi: ‘the beg chose (ittaxada) a place for himself as his capital’ (qašaba) Kaš. I 296 (ordu:lanur, ordu:lanma:k); a.o. II 294, 24.

D arıtın- (clean, чиститься) Refl. f. of arıt-; ‘to clean oneself’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. yuntı arıtıntı ‘he washed and cleaned himself’ MI 7, 21: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. arığ yunup arıtınıp U II 42, 31-2; a.o. Suv. 478, 20.

D arıtıš- Co-op. f. of arıt-; survives only in NE Khak. ardis-. Xak. xı ol marja: tarığ arıtıšdı: ‘he helped me to clean the grain’ (fitanqiyati’l-hinta) Kaš. II 322, 16 (in a grammatical section); n.m.e.

Mon. ARĞ

1 ark (feces, slag)excrement’, esp. ‘human excrement’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. arix. Cf. 1 bo:k (green mould, excrement, dung). Xak. xı ark al-'adira ‘human excrement’; and ‘iron slag’ (xabatu’l-hadid) is called temür arkı: Kaš. I 42: xıv Muh. (?) al-ğe'if ‘dung’ (bo:k, in margin) ark Rif. 142: Kip.xııı al-adira (bok, also called) ark (mis-vocalized ork) iva huwa luğa ‘it is a dialect word’ Hon. 21, 19: xıv arık (so vocalized) al-xurtt' ‘excrement’ Id. 12.

S 2 ark See 1 arık. (arık (stream, current, channel, canal))

1 irk (divination tool, omen, luck, fortune, comfort, peace, elucidating secrets) originally a Conc. N. ‘dice, sticks, etc. used for casting lots, divination, etc.’, thence ‘a magical figure, hexagram’, and the like; thence abstract, ‘an omen, taking omens, divination, etc.’ It is listed in R I 1370 (quoting Zenkeŋ as a SW Osm. word meaning ‘luck, fortune’ and survives in this meaning in SW xx Anat. ırğ/ırk/ırık/ırğın SDD 772-4. NC Kır. irkcomfort, a peaceful life’ can hardly be the same word. Türkü vııı ff. bu ırk bašı:nta: ‘at the beginning of this omen’ IrkB 57; bu irk biti:g 'this book of omens’ do. Postscript. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (he asked for a piece of chalk, took it and drew a pattern on the ground) ırk sačtı ırkın körmišdin kin ‘threw the dice (or \\\ rods?) and after scrutinizing their omen’ (rather than ‘the dice’ — he said) Hüen-ts. 37: Civ. irk is the technical term for the Chinese hexagrams in TT I (14, etc.), and also for the omens stated in short sentences in TT VII 28 (8, etc.): Xak. xı ırk al-kahena ıoa'1-fel wa ixracu’l-damir ‘divination, taking omens, and elucidating secrets’ Kaš. I 42.

2 irk/erk (effort, strain) See ikle:-/irkle:- (efforting, straining, trample, trod). Den. V. in directional -la/le fr. ik/irk “in effort, strain” (OTD eklä- (erkla-) “apply efforts, strain, trample, trod, press” p. 168 EKLÄ- см. erkla-I, II прилагать усилия, напрягать; топтать, давить)

3 irk/erk (trample, trod) See ikle:-/irkle:- (efforting, straining, trample, trod). Den. V. in directional -la/le fr. ik/irk “in trampling, straining, pressing” (OTD  eklä- (erkla-) “apply efforts, strain, trample, trod, press” p. 168 EKLÄ- см. erkla-I, II прилагать усилия, напрягать; топтать, давить)

S urk See 1 uruk (rope).

Dis. ARĞ

D 1 arığ (clean, pure, noble, emphatic: completely, thoroughly) N./A.S. fr. arı:-clean, pure’, lit. and metaph.; sometimes also used as an Adv. like arıtı: for ‘completely, thoroughly’. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. phonetic changes in the second syllable. Türkü vııı arı:ğ uvuti: yeg a proverb quoted to justify a military retreat, perhaps ‘modesty becomes the pure man’ T 37: vııı ff. Man. arığ dindarlar ‘the pure Elect’ Chuas. 66-7; arığ bačağ bačap ‘keeping a pure fast’ do. 247; o.o. do. 217,245; TT lib, 2: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. arığ yollarda yorip ‘walking in pure ways’ TT III 164-5; a.o.o.: Bud. iki arığ kızlar ‘two pure maidens’ PP 41, 2; arığ by itself and the Hends. arığ süzük (as in TT V 6, 22) and süzük arığ (as in do. 6, 24) ‘pure’ are very common; the spelling in TT VIII is a:rığ; see also 1 turuk: Xak. xı arığ neŋ ‘anything clean’ (nazif) Kaš. I 63; o.o. same translation I 66, 17; 342, 4; arığ (of ‘gold’) xalis ‘pure’ I 376, 25; in six other passages arığ means ‘completely, thoroughly’, e.g. alpla:r arığ alkıšur ‘the warriors completely destroy one another’ I 237, 23; o.o. I 103, 2; 230, 3; 241, 23 (Igleš-); II 328, 16; III 41, 18 — arrığ neŋ aİ-šay’u’l-nazif cidda(n) zva’l-tašdid li’1-mubölağa ‘an extremely clean thing’, the double -rr- for emphasis I 143: KB arığ bolsa özi ‘if his soul is pure’ 722; o.o. meaning ‘pure’ 831, 3899; (God created innumerable beings) till birle teŋrig ögerler arığ ‘they greatly praise God with their tongues’ 1022; bu kün kim okısa ol arığ (so read) bilir ‘whoever reads today, he knows full well (thoroughly)’ 259: xııı (?) Tef. arığpure, clean’ 57: xıv Midi, al-tahir ‘clean, purea:rı: Mel. 55, 5; arık (with -ğ below the -k) Rif. 152; al-bikr ‘virgin’ (opposite to al-tayyib ‘married woman’, erikmiš) aru: ki:z Rif. 149; arı: ki:z 150 (only); Rbğ. arığclean’ (clothes) R I 269 (quotn.): Čağ. xv ff. arığ/arık art wa pak Vel. 12 (quotns.); arı pek wa musaffa ‘clean, pure’ San. 37V. 12; arığ ditto 15 (quotn.); arık ditto 21: Xwar. xıv arığpure’ Qutb 12; MN 10; Nahc. 232, 10; 277, 1: Kom. xıv arıclean’ CCI; ‘pure, holy’ CCG; arovclean, guiltless’ CCG; Gr. 40, 41 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-nazif aru: Hou. 27, 17: xıv arı: al-nazif; arığ mutahhar ‘cleansed’, and it is equivalent (recı) to arı: in the sense of al-nazif Id. 10: xv al-nazif (mis-spelt al-nadif) aru: (misvocalized oru:) Kav. 64, 17; tehır aru Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23b. 7; nazif am do. 36b. 5: Osm. xıv ff. arı, occasionally in xıv aruclean, pure’ lit. and metaph., c.i.a.p. TTS I 39; II 49; III IV 35. (OTD p. 52  ARÏƔ III 1. чистый, незагрязненный; чисто, 2. перен. нравственно безупречный, благородный, порядочный, непорочный, 3. рел. чистый, истинный, неложный, праведный, священный, святой, 4. рел. чистый, дозволенный (о пище), 5. совершенно, совсем, полностью; как следует)

2 arığ (copse, wood, forest, jungle)copse, wood, forest, jungle’; sometimes used in Hend. with simek, q.v. Survives only (?) in NE Khak., Tuv. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit eranya ‘living in a wood arığıntarkl TT XT 11 B.S; vanasande ‘in the foresta:rığta: do. C.4; arığta: do. G.3; a.o. U III 55, 2; arığ simek same meaningf ?) U III 10, 13-14; 58, 6; U IV 44, 25 ; USp. 105, 10; Suv. 529, 5 etc.

VU 3 arığ (rope, brace) Hap. leg.; precedes 1 arığ, and so correctly vocalized but semantically close to 1 uruk (rope). Barsğan xı arığ izeru'l-xibe' ‘the rope bound round a (felt) tent’ Kaš. I 63.

arık (stream, current, channel, canal) ‘an irrigation canal’. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer II 469. Xak. xı arık al-rtahr (here) ‘irrigation canal’ Kaš. I 65 (prov.); I 302 (ağızla:-); I 382 (kazuk); a.o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. arık ditto 58: Čağ. xv ff. arığ/arık ‘a water course (su yolŋ dug to provide a flow of water’, for example a mill-race (değirmen anğı) Vel. 13 (quotns.); arığ nahr San. 37V, 15 (quotn.); arık ‘the same as arığ’ do. 21; arğ/ark abbreviation of arığ/arık nahr 371. 20 (quotn.): Kip. xıv ark al-nahr (and al-nahr (if taken as ‘river’) is called ırmak) Id. 11; al-nahr (inter alia) arğ But. 4, 13: xv al-nahr arık (and ırak (? error), ırmak, özen) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 36a. 5: Osm. xıv ff. ark (the standard modern form) in one xıv and one xv text, arığ once in xv and arık once in xvı 775/39; //SU /// 37.

D aruk (a:rok) (tired, exhausted, emaciated, weak) Pass. N./A.S. fr. 1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak); originally ‘tired out, exhausted’, hence ‘emaciated, weak for the lack of food’; in the latter sense normally of animals. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually as arık. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. yeg a:rok ‘very exhausted’ TT VIII N. 14; siz aruk siz ‘you are tired out’ PP55.4; o.o. do. 37,1 ; Hüen-ts. 1914: Xak. xı aruk er ‘an exhausted (niu'yŋ man’ Kaš. I 66; o.o. same translation 7 259, 8; 298, 10 (ö:glen-); 77 28, 3; azukluğ aruk erme:s ‘a well-fed man does not tire (la ya'yŋ on a journey’ 7 148, t: xıv Muh. al-nahif ‘emaciated’ a:ruk Mel. 48, 12; Rif. 143 (mis-spelt u:ru:)\ al-hazil ‘thin, out of condition’ a:ruğ 65, 14; aruk 165 (also 143, 152); hazila zea nahif a aruk boi- 116 (Mel. eruğla:-): Čağ. xv ff. arığ leğar ‘thin, emaciated’ San. 37V. 17 (quotn.); arık same as arığ do. 21; Oğuz/Kıp, xı arık al-mahzül ‘emaciated’ Kaš. I6e: Kom. xıv ‘emaciated’ anx CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip.xııı al-hazil (opposite to al-samin semiz) aruk Hou. 27, 18: xıv al-mahzül aruk Id. it: xv hazil arık Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 37b. 12 : Osm. xıv ff. aruk ‘lean, emaciated’ in some xiv, xv texts, arık fr. xıv onwards TTS I 36; II 50; III 34; IV 36.

D ıra:k (distant, far away) N./A.S. fr. ıra:-; ‘distant, far away’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; ırak is the only form in SW, and, with rak, in NE, and occurs in all other language groups; yirak is an alternative form in three of them, cirak only in NW. This proves that the y-, where it exists is secondary and prosthetic. Türkü vııı ırak bodunuğ anča: yağu:tı:r ermiš ‘thus they brought distant people nearer to them’ I S 5, 77 N 4; a.o. I S 7, 11 N 5; turuk bukali: semiz bukali: \\\ ırakta: bölser ‘if one tries to distinguish between a lean ox and a fat ox from afar off’ 7 5-6; ırak and yağuk seem to occur in antithesis on a halhal ETY II 164: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U IV 16, 156 (anığ); (48, 98); ıraktın ‘from afar off’ PP 38, 4; U II 22, 6; U III 58, 8 (ı); o.o. IJSp. 103, t 8; TT VII 40, 67: Civ. ırak is common in TT VII\ yirak (sic ?) barmıš kiši kelmiš! sarp ‘it is difficult for a man who has gone far away to come TT I 78: Xak. xı yirark ye:r ‘a distant (ha'id) place’; also used for anything distant from friends (al-ixzva), etc. Kaš. III 28 (verse); III 29, 4 (uğra:ğ); and two o.o.: KB közümde yirak sen köŋülke yakın ‘you are far from my eyes but near to my thoughts’ 11 ; o.o. 527, 781, etc.: xıı (?) KB VP yirak ‘afar’ 48, 49: xııı (?) At. yirak tur ‘keep awav’ (from liars) 153; Tef. irak/yirak ‘distant; extreme’ 129, 158; xıv Muh. al-ha'id i:ra:k Md. 83, 9; Rif. 189; a.o. 26, 14 (at-): Čağ. xv if. yirak dür ‘distant’ San. 349V. 25: Xwar. xıv yirak ditto Qutb 91; ırak do. 2.06; yirak MN 100, etc.; ırak Nahc. 115, 14: Kom. xıv ‘distant’ irak/irax CCI, CCG\ Gr. 274 (quotns.): Kip. xıı al-ha'id (opposite to al-qartb yowuk, yakın) yira:k Hou. 25, 12: xıv yirak al-ba'id Id. 93; xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 8a. e: Osm. xıv ff. ırak (occasionally ırağ/ırax down to xvŋ ‘distant’; c.i.a.p. T7S I 352; 77 498; III 342; 7 V 393.

uruğ Preliminary note. As a N.Ac. in fr. ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать) occurs twice in Kaš., but otherwise means 'seed, pip' with some extended meanings. In this sense unlikely to be a Dev. N. fr. ur- even in its meaning of 'to put' and the like.

D 1 uruğ (beating) N.Ac. in fr. ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать); ‘a beating’. N.o.a.b.; cf. 1 uruğluğ (struck, wounded). Xak. xı ol kulin uruğ urtli: daraba 'abdahu darb mubelağ fihi ‘he gave his slave a severe heating’ Kaš. I 27, 4; similar phr. I 386, 16; both as grammatical examples.

2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan) originally a Conc. N. ‘seed, pip, kernel’, but with metaph. extensions like ‘progeny, descendants’, and even ‘clan’, i.e. descendants of a common ancestor. S.i.a.m.l.g. in various forms (uruğ/urıık/uru, etc.). See uluš. See Doerfer II 468. Türkü vııı ff. Yen. possibly occurs in Mal. 32, 15 (inanč): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 17, 14 (evin) : Bud. yana burxan kutıga uruğ tarığ kemišmiš bolur ‘and will throw seed and grain before the majesty of the Buddha’ TT VI 454 — oğulı kızı ııruğı tarığı bağrı böšüki tiküš bolur ‘his sons and daughters, progeny (Hend.) blood relations and relations by marriage become numerous’ do. 105; o.o. do. 205 (alkınč); TT VII40, 127; Civ. kendir uruğı ‘hemp seed’ TT VII 14, 49; nara uruğı ‘pomegranate pips’ H I 3; o.o. do. 22, 101 and IIII (common); bu yerke neče uruğ batsar ikegü teŋ tintürüp tarırbız‘whatever quantity of seed is planted in this ground, we will raise and produce twice that amount’ USp. 28, 4-6 — men Sadanıg ağam inim uruğum \215\ tuğmıšım oğulum özlügüm (? so read) ‘my, Sada’s, elder and younger brothers, progeny (Hend.), sons and blood-relations (?)’ USp. 13, 12: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. chungseed, progeny’ (Giles 2,886) uruğ tuğum R I 1658; ch'iti ch'i ‘relations by marriage’ (Gibs 2,081 1,018) uruğ tarığ Ligeti, p. 275; Xak. xı ııruğ hahb hull šay ‘the seeds, pips of anything’, and al-badr ‘cereal seed’ is called uruğ; hence one says uruğ ekti: ‘he sowed seed’; and metaph. al-aqfirib ‘relatives (by marriage)’ are called uruğ tarığ (mis-spelt tnrığ) Kaš. I 63; a.o. I 449, 14 (zaranza:): KB ay edgü kılınč ašlı edgü uruğ ‘oh progeny of good conduct and good stock’ 108; kamuğ egriler isiz urğl bolur ‘all crooked things have evil progeny’ 806; kökl edğu bolsun uruğ ham tarığ ‘let her lineage be good on both sides of the family’ 4476; a.o. 1959: xııı (?) Tef. uruğ ‘seed’ 331: xıv Muh. al-badr u:ruğ Me/. 78, 1; Rif. 181: Cağ. xv ff. uruk kayaš .Yišini qawni ‘relatives, clan’; since these words are not used separately kayaš is added in this entry; uruğ/uruk is used for a man’s sons, brothers, and close relations, like (Pe.) xwtš and kayaš for those who are the xwîš of xwiše-ivanda that is the sons and brothers of relatives, like (? c.) taber Vel. 98 (quotns.); uruğ/uruk (1) xwiš wa taber wa nıamüben wa muta-'alliqan' (quot.); (2) badr-i zira at (quotn.) San. 71 v. 10; uruk kayaš Hend. (az ittibe'at), nasi wa taber wa xwišen (quotn.); uruk kayaš are used linked together, kayaš is not used in isolation, but uruğ can be do. 14: Xwar. xııı (?) biznig uruğıblz seniŋ ığačugnuŋ uruğı bolmıš bolup turur ‘our progeny are the seed of your tree’ Oğ. 191 — 3; a.o. do. 327: xıv uruğ ‘seed, descendants, progeny’ Qutb 199; MN 64; Makkada uruğım kadašım (sic) bar ‘I have children and kinsmen in Mecca’ Nahc. 48, 15: Kom. xıv ‘progeny’ uruğ/uruk‘progeny’ CCG; Gr. 266 (quotns.): Kıp. xıv (?) uruk ‘a clan, the descendants of a single ancestor’, marginal note to Id., lzbudak, El-idrek Hašiyesi, p. 49: Osm. xıv to xvı uruğ/uruk ‘progeny’ in several texts, ‘seed’ in one TTS I 550 (oruk), 725; 11 929.

oruk (orok) (path)path’. Survives in several NE languages R I 1050 (orak), 1054 (orok); Khak. orax/orğax; Tuv. oruk. Türkü vııı bir at oru:kı: ermiš ‘there is (reported to be) a path for one horse (at a time)’ T 24: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT 111 46 (1 uč): Bud. (he designed to show erring mortals) köni yol oruk ‘the true path’ TT VI 236; similar phr. Suv. 160, 2: Civ. yol oruk TT I 21: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. oruk ‘path’ (metaph.) 238.

VU?D 1 uruk (rope, cord)rope’; n.o.a.b.; prob. a Pass. Dev. N. fr. ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать) in the sense of something put onto something else; the modem word uruk in several NE languages R I 1658-9, Khak., Tuv. meaning ‘lasso’ and the like seems to be a Sec. f. of ukruk, q.v., rather than a survival of this word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (one of the three, demons) uruk üze boyunımın badı \\ ‘bound my neck with a rope’ Suv. 7, 19: Xak. xı uruk al-šafan ‘rope’ Kaš. I 66; six o.o. translated al-habl ‘rope, cord’: xııı (?) Tef. uruk ‘rope, cord’ 60 (? mis-spelt aruk), 331: Oğuz xı urk abbreviation (taxfif) of uruk, like 'unq, 'unuq Kaš. I 42.

S 2 uruk See 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan).

arka: (arch, back, backer, couch, help) originally ‘the back’ of a person, animal, or thing; hence metaph. ‘a backer, someone who stands behind and supports a person’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A yeme amti bolzun esengü alkıš tiizü nom arkasına ‘and now let there be well-being and praise to all supporters of the (true) doctrine’ M I 27, 11 ff.: Bud. o:t öglüg sačı arkasında yadılu tıırup ‘his flame-coloured hair hanging down his back’ UIV 10, 67-8; arka birip ‘turning his back’ (on the light (Dat.) of the gods) TT VI 273; tüz köŋüllüg bursag kuvrağfarığ iki arka kıldım erser ‘if I have caused discord in level-minded religious communities (Hend.)’ Suv. 134, 12-14; similar phr. TT IV 10, 20: Civ. süsgüni arkası tutušur ‘ (pain) grips his shoulders and back’ TT VII 25, 4: Xak. xı arka: al-zahr ‘the back’; arka: al-zahiru'lladi yu awinuk fi'l-dawahi ‘a backer’, who helps you in difficulties’ Kaš. I128 (prov.); a.o. (‘back’) I 139, e: KB bayat ok bolu bersü arka yölek ‘may God give you abundant backing and support’ 90; arka ‘backing’ 1697-8; arka yölek 116, 1045: xııı (?) Tef. arka ‘back, backing’ 58: xıv Muh. al-zahr arxa: Mel. 47, 13; arka: Rif. 114; al-misnad ‘coucharka: yatak Rif. 168 (only): Čağ. xv ff. arka pušt ‘back’, in Ar. zahr San. šjr. 22: Xwar. xıv arka back’ Qutb 11: Kom. xıv ‘backarka CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-zahr wa'l-musa'ada ‘back; support, helparka: Hou. 21, 1 ; a’ena ‘to helparka: bir- do. 34, 20; se'ada ‘to support, help’ ditto 40, 17: xıv arka: al-zahr Id. 11: xv ditto Kav. 60, 17; Ttih. 24a. 11: Osm. xıv ff. arka (once in xıv arxa) (1) ‘back’; (2) ‘backer, helper’; c.i.a.p. by itself and in phr. TTS I 39; II 54; III 37; 7^38-9-

arğu: (valley)valley’; as a Noun n.o.a.b., but noted as a geog. name in M I 26, 25 and 29; 27, 5 as well as in Kaš. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. arku (sic) tağlanğ yarjikurtur ‘he makes the valleys and mountains re-echo’ TT IX 84: Bud. ötrü anupadat yul suvın ötgürdi tavğač iliniıj sekiz uluğ arğularında ‘then he let the waters of the Anupadat spring pass into eight great valleys in China (Tabgach Türkic)’ Hüen-ts., Briefe 41, note 2104; a.o. TT IX 22, note 77, 5: Xak. xı arğu: al-lihb wa huwa bayna l-cabalayn ‘a valley between two mountains’; hence the country (al-biled) between Tirez and Balesegün is called Arğu: because it is between two mountains Kaš. I 127.

*arku: (arched, bent) See arkučı: (arbiter, intermediary, interfere, sow discord), arkuru: (arched, cross-member, crosswise, bridging), arğu:la:- (arbitrate, intermediate, interfere, sow discord). ( >  (Den. fr. arka: (arch, back, backer, couch, help) > arched, bent)

VU urğa: (tree (kind)) Hap. leg.; the translation does not make it clear whether it is a generic term or the name of a specific kind of tree. Oğuz, Argu: \\ \ı urğa: al-daivha 'a tall and spreading tree’ Kaš. I 128.

D arğuč Hap. leg.; Dev. N. (N.I ): fr. 2 a:r- (deceive, trick). Xak. xı arğuč ‘anything by which a man is deceived’ (yuŋtarŋ\ hence the world is called arğuč aju:n al-dunye ğarür (sic) Kaš. I 95.

(D) arka:ğ ‘the woof (or weft) of a woven material’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW. During the medieval period a synonymous word arğač appeared in Čağ. xv ff. (San. 37r. 8) and Osm. xıv ff. (TTS I 34; II 48; III 33 ; IV 35), and is still the word used in this sense in SW Osm./ Rep. Turkish; Tkm. It seems reasonable to suppose that these two words are Dev. N.s in -ka:ğ and -ğač respectively fr. *ar- which cannot be identified with either 1 (tired, exhausted, weak) or 2 a:r- (deceive, trick), and possible that arıš ‘warp’, q.v., is also a Dev. N. fr. this verb, but in the last case there are some difficulties of vocalization. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. arušı (? , spelt erüšŋ arkağı 'the warp and the woof’ TT VI 391 (arkuru:); a.o. do. 394: Xak. xı arkarg hdimatu l-tawb ‘the woof of cloth’ Kaš. I 118; a.o. lel(arıš):xiv Muh. al-luhma arkağ Mel. 60, g; Rif. 159 (misvocalized arkuğ).

arkuk (obstinate, refractory, resistant, transverse strut, dirty) ‘obstinate, refractory’, with a second meaning in Kaš. : N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı I S 8; I IN 6 (1 tok): Xak. xı arkuk kiši: ‘an obstinate, refractory (al-harün) person’: arkuk al-xašabatu l-mutarida bayn he'itayn aw seri-yatayn ‘a transverse strut between two walls or pillars’ Kaš. I 109: KB (in a list of bad habits) takı biri erke bu arkuk kılınč, bu arkuk kılınčlığka bolmaz sevinč 'and another is refractory behaviour in a man, a man who behaves in a refractory way is not liked’ (or ‘has no pleasure in life’?) 340; o.o. 1668, 1670. 2066; xıv Muh. al-qadir (}) ‘dirty’ (?) arkuk Mcl. 56, 3; Rif. 153 (neither word vocalized, the ‘opposite’ is corrupt and unintelligible).

D ırğa:ğ Dev. N. (Conc. N.) fr. ırğa:- (q.v., the semantic connection is obscure); ‘hook’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l.g. usually as ırğak. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT V 12, 118 (otluğ): Xak. xı ırğa:ğ ‘a hook (al-šišš) used to catch fish’: ırğa:ğ ‘an iron hook (al-xuttaf) used to drag ice from the water to the ice-house’ Kaš. I 141: Xwar. xıv (the elephant would not get up however much they hit him) temür ırğaklar birle ‘with iron elephant goads’ Nahc. 42, 15; o.o. (‘hook’) 268, 1-2: Kom. xıv ‘hook’ yırğak (sic) CCI; Gr.: Kjp. xıv ırğak al-kulleh tva'l-šinnera ‘iron hook; fish hook’ Id. 11; Bui. 5, 3 (misvocalized ırğık): xv zaqlam (? , corrupt) zva'l-kulleb ırğak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 18a. 2.

D orğa:k (sickle, reaping hook) N.I. fr. o:r- (mow (grass, etc.), to reap (crops)) (ard); ‘sickle, reaping hook’. S.i.a.m.l.g. as orğak/orak, sometimes with the additional meaning ‘harvest’. Xak. xı orğn:k al-mincal ‘sickle’ Kaš. I 119; six o.o. translated al-mincal or asnanu’l-tnincal ‘the teeth of a sickle’: xıv Muh. al-mincal orğark Mel. 60, 4; o:rğa:k Rif. 159: Čağ. xv ff. orağ/orak des ‘sickle’, in Ar. tnihšad, mincal I San. 70V. 24: Kip. xııı al-mincal worak (i/V?) Hou. 9, 11: xv mincal orak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 34a. 11 ; 49a. 8 (and in a second hand in the margin of 13b. 9 against hašša or-): Osm. xv ff. orak (once in xv oğrak) ‘sickle’ in several texts TTS I 536, 547; II 734; III 547.

arğu:n (weasel) Hap. leg,; prob. ‘weasel’ or the like. Xak. xı arğu:n duzcaybba win cinsi'l-curden ‘a small animal of the rat family’ with a body about half a cubit long, which hunts birds in the crevices of walls; if it jumps on a sheep, the (sheep’s) flesh turns yellow, and if it jumps on a man when he is asleep he is seized with strangury (al-usuŋ Kaš. I 120.

1 arkun (hybrid, cross-bred)cross-bred’: Survives in SE Türki arğın/arğun BŠ 30; NC Kır. arğın with various applications animal and human. Xak. xı arkun faras muzvallad ‘a cross-bred horse’, the offspring of a wild stallion and a tame mare, the fastest kind of horse in a race Kaš. I 107; < arkun münüp ide rahiba'l-carıed ‘riding a swift horse’ I 421, 17: KB kevel (käbäl) (well-bred fast horse) mindiŋ arkun ‘you ride a cross-bred of high quality’ 5803; učar kuš teg arkun ağımda kürettim 'I made the cross-bred horse which I bestrode gallop like a flying bird’ 6536; a.o. 5369 (büktel).

2 arkun (next year)next year’; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (they rely on an irregular calendar, thinking that with it they will be out of danger; it is more or less beneficial to their bodies) ınčıp arkun ağır ada tuda kelser ‘then when next year there come serious dangers (Hend.)’ TT VI 262-3: Xak. xı arkun ismu’l-’dmi’l-muqabil ‘a word for the coming year’; hence one says arkun (VU) i:zi: 'am muqabil zia qubaqih ‘next year and the year after (tracking)’ Kaš. I 108; I 89, ı6 (ızı:).

S 3 arkun See akru: (gently, quietly).

arka:r prob. always ‘the mountain sheep, (h is argali', allhough the Ar. words used by Kaš. normally mean ‘mountain goat, chamois’ (it is likely that the animal was exotic to Arabs and had no specific name in Ar.). S.i.s.m.l., see Shchcrbnk, p. 117, usually as a generic term without indication of sex. The Mong. synonym arğali is perhaps a l.-w. fr. this word. Uyğ. vııı arkar bašı: tušında: prob. ‘opposite (the place called) Arkar bašı:’ Šu. S 1: Xak. xı arka:r ‘af-uruiya, the female of al-uuül’; its horns are made into knife-handles Kaš. I 117; o.o. / 214, 17 (sukak); 421, 17 (translated al-ival): Čağ. xv ff. arkar-ı ğalča ‘the wild (Pe. l.-w.) mountain sheep is mentioned twice in Babur (Gibb Memorial facsimile, 141 v. 13 ; 276V. 10); alkar (sic) qüč-i kûhî ‘mountain ram’ San. 5er. 20. j

D arkıš (merchant, caravan, envoy, mission) Dev. N. fr. 1 arka:- ; ‘a person or a group of persons travelling for commercial or official purposes’, hence both ‘travelling merchants, caravan’, and ‘official envoys, mission’; it is not always easy to see which is meant and merchants were often used as official envoys. \217\ Survives in NIC several dialects arğıš/arğıs R I 300-1; Khak. arğıs ‘travelling companion’; NC Kzx. arkis ditto R I 293 (not in MM); SW xx Anat. (arkıš SDD 115) erkiš ‘caravan’ 546. See Doerfer II 460. Türkü vnt (the Basmil i^Jikut was my subject) arkıš ıdmaz teyln sUledim ‘because he sent no envoys, I campaigned against him’ II E 25; (gap) arkıšı: kelmedi: (so read) ‘no envoys came’ I1E 41; a.o. I S 8, \\ N 6 (*:c|-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (then King Mahcndrasena) tört yıgaktın kelmiš arkıš yalavačlar okıp 'summoning the envoys and ambassadors who had come from all four corners of the world’ U II 21, 17-18; o.o. arkıš urkiš same meaning U III 29, 2-3 (i:d-); do. 11; arkıš do. 29, 14; 30, 20; Hüen-ts. 12, 235-6, 188e: Xak. xı arkıš al-'ir ‘caravan’ (prov., arkıš translated al-safr ‘traveller’): arkıš the word for ‘an envoy’ (al-mursiD to people from one’s native country (al-mawtin); hence one says anıŋ arkıšı: keldi: ce’a rasılluhu; also used in the sense of al-risela ‘a mission’ Kaš. I 97 (in I 249, 12 arkıšı: is an error for arvıšı:): KB Xitay arkıšı yadtı tavğač edi ‘the caravan from China (Tabgach Türkic) distributed Chinese wares’ 68; o.o. 1386, 1443, 5367, 5546 (Im), 5754: xııı (?) At. arkıšcaravan’ 179, 180 (1 öŋ): xıv Rbğ. arğıš ‘caravan’ R I 301: Čağ. xv ff. arğıš mu emala-iğalla ‘trade in foodstuffs’ San. 37r. 20: Kıp. xıv (?) arğıš ‘caravan, the transport of men or goods by horse and mule’, marginal note to İd., Izbudak, El-idrek Hašiyesi, p. e: Osm. xıv arğıš ‘caravan’ Dede Qorqut, ed. Rossi, p. 332.

Dis. V. ARĞ-

1 arka:- (search, investigate) ‘to search, investigate’, etc. N.o.a.b., but no doubt the earlier form of the synonymous SW Osm., Tkm. word ara-, which is not traceable earlier than San. 34r. 18 where it is treated as a Čağ. word translated miyen-i čîzi-re tafahhuš kardan ‘to make an investigation into something’, but illustrated only by a Rumi quotn. (Xak.) xııı (?) At. seniŋ birli-kirjke dalîl arkağan ‘anyone, who seeks a proof of Thy uniqueness’ 7; (the Prophet) biUg Člnde erse, siz arkag tedi ‘said seek knowledge (even) if it is in China’ 104: Oğuz xı ol anıg evin arka:dı: bahata me fi bay ti hi wa talabahu wa fahaša me zanna fîhi ‘he enquired what was in his house and searched it and investigated what he thought was in it’ Kaš. I 283 (2 arka:- follows).

2 arka:- (curse) a rhyming jingle not used in isolation; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı (after 1 arka:- in the same para.), and one says ol anı: karğa:dı: arka:di: la'anahu wa dakara mase'atahu ‘he cursed him and spoke of his wickedness’; used as a Hend. (tnuzdawica (n)) and not by itself; taken from their word for ‘praise’ (al-tane’) alkıš; since it was used frequently in a Hend. alka:- (praise) also acquired a pejorative meaning (cuila fi'1-šarŋ; and since it was originally laudatory the -r- was substituted for -1-,. as mahûš became maršıİš in Ar. Kaš. I 254 \\\ (arka:r, arka:ma:k; the theory, though prima facie improbable may be correct, see kargan-).

ırğa:- (shake, rock) ‘to shake, or rock (something Acc.)’; survives only (?) in NC Kır., Kzx.; it also existed earlier in SW Osm. but has there been displaced by the Freq. f. (?) ırgala-. It is difficult to connect this verb semantically with ırğa:ğ, but there is a NR Tuv. verb ırğay-‘to be crooked’ Pal. 570, and this suggests that there was originally a second verb *ırğa:-with this meaning. Xak. xı ol yığa:č ırğa:dı: hazza'l-šacara tva nafadahe li-yasqut tamaruhu ‘he shook (Hend.) the tree so that the fruit should fall’; also used of other things Kaš. I 283 (ırğa:r, ırğa:ma:k); o.o. translated nafada 111 316, 15; 321, le: xııı (?) Tef. ırğa-‘to shake’ (a tree) 129: (Xwar. xıv ırğa-/yırğa-Qutb 91, 206, and Kom. xıv yırğa- CCG; Gr. 133 both meaning ‘to enjoy oneself’ have no connection with this verb but are Sec. f. of a l.-w. fr. Mong. cirğa- (Haenisch 90) same meaning): Kip. xıv ıra:- harraka fi'l-mahd wa me nesabahu ‘to rock in a cradle’ and the like, also pronounced ırğa:-, which also means hazza Id. 11: Osm. xıv to xvı ırğa- ‘to shake (something)’ in a few texts TTS I 353; IV 394.

D ırğat- Caus. f. of ırğa:-; properly ‘to order (something) to be shaken’, but from a fairly early date used in the same meaning as, and in place of, ırğa:-. S.i.s.m.l. w. some phonetic changes like NC Kzx. irit-. Xak. xı ol yığa:č ırgattı: anfada’l-šacara wa ğayrahe ‘he had the tree (etc.) shaken’ Kaš. I 263 (verse; no Aor. or Infin.): xııı (?) Tef. ırğat- ‘to šhake (someone)’ 129: Čağ. xv ff. ırğat- cunbenidan 'to shake, move (something)’ San. 98r. 17 (quotn.).

D ırğal- Pass. f. of ırğa:-; ‘to be shaken, to sway’, and the like. Survive'. only (?) in NC Kır., Kzx. Uyğ. vııı fF. Bud. 1 ığačlar ırğalur ‘the bushes and trees sway’ Suv. 62 r, 5: Civ. artuč sögüt butıkı yüz törlügln ırğalur ‘the stem of the juniper tree sways in every direction’ TT I 165-e: Xak. xı yığa:č ırğaldı: ‘the tree was shaken’ (nufida); also used of anything that is shaken (huzza) Kaš. I 249 (ırğalur, ırğalma:k): Kom. ‘to be shaken, to swav’ ırğal- CCG; Gr.

D ırkla:- (divine, augur) Den. V. fr. 1 irk (divination tool, omen, luck, fortune, comfort, peace, elucidating secrets); ‘to cast lots, consult the omens’. Survives only (?) in SW Anat. ırıkla- SDD 773. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT VII 28, 6 (irü:) a.o.o. in this text: Xak. xı ka:m ırkla:dı: takahhana’l-kelıin mutafa'ila (n) fi šay' ‘the magician made magic consultinc the omens about something’ Kaš. III 443 (irkla:r, irkla:ma:k).

D ırğan- Refl. f. of ırğa:-; 'to shake, sway, rock’, etc. (Intrans.). The commonest member of the group, s.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı yığa:č ırğandı: ihtazzati'l-šacara wa taharrakat ‘the tree (etc.) shook and rocked’ Kaš. I 254 (irğanu:r, ırğanma:k): Čağ. xv ff. ırğan- (-ıp)irğala- Vel. 54; ırğan- Refl. V., cunbidan \2l8\ ‘to move, stir’ San. gSv. z: Xwar. xıv ırğan-‘to shake’ Qutb 20e: Kip. xv inhazza ırğan- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 6b. 5: Osm. xıv ff. ırğan- (in xvı ığrnn-, ırkan-, ıran- also occuŋ ‘to move, sway’; c.i.a.p. I TS I 353; II 500; III 344; tV ’395.

D arğur- (exhaust, tire) Caus. f. of 1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak); ‘to tire (someone) out’. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ol atın arğurdı: a'ye farasahu ‘he tired his horse out’ (argama- “tireless”) Kaš. I 225 (verse; arğurur, arğurma:k, sic, not -ğar-, in MS.); a.o. I 486, 14.

D arğurt- (exhaust, tire) Hap. leg.; mentioned only as example of a Caus. f. of a Caus. f.; cf. arğurtur- Xak. xı anıŋ atın arğurttı: liamala'l--insen 'aleı i'ye' farasihi ‘he urged the man to tire his horse out’ Kaš. I 229, 13; n.m.c.

D arkaš- (lift) wholly irregular Co-op. Den. V. fr. arka:; survives only (?) in NE Tuv. arğaš-‘to lift something heavy together’. Uyğ. vııı ff Hud. Sanskrit hastasamlagnikaye ‘by the act of clasping someone closely’ arka:šma:k iize: TT VIHC.ü: Xak. xı ol amŋ birle: yük arkaštı: hamala ma'ahu'l-himl muzehara-ta (tı), tva hutva an yac'al hull u'ehid minhume zahrahu li-šehibihi ‘he carried the burden on his back with him, that is each of them made a back for the other’ Kaš. I 237 (arkašıı:r, arkašma:k); a.o. I 395, 3 (yüzkeš-).

D ırğaš- (shake) Co-op. f. of ırğa:-; ‘to shake (something) together’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: yığa:č ırğaštı: ‘he shook (nafada) the tree in co-operation or competition with me’ Kaš. III 322, 1; a grammatical example, n.m.e.

Tris. ARĞ

PUD arkučı: (arbiter, intermediary, interfere, sow discord) Hap. leg.; listed between ıımdučı: and erdini: which excludes the possibility that it is an error for *arkıščı: a word which might be expected in this sense; it seems rather to be connected with arğu:la:- (arbitrate, intermediate, interfere, sow discord), and is presumably a N.Ag. fr. *arku: (arched, bent) (or *arğu: (??), but not the arğu: (valley) listed above) which seems to be also the basis of arkuru: (arched, cross-member, crosswise, bridging) Xak. xı arkučı: ‘an intermediary (al-mutazvassit) between two people, and the messenger [al-rasfd) between the relatives of the two parties to a prospective marriage’ Kaš. I 141.

VU ?D arkačak (dropper, pipet, пипетка) Hap. leg.; in a section headed af'elil which requires a long second vowel, and completely unvocalized; perhaps Den. N. fr. arka:. Xak. xı arkačak the word for an instrument (ela) for pouring medicine into the corner of the mouth; it is in the shape of a saucer (al-sukurraca) and has a spout (mat'ab) Kaš. I 144.

YU (D) ura:ğu:t (woman)woman’, more specific than tiši: which is also used of animals; morphologically a Dev. N. in -ğu:t (Deverbal Nouns) -ğut/-güt usually describes persons; (üre- multiply, uri: son, ur- set up > ura:ğu:t (woman)); noted only during a limited period but very common during that period, during which it displaced evči: (woman) and the plır. uzıın tonlığ, and was used in parallel with išle:r (isi:); in Čağ. it was displaced by \\\ urğačı (San. 71 r. 18) which may be connected etymologically and s.i.s.m.l., including NC Kır., SC Uzb., SW Tkm.; in other modern languages displaced by forms of ka:tu:n and the Ar. l.-w. 'atvrat, but it is possible that words in some Kip. texts (Hou. 25, 2; td. 25; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 3b. 13) and elsewhere which have been described as, or taken to be, 'atvrat written with initial alif instead of 'ayn are actually later, contracted forms of ura:ğu:t. Xak. xı ura:ğu:t al-mar'a 'woman’ Kaš. I 138; about 60 o.o., all spelt ura:ğut: xııı (?) Tef. urağutwoman, wife’ 330: xıv Rbğ. urağut/urawııt is the standard word for ‘womаn’ in the earlier MSS. (in the later often replaced by xatun) R I 1651-5 (adding that it is also common in Zam.): Kip.xiv urağut al-mar'a td. 9.

D arığlık A.N. fr. 1 arığ; ‘cleanness, purity’. S.i.m.m.I.g. w. phonetic changes. Xak. xı arığlık al-nazefa ‘clcanness’ Kaš. J 14q: KB (a man fit to bo a beg) njuk n[ bu beglik arığlik tiler ‘wishes lor this blessed position of beg and for purity’ i960; xııı (?) Tef. arığlık ‘purity’ (? and metaph. ‘alms’) 57: Čağ. xv ff. arığlığ (sic) pekî ıva taherat ‘cleanness, purity’ San. 37V. 19: Kom. xıv ‘purity, chastity’ aruvlix CCG\ Gr. 41 : Osm. xıv ff. arılık ‘clearness, purity; innocence’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I II 52; /// 35; IV 37.

D arıklığ (stream, current, channel, canal) (canal) P.N./A. fr. arık (stream, current, channel, canal); ‘having an irrigation canal’ and the like. Xak. xı arıklığ yö:r ard det nahr ‘irrigated land’ Kaš. I 147: xıv Rbğ. sııluğ arıklık (sic) yol ‘a road running past water and canals’ R I 271: Čağ. xv ff. arığlığ su (sic) eb-i nahr ‘canal water’ San. 37v. 20 (quotn.)

D arukluk A.N. fr. aruk; originally, and correctly, ‘exhaustion, fatigue’, but fr. the Medieval period onwards Meanness, emaciation’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı arukluk al-i'ye’ ‘exhaustion, prostration’ Kaš. I 150; (if a guest comes, put him up) tınsın anıŋ arukluk hatte yastarih ‘so that he can recover from his exhaustion’ II 316, 10: Čağ. xv ff. arığlığ (sic) leğart ‘thinness’ San. 37V. 19: Kip. xv huzûla ‘emaciation’ arıklık Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 49b. 7: Osm. xv ff. arıklık used in several dicts, to translate Ar. and Pe. words meaning ‘emaciation’, etc. TTS I 37; II 52; III 34; IV 37.

D *ıraklık (distance, remoteness) A.N. fr. ırak; n.o.a.b.? Xak. xı yıraklık al-bu’d ‘distance, remoteness’ Kaš. III 51: Xwar. xıv yıraklık ditto MN 146.

D 1 uruğluğ (struck, wounded) P.N./A. fr. 1 uruğ (beating); survives only (?) in SW Osm. urulu (vulgarly wurulu) ‘struck, wounded’ Red. 248. Xak. xı uruğluğ altu:n a!-dahabül-marvdft' ‘minted gold (coin)’, etc. Kaš. I 147: KB in 6033 (see šatu: (stair)) yüz utru uruğluğ prob. means ‘erected facing me’.

D 2 uruğluğ (wellborn, bearing seed) P.N./A. fr. 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan); ‘of good family’. Survives only (?) in NW Kuz. uru:li R I 1322. Xak. xı KB (a vezir) uruğluğ kerek ham sakınuk köni ‘must be of good \219\ family, thoughtful, and upright’ 2186; uruğluğ tarığlığ ‘well-born on both sidcs (?)’ 4496 (cf. 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan)); o.o. 2197, 4488: x 111 (?) Tef. uruğluğ (of fruit) ‘growing’ (or more prob. ‘bearing seed’) 331.

D uruğluk (seed, kinship, relationship) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan); survives only (?) in SE Türki (of grain) ‘kept for use as seed’ BŠ 789, but see urluk. Xak. xı uruğluk buğday al-burru Uadi udduxira li'l-badr ‘seed wheat’; also used for any kind of seed (badr wa bazŋ Kaš. I 149: Čağ. xv ff. uruğluğ/urukluk (sic) xıv iši iva qarabat wa intiseb ‘kinship, relationship’, San. 71 v. 12 (quotn.; another translation miridani ‘reaping’ is added; it seems to imply a pronunciation oruğluk and is prob. only a ‘dictionary word’).

VUD urukluğ Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. 1 uruk (rope). Xak. xı urukluğ kowa: (sic) daliv dtl habl ‘a bucket with a rope’ Kaš. I 147.

VUD urukluk Hap. leg.; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 uruk (rope). Xak. xı urukluk yu:ŋ ‘wool which is destined to be made into a rope’ (al-habl) Kaš. I 150.

D urğačı (San. 71 r. 18) which may be connected etymologically and s.i.s.m.l. (with ura:ğu:t (woman)), including NC Kır., SC Uzb., SW Tkm.; in other modern languages displaced by forms of ka:tu:n

D *arğuluğ Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. arğu: (valley). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. arkuluğ (,«c) tağığ ‘the mountain surrounded (or ‘with its sides cleft’ ?) by valleys’ TT IX 77.

E arkulayu See arju:la:-.

?F ura:gü:n (drug (kind)) a kind of drug; prob. a l.-w. of Indian origin. Xak. xı ura:ğu:n daıve' hindi yutadnwi bihi ‘an Indian drug used for medicinal purposes’ Kaš. I 138: KB occurs in 772, 789, 814, 815 (ačı:-), its bitterness often contrasted with the sweetness of sugar.

?D arkuru: (arched, cross-member, crosswise, bridging) perhaps Ger. of *arkur- (Den. fr. arka: (arch, back, backer, couch, help) > arched, bent) Den. V. fr. *arku: (arched, bent), see arkučı (arbiter, intermediary):; ‘crosswise, slanting’, and the like. In the early period an Adv. sometimes (contrasty) associated with turkuru (turkaru: (d-) (continuously, uninterruptedly, lengthwise)) , q.v.; in modern times also an Adj. ‘transverse, perverse, incongruous’, etc. Survives in NE Bar. arğuru R I 302; ’lei. arkiy da. 392; NC Kır. arkı terki; Kzx. arkili; SW Osm. arkuru/aykiri; xx Anat. arkiri SDD 115; avğırı do. 127; aykın/aykırı doykuru do. 138. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kaltı yertinčiide arušı (? , spelt crüšŋ arkağı Ikigü arkuru turkuru kavšu-rup ‘just as in this world the warp and the w’oof grasp one another crosswise’ (and become a single fabric) TT VI 390-1; üstün altın arkuru turkuru ağtarılu toŋtarilu evrilü tevrilü ‘twisting (Hend.) and turning (Hend.) up and down and across’ Suv. 133, 20-22; a.o. TM IV 253, 57-8 (1 öt- (pierce, pass)): Civ. kayu kunčuylarnıŋ karnında oğul arkuru turup tuğuru uraasar ‘if a child lies crosswise in a woman’s womb and cannot let itself be born’ TT VII 27, 15: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. arkuru ‘crosswise, across’ 59: Kom. xıv tuvramı arkrimi ‘straight (toğuru: (truth, true, straight, upright, uprightness, honest, equal, level, facing)) or crooked?’ CCG\ Gr.: Osm. xıv ff. arkuru (down to xvıı ) /arkiri (fr. xv) ‘crosswise’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 42; II 54; III IV 40.

D arığsız (unclean, impure; uncleanness, excrement) Priv. N./A. fr. 1 arığunclean, impure; uncleanness, excrement’. S.i.s.m.l. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (of a corpse) arığsız yavlok ‘unclean and unpleasant’ MI 5, 10: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit aiuci ‘uncleanness’ arığsız TT VIII D.35; o.o. U III 35, 20 (agna:-); 37, 4: Civ. arığsız ‘cxcrcment’ H II 27, 145-8: Xak. xı KB yana bir arığsız bu kılkı utun ‘and another (evil thing) is an impure and wicked man’ 341; o.o. 831, 2108 (an:-), 2194, 2198: xııı (?) At. in (an:-); Tef. arığsız ‘unclean, uncleanness’ 58: xıv Muh. al-nacis ‘filthy’ (opposite to ‘clean’ arığ) arığsız Mel. 55, 5; Rif. 152: Kom. xıv ‘impure’ anksuz CCG; Gr. 42 (quotn.): Osm. xiv, xv arisuz ‘impure’ in several texts TTS I 38; \\ 53; HI 36.

D aruksuz Priv. N./A. fr. aruk; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. aruksuz köıjülin ‘with an untiring mind’ U III 80, 16; U IV 22, 273.

D urugsuz (ignoble) Priv. N./A. fr. 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB uruğsuz kišiler arığsız bolur ‘men who are not well-born (tend to) become impure’ 2194.

D arka:sız Priv. N./A. fr. arka:; ‘without a backer, or supporter’, etc. Survives only (?) in SWT Az. arxasiz R I 294; Osm. arkasız R I 291 (only?). Xak. xı arka:sı:z alp čeri:g siyu:ma:s ‘a warrior cannot break (the enemy’s) ranks without a backer to help him’ (ille bi-zahir yuetvinuhu) Kaš. I 123, 22; 128, 13; n.m.e.

D arığsızlığ P.N./A. fr. arığsız and synonymous with it. N.o.a.b.; the A.N. arığsızlık ‘impurity’ is noted in (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. 58. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. medhyanarakapraümam ‘like an unclean hell’ arığsızlığ prekka (? read pretka, Sanskrit preta ‘ghost’) oxšatı TT VIII D.34; asucinenerasena ‘by a manifold impure stream’ arığsızlığ akın üze: do. D. 35-

Tris. V. ARĞ-

D arkuklan- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. arkuk. Xak. xı er arkuklandı: 'ate’l-racul fi qabüli'l-amr ıca harıma ‘the man was insolent and refractory when he received the order’ Kaš. I 315 (arkuklanur, arkuklanma:k).

D arığla:- Den. V. fr. 1 arığ; lit. ‘to make (something) clean’, but, as ant- already has that meaning, usually used with specialized meanings. S.i.s.m.l., sometimes much distorted, e.g. NE arda-/arla- R I 320, 302. Xak. xı ol kuzi: anğla:dı: naza'a xusya hamalihi ‘he castrated his lamb’, or something else; and one says ol yarma:kığ arığla:dı: iltaqata acıvadi'l-darehim ‘he picked out the best silver coins’; also used of anything when one chooses the best of it (ixtera minhu nuqeıvatahu) Kaš. I 303 (anğla:r, arığla:-ma:lc).

D arukla:- (weak, emaciated) Den. V. fr. aruk; originally ‘to rest when exhausted’; s.i.a.m.l.g. w. some \\ phonetic changes, usually with the meaning 'to be weak, emaciated’ and the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. siz aruk siz aruklag ‘you are exhausted; take a rest’ PP 55. 4~5: Xak. xı beg arukla:di: acamma'l-amir minal-ta'ab ‘the beg took a rest because he was exhausted’; this is an expression for ‘sleep’ (al-nawm) in the court language (luğeti'l-xeqenlya), the original meaning is ‘he rested because of exhaustion’ (istareha mina'l-kalela) Kaš. I 304 (arukla:r, arukla:ma:k): xıv Muh. da'ufa ‘to be weak’ aruğla:- Mel. 28, 5 (Rif. in yavri:-); hazala wa nahafa ‘to be thin, emaciated’ aruğla:- Mel. 32, 7 (Rif. 116 aruk bol-): Kip. xıv arukla- datnara 'to be emaciated’ Id. 11: xv hazala arıkla- Tuh, 38a. e: Osm. xiv, xv arukla-; xv ff. arikla- ditto in several texts TTS I 37; II 51 ; III 34; IV 36.

D uruğla:- (exacinate, sow, swarm, bud) Den. V. fr. 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan); survives only (?) in SE Türki; ‘to sow seed; to swarm; (of a crop) to form ears’ Shaw 21-2; BŠ 789. Xak. xı ol kebe:z uruğla:dı: naza'a habba l--qutn 'anhu ‘he cleaned the cotton lint of seed’; also used for extracting the stone from any kind of fruit Kaš. I 303 (uruğla:r, uruğla:ma:k); a.o. III 346, 27.

D arğu:la:- (arbitrate, intermediate, interfere, sow discord) Hap. leg.; so spelt, a Den. V. but semantically connected not with arğu: (valley) but with *arku: (arqu, aka arɣu) (arched, bent), cf. arkučı: (arbiter, intermediary), arkuru: (arched, cross-member, crosswise, bridging) and more remotely with arkıš (merchant, caravan, envoy, mission). Xak. xı ol ikki: kiši: ara: arğu:la:di: marra baynal-raculayn wa faqqahumd ‘he went to and fro between the two men and mediated between them’ Kaš. I 317 (arğu:la:r, argu:la:ma:k). (OTD p. 51, 54, arɣula-, arqula-, вмешиваться, сеять раздор (interfere, sow discord))

D arıklan- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. arık. Xak. xı su:v arıklandı: in ta'aba'I-wd' ‘the water was canalized’; also used of land when it contains banks and channels like canals (curuf wa axddid ka'l-anheŋ Kaš. I 294 (ariklanur, anklanma:k).

D *ıraklan- (distant, far away) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. ıra:k (distant, far away). Xak. xı er ye:rig yıraklandi: ‘the man reckoned that the place was distant’ (ba'td) Kaš. III 115 (yıraklanu:r, yıraklanma:k).

D uruğlan- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of uruğla:-. Xak. xı tarığ uruğlandı: in'aqada habbul--zar ‘the cereal crop formed seed’; and one says kebe:z uruğlandı: ‘the cotton formed seed’; also used of any fruit Kaš. I 293 (uruğlanur, uruğlanma:k).

D arkalan- (backer, вспомогаться) Refl. Den. V. fr. arka:; ‘to use (someone or something Acc.) as a backer’. This and arkala:- s.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol meni: arkalandı: ittaxadani fi-nafsihi zahîr ‘he took me as his backer’; and one says ol ta:ğnı: arkalandı: ist anada ila'I-cabal ‘he made the mountain his support’ Kaš. I 297 (arkalanur, arkalanma:k): Osm. xvı ff. arkalan- ‘to gain support, lean on (someone)’ in several texts TTS I 40; II 54; I V 39.

D arğurtur- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of arğur-, Xak. xı after arğurt-, q.v., ‘and there is another form (zvach) for this, one says \\ argurtıırdı: anmra bi-i'yii'ihi “he ordered that he should be tired out” ’ Kuš. I 229, 16; n.m.c.

D uruğsırat- (childless) Hap. leg.; Caus. Priv. Den. V. fr. 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan). Türkü vııı Türkü bodun ölü:reyi:n uruğsıratayi:n ‘I will kill the Türkü people and deprive them of progeny’ I E 10 (II E9).

Mon. ERG

erk (strength, maturity, power, authority, independence, free-will) (erg, ergometer, ergonomics, Erik) has two basic meanings, (1) ‘authority’ that is the power to impose one's will on others; (2) ‘free-will, independence’ that is freedom to decide for oneself without being subject to the authority of others. It became an early l.-w. in Mong. as erke (llaenisch, p. 45) and s.i.a.m.l.g. in a variety of forms, erk/erik, etc. sometimes with a less precise meaning, ‘strength, power’, and the like. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (if we say that the sun and moon die, or that they rise and set involuntarily or) erki bar erser tuğmazun ‘if they have free-will, let them refrain from rising’ Chuas. 24-5: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (I could not prevent him) erkim tükemedi ‘my authority was not sufficient’ PP 27, 4; erkimče tapımča išledim erser ‘if I have acted as I chose and pleased’ Suv. 136, 1 ; the word also occurs fairly often in the phr. erk türkfree-will (or independence) and maturity’ e.g. (as a result of that perception — Sanskrit vedana) ajunlarka ed tavarka erkke türkke azlanmak turur ‘desire (Sanskrit tfsnd) for rebirth, inanimate and animate possessions, independence, and maturity arise’ U II 10, 14-16; o.o. TT IV 4, 4 (esür-) and in a recurrent phr. iıı Tiš. 198. 5; 20a. 6; 21b. 2; 25a. 6; 26a. 7 etc.: Civ. (in a favourable omen) uluğ erk keldi ‘you have acquired a large measure of independence’ TT I 121 ; erikke (sic) tegir ‘he attains independence’ TT VII 34, 6; (in a document describing arrangements for the cultivation of a vineyard) [gap]yi-kara Mig-kara ikegü erk yok ‘ (the owners?)... yi-kara and Min-karn are both no longer able to manage their own affairs (?) (are powerless)’ USp. 21, 2: Xak. xı erk al-saltana wa nafadu l-amr ‘political power and effective authority’ Kaš. I 43: KB bar erse yazukum kina erk saga ‘If I have sinned, punish me; you have authority’ 639; ajun erki bulduŋ ‘you have acquired authority over the world’ 940; (your father was beg before you) erk türk tüze ‘enjoying indipendence and maturity’ 5151; 00. 942, 1784 Čağ. XV ff. erk ixtiydr ‘free-will, liberty to choose’ Vel. 51 (quotns.); erk (spelt) ixtiydr iva qudrat (‘power’) San. 99V. 21 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv erkauthority, influence’ Qutb 21 (s.v. erklig); öz kulut) tıirur ne erki bolğay ‘he is your own slave, what liberty of action will he have?’ Nahc. 360, 8: Kom. xıv erk (1) ’ ‘power, authority’; (2) ‘free-will’ CCG; Gr. 92 (quotns.): Osm. xıv erkauthority’ in Yunus; xv ‘liberty to choose between (arasında) two things’ in Ent. TTS I 272. 2 irk/erk (effort, strain) (OTD eklä- (erkla-) “apply efforts, strain, trample, trod, press” p. 168 EKLÄ- см. erkla-I, II прилагать усилия, напрягать; топтать, давить)

Conflating independent meanings does disservice to the substance of translations and semantic accents. The accent on authority, instead of straightforward power, strength, muddles translations, clouds semantics with euphemisms, and distracts from clear understanding. OTD, 1969, p. 180, clearly distinguishes two homophones, ERKLÄ- I and ERKLÄ- II, derived form two separate homophones of ERK:
ERK I (ek, erk, erik IV, irk,) сила, воля, могущество, власть (strength, will, might, power) (МК I 43)
ERKLÄ- I прилагать усилия, напрягать (exert efforts, strain): jadaɣ jorïp adaqlarïn erkläjü идя пешком, напрягая свои ноги (going by foot, straining legs) (Suv 41823).
ERKLÄ- II топтать, давить (trample, press): ol jerig erklädi он топтал землю (lit. he earth trampled) (МК III 443).
ek erk erik strength, will, might, power
eklä- erklä- eriklä- exert efforts, strain
eken, ekin erken, erkin   indefiniteness, being, while, while being

irk (ram)ram’: rare and prob. always w. some more specific meaning like ‘three-year-old \221\ ram', opposed to kočŋa:r, q.v.;o survives in NE Koib., Sag., 'IVI. Irlk/Irk ‘ram’ R I 1459, 1464; NC Kır. Irik ‘three-year old castrated ram’; SW xx Anat. Irk ditto SDD 796; a l.-w. in Mong. as irge ‘castrated ram’ (Kow. 326, llaltod 71). Xak. xı Irk al-da'n mma'l--ğanam wa huwa idd ta'ana fVI-rdbi'a ‘a ram approaching his fourth year’ Kaš. I 43: Kip. xıv (‘ram’ kočka:r/koč) al-xaši mina’l-ğanam üzük (no doubt error for this word, vocalization uncertain) Did. 7, 13.

D örk (tether) Conc. N. fr. 2 ö:r- (plait, masonry); ‘tether’ and the like. Survives in NE Tel. örö: R I 1220: NC Kır. örö:; Kzx. öre; SW xx Anat.^k SDD 1106; örek 1114; örk 1115; öruk 1117. Xak. xı örk zundqul-bahm wa fawflatu’l-xayi ‘a halter for a young animal, a horse’s tether’ Kaš. I 43: KB ay yayığ kutka örk ‘oh tether of fickle fortune’ 91 ; bu 61 bağı örki ‘these (the vezir and the army commandeŋ are the bonds and tethers of the realm’ 2419; Iklnčl hawaka ukuš kılsa örk ‘secondly, if he makes understanding a tether for his emotions’ 2504; o.o. 722, 1988, 2009: Čağ. xv ff. öre (‘grain-pit’, i.e. ora) and at kösteği ‘a horse’s hobble’ Vel. 104 (? mis-spelt); örük (spelt) rismdni ‘a rope’ which they tie to a horse’s legs when he is grazing’ San. 71 v. le: Osm. xıv ff. örk ‘a horse’s tether’ in several texts, mainly dicts. TTS I 568; 7/755.

Mon. V. ERG-

irk- (collect, assemble, heap up) ‘to collect or assemble (things Acc.)'. Survives at any rate in SW Osm. but usually as Intrans., e.g. (of water) ‘to stagnate’. Cf. tik- (erect, stick, insert, sew, ткнуть), yığ- (assemble). Xak. xı er tawarr Irktı: cama'a'l--raculul-mdl wa ğayrahu ‘the man collected property (etc.)’ Kaš. III42o (lrke:r, irkme:k): Kip. xıv irk- camma'a id. 11: Osm. xıv toxvi Irk- ‘to collect, heap up’ (wealth, etc.) in several texts TTS I 388; II 545; III 381; IV 435; xvili Irk- (spelt) in Rumi, cam' kardan ‘to collect’ San. 99r. 15.

ürk- (startled, scared, frightened) ‘to be startled, scared, frightened’. S.i.a.m.l.g., sometimes as ürki-/ürük-, and the like. Türkü vııı ff. bay er koni: ürkü:pen barmi:š ‘the rich man’s sheep went off in a fright’ IrkB 27: Uyğ. vııı evi: on kün ogre: ürküp barmıš ‘his household had gone off in a fright ten days before’ Šu. S 7: vııı ff. Bud. korkup ürküp beliglep ‘frightened, startled and panic-stricken’ U II 29, 17; yaga ariti ürkmez bellglemez ‘the elephant is not in the least startled or panic-stricken’ U III 55, 3; tirkser beligleser TT VII 40, 40: Xak. xı ko:y tirkti: ‘the sheep was scared’ (nafarat) by night or day by a wolf or the like; and one says bodu:n ürkti: ‘the people were scared by the presence of the enemy and panic (al-hazdhiz) broke out among them’ Kaš. III 420 (ürke:r, ürkme:k): xıv Rbğ. ürk- ‘to be scared’ R I 1835 (quotn.); Muh. (?) al-nafdr ürkmek (unvocalized) Rif. 123 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ürk- (spelt) also pronounced hürk- ramidan ‘to be startled’ San. 68v. 27 (quotns.); hürk- synonym of ürk- ramidan 324V. 9: \\\ Xwar. xıv ürk- ditto Qutb 124 (örk-), 204: Kip. xıv ürk- (v.l. ürük-) cafala ‘to be seared’ td. 12: xv ditto Kav. 9, 7; cafala ürük- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 12a. 8; tawahhama wa cafala ditto 9b. 6.

Dis. ERG

erig, etc. Preliminary note. Kaš. lists a number of words spelt alif-re-kef (ARK), but the vocalization of the printed texts and editions is not wholly reliable. The order of the words is chaotic and seems to be as follows (numbering the words as below) 1 erük, örük, örüg, 1 irig (mouldering, decayed), 4 erig, irük, 2 erük, 5 eri:g (sic), 2 irig; Uyğ. has some of these words and also 1 erig, 2 erig (swinging), and perhaps 3 erig. Erig, the Acc. of 1 er (ar, ir) (man, human male, fighting man; husband; -en pl. suffix) (Herr, -er) occurs several times in Türkü, and also in KB where it has sometimes been mistaken for 1 erig, but in IS1 2 erig (swinging) is almost certainly not the Acc. of 1 er (ar, ir) (man, human male, fighting man; husband; -en pl. suffix) (Herr, -er) and may he 3 erig. There are of course considerable possibilities of confusion, particularly between the various erigj.

1 erig (advice)advice’; readily recognizable in the Hend. (2) öt erig, but hard to identify when alone. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. sizig ütügüzni (sic) erigigizni ‘your advice’ TT VIII N. 10: baxšılarnıg uluğlarnıg körgitmiš bošğunmıš ötlnče eriginče ınčıp evrilmedim erser ‘If I have not behaved in accordance with the advice (Hend.) displayed and learnt of the teachers and great ones’ Suv. 136, 4-6; yadıp nomluğ el(l)igler teg ötin erigln disseminating his advice (Hend.) like the dharmardjds' Hüen-ts. 2003-4; a.o. do. 2017: Xak. xı KB öt sav erig ‘advice and guidance’ 1548, 2617, 3984, etc.; erig in the phr. sınadı erig 593 (and 619, 764) seems to mean ‘the man’.

D 2 erig (? erig) (swinging) in the phr. erig bang Dev. N.s fr. er- bar- (see 2 er- (reach, arrive; meet)); pec. to Uyğ. but see 5 eri:g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (Hidimba, jumping about in demoniac rage) elgin adakın Arcuni to gağ ölürgülük erig bariğ kılıp ‘making wild motions (?) with hands and feet to kill the hero Arjuna’ U II 25, 2 ff.; anıg yavlak eriglerin banğlarm ‘his evil wild motions’ (?) TT X 347; o.o. U III 63, 5 (yalğantur-); Hüen-ts. 2078 (not pejorative, but reading uncertain, tuš-).

D 3 erig Dev. N. fr. 1 er- (are, were, was); perhaps occurs as below. Türkü vııı erig yerte: ‘in the place where it is (?)’ IS 13 (twice): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit brahmai'ica ‘and by the Brah-manical’ tört törlüg zarwa: (? so read) erigle:ri üze: ‘by the four kinds of Brah-manical existence’ (?) TT VIII F. 10: tözin erigln ‘its origin and existence (or nature?)’ Suv. 593, 22.

D 4 erig (melting, liquescent) N./A.S. fr. eri:- (erü:- (melt)); ‘melting, liquescent’. S.i.s.m.l., usually as erü:. Xak. xı erig ne:g ‘anything liquescent’ (dd’ib) like oil (al-samn), etc., also anything that melts after being frozen (deba ba’da’l-cumüd) Kaš. I 70.

5 erhg (? erig) possibly identical with 2 erig (swinging); n o.a.h., but see eriglik. Xak. xı eri:g (siŋ yılkı: al-debbatu l-feriha 'a lively pack-animal’; hence one says eri:g at faraš re'i' ‘a spirited horse’; not known in Oğuz Kaš. I 70; ıkı:la:čım erig (sic) boldı: sabaha carcedî 11 a 'ada fVl-sayr ‘my thoroughbred horse ran swiftly on the journey’ / 139, le: Kom. xıv 'lively, energetic’ erüv CCG; Gr.

I erük a generic term for ‘stone fruit’, the particular variety being ind:cated by a qualifying Adj. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE usually with initial Ğ-/Ü- except in SW; a l.-w. in Russian as uryuk, which is also used as a reverse l.-w. in some NE languages. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. tülüg erüknüg kasikm ‘the skin of a peach’ \\ I 37-8; sang erük uruğı ‘an apricot kernel’ do. 101; et (?) erük xwasi ‘the flower (Chinese hna) of an et (?) plum’ II II 8, 22; tülüg erük (? so read) če:če:kle:nür ‘the peach flowers’ TT VIII P.24: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. h si rig ‘apricot’ (dies 4,637) erük Ligeti 135; R I 774: Xak. xı erük a generic term (ism cetııi') for peach, apricot, and plum which are distinguished by adjectives (bi’l-šifa); ‘the peach’ (al-xawx) is tülüg erük, ‘the apricot’ (al-mipniš) sanğ erük and ‘the plum’ (al-icceš) kara: erük Kaš. I 69; o.o. / 318, 14 (čap); II 282, 11 (1 ltak): xıv Mtth. (î) al-iccöš kara: erü:k; al-xaıvx tü:lüg erük; al-mišmiš sa:ru:ğ erük Rif. 182 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ürk (? error for ürük) ‘the fruit called erük' and especially zardelû ‘apricot’ Vel. 101; erük nöm-i zar dölü San. 37V. 10: Kom. xıv ‘plum’ erik CCI; Gr.: Kıp. xııı al-mišmiš sa:ru: erük (‘in Tkm.’ inserted in error) also called zarda:lu: in Tkm. taken from Pe. Hou. 7, 17: xıv erük al-icceš; it is a general term (muštarak) for peach, cherry, yellow plum (al-barqiiq), and apricot; and if they mean 'ppricot’ they sav šan: erük; ‘peach’ is called i>aftalu:, a Pe. word Id. 12: xv iccös kara «Srik Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 5a. 3; barqilq erik do. 7b. 10; qirasiya ‘cherry’ kara erik do. 29a. 4; inišmiš sarı erik do. 35a. 2.

2 erük (örük) ‘tanning material’, later also ‘tanned leather’. Survives in NE Alt., Koib., Leb., Sag., Tel. irik R I 1459; NC Kzx. irik do.; erik MM 145. Xak. xı erük (vocalized erik as well) hull me yudbağ bihi’l-cild ‘anything with which a hide is tanned’; hence one says teri: erükle:di: ‘the hide was tanned’ Kaš. I 70: Kom. xıv ‘tanned leather’ erik CCI’, Gr.

D 1 irig (mouldering, decayed) N./A.S. in -g fr. iri:- (decay, rot, putrefy); ‘mouldering, decayed’. Survives as irig/lrik in several NE languages, including Khak., Tuv, and as irü: in NC Kır. Xak. xı irig ne:r> kull šay' baliya ‘anything decayed’; hence hašhmı l-xatab ‘rotten wood’ is called irig o:tuŋ Kaš. I 70.

?S 2 irig (tough, hard) ‘tough, hard’ of persons and things, lit. and metaph. S.i.m.tn.l.g. as iri/irik, rarely yirik. Prob. a Sec. f. of idrig q.v. Uyğ. vııı if. hııd. irig sarsığ söz (or sav) ‘rough, harsh language’ U II 76, 6; 85, 23; TT IV 8, 71; Sitv. 220, 2; TM 1V 252, 17; 255, 114 (clear in Suv.\ in the first three cases mistranscribed nrik; the last two passages are damaged); irig yavğan kö^üllüg ‘haul-hearted’ TT X 13; similar phr. U 111 17, 12 (taya:ğu:); TM IV 254, 89-90: Xak. xı irig er al-raculu'l--caldu l-naffd fi'1-umûr ‘a man who is tough and competent in affairs’ (prov.): irig ne:g ku/l šay' xašin ‘anything hard’; hence the head of a scrofulous man (al-carben) is called irig Kaš. I.70; a.o. / 102 (idrig): KB lapıığka irig bol ‘be tough in service’ 1380; irig sözlemegil kišike tilin ; irig til ot ol kör küyer teg yalın ‘do not speak to a man with a harsh tongue; a harsh tongue is like fire or a burning flame’ 1415; o.o. 2586, 3846-7, 4303, 5221, 5590: xıv Muh. al-xašin (opposite to ‘soft’ yumšak) irig Mel. 56, 9; Rif. 154 (irrig): Čağ. xv ff. irig (‘with -g’) iri, durušt ‘tough, hard, rough’ Vel. 53 (quoin.); irik (spelt) durušt tea xašin (quotn.); İrikrek durušttar (quotn. and correction of error in Vet. 53 s.v. erikdŋ San. loor. 2e: Xwar. xıv irig ‘rough, coarse’ Qutb 51; Nahc. 105, 11-12; 150, le: Kip. xııı al-xašiıı (opposite to ‘soft’ yumšak) iri: Hou. 26, 18: xv xašin iri (irig added in margin) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14b. 8: Osm. xıv to xvı iri ‘rough, harsh’ of persons and things, in several texts TTS I 387; II 544; III 380; IV 434.

D irük (crack, breach) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. 2 i:r- (notch, breach); Hap. leg. but see irüklük. Xak. xı irük al-iulma fî l-he'it tea ğayrihi ‘a crack, or breach, in a wall, etc.’ Kaš. I 70 (prov.).

örüg (rest, repose, quiet, restful) ‘rest, repose (esp. in the course of a journey); quiet, restful’. Survives in NE Šor örüg/ürü (sic) ‘quiet, modest’ R I 1224, 1883: NC Kır. örgü/örgül; Kzx. erü ‘a halt on a journey; sedentary’ and SW XX Anat. örük ‘a vacation’ SDD 1117. The occurrences in Uyğ. have been much misunderstood ; sometimes it has been taken as a Sec. f. of ürüŋ and translated ‘serene’, which is not the meaning of either word (see e.g. TT V p. 28, note B.ŋ and sometimes transcribed ürük, taken as derived fr. 1 ür and translated ‘everlasting’ (see e.g. Index to USp.). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. tınğuluk orunta örügin ‘by rest in a place of repose’ TT III 110: Bud. örüg uzatı sımtağsız dyanda örügin amilin erürler ‘they rest and are peaceful in restful, long-lasting meditation free from neglectfulness’ Suv. 247, 16-18; o.o. of örüg amil see amul; o.o. of örüg uzatı U II 72, 1 (ı); USp. 102a. 41; Suv. 613, e: Xak. xı örüg al-iqema fi jnaken muddata (n) ‘a temporary halt at a place’; hence one says sü: o:n kü:n örüg boldı: ‘the army halted (aqema) in one place for ten days without leaving it or raiding’; also used of an amir (i.e beg) or a tribe (qablla) when they halt Kaš. I69: KB (like caravans) örüg turğu bolmaz ‘they do not remain stationary’ 1386; örüg bol amul bol ‘become quiet and peaceful’ 1416; a.o. 1852: Čağ. xv ff. örk (‘with -k’, sic?) (inter alia) ‘a person who is stationary (muqivi olmııš) at a place’; e.g. they say of an army which stays at a place ol kün örk oldi Vel. 101; erük (so spelt) (inter alia) makat tea \\ (üraun-i ordû-yi saletîn... hi tlar ce'i weqi' šawad ‘îi pause aııd halt of a royal army which occurs at some place’ San. 37V. 9; örük (spelt) (inter alia) ditto abbreviated do. 71 v. 17: Kip.xııı al-maqem ‘rest’ (opposite to ‘movement’ tepreš) örü: Hou. 26, 21.

Dis. ERG

D örük Pass. Dev. N. fr. 2 ö:r- (plait, masonry); lit. ‘anything plaited’, w. various specific applications. Easily confused w. örk, but s.i.s.m.l., usually as örü. Xak. xı örük ku/l šay’ madfûr ‘anything plaited’, hence al-dafira’, ‘a plait of hair’ is called örük sač Kaš. I 69: Kıp. xv zafira Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 24a. 13 misread as dafira and glossed örmeč/örük. /

D erki: (perhaps, uncertain, doubt, suppose, likely, if ever, interrogative, suggestion) an Adv. discussed in v. G. ATG para. 359 and Hüen-ts. Biog., p. 21, note 62; in spite of the contrary opinion expressed therein, it seems, except on the rarest possible occasions, to be used only at the end of questions to indicate that a categorical answer is not expected; the best translation is, therefore, a periphrasis like ‘do you suppose that...’ or ‘is it likely that...’. Like erken and 1 erinč (presumably, supposedly, apparently, perhaps) it seems to be a Dev. form fr. 1 er- (are, were, was) dating back to a time when the verbal Suffs. were rather different fr. those in vııı and later. Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. irgi ‘a particle used in questions to make them more polite’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. amtı ertip kalır erki sen ‘now you are perhaps passing away?’ TT II 15, 7-8: Bud. bola:r (sic) yeg mü erki arzu erme:z mü erki tep sĞziklig bolrmš ‘having become uncertain whether these things were good or perhaps not’ TT VIII II.5-6; alı čevišl neteg erki ‘what sort of devices (Hend.) do you suppose that he uses?’ U II 16, 24; Kuan. 99-100 ;ne tıltağın ne üčün teginmek bolur erki ‘for what reason and why do you suppose that perception (Sanskrit vedana) occurs?’ U II 10, 17-18; o.o. of direct questions U II 22, 4; 31, 43; U III 45, 6; U IV 14, 145-6; Suv. 132, 15; 599, 23; Iliien-ts. 02 (?), 1829, 1884, etc. — tıglağalı bolğay erki men ‘I shall, I suppose, listen’ U 111 29, 4-5: Xak. xı erki: harf šakk ‘a particle expressing doubt’; hence one says ol kelir mü erki: a yahdur huwa am le ‘do you suppose he is coming or not?’; wa huwa yuneb maneha'l-istifhem it takes the place of an interrogative Kaš. I 129: KB nelük tuğdum erki yana ölgeli ‘why do you suppose that I was born, if I am just to die ?’ 1136; kavušğum kačan erki teŋri bilir ‘God knows when, if ever, we shall meet again’ 6176; a.o. 5121 (2 öt): xııı (?) Tef. erki in questions and statements ‘perhaps’ 82: Čağ. xv ff. see erken: Xwar. xıv erki in questions Qutb 21.

D ergü: (being (place), dwelling, бытие) (are) Dev. N. fr. 1 er- (are, were, was); cf. 3 erig; ‘dwelling place’ and the like. N.o.a.b. but see erle:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (?) kendünüg ergü barkı [gap] ‘his own dwelling and household goods’ TT VI 83, note 464, 1 (cf. the usual phr. ev bark); a.o. MI 14, 12-13 (oğul): Bud. kentü kentü ergüsigerü yadıltılar ‘they dispersed each to his own dwelling’ TT VI 464; yekler ergüsi otrug-larmda ‘in the islands where devils dwell’ Kuan. 20-1.

D örki: N./A.S. fr. 1 ö:r; ‘high, lofty’, etc. Survives only (?) in NE Sag. örkü R I 1228. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. örki badrakalpiki bodisatvlar ‘the lofty Bhadrakalpika Bodhi-sattvas’ TT IV 10, 32: Civ. TT I 65 (ıčan-).

D örgü: Hap. leg.; Conc. N. fr. 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-); cf.

1 örgüč. Xak. xı örgü: al-sanem ‘protuberance, hump’ Kaš. I 129.

erkeč (he-goat, castrated goat)he-goat’; originally quite a general word but survives in NC Kır., SW Az., Osm., Tkm. (see Shcherbak, p. in) and XX Anat. ergeč SDD 543; erkeč do. 54e: ürgeč do. 1434, usually for ‘a castrated goat’, in SW sometimes ‘a three-year-old goat’; Cf. teke:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. iki sügük erkeč etin two bones of a he-goat with flesh on them’ HI le: Xak. xı erkeč al-tays ‘he-goat’ Kaš. I 95 (prov.): KB bular ol sürüg koyka erkeč sanı ‘these (learned men) are like a he-goat in a flock of sheep’ 4353: xıv Muh. (under ‘sheep and goats’) al-xassi ‘castrated’ erkeč Mel. 70, 16; Rif. 72 (vocalized ürkeč): Čağ. xv (T. erkeč buz-i nar-i sih sela wa buz-i pîšraw-i kalla ‘a three-year-old he-goat; a he-goat that leads the flock’ San. 37r. 25; erkeč same translation, also spelt with e- do. 99V. 24: Kom. xıv ‘he-goat’ erkeč CCG; Gr: Kip./Tkm. xıv erkeč (vocalized erküč) al-tays (presumably in Tkm.) and in Kıp. al-mux$e mina'l-mi za ‘a castrated goat’ td. 11; al-xašši mina'l-ma'az erkeč Bul. 7, 14: Osm. xv ff. erkeč ‘he -goat’ (generic term) in several texts TTS I 272; II 391; 111 259.

D 1 örgüč (elevated, protruding, eminence, crest, camel’s hump, wave, base, perfect) Dev. N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-) (derivative of öri (elevated, perfect)); lit. ‘something which rises or protrudes’, usually specifically ‘a camel’s hump’: S.i.a.m.l.g. with minor phonetic variations. Cf. örgü:. Xak. xı örgüč al-maicc ‘a wave’; hence one says su:v örgüčlendi: meca’l-me’: (here comes 2 örgüč: (threader)) örgüč al-utfiya ‘the base of a pot’ Kaš. I 95: xıv Muh. (under ‘camels’) al-sanem ‘humpö:rge:č Mel. 70, 11; Rif. 172: Čağ. xv ff. örküč sar-i šena-i asb wa kûhen-i šu tur ‘the crest of a horse’s mane; a camel’s hump’, and metaph. bulandı wa sar-i hüh ‘an eminence, the crest of a mountain’ San. 7ir. 25: Kip.xııı sanemu’l-camal örgüč Hou. 14, 15: xıv örgüč al-sanem id. 11: xv sanem örgeš («V; in margin örgüč) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19b. 2; a.o. do. 15b. 2 (ya:ğ): Osm. xıv ff. örgüč ‘a camel’s hump’; in several texts TTS II 755; III 566; IV 629. (OTD p. 388 ÖRI возвышенный, совершенный, elevated, perfect)

D 2 örgüč (threader) Dev. N. fr. 2 ö:r- (plait, masonry); survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. örgüč ‘a weaver’s implement’ SDD 1115: Xak. xı örgüč dafiratu’l--mar'a wa qunza'atuhu ‘a woman’s plait of hair and her tresses’ Kaš. I 95: Oğuz xı örčüg al-daftra; metathesis (qalb) of örgüč I 103.

erkek (male, masculine)male, masculine’, in antithesis to tiši: ‘female’, a generic term applied to men and animals; said in v. G. ATG, para. 59, to be an \224\ Intensive form in -kck of 1 cr, but this is certainly wrong since the initinl is e-, not e-, nnd there is no adequate evidence of the existence of a suffix -kek (as well as -gek, which is not an Intensive). S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as erkek/irkek. Türkü vııı ff. erkek buza:ğu:bull calf’ IrkB 41; a.o. do. 24 (emig): Uyg. vııı ff. Man.-A (concupiscence) kim ürkekli tišili etözinde erür ‘which is in the bodies of males and females’ M I 17, 8-10; (all the hens flourished) yeme erkeki neg [onmaz] ermiš ‘and the cocks did not flourish at all’ M / 36, 10-r r; a.o. M II 7, 19: Bud. tiši erkek kut \vaxšegler ‘the female and male protecting spirits’ (Iranian l.-w.) Suv. 425, 1-2; tišili erkekli TT VI 321 (and USp. 99, 1); altı [er]-kek [o]ylar ‘the six male pipes’ (of a musical instrument) lliien-ts. 133 (and see ergek): Xak. xı erkek ‘the male (al-dakar) of any animal; hence ‘a cock' is called erkek taka:gu: Kaš. I 111; four o.o.: KB ayıtmaklık erkek turur ‘questioning is masculine’ (and answering feminine) 979; o.o. 980, 4523: xıı (?) Tef. erkek ‘male’ 82: xıv Muh. al-dakar erkek Mel. 45, 5; 54, 11; Rif. 138 (e:rgek), 151 (unvocalized): Čağ. xv ff. erkek (spelt) nar ‘masculinc’, of humans mudakkar ‘male’, of horses fahl ‘stallion’ San. 99V. 27: Xwar. xııı (?) drİcek oğul ‘a male child’ Oğ. 4, etc.; drkek böri ‘a male wolf’ do. 141, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘masculine’ erke (k) CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-dakar erke:k (? , not vocalized) Hou. 24, 17:xiv erkek al-dakar as opposed to female td. 11; xv al-dakar min külli'l-hayıcenet drkek Kav. 61, 21; ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 16a. 12: Osm. xv, xvı erkek in several phr. TTS I 272; 111 259; IV 303.

D erklig (possessing power, authority, independence) P.N./A. fr. erk (power; a precursor of unit erg for measurement of work); both ‘possessing power or authority’ and ‘possessing free-will or independence, free to do as one likes’. The two meanings are very close together, and it is often difficult to decide which is intended; when applied to God prob. both are, and ‘mighty’ is the best translation, though it does not give the whole meaning. Survives in NC Kır. erktü:; Kzx. erikti, irikti, and NW Kar. L., T. erkli; Kaz. irikli. The phr. erklig xan was early adopted as the title of ‘the ruler of the underworld’; it was borrowed by Mong. as erlik kağan and this phr. has been reborrowed by some NE languages. Türkü vııı üze: teŋri: erklig (gap) ‘Heaven is mighty above’ Ix. A. c. 1 (ETY II 123); vııı ff. (a man went hunting) tağda: kamlami:š teŋri:de: erklig ‘he made magic in the mountains (and became) independent of Heaven (?)’ IrkB 12; o.o. do. 55 (törüt-); do. Postscript (alku:); ka:megda: erkli:g yultu:z ermhš ‘it was a star more powerful than all the others’ Toyok III zr. 7-9 (ETY II 179); a.o. do. 2v. ji-12: Man. (if we have believed that He is) kertü erklig küčlüg teŋri ‘the true, mighty, powerful God’ Chuas. 18-19; erkliğin erksizin ‘voluntarily or involuntarily’ do. 255; similar phr. do. 265-e: Yen. Mal. 28, 5 (inilgü): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A Ordu Čigil Kent erkliği ‘the independent ruler of Ordu Kent and Čigil Kent’ M I 27, 6-7: Bud. erklig kan y^rtlnčüsin ‘the world of the Mighty Ruler’ (i.e. the underworld) U II 33, 7 — 8; [tınlığ]lar tuğum üze erklig bolurlar ‘mortals acquire control over their rebirths’ U IV 28, 7-8; kamağ teŋriler üze erklig türklüg erürsiz ‘you have authority over all the gods and maturity’ Tiš. 51a. 8 ff.; o.o. TT IV 18, note B.7, 7; V 22, 26 -7, and see Indiccs to TT VI and Vli: Civ. borluk üze... Solta (? read Sultan) Ağa erklig bolzun ‘let S.A. have full ownership rights over the vineyard’ USp. 13, io; similar phr. do. 16, 12; 30, 14; similar phr. but with Dot. instead of üze do. 51, 6; 56, 12; 57, 20 (in these cases relating to persons not property); erklig beg ‘the competent authority’ do. 114, 14; a.o. TT 1 25 (arjula:-): Xnk. \i KB ay erklig uğan megü mugsuz bnyat oh mighty, powerful, everlasting, unwearying God’ 6; billglig kiši tilke erklig kerek ‘the wise man must control his tongue’ 971; a.o. 3520: xııı (?) At. kul ol mSlka melı aga erkiig ol ‘he is a slave to his wealth, his wealth is his -master’ 256; Tef. erklig ‘having authority’ (usually with üze) 83: xıv Rbğ. yelke erklig farıšta ‘the angel that rules the wind’ R I 782; Muh (l) šehib jarmen ‘responsible minister’ Erklig Rif. 145 (only): Xwar. xıv erklig/erkli ‘authoritative, having control’ Qutb 21; Erklig do. 51; erklig Nahc. 344, 3: Kom. xıv erkli ‘mighty’; erkli erksiz ‘voluntarily or involuntarily’ CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv erkli ‘free to choose’ (between two alternatives) in one text TTS I 272.

S ergen See ergen.

D erken (indefiniteness, being, while, while being) like erki: (perhaps, uncertain, doubt, suppose, likely, if ever, interrogative, suggestion) (q.v.) and 1 erinč (presumably, supposedly, apparently, perhaps) an archaic Dev. form fr. 1 er- (are, were, was); originally used after verbs in the Aor. f. to mean ‘while’, later used rather more freely to mean ‘while being’, see v. G. ATG, para. 437. Survives in NE Tuv. ergin ‘a particle used to give a flavour of indefiniteness to a statement’ (perhaps a Sec. f. of erki:) and as eken/iken, etc. ‘while being’ in most other language groups. Türkü vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 213 (1 alkan-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. anča sözleyü turur erkenwhile they were thus speaking’ U IV 20, 233; similar phr. do. 28, 18; yorıyur erkenwhile he was walking’ do. 30, 34, etc.; siz Enetkekte erkenwhile you were in India’ Hüen-ts. 1790 (and see note thereon); o.o. do. 2022, 2142; Suv. 620, 17 etc.; 621, 19: Civ. Tardıš apam ölgen erkende ‘our grandfather Tardıš being (now) deceased’ USp. 12, 2: Xak. xı erken a particle meaning hela kade ‘the position being so- and-so’; hence one says ol kelür erken kördüm ‘I saw him while he was coming’ (hela ityenihŋ Kaš. I 108; similar usages II 249, 9; 3°i, 2; 333, 5 (sekrit-): KB kičig oğlan erken bilig ogrenür ‘a man learns wisdom when (while) he is a small boy’ 1823: xııı (?) At. biligsiz tirig erken atı ölüg ‘the ignorant man’s name (reputation) dies while he is still alive’ 96; a.o. 215; Tef. yigit erkenwhile a young man’ and similar phr. 78 ff. (s.v. 1 er- (are, were, was)): Čağ. xv ff. both authorities list \225\ erken, erkin, eken, and ekin, usually without cross-refces., and stating that they are all synonymous; but the examples show that erkin/ekin has a different meaning and is a Sec. f. of erki:; erkin (‘with -k’) is used with another word, e.g. bolmadi erkin olmadımı ‘was it not?’ (quotn.); örken (‘with -k-’ has the same meaning (quotn. containing örkenni ‘his being’) Vel. 49; eken (‘with -g-’, sic in error) usually used with another word, e.g. fulen eken fulen ikett or idügi ‘being so- and-so’ (quotns.); ekin (‘with -k-’) usually used with another word, e.g. bu erdl ekin bu idi (quotns.) do. 64; erken (spelt) hast ‘is’ (quotn. containing tilbe erken dür ‘is mad’); also spelt erkin (quotn. ne erkin said to mean both ‘what is?’ and ‘what liberty of action?’) also a lafz-i zaid 'supplementary word’ used dar raw ehit ‘in compound expressions’ (quotn.) San. 99V. 28 (several oblique cases of erken follow); eken (spelt) same translation as erken (quotn.), also spelt ekin San. 108v. 19 (several oblique cases follow); ekin (spelt) inter alia; (2) abbreviation of erkin az cumla-i rawdbit meaning hast (you have) (quotn.); (3) a supplementary word used as an ornament in compound expressions (quotns.) do. i09r. 28: Xwar. xııı erken/ekenwhile’ 'Ali 37.

D 1 irkin (collected, gathered, hoard, buried treasure, pool (water), wise) Intrans. Dev. N./A. fr. irk-; ‘collected together in one place’ and the like. Survives in SW xx Anat. irkin (and irkim) ‘a hoard, buried treasure’ SDD 796, and also perhaps Osm. ürkün ‘a pool of rain water’ and the like. Xak. xı irkin su:v al-me'u'l-mustanqa' 'stagnant water’; also used of anything collected together (muctami'); hence the chiefs (akebiŋ of the Karluk are called kö:l irkin meaning that ‘his intellect is concentrated like a full pool’ ('aqluhu muctami' ka’l-gadiri’l-mumtalŋ (see 2 İrkin): irkin yağmur al-mataru’l-de’im ayyem ‘continuous rain for several days’ Kaš. I 108.

2 irkin (tribal chief) a title borne by tribal chiefs, inferior to xağan but superior to beg, cf. elteber (viceroy), 1 čo:r. In addition to the occurrences in Turkish below, the word often occurs in Chinese records transcribed i-kin (sometimes mis-spelt ssü-kin owing to confusion between two similar Chinese characters). The subject is discussed at length by F. W. K. Müller in ‘Uigurische Glossen’ in the Festschrift für Friedrich Hirth, Berlin, 1920, pp. 317 ff. where it is stated that the title Kül Erkin (sic) also occurs in Rašldu'1-din and Abü'1-ğezi, but in the Russian translation of the former, Rashid--ad-din. Sbornik letopisei, Moscow-Leningrad, 1952 ff., vol. I, p. 147, the spelling is Kül Irkin. Kaš.’s etymology is unconvincing; it is almost certain that the title 2 kül, q.v., is not identical with kö:l; this word, too, is prob. merely a title, but if it is der. fr. irk- the meaning, is prob. something like ‘convener’. elteber özi: kelti: sir (?) irkin oğlı: Yigen Čor kelti: ‘the great (?) Elteber (of...) came himself; Yigen (or Yegen ?) Čor the son of the Sir (?) İrkin came’ Ix. 21 (it is possible that the word before Bayirku: in the first quotn. which is damaged on the stone and the word before Irkin in the second are identical and may be sir, q.v.): (Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. the words Irkent irkini in USp. 22, 8-9 are transcribed as two P.N.s Irkenür trkey in Arat’s revised text, prob. correctly): Xak. xı Kaš. I 108 (1 irkin): KB in the list of ranks and official titles in 4065 ff. which is partly corrupt in all MSS. 4068b. prob. reads kayusi kül irkin ‘some become kül irkin'; negü ter ešitgil Ila irkini (so read) ‘hear what the irkirt of Ila says’ 4752.

D örgen (rope, cord) Conc. N. fr. 2 ö:r- (plait, masonry); ‘plaited rope, cord’, and the like. Survives, sometimes with slightly different meanings, in NE Küer. örgöo (sic) R I 1230; NW Kar. L. T. örken (and L. erken (indefiniteness, being, while, while being)) R I 779, 1227; Krım örken do. and SW xx Anat. örgen/örken SDD 1115. The word is syn. w. 1 uruk (rope), the two words are quite unconnected but some medieval and modern words like urğan in Xwar. xııı 'Ali 56 and SW Osm., Tkm. and perhaps arğan/ arkan in SE Türki, NC Kır., Kzx., etc. seem to lie squarely between the two. Oğuz (sic?) xı örgen al-nis' ‘the thong of a camel’s girth’ Kaš. I 108; a.o. (in Xak.) / 195, 17 (örül-): (Xak.) xıv Muh. (under ‘camels’) al-habl ‘rope’ örge:n (-g- marked) Mel. 70, 11; Rif. 172: Čağ. xv ff. örgen (spelt) ‘a stout rope (rismen-i pahnî) used to fasten packages (on pack animals)’ San. yxr. 23 : Xwar. xıv örgen ‘rope’ Qutb 124: Kom. xıv ‘rope’ örgen CCG; Gr. : Kip./Tkm. xıv urğan (? Tkm.) ‘the long rope (al-habl) with which sheep are tied for milking and other purposes’; in Kip. örgen Id. 11: Osm. xvı ff. örgen occurs in several dicts, translating Pe. words for ‘rope’ and the like TTS II756; III 566.

VU?D örgin (throne)throne’; Conc. N. fr. örge:- if that verb really existed. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. altu:n örgi:n üze: olu:npan ‘sitting on a golden throne’ IrkB 1: Uyğ. vııı anta: yayladım örgin anta: yaratıtdım ‘I spent the summer there and had (my) throne erected there’ Šu. E 9; o.o. do. E 8 (etit-); S 10 (örge:-): vııı ff. Man. TT II 8, 68 (altunluğ); M III 35, 18 (iduk): Bud. Vacrasan örgün üze olurup ‘sitting on the Vajresana throne’ TT IV 12, 54-5; o.o. TTV 6, 31, etc.; Hüen-ts. 1814.

D 1 ürkün (panic) Intrans. N./A.S. fr. ürk- (startled, scared, frightened); 'panic’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. Xak. xı ürkün ‘the panic (al-hazehiz) which breaks out in a clan because of the enemy, and they seek refuge in forts and castles’ Kaš. I 108.

S 2 ürkün See 1 irkin (collected, gathered, hoard, buried treasure, pool (water), wise). Türkü vııı anta: köšre: yer (?) bayirku: uluğ irkin yağı: bolti: ‘after that the para- D ürkünč N./A.S. fr. Refl. f. of ürk- (startled, scared, frightened) (which mount irktn of the Yer (reading uncertain) survives only (?) in NE Khak.); ‘panic, panic-Bayirku: became hostile’ IE 34; [? ulu]ğ -stricken’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı Kaš. I 250, 4 8641126 I (ürkül-); n.tn.c.: Čağ. xv ff. ürkünč ram wa walıšat ‘fear, terror’ San. ~]\r. 26.

D erksiz (powerlessness, impotence, involuntary, forced, reflexive) Priv. N./A. fr. erk (strength, maturity, power, authority, independence, free-will) (erg, ergometer, ergonomics, Erik) ‘without freewill, involuntary’. Survives in NC Kır.erksiz; Kzx. erlksiz and NW Kar. L. T. erksiz R 1 783; Kaz. iriksiz. Türkü vııı ff. erksiz Toyok IV v. 6 (ETY II 180, damaged): Man. (if we say that the sun and moon) erksizin tuğar batar ‘rise and set involuntarily’ Chuas. 22; o.o. 255, 265-6 (erklig): Bud. (my authority was not sufficient) erksiz idurmen ‘I am sending him against my will’ PP 27, 4; amŋ yarlikiga erksizin men bu muntağ yavlak ada kilurmen ‘I create these so evil dangers by her command and involuntarily’ U IV 16, 160-1; a.o. U III 84, 8 (in: Xak. xı KB közi suk kiši özke erksiz erür ‘the man with a greedy eye has no control over himself’ 2611; (when his heart is captivated) bolur erksiz kiši ‘a man ceases to be master of himself’ 3855; isiz kılsa boynın eger erksizin ‘if he does evil, he involuntarily bows his neck’ 4564: xııı (?) Tef. erksizpowerless’ 82 (s.v. erk): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 21 (s.v. erk): Kom. xıv CCG; Gr. (erklig). (involuntary, forced, reflexive)

D ergüz (melting) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. erü:- (melt) with suffix -güz otherwise unknown; for the elision of -ü:- cf. ergür-. The form of the word is firmly fixed by its location between VU Arvuz, a P.N., and ögsüz. Xak. xı ergüz su:v duıvebatu’l-talc wa’l-camd fî ibtide’i’l--rabi' ‘the melting of snow and ice at the beginning of spring’; in a verse ya:y yaru:pan ergüzi: aktı: akın munduzi: translated ‘the spring morning has dawned and the melted ice, and the streams in flood have flowed down’ Kaš. I 96.

Dis. V. ERG-

D irik- (? erik-) (disgusted, bored) Emphatic f. of 1 i:r- (mope, lonely, bored); ‘to be disgusted, bored’. Survives in NE, several dialects, erik- R I 764, also Khak., Tuv.; SE Türki irik- Shaw 33; NC Kır. erik-, Kzx. erig-; SW xx Anat. erik- DD 544; these forms suggest an original pronunciation as erik-. Xak. xı KB (the world called me lovingly) köŋül berdim erse irikti eve ‘when I gave it my heart, it quickly got bored’ 1172; o.o. 548, 5674: Čağ. xv ff. irik- (-dl) sabah erkenden kalk- ‘to get up early in the morning’ (quotns., see below) and tarıl- yorul- ‘to be vexed, bored’ (quotns.) Vel. 53; irik- (spelt) dilgîr šudan ‘to be displeased’ San. 98V. 28 (quotns.) (the error of Vel.'s first translation is pointed out in do. ioor. 26 s.v. 2 irig): Xwar. xıv erik- ‘to be disgusted, bored (with someone Abl.)' Qutb 51, 60 (irik-): Kom. xıv ‘to be disgusted’ erik- CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-dacar ‘to be annoyed, disgusted’ irikmek Ilöu. 27, 14: xv dacara (yada-, sızla-; in margin) irik- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23a. 12; nasaqa ‘to be irritable’ irik- do. 37a. 12.

VU (? D) örge:- (enthrone, install, rise to) possibly Den. V. fr. 2 örüg; see örgin (throne). The word in Tef., if it \\ belongs here, would support the suggested etymology. Uyğ. vı 11 orku:n baîıklığ beltiri:nte: el örgi:ni:n anta: örgipen etitdim ‘I set up the throne of the realm at the junction of the Orkhon and Balıklığ (rivers) and rested (?) there’ Šu. S 10 (the word is damaged only the -rg- being clear, but there is no other obvious reading): (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. labita ‘to stay, tarry’ (at a place on a journey) örge:- (sic) (and örget-) 339, 340.

Dis. ERG

D ürkit- Caus. f. of ürk- (startled, scared, frightened) ; ‘to startle (someone Acc.); to scare (game, etc.) away’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 21 (üd-): Man. neče korkıt (t)ımız ürkit(t)imiz erser ‘if we have somehow frightened or startled people’ Chuas. 87-8; Xak. xı ol ko:y ürkütti: ‘he scared (naffara) the sheep’ (etc.) Kaš. I 263 (ürkütü:r, ürkütme:k): Čağ. xv ff. ürküt- (spclt) Caus. f.; ram dadan ‘to scare, frighten’, also spelt hürküt- San. 12; hürküt-  (spelt) Caus. f., alternative form of ürküt-ramenidan San. 324V. 9 (quotn.): Kip. xııı caffala ‘to scare away’ ürküt- Hou. 39, 11:xiv ditto Id. 12.

D Irkil- Pass. f. of irk-; 'to be collected; to come together, assemble’. S.i.s.m.l. Cf. ükül-, yığıl-. Xak. xı sü: telim İrkildi: 'a numerous army assembled’ (ictama'a); also used, of any things that assemble until they are numerous (katura) Kaš. I 249 (irkilür, irkilme:k): KB bilig kîmye teg ol neg irklü turur ‘wisdom is like alchemy; it is a thing which accumulates’ 310; Xwar. xıv irkil- ‘to be collected’ Qutb 60: Kip. xıv Irkil- ictama'a Id. 11: Osm. xıv ff. irkil- ‘to assemble’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 388; II 545! III 380; IV 535.

D ürkül- Hap. leg.; Pass. f. (used only as an Impersonal verb) of ürk- (startled, scared, frightened), Xak. xı ürkünč bolup ürküldi: waqa'ati'l-hazahiz hatte mifira minhe ‘panic broken out so that (the people) scattered because of it’ Kaš. I 250 (ürkülür, ürkülme:k).

D irkle:- (trample, trod) ‘to trample on (something Acc.)’; Dev. N. fr. irk, but the semantic connection is only metaph. The entries in Kaš. are mostly unvocalized but the Uyğ. spellings of this verb and irklet- and the alternative form with prosthetic y- make the spelling certain. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. PP 65, 5 (see E igle:-): Xak. xı ol ye:rig irkle:di: rvati’a’l-ard ‘he trampled on the ground (etc.)’; dialect form (luğa) of ikle:di: (misvocalized ekle:di:) Kaš. III 443 (irkle:r, irkle:me:k, all unvocalized); ol ye:rig ikle:di: same translation Kaš. I 287 (ikle:r, ikle:me:k all unvocalized); ikledi: (sic) me:nig adak körmedip oğri: tuza:k ‘my foot accidentally (wati’a) on the hidden trap’ I 380, 14; ol yerig yikle:di: same translation, in the dialect of those who converted alif into ye’; the more correct form (al-afsah) is ikle:di: III 309 (yikle:r, yikle:me:k): KB see örkle:-.

D örkle:- (tether, tie) Den. V. fr. örk; ‘to tether (a horse, etc. Acc.).’ Survives in SW xx \\ Anat. ökle-/örcklc-/örklc-/örüklc-/ürüklc- SDD 1106, etc.; some of these forms and NE Tel. örö:lo-, NC Kir, ditto.; Kzx. örele- are perhaps der. fr. örük. Xak. xı ol atığ örkle:di: ‘he tethered (šadda) the horse to a stake with a long rope’ Kaš. III 443 (örkle:r, örkle:me:k): KB (any beg who is prudent watches over his realm) yağı boynı yančtı tize örkledi ‘he crushes the enemy’s neck and ties him down’ 2016 (the Fergana MS. reads ikledi ‘trampled’, and this, or irkledi, makes better sense, and is prob. the correct reading): ( xııı (?) Tef. örklen- ‘to be fastened to (something Dat.)' Refl. f. 248 (örklen-); 340 (ürklen-, same quotn.)): Osm. xvı örİne- translates Ar. words for ‘to tether’ in two dicts. TTS II 756; IV 629.

D irklet- Caus. f. of irkle:- (trample, trod) ; ‘to make (someone Dat.) trample on (something Acc.)’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. böš ajunuğ irkletip ozkurtuguz ‘Thou hast saved us, making us trample on the five forms of existence’ TT III 47: Xak. xı ol agar ye:r ikletti: ‘he made him trample (atvfa’altu) on the ground’ Kaš. I 265 (ikletür, ikletmerk, all unvocalized).

D erklen- (powerful, authoritative) Refl. Den. V. fr. erk (strength, maturity, power, authority, independence, free-will) (erg, ergometer, ergonomics, Erik); ‘to possess power or authority’. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. L., T. R I 781; Kow. 184. Türkü vııı ff. Man. el(l)enmekim etöz megisi beged-mekim erklenmekim ‘my being a ruler, bodily pleasure, my being a beg, and my possession of authority’ (have become very worthless and trivial in my sight) TT II 8, 43-4.

D irkin- (collect, gather) Refl. f. of irk-; ‘to collect (things) for oneself’. N.o.a.b.; İrkin- ‘to stop from hesitation or fright’ Red. 293 is no doubt a Sec. f. of ürkün- (see ürkünč). Xak. xı ol 0:zige: neg irklndi: ‘he collected (cama'a) things for himself’ Kaš. I 254 (Irkiriür, lrklnme:k): Čağ. xv ff. irkin- (-üŋ translated qašd u mayi eyle- ‘to be inclined towards’, but in the supporting quotn. the meaning is clearly ‘to collect’ Vel. 52 (not in San. where Irk- is described as Rumi).

VUD örgen- Refl. f. of örge:-; ‘to rest’ or the like. This seems the obvious etymological explanation of this word, although ‘to be saturated’ or the like would suit the context better. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (then that good man) kamağ özl tom bastan (sic, as usually in this text) adak (k)a tegi kanka irig (k)e örgenip ‘with his whole body and clothing from head to foot lying in blood nııd pus’ M I 5, 12-14; arığsızka örğenmisin (seeing himself) ‘lying in filth’ do. 6, 7-8.

D 1 ergür- contracted (cf. ergüz, ergüz-) Caus. f. of erü:- (melt); ‘to melt, dissolve (something Acc.); ‘to macerate (something Acc., in something Dat.)’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (the fourth virtue of the Wind God is that he) tum[lığığ] ergürer ‘melts what is frozen’ Wind. 39-40; (the fifth that) isigig ergürer \\ tarkarur ‘he melts and dissipates heat’ do. 46-7: Civ. matu lug suvka ergürüp ‘macerating citrons (l.-w.) in water’ II II 22, 41; a.o. do. 24, 42; Xak. xı ya:ğ ergürdİ: ‘he melted (adeba) the fat’ (etc.) Kaš. I 227 (ergürür, ergürme:k).

D 2 ergür- Caus. f. of 2 er- (reach, arrive; meet); etymologically ‘to cause (something) to reach or arrive’, but except in Osm. with rather different meanings. Survived in Osm. until fairly recently, but now only in xx Anat. ergör-/ergür-/irkör/ irgör- SDD 544, 796. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. örte kün tavrak buyan kıl ašnukan örgürü etözügni közed ‘early in the morning swiftly do good deeds; seizing the first possible opportunity^?) preserve your body’ TT I 171-3; ürkürü buyan kıl TT VII 28, 2 is prob. a misreading of ergürü: Xak. xı ol aška: ergürdi: adraka’l-ta'em qabl an yanfalit ‘he got hold of the food before it went past him’; also used of anyone who gets hold of anything before it goes past him Kaš. I 227 (ergürür, ergürme:k): Osm. xıv ff. ergür-/lrgür- (ergür-)/erür-/irür- (erür-) ‘to make, or let (someone Acc.) reach (a place Dat.); to bring (something Acc., to someone Dat.)’, c.i.a.p. TTS I 275-, II 395; M 263, IV 436.

D erksin- (strength, power, authority, independence) Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. erk (strength, maturity, power, authority, independence, free-will) (erg, ergometer, ergonomics, Erik); ‘to have power, or authority (over someone Acc. or üze:)’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. el(l)enmek erksinmek ‘to be a ruler and have authority’ M III 16, 9 (ii); a.o. do. 19, 14: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 27, 10 (uğuŋ: Bud. bursag kuvrağ üze erkslndlmiz erser ‘if we have exercised authority over Buddhist communities (Hend.)’ TT IV 6, 45; o.o. Pfahl. 22, 3 (uğuŋ; USp. 102a. 7-8: Civ. šılavantılar seliler erksinip ‘the clergy and laity (l.-w.) having authority’ (over certain properties) USp. 88, 26-7: Kom. xıv barča-larnı erksindeči ‘ruler over all’ CCG; Gr.

D Irkiš- Co-op. f. of irk-; ‘to help to collect’, etc. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol maga: tawa:r irkišti: ‘he helped me to collect (/» cam') the property’; also for ‘to compete’. Kaš. I 238 (irklšü:r, irklsme:k); kelge:limet irkišü:r tacamma'a li'1-ityen (the warriors) ‘assembled to come’ I 144, 10; 325, 11.

D ürküš- Co-op. f. of ürk- (startled, scared, frightened); ‘to be completely panic-stricken’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. Xak. xı Kaš. I 155, 19 (anın); n.m.e.: Čağ. XV ff. ürküš- (spelt) synonym (muredif) of ürk- in the sense of ram kardan ‘to be frightened’ San. fi9t. 11.

D ergüz- (melting) contracted (cf. ergüz, ergür-) Caus. f. of erü:- (melt). Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ölüg miškičnig yakrısın ergüzüp ‘melting the fat of a dead wild cat’ H I 57-8.

Tris. ERG

örüki: (above, high) N./A.S. fr. örü: (orö:) (up, upwards, height, elevation, upright, pillar, support); 'situated above, high’. Survives only in most NE dialects ‘öreği/ örögü: R I 1219, 1221. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. \228\ tris. fcıu; üstünki altınkı tapladı örüki kodıkı sevindi ‘those above and below were pleased, the high and the low were glad’ TT I 128-9.

D eriglig P.N./A. fr. 3 erig (?); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit sedhuviheram (damaged, but prob. reading) ‘one who spends his life virtuously’ edgü erigligig TT VIII C.i: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. zahara ‘to appear (to someone, üze)’ eriglig bol- 81 (belongs here?).

D erriglik Hap. leg. (but see örüglük); A.N. fr. 5 erig. Xak. xı e:riglik farehatu'l--dawabb ‘liveliness in pack animals’ Kaš. I 152.

D erüklük A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 erük; survives in SW Osm. eriklik ‘a plum orchard’. Xak. xı erüklük manbatu'l-xawx 'a peach orchard’ Kaš. I 152.

D irüklük A.N. fr. irük; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB (if a beg does not perform the essential duties just mentioned) irüklük kirür elke anda basa ‘disintegration sets in in the realm in due course’ 5906.

D örüglük A.N. fr. örüg; ‘calm, quietness’, and the like. Survives in a word meaning ‘an entertainment provided for a newly-arrived neighbour by earlier residents’ noted as NC Ktr. örülük/örütlük; Kzx. örulik («c); SW xx Anat. örülük SDD 1118. See Doerfer II 590. Xak. xı KB amulluk kerek erke kılkı ogay, örüglük kerek begke tuğsa kün ay ‘a man of upright character must be tranquil and a beg calm whether the sun or moon is rising’ 325; a.o. 1988: ( xııı (?) Tef. istaıve ‘to rest’ örüglüg bol- 81 (transcribed erigfik?)).

D örüklüg P.N./A. fr. örük; ‘plaited’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l. as örüli/örülü. Xak. xı KB örüklüg sačı ‘his plaited hair’ 5825.

Derkliglik A.N. fr. erhlig; ‘power, authority’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. erktü.’lük; Kzx. öriktilik. Xak. xı KB tüzü negke yetti bu erkliglikig ‘Thine authority extends over all things’ 9: xııı (?) Tef. erkliglik ‘independence, arbitrary behaviour (?)’ 83.

F örgesün ‘thorn’ a Mong. word (Kow. 590, Ilaltod 114) is mentioned as such in San. but does not seem to have become a l.-w. in any Turkish languages; it is therefore very unlikely that this is the word in H II since these medicinal texts are almost certainly all anterior to xııı; it is perhaps a misreading of övkesin ‘his lung’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kızil örgesin name of a drug H II 34, 21: Čağ. xv ff. örkesün (spelt) in Mong. xdr ‘thorn’, in Ar. called šawk San. 7ir. 20.

D erksizlik (powerlessness, impotence, dependent) A.N. fr. erksiz (powerlessness, impotence, involuntary, forced, reflexive); ‘lack of independence’, etc. Survives only (?) in NC Kzx. eriksizdik and NW Kar. L. T. erksizlik R I 784. Xak. xı KB körü barsa yalguk bu erksizlikin ‘if a man could see that he has no (real) freedom of action’ (how could he behave so badly?) 1534.

Tris. V. ERG-

D 1 örgüčlen- Reli. Den. V. fr. 1 örgüč; ‘to be lumpy, humped’, etc. S.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (of the sea) örgüčlenmekig ‘being rough’ M III 9, 3 (in: Xak. xı su:v örgüč-lendi: meca’l-ıne' ‘the water was covered with waves’; (here comes 2 örgüčlen-); and one says ešič örgüčlendi: šerati’l-qidr dat utfiya ‘the pot had a foot-stand’ (i.e. not a spherical bottom) Kaš. I 312 (örgüčlenür, örgüčlenme:k); a.o. I 95 (1 örgüč).

D 2 örgüčlen- Refl. Den. V. fr. 2 örgüč. Xak. xı kı:z örgüčlendi: ‘the girl had a plait of hair’ (qunza'a wa dafira) Kaš. I 312 (örgüčlenür, örgüčlenme:k).

D erkeklen- (masculine) Refl. Den. V. fr. erkek. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vıı ff. Civ. (in a fragmentary calendar text) i:rke:kle:nür ‘is masculine’ (?) TT VIII P. 19: Xak. xı su:v erkeklendi: meca'1-me ‘the water was covered with waves’; and one says anın yi:ni: erkeklendi: iqša'ar-ra cilduhu ‘his skin was covered with goose-flesh’; wa kadalika ida are'1-racul raculiya ‘and also when a man shows virility’ Kaš. I315 (erkeklenür, erkeklenme:k; in the first two meanings the word seems to be a muddle with 1 örgüčlen-).

D erigle:- Den. V. fr. 1 erig; noted only in the Hend. ötle:- erigle:- 'to advise’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U III 15, 11, etc. (ötle:-).

D erükle:- (örükle:-) Den. V. fr. 2 erük (öruk); ‘to tan (hides)’. Xak. xı <ol>teri: erükle:di: dabağa’l-cild ‘he tanned the hide’ Kaš. I 306 (erükle:r, erükle:me:k); a.o. / 70 (2 erük): Kom. xıv ‘tanned leather’ eriklegen teri CCG; Gr.

D erüklen- Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 erük; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı yığa:č erüklendi: ‘the tree bore peaches, apricots, or plums’ Kaš. I 294 (erüklenür, erüklenme:k); a.o. III 348, 13.

D iriglen- Refl. Den. V. fr. 2 irig; survives only (?) in NC Kır. irden- ‘to grow (in size or bulk)’ Yud. 370. Xak. xı KB iriglendi ödlek maga tügdi kaš ‘the times were harsh and frowned on me’ 1586; (do not be angry if harsh words are addressed to you) köni söz irig ol iriglenme öz ‘truth is harsh, do not be harsh yourself’ 5775.

D erükse:- Hap. leg.; Desid. Den. V. fr.

1 erük Xak. xı er erükse:di: ‘the man longed (tamanne) for peaches, etc.’ Kaš. I 303 (erük-se:r, erükse:me:k).

D erksintür- Caus. f. of erksin-, but practically syn. w. it. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit adhipatim kftve ‘making him a supreme ruler’ erkslntürme:k kılıp TT VIII A.7; sîledhtpatî ‘the lord of uprightness’ čaxš5pat erksindürme:klig do. A.44.

D erksire:- (powerless, non-authoritative) Hap. leg.; Priv. Den. V. fr. erk (strength, maturity, power, authority, independence, free-will) (erg, ergometer, ergonomics, Erik); ‘to lack independence or authority’. Uyğ. vııı ff. (gap) erksireyin (gap) M II 6, 8.

Dis. ARL

?E erle: (residence, being (place), dwelling, бытие) (are) Hap. leg.; the alif is unvocalized, but otherwise the word is quite clear; the translation suggests that it is a scribal error for ergü: (being (place), dwelling, бытие) (are), q.v. Xak. xı bolsa: kimig altun kümüš erle: öte:r ’if a man gets gold and silver, kade yamliad ivatan ‘so he establishes a residence’ (and when he is settled in place he offers his worship to God) Kaš. III 251, 10.

D urluk (seed, progeny, descendants)seed’ (for sowing); metaph. ‘progeny, descendants’. Not definitely traceable earlier than xııı, the prob. earliest date of the Uyğ. texts quoted below. Prima facie A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. ur, but the only evidence for the existence of such a word is the entry in Id. below where u:r may be a misunderstanding of uru:, Sec. f. of 2 uruğ (seed, pip, kernel, progeny, descendants, clan). The likeliest explanation is that this is a crasis of uruğluk, q.v. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. L., T. urluk/urlux R I 1670; Kow. 275; Kaz. orlik and SW xx Anat. urluk SDD 1420. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in the usual formula renouncing any further interest in a sold property; ourselves, our elder and younger brothers) urlukumuz özlügümüz ‘our progeny and blood relations’ USp. 16, 15 ff. (ağa for ‘elder brother’ dates this document to XIII or lateŋ; similar phr. do. 57, 13 (alımčı:); in a similar formula in do. 13, 12 the word used is uruğum; a.o. do. 21, 3 (1 inčü:): Xwar. xıv (looking with lust is) zine urluki ‘the progeny of adultery’ Nahc. 350, 12: Kom. xıv ‘seed’ urluk CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-bidar ‘seed for sowing’ urluğ (sic) Hou. 9, 15:xiv (u:r (v.l. urzu) al-bazr ‘seed’); u:rluk al-mu'add minhu li'l-za'r ‘that (part of it) which is destined for sowing’ Id. xo: xv bazr ‘seed’ urluk Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 7b. 13.

D erlik (manliness, virility, bravery) A.N. fr. 1 er; ‘manliness, virility’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. erliki ked bolur ‘his virility becomes excellent’ H I 78: Xak. xı erlik ‘virility’ Kaš. I 104: Čağ. xv ff. örlik (and örenlik) erlik Vel. 54 (quotn.); erlik mardi wa ezed mardi ‘manliness, liberty’ (the latter Pconfused with erklik) San. loor. 14: Xwar. xıv erük ‘manliness, bravery’ Qutb 21; erlik do. 52: Kom. xıv ‘ (human) nature’ erlik CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv ff. erlik ‘bravery’, and occasionally ‘virility’ in several texts TTS II 392; III 260; IV 303.

D ürlüg (everlasting) P.N./A. fr. 1 ür; ‘everlasting’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ürlüg önč nırvan balıklığ ‘dwelling in the city of everlasting peaceful nirvana' Suv. 680, 18 (a text printed in the same volume as Suv.); a.o. Suv. 33, 4.

D örlem Hap. leg. (?); N.S.A. fr. örle:-. Xak. xı KB toğardın batarka bir örlem yör ol ‘from east to west it is a distance which can be covered as a single stage (?)’ 3706.

Dis. V. ARL-

D 1 aril- (tired) Hap. leg.; the context seems to require that this should be taken as a Pass f. of 1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak) although that is an Intrans. V.; ‘to be tired’. If a Pass. f. of 2 a:r- (deceive, trick), ‘to be tricked’. Türkü vııı / S 9, IIN 7 (alkin-).

D 2 aril- (mistreat, misuse) Hap. leg.; a mere jingle used only in the phr. aril sarıl- (see 1 sarıl- (mistreat, misuse)) and without a separate existence; apparently different from öril-, q.v.

D öril- (fickle, sway, shake) Hap. leg.; so spelt but ?eril-. Prima facie a mere jingle like 2 aril-, but unlike that word entered separately with Aor. and Infin. See seril- (fickle, sway), Xak. xı er örildi: serildi: ihtazza'l-racul min ğamnt tva lama nafsahıt fihi ‘the man was shaken with grief and blamed himself for it’ Kaš. I 196 (örilür, örilme:k).

D i:ril- (breached, waned, declined) Pass. f. of 2 i:r- (notch, breach); lit. ‘to be breached’ and the like; metaph. (of the moon) ‘to wane’ (i.e. to have part of its visible surface cut off). N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ta:m i:rildi: ‘the wall (etc.) was breached’ (intalama); hence one says ay i:rildi: ‘the moon waned’ (axada'l-qamar fi’l-nuqsan) towards the end of the month Kaš. I 270 (i:rilür, i:rilme:k): KB kün ök (so read) kör irilmez tolu ok turur ‘the sun does not wane, it is (always) full’ 825; tolu erdi ayım irildi tolu ‘my moon was full, the full (moon) has waned’ 1071; kuruğ kaldı ornı irildi išim ‘his place has remained empty and my fortunes have declined’ 157e: xiri (?) At. kamuğ tolğan irlür 'everything that waxes wanes’ 199: Kip. xıv iril- zala ‘to wane’ Id. 10.

D orul- (reaped, mown) Pass. f. of o:r- (mow (grass, etc.), to reap (crops)) (ard); ‘to be reaped, mown’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. Xak. xı (in the same para, as urul-) tarığ oruldi: hušida'1-zar ‘the crop was reaped’ Kaš. I 194 (no Aor. or Infin.): Čağ. xv ff. orul- (by implication ‘with o-’) diraw šudart ‘to be reaped’ San. 67V. 15. .

D urul- (put, place, struck, beaten) Pass. f. of ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать); ‘to be put; to be struck’, etc. (cf. ur-). No doubt s.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW Osm. vurul-, Xak. xı er uruldi: ‘the man (etc.) was beaten’ (duriba); and one says törgi: uruldi: ‘the table was put (placed) into position’; and one says tu:ğ uruldi: duribati'l- nawba wa hiya'l-tubfd ‘the watch was beaten, that is the drums’; (orul- follows) Kaš. I 194 (urulu:r, urulma:k; verse): xııı (?) At. ozaki urulmıš matal ‘a proverb cited of old’ 164 (literal translation of Ar. phr. duriba matal); Tef. urul- ‘to be put’, etc. 331: xıv Muh. (?) duriba urul- Rif. 129 (only): Čağ. xv ff. urul- (‘with u-’) zada šudan ‘to be beaten’ San. 67V. le: Xwar. xıv urul- (1) (of a table) ‘to be placed in position’; (2) (of a drum) ‘to be beaten’ Qutb 199; (1) only MN 21: Kip. xv duriba urul- Kav. 26, 10 (mis-spelt urun-) and 13; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 86a. 13.

D örül- Pass. f. of 2 ör-; ‘to be plaited’ and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı örgen örüldi: rumila'l-nis' ‘the thong of the camel’s girth was plaited’ Kaš. I 195 (örülür, örülme:k; MS. in error ma:k); Čağ. xv ff. örül- befta šudan ‘to be plaited, twisted’, etc. San. 67V. 16 (quotn.).

D ürül- (inflated, swell, expanded) Pass. f. of 1 ür- (blow (gas)); ‘to be inflated’, and metaph. ‘to swell, be distended’. S.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (in the sprint? months) i ığačlar sıšar ürülür ‘the shrubs and trees swell and are distended’ (as a man blows up a bladder) Wind. 21-2: Civ. ka:rm ürü:lür ‘his stomach is distended’ TT VIII 1.8 ; karm ürülmekig kerilmekig ‘distension (Hend.) of the stomach’ II II 8, 39; 10, 60: Xak. xı er övke:sinde: ürüldı: ‘the man swelled (intafaxa) with anger’; and one says ka:b ürüldi: ‘the bladder was inflated’ (nufixa); and one says o:t ürüldi: ‘the fire was blown up’ (nufixa); both Pass. and Intrans. Kaš. I j95 (prov.; no Aor. or Infin.); bu er ol öpke:n ürülge:n ‘this man is constantly swelling with anger like a bladder’ I 158: xııı (?) Tef. ürül- (of a trumpet) ‘to be blown’ 340: Xwar. xıv ditto Na/ic. 177, 3: Osm. xv to xvııı (only) ürül- ‘to be distended; (of a trumpet) to be blown’ in several texts TTS I 747; II 955! HI 733 I / V 805.

D ırla:- (sing, recite) (Heb. yirla(him)) Den. V. fr. 1 i:r (awl, drill); ‘to sing, recite’, and the like. S.i.m.m.l.g. Although often spelt with prosthetic y-, most early forms and the NE form ırla- and NC Kır. ırda- show that this is secondary. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ırlayu ‘singing’ (with a lovely voice) U III 46, 13; a.o. TT X 144-5 (’ ı:rj — yırlap U III 75, 11; TTX 442; bödiyü yirlayu ‘dancing and singing’ U141, 21; IV8, 36; o.o. PP 70, 2; 71, 1: Xak. xı er yırla:dı: tağanne'l-raculuğniya ‘the man sang a song’ Kaš. III 308 (yirla:r, yir-la:ma:k); a.o. 77/3, 26 (1 i:ŋ: xııı (?) Tef. ırla-‘to sing’ 129: xıv Muh. ğanne yırla:- Mel. 29, 11; t:rla:- Rif. 113: Čağ. xv ff. ytrla- (-y) irla-Vel. 419 (quotn.); yırla- (spelt; ‘with -i-’) xwanandagl hardan ‘to sing’ San. 349r. 9: Kom. xıv ‘to sing’ ırla- CCI, CCG; Gr: Ktp. xııı ğanne mina'l-ğine ırla- (-gil in error) Hou. 42, 14: xıv ırla- ğanne td. 10: XV ğanne yırla- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27a. 8: Osm. xıv ff. ırla- (very rarely yırla-) ‘to sing’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 355; 77 502; III 344; IV 396.

(DS) orla:- (orı:la:-) (noise, shout) (орать) abbreviated Den. V. fr. ori:; ‘to make a loud noise, shout’, and the like. Survives only (?) in NE orla- Koib. ‘to moo’ RI 1064; Khak. ditto and ‘to shout’, which establishes o- as against u-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. anta ok Bodısavtyaıja katığ ünin orladi ‘thereupon the Bodhisattva elephant trumpeted loudly’ U III 58, 5 (ı): Xak. xı er orı:la:dı: šeha'l--racul U'a rafa'a 'aqiratahu ‘the man shouted and raised his voice’; and one says er orı:la:dı: ša/ifa'1-racul wa zeda fihi 'ani'1-ğeya ‘the man boasted and exaggerated grossly’ Kaš. I 309 (orı:la:r, orı:la:ma:k); yırtıp (so read) yaka: o:rlayu: tamazzaqa'l-curubben bi-'awil ma'a-hu ‘they tear their collars shouting at the same time’ 7 189, 2 (or possibly o:rilayu:): xıv al-nida'Xo shout’o:rulamakMf/. 38,1; Rif. 124.

D örle:- (rise, upwards) Dev. N. fr. 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-) (derivative of öri (elevated, perfect)); ‘to rise, go upwards’ and the like. S.i.m.m.l.g. w. some phonetic changes and extensions of meaning; in SW only in XX Anat. SDD 1116. Xak. xı KB (a man by virtue surpasses others) üküš \\ bolsa erdem cr örlrp učar 'if he has many good qualities a man soars upwards’ 2646; (the sun turned back to the earth and hid its face) kalık megzi kiš teg bolup örledl ‘the colour of the firmament turned to sable and rose’ (the world rubbed a coal-black colour on its face) 3836; o.o. 3840, 4889, 4967-8, 5677 (usually of stars, etc., rising): Čağ. xv ff. örle- (-p) yokušla-... ya'ni yokuša čık- ‘to rise, go upwards’ Vrl. 102 (quntn.); örle- (spelt) bele raftan ditto San. yor. 7 (same quotn.).

D örlet- (rise, upwards) Caus. f. of örle:- (rise, upwards); lit, ‘to raise’, but in the early period rather ‘to rouse, disturb’. S.i.s.m.l. Üyğ. vııı ff. Man. (passions, hatred, etc.) örletür erti tınlığlarığ ‘have disturbed mankind’ TT III 34: Bud. bu muntağ nızvanılar tıırkaru amru örletser ‘if emotions like this constantly (Hend.) disturb him’ TT VI74; o.o. Suv. 135, 16-17 (emget-) 136, 17; TT VI 61, 374; VII 40, 38 etc.

D erlen- (manned, married) Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 er (ar, ir) (man, human male, fighting man; husband; -en pl. suffix) (Herr, -er); (of a woman) ‘to be married’, cf. evlen- (housed, marry) ditto (of a man). Survives only (?) in NC Kır. erden-/erlen-‘to display manliness, reach maturity’; cf. erleš-, Xak. xı ura:ğut erlendi: taza-waccati’l-niar’a ‘the woman married’ Kaš. I 257 (erlenür, erlenme:k): xıv Muh. al-muzarvicaca e:rlenmiš Mel. 53, 1 (Rif. 149 begli:g): Osm. xıv erlen- (of a woman) ‘to marry’ in three texts TTS I 273 ; III 259.

D örlen- (rise, climb) Refl. f. of örle:- ‘to rise, climb’, etc., esp. of heavenly bodies. Survives in some NE dialects and SE Turki. Xak. xı bulıt örlendi: naša'ati'l-saheba ‘the cloud rose’; it is better (wa'l-ahsan) to say (1) ö:rdi: Kaš. I 257 (örlenür, örletımetk; verse): Čağ. xv ff. örlen- ba-bele bar-etnadan ‘to rise up’ Sati. jor. 21 (with a quotn. about a dead donkey on whose bones the flesh reappeared; Vol. 103 gives the snme quotn. but mistranslates örlendi nrtiihli ‘was covered’).

D erleš- Hap. leg.; Rccip Den. V. fr. 1 er (ar, ir) (man, human male, fighting man; husband; -en pl. suffix) (Herr, -er); cf. erlen- (manned, married). Xak. xı ola:r ikki: erlešdi: taberaye fi'1-rucûlîya ‘the two of them competed in virility’ Kaš. I 239 (erlešü:r, erlešme:k).

D orlaš- (orı:laš-) (noise, shout) Co-op. f. of orla:- (noise, shout); ‘to shout, etc. together’. Survives only (?) in NE Koib., Khak. orlas- (sic). Xak. xı bo:dun kamuğ orlašdı: šeha'l-qawm tea čalabil ‘the people shouted and called out’; originally orı:lašdi: Kaš. I239 (orlašu:r, orlašma:k).

Tris. ARL

PU aralı: (island) Hap. leg.; the central vowel, if any, is unknown. Some meaning like ‘nine months old’, or ‘with nine points to its horns’ might be expected, but cannot be got out of the word as it stands; -li: is not a possible P.N./A. Suff. in Türkü. Probably corrupt or a foreign word. Türkü vııı ff. tokuz aralı sığu:n keyi:k men ‘I am a nine... maral deer’ (toquz aralï sïɣun kejik men я марал-олень [с] острова „девятки“ (?)) IrkB 60.

D aralık (island, островной) A.N. (sometimes Conc. N.) in -lik fr. ara: (? a:ra:) (between, among); s.i.a.m.l.g. in a wide range of meanings. \231\ Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. [ar]alıkta USp. 102a. 45, if correctly restored, prob. means ‘in the intermediate state’: Čağ. xv ff. aralığ (sic, but certainly A.N.) wasat tva miyen ‘centre, middle’ San. 36V. 11 (quotn.).

D irülüg Hap. leg. (?); P.N./A. fr. Irü:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. İrülüg edgü künke 'on an auspicious favourable day’ M I 26, 21-2.

D ürlüklüg. P.N./A. fr. *ürlük, A.N. fr.

1 ür (everlasting, eternal); ‘everlasting, eternal’; cf. ürlüksüz. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit nityai-venitya eva ve ‘whether eternal or transitory’ ürlüklüg erse:r yeme: tyflüksüz erse:r yeme: TT VIII F.6; akığsiz ürlüklüg paošin etöz ‘the stable eternal Sambhogakeya’ (recompense body, Chinese pao shen. — Giles 8,731 9.813) Suv. 704, 15-16.

D ürlüksüz (transitory) Priv. N./A. fr. *ürlük; ‘transitory’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 142-3 (bögün-): Bud. akığlığ ürlüksüz beš yapığığ ‘the five unstable, transitory attachments’ Suv. 704, 14-15; o.o. TT VIII F.6 (ürlüklüg); TT X 540 (yatlan-); U III 43, 7-

Tris. V. ARL-

D ara:la:- (between, mediate, investigate, examine, pass over, separate (two)) Den. V. fr. ara: (? a:ra:) (between, among); ‘to be, or go, between; to mediate’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g., with some extended meanings. Xak. xı ol lkki: kiši: otra: ara:la:di: ‘he made peace (šelaha) between the two people’; also ‘he passed (cawaza) between’ them, or two things; and for ‘making peace’ (fi’l-šulh) ari:la:di: is also used, but this is a vulgar expression (lafzatu'1-ema) and the first is more correct (ašehh) Kaš. I 308 (ara:la:r, ara:la:ma:k): Čağ. xv ff. arala- (1) tafahhuš kardan ‘to investigate, examine’; (2) dar miyen-i dii amr dar enından wa miyenčigari kardan ‘to pass between two things; to act as mediator’ San. 34V. 2 (quotns.): Osm. xv aralayıp geč- ‘to pass over’ (a word in making a translation) TTS I 33; arala- ‘to separate’ (two people) III 32; ‘to appear between’ (two things) IV 33.

S orı:la:- See orla:-. (noise, shout)

D örü:le:- (rise, upward) Den. V. fr. örü: (orö:) (up, upwards, height, elevation, upright, pillar, support); in Kaš.'s meaning Hap. leg.; örüle-/örele- ‘to rise’ in several modern languages may be Sec. f.s of örle:-. Xak. xı ol ko:nuğ örü:le:di: dabaha'l-ğanam qe'ima (n) ‘he slaughtered the sheep while it was standing’ Kaš. I 309 (örü:le:r, örü:le:me:k).

D örletiš- Hap. leg.?; Recip. f. of örlet-; ‘to disturb one another’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Hüen-ts. 2095 (urundi:).

D ur:lan- Hap. leg.; Ref. Den. V. fr. 1 uri:. Türkü vııı ff. üčü:nč kunču:yı: urı:lanmi:š ‘his third wife had given birth to a male child’ IrkB 5.

S orı:laš- See orlaš-.

Dis. ARM

D orum (harvest time, crop, ) N.S.A. fr. o:r- (mow (grass, etc.), to reap (crops)) (ard); survives in SE Türki ‘harvest time’ BŠ 763; NC Kir, ‘a crop’. Xak. xı bi:r orum ot ‘the quantity of grass that is reaped at one time’ (yuxtala marrata (n)) Kaš. I 75.

D örüm (plaited, woven) Hap. leg. (?); N.S.A. fr. 2 ö:r- (plait, masonry); ‘something plaited or woven’. Xak. xı KB4768 (čuz).

D örme: (plaited, woven, spun) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. 2 ö:r- (plait, masonry); 'something plaited or spun’ and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı örme: sač al-dafira ‘a plait of hair’ Kaš. I 129; ö: rme:sač ditto I 11, 27: xıv Muh. (?) tawbu'l-xargah ‘the covering of a tent’ ö:rme: Rif. 180 (only; mis-spelt e:zme:): Čağ. xv ff. örme (spelt) yak naw-i rismani ast ki ba-tariq-i nawer-i pahn mi-befand ‘a kind of rope which they spin in the form of a thick cable’ San. 71V. 1.

D örmek (woven garment, loom) Infin. of 2 ö:r- (plait, masonry) used as a Conc. N.; apparently ‘a plaited, knitted or woven garment’. In NC Kır., Kzx. örmek now means ‘a primitive loom’ and in NW Kaz. ermek ‘a garment of camel’s hair’ (hence Russian armyak ‘a peasant’s overcoat’). See Doerfer II 466. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. in a document relating to the delivery of various goods, mainly cloth, iki örmek iki ton ‘two woven garments (P), two (made up) garments’ USp. 31, 18: Čağ. xv ff. örmek yak naw-i šel-i nezuk ki az pašm-i šutur mi-befand ‘a kind of thin mantle woven from camel’s hair’ San. 7 m 27.

D örmen Conc. N. fr. 1 ö:r; ‘swelling’ or the like. In TT VI there are v.l. ünmen (if genuine, a similar Dev. N. fr. ün-) and ömen (with the -r- elided). The latter became a l.-w. in Mong. meaning ‘cancer, scirrhous tumour’ (Kow. 536, Haltod 111). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (that mortal in this world) anığ körksüz uduz örmen kart yirip Iglig bolur ‘becomes a sufferer from evil ugly itches, swellings, ulcers, and pus’ TT VI 443: Civ. (eighteen kinds of) örmen kart H II 20, 10; 22, 16.

Tris. ARM

D örümček (spider) Conc. N. fr. örüm; ‘’. Survives, more or less in this form, in NE, SE, and SW. In the medieval period an alternative word örmekčı:, N.Ag. fr. örmek, appeared, and survives more or less in this form in NC, NW. This word was metathesized to örgemči which is first noted in Čağ. xv ff. Vel. 102; San. 71 r. 21, and still survives in SC. See also 1 bö:g. Xak. xı örümček al-'ankabût ‘spider’ Kaš. I 152: xıv Muh. al-'ankabût ö:rümčik Mel.74,4; ö:rümčük Rif. 177: Xwar. xıv örümčük ditto Qutb 124: Kom. xıv ‘spider’ örümčik CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv 'ankabût (boy and) örümcük Tuh. 25a. 13 (in margin, ‘also örümček’). Osm. xiv, xv örümček in two texts TTS II 757; III 568: xvııı örmüček (spelt) in Rumi, 'ankabût San. 71 v. 2; örümček in Rumi 'ankabût, also pronounced örmüček do. 71 v. 19.

PU (E) arumdu:n Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w.; in a section for words of the form fa'elû with -n attached and listed after -D- between alu:či:n and ura:ğu:n; undoubtedly an error for aru:du:n. Xak. xı arumdu:n ‘a kind of dye’ (al-šibğ) Kaš. I 138.

VU urumdaty (stone kind) Hap. leg.; morphologically obscure, perhaps l.-w. Xak. xı urumdary al-hacaru Uadt yudfa bihi madarralu l-samm ‘a stone which is used to avert damage from poison' Kaš. I 159.

D armakčı: (deceiver) Hap. leg.; N.Ag. fr. Infin. of 2 a:r- (deceive, trick). Türkü vııı (because of the intrigues of the Chinese people and) armakčı:sı:n üčü:n ‘because of their deceit (deceivers)’ IE 6.

?F armağa:n/yarmağa:n (gift, souvenir)gift’, and more specifically ‘a gift brought back from a journey’. The word also exists in both forms in Pe., and, as there is no obvious Turkish etymology for either form, it is prob. one of the Pe. l.-w. in early Oğuz (see ören). Survives only (?) in SW Osm. armağan. See Doerfer II 465. Oğuz xı armağa:n ‘a gift (hadtya) which a traveller who has prospered (al-qadimu l-ğenim) brings back from his journey for his neighbours’; there is another form (luğa), yarmağa:n, and this is more correct (aša/ıh) Kaš. I 140 (111 thcMS. ašahhısmis-spelt atnuč, and this has been taken as an alternative word for ‘gift’ by some editors): Xwar. xıv armağan ‘gift’ Qutb 10; MN 33, etc.: Kip. xıv td. 23 (anuk); al-hadiya armağa:n Bul. 5, 7: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 37b. 10; alıde ‘to give a present’ armağan ber- do. 5a. 11.

D ermegü: (lazy, slothful)lazy, slothful’; morphologically obscure; prima fade a Neg. Dev. N. in -gü:, but the semantic connection with erin- makes this improbable. N.o.a.b.; cf. ermegür-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ayığka tavranur ermegü tınlığlar üküš ‘lazy mortals who (nevertheless) hurry after evil are numerous’ TT VI 021-2: Civ. (he suffers from dizziness, drowsiness and nausea and) erme:kü (gap) ‘is listless’ (?) TT VIII 7.8: Xak. xı ermegü: al-kaslen ‘lazy’ Kaš. I 138 (prov.); similar provs. 7 42, 4 (ešik); 70, 27: xıv Muh. (?) (určder 'horses’) al-balV n'al-mutawaqqif ‘sluggish and slow’ ermegü: (-g- marked) Rif. 171 (only): Kip.xııı al-kaslen (opposite to ‘lively’ ča:lıt) erme:wü: Hou. 26, 10.

VUF ermeli: (swift horse, courser)swift horse, courser’, or the like; l.-w. cognate to Tokharian B (Kuchaean) ramerjrmer, ‘swift’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı (when he went hunting) ermeli: teg erti: ‘he was like a a courser’ Ix. 9; Karluk yegren ermelig arka:sr:n siyu: urti: ‘he struck the Karluk chestnut courser and broke its back’ do. 21.

Tris. V. ARM-

D ermegü:r- Intrans. Den. V. fr. ermegü:; ‘to be lazy, indolent’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (if we have not praised God well and perfectly) korkmatm ermegürüp ‘because we do not fear him and are lazy’ Chuas. 211; erinip ermegürüp ‘being indolent and lazy’ do. 255, 266; a.o. TT II 10, 94: Xak. xı '.er> ermegü:rdi: takesala'l-racul ‘the man was lazy’; also abbreviated to ermegürdi: Kaš. İIİ 349 (ermegü:re:r, ermegü:rme:k).

Dis. ARN

aran (stable, corral, barn) originally ‘a stable’. Survives in NC Kzx., NW Nog. and several minor dialects (R I 251) for ‘cattle pen’ and in SW xx Anat. ‘tobacco barn’ SDD 109. Xak. xı aran (‘with back vowels’) al-erî 'a stable’ Kaš. I 7e: Čağ. xv ff. aran (1) ‘a row of stakes (sixlm) which they erect in game-paths for hunting purposes’ (quotn.); (2) ‘an enclosure (muhawwata) which they make for cattle to sleep in’ San. 3ÖV. 15.

D eren (men, pl., collective, male, real man, fighting man, hero, mankind) irregular Plur. of 1 er; properly ‘men’, but as in the case of oğlanı, its true nature was forgotten quite early, and it was treated as a Sing. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually meaning ‘real man, fighting man’, and the like. Türkü vııı eren is fairly common but invariably follows a numeral or numerical expression like a:z ‘few’, which suggests that it was regarded more as a collective than a Plur. (which would not normally follow a numeral), e.g. karjim xagan yeti yeğirmi: eren tašıkmıš ‘my father the xağan and 17 men marched out’ IE 11, HE 10; o.o. 7 E 34; I E 40 (ükün-); 7 N 9; 777;’ 37; 77 S ix; Ongin 5: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. üč erenler (sic) ‘the three men’ TT II 16, 30-1: Bud. beš yüz satığčı erenler ‘500 merchants’ PP 22, 8; beš yüz erenniıj do. 28, 2; 53, 6; yüzlüg erenler (sic) ‘distinguished people (men)’ TT VII 40, 75-e: O. Kır. ıx ff. yüz eren Mal. 10, 2 (dubious, text corrupt): Xak. xı eren al-ricel ‘men’; an irregular Plur. (cam šedd) Kaš. I 76; o.o. 7 74 (oğul, q.v.); 7 229 (ürpeš-) and over 20 others, in nearly all of which the word is certainly Plur.: KB ajunda ne yaglığ eren tuğdı kör ‘see what kind of men are born in the world’ 234; a.o. 279: xııı (?) At. eren (rather broadly) ‘mankind’ 89, 90, 93, 373: Tef. erenlerhuman beings; men (not women)’ So: xıv Rbğ. erenler ‘men; husbands’ R I 758 (quotns.); Čağ. xv ff. San. 9<jr. 16 (1 er): Xwar. xıv ereijler ‘ (brave) men’ Qutb 21: Osm. xıv ff. eren (1) ‘male’ (not female) ; (2) ‘real man, hero’; (3) ‘man of experience’; c.i.a.p. normally as Sing.; erenler, too, is common TTS I 271; II 389 ff.; 777 257; IV 302.

erin (lip, lower lip)lip’, sometimes specifically ‘the lower lip’, and metaph. ‘the lip of a cup’. S.i.a.m.l.g. as erin, erin, irin, but almost obsolete in SW' where ‘lip’ is normally Az., Tkm. dodak; Osm. dudak. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ol külüg (? read külünč) erni ‘that smiling (?) lip’ M I 10, 8: Man. TT II16, 15 (adurt): Bud. üstün altın erinleri ‘his upper and lower lips' UIV 30, 52-3; a.o. Suv. 595, 1.7: Civ. on yağıda erin ikin ara ‘on the 10th of the month (the soul) is between the two lips’ TT VII 20, 14-16; erin üze meg bolsar ‘if there is a mole on the lip’ do. 37, 9 (USp. 42, 8): Xak. \\ XI erln al-šafa ‘lip’ Kaš. I 77; e:rni: šofatuhu do. jo, 24: xııı Tef. erin ‘lip’ 81: Čağ. xv ff. ern (-ig) mutlaq alt dudak ‘specifically the lower lip' Vel. 52 (quotns ); ern labb ‘lip’ San. joor. 21 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv erln ‘lip’ Qutb 51 (erin), 6o (erln); MN121, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘nostril, gums’ (sic) erin CCI; Gr.: Kip. xıı al-šafa eren (sic?) Hou. 20, 4: xıv erln al-šafa Id. 12: xv šafa (dodak and) erin Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20b. 6.

D iriŋ (pus) Conc. N. fr. iri:- (decay, rot, putrefy); ‘pus’. S.i.a.m.l.g. (in SE Türki jiriŋ). Türkü vııı ff. Man. kan iriŋ ‘blood and pus’ M I 5, 10, and 14; 6, 4: Bud. yiriŋ ašlığlar (demons) ‘who cat (vomit) pus' U 7/61,9; 1T VI 443 (örmen); X 549 : Civ. H II 26, 85 (ak-): Xak. xı iriŋ al-qih wa'l-sadid ‘pus’ (Hend.) Kaš. I 135; a.o. III 59, 18 (1 yüz-): xııı (?) Tef. iriŋpus’ 12e: xıv Muh. (?) al-qih i:ri:ŋ Rif. 139 (only): Xwar. xıv ditto Nahc. 331, 12: Kip. xııı (al-šafa) iren (?) wa huwa'l-qih Hou. 20, 4: xıv irin al-qih wa'l-midda (‘pus’) Id. 12: xv al-qih irin Kav. 61, 12; Tuh.'29a. 1: Osm. xvııı iriŋ (spelt) in Rumi, čirk wa rim ‘mucus, pus’; in Ar. midda and qih San. ioov. 4.

orun (oron) ((high) place, throne, in place of, country, province) originally ‘place’, and more specifically ‘high place, throne’; the first is quite clear in phr. like ye:r orun ‘a place’ (Hend.) and the second in phr. like linxwa orun ‘lotus throne’; also used abstractly in phr. like orninta:in place of (something else)’. An early l.-w. in Mong. as oronthrone’ (Ilaenisch 126), later ‘place, country, province’, and other meanings (Kow. 447, Haltod 82). S.i.a.m.l.g., but not current in Osm. after about xvı until revived recently. Türkü vııı ff. Man. orninta kamšat (t)ımız erser ‘if we have overthrown (the four kinds of gods) from their thrones’ Chuas. 187-8; men keltim oruna olurdum ‘I have come and seated myself on my throne’ TT II 8, 74: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. tınğuluk orunta ‘in a place of rest’ TT III no; o.o. do. 12 (enč-gülüg); 139 (adalığ) — ol orunka oluru yarlıkadı ‘he deigned to sit on that throne’ M III 34, 5 (in: Bud. Sanskrit asana ‘seat’ tölet (cushioned) oron (sic) üze: TT VIII D. 12; linxwa orun ‘lotus throne’ TT V 12, 126, etc.; o.o. Suv. 182, 6-7 (örü:); U III 43, 29 (bez-, here ‘bed’) — (King Maheratŋ törttin sigar yer orunuğ lymıš basmıš ‘subdued (Hend.) countries in all parts of the world’ Suv. 607, 14-15; o.o. of yer orun Hüen-ts. 94, 149, 177: Civ. İğ oronla:rında: ‘on sick-beds’ TT VIII L.25 A; (if) orunın yegin kılmayın ‘I do not provide him with lodging and food’ USp. 98, 20-1 — ‘place’ H II 6, 14; 8, 21 (ötgürgü:) — borlukugnıg ornında borluk tilese ‘if (you) want (another) vineyard in place of your vineyard’ USp. 24, 7-8; similar phr. do. 84, 3: Xak. xı orun mawdi' or maken ‘place’ Kaš. II12, 4 (kopur-); 177, 25 (turğur-); III 430, 9 (kopurt-); kara: orun al-qabr ‘the grave’, meaning ‘the dark place’ (al-mawdi'u'l--muzlim) III 221, 23: KB. orun ‘place’ is common, č,g. orun ol törütti orun yok agar ' (God) črčšučd places, but has no place himself’19; ata ornı atı oğulka kalır ‘the father’s place and name remains for the son’ 110: xııı (?) KBPP padišah omiga tutmıš turur ‘he took him for the position of monarch’ 32; a.o. 33, but in 34 yarinde; At. 212 (umunč); Tef. orun ‘place, seat’, etc. 238: xıv Muh. al-maqam ‘placeo:ru:n Rif. 179 (Mel. 76, I ye:ŋ: Čağ. xv ff. orun/orn these two words mean maqam ve ceygeh ‘place’ (Hend.) (quotns.); orn- (-ığa ‘with o-’) anwj yerine badal ma'nestna' in his place’ in the sense of substitution (quotns.) Vel. 99; om (spelt) ed wa maken (quotns.); also used in the sense of substitution ('iwad) as one says in Persian ‘so- and-*so was given in place of (ba-ce-yŋ so- and-so’ San. 71 v. 5; orun ce wa maken (quotn.), when followed by a vowel suffix orn as stated above do. 71 v. 19: Xwar. xıv (your father’s) orni ‘place’ Nahc. 14, 5: Kom. xıv ‘placeorun CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv orun maken wa ğayruhu Id. 11: Osm. xıv toxvi orunplace’ in several texts TTS II 736; III 549; IV 612.

F ören (bad, ruined) (Orenburg “Ruined, Desolate City”)bad, ruined’; as Kaš. says a corruption of Persian wayren, which occurs as a l.-w. in several modern languages in its original or a corrupt form, e.g. NC Kır., Kzx. oyran/oyron. The latest trace of ören is in Osm. Sami 200, where it is described as ‘obsolete’. Oğuz xı ören al-radV min hull šay' ‘bad’ of anything; I consider this to be taken from the Per. word mayren ‘ruined’ (al-xareb); the Oğuz when they mixed with the Persians (ixtalatat bi'l-furs) forgot many Turkish words and used Pe. words instead; this is one of them Kaš. I 7e: Osm. xıv to xvıı ören ‘ruined, desolate’ in several texts TTS I 568; II 755-

F (E) üren (seed, fruit, progeny) the Mongolian word üren ‘seed, fruit, progeny’ (Kow. 577, Haltod 126) occurs as a l.-w. in several NE languages and NC Kır. It has also been read in Türkü vııı ff. Man. üren yašarur yadilur ‘the seed turns green and spreads’ M III 20, 10-11 (ŋ, but it is said that the text is very difficult to read, and there is no reasonable doubt that this word is a misreading of evin.

ürüŋ (white, shining, bright, clear, milk, fee) ‘white’ in a general sense, cf. 1 a:k. Very common down to xı but almost obsolete thereafter. Survives in Yakut ürüŋ ‘white’ (Pek. 3178), and perhaps NC Kır. ürüŋ barag ‘dawn’ and SW xx Anat. ürün ‘milk, yoğurt' SDD 1436. Sporadic Uyğ. spellings yürüŋ are unlikely to represent an earlier form. Türkü vııı ürüŋ kümüši:n ‘his white silver’ II N 11; a.o. T 48 (altu:n): vııı ff. ürü:ŋ esri: 'white dappled’ IrkB 4 (‘falcon’); 41 (‘cow’ and ‘bull calf’); o.o. do. 5, 20; yürüŋ taš ‘white stone’ Toy. 5 (ETY II 57), a.o.o.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A yürüŋ tonluğ dmdarka ‘to a white-robed Elect’ M III 30, 10-11; ürüŋ M I 22, 4 (in: Bud. yürüŋ yipln yaruk yašuk ‘white and violet light (Hend.)’ TT V 4, 12; o.o. PP 42, 2 (eğir- (twist, spin)); TT V 6, 47; U IV 30, 51-2, etc.: Civ. ürüŋ y^rlig (a mattress) ‘with a white ground’ (and coloured \234\ ornamentation) USp. 79, 6; yürüŋ bulıt ‘a white cloud’ TT I 4; o.o. TT VII 13, 29; HI 91, etc.: O. Kır. ıx ff. ürüŋümig kara:mığ arzdım ‘I strayed from (?) my white and black (livestock ?)’ Mal. 11,3; (my kinsmen, my children) ürüŋü:m kara:m do. 45, 7: Xak. xı ürüŋ al-abyad ‘white’ of anything, in Oğuz (1) ak: ürüŋ al-kudba ‘the white crescent in a finger-nail’, that is al-fûfa (ditto) in the nails of young people; one says tırga:k ürüŋi: bayedu'1-zufr: ürüŋ hulıcünu'l-ktihin ‘a fortune-teller’s fee’; one says elig ürüŋi: be:r ‘give the fee’ Kaš. I 134; three o.o.: KB ürüŋwhite’ is common, e.g. (putting off my widow’s weeds) ürüŋ kedtim as ‘I have put on (a garment of) white ermine’ 84; o.o. 881, 1103 (1 sač (hair (head)), 1319, 3840 (ertini), 5640, 6622: Mli (?) At. (the prophets have) ürüŋ yüz ‘white (i.e. shining) faces’ 25; Tef. ürüŋwhite’ (hair, light) 250 (örüŋ): Čağ. xv ff. ewrüŋ (so spelt) rüšan wa tıürenî wa hawa~yi šef ‘shining, bright, clear weather’ San. 53V. 1: Kip. xııı al-laban mutlaqa ‘milk’ in general ü:rün Hon. 16, 11.

D 1 erinč (presumably, supposedly, apparently, perhaps) like erki: (perhaps, uncertain, doubt, suppose, likely, if ever, interrogative, suggestion) and erken (indefiniteness, being, while, while being), q.v., a vety archaic der. f. of 1 er- (are, were, was); its particular function (see v. G. ATG, para. 359) seems to be to make statements in which it is included less than categorical, and it is usually best translated ‘presumably, supposedly’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı (their xağans were wise and tough) buyrukı: yeme: bilge: ermiš erinč nip ermiš erinč 'their officers, too, were presumably wise and tough’... am: üčü:n îlig anča: tutmıš erinč ‘and for this reason apparently they thus held the realm’ I E 3, II E 4; a whole string of similar phr. follows I E 5, 11 E 5, 6; I E 11, II E 10; o.o. I E 24, II E 20 (ol); I E zb; II E 35; Ix. 23 (ülüg): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (I have done evil) bilip kılmadım erinč ‘but not, I think, done it (were) knowingly’ U II 87, 59; kagim xan bodun tlllge korkup ınča yarlıkadı erinč ‘my father the xan apparently gave this order because he feared what the people might say’ PP ii, 1-3; o.o. do. 10, 1; 45, 5: Xak. xı erinč a Particle (harf) meaning la'alia ‘perhaps’, hence one says ol keldi: erinč ‘he has perhaps come’ Kaš. / 132; similar entry, but bardı: ‘he has (perhaps) gone’ III 449; o.o. 746, 20 (kanık); 77/65, 12 (uğra:ğ); 245, 18; 309, 11: KB ölüm buzmağınča buzulmaz erinč ‘until death destroys him, he will presumably not be destroyed’ 882; o.o. 2062-4, 3739.

SF 2 erinč/erinj See erej. (happiness, bliss)

D irinč (? erinč): (wretched, miserable, unhappy) N./A.S. fr. irin- (miserable, unhappy); ‘’. N.o.a.b.; see irinčü:. Türkü vııı ff. Man. irinč boldilar ‘they became miserable’ M III 6, 3 (1); 7, 6-7 (in: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A irinč kiši oğlu ‘miserable mortals’ M I 9, 7: Man. (gap) irinč kılıp ölürtim ‘I have made... miserable and killed them’ TT II 15, 2-3; o.o. TT III 25, 48: Bud. (you will encounter dreadful dangers, and die, and) bizni irinč kılğaysız ‘make us \\\ unhappy’ PP 18, 6; o.o. U II 4, 6 (ınağsız); 29, 14; U III 10, 4 (kolunğučı:); 16, 21 (ınağsız); 36, 20; TT IV 10, 13 (2 yarlığ); 12, 44 (ol); Suv. 448, 2: Xak. xı Kaš. I 132; III 449 (? ; erej).

D urunč (bribe)bribe’; the only modern survival is SW xx Anat. örünč SDD 1118, noted in one village only; if it can be assumed that this is a mispronunciation, the obvious explanation of this word is to take it as a Dev. N. fr. urun- (put, strike) in the sense of ‘something put down’. Cf. urunčak. Xak. xı urunč al-rišwa ‘a bribe’ Kaš. I 132; III 449 (duplicate entries); o.o. 1 354, 9 (1 ač- (open)); 111 217, 1: KB urunč alsa hQcib bolur beg külünč ‘if the minister takes bribes, the ruler becomes a laughingstock’ 2442; urunč almasa (so read) ‘he should not take bribes’ 2506; o.o. 2443, 4144:xiv Muh. (?) al-rišıca u:runč Rif. 188 (only; also raše wa barfala ‘to bribe’ (Hend.) urınč-la:- 109); al-rišwa ‘to bribe’ urı:nčlamak Mel. 39, 3; Rif. 126.

D orna:g (place, seat) Conc. N. fr. orna:-; ‘place, seat’. A rare word which survives only in NC Kır. orno: described by Yud. as the N.Ac. of orna:- and possibly NE Tel. urna ‘insert, insertion’ R I 1667. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. arığ simek orunda sögüt altında [tüne]rig ornağ tutunmıš erür ‘he took for himself a dark (?) scat under a tree in a place in the jungle’ USp. 105, 10-12: Civ. ig ağrığ ornnğ tutkalır ‘diseases (Hend.) promptly occupy the place’ TT I 167-8; xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. chuang ‘bed’ (Giles 2,778) [ornuğ (sic) R I 1064; ornuk Ligeti 188 (the latter could be a Dev. N./A. in -uk (Pass.) from orna:-).

erŋe:k (finger)finger’. Survives only as ergek in most NE languages including Khak. and Tuv., elsewhere displaced by barmak (parmak) which is noted in this meaning in all medieval languages: — Muh., Čağ., Xwar., Kom., Kip., and Osm. Türkü vııı ff. Man. on yılan bašlığ erŋekin ‘with ten snake-headed fingers’ Chuas. 54: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. erŋeki ‘her fingers’ M II 11, 22: Bud. atsız erŋek ‘ring finger’, kičig erŋek ‘little finger’, ortun erŋekmiddle finger’, yanar erŋekindex finger’, uluğ erŋek ‘thumb’ TT V 8, 54-7; 12, 119-20; suk egreki (sic) ‘index finger’ U II 46, 71-2 (eg-); a.o. TM IV 253, 65-e: Civ. uluğ erŋek TT VII 37, 12 (USp. 42, 11): Xak. xı ernek al-isbi' ‘finger’, dialect form of erŋe:k Kaš. I 104; erŋe:k (sic, in chap. containing dissyllables) al-išbi' 1 121 (prov.); o.o. I 248, 5 (oğrul-); III 130 (1 su:k); III 443 (sörple:-): xıv Rbğ. ernekler ucinda ‘at the tips of the fingers’ R I 787; Muh (1) ra'stı'1-išbi' ‘finger-tip’ erŋe:k (spelt in error with qaf) Rif. 141 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ernek angušt ki ba-'arabî 'iberat azt banan bešad ‘finger’, which is one meaning of banan in Ar. San. jyv. 5 (in 121r. 25 angušt is also used to translate barmak).

VU?D ürŋe:k (plaster, gypsum) Hap. leg.; prob. Dev. N. fr. *ürŋe:- Den. V. fr. ürüŋ (white, shining, bright, clear, milk). Xak. xı ürŋe:k \235\ (sic, in chap. containing dissyllables) al-cašš 'plaster, gypsum’ Kaš. I 121.

?D erŋe:n (bachelor) 'bachelor’; possibly contraction of eringe:n ‘one who is habitually lazy’ fr. erin-. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. erŋen; there are several words for ‘bachelor’ in other modern languages, the commonest being boydak. Xak. xı errjein (sic. in chap. containing dissyllables) er al-racxdul- azab ‘a bachclor’ Kaš. I 117 (prov.): xıv Muh. (l) al-'azab (opposite to al-mula' ahhil ew1i:g) erŋen Rif. 153 (only): Kip. xııı al-'azab mina'1-ricel erŋe:n Hou. 25, 4: xv 'ezib erŋen Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 24b. 19: Osm. xıv ff. erŋen ‘unmarried’; c.i.a.p. 7*7’5’ II 390; III 259; IV 303;.xvııı erŋen in Rümi ‘an unmarried man or woman’ San. 3?r. 26; erŋen in Rümi, 'azab, gayr muta'ahhil do. 100r. 5.

Dis. V. ARN-

D arın- (cleanse) Refl. f. of an:-; ‘to cleanse oneself’. S.i.m.m.l.g., with some metaph. meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if those mortals) ol antağ ağır ayığ kılınčlarındın arınmak tileser ‘wish to cleanse themselves from those so grievous evil deeds’ Suv. 141, 2-4: Xak. xı er arındı: istat eba'l-racul wa’ğtasa/a ‘the man wiped his backside and washed himself’; and one says er arındı: nawwara’l-racul wa ista-'ena ay halaqa 'enatahu ‘the man applied depilatory and shaved his pubes’ Kaš. I 201 (armu:r, arınma:k); arığ ‘clean’ is derived fr. arındı: ne:g ‘the thing was clean’ (nazufa) 112, 23: xııı (?) Tef. arın- ‘to cleanse oneself’ 58: Kom. xıv arın- (1) ‘to be clean’ CCG (quotn.); (2) ‘to clear oneself of an accusation’ CCI; Gr. 42: Kip. xıv arın- tatahhara ‘to cleanse oneself’ Id. 10: Osm. xıv ff. arm- ‘to cleanse oneself; to clear oneself of something’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 37; II 52; /// 35; ^37.

?D erin- (? erin-) (lazy, indolent) ‘to be lazy, indolent’; morphologically a Refl. f. but with an inexplicable semantic connection with ermegü: (not manly). S.1.a.m.l.g. as erin-/erin-/irin which suggests an original erin-. See also erinčig (? erincig) (indolent). Türkü vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 255. 266 (ermegür-): Xak. xı er ı:ška: erindi: takesala'l-racul li'l-amr mmtaxvhiša (n) lahu ‘the man was lazy (or dilatory) about the affair because he was uneasy about it’ Kaš. I 201 (erinür, erinmek): KB erinmez kılur barča yalrjuk iši ‘he does all the work of a man without idling’ 2462: Kip. xv takassala erln- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9a. 12: Osm. xıv to xvı erin- ‘to be lazy’ in several texts TTS I 271; II 391; III 259.

D irin- (? erin-) (miserable, unhappy) Refl. f. of 1 i:r- (mope, lonely, bored) (? e:r-); ‘to be miserable, unhappy’. In view of the der. f.s irinč, irintür- (distressed) there is no doubt about the existence of this word, but occurrences are scarce, and there is some possibility of confusion with ydrin-, q.v. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. irinür M 77 12, 3 (i) (kut): Bud. köıjli yirindi (sic) ‘his mind was distressed’ PP 68, 5 (belongs here?).

D urun- (put, strike, oppress, bind, injure, bump, acquire, accumulate) Refl. f. of ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать)); with a wide range of meanings derived from the two basic meanings of ur- ‘to put’, and ‘to strike’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol ö:zin urundi: ‘he beat (daraba) himself in penitence for what he had done’; also used for ‘to pretend to beat’; and one says er suvluk urundi: ta'ammama'l--racul ‘the man put on a turban’ and ura:ğut bürünčük urundi: ixtamarati’l-mar'a ‘the woman put on a veil’ Kaš. I 201 (urunur, urunma:k): KB kišilik üčün at urundi kiši ‘a man has acquired a reputation for humanity’ 1600; xazina urunsa ‘if he builds up (accumulates) a treasure’ 1926; o.o. 135 (sevit), 2184, 2399, 3751, 5893 — urundi ‘he beat himself’ (in mourning) 6292: Čağ. xv ff. urun- (spelt) xwud-re ba-in u en zadan ‘to bump against one thing or another’ San. 67V. 23 (quotn.): Kip. xıv zalama ‘to oppress, injureurundi (but other conjugational forms are translated zulm et-) Bui. 6or.: xv urun- indaraba ‘to beat oneself’ is used as a model conjugation Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 58b. ff.: Osm. xıv ff. urun- ‘to put on (something, esp. a crown)’ is fairly common TTS I 726; 77 930; 777 713; IV 786.

D örün- (erect (penis)) Hap. leg.?; Refl. f. of 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-), Xak. xı er siki: öründi: na'aza'l-racul ‘the man’s penis was erect’ Kaš. I 201 (örünür, örünme:k, sic in MS.).

D orna:- (displace, supplant, settle, enthrone) Den. V. fr. orun; ‘to take one’s place, establish oneself (somewhere Dat. or hoc.)', with some extended meanings. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW only Tkm. Xak. xı men bu: ye:rde: orna:dım ‘I settled down (tawattantu) in this place’; and one says orna:di: ne:ŋ ‘the thing was put (tamakkana) in a place and rested there (settled)’ (istaqarra); and kü:n orna:di: ‘the sun set (settled)' (ğebat) Kaš. I 288 (orna:r, orna:ma:k): KB ajun tmdi ornap bu xakan üze: ‘the world was at rest (settled) when this ruler ascended the throne over it’ 93: xııı (?) Tef. orna- ‘to ascend the throne; to establish oneself’ (enthrone) 237: Čağ. xv ff. orna- (spelt) ce giriftan wa ce kardan ‘to take a place, to find a place’ (settle) San. 7or. 23 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv orna- ‘to be situated, to dwell’ (settle) Qutb 118: Kom. xıv ‘to dwell’ (settle) orna- CCG; Gr.: Osm. xv orna- ‘to establish oneself, settle’ in two texts TTS II 735; W 548.

D ornat- (displace, supplant, settle, enthrone) Caus. f. of orna:- (displace, supplant, settle, enthrone); ‘to put (something Acc.) in (its place Dat.)', with some extended meanings. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı men ne:g ornattım wada'tu'l- šay mawdi'ahu ‘I put the thing in its place’ Kaš. I 266 (orna-turmen, ornatma:k): xııı (?) KBPP wazlr ornırja ornatmıš turur ‘he has put him in the position of vezir’ 33 (v.l. in Vienna MS., other MSS. kodmıš); Tef. ornat- ‘to put’ 238: Čağ. xv ff. ornat- (-tŋ bir nesneyi bir yere ur-, berkišdür- ve sanč- ve mtxla- ‘to put something somewhere, to fasten, transfix and nail it’ Vel. 103; ornat- Caus. f., ce dedan ‘to place’; also metaph muhkam kardan ‘to fasten’ San. 70V. 9 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv omat- ‘to put, place’ Qutb 118, Nahc. 427, 12: Kip. xv tamakkana ditto ornat- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9a. g: Osm. xıv and xv ornat- (1) ‘to lay down \\ (laws)’; (2) ‘to put in place, fasten’; in several texts TTS I 549; III 548.

D ornan- (displace, supplant, settle, enthrone) Refl. f. of orna:- (displace, supplant, settle, enthrone); ‘to place or install oneself; to be placed or installed’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (the monasteries) nom kutx teŋrinig ornanğusı ‘where the divine majesty of the (true) doctrine is established’ M I 27, 31-2; (hitherto) meniŋ köŋülüm neg ornanmaz ‘my mind has not been at all stable’ M II 8, 40-1: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (may the spirits of previous rulers, etc.) teŋri el(l)igimiz ıduk kut üze ornan-maki bolzun ‘rest upon our divine king the Iduk kut’ M III 35, 19-20: Hud. (the new house) iyesine kutadur kutluğun kıvlığın ornanur ‘brings the favour of heaven to its owner and is established auspiciously (Hend.)’ TT VI 100-1; (part of a royal title) uluğ kut ornanmıš Pfahl. 22, 2: Civ. üskügde teŋridem kut buyan utmak y^gedmek kentün ornandı ‘holy divine favour, virtue, victory, and success have established themselves in your presence’ TT I 1-3; etözügde ayağ čilteg ornanğu berdi ‘honor and respect have firmly established themselves on you’ do. 114-15; in the translations of Chinese calendars the term ting ‘to be fixed, settled’ (Giles 11,248) is translated ornanmak TT VII 11, 5: Osm. xıv and xv ornan- ‘to be established, placed’ in two texts TTS III 548; IV 615.

S ürŋer- See ürüŋer- (white).

D ornaš- (displace, supplant, settle, enthrone) Co-op. f. of orna:- (displace, supplant, settle, enthrone); s.i.m.m.l.g. w. a rather wide variety of meanings; rare in the early period. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. eg (so read?) ilki teŋri uruğı nom kutı ornašğusı Maryamka (so read?) yükünser tapmsar ‘if he worships (Hend.) Mary (?) who provided a place (settled) (in her womb) for the first-born of God, the majesty of the (true) doctrine’ M III 49, 9-12 (ii) (translation tentative, the text has madmam marked as uncertain, but Maryam makes good sense): Čağ. xv ff. ornaš- (-ıp) oturuš- ve berkiš- ‘to sit together, to be firmly established’ (settle) Vel. 103; ornaš- be yak dîgar ce kardan ‘to find places together’ (settle) San. 70V. 7 (quotn.)

Tris. ARN

VU?D uruŋu: (flag, standard)flag, standard’. Although it is common in the early period as an element in P.N.s, there is no early occurrence as a N., but see uruŋuluğ. The medieval words below are clearly related, and may even be intended to represent this actual word since in these texts ğayn is occasionally used to represent ŋ. A l.-w. in Mong. as oroŋğa, same meaning (Kow. 449, Haltod 83). In spite of this vocalization this word must surely be a contracted Conc. N. fr. urun- (put, strike, oppress, bind, injure, bump, acquire, accumulate) in the sense of ‘something set up’. Cf. uruŋut (general, army commander). Türkü vııı ff. the Miran MS. (ETY II 64 ff.) is full of P.N.s in which uruŋu: occurs 13 times (a) at the beginning of a name, e.g. g. uruŋu: todu:n (title) čigši: (title) A.3; (b) at the end e.g. külu:g uruŋu: A.7; (c) in the middle, e.g. Küre:bi:r (tribal name) uruŋu: sagu:n (title) Br.9; from the contexts it is clearly neither a title nor a tribal name: O. Kır. ıx ff. (inscription starts) alp uruŋu totok ben 'I am Alp Uruqu: Totok (title)’ Mal. 16, 1 ; körtle: xan alp uruŋu: P.M. do. io, 5; uruŋu: külüg tok bögö: terkege: (i.e. terken-ke:? (indefiniteness, being, while, while being)) P.N. do. 10, 6 (neither reading certain, this text is in disordeŋ: (Xak.) xıv Muh. bayreq wa'I-'alam ‘flag, standard’ u:rğu: Mel. 51, 5; Rif. 146 (bayrdq wa ra'su'l-'alam): Kip. xıv urğa: (sic) al-bayrnq Id. 11.

D irinčü: (sin, fault) ‘sin, fault’. Morphology uncertain, at first sight bears the same relation to irinč as ögrünču: to ögrünč, but those two words are synonymous and these are not. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. anığ kılınčka İrinčüke ‘by evil deeds and sins’ Chuas. 298: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. irinčü kıllğmalar ‘committing sins’ MII 11,8; irinčü kılmıš kılınčı do. 12, n-12: Bud. irinčüde boš bolalım ‘may we be freed from our sins’ TT IV 8, 52 and 66; tsuyda irinčüde boš bolalım ditto do. 6, 32, and 41; tsuy irinčü do. 4, 9, etc.; Suv. 139, 10 and 13 etc.: Xak. xı irinčü: (sic in MS.) al-itm ‘sin’ Kaš. I 134.

D orunčı: (reigning, regnant, throne-holder) N.Ag. fr. orun ((high) place, throne, in place of, country, province). Survives in NK Soy. (i.e. Tuv.), Tel. ‘heir, youngest son’ R I 1054-6; Khak. ‘substitute, locum tenens' lias. 131 and NC Kır. ‘bedding’. The entry in San. is inexplicable, there is no such word in Mong., Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. orunčtlar court officials of some kind, ?‘attendants on the throne’ Pfahl. 23, 24 (see ičre:ki:): Čağ. xv ff. orunci (spelt) in Monğ?*gade wa se'il ‘a beggar’ (Hend.) San. 71 v. 22.

D urunčak (deposit, security, pledge) Conc. N. fr. urun- (put, strike, oppress, bind, injure, bump, acquire, accumulate); ‘deposit, security, pledge’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. urunčax ‘sudden illness’ (sic!) and SW xx Anat. urunčak ‘security’ SDD 1421. Türkü vııı ff. Man. neče evnig (? so read) kiši urunčakm yedimiz erser ‘if we have misappropriated a houscholder’s (?) deposit’ Chuas. 112-14: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tolp etö-zümin saga urunčak tutuzurmen ‘I entrust my whole body as a security to you’ U III 83, 7-9; a.o. Tiš. 22b. e: Xak. xı urunčak al-wadi'a wa'!-amena ‘deposit, pledge’; may also be pronounced urunča:k Kaš. I 148 (verse): KB urunčak turur bu sevük cSn rawan, urunčak yana bir kötürmez bu can ‘this dear, lively soul is a pledge, but a pledge does not bring back the soul’ 3781 (not in Fergana MS.,? spurious): xıv Mtth. (l) al-eriya rca'l-amena ‘loan, pledge’ u:runča:k Rif. 188 (only).

D erinčig (? erincig) (indolent) N./A.S. fr. erin-; ‘indolent’ and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. some phonetic changes. Xak. xı KB erinčiğ kıšığ sürdi yazkı esin ‘the spring breeze has swept away the lazy winter’ 65; kamuğ eski negler Erinčig bolur Erinčig yüki kör y^rinčig bolur ‘all old things become lazy, the lazy man’s burden becomes displeasing’ \237\ 687; a.o. 3938 (consistently spelt erinčig in KB)\ Kom. xıv 'idle, idleness’ erinček CCG; Gr.: Tkm. xv kasları ‘lazy’ (Kip. yalkaw) Erinček Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 30b. e: Osm. xvı erincek ‘lazy’, once TTS II 391.

D uruŋut (general, army commander) a word used in Bud. texts to represent Sanskrit words like senepati 'army commander, general’, and the like. Radlov in a note on Tiš. 20b. 4 indirectly, but plausibly, suggests that it is a crasis of *urunğut Dev. N. fr. urun- (put, strike, oppress, bind, injure, bump, acquire, accumulate), Uyğ. vıı ff. Bud. Tiš. 20b. 4; 26b. 5; 33a. 3; 36a. 8, and 37a. 6 list the names of tört (or törtegü) uluğ yekler uruŋutiari 'four great generals of demons (yakšas)’ and do. 35b. 1 those of four generals of gods (teŋri); (PU.) Kančanačavı uruŋut Suv. 425, 7; o.o. do. 10; U IV 18, 220.

D urundi: (conflict) Dev. N. fr. urun- (put, strike, oppress, bind, injure, bump, acquire, accumulate); ‘conflict’. Survives in NC Kır. urundu: and perhaps urunt. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. örletišmek öčlüg urundi ‘mutual disturbance and spiteful conflict’ Hüen-ts. 2095.

C eren tü:z a star name, to be explained as a compound of eren ‘men’ and tüz ‘alike’; almost certainly ‘Gemini, the Twins’, which fits the occurrences in KB; Kaš.’s translations are certainly wrong, see Clauson, op. cit,, s.v. Ülker. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı eren tü:z (in a Chap. containing dissyllables, so to be taken as two words) ismu'1-mîzetı fi'1-nucüm wa hlya min manazilVl-qamar ‘the word for the constellation Libra, the Scales’; it is one of the mansions of the moon Kaš. I 76; a.o. III 40 (yulduz): KB in the list of signs of the Zodiac in 138 ff. erendiz, glossed cawza ‘Gemini’ in the Vienna MS., conies in the third place, i.e. for ‘Gemini’; o.o. spelt erentiz 5676, 6221: xıv Rbğ. the word reappears, spelt erendend in the passage (fol. 6ev. of the British Museum MS.) taken from KB, see Clauson, op. cit., p. 357.

D ornağlığ (stable, established) P.N./A. fr. orna:ğ; ‘stable, firmly established’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit esthilam ‘standing firm’ orna:ğlığ TT VIII A. 18; köŋüli billgl kılıkı ti ornağlığ ermeser ‘if his mind, knowledge, and character are not continuously stable’ Suv. 594, 3-4; a.o. do. 594, 13: Civ. TT I 129-30 (3 al); 189 (idiš).

D ornağsız (unstable) Priv. N./A. fr. orna:ğ; n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. ornağsız ikirčgü köŋül ‘an unstable, indecisive mind’ M III 21, 3 (iii).

D erinüğsüz (? erinügsüz) (active) Priv. N./A. fr. *erlnüg N.Ac. fr. erin-; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tünle küntüz erinüğsüz ‘active by day and night’ Hüen-ts. 1939.

D aranlığ (stable (horses)) P.N./A. fr. aran. Survives only (?) in NE Bar. arannı; Tob. aranlı R I 252. Xak. xı aranlığ ev ‘a house with a stable’ (ištabl) Kaš. I148.

D orunlığ P.N./A. fr. orun. There is only one early occurrence, spelt ornılığ, but the \\\ word s.i.s.m.l. with minor phonetic variations Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VIII D.17 (1 61).

D orunluk (throne, seat) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. orun; ‘throne, seat’, and the like. S.i.s.m.l. with minor phonetic variations. See Doerfer II 591. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. yüksek ediz orunluktin ‘from (his) lofty (Hend.) throne’ PP 61,5; a.o. do. 46, 2 (olğurt-): (Čağ. xv ff. orunduk zin pûš ‘saddle cloth’, in Ar. ğašiya also pronounced aranduk San. 71 v. 23; aranduk same translation do. 37V. 5 seems rather to be a Conc. N. fr. aran meaning ‘something used in the stable’).

D uruŋuluğ P.N./A. fr. uruŋu:; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in a list of stars which are also demons) sarığ uruıguluğ ‘having a yellow flag’ TT VI 93.

Tris. V. ARN-

D irinčke:- (? erinčke:-) (compassionate) Den. V. fr. irinč; ‘to realize the misery of (someone Acc.), to have compassion on (him)’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A irinčkemek (? so read; text irinčlemek but the MS. is difficult to read) yarlikamak ‘to have compassion and mercy’ M III 31, 9 (iii): Man. soyurkayu irinčkeyü yarlıkatıgız ‘you have deigned to pardon and have compassion on (us sinners)’ TT III 113: Bud. meni irinčkeyü U II 88, 71; o.o. TT IV 12, 35; Suv. 587, 21: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. lien min ‘having compassion’ (Giles 7,156 7,930) irınčkep; ts'eyin ‘compassionate’ (Giles 11,697 13,276) irinčkenčüči (sic?) U I si (only).

D irintür- (? erintür-) (hurt, unhappy) Caus. f. of irin- (miserable, unhappy); ‘to make (someone) unhappy’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT II 16, 40-5 (emget-): Bud. UII78, 34 (emget-); TT IV 11, 17O); Suv. 136, 11 (E burčıntur-).

D ürüŋer- (white) Intrans. Den. V. fr. ürüŋ (white, shining, bright, clear, milk); ‘to be white’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. sačı bašı yürüŋerser ‘if his hair and head are white’ Suv. 594, 8-9: Xak. xı ürŋerdi: ne:g abyadda'l-šay' ‘the thing was white’ Kaš. I289 (ürŋerür, ürŋerme:k; sic in a chapter containing dissyllabic verbs): xııı (?) Tef. ürüŋer-‘to become white’ 250 (örüŋer-).

Dis. ARS

?S ersü: (vile, ignoble)vile’ and the like; perhaps Sec. f. of erseg. N.o.a.b. Oğuz xı ersü: al-radl min kull šay’ ‘vile, ignoble’, of anything Kaš. 7 127: Kip. xıv erši: (? read ersi:) al-muhnit ‘one who incites perjury’ Id. 12 (but cf. erseg).

D erseg (nymphomaniac, adulteress, prostitute, effeminate, homosexual) N./A.S. fr. erse:- Desid. Den. V. fr. 1 er (ar, ir) (man, human male, fighting man; husband; -en pl. suffix) (Herr, -er) which s.i.s.m.l.; ‘a woman who runs after men, nymphomaniac’. A l.-w. in Mong. as ereseg (Haltod 55). S.i.a.m.l.g. except SC (?), usually as ersek; in SW only in xx Anat. ersek/erzük SDD 547, 548. Xak. xı erseg i:šle:r al-mar'atu'1-mûmisatu'l-beğtya ‘an amorous prostitute’ Kaš. I 104; bu: ura:ğut ol erse:g ‘this woman desires men’ \238\  (mutamannîya li'l-ricel) II 56, 3: xıv AIuh. (?) al-'ahir ‘prostituteerseg Rif. 149 (only): Kom. xıv ersekprostitute’ CCI; ‘adulteress’ CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv al-zeniya ‘adulteresserslig (sic?) Bui. 9, 7: Tkm. erseg also orospi: al-qahba ‘prostitute’; the latter a l.-w (manqtila) Id. 11: xv Kip. ‘effeminate, homosexual’ eresig Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14a. 3; muxannat ditto (PU to:k and) erseg do. 33b. 3 (this, and not muhnit, may the right reading in Id. 12 s.v. ersü:).

D ersig (manly, virile) N./A.S. fr. *ersi:- Simulative Den. V. fr. 1 er; ‘manly, virile’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı (under -sı:ğ ‘a particle of comparison (harf tašbih) attached to nouns to form Adjs., in order to compare the noun qualified by it to the noun to which it is attached’)... and one says bu oğul ol ersig hede šabt ytıšbihtı'l--ricel tea yataxalluq bi-xuluqihim ‘this boy is like men and behaves like them’ Kaš. III 128, 24: KB kür ersig yüreklig ‘brave, manly and courageous’ 57; ay ersig toga ‘oh manly hero!’ 196, 1360, etc.; o.o. 279, 2281, 2371, 2458 (ünlüg), 3832 (1 uri:), etc.: xııı (?) At. ersig toga 34.

D arsal (or arsil (?)) (auburn, bay) Den. N./A. fr. a:r; ‘auburn, bay’. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı arsal («V) sač al-ša'ru'1-ašhab ‘auburn hair’ Kaš. I 105; a.o. I 79 (a:r, spelt arsil).

F ersel (easy-going, leisurely) (for vocalization cf. ersellik) almost certainly a l.-w. with prosthetic e- (cf. erej (happiness, bliss)) fr. Ar. rasleasy-going, ‘leisurely’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB bu ersel yayığ kılkı kurtğa ajun ‘this easy-going old world with its fickle character’ 399; ayur kılkım ersel inanma maga ‘it says “my character is lethargic, do not trust me” ’ 666; o.o. 548, 685, 1088, 3533, etc.: xıv Mtth. (?) al-malxtl ‘tired, languid’ e:rsül (sic?) Rif. 148 (only).

arsla:n (lion)lion’; animal name w. ending -la:n. An early l.-w. in Mong. as arslanfarsalan. S.i.a.m.l.g., sometimes as aslan or a trisyllable anslan, etc.; frequently occurs as an element in P.N.s. See Doerfer II 453. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A arslan oğlu ‘lion-cub’ MIS; 5; o.o. do. 18, 3; M III 11, 8 (öpün-): Bud. yalguklarmg arslani ‘oh lion among men!’ U I 43, 19; o.o. Suv. 646, 3; USp. 102a. 28: Xak. xı arsla:n al-asad ‘lion’, and kings are called by this name Kaš. III 412 (prov.); 175, 18 and 409, 9 (alımčı:) and 14 o.o.: KB arslan ‘the constellation Leo’ 140; til arslan turur ‘the tongue is (like) a lion’ 164; o.o. 784, 2047-8, 2354: xııı (?) At. (the monarch is kindly) wa likin bušarda Šare arslam ‘but when he is angry he is like a lion of Šare’ (place-name, location uncertain) 52; Tef. arslan ’lion’ 59: xıv Muh. al-sab' ‘lion’ arslam Mel. 72, 4; Rif. 174; al-asad (a sign of the zodiac) ditto 79, 4; 183: Čağ. xv ff. arsalan (so spelt) šir ‘lion’, in Ar. asad; also one of the signs of the zodiac; also abbreviated to aslan San. 37r. 6; aslan šir ya'nt asad, also arsalan do. 40V. 11: Xwar. xıv arslan/ arislan Qutb 11, 12; arslam MN 64, etc. \\\ Kom. xıv ‘lion’ arslan/astian (sic) CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-asad asla:n (sic) Hou. n, 12; (in the list of P.N.s) arslain racul asad ‘a lion man’ do. 30, 4: xıv arsala:n (sic) al-sabu td. 11; al-sab' arsla:n Bui. 10, 5: xv al-asad arsala:n Kav. 62, 5; arslan Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 4b. 6 a.o.o.

Dis. V. ARS-

?E ersi:- (revolted, averted) the verb yarsr.- q.v. is thus misread in Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT VIII I.S; it is prob. that the same mistake has been made in the following passage in a damaged MS., where *ersi:- the base of ersig would not give an appropriate meaning. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (when the day of death comes, it weakens all men and kills them mercilessly; it is not afraid of kings; it does not [. . .] commoners) avıčga kurtğaka ersimez ‘it is not revolted by (yarsimaz) old man or women’ M III 11, 15 (i).

D ursa:- (beat) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать). Xak. xı ol am: ursa:di: ‘he intended and wished to beat him (yadribahu)' Kaš. I 276 (ursa:r, ursa:ma:k).

D arsik- (deceived, tricked) Emphatic Pass. f. of 2 a:r- (deceive, trick); ‘to be deceived, tricked’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı er arsıktı: ğurra'1-racul wa hmva mağrur ‘the man was deceived’ Kaš. I 242 (arsika:r, arsikma:k): KB (if a man is satisfied, he does not covet anything) kiši neg bile bulsa arsikmaz ol ‘ (such) a man, even if he finds something, is not deceived by ir 2722; o.o. 2363, 2726, 3618: xııı (?) Tef. arsik- ‘to be deceived (by something Dat.)' 59: xıv Muh. al-mağrur arsıkmıš Mel. 52, n; Rif. 148; al-iğtirer 'to be deceived’ arstkmak 123 (only): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 11.

D ursuk- (struck, beaten) Emphatic Pass. f. of ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать); ‘to be struck, beaten’, etc. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Suv. 621, 8-9 and 623, 17 (1 ok (arrow)): Xak. xı er ursuktı: ğuliba'l- racul fi'l-darb wa šera madrüb ‘the man was defeated in a fight and was beaten’ Kaš. I 242 (ursuka:r, ursukma:k): KB urayın t^güči özi ursukar ‘the man who says “I will beat” is himself beaten’ 679.

D ersin- (virility) Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. 1 er; survives only (?) in NC Kır. and SW XX Anat. SDD 547. Xak. xı oğul ersindi: abde’l-šabt min nafsihi ructlliya ‘the boy was aware of his own virility for the first time’ Kaš. I 253 (ersinür, ersinme:k).

Tris. ARS

?D arsalik in this form Hap. leg., but survives in SW Osm. as aslık 'woman with imperfect sexual organs, sterile’. Prima facie a Conc. N. in -lik but with no obvious etymology. Oğuz xı arsalik (of the form af'alal) al-xunta mina'l-hayawan ‘a hermaphrodite animal’’ Kaš. I 159:' Osm. xvı aslık ‘a sterile woman’ TTS II 59.

DF ersellik (laziness, lethargy) A.N. fr. ersel; ‘laziness, lethargy’. Pec. to KB. Xak. xı KB mün \\ ermez maga kör bu ersellikJm ‘this lethargy of mine is not my fault’ 686; a.o. 715 (yayığlık).

Tris. V. ARS-

D erseglen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. erseg (nymphomaniac, adulteress, prostitute, effeminate, homosexual). Xak. xı išle:r erseglendi: ‘the woman looked for (falabat) a man because of her passionate desires’ Kaš. I 314 (erseglenür, crseglenme:k).

D arslanla:- (roar, рычать) Den. V. fr. arsla:n (lion); pec. to Kaš. and found only in the Ger. in -u:, prob. only in association with kökre:- (g-) (shout, thunder, noise, roar, bellow). Xak. xı arslanlayu: kökredim ‘I roared like a lion’ Kaš. I 125, 13; similar phr. I 142, 13; II 13, 13; 138, 1; n.m.e.

Dis. ARŠ

VU?D arıš (warp) ‘the warp’ of a woven fabric; prima facie this word, arka:ğ, q.v., and arğač are all Dev. N.s fr. a lost verb *ar-, but some doubt is cast on this by the fact that it seems often to contain front vowels. Survives in NE Tel. örüš R I 1226; NC Kır. eriš; SW Osm. arıš; xx Anat. eriš SDD 545. It should not be confused with arıš ‘the pole, or shafts of a cart’ first noted in SC xvıı özb. Abu'l--ğezt (P. de C. 13) and surviving in several NC, NW, and SW languages, which is a l.-w. fr. Ar. 'artš, same meaning. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. erüši (sic) TT VI 391 (arkuru:): Xak. xı (VU) arıš al-sade ‘the warp’; hence one says arıš arka:ğ al-sade tva l-luhma ‘warp and weft’ Kaš. I 61: xıv Muh. (?) al-taqa ‘warp’ (opposite to al-luhma arkuğ) e:ri:š Rif. 159 (only): Čağ. xv ff. (VU) arıš ter-i kargeh-i nassecî ‘the warp on a loom' San. 37V. 13 erlš ditto do. loor. 24: Osm. xıv ff. arıš ‘warp’, often in association with arğač, c.i.a.p. TTS 138; II S3; III 36; IV38.

?D erüš (many, numerous) ‘many, numerous’; often used in association with üküš. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. artuk erüš erür ‘they are very numerous’ TT II 8, 61: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (gap) tolu erüš üküš törlüg (gap) 'very many (Hend.) kinds’ MI25,11: Bud. ol edgü kılınč erüš mü ‘are those good deeds numerous?’ U II 16, 14 (the answer is ‘yes’, ertigü üküš); o.o. of erüš Kuan. 57, 68; erüš üküš Suv. 109, 4: Xak. xı KB (VU) ürüš rhyming with üküš and apparently meaning ‘numerous’ in 4247 (tebiz) seems to be a survival of this word.

D uruš (fight, quarrel, strike) N.Ac. (connoting reciprocal action) fr. ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать); ‘fight, quarrel’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı uruš kı[lıp] ‘fighting’ Ongin 10: Xak. xı uruš al-mušecara wa’l-harb ayda (n) ‘a quarrel, also a fight’ Kaš. I 61; al-mucedala wa’l-harb ‘battle, fightu:ruš tokuš / 12, 17; a.o. II 83, 23: KB kılkı uruš ‘his character is quarrelsome’ 2098; (in 4247 read ürüš, see erüš): xııı (?) Tef. urušbattle, war’ 332:xiv Rbğ. uruš kıl- ‘to fight’ R I 1664 (quotns.): Čağ. xv ff. uruš cang ‘fight, war’ Vel. 102 (quotn.); uruš (spelt) deverbal noun \\ fr. urušmak ba-yah dfgar zadan ‘to strike one another’; and metaph. cang u cadel ‘fight, quarrel’ San. 71 v. 7 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) uruš tokuš bašlandı ‘the battle (Hend.) began’ Oğ. 26e: xıv uruš ditto Qutb 200: ‘ Kip. xv darabtu darb 'I struck a blowuruš urdum Kav. 23, 3: šeyib ‘hitting the target’ uruš Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22b. 5; o.o. do. 49b. 11; 50a. 1 and 2: Osm. xıv ff. uruš 'battle, fight’ in several texts TTS I 726; 11 931; III 713.

D örüš (rising) Dev. N./A. fr. 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-); ‘rising’. Perhaps survives in örüš ‘pasture’ in NC Kır., Kzx.; SW xx Anat. DD 1118 (compare some meanings of 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-)). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (good doctrine) örüš tüblüg erür ‘provide a basis for rising (to better things)’ TT V 24, 68; a.o. do. 78 (and see ünüš).

?E erši: See ersü:.

Dis. V. ARŠ-

D a:nš- (deceive, trick) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of 2 a:r- (deceive, trick). Xak. xı ola:r ikki: a:rıšdi: ‘both of them deceived each other’ Kaš. I 182 (a:rıšu:r, a:rıšma:k).

D 1 eriš- Co-op. f. of 2 er- (reach, arrive; meet); properly ‘to reach, or arrive, together’. S.i.a.m.l.g. but with such a wide range of meanings that it is doubtful whether all are survivals of this word; they cannot, however, reasonably be connected with 2 eriš- (erüš-). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. [gapjmakığ erišmekig sergürtügüz ‘you have hindered (or prevented)..., and arrival’ TT III 77: Čağ. xv ff. eriš- (spelt) birûy (?) kardan wa az qafe raftan wa muteba'at kardan ‘to follow, follow behind’ San. 98V. 3 (quotns.): Kip. xv lahiqa ‘to reach’ (yetiš- and) eriš- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 32a. 9: Osm. xıv ff. eriš-/erlš-‘to reach’, also, with ile, ‘to consort with’, in several texts TTS I 39 (ariš-), 272; II 391, 501 (inj-).

S 2 eriš- See erüš-.

D erüš- (melt, свернуть, расплавить) Co-op. f. of erü:- (melt); usually in the sense of ‘to melt (Intrans.) completely’. Survives only (?) in SE Türki iriš- Shaw 33 and perhaps SW Osm. eriš- (of milk) ‘to curdle’ R I 772 (only). Xak. xı ya:ğ erüšdi: ‘the fat (etc.) melted’ (tadöba) Kaš. I 182 (erüšü:r, erüšme:k; sic in MS.); ka:r bu:z kamuğ erüšdi: ‘all the snow and ice have melted’ (deba) 1186, 10.

D uruš- Recip. f. of ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать) ‘to strike one another, fight, quarrel’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some extended meanings. Xak. xı amg birle: urušdı: tašecare ‘the two men quarrelled’ (sic)\ also used when two rulers make war on one another (taheraba) Kaš. I 182 (urušu:r, urušma:k); four o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. uruš- ‘to fight (with someone birle)’ 332: xıv Muh (?) deraba ‘to strike one another’ u:ruš- Rif. 133 (only): Čağ. xv ff. uruš- Recip. f.; ‘to strike (zadan) one another’; and an expression for cang u cidal kardan ‘to fight, quarrel’ San. 68r. 11 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv uruš- ‘to fight’ Qutb 200: Kom. xrv ‘to quarrel’ uruš- CCG; 240 \240\ Gr.: Kip. xv taderaba uruš- Kav. 70, 4; qdlala tea dnraba uruš- do. 78, 11 ; šeba 'to hit (a target)’ uruš- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22b. 13; deraba uruš-do. 59a. 13 ff.; Osm. xıv ff. uruš- 'to fight’ in several texts TTS I 726; II 931; 111 714; IV 787.

D 1 örüš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of 1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-); ‘to rise together’. Xak. xı Kaš. I 186, I2 (egriš-); n.m.e.

D 2 örüš- Co-op. f. of .i.m.m.l.; ‘to help (someone Dat.) to plait (etc., something Acc.)'. Survives in NE Khak. and SE Türki Shaw 21 (only). Xak. xı ol maga: yıšığ örüšdı: 'he helped me to plait (fi tawdin) a rope’; also used for competing in weaving (al-raml) something Kaš. I 183 (örüšü:r, örüšme:k).

D ürüš- Co-op. f. of 1 ür- (blow (gas)); 'to help (someone Dat.) to blow, or blow up (something Acc.)’. Survives only (?) in NE Tel. R I 1835. Xak. xı ol maga: o:t ürüšdi: ‘he helped me to blow up ('a/e nafx) the fire’; also used for competing Kaš. I 183 (ürüšü:r, ürüšme:k).

Mon. AS

a:s (ermine, slave-girls, weasel, As tribe) properly ‘ermine’, occasionally used for ‘weasel’. The combination of long vowel and final unvoiced consonant is unusual, but apparently original. Both Kaš.’s alternative form a:z and medieval and modern ars are clearly Sec. f.’s, the latter perhaps influenced by Arabic 'irs. Survives in NE as/a:s most dialects R I 535 and Khak., Tuv.; NC Kır. ars; NW Kaz. as; SW Osm. as; xx Anat. as/ars SDD 116, 118. See Doerfer II 477. Uyğ. xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. yin shu (Giles ’3.253 10,072, the latter misprinted as chü 3,034) ‘ermine’ as Ligeti 131; R I 535: Xak. xı a:s al-qaqum ‘ermine’; alternative form a:z; used as a name for slave-girls (al-cawarŋ: a:z al-qaqum, alternative form a:s, and the latter is more correct (afšah) Kaš. I 80: KB 84 (ürüŋ) 866 (2 kı:z): xıv Mtih. (?) al-qaqum as (mis-spelt ) Rif. 174 (only); Čağ. xv ff. as kekum ‘the well-known animal with a white coat and a black tip to its tail, of which they make garments’ San. 4 or. 20 (and see Osm.): Xwar. xıv as ‘ermine’ Qutb 11: Kip. xıv al-'irs ‘weasel’ as Bui. 10, 10: xv qaqum as Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 29a. 7: Osm. xvı as ‘ermine’ (?) TTS II 58: xvııı as... and in Rûmî the animal called rast 1 'weasel’ San. 4or. 22.

In both instances, reference to Arab is superfluous, ermine pelts were used by the forest tribes for clothing long before Arabs were acculturated to furs, hence the use of native word by the Arabs; ditto with the slave-girls, who apparently were taken during Kimak times (7th-11th cc.) from a small splinter of the As tribes on the fringes of the S. Siberia for sale to the Arab slave merchants. The case of the proper name Slav for generic slave, proper name Serb for Latin generic servire and English generic serf.

The As tribe, a dynastic tribe in the As-Tokhar confederation, the Yezhi of the Chinese primary chronicle, did not find a place in the EDT, it is referred to incidentally, citing that the name of the Az tribe occurs only in Türkü, and has not always been recognized. The name appears in passages in Kül Tegin inscription (I E 20, I E 38; I N 2, 3, I N 5, 8), Bilge Kagan inscription (II E 17), T 23, 24; in Kül Tegin inscription (I N 5, 8) the name of Kül Tegin's horse is Az yağızı: “bay horse from Azes” (p. 277). Ases, separately or as As-Tokhar confederation, are known from many other sources, starting with Strabo, and they were a necessary link in concocting the Scytho-Iranian Theory that is based on the Ossete-As equivalence.

es (carrion, carcas)carrion’ and the like; pec. to Xak. Xak. xil es casarul-siba ‘the prey of wild beasts' Kaš. I 36; tava:r körüp uslayu: (so read, MS. usn layu: in error) eske: čoka:r ‘when they see wealth they swoop down on it as a vulture swoops when it sees its prev’ (inqaddii ’alayhi kame yanqaddul-nasr ide ra’e’l-cazar) II 17, 17; us es körüp III 46, 7.

1 us (uš) (intelligence, sense)intelligence, the power of discrimination’, and the like. A purely Western word to be distinguished carefully from u:z (craftsman, skilled, expert, perfect, sound, completely) (ace). Survives only (?) in NW Kar. L., T. R I 1741; Kow. 275 and SW Az., Ostn. Oğuz xı us al-tamyiz \\\ bayna'l-xayr ıca'1-šarr ‘discrimination between good and evil’; hence one says ol us boldı: 'aqala’l-xayr mina'1-šarr ‘he understood (the difference between) good and evil’ Kaš. I 3e: Xwar. xııı (?) (when he saw heŋ usı kalmadı klttl ‘he lost his senses’ Oğ. 63; a.o. 81 : xıv us ‘intelligence, sense’ Qutb 200: Kom. xıv ‘understanding, intelligenceus CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-'aql ‘intelligence, understanding Hou. iq, e: xıv (v.l. u:š) ditto Id. 14; Bul. 5, 16: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 24b. 5; ğušiya 'alayhi ‘not to understand, to be at a loss’ usi az- do. 27a. 11: Osm. xıv ff. usintelligence, sense’; c.i.a.p TTS 1727; II931; III 714; IV 787: xvııı hüš ditto... and in Rûmî us San. jsr. 9.

VU 2 us (vulture)vulture’; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı us al-nasr ‘vulture’ Kaš. I 36 (verse); o.o. I 228, 14; III 46, 7 (es): xıv Muh. (l) (under ‘birds’) ekilu'1-mayta ‘carrion eater’ us (unvocalized, spelt ) Rif. 175 (only).

u:z (craftsman, skilled, expert, perfect, sound, completely) (ace)

Mon. V. AS-

as- (? a:s-) (hang, suspend) ‘to hang, suspend (something Acc., on something, in Uyğ. üze:, later Dat.); to execute by hanging’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some extended meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kač keglig y^miš sögüt üze birer čıgartğu asıghang bells on several spreading fruit trees’ PP 79, 4-6; a.o^ USp. 104, 13: Civ. USp. 88, 45 (üzüm): hiak. xı ol et a:sdi: ‘he hung (’allaqa) the meat (etc.) on a stake’ (1al-ivatad); also used for ‘crucifying’ (salaha) a man Kaš. I 173 (a:sa:r, a:sma:k): xııı (?) Tef. as- ‘to hang’ (in both senses) 60: xıv Muh. 'allaqaastur- Caus. f. of as- (hang, suspend); ‘to order to suspend, or to execute’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol er asturdi: ‘he ordered the crucifixion Mel. 29, 6; 40, 15; Rif. 113, 130; al-taliq ašmak 34, 9; 119; šalaba aš-34, 9; iii; al-mašlüb asmıš (v.l. asılmıš) 50, 14; 14e: Rbğ. ditto R I 533: Čağ. xv ff.astur- Caus. f. of as- (hang, suspend); ‘to order to suspend, or to execute’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol er asturdi: ‘he ordered the crucifixion (-tı) aš- aiutxtan tna'nesina ‘to hang’ Vel. 19 (quotns.); as- awixtan San. 39r. 17 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı aš- ‘to hang up’ 'Ali 34:xiv ditto Nahc. 126, 2: Kom. xııı ‘to hang’ as- CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı šanaqa'to execute by hangingaš-, also 'allaqa Hou. 34, 15; 'allaqa, aš- do. 42, 11: xıv aš- 'allaqa bi'1-tadlîya wa ra’suhu asfal ‘to hang (someone) head downwards’ Id. 15; a.o. do. 98 (2 y<S:m): xv 'allaqa nš- Kav. 10, 9; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26a. 7; šanaqa tva 'allaqa aš- do. 21b. 6.

1 es- (blow (wind), winnow) (1) Intrans. (of the wind) ‘to blow’, usually with ‘gently’ implied; (2) Trans, ‘to blow (e.g. dust) about; to winnow (grain)’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı esin esdi: nasama'l-nasmi ‘the breeze blew gently’; and one says tarığ esdi: ‘he winnowed (nasafa) the wheat’ (etc.); also used of the wind when it blows the dust about (nasafati'1-tureb); both Trans, and Intrans. Kaš. I 165 (110 Aor. or Infin.): KB 63 (ögdün): xııı (?) Tef. es- ‘to blow’ (Intrans.) el(mis-spelt as- (hang, suspend)), 84: Čağ. xv ff. es- (- ti, etc.)yel esdi, etc. Vel.58 (quotn.); es- wazidati-i nasîm ‘of a breeze, to blow’ San. toir. 7: Xwar. xıv es- ‘to blow’ (Intrans.) Qutb 52; MN 343: Kip. xııı habba ‘to blow’ (of a wind or breeze) es- Hou. 44, 8 \241\ (mis-vocalized esi-): xıv es- habbal-rth Id. 13; sukünu’l-haıve ‘still air’ esmes Ihd. 3, 4; a.o. do. 3, 1 (1 ye:l (wind, demonic howl)): xv hnbba es- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 38a. 3: Osm. xıv ff. es- ‘to blow’ (Intrans.) in several’ texts TTS I 276; III 266.

2 es- (stretch) ‘to stretch’ esp. a rope, cord, and the like. Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. At some unknown date a verb eš- ‘to twist, twist together, tie’ appeared, and some later user of the MS. of Kaš. became so confused between the two that he altered the S which precedes this verb, 1 es- (blow (wind), winnow) and 1 us- (thirsty) , 2 us- (think, suppose) to Š and also this verb to eš- and esil-, esiš- to ešil-, ešiš-. The two verbs are, however, clearly different, since Pal. 577 distinguishes between es-, Infin. ezer, ‘to pull (meat off a bone, a pot off the fire)’ and eš-, Infin. ejer ‘to twist’. The earliest references to (4) eš- ‘to twist’, which s.i.a.m.l.g., are Xwar. xıv Qutb 61; Kom. xıv CCG; Gr.; and Čağ. xv ff. Vel. 60; San. 104V. 26. Xak. xı ol yıšığ esdi: madda'l--habl ‘he stretched the rope’ (etc.) Kaš. I 165 (ese:r, esme:k).

os- (cut, hew, carve, scrape, wound) the early existence of this verb, which is practically syn. w. üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge) depends on the question whether osul- and osğuč, q.v., have been correctly read in TM IV 253. It survives only (?) in NC Kzx. os- ‘to cut, carve; to wound, scratch deeply’; the other references to it are as follows. Čağ. xv ff. os- (spelt) güšt az ustuxzvan pak kardan ‘to scrape meat off a bone’; it cannot be used in isolation, the word ‘bone’ must be mentioned San. 74 V. 23: Kip. xv nahata ‘to cut, hew’ (yon-; in the margin in another hand) os- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 37a. 10.

VU 1 us- (thirsty) ‘to be thirsty’. Survives perhaps in SE Türki usa-/ussa- Shaw; Jarring; ussu-BŠ, unless these are Sec. f.s of suvsa:-as ÜS-/ÜSİİ- are of süs- (butt, abut, thrust). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (because no news came from you) ülgülenčsiz üküš usmakımız suvsamakımız turdı ‘immeasurably great thirst (I lend. i.e. for news) arose in us’. Ilüen-ts. 2040-1: Xak. xı er usdi: ‘the man was thirsty’ Čatiša) Kaš. I 166 (usa:r, usma:k).

2 us- (think, suppose) 'to think, suppose’. Homophonous with 1 us (uš) (intelligence, sense) and perhaps connected semantically. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat, SDD 1421. Oğuz xı men ayla: usdum kade zanantu ‘I thought thus’ Kaš. I 166 (usa:r,'usma:k): (Xak.) xıv Muh. (?) qašada ‘to intend’ us- Rtf. 114; al-qasd usmak (unvocalized) 120: Osm. xrv us- ‘to think, consider’ in two texts TTS I729; II 933.

F ös- (grow) ‘to grow’ a common Mong. verb (Haenisch 128, Kozv. 514) which s.i.a.m.l.g. as a Mong. l.-w., and is earlier noted as below. In the only two passages in which it has been read in Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. it is clearly an error, in U II 10, 24 for 1 ür- (blow (gas)), q.v., and in Suv. 566, 3 where the correct reading is üzgen yağmur tökülür ‘the destructive rain, pours down’; a similar phr. is correctly transcribed in U I 26, , 15 (Suv. 517, 4). The only reason for doubting that this is a Mong. l.-w. arises in connection with PU öšür-, q.v.; if this is correctly read it might be a Caus. f. of ös-, but it is prob. an error. Čağ. xv ff. ös- ma'lüf šudan wa 'adat kardan ‘to be accustomed to (something)’ San. 74V. 24 (quotn., an erroneous translation derived from a misinterpretation of the quotn. tuğğan ösgen yerim ‘the place where I was born and grew up’ not ‘to which I am accustomed’): Kom. xıv ‘to grow, increase in size’ ös- CCG; Gr. 184 (quotn.): Kip. xv 09-tala'a’l-bine awi'l-šacar wa bi-ma’ne turubbe ‘of a building or tree, to rise, grow taller; to be brought up’ Kav. 9, 6; šabba wa tela ‘to grow, get taller’ (uzan- and) ös- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21b. 11; a.o. 24a. 1: Osm. xvıı ös- ‘to grow up’ TTS I 749 («*-)•

Dis. V. ASA

isi:- (hot) ‘to be hot’. There is no doubt that this verb originally had front vowels, but forms with back vowels now prevail in some languages both for it and for its derivatives. This is the exact reverse of the usual evolution (see e.g. ı:š, ti:l). Survives with front vowels in all NE dialects and back vowels in NC Kır., Kzx., cf. isig. Xak. xı mü:n isi:di: ‘the soup (etc.) was hot’ (saxunat); and one says temür isi:di: ‘the iron (etc.) was hot’ (harniya) Kaš. III 253 (isi:r, isi:me:k): Kip. xıv isi-saxuna Id. 14: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20a. 3.

*osa:- (negligent, listless) See osa:l (negligent, idle; negligence, idleness), osallik (carelessness, negligence), osan- (negligent, listless, dreary, revulsion, tired of).

Dis. ASB

PUF usbad/usban (medicine drug, лекарство) names of drugs; they obviously represent Tibetan words like sbad, spad, etc. but there are no obviously appropriate names for drugs of such a form in the ordinary Tibetan dictionaries. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ‘Tibetan’ usbad H II 6, 15; 8, 22; usban do. 30, 180.

Tris. ASB

PU?F usbari: (bread) Hap. leg.; under the heading 'afal with -f attached’. The only vowel shown is damma on the alif. No doubt a foreign (? Iranian) l.-w. Xak. xı usbari: xubz malla yufatt fi samn wa yuc'al fihi'l-sukkar ‘bread baked under the ashes crumbled in oil and mixed with sugar’ Kaš. I 141.

Tris. V. ASB-

(D)F osparla:- (deliver, hand over, entrust) ‘to deliver, hand over, entrust’; Den. V. fr. a Middle Pe. verb avisper- > öspar-, corresponding to Mod. Pe. sipur-, same meaning; an early l.-w. which has undergone a good deal of phonetic change. Survives as ısmarla- in NW Krım R I 1396 and SW Osm. Xak. xıı yerni İsrafil Čavlı sü bašıka osparladım ‘I have handed the land over to General İsrafil Čavli’ Contract from Yarkand dated A.H. 515 (AD. T12T-2), J.R.A.S. 1942, 191 ff.: xııı (?) Tef. osparla- ‘to hand over’ 332 (usbarla-); isparla- do. 129; ısmarla- ‘to entrust’ do. \242\ 130; xıv Muh. atvda'a ‘to entrust’ (VU) ısmarla- Mel. 23, 11; Rif. 105: Xwar. xııı ditto ’Ali 55: xıv isparla- ‘to entrust’ Nahc. 102, 1; 341, 7: Kip. xııı sallama min taslimi’l--fay’ ile šehibihi ‘to hand something over to its owner’ ospurla:- (alif not vocalized, Imperat. -gil in error) Hou. 41, 1: xıv ısmarla-atida'a Id. 14: xv aıvše ‘to appoint (someone) as executor’ asmarla- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 5a. 10: Osm. xıv ff. ısmarla- (1) ‘to hand over, entrust’; (2) ‘to lay down, ordain’ in several texts TTS 1 357; 11 505; 111 347; IV 398: xvııı ismarla-in Rümi, sipur dan tea tnıcšiya kardan ua tawdV kardan San. 104V. 9.

Dis. ASC

PU usı:č (dexterous, nimble, experienced, skilled, ловкий, опытный, искусный) Hap. leg.; there is no clue to the pronunciation or meaning of this word, but it was prob. laudatory. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 29 1 o:y).

Mon. ASD

1 ast (bottom, lower surface, beneath) ‘the bottom, or lower surface, of something’; syn. w. and with the same peculiar character as alt, q.v.; not noted before the medieval period, but astın (below, beneath, lower, under, upside down), asra:, q.v., are older. For modern survivals see alt. ( (Xak.) xıı (?) Tef. astındaki ‘situated below’ 61): Čağ. xv ff. astı altı taht ma'nesina ‘beneath’ Vel. 18 (quotns. containing astida); ast taht opposite to fauq ‘above’ San. 4or. 29 (ditto): Xwar. xıv astındabeneath’ Qutb 13; Nahc. 118, 3: Kom. xıv ‘beneath’ astında CCI, Gr.

VU 2 ast (alley, side-streets) Hap. leg. Čiğli xı ast al-aziqqa ‘lanes, side-streets’ Kaš. I 42.

üst (top, upper surface, above, over) (Üstyurt, Ustyurt)upper surface, top’; opposite to alt, 1 ast (bottom, lower surface, beneath) but unlike those words used as an ordinary N. in phr. like ayak üsti ‘the upper surface of the foot’, and an ordinary Adj. in phr. like üst yurt ‘the upper camping ground’ (Üstyurt, Ustyurt). There are no early occurences but the Den. V üste:- (add,  increase), q.v., is an old word. S.i.a.m.l.g. (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. bašlarımı) üstindeover their heads’; ayakı üstünke kopdi ‘he rose to his feet’ 341: Čağ. xv ff. üstiğa (sic) üstüne Vel. 107 (quotn.); üst bele wa fauq ‘above’ San. 7$r. 12 (same quotn. but with üstine which is no doubt a better reading): Xwar. xııı (?) urum üstike atlar bola sen ‘you are about to ride (rise) against Rome (i.e. Byzantium)’ Oğ. i43-4.' (there is ice) üze üstünde ‘on its summit’ 230; kanğa üstünde ‘on the (top, upper surface, above) cart’ 27e: Kom. see üstün (above, top, higher) fr. üst (top, upper surface, above, over) (Üstyurt, Ustyurt): Kip. xııı in the grammatical section the lafza 'expression’ faicq is translated by üst with Poss. Suffs. in oblique cases Hou. 53, 4 ff:xv in a similar section 'ala’ ‘upon’ is similarly translated by ist/üst Kav. 45, 18 ff.; ’ala üst Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 3b. 3; 89a. 9: Osm. xıv ff. üst and oblique cases including üsne (xv) occur in various phr. TTS II 957; IV 807.

Dis. ASD

D iste:g (wish; to wish for, desire, inquire, seek, pursue, investigate, tracking, following, search) (ask) N.Ac. fr. iste:- (izde:-) (wish; to wish for, desire, inquire, seek, pursue, investigate) with meanings developing in the same way as those of iste:-. Survives in NE Khak. istegtracking, following, scarch’ Bas. 68; NC Kır. Izdö:enquiry, search’; SW Osm. istek ‘wish, request’. Xak. xı iste:g al-talab ua’I--tatabbu' tva’l-fahš 'ani’l-šay’ ‘request, examination, investigation of something’; hence one says isteg (sic) kopdi: fıeca'1-falab ‘a request arose’ Kaš. I 120.

D üste:k (addition) Dev. N fr. üste:- (add,  increase) (addition); ‘something added to something else’. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı üste:k ‘an increase (al-ziyeda) of something, e.g. an increase of 1000 by (another) 100’; hence one says men üste:k be:rdim ‘I gave him an increase’ Kaš. I 120.

D üstem N.S.A. (application, ornaments) fr. üste:- (add,  increase); etymologically ‘a single act of putting something on something’, actually ‘gold or silver belt or harness ornaments’. Pec. to Xak., but a l.-w. in Pe. as üstem with some extended meanings. Xak. xı üstem ‘anything, gold or silver, which is inlaid (yurašša') on the buckles of belts or harness straps’; it is what the Oğuz call sa:xt (Pe. l.-w.) Kaš. I 107: KB ayağ berdi tamğa at üstem kedüt ‘he gave him a title of honor, a seal, decorated harness and clothing’ 1766; o.o. of at üstem 2280, 2385.

D astın (below, beneath, lower, under, upside down) Adj, and Adv. of place, prob. a crasis of *asttin, see alt; syn. w. altın (below, beneath, lower, under); liable to be confused with oblique cases of 1 ast (bottom, lower surface, beneath), q.v. Survives in SE Türki Shaw, BŠ, Jarring, and prob. NC Kır. astag kesteg ‘upside down’ (said to be a corruption of astın üstün) R I 550; astan kešten MM 42. Xak. xı astın a Particle (harf) meaning taht ‘under, beneath’; luğa radiya ‘an incorrect form’; the more correct (al-afsah) is altın Kaš. I 108: KB ne astın ne üstün ‘neither below nor above’ 18: Čağ. xv ff. astın (spelt) (1) sirin ‘situated below’, in Ar. tahtanı (quotn.); (2) harakat-i kasra ‘the vowel sign kasra, also called asır San. 40V. 2; a.o. do. 5.

VU östeŋ (canal) survives in SE Türki Shatv, BŠ, Jarring and NC Kır. (östön) ‘a main irrigation canal’; it is not clear whether this is the word used in KB or what its etymology is. Xak. xı KB (ögdülmiš replied and said, ‘O King’) uzun keč yašasu bu östeŋ elig ‘long live this open-handed one’ (?) 1796, similar phr. 1948.

D üstün (above, top, higher) fr. üst (top, upper surface, above, over) (Üstyurt, Ustyurt) Adj. and Adv. connoting motion onto or situation on (something), prob. a crasis of *üsttün, see alt; liable to be confused with oblique cases of üst. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE and with some distorted forms in NW like Kar. L. isne; T. üsnü. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. üstün... altın ‘above... below’, see altın (below, beneath, lower, under): Civ. üstün... altın ditto.; üstün, presumably ‘north’, is used in conjunction with ögdün, [altın] and kedin in describing the boundaries of a property USp. 30, 9-11: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. shangabove, upon’ (Giles 9,729) üstün Ligeti 276; R I 188e: Xak. xı üstün a Particle meaning fatvq ‘above’; hence one says andan üstün \243\ fawqahu Kaš. I 108: KB bularda eŋ üstün ‘the highest of these’ (is Saturn) 131; o.o. 18 (astın), 183e: xıı (?) Tef. üstünabove’ (Adj.), ‘top’ (Noun) 341: xıv Muh. al-a'le ‘higher’ (opposite to ‘lower’ altın (below, beneath, lower, under)) üstün Mel. 14, 10; Rif 90: Čağ. xv ff. üstün (spelt) (1) fazvq wa fayiq (quotns.); (2) the vowel sign fatha San. 75r. 15: Kom. xıv üstünabove’ (something Loc.) CCI, CCG; Gr. 270 (quotns.; but üstünde comes from üst): Kip. xııı 'ala ‘upon’ (opposite to taht altın) üstün (vocalized üsten) also üzüre (sic) Hou. 26, 20: xıv 'aid isne (sic) and üzre: (unvocalized) Bui. 15, 12; üstün fawq Id. 13; xv 'ale üstün Kav. 35, e: Osm. xıv fr üstün ‘upper, above’ in several texts TTS I 749; II 957 (but the word here may be ustun, metathesis of Pe. sutunpillar’); III 735; IV 807.

Dis. V. ASD-

D esit- (stretch) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 es- (stretch). Xak. xı ol uruknı: esitti: amadda'l-habl ‘he had the rope stretched’ Kaš. I 209 (esitür, esitme:k).

D isit- (hot) Caus. f. of isi:- (hot), q.v.; ‘to heat (something Acc.)’, also Intrans. ‘to suffer from fever’. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. front vowels in NE, and sporadically elsewhere, otherwise w. back vowels. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ešičte: išitip ‘heating it in a cauldron’ II I 99; a.o. H II 12, 97: Xak. ol mü:n išitti: ‘he heated (saxxana) broth’; also used when one heats (ahntd) iron, etc.; and one says er isitti: ‘the man had fever’ (humma); the last Intrans., the others Trans. Kaš. I 209 (isitür, isitme:k): KB (when you are young) soğık iške tutğıl isitür kanıg ‘engage in cold work, it warms your blood’ 4623: xıv Muh. ahrna i:sit- Mel. 21, 15; Rif. 102; al-humme'İ-harra išitmek 64, 12 (išitme: 163): Čağ. xv ff. ısıt- (-kan, etc.) ısıtma tut-, kızdır-, tssı eyle- ‘to catch fever; to heat, make hot’ Vel. 57-8 (quotns.): ısıt- garm kardan ‘to heat’, and metaph. tab hardan ‘to have fever’ San. 101 v. 13 (quotns.): Osm. xıv ıssıt- ‘to heat’, once TTS I 358.

D usit- (thirsty) Caus. f. of 1 us- (thirsty), q.v.; perhaps survives in SE Tar. usat- R I 1746. Xak. xı tu:zluğ et meni: usıttı: ‘the salted (mumal-lah) meat made me thirsty’ ('attašanı) Kaš. I 209 (usıtur, usıtma:k); bu kuya:š ol kišini: usıtğa:n ‘this blazing heat always makes a man thirsty’ (mu'attiš) I 155 (verse).

(? S) iste:- (izde:-) (wish; to wish for, desire, inquire, seek, pursue, investigate) described by Kaš. as syn. w. irte:- (inquire, seek, pursue)to seek, pursue (something Acc.)’; but the subsequent history of the two words differed; irte:-, where it survives, still has that meaning, but iste:- has developed extended meanings, including in SW ‘to wish; to wish for (something Acc.)'. There is no doubt that izde:-, when it occurs, is identical with iste:-, and it is tempting to explain iste:- as a Sec. f. of izde:- Den. V. fr. i:z (? ı:z) (footprint, track, trace, scratch), but it would be surprising if such a sound change had taken place before vııı, and the resemblance may be a coincidence. S.i.a.m.l.g., in NC izde-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. (my dear children go and) tilegler isteglerseek and search’ U 16, 1: Bud. isteyü sakinsarmen ‘if I investigate and think’ Hüen-ts. 1961; o.o. of tile- iste- do. note 1870, 23; USp. 102a. 55: Civ. in a stock formula regarding an outright sale, no one may čam čarım kılmazun ayıtmazun istemezünler ‘lodge objections, make enquiries or start investigations’ USp. 107, 12; 108, 13 (Note, in these Uyğ. texts a transcription izde- is not absolutely excluded): Xak. xı Kaš. I 272 (irte:-): xııı (?) Tef. iste- ‘to seek (someone Acc.)' 12e: xıv Muh. yatlub ‘he seeks’ is i:zde:r in Turkistan and i:ste:r in ‘our country’ Mel. 8, 11; Rif. 80; arada ‘to desire iste- 22, 7; 103 (tJ:le:- in margin); fattaša ‘to investigate’ iste- 29, 13 (only); al-taftıš istemek 36, 3 (only); al-ibtiğd’ ‘to desireizde- 35, 14; 121; al-šahwa ‘to long forizde- cf. 36, 9; 122: Čağ. xv ff. iste- (-1İ, etc.) iste- Vel. 59 (quotn.); iste- (spelt) xwdstan wa (alab kardan ‘to wish for, to seek’ San. ioir, 23 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı iste- ‘to wish’ 'Ali 29: xıv izde- ‘to seek’ Qutb 62: Kom. xıv ‘to seek; to summon (to a court of law)’ izde- CCI, CCG; Gr. 104 (quotns.): Kip. xııı fattaša izde:- Hou. 43, 2: xıv ditto Id. 13: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28b. 3; talaba izde- Kav. 9, 17; 74, 19 (also tile-): Osm. xıv ff. iste- ‘to seek, search for (something)’ common till xvi, once in xvııı, in this sense TTS I 391; II 549; III 385; IV 439.

D üste:- (add,  increase) Den. V. üst (top, upper surface, above, over) (Üstyurt, Ustyurt); ‘to add an additional piece to (something Acc.), to increase (it).’ S.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tmlığlamıg üzeleyü ögrünčlerin sevinčlerin ašmak üstemek erür ‘it is to increase (Hend.) the rising joys and pleasures of mortals’ Suv. 266, 6-8; a.o. do. 593, 19: Xak. xı KB ye rabb üste dawlat tükel kıl tilek ‘O Lord! Increase his good fortune and fulfil all his wishes’ 116.

D istet- (seek, look, search) Caus. f. of iste:- (izde:-) (wish; to wish for, desire, inquire, seek, pursue, investigate); with a similar range of meanings. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı men am: istettim ba'attu fi itrihi li-yatlub ‘I sent (someone) in his tracks to look for him’ Kaš. I 260 (istetür, istetme:k): xııı (?) Tef. istet- same meaning 12e: Čağ. xv ff. istet- Caus. f. talab farmüdan ‘to order to seek’ San. 101 v. 11: Osm. xıv istet- ‘to have (someone) sought’ TTS II 550.

VU?C östik- (hungry, attack, hurry) Kaš. is prob. right in describing this verb as a crasis of 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us) and tik- (erect, stick, insert, sew, ткнуть). Apparently survives in NE Šor. üštük- ‘to attack’ (Trans.) R I 1886; Sag. üštük- ‘to hurry’ (Intrans.) Bas. 257 and NC Kır. üštük-/ üzdük- ‘to be ravenously hungry’. Xak. xı ol bu: ı:ška: östikti: ‘he coveted (hungry) (harisa) this thing and desired it (ištdqa)'; originally ö:z tikti: Kaš. I 244 (östike:r, östikme:k): KB biregü bay evlik tiler östikip ‘one man seeks (hungry) a rich wife out of greed’ 4487 (two MSS. read öz tikip).

D istel- (seek, look, search) Pass. f. of iste:- (izde:-) (wish; to wish for, desire, inquire, seek, pursue, investigate) . Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. istel- and NC Kır. izdel-. Xak. xı isteldi: ne:g tuliba'1-šay' wa fuhiša ‘the thing \244\ was sought and searched for’ Kaš. I 246 (istelü:r, istelme:k): Čağ. xv ff. istel- Pass. f.; xrcasta šudan ‘to be desired’ San. 101 v. 12.

Dis. V. ASD-

D üstel- (enlarged, added,  increased) Pass. f. of üste:- (add,  increase); ‘to be enlarged, increased’. Survives only (?) in NC Kzx. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. üstelzün teŋridem küč-leri ‘may their divine powers be increased’ TT III 170; a.o. M II 6, 4: Bud. kogüldeki edgüleri neteg üstelmiš bolur ‘how are the good things in their minds increased?’ U III 73, 11-12; o.o. U I 26, 12; TT V 24, 67 and 74; VII 40, 46; Hüen-ts. 1872; alku ödte buyanları ašılıp üstelip ‘their merits increasing (Hend.) at all times’ TT VII 40, 128; a.o. Hüen-ts. 2015: Xak. xı su:v üsteldi: ‘the water increased’ (zeda); also used when something is added to it (uzida fihi); also used of other things Kaš. I 246 (üstelür, üstelme:k).

D astur- (hang, suspend) Caus. f. of as- (hang, suspend); ‘to order to suspend, or to execute’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol er asturdi: ‘he ordered the crucifixion (šalb) of the man’; and one says ol et asturdi: ‘he ordered that the meat should be hung (ta'liq) on a stake’ Kaš. I 220 (asturur, asturma:k): xııı (?) Tef. astur- ‘to order to hang’ 62: Čağ. xv ff. astur- (spelt) Caus. f.; ezvîzendaıt ‘to order to hang up’ San. 39V. 10: Xwar. xııı (?) tağurak (i.e. tavrak) basıp astunp yok bolzunğıl tep kılurmen ‘I quickly attack, have him hanged and order his destruction’ Oğ. 114-15.

D 1 estür- (blow (wind), winnow) Caus. f. of 1 es- (blow (wind), winnow); survives only (?) in SW Osm. Xak. xı ol kavık estürdi: ‘he gave orders for winnowing (nasf) the bran out of the millet and for cleaning it’ (naqtyatihŋ; also used for winnowing in general Kaš. I 221 (estürür, estürme:k): Čağ. xv ff. estürgey yel esdüreyin 'I will make the wind blow’ Vel. 58; estür- Caus. f. tuazenidatt ‘to cause to blow’ San. ioir. 21 (quotn.).

D 2 estür- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 es- (stretch); cf. esit-. Xak. xı <ol> uruk estürdi: madda'l--habl (no doubt error for amadda) ‘he ordered that the rope should be stretched’ Kaš. I 221 (followed by 1 estür-).

VU?D üster- (brawl, defiant, deny, cast off) presumably Intrans. Den. V. üst (top, upper surface, above, over) (Üstyurt, Ustyurt), but the semantic connection is tenuous; the general connotation seems to be ‘to be quarrelsome, uncooperative’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol maga: üsterdi: ‘he opposed me (tnerenŋ in the matter’; and one says ol kılmıš ı:šm üsterdi: cahada me fa'ala ‘he disowned (or accepted no responsibility for) what he had done’; also used for any kind of denial or disowning (inker tva culnld) Kaš. I 221 (üsterür, üsterme:k; prov.): KB uvutsuz bolur üsterigli karak ‘a defiant look is shameless’ 2205: xııı (?) Tef. üster- ‘to be quarrelsome’ 341.

Tris. ASD

D üstünki: (above, on top) N./A.S. fr. üstün (above, top, higher) fr. üst (top, upper surface, above, over) (Üstyurt, Ustyurt); ‘situated above, or on the top’, hence metaph. ‘better, superior’; İ7T the latter meaning usually in the Hend. ye:g üstünki. S.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A üstünki kök ‘heaven above’ M III 10, 7 (in: Man. yeg üstüngi/üstüngi ydg ‘highest’ (place, heaven, etc.) TT III 75, 143, 166; a.o. do. 169 (altinki:): Bud. yeg üstünki (teaching, knowledge) TT VIII G.33; Suv. 148, 20-1; TT IV 12, <57 (tüzgerincsiz): Civ. TT I 128 (altinkŋ; VIII 1.le: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘imperial court’ üstünki I.igeti 276; R I 188e: (Xak.) x 111 (?) Tef. üstünki ‘upper’ (lip) 341: Kom. xıv ‘highest’ üstüngi CCI; Gr. 271 (quotn.).

D üstürti: (high, top) Adv. of place fr. üst (top, upper surface, above, over) (Üstyurt, Ustyurt); noted only in the phr. üstürti: kodi: ‘from on high’ as below. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. üstürti kodi enmeser ‘if you had not descended from on high’ TT III 20: Bud. üzgen yağmur ödinče üstürti kodi tökülür ‘the destructive rain pours down from on high in due season’ U I 26, 15-16, Suv. 517, 4; a.o. Suv. 380, 9.

Dis. ASĞ

asığ (interest (on a loan), gain, profit, advantage, benefit) (assign)profit, advantage’, and the like; l.-w. in Mong. as ašiğ (sic, see Studies, p. 206; Kotv. 59, Haltod 13); survives in NIC Tuv. ajik (reborrowed fr. Mong.) and SW Osm. ası/-asığ/asıkprofit, benefit’. See Doerfer II 480. Türkü vııı ff. ašığı: bar edgü: ‘there is advantage in it, it is good’ IrkB 32: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A maga ol kiši asığ bolğay ‘that man will be useful to me’ M I 34, 20: asığ tusu kıltıgız ‘you have brought advantage (Hend.)’ TT III 123 ; a.o. do. 105 (uluğ): Bud. Sanskr. artham ‘advantage, profit’ asığ TT VIII D.34; E.44; a:sığ do. D. 18; a.o.o.; asığ tusu kıl- ‘to bring advantage, or profit, to (someone Dat.)' is very common PP 20, 5; 34, 7, etc.; UI 25, 8; II 16, 20, and many o.o.: Civ. asığ bolur ‘it is advantageous’ TT VII 28, 36, and 45, etc.; utrugda asığ tusu yetirü kelti ‘he has come to meet you bringing you advantages’ TT I 113; do. 58 (egsü:-); in contracts in USp. asığinterest (on a loan)’ is common, e.g. biz 61 yagınča ašığı birle köni bĞrürbiz ‘vve promise to repay with interest at the customary rate’ 10, 7-8: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. Ii i ‘advantage, profit’ (Giles 6,885 5.485) asığ tusu Ligeti 131: Xak. xı asığ al-ribh ‘profit, gain’ Kaš. I 64; asığ kılğu: emes le yanfa'uka ‘it gives you no advantage’ I 494, 4; a.o. III 13, 7: KB asığ kolsa barča özüg yassızın 'if you (your life) seek profit (or advantage) in all things without any losses’ 106; o.o. 160 (üküš), 171, 232, etc. (common): xııı (?) At. (let a man who reads this book) asığ alsu ‘get advantage from it’ 78; tavar ašğı ‘the advantage of wealth’ 287; Tef. asığprofit’ (also ‘a pendant’ Dev. N. fr. as- (hang, suspend), occurring later, but first noted here) 61: (xiv Muh. rabaha ‘to gain, make a profitası:t-, no doubt a crasis of ası: et-, Mel. 26, 7; Rif. 109): Čağ. xv ff. asığ/asık aššt (sic}) ve feyida ‘profit, advantage’ Vel. 19 (quotns.); asığ naf ıca feyida San. 40V. 14: Xwar. xıv asığ ditto Qutb 13 : Kip. xııı al-ribh (opposite to ‘loss’ koŋ ašiğ Hou. 28, 2: xıv ašiğ (and \\ ašlam) al-feyida Id. 15; al-ribh fi'l-bi' rva’l--šire ‘profit in buying and selling’ aššı: Bul. 5, e: xv rabaha (aslamla-; in margin in later hand) aššı eyle- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 16b. 1: Osm. xıv ff. assı, Jes.s often ası, ‘profit, advantage’; c.i.a.p. TTS 1 4.7-8; II 60-1; 111 42-3; IV 45: xvııı (after Čağ. entry) ‘and in Rumi ası’ San. 40V. 14.

Tris. ASĞ

S 1 ısığ See isig. (hot, heat)

E 2 ısığ See yıšığ (? ıšığ) (cord, rope).

D usak (thirst) Dev. N. fr. 1 us- (thirsty); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. usakı yagč^t ičgül (sic) ‘drink in accordance to (your) thirst’ H I 171; a.o. 199.

osuğ (osoğ) (as, like) (as) ‘a way of using (something)’; n.o.a.b., but see osuğluğ (as, like, подобно) (as). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (deign to explain) bu darnınıŋ inčge yağı osuğı ‘the subtle way of using (Hend.) this dheranV U II 41, 20; o.o. do. 48, 14-15; fragment in Oğ. p. 28, note 7e: Xak. xı osuğ tahdyulu’l-šay’ bi'1-šay' ‘a way of using something for something’; hence one says bu: ı:š osuğı: munda:ğ ‘the way of using this thing is as follows’ Kaš. I 64: xrv Muh. (?) osuğ al-hel rva’l-firesa (uncertain, ?‘con-dition, insight’) Rif. 188 (only): (Xwar. xııı (?) anuŋ sačı müren osuğı teg ‘her hair (flowed down her back) like a river’ (Mong. l.-w.) Oğ. 76; Arat points out that the word is out of place here, and suggests that it is an error for suğı (suvŋ ‘water’).

PUD osğuč both this word and osku:k (osğu:k), included below are Hap. leg. They are obviously cognate Dev. N.s in -ğuč and -ğuk respectively, and the simplest explanation is to derive them fr. os-, q.v., but it is doubtful whether this is an ancient verb in this form and other transcriptions, esp. of osğuč, are possible. Apart from the difference in the quality of the vowels, 2 üš- (perforate, hole) would be an appropriate base. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (they force them to lie down in places strewn with) yüligü osğuč teg bi bičğu ‘knives and cutting instruments like razors and... ’TM IV 253, 41: (Xak.) xıv Muh. (under ‘cobblers’ tools’) afro ‘a cobbler’s knife’ osku:k Mel. 59, 12; Rif. 158.

PU(S) osğun (onion)onion’; presumably a metathesis of sorğun, same meaning; survives in most NE languages in a wide range of forms, oksum, uksim, uksum, uxsum, usxum and even muksun, and in NW Kaz. üksün ‘wild garlic’ Bud. 145: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. osğun kasıkın yıltızı birle yorğurtka (j/c) tokup ‘pound the skin of an onion with its roots in yoğurt’ H I 44-5.

Dis. V. ASĞ-

D usuk- Emphatic f. of 1 us- (thirsty); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı er usukti: ‘the man was thirsty’ eatiša) Kaš. I 191 (usuka:r, usukma:k; prov.); (in a para, on the suffix -k-) er asukti: ğalaba’l-racula'1-ataš ‘the man was overcome with thirst’ II 165, 9.

Tris. ASĞ

D asığčı: N.Ag. fr. asığ (interest (on a loan), gain, profit, advantage, benefit);benefactor’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB begige asığčı bağır-saknı bil ‘know that the kindly man is a benefactor to his master’ 2609; a.o. 4419.

D asığlığ P.N./A. fr. asığ (interest (on a loan), gain, profit, advantage, benefit); ‘advantageous, beneficial, profitable’. Survives in NE Tuv. ajıktığ; SW Osm. asılı. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. adınlarka asığlığ išig išlet(t)iŋiz ‘you have done a deed beneficial to others’ TT III 68-9: Bud. asığlığ iš TT VIII E.41, 42; a.o. do. A.47; tusuluğ asığlığ USp. 43, 11: Civ. ırak barsar asığlığ yanar 'if he goes on a long journey, he comes back with a profit’ TT VII 28, 55; (a particular omen) asığlığ tusuluğ bolur ‘is favourable (Hend.)’ do. 36, 3 (USp. 42, 16); asığliğ beš satır kümüšüg tükel aldım ‘I have received in full five satır in cash with (or as?) interest’ USp. 48, 2-3: Xak. xı asığlığ ı:š ‘amal dü manfa'a ‘beneficial work’ Kaš. I 147: KB asığlığ kiši ašğı elke tolur ‘the value of a benefactor is abundant for the realm’ 5731; xıı (?) KB VP asığlığ turur bu ‘this is a useful (book)’ 15: xııı (?) At. bilig teg asığlığ ‘as advantageous as knowledge’ 100: xıv Muh. al-nefı ‘useful, beneficial’ asığlığ Mel. 52, 1; Rif. 148: Čağ. xv ff. asığlık as silt ve feyidalu ‘profitable, advantageous’ Vel. 19; asığlığ sûdmand wa be manfa'at ditto San. 40V. le: Kom. xıv 'usefulasığlı (spelt azixh) CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv to xvı assılıuseful, profitable’ in several texts TTS I 48; II 61; III 43; IV 46.

D asığlık A.N. fr. asığ (interest (on a loan), gain, profit, advantage, benefit); ‘benefit’ and the like; n.o.a.b Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tınlığlamıg asığlıkı merjiliki üčün ‘for the benefit and happiness of mankind’ U II 34, 6-8.

S ısığlık See isiglik. (warmth, fever, affection, теплота)

D osuğluğ (osoğloğ) (as, like) P.N./A.; always preceded by a qualifying word. The spelling is fixed by TT VIII. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit idfg ‘made in this way’ monda:ğ osoğloğ TT VIII A.37; evarpvidhe ‘like this’ ditto do. D.29; a.o. do. E.42; yula osuğluğ ‘serving as a lamp’ U III 28, 26; ol er neteg osuğluğ körklüg megizlig erdi ‘in what way was that man good-looking (Hend.)?” U III 57, 6 (ı); o.o. do. 54, 10 (U II 23, 23); U IV S, 19 (kılın-); TT V 6, 16; X 134-5: Xak. xı KB bu yavlak osuğluğ turur bu etöz ‘this body has a bad way of behaving’ (if it gets fat, it is wicked) 3599; a.o. 974 (öyük).

?E asğanču See azğanču:.

D asığsız Priv. N./A. fr. asığ (interest (on a loan), gain, profit, advantage, benefit); ‘useless, unprofitable’. Survives in NC Kır. asusiz (?) and SW xx Anat. assiz SDD 120. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if a man without hands goes to an island full of jewels) asığsız kuruğ kalır ‘he is unable to take advantage of the situation (Hend.)’ TT V 33, note B.90, 3-4’ Xak. xı KB küvezlik asığsız ‘pride is \\ unprofitable’ 2120; asığsız kišiler kišide turı ‘useless men are bad-tempered to people’ 5731: xııı (?) At. (to such a man advice) asığ-siz turur ‘is useless’ 110; a.o. 34e: Xwar. xıv asığsız 'unprofitable' Qutb 13: Osm. xıv assisiz ‘useless’ TTS I 48.

Tris. V. ASĞ-

?E asğančula- See azgnnčula:-.

Mon. ESG

VU iisk (presence of) a word like alt, etc., used only with Poss. Suff.s in oblique senses; ‘in the presence of’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. in U 11 88, 68-70 sins are confessed iiskinde ‘in the presence of’ certain named persons; o.o. U II 79, 51; TTIV4, 13; 12, 48, etc.; USp. 120b. 21: Civ. üskügde ‘in your presence’ TT I 15, 27; olar iiskinde berdim ‘I have given in their presence’ USp. 78, 21; a.o. do. in, 5: (Xak.) x 111 (?) KBPP Tavğač Buğra Xan üsküge kigürmİš turur ‘he brought (this book) into the presence of Tavğač Buğra Xan’ 25; Tef. menim üskümde ‘in my presence’, a.o.o. 340; Xwar. xıv (the Oxus is a mere drop of water) yašım üskinde ‘in the presence of (i.e. compared to) my tears’; a.o.o. Qutb 204.

Dis. ESG

D isig (hot, heat, burning) N./A.S. fr. isi:- (hot); ‘hot, heat’. S.i.a.m.l.g. sometimes much distorted, w. front vowels in some NE and NW languages and SW Az, and back vowels elsewhere. Türkü vııı ff. Man. kün teŋri yaruki isigi engey ‘the light and heat of the sun will descend’ M III 23, 2-3 (ii); a.o. do. 45, 6-7 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A seviglig yaltrağlı isig yiizügüzen ‘your lovely shining warm face’ M I 10, 8-9: Man. Wind. 46-7 (1 ergür-); a.o. 48-9: Bud. isig usually occurs in the phr. isig öz ‘life’ (lit. ‘warm self’), e.g. isig özlerinde adırtımız... erser ‘if we have deprived (human beings) of their lives’ TT IV 8, 63-4; o.o. U III 4, 2; 59, 6 (i) and 2 (iŋ, etc.; isig özlüg ‘living’ 11 III 14, 11 (iŋ, etc.: Civ. isig kuya:ška: emgenmiš: kiši ‘a man suffering from sunstroke’ TT VIII 1.10; isig suv ‘hot water’ do. M.24; isig ‘hot’ esp. in the phr. isig ig ‘fever’ is common in HI and Ii: xıv Chttt-Uvg. Dict. jo 'hot’ (Giles 5,649) isig; Using tning ‘life’ (Giles 4,600 7,962) İsig özüg (?) Ligeti 157; R I 1539: Xak. xı isig ye:r al-sahb mina'l-ard wa huwa'l-madida ‘an extensive desert’: isig ne:g‘anything hot' (harŋ, hence one says isig kü:n ‘a hot dav’ Kaš. I 72; KB bu kün tuğsa yerke isig ‘when this sun rises over the earth (and is) hot’ (the flowers open, etc.) 829; o.o. 522, 1854, 3726, 4620-2: x111 (?) Tef. isig/issig ‘hot, heat’ (of fire) 126; ısığ ditto 129: xıv Muh. al-harr i:ssi: Mel. 53, 13; Rif. 150 and in several phr. 57;>3*. *55> etc.; yawni harr ‘a hot day’ i:si:g kü:n 185 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ısığ/ısık iššı garni ma'nd-stna Vel. 57 (quotns.); ısığ/ısık gartn wa harr San. 104V. 24 (quotn.); ıstı ot (sic) fiffil •pepper’, do. 104V. 17: Xwar. xıv isİg/isİ ‘hot’ Qutb 60-1: Kom. xıv ‘hot, burning’ isi/issi CCI, CCG\ Gr. 107 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-harr ‘heat’ (opposite to ‘cold’ sawuk) wa huwa'l-suxııu'l-hdrr that is ‘burning heat’ issi: Hou. 5, 9; al-hammam ‘a Turkish bath’ issi: šu: that is ‘hot water’ do. 6, 8; a.o. do. 27, 12: xıv isi: (v.I. issi:) al-harr Id. 13; Bul. 3, 4; al-hummd ‘fever’ ıssık (and isilik) do. 9, 15: harr issi Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 12b. 1 2; suxıı issi do. 19b. 8: Osm. xıv ff. issi (apparently always su spelt) ‘heat, hot’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 357 — 8; II 505-7; III 347-8; IV 399-400.

eski: ‘old’; in the early period only of things and abstract ideas, ‘old’ of human beings being avıčğa:. S.i.a.m.l.g., used of human beings only rarely and then in a depreciatory sense. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. eski atıg tegšilip yagi bultug ‘your old name has been changed and you have found a new one’ TT I 117; eski İsİgke ‘for a long-standing fever’ IIII 10, 53; bir eski tošek ‘one old mattress’ USp. 84, 4: Xak. xı eski: ‘anything old and worn out’ (qadim bdlŋ; hence one says eski: to:n tawb xalaq ‘shabby clothing’ Kaš. I 129; KB kamuğ eski negler ‘all old things’ 687: xıv Muh. al-'atiq ‘old’ eski: Mel. 54, 3; Rif. 150: Čağ. xv ff. eski kuhna ‘old’ San. 104V. 19 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv eski ‘old’ Qutb 22: Kom. xıv ditto CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv eski: al-'atiq Id. 13: xv ditto Kav. 64, 15.

D esgü: (blow (wind), winnow) N.Ac. (Conc. N.)- fr. 1 es- (blow (wind), winnow); as such Hap. leg., but it, or cognate words, survive with the same meaning in NE eskin/eskün R I 881-2, and with related meanings in SW xx Anat. esgin/eskin/esgün SDD 550-1. Cf. evıısgü:. Xak. xı esgü: al-minsaf ‘winnowing basket’ Kaš. I 129.

Dis. V. ESG-

iske:- (pluck) ‘to pluck out’; survives only (?) in NE Tob. R I 1528, but the Dev. N. iskek ‘tweezers’ survives in SE Türki Shaw 34 and NC Kır., Kzx. Xak. xı ol yu:g iskefdi: ‘he plucked out (uatafa) the wool (etc.)’ Kaš. I 284 (iske:r, iske:me:k): xıv Mh/i. (?) qaraša ‘to pluck, tweak’ isge:- (unvocalized, -g- marked) Rif. 114 (only).

D isken- (pluck, crop, щипать) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of iske:- (pluck). Xak. at ot iskendi: ‘the horse cropped (natafa) a little (qalila (n)) of the grass'; also used of anyone who plucked out hair or herbage sparingly Kaš. I 255 (iskenür, iskenme:k).

D eskir- Intrans. Den. V. fr. eski:; ‘to be, or become, old’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW where it has become eski- in Osm. and eskil- in Az. (R I 882). Xak. xı to:n eskirdi: ‘the garment was, or became, shabby’ (xaliqa) Kaš. I 228 (eskirür, eskirme:k): xııı (?) At. yagi eskirür ‘what is new grows old’ 195: xıv Muh. (?) 'ataqa wa qaduma ‘to be, or become, old (Hend.)’ eski- (?) Rif. 112 (only): Čağ. xv ff. eskir- (-di; ‘with -k-’) kuhna ol- ve eski-Vel. 55 (quotns.); eskir- (spelt)/eskil- (‘with -ı-’) kuhna šudan, also pronounced eski-, \247\ eliding the r/I Sati. 103V. 5 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv csklr- ‘to grow old’ Qutb 22: Kip. xv, 'ataqa -eskJr Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26a. 8: Osm. xv eskil- (sic) once TTS I 280.

Tris. ESG

PUF üskebeč (raisins) Hap. leg.; of the form ufalal\ with a damına over the alif only; presumably by its form, an Iranian (?) l.-w. Xak. xı üskcbeč a!-sahih 'raisins’ Kaš. I 159.

D isiglig (fervish) P.N./A. fr. isig (hot, heat); ‘’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. ısılı. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. isiglig erser ‘if he is feverish’ IIII 14, 116; a.o. do. 10, 57.

D isiglik (warmth, fever, affection, теплота) A.N. fr. isig (hot, heat); ‘warmth (physical and metaph.); fever; warm feelings, affection’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; with front vowels in NE and sometimes SW, otherwise with back vowels. Xak. xı isiglik al-hubb wa’l-muwadda ‘love, affection’; hence one says köıjtil isigliki: kere:k ‘he ought to have warmth of affection (hareratu' l-muivadda) in his heart’ Kaš. I 152: xııı (?) Tef. isiglik ‘heat (of a fire)’ 126; ıssılık ditto 130: Xwar. xıv isiglik ‘heat’ Qutb 61: Kom. xıv ‘heat’ issillk CCI\ Gr.: Kip. xıv issilik al-humma ‘fever’ Id. 13; ditto ıssık/isilik Bui. 9, 15: xv suxftna ‘heat’ issilik Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19a. 2: Osm. xıv ff. ıssılık ‘heat’ fr. xıv to xvıı; issilik xv to xvııı TTS I 358;// 507;/// 348; 7^439-

Tris. V. ESG-

D isigle:- (heated, overheated) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. isig (hot, heat). Xak. xı cr isigle:di: dahaba'l-racul fi'1-humme-wati'l-qayz wa'l-hacira ‘the man walked in the intense and excessive summer heat’ Kaš. I 306 (isigle:r, isigle:me:k).

VUDPF ösügle:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. *ösüg, which is prob., like other Gancak words, a l.-w. Gancak xı ol kiritlik ösüg-le:di: ‘he opened the lock by a cunning device (bi-hila) without a key’ Kaš. I 306 (ösügle:r, ösügle:me:k).

D isiglen- (heated, overheated) Refl. f. of isigle:- (heated, overheated); s.i.s.m.l. meaning ‘to be, or become, hot’. Xak. xı ol er bu: uğurda: barmakka: isiglendi: ‘the man considered the season too hot ('adda'l-waqt harŋ for travelling’ Kaš. I 294 (isiglenür, isiglenme:k).

Dis. ASL

D osa:l (negligent, idle; negligence, idleness) Dev. N./A. fr. *osa:-; ‘negligent, idle; negligence, idleness’. An early l.-w. in Mong. as osol (the Den. V. is noted in xııı , Ilaenisch 128). S.i.a.m.l.g. A parallel Dev. N./A. in -n appeared in the medieval period, and s.i.s.m.l. together with or instead of osal; the earlier occurrences are included below. See Doerfer II 599. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. osal kilmaglar ‘do not show negligence’ (in carrying out an ordeŋ USp. 17, 12: Xak. xı osa:l kiši: al insenu'l-ğefilfi'l-umür ‘a man who is. negligent about matters’ Kaš. I 122: KB osal bolma saklan kamuğ ište sen ‘do not be negligent, be vigilant in all things’ 443; o.o. 654, 106e: Čağ. xv ff. osal taheıvun wa takesul ediip aw yalanmak ‘negligence, indolence, or lying’ Vel. 107; osal (spelt) qušûr wa taqsir wa ihmel ‘shortcoming, offence, negligence’ (quotns.); also used for deyı wa muhmil ‘useless, negligent’ (quotn.) San. 9: Xwar. xıv osal kıl- ‘to be negligent’ Qutb 119; Nahc. 224, 10; osal Qutb zoo (usal): Kom. xıv ‘negligent’ osal CCG; Gr. 179 İquotn.): Kip. xvğafala ‘to be negligent’ osan >ol-, with note in second hand that osal, too, is used Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27a. 10: Osm. xıv and xv osal ‘careless, negligent’ in three texts TTS I 727; II 932 (spelt usal)] osan/osag ditto, c.i.a.p. / 728; II 931; III 715; IV 787-8 (spelt usanjusap): xvııı osan (spelt) in Rumi, kahil ‘negligent, indolent’ San. 75r. 13.

D usluğ (wise, intelligent, discriminating, sound judgment) P.N./A. fr. 1 us (uš) (intelligence, sense) and surviving in the same languages; ‘discriminating, of sound judgment’. Xwar. xııı (?) (of elderly men) usluğ Oğ. 208, 275; uzun usluğ ‘long headed’ do. 313: xıv usluğ ‘of sound judgment’ Qutb zoo] Nahc. 437, 4: Kom. xıv ‘wise’ ustlu (sic) CCI] Gr.: Kip. xııı al-eqil ‘intelligent’ (opposite to bild 'aql ušsı:z) ušlu: Hou. 25, 20.

Dis. ASL-

D asıl- (join, hung, suspended, crucified, precipitous, executed) Pass. f. of as- (hang, suspend); ‘to be hung, suspended; to be hanged, crucified’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı bi:r ne:ŋ bi:rke: asıldı: ‘one thing was hung (ta'allaqa) on another’ Kaš. I 196 (aslur, so vocalized, asilma:k): KB 221 (arta:k): xrv Muh. ta'allaqa asi:l- Mel. 40, 15; Rif. 130; al-wasl ‘to joinasılmak 37, 5; 123 (unvocalized, perhaps not connected): Čağ. xv ff. asıl- (spelt) Pass. f. ewixta šudan ‘to be hung, suspended’ San. 39V. 4: Kom. ‘to be hung up, suspended’ asıl- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv ašıl- ta'allaqa İd. 15: Osm. xıv asılanprecipitous’ (cliff) TTS I 4e: xvı asilmalu ‘who deserved to be hanged’ III 42; xvıı-xvııı asılacak ditto I 4e: xvııı asıl-... and in Rumi, mašlûb šudan ‘to be executed’ San. 39V. 4.

D esil- Pass. f. of 2 es- (stretch); ‘to be stretched, to stretch (Intrans.)’. Pec. to Kaš.; in one or two places altered to ešil-, cf. 2 es- (stretch). Xak. xı yıšığ esildi: imtadda'l-habl ‘the rope, etc. stretched’; also used for ‘to be stretched’ (mudda) Kaš. I 196 (eslür («e), esilme:k, sic in MS.); bu yip ol esilge:n ‘this cord is constantly stretching’ (yamtadd) I 158.

D osul- Pass. f. of os-, q.v. N.o.a.b.; it is possible that the Uyğ. word is mistranscribed, and should be read ušalur or üzülür which would perhaps suit the context better. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tolp etözleri tanču tanču bolup bıčılur osulur ‘all their bodies are cut (Hend.) into small pieces’ TM IV 253, 63: Čağ. xv ff. osul- (spelt) güšt az ustuxwen pak šudan ‘of meat, to be scraped off the bones’ San. 75r. 5.

Dis. V ASL-

D 1 usla:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. 1 us (uš) (intelligence, sense). Oğuz, xı ol usla:di: ne:rjni: ‘he understood (fatana) pood and evil, and distinguished (mayyaza) between them' Kaš. I 286 (usla:r, usla:ma:k).

VUD 2 usla:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. 2 us; ‘to behave like a vulture'. Prob. used only in the Ger. in -u:. Xak. xı Kaš. II 17, 17 (es).

D aslm- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of asıl-, Xak. xı aslindi: ne:ŋ ‘the thing was hung (ta'allaqa) on to something’ Kaš. I 258 (aslinur, aslinma:k).

Tris. ASL

D osallik (carelessness, negligence) A.N. fr.  (negligent, idle; negligence, idleness); ‘carelessness, negligence’. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı KB 1209 (alk-); 6075.

?E isilgü: Hap. leg.; no doubt an error for egsilgü: which suits the context perfectly. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (respect for you is constantly increasing) neg isilgüsi (read egsilgüsŋ yok ‘there is no diminution of it’ Hüen-ts. 2076.

Tris. V. ASM-

SF ısmarla:- See ospurla:-.

Dis. ASN

esen (healthy, sound, safe) 'in good health, sound; safe’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SE. The spelling asan, which is common in Uyğ. is prob. an aberration. Not to be confused with Pe. eseneasy’, but see Doerfer II 478. Türkü vııı ff. esen tükel ‘healthy and complete; safe and sound’ IrkB 15, 27, 42: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A esenin bardamaz esenin keltemez ‘we went and came back, safe and sound’ M I 10, 11 — 12; a.o. M III 13, 16 (i) (igle:-); Bud. esen (fl.va«) tükel PP 22, 6; 24, 3 etc.; siz öz ulušuguzka esen ötgeysjz ‘you will get through safely to your own country’ Hiicn-ts. 45-6; o.o. do. 66, TS74, I ()56. 2043; If II 64, 8-9 etc. (enč): Civ. ıraktaki kiši esen (asa?ı) yanmaz ‘the man who is afar off does not return safely’ TT VII 28, 6; (even if the foetus dies) esen (asan) ozar ‘she is delivered safely’ HI 109; o.o. do. no, 114: Xak. xı esen al-selim ‘safe, sound, in good health’; hence one says esenmü sen ‘are you in good health ?’ Kaš. I 77 (prov.); a.o. / 62, 5 (tirig): KB esen bol 1190; esen enč tirilğil ‘live in good health and tranquillity’ 1948; a.o.o.: xııı (?) At. eseninde ‘in his lifetime’ 263: xıv Muh. al-WH'rt//î‘hcalthy, well’ esen Mel. 56, 3 ; Rif. 154: Čağ. xv ff. esen sahih ıva salim ‘safe and sound', also spelt esen San. 40V. 14; esen ditto 104V. 21: Kip. xııı al-selim esen Hou. 26, 7; a.o. in P.N. 29, 13: xıv ditto Id. 13 Osm. xıv ff. esen ‘in good health, sound’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 276; II 397; /// 264; IV 307.

D esin (breeze, gentle wind) Intrans. Dev. N. fr. 1 es- (blow (wind), winnow); ‘breeze, gentle wind’. Common in Xak., but rare elsewhere; survives only (?) in NE ezin Tel. R I 894 and Tuv. and SW xx Anat. esin SDD 550. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (just as a fire) yelig \\\ esinig (asiniz) basutčısı bulııp ‘when it finds a wind or breeze as its helper’ U II 9, 5:xiv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. hsi feng ‘a gentle wind’ (Giles 4,163 3,554) esin boldı R I 894; Ligeti 135: Xak. xı esin al-nasim ‘a breeze’ Kaš. I 77; five o.o.: KB 65 (erinčig).

(S)D osan See osa:l (negligent, idle; negligence, idleness).

Dis. V. ASN-

D asın- Refl. f. of as- (hang, suspend); ‘to hang (something Acc.) on, or for, oneself’; later ‘to hang (Intrans.), to be hung up, or suspended’. Survives in NE azın- Leb., Šor ‘to be hung up’; Tel. ‘to cook’ (i.e. ‘to hang something over the fire for oneself'); NC Kır., Kzx. asın- 'to hang (e.g. a rifle) on oneself’. (Türkü vııı (we went along down that river and) asınğalı: tüšür:timiz Met the men dismount to cook’ T 27 (Aalto’s translation, but the word should be read ašanğalı: ‘to eat’): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. yincülüg morwantla:r asnaphanging pearl necklaces (P) on oneself’ TT VIII 1.17 (so transcribed but ?read morwartla:r and connect with Pe. manverid ‘pearl’); it tıšin kenč oğlan asinsar ‘if a young boy hangs a dog’s tooth on himself’ Tİ' VII 23, 2: Xak. xı KB (serve me with timely loyalty) kapuğda asunğıl (sic) maga bol yakın ‘station yourself at (my) door and be near me’ 595.

D asın- Refl. f. of as- (cook)

D esin- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of 2 es- (stretch). Xak. xı at esindi: ‘the horse pulled (ntadda) on the rope in order to get loose and almost broke it’ Kaš. I 201 (no Aor. or Infin.).

D isin- Refl. f. of isi:- (hot); ‘to warm oneself, be warm’; metaph. ‘to have warm feelings, be friendly to, or fond of (someone Dat.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g. with the same variations between front and back vowels as isi:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. But), isinmck amranmak sav ‘words of affection and love’ IIiicn-ts. 1953-4: Xak. xı men aga:r isindim ahbabtuhu ‘I was fond of Jim’; and one says ol o:tka: isindi: ‘he warmed himself (ištale) at the lire’; and one says ol kü:n isindi: ‘he basked (tašarraqa) in the sun’ Kaš. I 201 (isinü:r, isinme:k; sic in MS.): KB isin- ‘to become friendly, genial, gratified (by something Dat.)' is common, e.g. 106, 2179, 2479, 4220, etc.; in 4701 two MSS. have ısınmak and one isinmek:xiv Muh. hamiya ‘to be hot’ i:sin- Mel. 25, 12; isi:n- Rif. 108; dafi'a ‘to be warm’. i:sin- 26, 5; 109: Čağ. xv ff. ısın- (sic) garm šudan ‘to be hot’ San. 101 v. 28 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv VU isin- ‘to become warm, hot’ Qutb 61, 206 (ısın-); MN 49: Kom. xıv ‘to warm oneself’ issin- CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı dafi'a isin- Hou. 36, 14: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 16a. 7.

D osan- (negligent, listless, dreary, revulsion, tired of) Refl. f. of *osa:-; ‘to be negligent, listless’, and the like. Survives only (?) in NW Krtm osan- R I 1139 and SW Osm. usan-, Xak. xı KB osanma ‘do not be negligent’ is common, 1093, 1106, 1274-8, etc.; other forms 1141, 1237, 1449: xııı (?) At. (I send my greetings to the Prophet’s four Companions) olardın osanmak kačan ol maga ‘how \249\ could I possibly neglect them?’ 32; o.o. 103, 309 (1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak)): xıv Muh. tama/te (e.g. of the day) ‘to be long and drearyosan- Mel. 24, 9; Rif. 10e: al-tamatfe osanmak 36, 3; 121 ; nl-malel ‘to be listless, peevish’ o:sa:nmak 38, 1 ; 124; al-ğafla ‘to be negligent’ ditto 124 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ofcan- (spelt) bî-zer šudan wa nafrat kardan ‘to be listless, and feel revulsion’ San. 74r. 18 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv osan- ‘to be tired of (something Abl.)' Qutb 200 (usan-): Kip. xv malla osan- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 35b. 11.

Tris. V. ASN-

D esne:- (yawn, blow) Den. V. fr. esin; properly ‘to blow gently’, but usually metaph. ‘to yawn’. S.i.a.m.l.g., much distorted in NE (este-/eze-) Türkü vııı ff. esnegen bars men ‘I am a yawning leopard’ IrkB 10: Xak. xı esin esnetdi: tanassa?na’l-nasim ‘the breeze blew gently’; and one says er esne:di: ‘the man yawned’ (t a te'aba) Kaš. I 288 (esne:r, esne:me:k); o.o. II 223, 9; III 147, 13: xıv Mr//ı. (?) tate'aba esne:- Rif. 105 (only): Čağ. xv ff. Esnedi uykusı geldi, esnedi ‘to feel sleepy, to yawn’ Vel. 60; esne- (spelt) dahan dara kardan ‘to yawn’, in Ar. tate’ub San. io4r. 20 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ‘to yawn’ esne-CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-tate'ub esne:mek (misvocalized tis-) IIou. 32, 2; tate'aba esne:- do. 38, 18: xv al-tate'ub Esnemek Kav. 61, 14; tate'aba esne- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9a. 10.

VU ösne:- (resemble) ‘to resemble’. Pec. to Kaš.; in the Caus. f. the Infin. is spelt with -ma:k. Cf. 1 oxša:-. Xak. xı bi:r ne:g bhrke: ösne:di: ‘one thing resembled (šebaha) another’ Kaš. I 288 (ö:sne:r (sic), ösne:me:k); ka:dka: tükel ösneyü: ‘exactly like a snowstorm’ II 223, 10; III 147, 14.

D esnet- (yawn, blow) Caus. f. of esne:- (yawn, blow) in both meanings. S.i.a.m.ll. Xak. xı teŋri: esin esnetti: ‘Gol made the breeze blow gently’ (nassama't--nasîın); and one says ye:k anı: esnetti: ‘the devil made him yawn’ Kaš. I 266 (esnetür, esnctme:k): Čağ. xv ff. esnct- Caus. f.; dahan dara kunemdan ‘to make (someone) yawn’ San. 104V. 6 (quotn.).

VUD ösnet- (resemble) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of ösne:- (resemble) Xak. xı men agar ösnettüm (sic) šabbah-tuhu bihi tea zanantu annahu hmva ‘I compared him to him, and thought that he was him’ Kaš. I 267 (ösnetür, osnatma:k?).

VU ?D asgar- (stop) Hap. leg.; dissyllabic and with back vowels, but the only vowel shown is fatha once on the alif. Apparently an Intrans. Den. V.; apart from the question whether the word is old enough, it could be a Den. V. fr. osag (osa:l). Xak. xı er asgardi: haruna'I--racul mina'l- 'amal wa calasa ‘the man stopped (work) on the affair and sat down’ Kaš. I 289 (asgara:r, asgarma:k).

Tris. ASN

PUD osa:nuk (careless, listless)careless, listless’; a comparison between the forms in KB and the other, authorities suggests that the original form was osa:nuk for *osa:nyuk, and that it is a Dev. N./A. fr. osan- (negligent, listless, dreary, revulsion, tired of); cf. bulğanuk and sarkinuk. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı osa:yuk er al-raculu’l-ğefil ‘a careless, or negligent man’ Kaš. I 160 (MS. faint at this point, osa:nuk is a possible reading): KB osayuk bu yafguk bflfr ölgüsin özindin ketermez osallik usin ‘this man is negligent, he knows that he will die but does not shake off from himself the sleep of negligence (or indolence)’ 6075; a.o. 3568 (serimsiz): xııı (?) Tef. osanukcareless’ (and osanukluk gafla) 332: xıv Muh. (}) al-tağeful (? for al-mutağefil) o:sa:nuk Rif. 148 (Mel. 52, 7 u:nutmak).

D esengü: (security) A.N. fr. esen (healthy, sound; safe); ‘security’ and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kamağ teŋri yiriğe esengüsin berdi ‘he gave his security to all the countries of the gods’ M I 12, 1-2; esengü ögrünčü ‘security and joy’ M III 43, 2 (ii); a.o. M 7 27, 11 ff. (alkıš): Bud. esengü bitig ‘a letter of security, safe conduct (?)’ Hüen-ts. 1819, 1863, etc.

D esengülüg (pеacе, security) P.N./A. fr. esengü: (security); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (then the Buddha) enčgülüg esengülüg ermekig kilu yarlikadi ‘deigned to create a state of pеacе and security’ (for the merchants) Tiš. 22b. 8.

D esenlik (good health, soundness, security) A.N. fr. esen (healthy, sound; safe); ‘good health, soundness, security’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı KB esenlik tilese ‘if (you) wish to be safe’ 169, 964: Xwar. xıv esenlik ‘security, prosperity’ Qutb 22: Kip. xıv esenlik (? sic, text eselik) al-salem (? for al-salema ‘security, good health’) Id. 14 ; al-salema esenlik Bul. 6, 1: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19a. 4: Osm. xv ff. esenlik normally ‘greetings, good wishes’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 277; II 399; 777 265 ; IV 308.

Tris. V. ASN-

D osandur- (bore, sicken, disgust (someone)) Caus. f. of osan- (negligent, listless, dreary, revulsion, tired of); survives only (?) in SW Osm. usandır ‘to bore, sicken, disgust (someone)’. Xak. xı KB (do not be careless or stay near your enemy; withdraw) yağığ sen osandur am torka yet ‘make the enemy careless and lure him into the net’ 4262: Čağ. xv ff. osandur- Caus. f.; bî-zer kardan ‘to make (someone) listless’ San. 74V. 7.

D esengüle:- (secure) Den. V. fr. esengü: (security); syn. w. esenle:-; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ağır ayamakın esengüleyü üküš köŋül ayıtu: idurbiz ‘We enquire after your health with deep respect and respectfully enquire (after you with ouŋ many thoughts’ Hüen-ts. 1825.

D esenle:- (greet, здороваться) Den. V. fr. esen (healthy, sound; safe); ‘to enquire after (someone’s Dat.) health; to greet (him).’ Survives only (?) in some NE languages (rather distorted) and SW Osm. usually for ‘to bid farewell’. Xak. xı ol maga: esenle:di: hayyeni bi-tahiya wa šefahani ‘he greeted and shook hands with me’ Kaš. I 308 (esenle:r, esenle:me:k): xıv Muh. sallama wa hayye ‘to salute, greet’ esenle:- Mel. 27, 7; Rif. no: Kip. xıv esenle- wadda'a ‘to bid farewell’ Id. \\ 13: Osm. xıv ff. esenle- ‘to bid farewell’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 277; 77 39S; 111 264; IV 308; xvııı esenle-/esenleš- an expression of the Turks of Rüm for ‘to sav farewell’ (wida kardan); the Turks of Tııren say xošlaš-San. 4or. 19.

Tris. V. ASN-

D esenleš- (bid farewell) Recip. f. of esenle:- (greet, здороваться) ; 'to bid farewell to one another’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı KB (when he has passed the age of forty) esenlešti erke yiğitlik tili ‘the tongue of youth has said farewell to a man’ 364; o.o. 5445, 5822: Kip. xııı wadda'a mina’l-wida esenle:š- Hou. 44, 9: Osm. xıv ff. esenleš-‘to bid farewell (to someone He)’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 277; II 398; III 264; IV 308: xvııı see esenle:-.

Dis. ASR

D asra: (below, under, beneath, low, lowly, inferior) abbreviated Adv. fr. 1 ast (bottom, lower surface, beneath); properly an Adv. ‘below, under’, also used as a Postposn. ‘below, beneath’, and an Adj. ‘low, lowly, inferior’. There is a rare Sec. f. isra: cf. anca:/ınča:. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. esre ‘the vowel below the letter’, i.e. kasra and xx Anat. asra ‘beneath’ SDD 120. Türkü vııı üze: kök teŋri: asra: yağız yer kılıntukda: ‘when the blue heaven was crcated above and the brown earth below’ / E 1, II E 2; üze: teŋri:... asra: yer I E 22,11 E 18; II N 10: vııı ff. üze:... asra: IrkB 15, 20, 54, 60: Man. üze o:n kat teŋri asra segİz (sic) kat yer ‘the ten-fold heaven above and the eight-fold earth below’ Chuas. 42-4; a.o. M III 7, 11-12 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. asr|a] köŋülin ‘with humble minds’ TT III 3; asra mansız sakınčlarığ ‘humble, unassuming thoughts’ TT II 17, 68-9: Bud. asrasinda ağnalım ‘let us roll on the ground below (i.e. before) him’ USp. 101, 8: Civ. asra atig y^gedtig ‘you have improved your low reputation’ Tİ' I 7-8; kodi asira (sic) klšiče tutsarmen ‘if I treat him as a low and inferior person' USp. 98, 21-2: Xak. xı asra: a Particle (harf) meaning taht, ‘below’; isra: (glossed bi-kasr ‘with 1-’) a word (kalima) meaning dün delika'l-maken, ‘beneath that place’; hence one says ol andan isra: ol annahu ba'd delika wa dünahu ‘he is after and beneath him’ Kaš. I12e: xııı (?) At. 294 (bus-) Tef. asra ‘below (something Abl.)' 61: Čağ. xv ff. asır (spelt) harakat-i kasra ‘the vowel sign kasra', also called astın (below, beneath, lower, under, upside down) San. 40V. 5; a.o. do. 40V. 2: Xwar. xıv adaklar asra ‘beneath the feet’ Qutb 12; taxtdin asra ‘beneath the throne’ Nahc. 204, 10; asrasinda . . : asrasıdın do. 289, 11-12: Kip. xııı al-aqše ‘farther away’ (opposite to ‘nearer’ besre:) isra: Hou. 56, 21: xıv ıšra: aqše td. 15: xv awwal antis ‘the day before yesterday’ asra kün Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 5a. 5 (cf. asra:kı:): Osm. xıv toxvi asra/isra as Adv., Adj., and Postposn., also israsmda, in several texts TTS I 46; 7/59! 777 42; IV 4A.

S asru See ašru:. (very much, extremely)

esri: (spotted, dappled)spotted, dappled’, hence various kinds of dappled felines, ‘leopard’, and the like. \\\ N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. ürüŋ esri: toğan kuš men ‘I am a white spotted falcon’ IrkB 4; also applied to a cow and calf do. 41, and a mountain goat do. 49 (1 ımğa:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ikİnti esri atlığ ‘the second (kind of swelling) is called mottled’ 77 II 22, 18-19: Xak. xı esri: al-namir ‘leopard’ (and other similar felines); and any ‘black and white (mubliq) rope’ is called esri: yıšığ; and anything ‘of two colours’ (dû lawnayn) is called esri: because it is like a leopard Kaš. I 12e: KB (an army commander must have the heart of a lion and) karıštukta esri bileki kerek ‘and in close conflict a wrist like a leopard’s’ 2310; esrig ıtıg ‘your hunting leopard and your dog’ 5379: (Čağ. xv ff. esrl ‘lynx, snow leopard’ P. de C. 111 only): Tkm. xıv esri: al-fahd ‘lynx, hunting leopard’ td. 13.

S ısra: See asra:. (below, under, beneath, low, lowly, inferior)

D ısrık prima facie abbreviated Dev. N. fr. ısır- (bite, eat), but Kaš.'s explanation suggests that it was originally the Imperat. of *isrik- Emphatic Pass. f. of ısır-. Survives in SE Türki ısrık ‘incense used in driving out evil spirits’ K. Menges, Volkskundliche Texte aus Ost-Turkistan, SPAW, 1933; xxxıı 12; NC Kır. ısrık ‘wild rue (herb)’; SW Osm. ısırık/ısrık ‘a bite, the mark left by a bite’. Xak. xı ısrık ‘a word used when treating boys suffering from an ulcer on the head or the evil eye’ (mina'l-sa'fa awi’l-'avn); the patient’s face is fumigated with incense and one says isrik isrik, that is kun ma'dtld ye cimii ‘be bitten, oh evil spirit’ Kaš. I 99.

(D) usrik (slumber) Hap. leg.; etymology obscure but ultimately der. fr. u: (sleep). Xak. xı usrik al-wasnati mina'1-nes, ‘of people, slumbering’ Kaš. I 99.

D osruk (fart) abbreviated Pass. Dev. N. fr. osur- (fart); ‘fart, flatus ventris'. S.i.s.m.l.g., usually as osuruk; to be distinguished fr. osurak (osurğak) ‘one who frequently breaks wind (farter, пердун)’, first noted in Kip. xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 12b. 8; 47b. 12 and also s.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı osruk al-rudem ‘fart’ Kaš. I 99: Kip. xv (in Grammatical Section) osruk osurdi Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 83b. 7.

D esrük (drunk, intoxicated; drunkenness) abbreviated Pass. N./A.S. fr. esür- (drunk, intoxicated); 'drunk, intoxicated; drunkenness’. S.i.a.m.l.g. in several forms, often trisyllabic. Türkü vııı ff. Man. esrükin biligsizin üčün ‘because of his drunkenness and folly’ M15,4; o.o. do. 6, 16; 6, 2r (1 adın-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. tegirmi tam ičinde esrük boldug ‘you have become drunk within an encircling wall’ TT I 57-8: Xak. xı esrük af-sakren ‘intoxicated’ Kaš. I 105; o.o. 7 63 (2 adığ (sober)); I 194 (adıl-) etc.: KB İcut esrüki šüčig esrükinde batar ‘intoxication with good fortune is worse (Pe. l.-w.) than alcoholic intoxication’ 6141; a.o. 4586 (axsumla:-): xııı (?) Tef. ditto 8e:xiv Muh. al-sakren esrük Mel. 55, 1; Rif. 152: Čağ. xv ff. üsrük (sic) mast ‘intoxicated’ Vel. 107; üsrük mast wa ma xııı ür ditto San. 75r. 19 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv esrük ‘intoxicated’ Qutb 22; ‘mejting’ (eyes) MN 347: \251\ Kip. xıı al-sakren (opposite to ‘sober’ ayık) esrük IIou. 26, 15: xıv ditto td. 13: xv al-sakren esrik Kav. 63, 6; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19a. 1; 48a. 3: Osm. xıv (once) eslrik; xıv to xvıı esrük; xvı ff. esrik ‘intoxicated’; metaph. ‘mad’ TTS I 281; II 403; III 268; IV 311.

D ısrım (scorner, biter) Hap. leg.; abbreviated N.S.A. fr. ısır- (bite, eat), Xak. xı ısrım kiši: al-raculu’l-mutaqabbičlu’l-qatüb 'a wrinkled and frowning man’ Kaš. I 107.

Dis. V. ASR-

asur- (sneeze) 'to sneeze’. It is surprising that this is the oldest form of what is presumably an onomatopoeic verb, which became axsur- in the medieval period and s.i.m.m.l.g. mainly in the latter or similar forms like apsir- (NF.) and agsir- (NW, SW). A similar verb öksür- ‘to cough’ was common in the medieval period and also s.i.s.m.l., sometimes metathesized to ösktir-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. asursar ‘if one sneezes’ TT VII 35, 2 ff. (many occurrences): Xak. xı er asurdi: ‘the man sneezed’ ('atasa) Kaš. I 178 (asurur, asurma:k); bu: cr ol telim asurğa:n ‘this man is constantly sneezing’ / 15e: xıv Muh. (?) ’atasa axsu:r- Rif. 113 (only); al-sa'el ‘to cough’ axurmak (unvocalized, ? error for axsurmak) 123; al-'ates aksurmak (? ; alif unvocalized, first -k- kef; might be intended for öksürmek) 124: Kip. xııı 'atasa aksur-Hou. 36, 10; xıv (Tkm.?) akšur- 'atasa-, in Kıp. čüčkür- (with cims) Id. 17; 'atasa akšur- Bul. 63V.: Osm. xrv to xvı axsur-/ agsir- in several texts TTS 113; II18; III 9; IV 11.

(? D) esür- (drunk, intoxicated) ‘to be, or become, drunk, intoxicated’, lit. or metaph. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (just as great kings like Ajata-sastru and Kaniška) erk türkljeri] megin esürüp ‘being intoxicated by the joys of independence and maturity’ (committed grievous sins) TT IV 4, 4 and note (tentative reconstruction of the text in one MS.): Civ. (if one puts dried partridge’s spleen in wine or beer, however much a man drinks) esürmez ‘he does not get intoxicated’ HI 53: Xak. xı KB (how many things that ought to be done remain undone when a man drinks wine) neče kılmağu iš esürse kelür ‘how many things that ought not to be done are done if he is drunk’ 2101; o.o.2102,6i4o (axsumla:-), 6142: xıv Muh. sakira 'to be, or become, drunk’ esri- (sic) Mel. 27, 5; esrü- Rif. no; al-sakr esri:mek 37, 12 (mis-spelt mak); 123 (mis-spelt emrimak): Čağ. xv ff. üsürgen (sic) mast olan ‘being drunk’ Vel. 107 (quotn.); üsrü- (so spelt) mast šudan wa masti kardan; also spelt esri-, but as ‘drunk’ is üsrük the first is more correct San. 74V. 7 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv esri-/esrü- ‘to be, or become, drunk’ Qutb 22: Kom. xıv ‘to be drunkesir- CCG; Gr. 94 (quotn.): Kip. xıv esri- sakira Id. 13: xv sakira esir- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20a. 8: Osm. xıv ff..esir-/esri- ‘to be drunk’; metaph. 'to be mad’; both forms c.i.a.p. TTS I 279; II 401; III 267; IV 311.

ısır- (bite, eat) ‘to bite’. Survives in some NE and SW languages. Xak. xı it ısırdı: ‘the dog (etc.) bit’ ('adda) Kaš. I 178 (ısırur, ısırma’; prov.); ısırğa:n it ‘a biting ('aquŋ dog’ 1 156; o.o. I 163, 18; II 329, 13: xıv Muh. ’adda ısır- Mel. 29, 3; Rif. 112; al-add ısırmak 36, 13; yısırmak 122: Čağ. xv ff. ısur- (-an, -ğan) yemek ye- ‘to eat’ Vel. 59 (quotn.); ısır- (spelt) ba-dandün gazidan ‘to bite’, and metaph. xwurdan ‘to eat’; but the latter is the more usual San. 102V. 29 (quotn.): Tkm. xıv ısır- 'adda td. 15: xv 'adda (in Kıp. tišle-) ašra- (corrected in margin to ısır-) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 25b. 10.

osur- (fart) ‘to fart, break wind’. Like other indecorous words omitted in some authorities (e.g. Sam.) but prob. s.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı er osurdı: r a dama' l-racul ‘the man broke wrind’ Kaš. I 178 (osurur, osurma:k); bu: er ol osurğa:n ‘this man is constantly breaking wind’ (darret) I 15e: xıv Muh. (?) axraca rih ‘to let out wind’ osu:r- Rif. 102 (only): Kip. xııı darata ošır- Hou. 36, 11: xrv ošurdarata; osurmak al-daret wa'l-fusd’ both 'a loud and a silent fart’ td. 15: xv darata osur- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23b. 1; 83b. 7 (osruk).

PUD ösür- (scream) if correctly read a Caus. f. of ös-, q.v.; but it occurs only once in the Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. phr. ünlerin ösürüp apparently ‘raising their voices’ in a text first published in U I 43, 17-18 and republished in U IV 10, 52-3; in the latter the second word is printed in italics as doubtful. It is almost certainly an error for üntürüp. If so there is no good reason for supposing that ös- is not a Mong. verb, used as a l.-w. in some Turkish languages.

D asurt- (snuff, smell) Caus. f. of asur- (sneeze). Survives only (?) n NE Bar. azırt- R I 569: Xak. xı asurtğu: ot al-'atûs ‘snuff’ Kaš. III 442; n.m.e.

D esürt- (intoxicate, drunk, напоить) Cus. f. of esür- (drunk, intoxicated), ‘to intoxicate (someone Acc.)'. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı süčig anı: esürtti: ‘the wine intoxicated him’ (askarahu) Kaš. III 427 (esürtür, esürtme:k) KB esürtmesü dawlat seni ‘do not let good fortune intoxicate you’ 6137; a.o. 6143: Xwar. xıv üsrüt- (sic?) ditto MN 218; esürt- Nahc. 363, 2: Kom. xıv ‘to intoxicate’ esirt- CCG; Gr. 94 (quotn.): Osm. xv andxvi esrit- (sic) ditto TTS III 269; IV 311.

D ısırt- (bite, eat) Caus. f. of ısır- (bite, eat); ‘to make, or let (someone Dat.) bite (something Acc.)’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak., Tuv. ızırt-; SW Osm. ısırt-, Xak. xı ol agar etme:k ısırttı: ‘he made him bite (a'addahu) the bread’ (etc.); also used of anyone who makes someone bite something Kaš. III 428 (ısırtu:r, isirtma:k).

D ısrıl- (bitten, nipped) Pass. f. of ısır- (bite, eat) ‘to be bitten’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. Xak. . xı \252\ etme:k ısrıldı: ‘the bread (etc.) was bitten’ ('udda) Kaš. I 247 (ısrılur, ısrılma:k).

Dis. V. ASR-

D ısrın- (rage, tempest) Refl. f. of ısır- (bite, eat) ; survives only (?) in NE Khak., Tuv. ızırın- 'to clench one’s teeth’, etc., and NC Kır. izirm- ‘to fly into a violent rage’. Xak. xı er ısrındı: iki a’azsa'I-racul ğadaba (n) 'ale šay’ 'the man flew into a violent rage about something’; its origin (asluhu) is a cauliflower (al-qunnalnt) or similar vegetable, which, if it is cooked and then before it is finished cooking (cold) water is poured on it, turns hard and cannot be cooked, so also a mild-mannered man, when he becomes violent (ištadda), does the same Kaš. I 251 (ısrınur, isrmma:k).

D asruš- (sneeze) Hap. leg.; Compеt. f. of asur- (sneeze). Xak. xı ikki: er asrušdı: ‘the two men sneezed together (ta'etasa) to see which could sneeze most’ Kaš. I 234 (asrušur, asrušma:k).

D ısrıš- Recip. f. of ısır- (bite, eat); ‘to bite each other’. Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. ızırıš-. Xak. xı ikki: adğır birle: ısrıštı: ‘the two stallions bit each other’ (ta'adda)] also used for helping and competing Kaš. I 234 (ısrıšu:r, ısrıšma:k); a.o. I 285, 14.

D osruš- (fart) Hap. leg.; Compet. f. of osur- (fart), Xak. xı ola:r ikki: osrušdı: ‘those two competed in breaking wind’ (fVl-ruddm) Kaš. I 234 (osrušur, osrušma:k).

Tris. ASR

PUD asırtku: (assertive) Hap. leg.; this word occurs in a section containing trisyllables ending in a long vowel, following asurtğu: and ağartğu: which are headed by the letter -Ğ- and preceding emirčge: which is headed by the letter -K- or -G- (kdf); it is itself headed by the letter -K- (qdf), the spelling in the MS. asırtğuk is therefore obviously wrong and must be corrected to asirtku:. There is a fatlta over the alif, but no vowel sign on the second syllable. Morphologically the word is obscure; -ku: is a very unusual variant of the common suffix -ğu: and there is no semantic connection between the word and any known verb of suitable form. Xak. xı al-raculul--fatimil-muta'dqil, 'a clever, intelligent man’ is called (earlier) asırtku: er Kaš. III 442.

D asurtğu: See asurt-. (snuff, smell)

D asra:kı: (below, under, beneath, low, lowly, inferior) N./A.S. fr. asra: (below, under, beneath, low, lowly, inferior); lit. ‘situated below’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB yeme edgü tutğıl elig asrakığ 'Moreover treat the people under your control well’ (give them food and drink, and provide clothing for them) 4527: xıv Muh. awwal amis ‘the day before yesterday’ ısra:ğı: kü:n Mel. 80, 5 (so vocalized); Rif. 185 (unvocalized): Klp. xııı awtval amis asra:ğu: (sic) kün Hou. 28, 12: xıv ditto yasrağı: (unvocalized, ?for ı:srağı:) kün Bul. 13, 7 (and see asra:): Osm. xıv toxvi asrağı ‘the (day/night) before last’ in several texts TTS II 60; III 42; IV 44. \\\

D esirgenčsiz (unstinting, generous) Priv. N./A. fr. an unrecorded Dev. N. fr. esirgen- (sorrow, regret, grieve); ‘unstinting’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. esirgenčsizin üleyü yarhkatigiz 'you have deigned to distribute unstintingly’ TT III 109: Bud. (giving) esirgenčsiz köŋülin 'with an unstinting mind’ U III ti, 15; 45, 19; a.o. Suv. 169, 13-14 (ökünčsiz).

D esrigü: (spotted, dappled) Den. (?) N./A. fr. esri: (spotted, dappled) and syn. w. that word. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. esrigü öglüg yavlak ört yalın ‘a fierce parti-coloured flame (Hend.)’ U IV 40, 158-9; esrigü körkle tağ segirlig yer orun 'a place (Hend.) with variegated beautiful mountains and projecting rocks’ Tiš 31a. 5-6; o.o. U I 30, 7 (mistranslated); Suv. 71, 19.

Tris. V. ASR-

D esirge:- (pity) Den. V. (?) but not semantically connected with any known word *es; the basic meaning was apparently ‘to regret’ which evolved in two opposite directions; (1) ‘to be sorry for (someone)’; (2) 'to regret parting with (something); to grudge’. Survives in NC Kır., Kzx., and SW Osm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. yırığ taglayu esirgeyü ığlayu ‘admiring the song, pitying him and weeping’ PP 71, 3-4: Xak. xı ol eslrge:di: ne:gni: tahassara 'aid fawti'l-šay wa taassafa ‘he regretted the loss of the thing and was distressed’ Kaš. I 306 (esirge:r esirge:me:k): Čağ. xv ff. esirgediriğ ddštan ‘to grudge, withhold’ San. i03r. 16 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv esirge- ‘to pity (someone Acc.)’ Qutb 22: Kom. xıv ditto GCG; Gr. 94 (quotn.): Kip. xıv eslrgerahima ‘to pity’ Id. 13: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 17b. 3: Osm. xıv ff. esirge- ‘to pity’; c.i.a.p.; the second translation ‘to protect’ is less common TTS I 278; II 400; III 266; IV 310; xvııı after Čağ. entry; ‘and in Rûmî rahm kardan San. io3r. 16.

D esirgen- (sorrow, regret, grieve) Refl. f. of esirge:- (pity); survives onlv (?) in SW Osm. Türkü vııı ff. Man. M III 21, 3 (i) (ağı:): Xak. xı ol tava:rıga: esirgendi: ta’assafa 'aid dahdb mdlihi ‘he regretted the loss of his property’ Kaš. I 291 (esirgenü:r, esirgenme:k).

D isirken- (blush) Refl. Dev. V. fr. isi:- (hot); ‘to come out in heat spots’. Survives in NE Khak., Tuv. izirgen- ‘to feel hot’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. uzatı kurıma:k isirke:nme:k bu:šma:klık bolor ‘there is a prolonged feeling of being parched, a heat rash and irritability’ TT VIII 1.e: Xak. xı anıp bašı: isirkendi: xaracat min ra’sihi buttir bi-hardra li-till tarki’l-halq ‘heat spots came out on his head because he had failed to shave it for a long time’ Kaš. I 290 (isirkenü:r, isirkenme:k): Čağ. xv ff. ısırğan-mak ‘to blush for shame’ Vel. 58 (supported by a quotn. containing ısırğan-dırdı (his boundless favours) ‘made him blush’).

D esri:le:- (spot, dapple) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. esri: (spotted, dappled). Xak.xi ol kidizni: esri:le:di: naqaša’l-libd wa \\ tvaše 'alayhi ka-lavinVl-namir ‘he embroidered the felt with a pattern like the colours of a leopard’ Kaš. I 316 (esri:le:r, esri:le:me:k).

Dis. V. ASŠ-

D asiš- (hang, suspend) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of as- (hang, suspend). Xak. xı ol maga: et asıšdı: ‘he helped me to hang (/? ta'liq) the meat on a stake’ Kaš. I ı84 (asıšu:r, asıšma:k).

D esiš- (stretch) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of 2 es- (stretch), Xak. xı ol maga: yip esišdi: 'he helped me to stretch (ft madd) the cord’; also used for competing Kaš. I185 (esišü:r, esišmejk; sic in MS.).

D isiš- (hot) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of isi:- (hot). Xak. xı lsišdi: ne:g ‘the thing became hot (harra), in the sense that the heat penetrated (ta'addd) all parts of it’ Kaš. I 185 (isišü:r, isišme:k; sic in MS.).

Tris. ASY

S osa:yuk See osa:nuk.

Dis. ASZ

VU essiz (alas) an Exclamation, ‘alas’; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı essiz kalima talahhuf ‘a word expressing sorrow’, like yd asafd ‘alas’; hence one says essiz amg yigitliki: yd lahfd 'aid šabdbihi ‘alas for his youth’ Kaš. I 143; o.o. 11 188, 12; III 51 (yiğitlik): xıv Muh. al-asaf dsiz (mis-spelt e:seŋ Mel. 83, 9; Rif. 189: (Čağ. xv ff- (?) the word is listed three times in ŠS; (1) essiz hayf, afsus ‘alas’ 12; esbiz (sic, an obvious error) ditto 13; esiz ditto (also ‘sleep, dream’) 51, the first and last illustrated by quatrains of unknown authorship and date).

PU (? D) ısı:z/issiz (evil, bad)evil, bad’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. betge:či: isi:z yavi:z kul ‘the scribe, (your) bad, useless servant’ Tun. IV 10-11 (ETY II 96): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A isiz kergeksiz yančalaglar ‘bad and useless ones, may you be crushed’ MI 9, 12: Bud. isiz yaviz (gap) U II 23, 23-4: Xak. xı isi:z (in a section headed fa'dljfa'til) al-a'ram mina l-sibydn ‘of a boy, unruly’ Kaš. I 122; (in a section headed fa"ûl) al-waqihu I--ğadddru'l-xalı'u'l-'iderVl-šarrir ‘an impudent, perfidious man who has thrown off all shame and is very wicked’ is called issiz kiši:; the double -ss- connotes excess (al-mubdlağa) I 142; edgü: i:si:z katma:s ‘good and bad (al-rad') don’t mix’ I 386, 24; a.o. II 117 (tilik-): KB edgü isiz 235; 246 (atık-) and many o.o.: xııı (?) At. isiz (sometimes spelt esiz) ‘bad’ is common; Tef. esiz (sic?) ‘bad; harm’ 84.

D u:su:z Priv. N./A. fr. u:; ‘sleepless’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. usuz küčsüz bolur ‘he cannot sleep and loses strength’ TT VIII I.S’ Xak. xı u:su:z kiši: al-šaqaden ‘a sufferer from insomnia’ Kaš. I 122: KB 2314 (ügi:).

Tris. ASZ

D isizlik A.N. fr. isi:z; ‘badness, wickedness’. Pec. to Xak.; NC Kır. e:sizdik and SW Osm. isizlik/ıssızlık ‘an uninhabited, desolate place’ are not connected but are erases of idisizlik, see idisiz. Xak. xı isizlik al-šarr ‘wickedness’ Kaš. I 152; three o.o. KB isizlik učuz ol ‘wickedness is worthless’ 901; a.o.o.

Tris. V. ASZ-

D isizlen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. İ8i:z. Xak. xı o:ğ!a:n lsizlendi: ‘the boy was unruly ('aruma)' Kaš. I 293 (isizlenür, İ8izlenme:k).

Mon. AŠ

1 a:š (food)food’ in a broad sense. S.i.a.m.l.g.; see Doerfer II 481; from the medieval period onwards liable to be confused with Persian eš ‘soup, porridge’. Türkü vııı ff. ta:ttğlığ a:š ‘savoury food’ Toyok III ir. 6-7 (ETY II 178): Man. aš ičkü ‘food and drink’ Chuas. 56; özüt ašığa ‘for the meal (dedicated to) the spirits’ TT II 10, 7e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A as (sic) ičkü MI 16, 2 and 6; megin ašın ‘their bird-seed and food’ do. 36, e: Bud. aš ‘food’ is very common, e.g. Suv. 168, 23 (adut); PP 19, 6; 28, 3; Hüen-ts. 169, etc.: Civ. aš ‘food’ is common in TT VII, H II, and USp.: Xak. xı a:š al-ta'dm ‘food’ Kaš. I 80; and many o.o., usually spelt aš: KB ton aš ‘clothing and food’ 321; o.o. 1054, 4587, etc.: xııı (?) At. šareb aš ‘drink and food’ 297; a.o. 329: Tef. aš ‘food’ 6e: xıv Muh. al-fa'am aš Mel. 41, 14; Rif. 132, 164: Čağ. xv ff. aš ta'dm San. 41 v. 22: Xwar. xııı (}j yig et aš sürme (sorma) ‘raw meat, food, and wine’ Oğ. 10: xıv aš ‘food’ Qutb 13; MN 10; Nahc. 28, 13-14: Kom. xıv ‘food’ aš CCI, CCG; Gr. 43 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al - ta'dm aš; and you say to someone who has eaten and drunk aš bolsun, that is yakün šihha ‘good health’ Hou. 15, 13: xıv aš al-ta’dm İd. 14; al-tabix ‘cooked food’ aš Bul. 7, 15: xv al-ta'dm aš Kav. 15, 19; 31, 3; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23b. 10; šŋıhata (n) aš bolsun do. 22b. 4: Osm. xıv ff! aš ‘food’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 48; II 63; 7/7 43 5 IV 46.

2 a:š (food (container repair)) Hap. leg.; but see 2 ašla:-. Xak. xı (after 1 a:š (food)) and ru’batu'l-ind ‘the repair of a vessel’ is called (sic); hence one says ayak ašla: ‘repair the goblet’ Kaš. I 80.

e:š (companion, comrade, spouse, one’s equal, friend, connected) (espausa > spouse) primarily ‘companion, comrade’, with some special applications like ‘spouse’ (wife or husband) and ‘one’s equal’, i.e. someone of the same rank, quality, etc. as oneself. The theory that the Suff. of the N. of Association -da:š/-de:š is a crasis of -da:/-de: e:š is plausible. Like many short words, hard to identify but prob. s.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü (vııı the passages in which this word has been read are better explained otherwise; bilig eši: and čav eši: in T 7; Ix. 17 as bilgesi: čavušı: and eš eri: erkin in Ix. 21 as Širi: erkin): vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 197-8 (adaš): Uyğ. \\ vııı ff. Bud. eš usually occurs in the I lends, eš adaš TT VIII 11.4; U IV 44 ff. (adaš), and eš tuš e.g. ešiğe tušıga kasığa kadašıga ‘to his comrades (Hend.), family and kinsmen’ TT VII 40, 83-5; o.o. TT IV 6, 21; PP 53, 4-5 etc.: Civ. eš tuš TT I 48; edgü kılınčlığ ešlerke ınanmağmča ‘without trusting virtuous comrades’ do. 79-80; išimiz USp. 14, 5: O. Kır. ıx ff. ešim Mal. 2, 1, and 16, 2 (?); ešime: (twice) do. 51, 3: Xak. xı e:š al-šdhib ‘comrade’ Kaš. I 47 (verse); a.o. translated al-šdhib tva'l-raftq ‘comrade, companion’ 1 458, 13: KB both 49, 75 (ünde:-) 165, etc. and eš tuš 500, 1694, 2254, 3784 (eči:) etc. are common: xııı (?) At. ‘comrade’ is common; Tef. ditto 8e: xıv Muh. e:š al-raftq wa'l-sadiq (‘friend’) is mentioned as one of the words in which ye is pronounced e Mel. 5, 7; Rif. 76; o.o. 6, 6; 49, 15; 77, 111, 144: Čağ. xv ff. eš eš ve yoldaš aqrdn ve amtel ma'nesina ‘comrade, travelling companion in the sense of equals (Hend.)’ Vel. 60; (‘with e-’) sulh wa irtibet ‘peace, connection’; hence ikisin bir birike ile rabtida ‘connected’ eš boidılar marbût südand ‘they were connected’ San. ioev. 5 (in Vel. e:š is connected with 4 eš- (2 es- (stretch)), and this seems to have caused a misunderstanding in San.): Xwar. xıv ‘comrade’ Qutb 52: Kom. xıv eš al-rafiq Id. 14; Bid. 9, e: Osm. xıv ff. ‘spouse, friend’ in several texts TTS I 282; u 403.

1 i:š (? 1 ı:š) (affair, thing, deed, work, labor) basically ‘work, labour’; hence ‘something done, a deed’ and, more indefinitely, ‘affair’ and ‘thing’ in a semiabstract sense. In Kaš. consistently spelt ı:š, which is perhaps the original form, almost everywhere else, both earlier and later, i:š. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı išig küčig ber- ‘to give one's services to (someone Dat.)’ IE 8, 9, 10 (77 E 8, 9, 10); IIE 14; T 52; Origin 5, 6 (išig ber-), io, 11: vııı ff. yeme: ne iš yarlı:ğ yarh:ka:sar kop[ka:] iši: yori:k bolğay ‘and whatever work he orders to be done, the work will be completely successful’ Toy. 18-20 (ETY II 58:) Man. išig neče Išledimiz erser ‘whatever we have done’ Chuas. 115-16; iške küdügke tıltanıp ‘making the excuse (?) that we were busy’ do. 267; a.o. 297: Uyğ. vııı išig küčig ber- Šu. E 5; the meaning of iš in E 11, 12; S 1 is obscure, but it is unlikely to be eš as suggested by Orkun: vııı ff. Man.-A ayduk isegezen (s/c) tüketi isledemez ‘we have done all the work that you ordered’ M I 10, 13; (just as a craftsman) is isleyü umaz ‘cannot work with’ (unserviceable materials) do. 16, 14: Man. ıšın barča kodur ‘he stops work completely’ M I 17, 2: edgü kılmčlığ ıšlarığ (sic) ıšlaltıgız ‘you have caused good works to be done' TT İII 80; o.o. TT II 16, 44-5 (ıšlar küdügleŋ; TT 77/ 68; M III 34, 2: Bud. iš (always so spelt?) is common in all its usual meanings; iš küdüg also occurs frequently and Seems to mean ‘affairs, undertakings’ or the like, e.g., sidl tegme išig küdügüg ‘undertakings called siddhi’ U I 34, 17; o.o. TT V 20, 9; 24, 50 etc.: Civ. (corrupt officials) İŠİgln küčügün artatur ‘frustrate your efforts’ TT 1 64-5; a.o. of iš küč TT VII 35, 15; iš küdüg is common, TT I 51, 72, 73, etc.; er kiši er išige ked bolaym teser ‘if a man wishes to be sexually potent’ III 75; iš ‘work’ is common in USp.: Xak. xı ı:š al-amal tva'l-amr ‘work, affair, thing’ Kaš. I 47; ı:š, Acc. ı:šığ, Dat. ı:ška: is very common; i:ške: occurs twice I 132, 27; 77 315, 28: KB iš (so spelt) is common; iš küdüg 161, 1038, etc.: xııı (?) At. iš, Dat. İške, ‘work’ is common; Tef. iš ‘work, affair’ 127: xıv Muh. i:š al-šuğl ‘work, business’ is mentioned as a word in which the ye is pronounced with ‘conspicuous clearness’, i.e. as i: Mel. 5, 13; Rif. 76; o.o. 40, 3; 83, 9; 128, 189; al-'amal i:š 51, 14 (kılmıš 147): Čağ. xv ff. (after öš) iš also means 'war’ (cang) Vel. el(quotns.); iš (1) ker ‘work’ (quotn.); (2) metaph., harb wa kerzer ‘war, conflict’ (quotn.) San. ioev. 2; iš küč a Hend. (az itbe') meaning ker 11 ber ‘business, affairs’ (meaning analysed) ioev. 17; a.o. 303V. 10 (1 kü:č): Xwar. xııı iš ‘work’ 'Ali 32: xıv ditto Qutb 61; MN 73, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘work, business’ iš CCI, CCG; Gr. 107 (quotns.): Kip. xıv iš a!-atnr; i:š al-'amal td. 14; al-šıığliš Bul. 5, 14: xv šuğl iš Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21a. 9: Osm. xıv ff. iš with the usual range of meanings in various phr.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 393~4; H 55°-3; HI 385-8; IV 441-3.

2 iš (ıš) (soot, dirty smoke) 'soot, dirty smoke’; unlike 1 i:š with a short vowel, but with the same uncertainty regarding its quality; the position is complicated by the fact that in the medieval period it became confused with is, a Sec. f. of y:d, q.v. It seems, however, to survive in NE most dialects and Tuv. iš; Khak., Koib., Sag. IS; SE Tar., Türki is; NC Kır. ıš, Kzx. is; SC Uzb. is; NW IS; SW Az. his, Osm. is. Xak. ıš sindcu'l-sirec wa'l-duxdn 'ald'l-hd'it wa ğayrihe ‘lamp-black and smoke marks on walls, etc.’; hence one says to:n ıš boldı: tadaxxana'l-tawb ‘the garment was blackened with soot’ Kaš. I 37.

1 oš (psst, here, now, (look here, listen now), thus, emphatic: look, see here) (this, that) an exclamation used to call attention to something or someone, ‘look, see here’, and the like. Not noted as an independent word after about xvi, but fr. about xııı fused with the Demonstrative Prons. ol ‘that’ and bu: ‘this’ to add emphasis to them. These fused forms s.i.a.m.l.g. except NE (?), often much distorted, e.g. in Osm. they have become šu and išbu (this, that). Xak. xı a Particle (harf) meaning hdkadd ‘thus’; hence one says mundağ ki:I ‘do thus’; a Particle meaning al-dn, ‘now, this very moment’; hence one says keldüküm bu: hudûrl al-en ‘I have just arrived’ Kaš. I 36; o.o. 77 45, 27; 128, 7: KB occasionally occurs as an Exclamation, e.g. ay bilge özüm tapuğčı senJg ‘oh wise man, I myself, see, am your servant’ 203, but usually in the phr. oš ol 565, etc.; bu 202, 984, etc.; xııı (?) At. anın ‘for that reason, seel’ 473; Tef. translates wa la-qad ‘and indeed’; ošol, ošbu (and even ošbu anlar), \\ ošanlar 240, 334 (uš), 335: Čağ. xv ff. ism-i išara ‘a word used to call attention’ (quotn.); also used for emphasis (birdyi mubelağa) before the Demonstrative Prons. ošbu in ‘this’ and ošal enthat’ San. 75V. 24; ošol/ošal ol neme ve ol kimesne ‘that thing or person’ Vel. 107-8; ošal (spelt) shortened and corrupt form of oš ol en San. 75V. 28 (quotns.); ošol en. do. 761. 7 (quotns.); ošanča do. 7er. 2; ošandak do. 7Ör. 3; ošbu in do. 7er. 4; ošmunča do. y (n. e: Xwar. xııı (?) ošol and ošbu are common in Oğ. and ošu and šol occur once each: xıv emdi ‘now at once’ Qutb 120; ‘see’ MN27, etc.; Nahc. 104, 9; ošol and ošbu a ft common Qutb 120: Kip. xıv (‘with back vowel’) he’u’-llati li’l-tanbih ‘an exclamation to call attention’ Id. 14; he huwa dd ‘hi there!’ oš/ošta, like the Ar. tanwin (as in example quoted); also in the meaning a-'indak fi'1-istifhem ‘do you understand?’ Bui. 15, 15: xv harfu’l--tanbih o:š Kav. 73, 4: Osm. as an exclamation is common fr. xıv to xvı TTS I 749; II 957; III 735; IV 807 (transcribed üš); šol existed fr. xıv to xvıı, Plur. šular till xvı šunlarthereafter’ / 665 ff.; II 866 ff.; III 656 ff.; IV 724 ff.; ošbu occurred fr. xıv toxvi and išbu fr. xıv onwards (but apparent early examples may be due to later scribes); ošbulathus’, ošbunčaso much’ are noted in xıv I 392, 750; II 958; III 736; IV 808.

VU 2 oš (ps-ps, mew-mew, and the like) an Exclamation used to call or drive animals; Survives in NC Kır. öš/üšš, SW Osm. oš/uš/ošt/ušta and prob. elsewhere. Xak. xı oš oš an Exclamation with which cattle are called (yuğre) to drink Kaš. I 36.

VU 3 oš (core, tail bone) (ossify) Hap. leg. Xak. xı oš ‘the heart, centre (qalb) of a tree-trunk, branch or horn’; hence one says mügüz ošı: ‘the core (qalb) of a horn’; and the tail bone ('asibu’l-danab) of a horse or bird is called oš Kaš. I 36.

Mon. V. AŠ-

1 a:š- (cross over, перевалить) ‘to cross (a mountain, etc. Acc., later Abl.)’, as opposed to 1 keč- (g-) (pass, cross, expire, past) ‘to cross (a river, etc.)’; also Intrans., e.g. of time, ‘to pass’. Similar in some meanings to 1 a:ğ- (rise, climb, ascend) but without the implication of rising implicit in that word. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı Kögmen aša: ‘crossing the Kögmen mountains’ IE 17, IIE 15; o.o. I E 21; II E 27; T 26, 35, 37: Uyğ. vııı kara: kum ašmıš ‘having crossed the Black Sand (desert)’ Šu. N 8: vııı ff. Civ. ašaym tesersen ediz turur ‘if you say “I will cross it”, it is (too) high’ TT 147 : Xak. ol ta:ğ arštı: ‘he crossed (edwaza) the mauntain’ (etc.) Kaš. I 173 (a:ša:r, a:šma:k); o.o. I 123, 21 (arpa:sız); III 261, 7; it is also likely that a phr., which is out of place in a para., translating 1 eš- (run, hurry, amble), 2 eš- (pour, литься, сыпать), belongs here; kayna:r ešič ešdi: (? read ašdı:) ğalati’l-qidr ğalayen ‘the cooking pot boiled over’ I 166, 13: xııı (?) Tef. aš- ‘to rise (to heaven); to pass through; (of water) to overflow (the brim Abl.)' 6e: xıv Rbğ. aš- ‘to climb onto (something üze)’ R I 586 (quotn.); Muh. (1) 'abara wa cewaza ‘to cross, pass over’ aš- (in margin 1 keč- (g-) (pass, cross, expire, past)) Rif. 122 (only): Čağ. xv ff. aš- (spelt) az haddgudaštan wa ba-tacewuz kardan ‘to exceed, surpass’ San. 40V. 19 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı aš- ‘to climb down’ (sic}) 'Ali 39: xıv aš- ‘ (of time) to pass; to pass (through something Abl.)’ Qutb 13; ‘to outstrip’ MN 69, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to pass over’ aš- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv aš-'adde min matvdi' murtafi' ‘to pass over a high place’ Id. 14: xv ceza aš- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 12a. 7; 'adde aš- do. 25b. 13: Osm. xıv and xv aš- ‘to overflow’ 7'TS II 64; xvı ‘to cross’ IV 47; xvııı aš- (after Čağ.) and, in Rumi, custan nar-i wuhûš wa fuyur bar meda wa cuft šudan ‘of male animals and birds, to mount the female and copulate’ San. 40V. 19 (also TTS 1 Si ; II 64).

2 aš- (enlarge, increase, more) ‘to enlarge, increase (something Acc.)’. Pec. to Uyğ.; has sometimes been transcribed as- (hang, suspend), but the spelling in TT VIII and (for ašıl-) in Man. Syriac script is conclusively against this. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. köŋülin yürekin buyan edgü kılınčka üklittl aštı ‘he enlarged (Hend.) his mind and heart by virtue and good deeds’ U IV 22, 269 ff.; kut ašğalı sakmsar ‘if he thinks of increasing the favour of heaven (to himself)’ TT V8, 70; (in a damaged passage) a:ša yĞg ‘more and better’ TT VIII N.6; o.o. Suv. 136, 2o (üklit-); 266, 6-8 (üste:-).

eš- Preliminary note. Kaš. gives two meanings ‘to amble’ and ‘to pour (a dry substance) (сыпать)’; his third meaning seems to belong to 1 a:š- (cross over, перевалить). In the medieval period two more meanings appeared, ‘to twist’, which seems to represent a Sec. f. of 2 es- (stretch), q.v., and ‘to dig, or row’, which seems to belong to an old verb fortuitously not noted in the earlier period.

1 eš- (run, hurry, amble) ‘to amble’; survives only, with slightly altered meaning ‘to run, hurry’, in SW Osm. Türkü vııı ff. (I am the Road (or Spring?) God with the dappled horse) yan:n keče: ešü:rmen ‘early and late I amble along’ IrkB 2: Xak. xı atlığ ešdi: xabba’l-feris wa rakada ‘the horseman ambled (Hend.)’ Kaš. I 166 (eše:r, ešme:k): xıv Muh. (?) qawqaza (corrupt; "iqaza'a) wa harwala ‘to move fast, to amble’ eš- Rif. 114 (only): Kip. xııı (‘food’ aš) and the same word (in fact eš) is used when you order someone to hurry (yasilq) his horse or baggage animal Hou. 15, 14; fir bi’l-debba ‘travel on horseback’ ešğll do. 40, 19: Osm. xıv ff. eš- ‘to amble’; less precisely ‘to hurry (on horseback)’; c.i.a.p. TTS 1 283; II 405; III 269; IV 313.

2 eš- (pour, литься, сыпать) ‘to pour (a dry substance Acc.)’. Perhaps survives in NE Khak. is- (of a cow) ‘to yield milk’ Bas. 64. Xak. xı ol kayırnı: ešdi: ahela’l-raml ‘he poured the sand’; also used for pouring flour into a sack and the like Kaš. I 166 (eše:r, ešme:k).

3 eš- (excavate, dig, row)to dig; to row (i.e. dig water)’; not recorded before the medieval period, but no \256\ doubt existed earlier. S.i.a.m.l.g. for 'to row’ except in SW and for ‘to dig’ only in Nh I uv. and SW Osm.; in the latter it connotes less vigorous digging than kaz- (dig). Čağ. xv ff. eš-. . . (2) zamîn-re kemdan 'to dig the ground’, in Ar. tanqir San. 104V. 2e: Kom. xıv ‘to row’ eš- CCG; Gr.-. Osm. xvıı eš- ‘to dig’ TTS II 405.

?S 4 eš- See 2 es- (stretch).

*ıš- (or *yıš-?) See ıšıl-. (skilled)

1 üš- (crowd, gather, inflow) ‘to crowd together, collect in a crowd’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. üš-, Tkm. üyš-, Cf. a:v-. Xak. xı etme.kke: telim kiši: üšdi: ‘many people crowded together (izdahama) to get bread’ Kaš. I 166 (üše:r, üšme:k): Xwar. xııı üš- ‘to assemble’ 'Ali se: Kip. xıv üštiler ictama'ü tea 'ndammii 'aid šav' ‘they assembled and collected round something’ Id. 14: Osm. xvııı uš- (sic; Red. describes this form as ‘vulgar’) in Rumi, as atrdf hue um kardan iva yak-ed cam' kardan ‘to crowd together from all sides and assemble in one place’ San. 75V. 20.

2 üš- (perforate, hole) ‘to perforate, cut a hole in (something Acc.)'. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. üšü- ‘to bore with an awl’ and SW xx Anat. üš- ‘to hollcnv out’ SDD 1439, but the N.I. ‘awl, auger’, üšgü: first noted in Kip., Hou. 23, 15; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 34a. 4 survives in several SE. NC, and NW languages. Cf. üše:-, 1 öt- (pierce, pass), üg-, Xak. xı ol ok üšdi: ‘he notched (taqaba) the arrow (etc.) with a tool’ (bi'l-mitqab) Kaš. I 166 (üše:r, üšme:k).

Dis. AŠA

ašu: (red ochre)red ochre’. Survives only in SW Osm. ašı/ašu; xx Anat. ašı/ašu/ašur SDD 121-3. Xak. xı ašu: al-mağra wa hutoa'l-tinu’l-ahmar ‘red ochre’, that is red clay Kaš. I 89.

VU?D iši: (lady)lady’, the feminine counterpart of beg; the Sing, occurs only in Uyğ. and apparently only in association with beg; išle:r, which is said by Kaš. to be an abbreviated Plur., survived rather longer. It may well be that the Sing. f. is e:š with a Poss. Suff. ‘his consort’, and that the Plur. is merely an honorific Plur. of that word, but if so it is odd that Kaš. did not suggest this. See Doerfer II 645. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (various gods will protect) elig xamg begig išig bodunuğ karağ ‘the realm, the monarch, the beg and his lady, and the common people (Hend.)’ Suv. 192, 8-9; o.o. do. 192, 19-20; 194. 7-8; TT VII 40, čı, and 75: Civ. (if anyone makes a claim, invoking the authority of) erklig beg iši elči yalavač ‘the responsible (district) governor, his lady and the envoys (of the central government?)’ USp. 13, n; 16, 18; o.o. of beg iši TT I 109, 168; TT VII 19, 11; USp. 77, 15; 107, 14 etc.: Xak. xı išle:r al-mar'a ‘woman’, originally iši:le:r, that is al-sayyidet mina'l--nisd’ ‘well-born ladies’, the -i:- wras elided because the word is used so much; there is a long story (qissa taiuila) about ,the origin of this name Kaš. I 117; about a dozen O.o., all translated al-mar'a; exactly syn. w. ura:ğut, but the latter is five times as common: xıv Muh. (?) al-mar’a išler Rif. 138 (in margin, ebči: in text), 151 (Mel. ebčı: in both places).

Dis. V. AŠA-

D aša:- (eat, enjoy) (essen) Den. V. fr. 1 a:š (food); properly ‘to eat’ in a physical sense; sometimes metaph. ‘to eat up, destroy’ or ‘to enjoy, experience (something)’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Cf. ye:- (eat). Türkü vııı ff. (or, if it is savoury food) a:ša:yı:n ‘may I eat it’ Toyok III ır. 7 (ETY II 179): Man. künke ašadukumuz beš teŋri yaruki ‘the light of the five gods which we have enjoyed daily’ Chuas. 300-1: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kertgünč erser nomluğ tatığığ ašaguluk elig erür ‘as for faith, it is the hand with which one consumes the sweet (food) of the doctrine’ TT V 22, 45; o.o. PP 50, 3-5 (uduğ); TT V 24, 53 (ye- aša-); Suv. 529, 13 (ditto); in Buddhist terminology the skandha of vedand ‘perception’, usually translated teginmek (reach, attain, penetrate, venture (dare), sensation, perception), is sometimes translated ašamak TT VI, p. 66, note 157: Xak. xı er aš aša:dı: ‘the man eat (akala) the food’; the Xakani Turks use this word only of the nobility (al-akdbira), but other Turks use it indiscriminately Kaš. III 253 (aša:r, aša:ma:k); it is pointed out in III 261, 7-11 that aša:r is the Aor. of both 1 a:s- and aša:-: KB sevinčin avınčın küvenčin 61İ ašasu ‘may he enjoy his realm in joy, happiness and pride’ 123; o.o. 836, 1480: Čağ. xv ff. aša- (speit) xicurdan wa ešemîdan ‘to eat and drink’ San. 41 r. 14: Xwar. xııı (?) aša- ič- ‘to eat and drink Oğ. 94, 364: xıv aša- Qutb 13, MN 9e: Kom. xıv ‘to eataša- CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı akala- (ye:- and) aša- IIou. 43, 9.

ešü:- (cover, envelop) ‘to cover, envelop’. Pec. to Xak. Xak. xı ol aga:r yoğurka:n ešü:di: dattarahu bi'1-diter ‘he wrapped him in a blanket’, or anything (else) that covered (Hend.) him (satara ’alayhi wa ğaftdhu) Kaš. III 253 (ešü:r, ešü:me:k); ešük al-diter is derived from ešü:di: da tara ’alayhi I 14, 18: KB ölüm yerke kömdi ešüdi yirig ‘death buried him in the earth and covered him with earth’ 5212.

S uša:- See uvša:-: *uvša:- (crushed, crumbled)

üše:- (scrape) ‘to scrape’. Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. üje-. Cf. 2 üš- (perforate, hole). Xak. xı oİ ye:rig üše:di: ‘he scraped (bahatd) the ground (etc.) searching for something’ Kaš. III 253 (üše:r, üše:me:k).

üši:- (cold, freezing, shiver) ‘to be very cold, to shiver with cold’; used only of animate beings, not inanimate objects, but contrast üšüt-, S.i.a.m.l.g. except SC. Xak. xı er üši:di: hašira’l-racul mina’l-bard ‘the man fainted with cold’ Kaš. III 254 (üši:r, üši:me:k); o.o. I 463, 12 (emrlš-); II 137, 8 (üšiyü:r tacidu l-qurr 'he gets chilled’): Kom. xıv ‘to be frozen’ üši- (Aor. üšüŋ CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı barada mina'l-bard ‘to be cold’ üši:- Hon. 36, 13: \257\ xıv harada üšü- (sic) Dul. 36ı-.: xv šay' herid (išemek (sic) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 7a. 10; barada mina'l-šita 'to be cold because of the winter’ üšü- do. 8a. 10; faqi'a (mis-spelt saqi'a) ‘to be cold’ üšü- do. 20a. to.


C ošbu: See 1 oš (psst, here, now, (look here, listen now), thus, emphatic: look, see here) (this, that) ( “here”, bu “that”).

C ašba:r (food, фураж) a compound of 1 a:š (food) and an unidentified second component. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xıašba:r (a word) ‘used when straw and bran are moistened and mixed and fed to a horse’ Kaš. I 117; a.o. 11^151, 21 (yeIpit-).

Tris. AŠB

PUF ıšvara: (ıšbara:) (clerk, делопроизводитель) undoubtedly a l.-w. discussed, with many refs., in S. Klyashtornyi (S. Klyashtornyi, Drevnetyurkskie runicheskie pamyatniki, Moscow, 1964, p. 113, note 179. Although several scholars have proposed an Iranian origin, the most acceptable theory, supported by the fact that there is a Plur. f. ıšvaras, is that it is Sanskrit Uvara ‘lord, prince’, obtained through Tokharian (Agnean ?) in both dialects of which it has been noted. Türkü vııı ıšvara: occurs only as a title in front of P.N.s; (VU) Yamtar / E 33; Čıkan KüH: Čor Ix. 2; Bilge: Küli: Čor Ix. 8, 22, 24; Tamğan Čor Yavğu: (spelt švra) Ongin 4; Tamğan Tarxan ditto; Tarxan the balbal associated with Ongin (ETY I 130): Uyğ. vııı ıšvaras Plur. N. Šu. S 2 (anču:la:-). (Türkic Plur. marker -s: ıšvara: ~ ıšvaras)

Dis. AŠC

ešič (pot (cooking)) ‘an (earthenware) cooking pot’; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ešlčteki teg ‘like (an offering) in the cooking pot’ U III 24, 8 (ı); ešičteki do. 44, 3 (ı): Civ. (in a list of goods; one cow) bir ešič (one leather bag, etc.) USp. 55, 3; esičte čokuratıp ‘boiling in a cooking pot’ H I 47; a.o.o. in H I, Ii: Xak. xı ešič al-qidr ‘an (earthenware) cooking pot’ Kaš. I 52 (prov.); about 30 o.o.: xıv Muh. (1) al-qidr ešič Rif. 169 (Mel. čömlek): (Čağ. xv ff. (?) ešičcooking pot’ P. de C. 22 only).

PU ušıč: See usič.usı:č (dexterous, nimble, experienced, skilled, ловкий, опытный, искусный)

D aščı: (cook) N.Ag. fr. 1 a:š (food); ‘a cook’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Mlunki aščı ‘Mlunki the cook’ U III 64, 1 and 18; a.o. TT V, p. 21, note 124, 3: Xak. xı KB 2557 (idisči:): xıv Rbğ. aščı.. . ayakčı ‘cook... cup-bearer’ R I 605 (quotn.); Muh. tabbax ‘cook’ a:ščı: Mel. 58, 3; Rif. 156.

D i:šči: (? ı:ščı:) (workman) N.Ag. fr. 1 i:š; ‘workman’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NC (?). Xak. xı tavra:k ı:ščı: 'emil musri' ‘a quick workman’ Kaš. I 468, 25; n.m.e.: KB (if a leader of the people is good) kamuğ edgü: boldı: anig iščisi ‘all his workmen become good’ 894; a.o. 4148: xııı (?) Tef. ditto 128: Čağ. xv ff. išči (spelt) šehib-i ker uta mubešir-i ker ‘workman, foreman’ San. ıoev. 12 (quotn.): Kom. xıv ‘workman| išči CCG; Gr.

Tris. V. AŠC-

D ešičlen- ("potted" (cooking)) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. ešič (pot (cooking)). Xak. xı er ešičlendi: 'the man had a cooking pot’ (qidŋ Kaš. I 291 (ešičlenür, ešičlenme:k).

Dis. AŠD

VU aštal (youngest son) Hap. leg. Xak. xı aštal oğul 'ucza tvaladi’l-racul ‘a man’s youngest son’ Kaš. I 105.

F uštmax (paradise)paradise’; l.-w. fr. Sogdian ’tvitmy, same sound and meaning. Not noted in Uyğ. but adopted at an early date by Moslem Turks to translate Arabic canna ‘paradise’. The Sogdian form was rarely used; the word became corrupted to učmak, presumably owing to a false etymology fr. uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute). Survives as učmak in SE Tar., Türki (Shaw, Jarring): NC Kır.; Kzx. (ujmak) R I 1780; SC Uzb. (učmox) and SW Osm. where it was obsolete in xix but has recently been revived in Rep. Turkish. See Doerfer II 423. Xak. xı učma:k al-canna Kaš. I 118 (verse); a.o. III 374, 7: KB uštmax (Fergana MS.)/uštmak (Cairo MS.)/učmak (Vienna MS.) 63; in 3503, 3522 (evln), 3656 all MSS. have učmak: xııı (?) Tef. uštmax/učmak 334-5: xıv Rbğ. učt-mak in one early MS., otherwise učmak R I 1731: Muh. al-canna učma:k Mel. 44, 16; Rif. 138 (ušma:k in margin): Čağ. xv ff. ucmağ/ucmak bihišt ‘paradise’; also spelt with -č- San. 65V. 7 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı učmax 'Ali 37: xıv ditto Qutb 194; učtmax do. 195; Nahc. 254, 13; 280, 11; učmax MN 83, etc.: Tkm. xııı al-canna učma:k Hou. 8, 20: Kip. xıv učmak al-canna Id. 8; Bul. 2, 15: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 11 a. 8 etc.: Kom. ‘paradise’ učmak CCI, CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv ff. učmak common to xvi, sporadic thereafter TTS I 710; II 916; III 695; IV 773-

Dis. V. AŠD-

D ašat- (feed) Caus. f. of aša:- (eat, enjoy) (essen); ‘to feed (someone Dat., with something Acc.)’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW only xx Anat. SDD 120. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. noš tatığlığ etigsiz meŋgü megig ašatursız ‘you cause (us) to enjoy ambrosia (l.-w.) — flavoured supramundane everlasting joy’ Suv. 647, 4: Xak. xı ol maga: aš ašattı: at'amani'l-ta'em ‘he fed me’; most Turks use the word only for feeding kings and noblemen, but the Oğuz use it for anyone; the example is Oğuz Kaš. I 210 (ašatur, asatma:k): Čağ. xv ff. ašat- Caus. f.; ešemidan (‘to drink’, but ‘to feed’ must be meant) San. 4m 28: Oğuz xı see Xak.: Osm. xıv ašat- ‘to feed’ once TTS I 50.

ešid- (hear, listen) primarily ‘to hear (something Acc.)' in a physical sense, with some extended meanings, like ‘to get news of (something Acc.)’ and, esp. in the Imperat., ‘to listen’ without specific Object, although ‘to listen’ is properly tigla:-. The variations in spelling at all periods, and the position of the word after üšet- in Kaš., point clearly to an original initial e-. The \258\ second consonant is consistently -d- in Runic script and this -d- survives in the modern Oğuz languages in spellings like the Pass. f., Osm. išidil- (heard, listened), Tkm. ešidil- (heard, listened), It became -t- in Xak. and most modern languages; the Uyğ. spellings are too ambiguous to indicate where and when the change occurred. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some changes, in NE usually iš-/is-before consonants išt-/ist- before vowels. Türkü vııı savımın tüketi: eši:dgil ‘hear my words completely’ / S i, II N i (ešid); o.o. I S 2, 10; E 12, 22; II E 18; N 8, 11; T 12, 15, etc.: vııı ff. üze: teŋri: ešhdti: ‘heaven heard on high’ IrkB 54, 60; ešidši:či:mi:z, no doubt mis-spelling or misreading of ešidteči:mJ:z, ‘our hearers’ do. Postscript: Mon. kulkakın ešidip ‘hearing with the ears’ Chuas. 313 (spelling clear): Uyğ. vııı ešidip III 2; išidip III B 8 (ETY II 37-8): Bud. in TT VIII A. and D. the spelling is consistently eše!-, prob. pronounced İŠİd-; ešidte:či tınlığla:r ‘people who heard’ do. VIII H. 10; ešid- (or ešit- ?) is common elsewhere. e.g. begnig catikin ešidgeli ‘in order to hear the king’s Jetaka story’ U III 24, 6 (iŋ, but išid- occurs in PP 8, 8; 15, 7; 18, 8; UIV 2S, 32, and both spellings occur in TT Vi: Civ. ešitip (Pešidip) USp. 73, 7: (O. Kır. ıx ff. the readings of this word in Mal. 24, 2; 39, 4 and 6 are unconvincing): Xak. xı the main entry has fallen out of the MS. but a prov., containing kulak ešitse: ‘if the ear hears’, follows üšet-, the Aor. and Infin. öf which seem to have been altered from ešitür, ešitme:k: eštür satm'at ‘heard’ I 377, 14; sö:zin išit istanıi' kalemalnt ‘listen to his words’ / 428, g; a.o. I 508, 2 : KB ešit/ešitgil ‘hear’ (a wise saying) is common 233, 452, etc.; eštip ‘hearing’ 450: xrri (?) At. ešit-/išit-is common; Tef. ešit- 87: xıv Muh. sami'a i:šit- Mel. 27, 7; ešit- Rif. no: Čağ. xv ff. išit- (-güčı, etc.) išit- Vel. 63; išit- šamdan ‘to hear’ Sun. ioer. 13 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı išid- (Imperat. išit) 'Ali 5, 7: xıv išit-Qntb S3; MN 56, etc.; Nahc. 369, 2: Kom. xıv ‘to hear’ ešit- (once išit-) CCI, CCG; Gr. 94 (quotn.): Kip. xııı sami'a ešit- (alif unvocalized) Hou. 33, 14: xıv išit- sami'a Id. 14; ditto ešit- (alif unvocalized, ešid- before vowels) Bul. 47V.: xv sami'a ešit- Kav. 7, 14; 33, 19; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20a. 10.

Dis. V. AŠD-

D ešüt- (cover, envelop) Caus. f. of ešü:- (cover, envelop); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol maga: yoğurka:n ešütti: ‘he ordered someone to cover me (dattara lalayya) with a blanket’; also used for ordering someone to cover (satŋ someone with something Kaš. I 210 (ešütür, ešütmerk, corrected from ma:k): Kip. xv ğabn ‘to fold (a garment)’ ešitmek (mis-spelt mak) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26b. 8.

S ušat- See uvšat- (crush, crumble).

D üšet- (searched) Caus. f. of üše:- (scrape) ‘to have (something) searched’. Survives only (?) in NE Šor öjet-R I 1307; Tuv. üjet-, Xak. xı ol anig ewin (sic) üšetti: ‘the man ordered someone to search (bi-baht) his house’ Kaš. I 211 (üšetür, üšetme:k).

D üšüt- (üšif-) (chill) Caus. f. of üši:- (cold, freezing, shiver); ‘to chill (someone or something)’; unlike üši:- also used of inanimate objects. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol meni: tumlığka: üšütti: awcadani’l-■qurr ‘he exposed me to the cold’; and one says ol süčiğ üšitti: (51c) ‘he exposed (tcada'a) the wine to the cold (li’l-bard) until it was chilled’ (zvacada'I-qurŋ: this is a kind of beverage Kaš. I 211 (üšütür, üšütme:k).

S eštil- See ešidil- (heard, listened).

D 1 eštür- (pour, литься, сыпать) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 eš- (pour, литься, сыпать), Xak. xı ol kum eštürdi: ‘he ordered that the sand should be poured’ (bi-ilıelati'1-tureb); also used of ordering that flour should be poured into a sack Kaš. I 222 (eštürür, eštürme:k).

S 2 eštür- See išidtür- (hear, inform).

D üštür- (perforate, hole) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 üš- (perforate, hole) Xak. xı ol ok üštürdi: ‘he gave orders for a notch to be cut (bi-taqb ru'z) in an arrow’; also used for piercing a narrow (hole) (taqb dayiq) Kaš. I 222 (üštürür, üštürme:k).

D eštrüš- (hear, inform) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of 2 eštür- See išidtür- (hear, inform); ‘to make one another hear’. Türkü vııı ff. Man. TT II 8, 56 (ögrünelen-).

Tris. AŠD

D ešidüt (hear, listen) Hap. leg.; Active N.Ac. fr. ešid- (hear, listen), Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ırakta sav ešidiiti edgü, yağuktakı iš bütüti edgü ‘hearing news from afar is good; completing the task near at hand is good’ TT I 139-40.

Tris. V. AŠD-

D ešidil- (heard) Pass. f. of ešid- (hear, listen); ‘to be heard’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SYV Az., Thm. ešidil-; Osm. išidil-, elsewhere ešitil-/eštil- or the like. Türkü vııı ff. Man. M III 45, 4 (i) (ögür): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A atı eštiİmiš ‘his name has been heard’ M I 26, 27: Bud. eštilme:di: ‘has not been heard’ TT VIII H. 10; ešidilmedi U IV 24, 3le: Civ. (the sound of the conch) üküš tmîığlarka išidilür ‘is heard by many mortals’ TT VII 28, 31; ešidilür TT 1 95, 134: Xak. xı bu: sö:z eštildı: ‘this word (etc.) was heard’ (sumi’a) Kaš. I 246 (eštilür, eštilme:k): xııı (?) Tef. ešitil- 87: Čağ. xv ff. išitil- (spelt) Pass. f.; masmu šudan ‘to be heard’ San. ioer. 29 (quotn.).

S ištonlan- See ičtonlan-(trousers, underwear) (shatny, штаны)

D ešidtür- (inform, hear) Caus. f. of ešid- (hear, listen); ‘to make, or let (someone Dat.) hear (something Acc.); to inform (him) of (it)’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyg. vııı ff. Chr. maga išidtürüŋler ‘inform me’ U I 6, 3: Xak. xı ol maga: edgü: sö:z eštürdi: ‘he let me hear (asma'anî) the good news’; originally ešittürdi: Kaš. I 221 (eštürür, eštürme:k): KB (if he comes) ištür maga ‘inform me’ 5022: xili ff. Tef. ešlttür- ‘to inform (someone Dat.) of (something Acc.)' 87: xıv Muh. asma'a išitdür- Mel. 22, 7; išitü:r- Iiif. 103: Čağ. xv ff. išittür- (spelt) Caus. f.; šinaıi'enîdan ‘to cause to hear’ San. \\ ıoer. 28: Xwar. xııı  ^šitdür- ’Ali. 28: Kom. xıv ‘to make oneself heard’ išitlir-CCG; Gr. : Kip. xıv išittir- asma’a Id. 14.

Dis. AŠĞ

D 1 ašağ (food) Dev. N. fr. aša:- (eat, enjoy) (essen); ‘eating, food'. This word is said to survive in NC Kır. ašaw R I 536; Kzx. asaw do. 589, but these words are not noted in the xx dicts., and the only two early occurrences might be Acc. in Uyğ.-A fr. 1 a:š (food). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT VIII 1.2 (akla:-), 8 (yarsı:- (revolted, disgusted)).

S 2 ašağ See ašak (low).

?S ašak (low)low’ and the like, lit. and metaph. A rare word surviving only (?) in SW Tkm. aša:k; the Dat. f. ašağa included herein survives in SW Osm. ašağı, described in Left. 25 as a (recent) corruption of ašağa. The word is specifically Western and is perhaps a corruption of alčak. Oğuz xı ašak al-saflı ‘the foot of a mountain’ Kaš. I 6e: xııı (?) Tef. ašakğa ‘downwards’; ašak kıl- ‘to lower’ 6e: xıv Muh. qasiru’l-zahr ‘with a short back’ (opposite to al-murtafi' ‘tall’ PU so:l) a:ša:k Rif. 143 (only); taht ‘below’ ašağa: Mel. 14, 10; Rif. 90: Kip. xıı al-mustafil ‘low’ (opposite to ‘high’ yükse:k/yü:ce:) ašağ Hou. 25, 17; asfal ‘downwards’ (opposite to ‘upwards’ yo:ka:rı:) ašağa: do. 26, 19: xıv ašak al-mutaıuedi' ‘humble’; ašağa: al-mawdi'u’l-niunhadir ‘a place sloping downwards’; in Türki (sic) ašaka: Id. 14; al-mmtafil (opposite to ‘high’ yü:ce:) ašak Bul. 14, 12; asfal (opposite to ‘upwards’ yoğaru:) ašağa: do. 14, 4: xv ditto Kav. 35, 3; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 5a. 6; 73b. 6; ašak do. 73b. n (alčak): Osm. xıv and xv (only) ašak/ašax ‘low, humble’ in several texts TTS I 50; II 63; xıv to xvıı ašağa (1) ‘below (something Abl.)'', (2) ‘lower’; (3) (socially) ‘inferior’; common I 48-9,11 62;/// 43; iv 46.

ašuk (ankle joint) properly ‘the ankle joint’ of a man or animal; but the phr. ašuk kemiği ‘knuckle bone’, esp. the knuckle bone of a sheep used for various games, is often abbreviated to ašuk/ašık. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually as ašık but with other phonetic changes. Xak. xı ašuk ka'bıı'l-insen wa ğayrihi (sic in MS.) ‘the ankle joint of a man or other (animal)’ Kaš. I 6e: Čağ. xv ff. ašuk topuk ... ve dirsek kemügi ‘the ankle; the bone of the elbow’ Vel. 21 (quotns.); ašuğ/ašuk ğtizak-i pay ‘ankle’, in Ar. ka'b San. 42r. 5 (quotn.): Kip. xıv ašuk al-ka'b (mis-spelt al-'akb) Id. 14: xv al-'urqub 'tendo Achillis, hock’ ašık Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 24b. 8: Osm. xv and xvı ašuğ/ašukknuckle-bone’, for games; in two texts TTS III 44.

?S ıšığ See yıšığ (? ıšığ) (cord, rope).

VUS ošuk See yošuk (helmet).

S ušak See uvšak.

F ıšğun 1. -w. fr. Pe. ašxMvetı ‘rhubarb, sorreL’, and the like. Survives in NC Kır. \\ ıškın ‘rhubarb’: SW Osm. and xx Anat. ıškın/uškun (and other forms) ‘wild rhubarb’. Xak. xı ıšğun al-ribes ‘sorrel’ Kaš. I 109; I 18, 5; a.o. / 440 (kıšgu:n): Čağ. xv ff. ušğun (spelt) rîbes San. -jer. 5: Kip. xıv ıškun al-ribes Id. 14.

Dis. V. AŠĞ-

ašuk- (miss, long for, excited, hurrying) originally ‘to long for (something Dat.)’; later attenuated to ‘to feel agitated, be in a hurry’. S.i.a.m.l.g. but now Pobsolete in SW. Xak. xı ol evke: ašuktı: ‘he longed for (ištüqa) home (etc.)’; also used for anyone who longs for something (ntûli' mušteq ile šay) Kaš. I191 (ašuka:r, ašukma:k); a.o. II 165, 20: xıv Rbğ. ašuk- ‘to be in a hurry’ B I 597: Čağ. xv ff. ašuk- (-tı, etc.) 'acele ve idtireb eyle- ‘to be in a hurry, to feel agitated’ Vel. 20-1 (quotns.); ošuk- (-tı) ditto do. 107 (quotns.); ašuk- (spelt) ta'cil kardan ‘to be in a hurry’; mis-spelt ošuk- by some early authorities San. 41 r. 29 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ašık-/ašuk- ‘to hurry’ Qutb 14: Kom. xıv ditto ašık- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv 'acala ‘to hurry’ aštıkmak (and tezletmek; in margin ašıkmak) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 25b. 3: Osm. xıv ašık-/ašıx- ditto; in two texts TTS 163.

D ašğın- Refl. f. of *ašğı:- which survives in NC Kır. ıškı- ‘to rub (something) against (something)’; ‘to be rubbed down, worn away’. Survives in NW Kaz. ıškın- R 11401; SW Osm. ašın-, Xak. xı taš ašğındı: ‘the stone was worn awray’ (insahaqa); also used of anything hard (šulb) when it is worn away Kaš. I 254 (ašğınur, ašgmma:k): Osm. xvııı ašın- (spelt) in Rümi, seytda šudan wa farsûda šudan ‘to be rubbed down, worn away’ San. 41 v. 19.

S ıškır- See 1 üškür-.

Tris. AŠĞ

S ašağa: See ašak.

D ušakčı: N.Ag. fr. ušak (uvšak) ‘slanderer, false witness’. Survives in NC Kır. ušakčı; Kzx. ösekši and NW Kaz. Xak. xı KB evigke yağutma ušakčı kišig ‘do not let a slanderer come near your house’ 1299; a.o. 5303: xıv Muh. (?) al-nammem ‘slanderer’ u:ša:İcčı: Rif. 148 (only): Kom. xıv ‘false witness’ ušakčı/ušaxčı/uyšaxčı CCG; Gr.

D ušaklık A.N. fr. ušak (uvšak); survives only (?) in SW Osm. Xak; xı ušaklık al-šibyeni fi'l-amr ‘childish behaviour’; hence one says ušaklık kılma: le tatašeb ‘don’t be childish’ Kaš. I 150.

Tris. V. AŠĞ-

D ašakla:- (bargain, reduced, cheap) Den. V. fr. ašak; no doubt an Oğuz word, though not so described. A cognate form NW Krım ašağala-; SW Osm. ašağıla- survives meaning ‘to descend; to fall in price; to lower (price or quality); to treat as an inferior’. (Oğuz) xı ol am: ašak-la:dı: ’addahu šağir ‘he considered him small’; \260\  (prov.) yadımı: ašakla:sa: baška: čıka:r ‘if a man underestimates his enemy, the latter comes out on top’ Kaš. I 305 (no Aor. or Infin.).

Tris. V. AŠĞ-

D ašukla:- (hit ankle) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. ašuk. Xak. xı ol anı: ašukla:dı: ‘he hit him on the ankle’ (ka'b) Kaš. I 305 (ašukla:r, ašukla:ma:k).

D ušakla:- (slander) Den. V. fr. ušak (uvšak); ‘to slander (someone Acc.)’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l. in this meaning and for ‘to crush (something)’. Xak. xı ol meniŋ sözümni: ušaklaulı: qatta hadi ti tea tcašd ‘lie falsified my statement and embellished it with lies’ Kaš. I 305 (ušakla:r, ušakla:ma:k).

Dis. EŠG

S ešek See ešgek. (donkey) (ass)

ešik (threshold)threshold’. S.i.a.m.l.g., with variations in the -š- (-j-, -z-, etc.) in NE, sometimes meaning ‘door’. See Doerfer II 646. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ešik ‘threshold’ in an astrological sense, common in TT VII12 and 13: Xak. xı ermegürke ešik art bolur ‘to a lazy man a threshold (al-ataba) becomes (as steep as) a mountain pass’ (al-'aqaba) Kaš. I 42, 5; n.m.e.: KB (the tongue is a lion) Ešikte yatur ‘lying on the threshold’ 164; (whoever came) öpti Ğligke ešik ‘kissed the king’s threshold’ 451: xııı (?) Tef. ešik ditto 87: xıv al-'ataba e:ši:k Mel. 76, 5; Rif. 179: Čağ. xv ff. öšik kaptı ‘door’ Vel. 63 (quotns.); ešik xdna wa sard ‘house, palace’ San. ioev. 21 (quotns., the translations erroneous deductions from the contexts): Xwar. xıv ešik in some contexts, e.g. ešik bağla- clearly (‘to fasten) the door’ in others perhaps ‘threshold’ Qutb 52; ‘threshold’ MN 38, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘door’ ešik CCI, CCG\ Gr. : Kip. xııı al-bab ‘door’ (kapu:; and also) ešik that is at-'atabatul--fazvqd ‘a high threshold’ Hou. 6, 5: xıv ešik ' atabatu' l-bdb ica yuknd bihi’l-bdb ‘also used in alluding to the door’ Id. 14: xv bdb ešik Kav. 44» 13; 59. 10; 'otaba ešik Tuh. 25b. 5.

D ešük (blanket, covering) Conc. N. fr. ešü:- ‘blanket, covering’, etc. Survives in SW Tknı. ešik. Xak. xı ešük al-ditdr ‘blanket’; ešük ‘the word for anything of brocade (tnina’l-dibdc) which is sent to be laid on the graves of amirs and kings as a sign of respect, and is then later divided among the poor’ Kaš. I 72; a.o. I 14, 18 (ešü:-): KB šarl'at yüzindin k^terdi ešük ‘he removed the veil from the face of the sacred law’ 54: xıv Muh. (?) (in a list of soft furnishings) al-sitr ‘curtain’ e:šü:k Rif. 168 (only).

D üšik (hard frost, frozen) N./A.S. fr. üši-; ‘hard frost, frozen’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SC (?); in SW only in xx Anat. SDD 1439. Xak. xı üšik ‘the cold’ (al-bard) which scorches (yuhriq) the fruit and prevents it from forming Kaš. I 72.

D üšgü: See 2 üš- (perforate, hole).

D ešgek (donkey) (ass)donkey’; prob. a Dev. N. connoting habitual action fr. 1 eš- (run, hurry, amble), lit. ‘(an animal) which \\\ habitually ambles'. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually as ešek/ešek, in some NE dialects eštek. The parallel Dev. N. fr. 3 eš-, ešgek, 'an oar’ is not noted before the medieval period (Čag., Kom., Kip.), and also s.i.m.m.l.g., but usually as eškek or the like. See Doerfer 11 486. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 16, 11-12 (kač): Bud. ešgek karnında ‘in the womb of a donkey’ U III 26, 21; a.o. Suv. 341, 22: Civ. ešgek tüsin ‘the hair of a donkey’ II I 103-4; (one cart, one cow) üč ešgek ‘three donkeys’ USp. 55, 25; ešek (sic) occurs several times in USp. 3, a late text: Xak. xı ešgek al-himdr ‘donkey’ in one of the two pronunciations of ešye:k (sic); the -y- in the latter is changed from one of the two repeated letters (harfayi'l-tadyif) as occurs in Ar. (three examples quoted, but the phonetic phenomenon is quite different) Kaš. I iii; ešyek (sic) al-himdr; another pronunciation is ešgek but ešyek is more correct (afšah) Kaš. I 114; spelt ešye:k in I 244 (artıl-) and five o.o., and eše:k (? error for ešye:k) in II 246, 9: xııı (?) Tef. ešgek/ešek ditto 86-7: xıv Muh. al-himer ešek Mel. 70, 7; Rif. 171: Čağ. xv ff. ešek (‘with -k-’) ešek Vel. 62 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ešek ‘donkey’ Qutb 22; ešek 52: Kom. xıv ‘donkey’ ešek CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-himdr ešek Hou. 12, 14: xıv ditto Id. 14: xv ditto Kav. 28, 11; 31, 7; 61, 22; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 13a. 4.

?F išküm (table, tray) Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w., PSogdian. Cf. tevsi:. Xak. xı išküm ‘a table (md'ida) in the shape of a large dish (cafna) used by kings; it has no legs’ (qawd'im) Kaš. I 107.

D 1 ešgin (trot, amble; trotting, ambling) Dev. N./A. fr. 1 eš- (run, hurry, amble); usually ‘a trot, amble; trotting, ambling’. Survives only (?) in NE Bar. iškili R I 1556 and SW Osm. eškin. Xak. xı (after 2 ešgin) wa yuqdl li’l-safari'1-mu dd, and ‘a journey at high speed’ is called ešgin Kaš. I 109: Kip. xııı in Hou. 13, 10 ff. (al-farasu'l-ralnvdn ‘an ambling horse’ yorga:) al-farasu’l-taniq ‘a trotting (P) horse’ ešgü:n (or ?eškü:nj: Osm.xvi ff. eškin/eškün usually ‘trotting’ (Adj.), in several texts TTS I 283; II 504; III 269; IV 313: xvııı eškin (spelt) in Rümi, raftdr-i asb ‘the gait of a horse’, and metaph. asb-i xwušrdh ‘a horse that goes well’ San. ioev. 19.

D 2 ešgin (spout, pouring, сыпание) Hap. leg.; Dev. N./A. (cf. 1 ešgin (trot, amble; trotting, ambling)) fr. 2 eš- (pour, литься, сыпать), Xak. xı ešgin topra:k al-turdb wa'l-ramlul-munhal, ‘earth and sand which is poured out' Kaš. I 109.

Dis. V. EŠG-

1 üškür- Intrans., ‘to whistle, hiss’, and the like; Trans., ‘to incite (someone, etc. Acc.) against (someone, etc. Dat.)’. Survives in NC Kır., Kzx. üškür- ‘to whistle’; NW Kaz. üškür- ‘to spit’ (in magical ceremonies) R I 1351 ; SW Osm. eškir- ‘to excite, incite’ Red. 122 (SDD 553 ešger-), but in most NC, SC, SW languages ‘to whistle’ is ıškır- Xak. xı ol ıtığ keyikke: üškürdi: ağrd'1-kalb 'ald'1-šayd ‘he incited the dog to chase the wild game’; also used when a man incites someone \261\ against something Čale'1-šay'); and one says yıla:n üškürdı: ‘the snake hissed’ (nafaxat bi-ftha) also of a man when he whistles (šafara bi-fihŋ, and of a vulture when it shrieks (šafara) (prov.) Kaš. I 228 (üškürür, üškürme:k).

VU 2 üškür- n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol unıtmıš sörzüg üškürdi: ‘he remembered (tadakkara) the word (etc.) which he had forgotten’ Kaš. I 228 (üškürür, üškürme:k): xıı (?) Tef. üškür- ‘to remember’ 342.

VUD üškürt- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 üškür-Xak. xı (in a para, following the preceding entry and giving the rules fdr forming Caus. f.s of this form) one says sö:z üškürdi: ‘he remembered the word’; and if you wish to form the Caus. of it you say üškürtti: ‘he urged the man to remember ('ele tadakkuŋ what he had forgotten’... there is an alternative form üškürtürdi: ‘he urged him to incite’ Čalal-îğre’, implying that this is the Caus. f. of

1 üškür-), but the first is more elegant and correct (afšah wa nšahh) Kaš. I 229. \\

Tris. EŠG

PU ?F ešgü:tİ: ‘a kind of Chinese embroidered silk brocade’. There is some difficulty about the actual form of this word, of which the -gis fixed by the Türkü spelling. The best evidence should be in Kaš. where it appears under the heading fa'liiU; the form to be expected is dšgü:ti:, but the MS. actually has ešgürtı:. The word is fairly common in Uyğ. Bud. and Civ. and is there consistently spelt ešgirti with minor variations of vocalization. The conclusion seems to be that it is a l.-w. of which the original form was ešgürti: but that the -r- was not clearly pronounced and was sometimes omitted. For the earlier misunderstanding of this word in II N 11 see E ekinlig. N.o.a.b. Cf. barčın. Türkü vııı alturn kümüš Sšgüti: kutay bugsız anča: berü:r ‘thus they give unstintingly gold,’ silver, embroidered brocade and silk fabric (?)’ I S 5, IIN 3; a.o. I IN n: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. torku ešgirti (sic) böz ulati bir ed ‘a fabric, silk clothing, embroidered brocade, cotton, and so on’ TT VI 391-2 (ancl see note); yürüŋ arığ ešgirtide (? sic) ‘in pure white embroidered brocade’ USp. 102b. 17: Civ. bir yıpağ (Pyapağ) ešgerti (? sic) iki keg bir uluğ torku ‘one coverlet (?) of embroidered silk brocade, two broad and one large piece of silk’ USp. 127, 3; Ešgirti occurs several times in Faw. Arch.: Xak. xı ešgü:ti: (? ; see above, MS. ešgürti:) dibec Sini munaq-qaš mitt cinsi l-harir ‘embroidered Chinese silk brocade’ Kaš. I 145.

D ešiklik (threshold) Hap. leg.; A.N. (Con. N.) fr. ešik. The P.N./A. ešiklig is first noted in Čağ. (P. de C. 117) and s.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı ešiklik yığa:č ‘a timber destined for use as a threshold’ (’ataba) Kaš. 7 152.

D ešüklig/ešüklik Hap. leg.’s; P.N./A. and A.N, (Conc. N.) fr. ešük Xak. Xi ešüklik \\ barčın ‘brocade (dibec) destined to be made into a covering’ (al-diteŋ\ wa šehibuhu bi'1-kefi'l-rakika and ‘owning a covering’ is ešüklig Kaš. I 153.

Dis. AŠL

D ešginči: N.Ag. fr. 1 ešgin. Survives in NE Bar. İškinči ‘a trotter’ R I 1557 and SW Osm. eškinči ‘a light irregular cavalryman’. Xak. xı (after 1 ešgin) hence al-beridul--musri'u'l-feris ‘a fast mounted courier’ is called ešğinči: Kaš. I 109.

PUSPF ešgürti See ešgü:ti:.

Tris. V. EŠG-

D ešgeklen- (donkey) Refl. Den. V. fr. ešgek (donkey); ‘to own a donkey’. Survives in this and cognate meanings in SW Osm. ešeklen-, Xak. xı er ešgeklendi: ‘the man owned a donkey’; in one of the two pronunciations Kaš. I 315 (ešgeklenür, ešgeklenme:k; the alternative pronunciation ešyeklen- is not listed).

D üšikle:- Den. V. fr. üšik; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ol keyikni: üšikle:di: axada'l-zaby fi hašrihi zva hela wıtcûdihi'l-bard ‘he caught the antelope when it was distressed and its body was frozen’ Kaš. I 306 (üšikle:r, üšikle:me:k); Tagut sü:sin üšikle:di: ‘he made a night attack (bayyata) on the Tarjut in the extreme cold’ (/î šiddati l-bard) I 307, 15.

D üškürtür- See üškürt-.

Dis. AŠL

C ošol See 1 oš.

D ašlığ P.N./A. fr. 1 a:š (food); n.o.a.b. It is possible that the first occurrence is a P.N./A. fr. 2 a:š. Xak. xı KB sıyesat yorıtğu kerek sü bašı siyesatka ašlığ bolur sü iši; siyesat yorıtsa sü bašlığ bolur, süsi bašlığ erse er ašlığ bolur ‘the army commander must facilitate government policy; the work of the army becomes to repair (if fr. 2 a:š or to feed) government policy. If it facilitates government policy, the army gets a commander; if his army has a commander a man is (sure to be) supplied with food’ 23C0-1.

D ašlık (food, provisions, cereals, wheat, kitchen) A.N. (usually Conc. N.) fr. 1 a:š (food). S.i.m.m.l.g., usually ‘food, provisions’, less often ‘cereals’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in a detailed description of a house) ašlık ‘the kitchen’ TT VI 85: Xak. xı ašlık al-matbax ‘the kitchen’ Kaš. I 114; ašlık tarığ anın üne:r mitthu yanbutu’l-ta'em ‘the food (crops) spring up because of it’ (i.e.the snow) II 204, 14: xıv Muh. (under ‘trees and plants’) al-ğalto ‘cereals’ ašlık (followed by al-hinta ‘wheat’ bu:ğda:y) Mel. 77, 13; Rif. 181: Čağ. xv ff. ašlığ ğalla San. 42r. 3 (quotns.): Oğuz xı (after the Xak. entry) and in Oğuz al-bu:r, ‘wheat’ is called ašlık Kaš. I 114; a.o. / 373, 22 (tarığ): Xwar. xııı ašlık ‘food’ (?) ’Ali 40: xıv ašlık ‘corn, grain’ Qutb 14: Kom. xıv ‘grain, wheat’ ašlık CC7; Gr,; Kom, xiY

ašlık (wheat) al-qamh ‘wheat’ td. 14; al-galla ašlık Bul. 6, 15: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26b. 4; 85b. 13.

D e:šlig P.N./A. fr. e:š; ‘having a companion’. Survives in NW Kaz. išli R I 1561: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit bölasaheyate ‘having a fool for a companion’ biligsiz ešleg (sic) bolma:k TT VIII B.e: Xak. xı (after e:š) ıcıı yuqal li'lladi via ahu tebi'a mina'l-cinn, and ‘a man who has a familiar spirit’ is called e:šlig Kaš. I 47.

D i:šlig (? ı:šlığ) P.N./A. fr. 1 i:š (? 1 ı:š). Survives in SE Türki išlik ‘businesslike’ BŠ 603: NC Kır. Jštü: ‘industrious’ and SW Osm. išli, Tkm. i:šll ‘busy, fully occupied’. Xak. xı ı:šlığ Kaš. I 485, 9 (sıdrım, which is described as an Oğuz word); I 509, 3 (küdüg-lüg); n.m.e.

D išle:r See iši:.

Dis V. AŠL-

D ašıl- (increase) Pass. f. of 2 aš- (enlarge, increase, more), q.v.; ‘to increase’ (Intrans.) Pec. to Uyğ. and noted almost only in Hends. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. bu ok [öv]ke bilig aš[ilsa]r küčedser ‘if this emotion of anger increases and becomes strong’ TT II l7> 53~e: Cud. ükli- ašıl- U II 9, 6-8 etc. (ükli:-); ašıl- üstel- TT VII 40, 128 etc. (üstel-); o.o. TT VI, 348 (kuta:d- (blessed, bestow blessing)); PP 13, 6 (y>ŋ.

D ešil- (poured) Pass. f. of 2 eš- (pour, литься, сыпать); ‘to be poured out’. Survives in NC Kır. ešil- (also used with kum). Xak. xı kum ešildi: ‘the sand (etc.) was poured out’ (or ‘poured out’, inhela) Kaš. I197 (ešlür, ešilme:k); bu kayır ol ešilge:n 'this sand dune is constantly pouring out’ (i.e. ‘on the move’ yanhel) I 158.

D ešıil- Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of ešü:-. Xak. xı amŋ üze: yoğurka:n ešüldi: dutira 'alayhi'l--diijir ‘the blanket was spread over him’; also used when something is put as a cover (ğuttiya) over something else Kaš. I 197 (ešiülür, ošülme:k).

PUD ıšıl- (? yıšıl-) (skilled) 'to become expert (at doing something Dat.)'. 'Phis V. is apparently cognate to yıšığ (? ıšığ) (cord, rope), yıš>m and yıšımlan-; there is no doubt, in spite of the erratic vocalization in the MS., that the whole group had back vowels, but it is not clear whether the original initial was 1- or yi-; as the Uyğ. form of yıšığ (? ıšığ) (cord, rope) was ıšığ, the first is the likelier. Survives only (?) in NC Kzx. ısıl- 'to acquire a habit’; metaph. ‘to get thin’. Xak. xı anig eliği: ı:ška; ıšıldı: ‘his hand became accustomed (maianat) to the task’ (etc.) Kaš. I 197 (ıšılur, ıšılma:k; MS. me:k); anır» eliği ı:ška: yıšıldi; (a further example of yušul- follows here) III 79 (yıšılu:r, yıšılma:k, corrected fr. -we:k; vocalized yušul-); bu: er ol eliği: ı:ška: yıšılğa:n (MS. bušilğa:n) ‘this man’s hand is constantly nimble (yuxiff, MS. yuhiff) in the task and has become expert (nadaba) at it’ III 53.\\\

D ušal- (uša:l-) Pass. f. of uša:- (uvša:-); ‘to be crushed, broken into small pieces’. S.i.s.m.l., the normal word with this sense being uvul-, q.v. See osul-. Xak. xı etme:k ušaldı: ‘the bread (etc.) was crumbled’ (ta/attata) Kaš. I 197 (uša:lur (sic), ušalma:k); a.o. II 235 (tüvšel-) xıv Rbğ. ušal- ‘to be smashed, crushed’ R I 1775 (quotns.): Čağ. xv ff. ušal-/ušatıl- (spelt) Pass. f. šikasta šudan ‘to lie broken’ San. 75 v. 13 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ušaldı ‘crushed’ (perhaps a Dev. N./A. in -dŋ CCG; Gr.

D üšel- Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of üše:-. Xak. xı anuj evi: üšeldi: 'his house was searched’ (huhita); also used of anything else that you search (tabhatuhtŋ Kaš. I 197 (uše:lür, üše:lme:k).

D 1 ašla:- (eat) Den. V. fr. 1 a:š (food); ‘to еat food'; a very rare alternative to aša:- (eat, enjoy) (essen). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. PP 19, 6 (una:-): Kip. xv lahama ‘to feed on meat’ ašla- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 32a. 13.

D 2 ašla:- Den. V. fr. 2 a:š; ‘to repair’. N.o.a.b., but the Refl. f. ašlan- ‘to be repaired’ occurs in Xwar. xiv, Qutb 13, and ašlak ‘a patch; the sole (of a boot)’ is noted in SW xx Anat. SDD 123. Xak. xı ol ayak ašla:dı: ‘he repaired (ra’aba) the cup’ Kaš. I 286 (ašla:r, ašla:ma:k); a.o. I 80, 17 (2 a:š): Kip. xıv ašla:- ‘to mend (wasala) an arrow when it is broken’ td. 14.

D išle:- Den. V. fr. 1 i:š; ‘to work; to do (something Acc.)’; with front vowels everywhere even in Kaš. S.i.a.m.l.g. with minor phonetic variations. Türkü vııı ff. Man. ııeče išlemelsig İš išleyürblz ‘how many things we do that we ought not to do’ Chuas. 296-7: teŋri ayğın tüketi išleyürblz ‘we do everything that God prescribes’ TT II 6, 3: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (just as a craftsman) edsiz net) is isleyü (sic) umaz ‘cannot make an unserviceable thing’ (? or cannot make anything without (suitable) raw material?) M I 16, 14-15: Man. in TT III 69 and 72 išletimiz prob. represents lšlet(t)imiz; see išlet-: Bud. (and various craftsmen) kentü kentü uz išin išleyür ‘each do their own skilled work’ PP 2, 6; o.o. of iš išle- IF III 26, 10; TT IV 8, 63, etc.; sakınıp išleser (if a man) 'devotes himself to thinking’ TT V 6, 39: Civ. išlezün ‘let them work’ US[>. 122, <S; kızıl burčak bilen išleyii tııfğıl ‘work up (the decoction) with red beans and keep it’ II 11 8, 32; (if one crushes the rootlets (?) of onion and garlic and) yuğurup išleser ‘kneads them and works them up’ II 1 145: Xak. xı er išle:di: ‘the man (etc.) worked’ ('amila) Kaš. I 286 (İŠİe:r, Išle:me:k): KB ukuš birle išle kamuğ iš küdüg ‘do all your work (Hend.) with understanding’ 161; a.o. 255: xııı (?) Tef. išler išle- 127: xıv Muh. (al-šağl i:š) a'nıali’l-šuğl išle:- AIcl. 40, 3; Rif. 128: Čağ. xv ff. išle- (spelt) ker kardan ‘to work’ San. 105V. 29: Xwar. xııı išle- ‘to perform (work)’ ‘Ali 32: xıv ditto Qutb 61: Kom. xıv ‘work’ İšlemek CCI; Gr.: Kip. \263\  xııı ištağala ‘to work' išle:- Hou. 35, 12: Osm. xıv ff. išle- ‘to work; to do, or make (something Acc.)’; c.i.a.p, TTS I 394; II 552; III 387 ; IV 442.

D ašlat- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 2 ašla:-. Xak. xı ol aya:k ešlatti: arbaal-ine wa'I--qafa ‘he had the vessel or cup repaired’ Kaš. I 265 (ašlatur, ašlatma:k).

D išlet- Caus. f. of išle:-; ‘to make (someone Acc.) work; to operate (something Acc.); to make (someone Dal.) make or do (something Acc.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g., with minor phonetic variations. Uyğ. vm. ff. Marjf edgü kılınclığ ıšlarığ (sic) išlettiğiz ‘you have made them do good deeds’ TT III 80 (and see išle:-): Bud. kul kügüg išlettİmiz erser ‘if we have made a male or female slave work’ TT IV 10, 8; similar phr. TT V 25, 51 and 58; Suv. 136, 1; 596, 22: Civ. išletgil yenik edgü lalarığ ‘make the light-weight good mules (Chinese l.-w.) work’ TT I 125-6; o.o. USp. 51, 8; 82, 28 (2 art-); 88, 42: Xak. xı ol agar ı:š išletti: ista"ntalahu’ I- amal ‘he made him do the work’ Kaš. I 265 (išletür, išletme:k); yigitlerig išletü: ‘putting the young men to work’ I 263, 8: KB anı išletip 483; o.o. 215, 479, etc.: Čağ. xv ff. išlst- Caus. f.; ker farmiidan ‘to order to work’ San. ioer. 11: Kip. xıv ašğilğayrah ‘make someone else work’ išle:t Hou. 35, 13: Osm. xv ff. išlet- ‘to put (someone) to work’; in several texts TTS I 394; II 552; IV 442.

D ašlal- Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of 2 ašla:-. Xak. xı aya:k ašlaldı: ‘the cup was repaired’ (ru’iba) Kaš. I 295 (ašlalur, ašlalma:k).

D išlel- Pass. f. of išle:-; (of work) ‘to be done’. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ı:š išleldi: ‘the work was done’ (’ınnila) Kaš. I 295 (išlelür, išlelme:k).

D 1 i:šlen- Refl. f. of išle:-; s.i.a.m.l.g., except NC, often with a Pass. meaning. Xak. xı er i:šlendi: (sic) ara l-racul aitnahu ya'mal 'amal ‘the man pretended to work’ Kaš. I 297 (2 i:šletı- follows): Čağ. xv ff. išlen- Pass. f.; ker karda šudan (of work) ‘to be done’ San. ioer. 12.

VUD 2 i:šlen- (? ıšlan-) Refl. Den. V. fr. 2 iš ( ?ıš); ‘to be blackened with smoke’. Similar difficulties and confusions arise in regard to the vocalization and survival of this word as in the case of 2 iš, but broadly speaking it survives in the same languages and with the same phonetic changes. In Kaš. the position is further complicated by the fact that this verb, which probably had back vowels, and 1 i:šlen-, which almost certainly had front vowrels, are treated in a single para., with the result that the Infin, is shown as -ma:k altered to -me:k or vice versa. In addition a later scribe familiar with modern forms of this verb like Osm. islen- altered the -š-s to -s-. Xak. xı ev (VU) ı:šlandı: laziqa'l--duxan bi’l-bayt 7vn aswadda minhu ‘the smoke \\\ adhered to the house, and it was blackened by it’; also used of clothing and other things Kaš. I 298 (ı:šlanur, ı:šlanma:k (?), see above); tiitikn kopursa: (VU) ıšlanu:r ‘if a man raises smoke, he (inevitably) gets dirtied by it’ (yatadaxxan) II 72, 10 (-š- later altered to -s-).

D išleš- (work) Co-op. f. of išle:-; ‘to work together’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: išlešdi: ‘he competed with me in working’ (fi'l-amal); also used for helping Kaš. I 240 (išlešü:r, išlešme:k): (Xwar. xıv išleš- ‘to be friends with one another’ Qutb 61 is a Co-op. Den. V. fr. e:š and should be transcribed öšleš-).

Tris. V. AŠM-

D ešimsin- Hap. leg.; almost certainly Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. e:š, ‘to treat as a comrade, or equal’. The Suff. -imsin- is properly attached to V.s and seems to be a Refl. Simulative Den. Suff. -sin- attached to the N.S.A. of that V.; it is here attached to a N. by false analogy. Xak. xı KB (however close the rulers hold you to them, do not forget yourself, act uprightly; however well they treat you, stand in awe of them) ešimsinmegil sen kaya baknu tur ‘do not treat them as equals, stand looking over your shoulder at them’ 4094-5.

Dis. AŠN

D üšeŋ (smooth) Dev. (Pass.) N./A. fr. üše:-; lit. ‘scraped smooth’. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı tišeŋ ta:š al-šaxratu’l-malse ‘a smoothed stone’; alternative form (luğa ft) yüšeŋ Kaš. I 135; yüšeŋ ta:š same translation III 372.

öšün (shoulder) (ossify)shoulder’ or the like. Survives in NE Alt., Leb., Šor öjün ‘collar-bone’ R I 1308 (üštü Šor ‘shoulder’ 1907 ir, merely the same word with Poss. Suff.); Bar. üjün ‘humerus, upper arm’ 1907; Tuv. öjün ‘humerus; forearm’; SETürki öšne/öšni, etc. ‘shoulder’ Shaw 24, Jarring 219. Xak. xı öšün ra’su'l-katif (sic in MS.) ‘the point of the shoulder’ Kaš. I 77.

D ašnu: (once, previously, before) abbreviated Ger. of ašun-; as Adv. ‘previously first (of all)’; as a Postposn. with Abl. ‘before’ (of time). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. eg ašnu ‘first of all’ TT V 26, note 5, 9; bašda ašnu ‘first of all’ TT V 24, 58; (the bull) ašnu ünüp ‘coming out first’ PP 65, 3; ašnuča 'as previously’ U I 31, 14; USp. 58, 18: Civ. ašnu üč kašuk ičsün ‘first let him drink three spoonfuls’ H II 18, 63; a.o.o.: Xak. xı ašnu: a Particle (harf) meaning qahl ‘before’; hence one says men andan ašnu: keldim ‘I came before him’ (qablahu) Kaš. I 130: KB 'Atiq erdi ašnu kamuğda üze ‘ ‘Atiq was first, above all the others’ 51; o.o. 8 (ögdün), 253, 509, 2356 (1 a:l), etc.: xııı (?) Tef. ašnu Adv. and Postposn. 6e: xıv Rbğ. R I 601; Muh. qabl ašnu:; qabli menden ašnu: Mel. 14, 7; Rif. 90: Xwar. xııı ašnudanfrom of old’ *Ali 4e: xıv ašnu Adv. and Postposn. Qutb 14; MN 289; Nahc. 4, 13; 241, le: Kip. xıv ašnu; \264\ al-qadim nıinn’l-zaman ‘previous in time’ Id. 14: Osm. xıv ašnu zaman ‘once upon a time’ TTS / 51.

Dis. V. AŠN-

D ašan- (eat, enjoy) Refl. f. of aša:- (eat, enjoy) (essen); the two early occurrences are not certain, but the word survives in NE Kiier., Tel. ajan- R I 606; NC Kır., Tob. ašan- do. 590, ‘to eat to satiety’. Türkü vııı T 27 (? , see asın-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (I invite two monks) kim küntemek meniŋ evimde ašanzunlar ‘to cat daily in my house’ TT I p. 26, note 160, 4-5.

S ašın- See ašğın-,

D ašun- Refl. f. of 1 a:š- (cross over, перевалить), the -u- is unusual; ‘to excel (Intrans.); to exceed, surpass (something or someone Abl.)'. Survives in NE Alt., Tel. ajın- R I 608; Khak. azın-; NC Kır. ašın-; NW Kum. ašın- R I 594. Xak. xı ol mendin ašundı: sabaqa tnintti ‘he surpassed (or outstripped) me’ Kaš. I 202 (ašunur, ašunma:k): KB kayu ište ašnu ašunsa ukuš ‘in whatever matter (his) understanding excels’ 2604; o.o. 1384, 4848, 5°52: xııı (?) Tef. sözge ašun- ‘to speak first’; ašun- ‘to cxccl’ 67.

D ešün- Refl. f. of ešü-; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB (Oh mortal man! You see the dead and the living) sizik tutma bir kün ešüngey yerig ‘have no doubt, one day you will put on a covering of earth’ 3785.

išen- ‘to trust, believe in, rely on (someone Dot.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW. Exceptionally the NW forms Kar. L. ısan- R I 1387; T. ıšaıı- do. 1400; Kniv. 195 and Kaz. ıšan-R I 1400 have back vowels, perhaps under the influence of man- which is practically synonymous. See ıčan-. Xak. xı ol maga: išendi: ittakala 'atayyafi'l-amr zva'tamada ‘he relied (Hend.) on me in the matter’ Kaš. I 202 (išenür, išenme:k): KB bitigke išenme ‘do not rely on the letter’ (do the best you can) 3894; (do not entrust a task to two people) İšengü bolur iš kalur kılmadın ‘they will rely (on each other) and the task will remain undone’ 5533: Čağ. xv flf. išenme (mistranslated) Vel. 60 (quotn.); išen- mutma'inn bıîdan zva i'timad kardan ‘to feel secure, to rely on’ San. i05r. 22 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv (VÜ) İšen- 'to trust, rely on’ Qutb 206 (tšan-): Kom. xıv ‘to trust’ ıšan- (sic) CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv tazcakkala (VU) ıšan- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 10b. 9.

S ušan- See uvšan-.

Tris. AŠN

D ašnu:kı: (former, pra-, once, previously, before) N./A.S. fr. ašnu: (once, previously, before), ‘former’ and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ašnu:kı: tavğačdakı: oğuz türkü ta[šık]mıš ‘the Oğuz and Türkü who were previously (settled) in China (Tabgach Türkic) came out’ Šu. S 8: vııı flf. Bud. ašnukı ikigü ‘the first two’ (of three) TT V 26, 108; aš-nukı sekiz ‘the first eight’ (of ten) do. 127: Civ. ašnukı tüzünler törösin ‘the traditional law (or customs?) of good men of old times’ TT VII 30, 1-2; ašnukına ögi ‘different from before’ TT I 150 (dubious meaning): (O. Kır. ıx ff. ašnukı: is read in Mal. 41, 2 and 4 but this inscription makes no sense): Xak. xı KB eg ašnukı kün ‘on the very first day’ 793: xııı (?) Tef. ašnukı ‘previous’; ašnukılar 'men of old time’ 67: xıv Muh. al-azvtval ‘first, former’ ašnu:kı:; al-atvzua'il ašnu:kı:la:r Mel. 14, 7; Rif. 90; Adam 'alayhi’l-salam ašnu:kı: ata: Rif. 138 (only): Xwar. xıv ašnukı ‘former’ Qutb 14: Kip. xıv ašınğı: yıl ‘emu’l-'emi'l-aıvzoal 'the year before last’, also called ašnuğı yıl; the phrase now used is kešgen (i.e. kečgen) yıl Id. 14; 'dm 'dm azvzcal ašınğı: yıl Bul. 13, 15: Osm. xıv ašnuği (1) ‘former’; (2) (men) ‘of old times’ in three texts TTS I 51; II 64.

D ašnukan Den. Adv. fr. ašnu:, see v. G. ATG, para. 437. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. see v. G., op. cit., occurs in an unpublished part of Hüen-ts.: Civ. TT I 172 (2 ergür-).

D ašnurak Comparative f. of ašnu:; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (you who are afraid) ašnurak yoriglar ‘get off (the ship) before (we sail)’ PP 32, 4.

Tris. V. AŠN-

D ašundur- Caus. f. of ašun-; survives only (?) in NE. Xak. xı KB uluğlar kerek kim kičigke salim ašundursa ‘important people should take the initiative in greeting their inferiors’ (and not vice versa) 5060: xııı (?) At. senig melıg ol mel ašındurdukug ‘your (true) wealth is the wealth you have sent in advance (to the next world?)’ 433; Tef. ašundur- (of the hands) ‘to have made something earlier’ 67.

Dis. AŠR

D ašru: (very much, extremely) abbreviated Ger. of ašur- used as an Adv.; ‘very much, extremely’. Survives in NE Tel. ajıra R I 608; Khak. azira; Tuv. ajir all meaning ‘across, above, beyond; to excess’; NW Kar. T. ašarı/ašıraacross, through’ Kozv. 159, 160, and SW Osm. ašırı ‘extreme, excessive; situated on the other side of (something)’; Tkm. a:šın 'a streamer attached to a veil or other similar garment”. The word is rather rare in the early period and for a brief time but over a wide area became asru (sic) in the medieval period. Xak. xı KB ağırladı ašru ‘he honored him greatly’ 176e: (the word does not occur in xııı (?) At., but ked is twice glossed asru and once asru yaxšı 'very good’): Čağ. xv ff. asru ziyada ve čok ‘more, very much’ Vel. 17 (quotns.); asru bisydr ditto San. 40V. 9 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv asrı/asruvery, very much’, qualifying Adjs. and Verbs Qutb 12-13; asru ditto MN 98, etc.: Kom. xıv ditto asru/astrı/astru CCG; Gr. 43 (quotns.; survives as astri in NW Kar. T. Kozv. 159).

Dis. V. AŠR-

D ašur- Caus. f. of 1 a:š- (cross over, перевалить); ‘to cause to pass over or exceed; to extol’, and the like. Fortuitously not noted before xiv, but cf. ašru, ašrul-, Xwar. xıv ašur- ‘to make (something) exceed, go beyond, overflow’ Qutb 14; ašur-/ašır- ditto MN 165, etc.; blr kulnug 'amalini kükke ašurğaylar ‘they will extol a servant’s work to the skies’ Nahc. 402, 13: Čağ. xv ff. ašur- (spelt) Caus. f.; gudarenidan via mutacawiz saxtan ‘to cause to pass over or exceed’ San. 4ir. 2.

VU öšer- (of the eyes) ‘to be dazzled, or bleary’; pec. to Kaš. Xak/xi anig kö:zi: öšerdi: sadirat 'aymthu wa'rmaddat mina’l--intizer awi’l-catv' ‘his eyes were dazzled and bleary because of staring (at something) or hunger’ Kaš. I 178 (öše:rlir, öšerme:k); bu er ol kö:zi: öšergern ‘this man’s eyes are constantly dazzled (yatahayyar) by hunger and the like’ I 157; a.o. III 68, 2.

D ašrul- Pass. f. of ašur-; ‘to be carried over (something Abl.)’. Survives in SE Türki BŠ 766 (ošurul-); NC Kır. and SW Osm.; Tkm. (atšırıl-). Xak. xı yük arttın ašruldı: ‘the load was carried over (uciza) the pass (etc.)’ Kaš. I 247 (ašrulur, ašrulma:k).

Dis. AŠS

D ašsız Priv. N./A. fr. 1 a:š (food); ‘without food’. Otherwise noted only in SE Türki, Shaw 9. Türkü vııı ičre: ačsız tašra: tonsız (a people) ‘without food in them and clothes on them’ I E 26, II E 21.

D išsiz Priv. N./A. fr. 1 i:š; ‘without work, with no occupation’. S.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. išsiz boš ‘without work and idle’ M I 17, 2.

Dis. V. AŠS-

D 1 ašsa:- Hap. leg.; Desid. Den. V. fr. 1 a:š (food). Xak. xı ašsa:dı: (after 2 ašsa:-) wa kadalika ida’štahe'1-ta'em ‘he longed for food’ Kaš. I 277 (ašsa:r, ašsa:ma:k).

D 2 ašsa:- Hap. leg.; Dcsid. f. of 1 a:š- (cross over, перевалить), Xak. ol art ašsa:dı: ‘he intended and wished to cross (muceıvaza) the pass’ Kaš. I 277 (1 ašsa:- follows).

D ašsat- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 1 ašsa:-. Xak. xı ol anı: ašsattı: mannehu l-ta’em ‘he made him long for food’ Kaš. I 262 (ašsatur, ašsatma:k).

Dis. V. AŠŠ-

D ešiš- (pour, литься, сыпать) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of 2 eš- (pour, литься, сыпать), Xak. xı ol maga: topra:k ešišdi: ‘he helped to pour out (fi’l-ihela) the dust’ Kaš. I 185 (ešišü:r, ešišme:k).

Mon. AY

OTD pp. 24, 25:
AJ I 1. месяц, луна (светило); month, Moon (luminaire)
2. астр. Луна (планета); astr. Moon (planet)
AJ II месяц (мера времени); month (measure of time)
AJ III им. собств.; proper name
AJ V 1. препозитивная усилительная частица; prepositional emphasizing particle
2. постпозитивная усилительно-вокативная частица; postpositive emphasizing-vocative particle
AJ VI межд. эй, о; ах, ай; int. hey, about; ah, ah
AJ VII трястись, дрожать; shake, tremble
A:J I луна, месяц.; moon month.
AJ: II месяц (мера времени); month (measure of time)
A:J III слуга; servant
AJ- 1. говорить, рассказывать; разъяснять, толковать; talk, narrate, explain, interpret
2. называть; call, name
3. указывать, распоряжаться, руководить; direct, command, govern

1 a:y (moon, (lunar) month, crescent) originally ‘the moon’; hence from the earliest period ‘a (lunar) month’; as an Adj. ‘crescent shaped’. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer II 627. Türkü vııı ay ‘month’ I NE; II N 10; II NW; Ongin 12: vııı ff. ay ‘month’ IrkB, Postscript; a.o. do. 59 (yidit-); yaru:k ay teŋri:ke: ‘to the bright moon god’ Toy. It. 2 (ETY II 176): Man. bir ay ‘for one month’ Chuas. 274; a.o. do. 338: Yen. on ay eltdi: ögüm oğlan ‘the son of my mother who carried me (in her womb) for ten months’ Mal. 29, 5; a.o. do. 28, 7: Uyğ. vııı ay ‘month’ Šu. N 9; a.o.o.: vııı ff. Man. ay belgülüg bolur ‘the moon becomes visible’ Wind. 15; ol aylarka ‘in those months’ do. 19: Bud. yılın ayın ‘for years and months’ TT VI 62; VIII 0.6 (a:yin); ay ‘moon’ and ‘month’ is common: Civ. ay (a:y in TT VIII L.) ‘moon’ and ‘month’ is common: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘month’ ay and phr. Ligeti 126; R I 3:0. Kır. ıx ff. kö:k teŋri:de: kün ay a:zdim ‘I strayed from the sun and moon in the blue sky’ Mal. 10, 3 (a standard phr. for ‘to die’ in these texts); o.o. do. 11, 1; (44, 4); 45, 5: Xak. xı a:y al-qamar ‘the moon’; and ‘the full moon’ (al-badŋ is called to:lun a:y; a:y is also ‘month' (šahŋ (verse); the month is called by the name of the moon because its course is known by it (prov.) Kaš. I 82; ay bitigi: the name for ‘the register’ (firmen) in which the soldiers’ names and rations are entered’ 140 (lit. ‘the book of the month’); a.o. in this sense III 77, 7; and about a dozen o.o.: KB ay ‘month’ is common; ‘moon’ in the name Aytoldi (and see yalčık): xııı (?) Tef. ay ‘moon; month’ 43: xıv Muh. al-šahr ay Mel. 79, 15; Rif. 184: Čağ. xv ff. ay: (1) mah ba-ma'ne qamar; (2) meh ba-ma'ne šahr; also used as a P.N. San. 56V. 26 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ay ‘moon’ 'AH 3e: xııı (?) ay ‘moon’ Oğ. 53; also a P.N.: xıv ay ‘moon, month’ Qutb 5 ; MN 5, etc.: Kom. xiv, ‘moon, month’ ay/a:y CCI, CCG; Gr. 30 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-qamar ay wa huıva’l-šahr Hou. 5, 3; al-šahr ay do. 28, 8: xıv ay (‘with back vowel’) al-qamar, wa yuflaq ay ayda (n) ’ale’l--šahr Id. 26; al-qamar ay Bui. 2, 11; al-šahr ay do. 13, 10; xv al-qamar ay Kav. 15, 17; šahr ay Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21a. 6; Kav. 22, 2; ditto, tea huwa ism li'1-hilel (‘a crescent’) wa’l-qamar do. 36, 11.

2 ay (exclamation) (oh) Exclamation; often no more than a Vocative Prefix. The word is also Ar. and Pe. and s.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. ay moğoč-lar-a ‘Oh Magi’ U I 7, 10: Bud. ay kim sen ‘Hi! Who are you?’ U IV 8, 20; o.o. Hüen-ts. 1896, 1918; USp. 105b. 1: Xak. xı ay oğul ‘oh my son!’ I 74, 17; n.m.e.: KB ay introducing a Voc. is common 6, etc.: xııı (?) At. ay ditto 106, 474 (but aya is commoner): Čağ. xv ff. ay harf-i nide ‘exclamation’ San. 56V. 2e: Xwar. xııı (?) ay introducing a Voc. Oğ. 324, etc.; also at the beginning of a sentence do. 182, etc.: Kom. xıv ay Voc. CCI; Gr. 31 (quotn.).

1 o:y (hole, cavity, valley)hole, cavity’, with various special applications; homophonous, and semantically connected with, 1 o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole). S.i.a.m.l.g., except SW, usually for ‘valley’ and the like. Türkü vııı ff. (a gambler, staking his wife and \\ children) (PU) usıč oyuğ alı: barmi:š ‘succeeded in obtaining the... hole’ (and did not lose his wife and children) IrkB 29: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. H I 147 (otura:): Xak. o:y al-httwwa fi'l-ard ‘a cavity (or deep valley) in the ground’ Kaš. I 49; a.o. I 54, 16 (opuz); o:y opuzluğ ye:r ard det ğiten toa huzüna ‘ground full of holes and hard patches’ I 146, 20: KB 3570 (töšne:k): Kip. xııı al-ivadi ‘valleyo:y (also kol) Hou. 5, 18.

2 o:y (dun, light, pale, grey (color)) a word for a colour of a horse’s coat; definitions vary but point mainly to ‘dun’. Survives only in NE several dialects, R I 969, Khak., Tuv. oydun’; ağ/ax oylight bay’ or ‘pale grey’. Xak. xı o:y at al-farasu'l dayzac Kaš. I 49 (dayzac is said by Steingass (Persian Dict. 553) to be the Ar. form of Persian diza ‘grey’, but is translated ‘dun’): xıv Mufı. o:y faraš bayna'l-šuqra wa'l-katma ‘a horse of a colour between reddish and brown’ is quoted as an example of a word in which waw represents o:- (not 1/:-) Mel. 5, 12; 6, 3; Rif. 76-7: Kip. xııı al-ağbaru'l--ramedî ‘dust- or ash-colouredoy Hou. 13, 7.

?E 3 oy (reed) Hap. leg.; the reading is uncertain, and should perhaps be lüler, l.-w. fr. Chinese Iii ‘a reed’ (Giles 7,548) Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. altı erkek (PU) oylar ‘the six male reeds’ (of the Chinese ‘Pan’s pipes’) Hüen-ts. 133.

S uy See u:d (bovine, ox).

Mon. V. AY-

ay-(speak, say, declare, call, prescribe, address ) (1) Intrans. ‘to speak’; (2) ‘to say, declare, prescribe (something Acc.)'-, (3) ‘to say’ with the words said in oratio recta. There is little difference of meaning between ay-, te:- (de:-) (tell) (tell) and sözle:-, but at any rate in the earliest period ay- seems to be to some extent honorific, while the others are not. N.o.a.b.; apparently became obsolete when ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe), q.v., came to mean ‘to say’, but in the transition period it is sometimes hard to say whether Perf. f.s represent ay- or ayıt-. Türkü vııı öd teŋri: aysar ‘when heaven prescribes the time’ (all men are destined to die) IN1 o; Tonuku (k)ka: baga: aydı:... kıynığ köŋülügče: ay ben saga: ne: ayayım tedi: ‘ (my xagan) spoke to me, Tonukuk; he said “prescribe the punishment as you think fit; what should I say to you (as a guide)?”’ T 31-2: vııı ff. Man. teŋri aymıš ötče biligče yorımadtmtz erser 'if we have not behaved in accordance with the advice and knowledge declared by God’ Chuas. 326-8; (then a voice came from high heaven and) meni okıdı ınča tep aydıcalled me and said as follows’ M III 23, $ (ı): Uyğ. vııı kulım kügim bodunığ teŋri: yer ayu: berti: ‘heaven and earth deigned to declare that the people were my slaves’... kıyn aydım ‘I prescribed (their) punishment’ Šu E 1-2; a.o. do. S 9: vııı ff. Man.-A (we have completely performed) ayduk išegezen ‘the work which you prescribed’ M I 10, 13; o.o. M I 34, 10-13; TT II 8, 51 and 53: Man. (the false Mithra) ol dındarlarka ınča ayğay ‘will address ‘the Elect as follows’ M H 5, 7 (in: ayu yarlıkadıgız olarka ‘you have deigned to prescribe to them’ TT III 162: Bud. ögi ögi kazğanč kılmak ayu birdiler... biri ayur... biri ayur... biri ayur ‘they told of various ways of making a profit... one of them said... another said... another said’ PP 13, 1-e: in the Tantric text TT V 4 ff. the formula sakınč ayu berelim ‘let us prescribe the (appropriate) thought’ in 8, 76 and 10, 99 is replaced by sözleyü berelim in 10, 114; o.o. of ayu ber- TT VI 265-6; VII 12, 5; 36, 1 etc.; VIII H. 4: Civ. in TT I the standard formula is ‘if this irk, called..., appears, savın ınča ter ‘it makes the following statement’, but in 14, 32 and 70 ayur replaces ter; kotur emin ayalım ‘let us prescribe a remedy for the itch’ H I 168: Xak. xı ol maga: sö:z aydı: qela li'l-kalenı ‘he said a word to me’ Kaš. I 174 (ayu:r, ayma:k); amdt: ok aydım qultu sa'ata'idi ‘I have this moment spoken’ I 37, 16; aydım amdı: ya:t ‘I said “lie down at once”’ I 36, 12; and over 30 o.o.: KB (the Prophet) ayu berdi yol ‘prescribed the way (of salvation’) 37; sen amdi kayu sen maga ay ač-a ‘tell me now and explain who you are’ 267; Tejikler ayur anı Afresiyeb ‘the Persians call him Afrasiyab’ 280; and many occurrences of Hecib (etc.) aydı ‘the Chancellor (etc.) said’ 580, followed by oratio recta: xııı (?) At. ay- with the usual range of meanings is common; Tef. ditto 44: xıv Muh. (?) qala 7va šala (? corrupt for sa’ala ‘to ask’) ‘to say and?’ ay- Rif. 114 (only) (see ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe)): Xwar. xıv ay- ‘to'say; to recite’ Qutb 6; MN 33, etc.; Nahc. 3, 5, etc.

ıy-/iy- Preliminary note. There are V.s of these forms in several modern languages, which all seem to be Sec. f.s of ı:d-, eg- (bend, bow, fold, twist) or yıdı:- (smell, stink). There is only one early verb, which must be ıy- (see iyin-) and is n.o.a.b. iy- except for two doubtful occurrences it\ U II 29, 18 and 24 (see tay-) occurs only in Hend. ıy- bas- ‘to suppress’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. anın tınlığlar öpke nızbamların ıya basa umadm ok ‘therefore mortals because they cannot suppress (Hend.) their passion (l.-w.) of anger’ TT II 17, 72-5; Bud. (then the rulers will so organize their countries) kim ayığ kılınčlığ tosun yavlak (PU) muyğa tınlığlarığ iyar basar ‘that they suppress (Hend.) wicked rebellious evil and headstrong (?) men’ TT VI 254-5; a o- Suv. 607, 14-15 (orun): and see basa:.

o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole) ‘to hollow out (something Acc., by removing its contents)’, with some extensions of meaning. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in Tkm. o:y-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. II I 147 (otura): Xak. xı ol ka:ğu:n o:ydi: ‘he hollowed out (qawtvara) the melon (etc.)’ Kaš. I174 (o:ya:r, o:yma:k): xııı (?) Tef. oy- ‘to gouge out (the eyes)’ 234:xiv Muh. naqaša ‘to engraveo:y- Mel. 32, 1; Rif. 116 (adding wa taqaba ‘and to pierce’): Čağ. xv ff. oy- kmvtdan ‘to hollow out’, in \267\ Ar. tağıcir sic, error for taqzviŋ Satt. 89, 18 (and see u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit)and udi:-).

Dis. V. AYA-

uy- (squeeze) ‘to squeeze’. N.o.a.b.; for the vowel see uyma:. Close in meaning to uv- and iy-, but hardly to be connected etymologically with either since uv- > uy- is not a possible sound change in Xak., and the alif is consistently vocalized with damma in all words in the group. Xak. xı ol u:nuğ uydi: *he squeezed (člağata) the flour in order to make it compact and feed it (to animals)’ (yaštadd wa yanca') Kaš. I 174 (uya:r, uyma:k): xıv Af«A. (?) 'acana, ‘to knead’ uy- Rif 112 (Mcl. 28, 15 yuğur- (knead)). '

Dis. AYA

1 aya: (palm (hand)) ‘the palm of the hand’, with some extended meanings later. S.i.m.m.l.; in others displaced by Mong. l.-w. alakan or Ar. l.-w. ka ff. Uyğ. vııı flf. Bud. iki ayalarni kav-šurup ‘putting the two palms together’ U II 46, 70 and o.o. of this phr.; o.o. Suv. 168, 23 fF. (adut) TT V 12, 119; PP 6, 7-8, etc.: Civ. sekiz yağıda ayada ‘on the 8th of the month (it is) in the palm of the hand’ TT VII 20, 8; a.o. do. 27, 8: Xak. xı aya: al-kaff ‘the palm of the hand’ Kaš. I 85; a.o. I 348 (2 kars): KB ayada tutarsen ‘you hold in the palm of your hand’ 717; a.o. 864: xııı (?) Tef. aya ditto 44; a.o. 230 (uvun-): Čağ. xv ff. aya kaff-i dast San. 56 v., 28 (quotn.): Kom. xıv ‘the palm’ aya CCI, CCG; Gr.-. Kip. xııı al-kaffu'l-maftüh ‘the open palm’ aya: Hou. 20, 13: xıv aya: (Vith back vowels’) al-kaff; aya: ur- saffaqa ay daraba'l-yad ‘to clap, that is strike the hands together’ Id. 27:xv al-kaff aya: Kav. 61, 2; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 30b. 8: Osm. xıv ff. aya (1) ‘the palm’; (2) ‘the pan of a pair of scales’ in several texts! TTS I 54; III 50.

?F 2 aya: an Exclamation, ‘oh’, which also exists in Ar. and Pe.; prob. a l.-w., but' possibly an expanded form of 2 ay. Survives in NC Kır. and SW Osm. Xak. xı KB aya as a Vocative Prefix is common 8, 164, 168,: etc.: xııı (?) At. ditto;Tcf. aya ‘oh!’ 44. '

S ayı See anig.

S cye/lye See 1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God)).

D iya/ (E) lye See eyin and basa:.

1 uya: (nest (bird)) properly ‘a bird’s nest’; sometimes by extension the resting place or ‘lair’ (properly i:n (lair, den, hole, cave, nest, burrow, warren, hiding place, нора) (inn)) of any wild beast. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NW and SW as uya; in the latter languages as yuva which seems to be the old Oğuz/Kip. form. Ttirkü vııı ff. (a leopard and a deer, see 3 eg...) bulu:pan uya:sı:ga:ru: ögi:re: sevhnü: keli:r ‘having found it they come rejoicing (Hend.) to their resting places’ IrkB 31: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. karlığač uyasındakı toprakm ‘the earthy material in a swallow’s nest’ H I 95-e: Xak. xı uya: tvakru’l-tayr tva 'uššuhu ‘the nest (in general) of a bird and its nest in a tree’ Kaš. I 85: xıv Muh. al-'ııšš \\ u:ya: Mel. 73, 8; Rif. 17e: Xwar. xıv yuva ‘nest’ Qutb 87: Kip. xııı al-'ušš yuwa: Hou. io, 17: xıv uya: al-’ušš; thus in the Kiteb Beylik, but our šayx Faxru’J-din said ‘I do not know (any word for) it except yuwa:’ Id. 27; yuwa: al-wakar; and one says kuš yuwasi: wakaru’l-ayr do. 99; al-'ušš uya: Bui. 12, e: xv 'ušš yuwa/uya Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 2$r. 10: Osm. xvııı yuwa (? in Rümi omitted) ešiyena-i tuyûr ‘a bird’s nest’, in Ar. kinn (‘hiding place’), 'ušš and mafhaš (‘a nest in the ground’) San. 347V. 9 (quotn. Fudüll), VU 2 uya: a term of relationship of uncertain significance, in some contexts apparently ‘blood brother’, a general term covering both eči: and ini:, in others hardly more than ‘blood relation’. N.o.a.b. O. Kır. ıx ff. el(l)Jg uyamka: adriltim ‘I have been parted from my kinsmen of my realm’ Mal. 15, 3: Xak. xı uya: al-ax wa'l-qarib ‘brother, kinsman’; (verse) tavar üčün teŋri: edlemedip, uya: kadaš oğlını: čınla: boğa:r it describes the lack of compassion between brethren (al-ixwan) and says ‘man looks for money and does not fear God, so that he (literally ?) strangles his brother’s son (ibn axihŋ for the sake of money’ Kaš. I 85; a.o. III 146 (ka:b): xııı (?) At. ata bir ana bir uyalar bu xalq ‘these people are kinsmen with the same father and mother’ 291; Tef. uya corresponds to Ar. al-ax 324: Čağ. xv ff. uya hamšîra-i küfik ‘younger sister’, also called sigll San. Č2T. 22 (sigil is the normal word, no other trace of uya: in this sense): Xwar. xııı uya ‘brother’ 'Ali 45: xıv uya ‘blood relation’ (f) Qutb 196.

Dis. V. AYA

-aya:- originally ‘to treat (a person Acc.) with respect, to honor; to preserve (a thing Acc.), to look after it carefully’. S.i.a.m.l.g. (in SW only Tkm. and xx Anat. SDD 134) with a rather miscellaneous set of meanings, of which the commonest are ‘to have compassion on (someone), to spare; to withhold, or withdraw (something)’. Türkü vııı ff. (in Toy. IV r. 3-5 (ETY II 180) there seems to be a scribal error, the text should prob. read yüz altu:n ba:p (not aya:p) tamğala:p ‘packing up and sealing a hundred gold coins’): Man. TT II 10, 78-9 (ağırla:-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ağır ayamakm ‘with profound respect’ U I 30, 8; normally occurs in Hends., U II 14, 2 etc. (ağırla:-); Suv. 195, 21-2 (čilte-): Civ. TT I 65-6 (ıčan-): Xak. xı ol to:nın aya:dı: sena tawbahu ‘he looked after his clothing (etc.) carefully’; and one says xa:n agar aya:ğ aya:di: laqabahul-malik bi-laqab ‘the xan gave him a title of honor’ Kaš. I 271 (aya:r, aya:ma:k): KB ayama 'do not treat them gently’ (let boys and girls taste the whip) 1494; (a wicked man ought to be kept in captivity) yorık bolsa edgü aya sarp yürek ‘if he obtains his liberty, control him well with a stem mind’ 5549: xrv Muh. al-muhebba ‘to behave in a friendly manner to (someone)’ ayamak Mel. 35, 10 \268\ misvocalized iymak); Rif. 121 (unvocalized): Čağ. xv ff. aya (-r, etc.) man et- diriğ dut-, kačur- ‘to refuse, to withhold’ Vel. 33-4 (quotns.); aya- (spelt) diriğ döštan ditto San. 53V. 13 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ‘to refuse, withhold’ CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv baxl ‘to be stingy’ ayamak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 90b. 12: Osm. xv and xvı aya- ‘to honor, respect’ (someone Acc.) in two texts TTS II 76; IV 57.

Dis. AYB

?F ayva: (quince, айва) ‘quince’; as the name of an exotic fruit, prob. a l.-w. A l.-w. in Russian; survives only in SW Osm.; in NE Khak. it is reborrowed fr. Russian. The text in Kaš. is in disorder at this point; the letter V should indicate the last consonant of the word; the text was therefore prob. originally as reconstructed below. Xak. xı V < ayva: al-safarcal ‘quince’; > avya: al-safarcal, fi luğa ‘in one dialect’ Kaš. I 114; a.o. of avya: II 311, 15 (kamat-): xıv Muh. al-safarcal aywa: Mel. 78, 11; Rif. 182: Čağ. xv ff. aywa bih ‘quince’, in Ar. safarcal and in Pe. ebı San. 57V. e: Tkm. xııı al-safarcal aywa: Hou. 7, 19: xıv aywa al-safarcal İd. 26; (kürt al-safarcal in Kip., as if they called it ‘Kurdish apple’) in Tkm. aywa do. 81: xv al-safarcal haywa: Kav. 63, 9.

aybag (bald)bald’. Survives in SW Tar. aypag R I 59; the Türki equivalent is aydıgvaš ‘shiny head’ BŠ 10. NE Alt., Khak. ayag seems to be descended from this word. There does not seem to be any widely distributed Turkish word for ‘bald’. Čigil xı aybaŋ (or aypag ?) er al-raculu'1-ašla' ‘a bald man’ Kaš. I 116.

Dis. AYD

uyat (shame, modesty, shyness)shame, modesty, shyness’; practically syn. w. uvut, q.v., with which it is used in Hend. in Uyğ.; connected with uya:d- and uyal-, but morphologically obscure, possibly abbreviated Dev. N. in-t fr. uya:d-. S.i.a.m.l.g. as uyat, in SW only in Tkm. uyat, xx Anat. oyat SDD 1097. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. uvut uyat Suv. 489, 12; TT V 24, 60-1 (uvut, the spelling evyat in the latter looks like a mistranscription): Čağ. xv ff. uyat šarm ‘shame’ Vel. 123 (quotn. containing uyathk); uyat (1) šarm wa xiedlat (‘modesty’); (2) 'ayb tea qabahat ‘disgrace, baseness’ San. qzr. 22 (quotn.): Xwar. ( xııı uyatlu ‘ashamed’ 'Ali 46): xıv uyat ‘shame, modesty’ Qutb 196 (and uyatlığ); Nahr. 366, 1: Kom. xıv ‘shame, modesty’uyat CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv ud (? crasis of uvut) al-haye ‘modesty, bashfulness’; also called u:yad Id. 9; Tkm. uyat and ut al-haye do. 27.

D aytiğ (enquiry) N.Ac. fr. ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe); 'enquiry’. S.i.s.m.l. w. minor phonetic changes, but now means ‘statement’ (cf. ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe)). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. aytiğ ‘enquiry’ (?) in damaged passage M II 12, 10: Xak. xı aytiğ alternative form (luğafŋ of aytıš in the sense of istixber 'atıi'1-salema Tča nahıvihe ‘an enquiry about (someone’s) health and the like’ Kaš. I 113: KB iligdln üküš ögdi aytiğ salem ıdurmen saga ‘I send you many praises, enquiries, and greetings from the king’ 3907; saga bolğa 3xir bayat aytığı ‘for you at the last there will be God’s cross-questioning’ 5273; o.o. 5740, 6120. ' ‘

D aydiŋ (moonlight, brilliance, brilliant) Den. N. fr. 1 a:y; properly ‘moonlight’, but sometimes, more vaguely, ‘brilliance, brilliant’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı aydig faxtul-qamar ‘moonlight’ Kaš. I 117: xıv Muh. al-daw ‘brilliance’ aydug Rif. 152 (Mel. 55, 3 ya:ruk); layl muqmar ‘a moonlight night’ a:ydm/aydin Mel. 80, 9; aydig tü:nle: Rif. 185: Čağ. xv ff. aydın (spelt) mahtdb ‘moonlight’ (quotn.); the origin and etymology of it is aytün meh-i šab ‘the night moon’ which was corrupted to aydın San. 57r- 14: Xwar. xıv aydig ‘moonlight’ Qutb e: Kip. xııı daw’ 11'l-qamar aydi:n Hou. 5, 3; al-mir ‘light’ (opposite to ‘darkness’ kara:ğu:) aydi:n do. 26, 17: xıv aydın al-nür Id. 2e: Osm. xıv ff. aydın ‘light, brilliance; brilliant’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 57; II 77; III 51; IV47.

D aytıš N.Ac. fr. ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe); properly ‘enquiry’, cf. aytiğ. S.i.a.m.l.g., in SW only in xx Anat. SDD 567, usually meaning ‘speech, statement’. Xak. xı aytıš hmva an yas’ala’l--r acul en hull wahid minhume hala’l-axir used of two men asking one another about the state (of their health)’ Kaš. I 113; a.o. do. (aytiğ).

Dis. V. AYD-

D ayat- Caus. f. of aya:-; survives only (?) in SE Tar. ayat- ‘to order (someone) to spare, or protect (someone)’ R İ 214. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (faith is called) sevitmek ayatmak edgüke tegıirdeči 'that which brings men to the good state of arousing love and respect in others’ TT V 28, 119; sevitmiš ayatmıš erürsiz ‘you have made yourself loved and respected’ (by, Dat., all the teachers) Hüen-ts. 1782; (then that king... see orun) Uküške ayatmıš ağırlatmıš 'made himself respected by many’ Suv. 607, 15-16.

D ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe) Caus. f. of ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe), often spelt ayt- before vowel Suffs.; properly ‘to make (some- I one Dat.) speak’, that is 'to ask’. For some unknown reason it lost its Caus. meaning, as early as xı in Oğuz, and became syn. w. ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe), which then became obsolete. S.i.a.m.l.g., often as eyit-/eyt-. Türkü vııı (gap) arkıšı: kelmedi: (sic, not yelmedi:) anı: ayıtayın (sic, not aiiıtayın) tep süledİm 'no envoys came (from him). I launched an expedition to demand (an explanation) from him’ II E 41: vııı ff. maga: ayi:tma:g tedi: ‘he said “do not question me”’ Toy. IVv. 3-4 (ETY II 180); a.o. do. 4-5: Yen. see O. Kır.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A tip sezik aytsar 'if one asks in doubt’ (after a speech in oratio recta) Ml 19, tt; (the sorcerer in the temple) Mar Amu Mojakka ınča tep ayıt(t)ıasked Mar Amu Mojak’ (the question follows in oratio recta) do. 33, 18-19; a.o. do. 36, 13: Bud. ayıt- (or ayt-) ‘to ask’ preceded or followed by a question in oratio recta, the person asked, if mentioned, being in the Dat. occurs 9 times in PP and is common elsewhere: Civ. the phr. ayitip bitidim is common at the end of documents in USp., e.g. men Turmıš Mig-temürke ayıtıp bitidim ‘I, Turmiš, wrote this down (asked) to Mirč-temür’s dictation’ (lit. ‘asking... (what to say) I, then, wrote’) 1,11 — 12:0. Kır. ıx ff., a word usually transcribed yita: is common in these inscriptions; it follows the names or descriptions of people, or the Sec. Pers. Pron., usually in the Dat., and is followed directly or indirectly by words like (PU) evtikmedim (see 2 bük-) or adriltim. It should, no doubt, be transcribed ayıta:; the meaning is less certain, prob. ‘asking after... health’, ‘saying farewell’ or asking (permission to depart)’, e.g. kuyda: kunčuyım özde: oğlım ayıta: sizime: ayıta: evükmedlm adrıltım ‘saying farewell?) to my wives in the inner chambers and to my dear (?) sons, saying farewell to you, my own, I have not stayed at home, I have been parted (from you)’ Mal. 3, 1; occurs in eight inscriptions often more than once; and less often in Türkü Yen. inscriptions: Xak. xı ol maga: sö:z ayıttı: sa’ala minni'l-kalam ‘he asked me a question’ Kaš. I 215 (aytu:r, ayıtma:k); ol kiši: ol telim sö:z ayıtğarn ‘that man is constantly asking questions’ (sa”aI 'ani'1-kalem) III 52: KB ayıttı followed by question in oratio obliqua 507; ayıttı elig tegme törlüg bilig ‘the king enquired about all kinds of knowledge’ 623; takı bir tilekimni aytur bu öz ‘and I myself ask for one thing that I want’ 859; o.o. 979, 1069, 1187 (ögren-), 4528, 574°: xııı (?) Tef. ayt-/ayut- ‘to ask’ 4e: xıv Muh. qala ‘to say’ ayt(t)i: Mel. 30, 3 (Rif. 114 see ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe); al-qawl aytmak 37, 1 (-mag); 122: sadaqa ‘to speak the truth’ čı:n ayt(t)i: 28, 2 (iii aydı:); mart yaqtll ‘who says?’ ki:m aydur 17, 1; 94: xv (?) Postscript to At. ayıt- ‘to say’ 50*0, 508: Čağ. xv ff. ayt- (-men, etc.) eyt- Vel. 40; ayt-/ayit- (both spelt) guftan ‘to say’ Son. S4r. 3 (quotns.): Oğuz xı (after Xak.) and the Oğuz say men aga:r 8Ö:z ayıttım takallamtu ma'ahu tea qultu lahu kalem ‘I conversed with him and said to him’, but this is incorrect (laysa bi--qiyas) Kaš. I 215 (aytu:r, ayitma:k): Xwar. xııı ayd- ‘to say’ 'Ali 8: xııı (?) ayttı kim ‘he said’ followed by oratio recta, sometimes with person addressed in Dat., occurs 8 times in Oğ.: xıv ayıt- ‘to ask’ Qutb 6; ‘to say, recite’ MN 81, etc.; Nahc. 16, 10: Kom. xıv ‘to say, declare, confess’ ayt- CCI, CCG; Gr. 32 (quotns.): Kıp. šadaqa kirti: ayit-Hou. 36, 5; qala ayıt- (and de:-) do. 43, 2: xıv ayıt- qala Id. 27; qala (VU) ayt- (? , Inf. eytmek) Bui. 7ir.: xv qala ayıt- Kav. 9, 4; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 29b, 12 etc.: Osm. xıv ff. ayt-/eyt- ‘to say, speak’; common to xvıı , sporadic thereafter; in xıv both ayitmak and eyitgll, eylttlgi occur TTS I 59; II 79; III 53; IV

uya:d- ‘to be shamed by, or ashamed of (something, or someone, Dat. or Abl.)'. Except in TT VIII, where -/- prob. represents -d-, and in the Perf., the final consonant seems to have been consistently -d- until xv. Survives in most NE languages as uyat-, occasionally ıyat-, and in some SC Uzb. dialects as uyat-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A uyadmakin (?) in damaged passage M I 25, 8: Bud. Sanskrit alajjetavye lajjante ‘they are ashamed of things of which they should not be ashamed’ uya:tmağu:luk sa:vta: uya:-turlar; (the opposite) uya:tğulukta: ınčıp uya:tmada:čılar TT VIII e.49-50 (see above); artukrak uyadti ‘he was more ashamed than ever’ U III 83, r r; öz kılmıš kılınčlarıga ertigü uyadsar eymenser ‘if they are very much ashamed (Hend.) of what they have done’ Suv. 141, 4-5; a.o. of Hend. Hüen-ts. 2051: Xak. xı ol mendin uyattı: istahye minni ‘he was shamed by me’; originally uya:dti: but assimilated Kaš. I 216 (uya:dur, uya:dma:k); ağız ye:se: kö:z uya:dur ‘if the mouth eats, the eye is ashamed’ (istahye) I 55, 15: KB yonsa uyadmasa yalguk körüp ‘if he walks abroad and is not ashamed when he sees (other) men’ 864: xııı (?) At. uyadip ‘being ashamed’ 432 (some MSS. uyatip): Čağ. xv ff. uyat- (-ıp) utan- Vel. 123.

D aytil- (asked) Pass. f. of ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe); ‘to be asked’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW, meaning ‘to be said, spoken’, etc. Xak. xı sö:z aytıldı: su'ila ' ani'1-kalem wa ğayrihi ‘a question was asked about the statement (etc.)’ Kaš. I 270 (aytilur, aytilma:k): xııı (?) Tef. aytul- ‘to be said’ (Impersonal) 4e: Čağ. xv ff. aytilmayin eydilmedin Vel. 40; aytil- Pass. f.; gufta šudan ‘to be said’ San. 54V. 6 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ‘to be said’ (by someone Abl.) CCG; Gr. 33 (quotns.).

D aytın- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe) Refl. f. of ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe), S.i.s.m.l. with a miscellaneous collection of meanings. Xak. xı sö:z aytındı: tawalla su'eli'1-kalem bi--nafsihi,‘ht took it upon himself to ask a question’ Kaš. I 270 (aytmur, aytinma:k).

D aytur- (speak, say, declare, prescribe) Caus. f. of ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe), with a different shade of meaning fr. ayıt- (ask, say, speak, declare, prescribe). Prob. Hap. leg.; ayttur- (and the like), which s.i.a.m.l.g. in the same meaning is a Caus. f. of ayıt- in its later meaning. Xak. xı ol maga: so:z ayturdi: kaffalani 'aid takallumi'1-kalem ma'ahu ‘he made me responsible for making the statement with him’ Kaš. I 269 (ayturur, ayturma:k): Kom. xıv ‘to make (someone) confess (a sin)’ aytir- CCG, Gr. 33 (quotn.).

D oytur- (hollow out) Caus. f. of o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole); ‘to make, or let (someone Dat.) hollow out (something Acc.)’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol maga: ka:ğu:n oyturdi: ‘he ordered me to hollow out (bi--taqwtŋ the melon' (etc.) Kaš. I269 (oyturur, oyturma:k): Cağ. xv ff. oydur- Caus. f.; kewenidan ditto San. 89V. 28.

D uytur- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of uy- (squeeze). Xak. xı ol u:n uyturdi: ‘he gave orders for compressing \\ (’<7/ (7 šadd) the Hour and squeezing it (dağtihŋ into a sack’ (etc.) Kaš. I 269 (uyturur, uyturma:k).

Tris. AYD

PUD uyadsilik Hap. leg.; almost certainly mis-spelt; in a section headed fu'dlil, which contains osa:yuk followed by the crossheading zva naw mitihu manqûš ‘defective (?) variety’ K (qdf) and this word; this implies some such form as uya:duk, which as a Pass. Dev. N./A fr. uya:d- would be grammatically appropriate. Xak. xı uyadsilik er al-raculu’-Iladi galabahu’l-hayd ‘a man overcome by shame’ Kaš. I 160.

Tris. V. AYD

D ayatil- (honored) Pass. f. of ayat-; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. Sanskrit sathjto ‘honored’ a:ya:tılıp TT VIII Daz-, nrcito ditto do. 21.

Mon. AYĞ

S ayğ See 1 ayığ 1 *ayığ (word, speech, command) .

Dis. AYĞ

D aya:ğ (compassion, sympathy) N.Ac. fr. aya:-; with a parallel evolution of meaning. Survives in NE Khak. ayağcompassion, sympathy’; NC Kır. ayo:, Kzx. ayaw (R I 200) ditto; NW Kaz., Knm ayaw ditto, and (Krim only) ‘stinginess’ and SW xx Anat. aya ‘protection’; ayağ ‘a title’ SDD 132. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 75 (emder-): Bud. Sanskrit satkaram ‘profound respect’ ağir aya:ğığ TT VIII E.5; ayağ čilteg ‘honor and respect’ U II 77, 18 etc. (čilteg); ayağka tegimlig (TT VIII A.29 a:ya:ğka: te:gimllg) ‘worthy of respect’, a stock epithet for Bodhisattvas, monks, etc. U II 11, 9; 32, 63, etc. (this phr., spelt ayağa tegimlig (Kozc. 127. Haltod 28) was borrowed in Mong. and there erroneously connected with ayağa ‘begging bowl’, l.-w. fr. 1 ayak): Civ. ayağka tegimlig USp. 15, 8; 84, 3; 88, 5; asığıg ayağıg egsiidi ‘your advantage and honor have diminished’ TT I 58-9; o.o. do. 114 (ornan-); TT VII 34, 10-11 (2 ačığ): Xak. xı aya:ğ al-laqab ‘a title of honor’ Kaš. III 172 (verse, see aki:lik); a.o. I 271, 11 (aya:-): KB wazirlik agar bĞrdİ tamğa ayağ ‘lie gave him the post of vezir, a seal and a title of honor’ 1036; a.o. 1766 (üstem): xıı (?) Tef. at ayağ ‘a title of honor’ (for a Sûra of the Koran); aya ‘pro-tection’ (?) 44: xıv Muh. al-laqab aya: Rif. 145 (Mel. 50, 4 mis-spelt ağa:).

1 ayak (cup, goblet, bowl) ‘a vessel’, particularly a drinking vessel, for individual use; ‘cup, goblet, bowl’. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer II 629. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 42 (ldiš): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. on ayak ‘ten cups’ USp. 55, 26; a.o. do. 40, 7 (1 ür-); bir batır ayak bor bir batır ayak suv ‘0:le cup (Hend.) of wine and one of water’ II I 16-17 (batır l.-w. fr. Sogdian p'ttŋ; a.o. II II 20, 80-1: Xak. xı ayak al-qaš'a ‘a (wooden) bowl’; the Oğuz do not know the word and call ‘a bow-1’ čanak Kaš. 7X4; and 17 (>.<>.: \lıı (?) Tef. ayak ‘cup’ 45: xıv Muh. nl-qadah ‘cup’ aya:k Mel. 7, 10; Rif. 79 (confused with 2 ayak); al-qaš'a aya:k 69, 6 (aya:ğ)\ 170 (yaya.Jt); al-manqal ‘portable brazier’ aya:k 169 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ayağ/ayak qadah Vel. 39; kdsa (‘cup’) zva qadah San. 57r. 2 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ayak (and, by false analogy, adak) ‘cup, goblet’ Qutb e: Kip. xv sukurca ‘bowl’ ayak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19b. 6; šabitar (meaning unknown, ?cor-rupt) ayak do. 20b. 11: Osm. xıv to xvı aya:ğ/ayak ‘bowl, cup’; common TTS I 54; II 70; III 48.

S 2 ayak See adak.

D 1 *ayığ (word, speech, command) Dev. N. fr. ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe); ‘word, speech, command’. N.o.a.b., always (?) abbreviated to ayğ. Türkü vhi ff. Man. bu savığ ayğ[gap] ‘these words’ (Hend.) TT II 6, 25; a.o. do. 3 (išle:-); senig ayğag ančağ ol ‘your commands are like that’ Mill 23, 6-7 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A Mar Nev Manı Mağıstak ayğın ‘by the command of Mar Nev Mani Mağistak M I 12, 20.

S 2 ayığ See 1 adığ (bear).

S 3 ayığ See 2 adığ (sober).

S 4 ayığ See anığ.

D ayık Dev. N. fr. ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe); hardly distinguishable fr. 1 ayığ. N.o.a.b. Uyg. vııı ff. Civ. (it gives headaches and eye-aches) teŋrike yağıš ayı[k?] birıneyükke ‘to the man who does not give libations and vows (?) to God’ TT VII 25, 1 (restore thus?): Xak. xı ayilc al-'ida ‘a promise’; hence one says anig maga: ayıkı: ba:r ‘I have a promise from him’ Kaš. I 84: ayık ayıp kaymağız ašduqî 'idatak ‘keep your promise to me’ II 45, 26.

(D) ayu:k See 5 kö:k.

oyuk (mirage, landmark) ‘mirage, landmark’, and the like; specifically Oğuz and with some common meanings with öyük, q.v., also specifically Oğuz. Clearly not identical with oyuk, Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole), ‘hollowed out, a hole, cavity’ first noted in Kip. xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 34b. 8; 48b. 8 and s.i.a.m.l.g.; both it and öyük may be Oğuz corruptions of some foreign word (cf. ören). Survives only (?) in SW Osm. oyuk ‘scarecrow’; xx Anat. oyuk/hoyuk ‘scarecrow; landmark, cairn’, and the like, SDD 749, 1098 (höyük, 756, also has these meanings, inter alia); al-xaydl means both ‘mirage’ and ‘scarecrow’. Cf. küsgük. Oğuz xı oyuk al-xaydl wa'l-iram ‘mirage, landmark’ Kaš. I 85 (verse; oyuk translated iram wa xayal fi'I-mafdza ‘in the desert’); o.o. I 384, 6 (same verse, alığ); kü:čin oyuk tutma:s la yumkin bi’l-quwzva min axdi'l-xayali'llati yunšab fi'l--fazvd'iz (mis-spelt faivdliz) ‘you cannot catch the mirage which rises in the deserts by force’ I 81, 21: Čağ. xv ff. oyuk sang-i nišan ki dar sar-i rdhhe birdyi 'alemat bi-gudarand ‘a stone marker which they put up at the beginning of (side) roads to indicate them’ San. 92V. 28: \\ Kip. xıv oyuk al-ıicem tea hiya'l-ahcer ba'čluhe 'ala ba'čl 'alümata (n) li’l-šny' ‘a heap of stones one on top of another to mark something’ Id. 2e: Osm. xıv ff. oyuk c.i.a.p., usually in Pe. and Ar. dicts, translating words meaning ‘scarecrow, statue, heap of stones’ TTS I 554; II 739; III 551; IV 616.

S uyku See udik.

S ayğır See adğır (stallion).

Dis. V. AYĞ-

S oyğat- See odğur-. ^

S oyğan-See odun-, aykir- ‘to shout’ and the like. Survives in several NIÎ, NC, and SW languages. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (a large gathering of the common people did obeisance to the king) yeme aykırdılar ‘and applauded him’ TTII10, 82.

S oyğur- See odğur-.

Tris. AYĞ

D ayakčı: (potter, cup-bearer) N.Ag. fr. 1 ayak: (1) ‘one who makes cups, bowls, etc.’; (2) ‘a cup-bearer’. Survives in SE Türki, Shaw 30, and NC Kır., Kzx. See Doerfer II 630. Xak. xı aya:kčı: (sic) al-qašša ‘a potter’ Kaš. III 296, 23 (sırla:-); n.m.e.: xıv Rbğ. ayakčı ‘cupbearer’ R I 208 (quotn.), 605 (aščı:); Muh. al-ğadeyiri ‘a maker of bowls’ aya:ğčı: Mel. 58, 5; aya:kčı: Rif. 157: Čağ. xv ff. ayakčı ‘cup-bearer’ Vel. 39 (quotn.); ayakčı/ayağčı a word for ‘cup-bearer’ San. $yr. 5 (same quotn.).

D ayğu:čı: (councilor) Dev. N.Ag. fr. ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe); lit. ‘one who speaks, or issues commands’, but in practice the title of an office (Prime Minister). Türkü vııı in the phr. ‘their xağan seems to be brave, and their ayğučı: (Prime Minister) wise’, T 10, 21, 29, the title, which refers to Tonukuk, is clearly a high one (Prime Minister): Uyğ. x Bud. in the list of officials in the first Pfahl ıš ayğučı (PU) Avluč (hunter, fr. a:vla: hunt, crowd, surround) Tarxan, 13, 21, has a rather humbler position near the carpenter, and here seems to mean merely ‘foreman of works’.

D ayağlığ P.N./A. fr. aya:ğ; originally ‘enjoying respect’. Survives w. phonetic changes in NE Khak.; NC Kır., Kzx., and NW Kaz., Krim, usually meaning either ‘compassionate’ or ‘pitiable, deserving compassion’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A MI 27, 2 (1 a:tlığ): Man. ayağlığ atlığ karjım ‘my respected and famous father’ TT III 2: Bud. ayağlığ bolmak dyan ‘the meditation (l.-w.) about becoming respected’ TT V 10, 98; o.o. TT VII 40, 77 (2 ap); Suv. 446, 17-19: Civ. kišldln ayağlığ ‘respected by (all) men’ TT VII 17, 22.

D ayaklığ Hap. leg. (?); P.N./A. fr. 1 ayak. Xak. xı ayaklığ tevsi: xitvan dit qas'a ‘a tray for carrying bowls’ (illustration of the meaning of -lığ) Kaš. III 50, 26; n.m.e.

Dis. EYG

D ayıklığ P.N./A. fr. ayık; n.o.a.b., apparently ‘one who carries out a promise’. Xak. xı KB ayıklığ turur bu ölüm belgülüg ‘death manifestly keeps its promises’ (a famous man does not die before his time comes) 2286.

D ayukluk See 5 kö:k.

FED uyuğluğ Hap. leg.; by its meaning a P.N./A. fr. u:ğ; occurs in a grammatical section as an example immediately after ayaklığ, q.v., and presumably a scribal error for u:ğluğ. Xak. xı uyuğluğ ev bayt dû faqat ‘a domed tent’ (i.e. one with curved wooden struts) Kaš. III 50, 27; n.m.e.

?ED uyukluğ Hap. leg.; this word has been read in USp. 79, a list of articles mainly töšek ‘mattresses’; the phr. below comes after these entries and before a list of örtgün ‘coverlets’, and the transcription is based on the assumption that it is a P.N./A. fr. uyuk ‘felt boot, woollen stocking’ which exists in some NC and NW languages; see uyma:. It is unlikely to be connected with this word; it might perhaps be oyukluğ ‘with a pattern of depressions, or incisions’, or merely mistranscribed. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bir tatarmg uyukluğ kidiz ‘one Tatars’... felt’ USp. 79, 11-12.

S aykırı See arkuru: (arched, cross-member, crosswise, bridging).

D ayağsız Priv. N./A. fr. aya:ğ; originally ‘not enjoying respect’. Survives in much the same languages as ayağlığ with the opposite meaning to that word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U II 77, 19 and 86, 36 (učuz); TT VII 40, 77 (2 ap).

Tris. V. AYĞ-

D ayığla:- (dishonor) Den. V. fr. 4 ayığ (anığ); ‘to dishonor’; used in antithesis to ağırla:- (honor, respect, reverence). Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. köni kertü nom ayığladım tandım erser ‘if I have dishonored and denied the rightful true doctrine’ Suv. 134, 11-12; a.o. do. 137, 1.

Dis. EYG

S üyik See üdik.

VU öyük Preliminary note. There seem to be two different words of this form, the first a VU Xak. word connected with öyük-, the second the Oğuz word öyük which is still current.

VU 1 öyük ‘quicksand’: homophonous w. öyük-, N.o.a.b., but see 2 öyük. Xak. xı öyük ye:r al-'aniq mina’l-raml ‘a quicksand’, that is (sand) in which footprints disappear and their traces are effaced by water, etc. Kaš. I 85: KB öyük čim osuğluğ bolur bilgeler, čıkar suv kayuda adak tepseler ‘wise men corne to be like quicksands or peat, wherever they put their feet water emerges’ 974; Xwar. xıv öyük ‘the sediment in wine’ Qutb 122, 202 (üyük).

2 öyük (kurgan) ‘an artificial mound, cairn’ and the like. An Oğuz word with an ill-defined \272\ connection with oyuk, q.v. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. öyük ‘an artificial mound, a scarecrow’ (acc. to Santi 231 identical with oyuk) and xx Anat. öyek, öyük, üyük, höyük, hüyük with these and other meanings some of which seem to belong to 1 öyük SDD 756, 766, 1123-4, 1441. Oğuz xı öyük hull murtafi' mina'l-ard šibha'1-tall ‘any piece of raised ground like an artificial mound’ Kaš. I 85: Tkm. xııı al-tall öyük (Kıp. tepe:) Hou. 6, le: xıv (not specifically Tkm.) öyük al-tallu'l-kabir ‘a large artificial mound’, also called ba:š (? Kip.) Id. 27; ditto öyük Bul. 3, 9: Osm. xv ff. öyük ‘artificial mound’ in several texts, esp. Pe. and Ar. dicts, translating words with that meaning and once (xvŋ ‘scarecrow’ TTS I 753; II 961; IV 812 (everywhere üyük).

S eygi/eygü See edgü:.

Dis. V. EYG-

VU öyük- Hap. leg.; cf. 1 öyük. Xak. xı anig ada:ki: kumda: öyükti: ‘his foot sank (saxat) in the quicksand’ (al-’aniq); and one says anig ada:kı: öyükti: latamati’l-hicera riclahu wa hafiya ‘the stones bruised his feet and he was footsore’ Kaš. I 268 (öyüke:r, öyükme:k).

S öykün- See ötgün-.

Tris. EYG

eye:gü: (rib) properly ‘rib’ as an anatomical term; also used metaph. for ‘the rib of a tent’, etc. Survives in NE Tuv. egi and SW Osm. eyegi/eyeyi (prob. both now obsolete), and in various shortened forms eyi in Osm., eğe (i.e. eye) in Rep. Turkish and in xx Anat. eya/eye/öyek SDD 509, 563, 1123. Otherwise entirely displaced by the Mong. l.-w. kaburğa or the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in a list of parts of the body) iki eyegüde ‘in the two (sets of) ribs’ H II 22, 29: Xak. xı eye:gü: al-diV ‘a rib’; and adlau'l-xiba ‘the ribs of a tent’ are called eye:gü: and ard fi wasati'l-cibel ka’an-nahu ša'iid ‘a piece of rising ground in the middle of the mountains’ is called eye:gü: ye:r Kaš. I 137; eye:gü: ‘the rib of an animal’ (etc.) III 174; a.o. III 425, 7 (2 ar*-): ™i (?) Tef. eyegü ‘rib’: xıv Rbğ. ditto R I 721 (quotn.): Čağ. xv ff. eyegü (spelt) ustuxwan-i pahlû ‘side bone’ (i.e. rib), also spelt üyegü San. 57r. 6; reverse entry 92V. 2: Xwar. xıv eyegü Nahc. 279, 12: Kip. xııı al-diV eye:g Hou. 21, 2: xıv eyegü: al-diV (one MS. adds and kaburka also means al-dil'); and it is said of a man who heeds neither reproof nor blame eyegü:si: berk tür ‘his ribs are firm’ Id. 27: xv dil' eyeg (in margin eyegü) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23a. 7: Osm. xıv ff. eyegü is fairly common till xvı and ege occurs once in xvıı TTS 1287; /A 411; IV 318.

Dis. AYL

(D) ayla: (thus, like that) ‘thus, like that’. The original form must have been ayla:, see aylok, but it survives only as SW Az. ele; Osm. öyle; Tkm. \\\ eyle; the date of the vowel change is un-discoverable. In the medieval period an alternative form alay appeared in NW and still survives, with minor alterations in NE Bar. R I 353; NC Kır. (Kzx. olay) and some NW languages (others have šolay from *oš alay). This latter form looks like a crasis of *anlayu:, Ger. of a Den. V. fr. an.... If so, ayla: is perhaps a metathesis of this word, since the current theory that it is a crasis of an... and ile (birle:) is open to the objections that it is semantically inappropriate and that there is no evidence that birle: had become ile anywhere before xııı. Oğuz xı ayla: kacjalika ‘thus’; one says ayla: kılğıl ‘do thus’ (kade) Kaš. I113; o.o.1166, 5 (2 us-); III 186, 3 (buyur-) ; xııı (?) Tef. ayla ‘thus’ 72 (eyle): Čağ. xv ff. VU ayla hamčıınen ‘thus, in that way’ San. 57V. 2 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı VU aylathus’ ’AH le: xıv alaythus’ Qutb 7: Kom. xıv ‘thusalay (common)/allay (twice) CCI, CCCJ; (Jr. 34 (quotns.): Kip. xıv kanıe ‘just as’ ayla: kim Bul. 15, 13: xv (hekade ‘like this’ bulay dıŋ hekadeka ‘like thatalay dir Tuh. 37b. 12-13; ida (n) ‘with - (h)’ and hina’idi (tt) ‘if so, in that event’ alaysa do. 60a. 10, a.o.o.: Osm. xıv ff. VU ayla is common to xvı and sporadic later TTS I 288; II 412; III 275; IV 320: xv VU öyle occurs in documents, see A. N. Kurat, Altin Ordu, Kırım ve Turkistan Hanlarına ait Yarlık ve Bitikler, İstanbul, 1940: xvııı öyle, in Rûmî, hamčunen San. 92V. 19.

S 1 öyle See ödleg. (time, noon, midday)

S 2 öyle See ayla:. (thus, like that)

D aylığ P.N./A. fr. 1 a:y; originally with preceding numeral (so many) ‘months old’; later, of a woman, ‘pregnant’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW in both meanings. Ttirkü vııı ff. eki: aylığ kiši: oğlı:ıı ‘a two-months-old child’ IrkB 2: (Xak.) xıv Muh. al-huble ‘pregnant’ aylu: Mel. 53, 1 (only); habiİati'l--mar'a a:ylu: bo:l- Mel. 25, 2 (Rif. 107 yükle:-): Kom. xıv ‘pregnant’ aylı CCG; Gr. 31 (quotn.): Kip. xııı al-hamil ‘pregnant’ aylu: (and yüklü:) Hou. 25, 2.

VUC aylok Hap. leg.; crasis of ayla: (thus, like that) and 2 ok (emphasis particle: no other, exactly, very). Oğuz xı aylok aylok kade kade ‘thus, thus’ Kaš. I 113.

Dis. V. AYL-

D 1 ayıl- Hap. leg.?; Pass. f. of ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe). Xak. xı apar sö:z ayıldı: ‘a word was said (qila) to him’ Kaš. I 268 (ayilur, ayilma:k).

S 2 ayıt- See adıl- (sober up, recover consciousness),

(D) uyal- (shamed) ‘to be shamed (by something Abl.); to be put to shame’; presumably a crasis of *uyadil-. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW, where it is replaced by utan- (uvtan-). Xak. xı ol mendin uyaldı: istahye minnîfi amr, wa'nza-cara 'ani'l-iqdem 'alayhi ‘he was shamed by me about a (proposed) action and was dissuaded from venturing upon it’ Kaš. I 269 \273\ (uyalu:r, uyalma:k): Čağ. xv ff. uyal- (-ğan, etc.) utan- Vel. 121 ff. (quotn.); uyal- (spelt) xacal šudan ‘to be ashamed’ San. 901-. 24 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv uyal- ‘to feel ashamed, to be shamed (by someone Abl.)’ Qutb 196; MN 74, etc.; Nahc. 59, 10; 183,7; 351, 17: Kom. xıv uyal- 'to be ashamed’ CCI, CCG; Gr. 264 (quotns.): Kip. xıv uyal- istahye-, Tkm. utan- td. 27: xv istahye u:yal-/ufan- Kav. 76, 9; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 6a. 10: Osm. xıv and xv uyal- ditto in two texts TTS II 940.

Dis. V. AYM-

D oyul- (hollowed out, pierced) Pass. f. of o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole); ‘to be hollowed out, pierced’, etc. S.i.a.m.l.g^ Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (a sick man says) turuk bolmıšımka iki yanını yerke (doubtful, ?read blrke) kirip oyulup telingeli turur ‘because 1 have become lean, my two sides have come together (?) and are hollowed out and pierced’ U III 37, 2-3: Xak. xı ye:r oyuldi: herati'1-ard wa xasafat ‘the earth crumbled and sank’; and one says kötü: oyuldi: intaqaba'l-sath ‘the roof was penetrated’ by a downfall of rain Kaš. I 268 (oyulu:r, oyulma:k): Čağ. xv ff. oyul- (spelt) kdwida šudan 'to be hollowed out’ San. 89V. 22 (quotn.): Kom. xıv oyul- (of the ground) ‘to sink’ CCG; Gr. 175 (quotn.).

D uyul- (squeezed) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of uy- (squeeze). Xak. xı uyuldi: ne:rj ‘the thing was squeezed’ (duğita), as for example flour into a sack Kaš. I 269 (uyulu:r, uyulma:k).

S eyle:- See edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create).

Tris. V. AYL-

D aya:la:- (clap, slap, fondle, grasp) Den. V. fr. 1 aya:- s.i.a.m.l.g. except SC with a miscellaneous set of meanings ‘to clap, to slap, to fondle, to grasp’, etc. Xak. xı ki:z aya:la:di: saffaqati'l-mar'a bi yadayhe ‘the girl clapped her hands’; luğa fašîha ‘a correct word’ (? , import obscure) Kaš. III 328 (aya:la:r, aya:la:ma:k).

D uya:la:- (nest) Den. V. fr. 1 uya:; ‘to nest, to build a nest’. S.i.a.m.l.g., in SE Türki uvuli- BŠ 793/uwala- Jarring 325; SW Osm. yuvala-; elsewhere uyala-. Xak. xı kuš uya:la:di: 'ašša’l-te’ir wa'ttaxada wakar ‘the bird nested and made a nest’ Kaš. III 328 (uya:la:r, uya:la:ma:k): Kip. xıv yuvala- ca'ala lahu wakar ‘to build a nest’ Id. 99: Osm. xvı ditto TTS IV 908.

Dis. AYM

D ayım (my moon, beautiful, distinguished) 1 a:y with 1st Pers. Poss. Suff.; lit. ‘my moon’, but often used, like teŋrim, as a Noun for ‘beautiful, or distinguished, woman’; the transitional stage is seen in Kaš. where the Poss. Suff. still had its ordinary' meaning but a:y is already used metaphorically. Survives in SE Türki BŠ 10; NC Kır. and some SC dialects. Xak. xı sattı meniŋ a:yımı: be'a xedimi bi-ğayr idnt *he sold my servant without my permission’ Kaš. II 193, 6; n.m.e.: Čağ. xv ff. ayım \\\ xwatun wa benû-yi haram ‘a lady of high birth, or of the harem’ San. 57V. 11.

D oyma: (engraved, decorated) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole); s.i.a.m.l.g. usually meaning ‘engraved or decorated work’. This seems to be the word used in a cryptic para, in IrkB about gambling. As in many Turkish games, the play consisted in putting pebbles or counters in ‘holes’ (1 o:y in this para.) and oyma: er, which obviously means ‘a gambler’, might mean literally ‘a man who makes holes for the game’. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 29 (ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать)).

D uyma: (felt boots, валенки) Pass. Conc. N. fr. uy- (squeeze); n.o.a.b.; the ref. to ‘felt boots’ clearly links this word with the modern NC word uyuk 'felt boot, woollen stocking’, and possibly with uyukluğ, q.v., and so fixes the vowel of this verb as u-. Xak. xı uyma: al-libdu (’l-turkmenŋ 'Uadi yutaxxad minhul-xıı ff ‘the (Türkmen) felt out of which boots are made’ Kaš. II 100, 22 (basıš-); 207, 3 (talkıš-); n.m.e.: Čağ. xv ff. uyma (spelt) xik wa mušk ‘a leather, or skin, bag’, also called tulum, in Arabic ziqq San. Q2v. 23 (no doubt belongs here in the sense of something filled under pressure, a meaning also inherent in tulum).

D *eymenč (shame) See eymenčsiz (shameless).

Dis. V. AYM-

eymen- (timid, shy, fear, afraid ) ‘to be timid, shy (of something or someone, Dat. or Abl.)’; the occasional spellings ay- (aymen-) in Uyğ. were merely a device for ensuring that the word was not read as imen-. S.i.m.m.l. Cf. uvtan-, uya:d-, uyal-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit parišaccheradyabhayam ‘fear of being put to shame before the community’ kuvra:ğka: eyme:nma:kHg (sic) korkmč TT VIII A. 11; bırök amti bu emgek emgengell korksar eymensersen ‘if you now fear and are timid about suffering this pain’ U III 31, 12-13 (ii); a.o. Suv. 141, 5 (uya:d-): Xak. xı ol mendin bu: ı:šta: eymendi: istahya minni wa cabuna 'ani'l--iqdem ff hede'1-amr ‘lie was shamed by me and hesitated to proceed with this action’ Kaš. I 270 (eymenür, eymenme:k); korkup agar eymenü: oynamağil ‘be afraid of (God) and out of shyness and fear of Him (haye’a (n) wa xawfa (n) minhtŋ refrain from playing about’ HI 377» 14: KB özüm 'udrın aysa yeme eymenü ‘if I shyly make my excuses’ 191; agar eymenürmen ‘I am rather afraid of it’ 777; o.o. 204, 5069, 5869; Čağ. xv ff. eymen utan hiceb eyle ‘be ashamed and embarrassed' Vel. 35 (quotn.); inmen- (so spelt, in error) ihtiraz kardan wa šarm kardan ‘to be cautious and shy’ San. 113V. 18 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı eymen- ‘to be shy’ 'Ali 47; xıv ditto Qutb 19 (eymenmeklik ‘modesty’, misspelt 58); MN 252; korka eymenü Nahc. 76, 4: Kom. xıv ‘to be shy’ emen-/lmen- CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv to xvı eymen- ‘to be diffident, shy (of people Abl.)’ in several texts TTS I 289; II 413; III 277

Tris. AYM

D eymenčsiz (shameless) Priv. N./A. fr. *eymenč, N./A.S. fr. eymen-. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit durmadaguna ‘shamelesseymenčsiz TT VIII A.48; (I have told you of the desires in my mind) eymenčsiz köŋülİn ‘without a thought of shyness’ U III 82, 20.

Dis. AYN

D ayıŋ See ayiŋla:-.

?F eyin (sic, as in TT VIII, not iyin as spelt hitherto) pec. to Uyğ. (but see 1 yıŋ. Its meanings are discussed at length in v. G. ATG, para. 296; although sometimes used as an Adv. in such phr. as eyin keziğče, it is normally a Postposn. following a noun in the unsuffixed or Dat. case and meaning ‘because of, according to, in accordance with’, and the like. It is therefore practically syn. w. the Khotanese Saka Postposn. im, see S. Konow, Primer of Khotanese Saka, para. 95, and is prob. a l.-w. fr. that word. This is more satisfactory than v. G.’s suggestion, loc. cit., that it and a supposed word *iye, which is prob. merely a misreading of ey (ŋn, are derived fr. a hypothetical verb *iy-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. az bilig eyln... ayığ kılınč eyin ‘because of lust... because of wickedness’ TT II 16, 26-7; a.o. do. 35: Bud. Sanskrit ye eten anuyesyanti ‘those who will follow these’ kimle:r muga: eyen (sic) ba:rsa:la:r; te:gri bu:rxa:n eyen ba:rda:-čılarrığ ukitur ‘ (this signifies those who walk according to (the precepts of) the divine Buddha)’ TT VIII A. 16-17; anupftrvam parijite ‘those who have adapted themselves to the (proper) order’ eyen ke:zigče tüšüt-lenilmiš do. B. 11; a.o. do. F. 14 (ulal-); köŋül eyin tapınča küsüšleri terk kanar ‘his wishes are quickly fulfilled in accordance with his ideas’ U I 27, 8; köŋül eyin U III 43, 10; IV tz, 114 etc.; tap iyin Suv. 245, 22; eyin keziğče ‘one after another, in succession’ U II 22, 8; III 35, 16; miscellaneous o.o. U II 49, 23; III 79, 4 (ii) (evril-); Suv. 101, 18; 133, 16; 349, 10; 596, 22.

?D oyun (game, play, merriment)game, play, merriment’ and the like; considering the importance of holes in Turkish games (see oyma:) the possibility that this is a Dev. N. fr. o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole) cannot be completely excluded. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ff. Man. üküš törlüg teg oyunun ‘with many kinds (Hend.) of amusements’ TT II 8, 58; a.o. do. 66 (ögrünč): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (they curse and swear at one another, and this cursing and swearing, like idiots) sögüšče oyunča sakanur ‘they think of as abuse and amusement’ M I 10, 19: Bud. TT X 144-5 (1 iŋ: Civ. on kat kaš oyun yagkust ešidilür 'the echo of the ten-fold kaš game is heard’ TT I 94-5: Xak. xı oyun al-la'ib ‘game, sport’ Kaš. I 85; ol oyu:nda: kaldı: turikafi’l-rihen ‘he was left behind in the race’ II 25, 4: KB oyunka katılmasa 61gin tilln ‘if he does not take part in sport with hand and tongue’ 709; a.o. 2093 (oyun \\\ ‘gambling’, as an evil): xııı (?) Tef. oyin/oyun ‘game, amusement’ 234-5: xıv Muh. al-la'b wa’l--lahio ‘game, pastime’ oyu:n Mel. 63, 12; Rif. 162: Čağ. xv ff. oyn (spelt) bdzi wa hazl ‘game, playfulness’, also pronounced oyun San. 92V. 23; reverse entry do. 28 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv oyun ‘game’, etc. Qutb 1le: Kom. xıv ‘game’ oyn CC1\ Gr.: Kip. xıv oyun al-la’b Id. 26.

D ayınč N.Ac. fr. 1 aynı-; n.o.a.b. in the phr. korkınč ayınč, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (that man) korkınč ayınč bulmaz (or bolmaz?) ‘has no fear (Hend.)’ (of becoming wicked) U II 39, 93-4; o.o. U III 57, i (ı); Tiš. 18a. 2.

D ıyınč N.Ac. fr. ıyın-; n.o.a.b. in the phr. lyınč basınč ‘oppression, persecution’, and the like. Türkü vııı ff. Man.-A (we do only what God commands but) yüzümüz utruluğ ıyınč basınč alp e[mgekler ?] erür ‘persecution (Hend.) and grievous sufferings (?) confront us’ TT II 6, 6; a.o. do. 15 (ada:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (he has suffered many kinds of ıyınč basınč M III 37, 14 (iŋ).

D oyna:k Conc. N. fr. oyna:-; lit. ‘a plaything’ with various special applications, esp. ‘a flighty woman’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SE (?). Xak. xı oyna:k išle:r al-mar’atu’l-tula'-atu’l-xuba’a ‘a woman who peeps out and hides again’ Kaš. I 120: Čağ. xv ff. oynak ‘a place (zamtnŋ that a gazelle digs out (kawida) with his feet and makes his sleeping place’ San. 92V. 26 (the translation implies a false etymology fr. o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole)).

D oyna:š Dev. N. fr. oyna:-; etymologically and semantically very close to oyna:k but with a slight connotation of reciprocity, usually ‘one who engages in an illicit love affair’. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer II 671. Xak. xı oyna:š al-mar’atu'llati lihe man yarhaquha harema (tı) ‘a woman who has a secret lover’ Kaš. I 120: xıv Muh. al-ma‘šüq ‘a loved one’ oyna:š Mel. 49, 15; eši:k (? corruption of *öšiq), o:yna:š in margin Rif 144: Čağ. xv ff. oynaš ma'šiiq-i san San. 92V. 24: Kom. xıv ‘concubine, harlot’ oynaš CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv oyna:š al-ma'šûqa İd. 27; Bul. 9, 5: xv ma'šûq oynaš Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 32b. 10: Osm. xıv ff. oynaš ‘illicit lover, concubine’; c.i.a.p., esp. in Ar. and Pe. dicts. TTS I 554; II 739; III 551; IV 616.

S oynayu:- (play, dally), aka öne:-, öneyü-, oyan-

Dis. V. AYN-

D *ayan- See ayančaŋ.

1 ayın- used only in association with kork- (qorq) (fear, be afraid) (Meduza Gorgona) and no doubt more or less syn. w. it. One of the words for ‘to fear’ in Mong. is ayi- (Koto. 2, Haltod 1) but the xııı form is ayu- (Haenisch 11) and the resemblance is prob. fortuitous. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. korkma: edgü.’ti: ötü:n, ayi:nma: edgü:ti: yalvar ‘fear not, pray well’ (twice in different words) IrkB 19: Man. (gap) korkmaz ayınmaz M III 10, 6 (iii).

Dis. AYN

S 2 ayın- See 1 adın-.

D ıyin- Roll. f. of ıy-; survives only (?) in NC Kır. lyin- ‘to strive, strain oneself'. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ıyınur basinur ‘they suffer oppression’ TT VI 10 (mistranscribed iyinür and with a false etymology in the note thereon): Xak. xı er iyindi: achada l-racul tabi'atahu fi ixraci'l-bardz ‘the man exhausted himself defecating’ Kaš. I 269 (ıyınur, iyinma:k).

S oyan- (play, dally, joke) See odun-, D oyna:- Den. V. fr. oyun; ‘to play’ and the like; sometimes Intrans., sometimes ‘to play (a game, musical instrument, etc., Acc.)’ and sometimes ‘to play with (someone Acc. or Dat.)’; there is sometimes a connotation of amorous dalliance. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U II 26, 6 (Ulnčüıle:-): Xak. m eight occurrences but n.m.e.; sometimes translated la'iba, e.g. ol meniŋ birle: oyna:di: la'iba mat ‘he played with me’ II 226, 12; and sometimes la aba, e.g. İčtin agar oynayu: (play, dally) hina laabtuhu ddxila’l-ddr ‘when I dallied with him in the house’ I 225, 28; oynap meni: fa-le'abani ‘and he dallied with me’ I 226, 2: KB elik külmiz oynar čičekler üze ‘the roebuck and his doe play among the flowers’ 79: xııı (?) Tef. oyna- ‘to play, amuse oneself’ 234: xıv la'iba o:yna:- Mel. 31, 1; Rif. 115; mazaha ‘to joke’ ditto 31, 5; 115: Čağ. xv ff. oynama.? kardan ‘to play’ San. 9ir. 3 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 12: xıv ditto Qutb 115; MN 125; Nahc. 183, 11: Kom. xıv ‘to pley’ oyna- CCI; Gr. : Kip xııı la'iba oyna:-IIou. 34, 14: xıv ditto Id. 2e: Osm. xıv ff. oyna- ‘to lose (something) gambling’ in several texts TTS III 551; IV 616.

D oynat- Caus. f. of oyna:-; ‘to make, or let (someone) play’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with various idiomatic meanings. Xak. xı ol anı: oynattı: al'abahu Kaš. I 271 (oynatur, oynatma:k): Čağ. xv ff. oynat- bezifarmüdan San. gır. 21 (quotiV): Xwar. xıv oynat- ‘to allow to play’ Qutb 116.

Tris. AYN

D ayančag N./A. of Habitual Action fr. ayan- the Refl. f. of aya:- which is not recorded before the medieval period, Kom. xıv CCG; Gr.; ‘reverent’. Uyg. vııı ff. Man. ayančag köŋülin yüküngü ‘worshipping with a reverent mind’ TT III 2: Bud. ayančag köŋülin Iliien-ts. 1806.

D eylnki N./A.S fr. eyin; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the soft clouds gleam in even ranks in due season (ödinče)) üzgen yağmur tökülür öd eyinki koluda ‘the dashing rain teems down at the moment which accords with the season’ Suv. 566, 3-4.

Tris. V. AYN-

D ayiŋla:- Hap. leg. (P); Den. V. fr. *ayig, Dev. N. fr. ay- (speak, say, declare, prescribe). The N.Ag. fr. this Noun, ayiŋči ‘slanderer’ is noted in Kom. xıv CCG; . Gr., and a Dev. N. fr. this verb ayigdo: \\\ (ayiŋla:ğ) 'slander, abuse’, survives in NC Kır. Xak. xı KB ayiŋlamasunlar seni xalq ara, atıg artamasun muni ked kör-e ‘let them not slander you among the people; let not your reputation deteriorate, look well to this’ 4463.

Dis. AYR

S eyer See eder (saddle).

PUD uyar this word has been read in two O. Kır. ıx ff. and one Türkü vııı ff. Yen. inscription, Mal. 10, 17, and 28; for the text of the last see E inilgü:. This last passage and Mal. 10, 2 yüz er kadašım uyarın üčün stand together; in both uyar could be an Aor. of u:- used as a Noun to mean ‘ability’; ‘because of the ability of my hundred kinsmen’ and, in 28, 4, ‘because of the ability of my elder and younger brothers’, but in that case the word might well be uyur, q.v. This explanation does not suit Mal. 17 where the word has been read three times uyar kadınım üčün 17, 2; uyar begimke:... uyar kadašımka: 17, 3; this text is a very unsatisfactory one, and it would not be too difficult, epigraphically speaking, to correct the word to ö:z; ‘for the sake of my own relations by marriage’; (I have been parted from) ‘my own beg... and my own kinsmen’: Talas ıx ff. (?) Talas II 5 (see özge:).

D uyur (capable, powerful) presumably Aor. of u:- used as a Noun; ‘capable, powerful’, and the like, cf. uğa:n and see uyar. Türkü vııı ff. (the xan mounted the throne and established his court) tört bulu:gtakı edgü:si: uyu.-ri: teri:li:pen megi:leyü:r bedi:zleyü:r ‘his good and capable men in all quarters of the world assemble, rejoice and adorn (his court)’ IrkB 28: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. the word has been restored in elig begler [uyu]rlamig ‘of the king, begs and powerful men’ Wind. 31: (Xwar. xıv uyur in Qutb 197 identified with this word looks more like a finite verb).

üyür (small seed, millet) some kind of small seed, ‘millet’ or the like. The Brahmi (TT VIID spelling uyuri u'ould normally be read üri or uyuri but is the only convenient way of writing üyüri in this alphabet. In the Uyğ. script the word is sometimes spelt üyür, sometimes uyur and sometimes uyr, ?for üy (iŋr. The Xak. form ügür is unexpected and prob. represents the same word in a different dialect. There is disagreement about the meaning of kaz üyüri:; Müller in a note in Pfahl. 14 says that in an unpublished text (T III 56-4) it corresponds to Chinese su mo ‘Perilla ocymoides’ (Giles 10,320 7,969), and v. G. in a note in TT VIII 68 that in Suv. 476, 12 it corresponds to Chinese chieh tzfi ‘mustard seed’ (Giles 1,525

11,317). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kaz üyüri Pfahl. 6, 6 (ülüš); Suv. 476, 12 (see above): Civ. (gap) kaz üyüri bu otlar \ . . and mustard seed (?), these drugs’ TT VIII M.25: üyür (uyuŋ tügisi ‘husked millet’ TT VII 14, 8; in USp. 120 and 123 there are several mentions of yeti (or some other numeral) küri üyür (uyuŋ ‘seven (etc.) pecks of millet’; bir İšık üyür (uyŋ ‘one shift (ten pecks) of millet’ do. 31, 9; o.o. do. 14, 14; 32, 2: Xak. xı ügür al-duxıı 'inda'l-turk ‘millet’ among the Turks; the Oğuz do not know the word (in this sense) Kaš. I 54; a.o. \\ II 121, 5 (katıl-); yügür alternative form (tuğa fŋ of ügür ‘millet’ III 9: KB šakar halwa yeğli ye arpa üyür (sic) ‘the man who eats sugar and sweetmeats, or barley and millet’ (goes to sleep full and wakes up empty) 3612: Oğuz xı ya:ğ ügüri: al-simsim ‘sesame seed’ Kaš. I 54.

Dis. AYR

S ayru: See adri:.

ayrak ‘ibex’ See ivik.

S ayrık See adrik.

S ayruk See adruk.

S eyrim See edrim.

?D ayra:n ‘butter milk’ or the like; if this could be taken to mean lit. ‘something separated’, it could be taken as a Dev. N. fr. ayr- (adir-), but it is very odd that such a sound change should have occurred in Xak., and it is prob. merely a false etymology. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer II 639. Xak. xı ayra:n al-maxid (error; read al-maxid) ‘buttermilk’ Kaš. I 120: xıv Muh. al-maxid ayra:n; al-zubd wa’l-samun ‘fresh and melted butter’ ayrarn ya:ği: Mel. 66, 9; Rif. 166 (mis-spelt in part): Kip. xııı al-maxid ayrarn Hou. 16, 12: xıv (ayır- farraqa ‘to separate’) and al-ra’ib ‘butter-milk’, from which the butter has been extracted is called ayrak and ayran, al-mufarraq; and in Kıp. ayran is al-qeriš ‘sour milk’ Id. 27 (ayrak is otherwise unknown in Turkish, it is the Mong. word (possibly a Turkish l.-w.) ayirak ‘kumis’, Kow. 8, Haltod 2); al-qeriš ayra:n Bui. 8, 3:xv labati ‘milk’ (inter alia)... ayran Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 31b. 12.

Dis. V. AYR-

S ayır- See adir-.

S uyar- See odğur-.

S ayrıl- See adril-.

S ayrıš- See adrıš-.

Dis. AYS

PU aya:s (? aya:z) (bright, cloudless, very cold)bright, cloudless’, occasionally, because winter days in the steppes are often cloudless, ‘very cold’. The final sound is uncertain; in Uyğ. it might be either; in Kaš. it is -s, but as Kaš. also spells the Neg. Suff. -ma:s, not -ma:z this may be a dialectic peculiarity. S.i.a.m.l.g., ayas in NE, ayaz elsewhere. See Doerfer II 628. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ayaz (or ayas ?) appears in two P.N.s in the third ‘Pfahl’, Ay a. inal, Arığ a. mal Pfahl. 23, le: Xak. xı aya:s kö:k al-same'l--mttshiya ‘a bright sky’; and al-mamelik, ‘slaves’ are called aya:8, yušabbah šafe' wachihi bihi ‘as a simile for the brightness of their faces’ Kaš. I 123: Čağ. xv ff. ayaz šab-i šöf-i bi-abr ‘a clear, cloudless night’; and also the name of a page (ğulem) of Sultan Mahmud Sabuktegin who was his favourite (ma'šûq) San. $yr. 2: Kom. xıv ‘clear, cloudless’ ayas/ayaz CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv šahw ‘clear weather’ ayaz Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21b. 13: Osm.xvi ayaz ‘clear, cloudless’ in two texts TTS II 76; IV 47.

Dis. V. AYS-

S eysil- See eksil-.

Dis. V. AYŠ-

D oyuš- (concave, distorted, curving, hollowing) Co-op. f. of o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole). Survives in several NE dialects, Khak., and Tuv., usually for ‘to become concave or distorted’ and NC Kzx. oyıs- (1) ‘to help (someone) to break through (ice, etc.)’; (2) ‘to walk or ride on a curve, not straight’. Xak. xı o!a:r ikki: ka:ğu:n oyušdı: ‘those two competed in hollowing out (fi taqwir) a melon’; also used for helping Kaš. I 268 (oyušur, oyušma:k).

D 1 uyuš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of uy-, Xak. xı ol ağar ka:pka: u:n uyušdı: ‘he helped him to squeeze (fi šadd) the flour into a sack (etc.)’ Kaš. I 268 (uyušur, uyušma:k).

S 2 uyuš- See udıš-.

S 3 uyuš- See uduš-.

Dis. AYZ

aya:z See aya:s (? aya:z) (bright, cloudless, very cold)

VU uyaz ‘some kind or kinds of biting insect, fly, gnat, mosquito’, etc. Survives only in SW Osm., where Red. (only) lists uyaz, Poyaz (272) and ivez (312), and xx Anat., where the forms are so various ivez/iviz/öven/övez (common)/uyaz/üvez SDD 802, etc. that it is impossible to decide whether the vowels were originally back or front. Oğuz xı uyaz al-hamac mina'l-ba'iid ‘gnat, or mosquito’ Kaš. I 84: xıv Muh. al-qarqas ‘a small flea’ u:yaz Mel. 74, 8; Rif. 177: Kip. xııı al-nemûs ‘gnat’ uya:z Hou. 10, 12: xıv uyaz al-barğaš ‘gnat’ Id. 27; Bul. 11, i (mis-spelt ayuŋ: xv barğaš ıyaz Tuh. 7b. 8; nemiis uyaz do. 36b. 3: Osm. xıv ff. uyaz ‘gnat, mosquito’ in several early texts; fr. xvı used in Ar. and Pe. dicts, to translate several words, some meaning larger stinging insects; ivez/üvez sporadically fr. xv TTS I 753; II 961; III 739; IV 811 (all under üyez).

S uyuz See uduz.

Mon. AZ

a:z Preliminary note. There are three different words in the early texts: (1) a:z ‘few’; (2) a:z ‘lust’, a Middle Iranian l.-w.; (3) Az the name of a tribe, which occurs only in Türkü, and has not always been recognized. The passages in \277\ which it occurs are I E 20, II E 17; IE 38; I N 2, 3; T 23, 24; in I N 5, 8 the name of one of Kül Tegin's horses is Az yağızı: 'the bay horse (taken) from the Az (Ases, Azeri)’.

As/Yaz/Az is the most known Türkic tribe, the name of the Ishkuza Scythians in the Near East (7th c. BC), As-Tokhars that conquered Bactria in the 2nd c. BC, As/Alans the former Massagets/Masguts of the Late Antique, and innumerable other records. It is inconceivable that a scholar engaged in Türkic etymology is not familiar with the most basic pages of the Türkic history. The name is practically unavoidable, since it occurs not only in “Türkü”, but at all contemporary historians writing about events in the western Eurasia, including such legendary source as the Younger EDDA. In the made to order IE historiography, based exclusively on the fake linguistics the Ossetes are proclaimed to be the descendents of the Ases/Scythians. That is also known to anybody familiar with the cannons of the IE historiography and 20th c. linguistic conjectures.

The “Middle Iranian” is so called because it is loaded with Turkisms and is mutually incomprehensible with the Old Persian. The l.-w. from, and not to, is the first option in the Middle Iranian etymology, since the word did not come from the Old Persian.

1 a:z (few, scanty, little, rare)few, scanty, a little’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in NE as. Türkü vııı az bodunığ ükü:š kıldım ‘I made the scanty people numerous’ I S 10, II N 7; similar phr. I E 19 (II E 16); I E 29, II E 24; II E 14 (/ E 17); o.o. of az ‘few’ I E 40; II E 32; T 39; Ongin 7: vııı ff. (at the beginning of this omen) a:z (sic) emgeki: bar ‘it has a little pain’ IrkB 57: Man. (the king’s heart) az ko&šadı Veakcned a little’ TT II 6, 30: Uyğ. vfır az er it(t)im 'I sent a few men’ Šu. E 11: vııı ff. Man.-A MI 35, 4 and 12 (arjaru:): Bud. az udig ‘sleep a little’ PP 55, 5; az edremlig toyin ‘ (D a monk of little virtue’ Hüen-ts. 2050: Civ. köglüg [köküz]üg bütmekl az ‘the achievements of your mind are scanty’ TT I 82-3; o.o. do. 159; II II 18, 64; USp. 22, 49: Xak. xı a:z ne:ŋ al-šay’u’l-qalil ‘something scanty’ Kaš. I 80: atan yüki: aš bolsa: ačka: az (sic) körünür ‘if a camel has a load of food, to a hungry man it seems scanty’ I 75, 25: KB ülčüš sözleme söz birer sözle az ‘do not say many words, say a few one at a time’ 172; o.o. 305-6, 734, 866 (2 ki:z), 4580: xııı (?) At. az ‘few’, etc., is common; Tef. ditto 41: xıv Muh. al-qalil az Mel. 56, 1; 82, 15; Rif. 153, 188: Čağ. xv ff. az andak ‘few, a little’ San. 39r. 5: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 17; MN 49, etc.; azın azın ‘little by little’ Qutb 18: Kom. xıv ‘a little’ az CCG; Gr. 45 (quotn ): Kip. xııı al-qalil (opposite to ‘many’ köp, etc.) az Hou. 25, 14: xıv ditto; az boldı: šera qalil bi-ma'ne qalla Id. 12: xv qalil az Kav. 2f, 15; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 84a. 8: Osm. xıv ff. az in several phr.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 63-6; II 89; III 57-8; I V 62-3.

F 2 a:z (desire, lust, greed)lust’; l.-w. fr. Middle Persian "z, same meaning. Pec. to Uyğ. in which it is fairly common. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 16, 5; 17, 8 etc.; Man. TT II 16, 19 and 25; 77/28; Bud. az kılınč corresponding to Sanskrit tfšne ‘lust’, lit. ‘thirst’ U II 9, 2 and 7; az bilig ditto do. 13, 2; o.o. do. 11, 15 etc. (almir); 76, 14; 86, 31; TT VI 71 (see note thereon); Suv. 133, 18 etc.

S 3 a:z See a:s (ermine, slave-girls, As tribe).

4 az (or) See azu: (or) (OTD p. 72)

i:z (? ı:z) (footprint, track, trace, scratch)footprint, track, trace’, lit. and metaph. Izığ in KB 4411 seems to be the Acc. of this word and suggests that it was originally ı:z. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in NE is. See Doerfer II 470. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (although the all-wise Buddha has deigned to enter Nirvana) kodmıš izi ‘the footprints which he has left’ (still remain) Hüen-ts. 92; (I have ventured to follow) ıduklar izi kutluğ yer orunka ‘the footprints of the saints to the holy place’ do. 211-12: Xak. xı i:z (so read, the MS. has a:z corrected to iz) kull xadša fi’l-ard wa'l-cild tüla (n) ‘any long scratch in the ground or the skin’ Kaš. I 80: KB atı kaldı iz ‘his name remains as a trace (of him)’ 235; o.o. 871; 877, 5264: xııı (?) At. biliglig izi izlegil \\\ ‘follow the footprints of the wise’ 225; Tef. id (sic) ‘track’ 122: xıv Muh. al-itr 'ala'l-ard ‘a track on the ground’ i:z Mel. 83, 11; Rif. 189: Čağ. xv ff. iz nišen-i qadam wa itr-i pe ‘footprint’ (Hend.) San. ıoır. 5 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv iztrack’ Qutb 62; MN 260: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr. : Kip. xıv i:z al-itr Id. 12:xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 4b. 9: Osm. xıv izfootprint’; c.i.a.p. in phr. TTS I 397; II 556; III 391; IV 447.

oz, uz, öz, üz Preliminary note. Such words are hard to distinguish in oriental scripts. There is no clear trace of oz as a Noun. There is certainly one u:z, prob. not more than two ö:z, and more than one ü:z. There is some doubt about the pronunciation of ‘fat’, but the evidence points towards ü:z.

u:z uz (craftsman, skilled, expert, perfect, sound, completely) (ace) ‘a skilled craftsman’; hence, of a man or his work, ‘skilled’, and by extension, of inanimate objects, ‘perfect, in sound condition’. S.i.m.m.l.g., with much extended meanings in SW. See Doerfer II 593. Türkü vııı uzığ prob. ‘skilled work’ occurs in a damaged passage in II SW; see also 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us): vııı ff. Yen. Uz Bilge: Čatjšı: P.N. Mal. 31, i: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-AM I 16, 13-15 (edsiz): Man. kaltı uz kiši uzlanğu ed bulmasar ‘just as a craftsman, if he cannot find material fit to be skillfully wrought’ M I 17, 1: Bud. tegin kopuzka ertigü uz erti ‘the prince was extremely skilful in (playing the) guitar’ PP 70, 6-7; o.o. do. 2, 5-6 (išle:-); U II 33, 4; TT VII 28, 49 and 55; in some phr. it hardly means more than ‘completely’ e.g. uz ačılmıš čečeklig ‘with fully opened flowers’ U II 56, 3 (ı); o.o. TT VIII A. 15 ; B. 10; E. 39 (odun-): Civ. (in a cure for sore throat; if one does this two or three times) keze uz ačılur ‘it passes off and is completely cured’ II I 154; in TT VII 13, 43 and 52 uz teŋrisi (skilled, perfect god) is the equivalent of the Indian deity Lakšma: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. chiangjen ‘craftsman’ (Giles, 1,246 5,624) uz kiši Ligeti 275; R I 1742: Xak. u:z kiši: inšen šinu'l-yadayn mehir fi hirfatihi ‘a man who is skilful with his hands and expert at his craft’ Kaš. I4e: KB tili uz sözi ‘the words of his tongue were skilful’ 531; eter uz iši ‘he arranges his affairs skilfully’ 4814; Chap. 60, 4456 ff. deals with uzlarcraftsmen’; o.o. 805, 1707, 2660, 5992 (yörgüči:): xııı (?) At. anın uz erür bu kiteb ‘therefore this book is skillfully written’ 477: xıv Muh. (in a list of words in which wew is pronounced u:) al-šeni' wa’l-ustdd ‘craftsman, skilled workeru:z Mel. 5, 9; 51, 11; Rif. 75, 147; al-musta'--idda ‘a capable womanu:z Mel. 53, 2; Rif. 149: Čağ. xv ff. uz baliğ wa sancıda wa mehir ‘efficacious, experienced, skilled’ San. 73V. 3: Xwar. xıv uzsage’ (N. and Adj.) (OTD p. 616 US- I думать think) Qutb 201: Kip. xıv u:z al-šeni'u'1-mehir Id. 12: xv labiq ‘skilled’ (šeber and) uz Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 31b. e: Osm. xıv ff. uz c.i.a.p.; originally ‘skilled’, it came by xv to mean also ‘clever, sensible’ and by xvil even ‘suitable, convenient’ TTS I 737-9; II 943-5; III 725; IV 797-27«

1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us) basically the intangible part of human personality ‘spirit’ as opposed to the tangible body, hence the early compound word etöz, q.v., ‘a live body’, lit. 'flesh and spirit (soul)’; from this it came usually to mean no more than ‘self’ (generally with Poss. Sufls.) (self in English can be me, us, you, or he/she/they), but sometimes ‘the interior part of an organism, pith, marrow’, and the like. It is not always easy to catch the exact sense in some passages, but ‘self (me, us, you, or he/she/they) is the commonest meaning, and often in this sense it is combined with kentü, usually as kentü: ö:z, less often ö:z kentü. An ancient word surviving in Čuv. as varcentre, middle’, Ash. V 166. S.i.a.m.l.g., but rare in NE where it is ös/üs. Türkü vııı özself (me, us, you, or he/she/they) is very common, esp. in the forms özüm 'I myself’ and özi: ‘he himself’; in II S ii čıntan ığač kelürip öz yar[gap] ‘bringing sandalwood trees...’ it perhaps means ‘the heart wood (duramen) of a tree’; in T 34 bilge: Tonukuk anı:ğ ol öz ol (see afü:ğ) it is prob. an error for uz: vııı ff. öz ‘self’ (me, you, or us), with Poss. Suffs. IrkB 8, 46, 47, 55; öz süsi: ‘his own army’ do. 34; ol tašı:ğ öz üze: (or özi:nte:) tutsar ‘if a man keeps that stone on his person’ Toy. 17, 23, 27 (ETY II 58-9); Man. öz is common in Chuas.; öz ‘(our)selves’ (in English, ourselves is called and translated us) 92, 118; kentü özümüzni ‘ourselves’ (us) 299; in other passages it means rather ‘spirit’ and the like; in 46 the Five Gods are özi ‘the spirit’ of everything on earth; tirig özügliving creatures’ 55; in 194 it is said that three commandments must be kept with the mouth, three with the mind, three with the hands, and one kamağ özün ‘with the whole being’; a.o.o.; in 116-17 ilki özün... bu özün ‘in a previous incarnation ... in this incarnation’ it is prob. a scribal error for ajun: Yen. see O. Kır.: Uyğ. vııı özümin ‘me myself' Šu. N 6: vııı ff. Man.-A öz tillin 'with his own tongue’ 71 f I 19, 12; tirig öz do. 26, 17 (adırtlığ); o.o. do. it, 17; 17, 19; 20, 1; M III 8. 9 (ii) (1 yarın): Man. özown(in English, self own is called and translated our, ours) TT II 16, 23; III 30; özügspirit’ TT III 101: Hud. öz with Poss. Suffs., and in phr. kentü öz/öz kentüself’ and özown(me, us, you, or he/she/they) are very common; öz öz (each) biligleri tuta ‘each (god) holding his own attribute’ TT V 8, 64; özi yašı uzun bolur ‘his life is long’ U II 49, 20-1; similar phr. TM IV 252, 4; TT VII 40, 94; isig özlife’ (see isig (hot, heat)): Civ. 07. konuk ‘the location of the soul’ TT VII 21, 3 etc.; öz yaš do. 33, 6: (illnesses arise) özde bašda iki eyegüde ‘in the internal organs, the head and the two (sets of) ribs’ II II 22, 29; a.o. do. 6, 3; oz ‘self’ and ‘own’ (our, ours) are common in USp. : O. Kır. ıx ff. öz occurs as part of a P.N. (Proper, or Personal Name) in Mal. 5, 2 and is fairly common in phr. like öz (my, your, our, ours) yerim ‘my own place’ do. 42, 1; in three passages do. 3, 1 (so read here); 7, 4; 10, 1 farewell is said to kuyda kunčuyım özde oğlım ‘my wife in the inner chamber, and my sons (presumably) in the inside of the camp’, or the like. The two words are linked in Türkü vııı ff. Yen. in the phr. öz kuy ayıta: do. 26, 4: Xak. xı ö:z is very common; there are five main entries and over 60 o.o., the latter nearly all with Poss. Suff.s and meaning ‘self(me, us, you, or he/she/they)ö:z al-nafs ‘self (me, us, you, or he/she/they) \\\ (verse; 2 ö:z (fissure (mountain), cleft) follows here): ö:z kiši: al-qarib tnina'1-nes ‘a neighbour’ (ours); one says bu bizig ö:z kiši: ol ‘this man is one of our neighbours (ours)’: ö:z al-qalh zva me yahzvi ' alayhi'l-batn ‘the heart and organs enclosed by the stomach’; one says ö:züm ağrı:dt: ‘I have a stomach ache’: ö:z qalbu'l-šacara ‘the heart of a tree’; one says yiğa:č ö:zi: meaning, for example ‘the pith of a palm tree’ (cummaru'l-naxl): (u:z follows here): ö:z konuki: ism me yaxtalic mina'l-casad, zva yuqal hiya'1-rûh ‘the word for what moves within (?) (inside) the body, it is said that it is the soul’ (verse) Kaš. I 4e: KB öz ‘self’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) (usually with Poss. Suff.s) and ‘own’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) is common; it sometimes means something like ‘personality’ e.g. küler yüz süčig söz silig öz kerek ‘ (a beg) must have a smiling face, friendly speech, and a pure personality (soul)’ 2072: xııı (?) At. öz ‘self’ and ‘own’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) is common; Tef. ditto; et öz also occurs and seems to mean ‘soul, living being’; öz kendü and kendü et öz also occur for ‘self’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) 243: xıv Muh. (under ‘parts of the body’) al-badan 'the trunkö:z Mel. 42, 12; Rif. 138 (adding al-nafs etöz); (under al-qaraha ‘terms of relationship’ and the like) al-qaribu'l-’aziz (? sic) ‘an honored neighbour (or relative ?) (ours) ö:z Rif. 143 (only): Čağ. xv ff. öz kendü Vel. 105; öz (1) xzvud zva xzvıštan ‘self’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) (quotn.); (2) xıv iš tva ešine ‘relative, comrade(ours (quotn.) San. 73V. 3: Xwar. xtii (?) öz ‘own’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) Oğ. 269, 293: xıv öz ‘self, own’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) Qalb 125; MN 135, etc.; Nahc. 230, le: Kom. xıv ‘self, own’ öz (me, us, you, or he/she/they) CCG; Gr. 145 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-insihel ‘diarrhoea’ öz yürimek Hon. 33, 3: xıv ö:z al-nafs Id. 13:xv (in a Conjugation) özi:... özi:leri:he... they (he... they with Poss. Sufls. in English is called his, their) Kav. 20, 15; ‘indahu ‘with him’ özi: ka:tında: do. 36, 2; nafs öz Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 36a. 6; 3rd Pers. Pron. (he/she/they) (kensi ren kendi na) özi do. 39b. 13: Osm. xıv ff. öz with Poss. Suff.s (me, us, you, or he/she/they) and in various phr. ‘self’ (me, us, you, or he/she/they) down to xvııı; it also means ‘the heart or middle (of something), the essence (of a subject)’ TTS I 572-4; II 762-7; III 571-4; IV 634-7.

As I comes from Ic (Ich, Ič) “inner”, so does us from ös/üs/öz/üz “inner, core”. This is a case of paradigmatic transfer united by common origin of the two pronouns from the same notion, that can't be missed by a linguist, especially not by an etymologist tuned to listen, hear, and think. In both cases, to obscure the evident is used the same hallmark technique, the burial of the substance in the middle of a pile of munitae, and the use of euphemisms and descriptions instead of direct translation. That could not happen by accident, it is a shameful dishonesty and manipulation.

2 ö:z (fissure (mountain), cleft, valley)valley’ and the like. An ancient word surviving in Čuv. as var, Ash. V 167, but otherwise only (?) in SW xx Anat. SDD 1124. See 2 özek, 2 özen, 2 ku:y. Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. özlerdeki özeklerdeki 'situated in valleys and small valleys’ TT V 28, 121 (and see note thereon): Civ. (in a proverb about incongruities) tağda öz (spelt oz) yok ‘there are no valleys on a mountain’ TT VII 42, 8: Xak. xı ö:z al-zvedî fi'1-cibel ‘a valley in the mountains'; one says ta:ğ ö:zi: ditto. Kaš. I 46; o.o. III 65, 14 (oğruğ); 106, 15 (2 ku:y): Osm. xvıı öz translates zvedt in a Pe. dict. TTS II 763. I

1 ü:z (fat) ‘fat’ and the like. Survives only as üs in some NE dialects R I 1877, Khak. and Tuv.. Xak. xı ü:z (hi'l-šanıma, ‘with front vowel’) al-dasam ‘fat’ Kaš. I 45; iiz al-dasam I 3e: Kip. xıv (after üz-) tea Intzva (i.e. ü:z) ism li-me ya'lul-tabixa mina'l-duhn 'inda'1-ğalyen ‘a word for the fat which rises when food is boiled’ td. 12; a.o. do. 65 (toŋuz (pig, swine)): Osm. xvııı (under I tf:z etc.) (7) (Uz) and in Rumi gil-i čarpanda 'clinging mud’ San. 73V. 15 may he the same word; Sam. 201 gives ‘sticky mud’ as one of the meanings of 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us).

2 ü:z (hatred) Imperat. of üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge) used in Hend. with the Imperat. of buz- (? bu:z-) (destroy, damage) as a Noun; it is one of the standard vices or passions, usually coming after anger, lust, and the like; etymologically it should mean ‘destructiveness’ but according to TT III 27, note 33 it corresponds in M III 19, 16 (i) to yiian ‘hatred’ (Giles 13,716) in the Chinese original of that text. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. üz buz bllig as the first of the evil biligs M III 19, 16 (ı);^.o. Chuas. 120: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A üz buz M III 13, 5 (iii): Man. TT III 33 (ula:ti:): Bud. öpke üz buz köŋül tutdum erser ‘if I have cherished thoughts of anger or hatred’ U II 76, 8; 85, 25; TT IV 8, 73.

VU 3 ü:z (deaf) Hap. leg.; inadvertently omitted in the printed text. Atalay transcribed öz, assuming a connection with özne:- but this is a false etymology. Perhaps survives in NC Kır. ezdeaf’. See azı:- (ooz, deafen). Xak. xı (between 1 ü:z and 1 ö:z) ü:z al-asamm ‘deaf’; one says ü:z kiši: Kaš. I 45.

Mon. V. AZ-

a:z- (get lost) 'to go astray, to lose one’s way’; sometimes used as a quasi-Trans, with Objects like yo:l ‘way’. Practically syn. w. 2 ya:z- (error, omit, get lost, offend, sin). S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı teŋri: bilge: xaganta: adnlmalim azmalim ‘let us not be parted from Tegri Bilge Xagan and go astray’ Ongin 11: vııı ff. kuš oğli: uča: a:zti: (sic) keyi:k oğli: yügü:rü: a:zti: ‘the young birds lost their way flying and the young deer running’ IrkB 15; a:zma:zun tep yerči: yara:tti: ‘he got hold (?) of a guide, so as not to lose the way’ Tun. III 6-7 (ETY II 94); and 3 o.o.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A nzmıš munmıš ters azağ nomlağlar ‘false (Hend.) preachers who have gone astray (Hend.)’ M III 29, 3-4 (in: Man. azmıšlarka yolčı yerči (MS. yertčŋ bolturjuz ‘you have become a guide (Hend.) to those who have gone astray’ TT III 69: Civ. yol azsar ev tapmaz ‘if a man loses his way, he does not find his home’ TT I 33; bu oğul kız azmağu yalğağu vu ol ‘this is an amulet (l.-w.) which boys and girls should lick so as not to go astray’ TT VII 27, 4: O. Kır. ıx ff. Mal. 10, 3 etc. (1 a:y): Xak. xı ol yo:l a:zdi: dalla'l-raculu’l-fariq 'the man lost his way’ Kaš. I 173 (a:za:r, a:zma:k); a.o. 7 92, 7 (ula:): KB sözüg sözlegüči azar ham yazar ‘a speaker goes astray and makes mistakes’ 205; o.o. 384, 677 (yol azaŋ, 2023, 3600, 5262: XIII (?) Tef. az- ‘to stray (from the road Abl.)’ 41: xıv Muh. xita’a ‘to err’ a:z-Mel. 25, 15 (Rif. 108, reading xata ‘to stride’ has atla:-); dalla az- 28, 5; iii; al-dalel a:zmak 35, 1; 120: Čağ. xv ff. az- (1) reh gum kardan ‘to lose one’s way’; (2) bi-xwud šudan ‘to lose one’s senses’; es az- is also used in the latter sense San. 37V. 22 (quotns.): Xwar,, xıv yol/yoldin az- ‘to lose one’s way’ Qutb 17: Kip. xııı dalla mina'l-dale! az- Hou. 41, 17: xıv az- dalla Id. 12: xv axta'a wa teha ‘to go astray, have a disordered mind’ az- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 6a. 12; dalla az- do. 23b. 1; fasada wa teha ‘to be vicious, have a disordered mind’ az- do. 28b. 7; a.o. do. 27a. 11 (us): Osm. xıv ff. az- (1) ‘to lose one’s way’; (2) ‘to deteriorate, go bad’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 65; 7/88; 777 57; 7F 64.

ez- (scratch, crumble, crush, melt) basically ‘to scratch (something Acc.)’ w. some extended meanings. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE (?). Xak. xı ol ye:rni: ezdi: <omission> al-ard wa xadaša' l-cild wa nahwahu ‘he (ploughed) the land and scratched the skin, and the like’ Kaš. I 165 (eze:r, ezme:k): xıv Muh. tarada ‘to crumble and dip’ (e.g. bread in soup) ez- Mel. 25, 15; Rif. 107; al-tard ezmek (armak in text, corrected in margin) 119 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ez- (spelt) sayıdan ‘to crush’ San. ioov. 5 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv Nahc. 95, 5 (1 yaŋ: Kip. xıv ez-halla bi-ma'ne dawwaba ‘to melt (something)’ Id. 12: xv ez- adeba ditto Kav. 9, 20; 76, 3; deba ‘to melt’ (Intrans.) eri-, ez- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 16b. 3 (dawwaba has prob. fallen out between the two).

o:z- (surpass, outstrip, escape, win, precede) basically ‘to outstrip (sometimes someone Acc.)’, hence ‘to escape (from something Abl.); to surpass (someone Acc.)’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı bešbalık anı: üčün ozdı: ‘Bešbalık therefore escaped’ II E 28; o.o. I N 7 (ağıt-); II E 31: vııı ff. IrkB 13, etc. (ölüm); a.o. do. 49: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ozku kutrulku yol yiŋakığ ‘the way (Hend.) of escape and salvation’ TT III 63; o.o. do. 126, 135, 139 (adalığ), etc.; M III 35, 3 (in: Bud. PP 51, 8 ff. (etöz); USp. 102c. 7 (ančakına); oz- kutrul- TT IV 12, 50; V 22, 39; a.o.o.: Civ. bu adadın ozğuluk yolug orunug közünmez ‘a way and place of escape from this danger does not appear’ TT I 20-1: yeme esen ozar ‘and she escapes in good health’ H I 109: Xak. xı anıŋ atı: o:zdi: ‘his horse won’ (sabaqa); also used of anyone who outstrips someone else (sabaqa 'an ğayrahu) Kaš. I 173 (o:za:r, o:zma:k); ozğa:n at far as sabbaq ‘a horse that always wins’ 7 470, 24: KB ozu bolmadi (the wicked man) ‘could not win’ 248: xııı (?) At. tetiklikte kendü Ayastm ozup ‘himself surpassing Ayas in shrewdness’ 55 : Tef. al-sabiqün ozğanlar 234: xıv Muh. sabaqa o:z- Mel. 27, 1; oz- Rif. 111; al-sebiq ozğa:n 174 (only): Xwar xıv Abu Bakrm xayrat ičinde ozğaymen ‘I will surpass Abu Bakr in good deeds’ Nahc. 95, 5: Kom. xıv ‘to precede (someone Acc.)' oz-CCG; Gr. 181 (quotn.): Kip. xııı sabaqa oz-Hou. 35, 10: xıv ditto Id. 12; Bui. 48V.: xv Kav. 74, 7; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28a. 1.

üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge) ‘to tear (something Acc.), to pull (it) apart or to pieces’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some extended meanings. Türkü vııı yinčge: eriklig üzgeli: učuz ‘it is easy to tear a thing when it is thin’ T 13; a.o. T 14 (yoğun): vııı ff. Man. üze bıča yırtıp ‘tearing, cutting, and pulling apart’ M I 7, le: Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. U I 7, 16-i S (böšik): Bud. bu ignig tözin yıltızın üzgeli katığlanıglar ‘strive to tear up the roots (Hend.) of this disease’ U 111 41, 7-8 (ı); adınağunug isig özin üzüptearing to pieces the living bodies of others’ TT IV 10, 10 11; üzgen yağmur 'destructive rain’ U I 26, 15 etc. (üstürti:): Civ. yalıt) kılıč tutup ok üzkelir ‘taking a naked sword he smashes the arrow’ TT I 162163; kalanın el ögtün yada üzüp ‘disclosing his (liability for) land tax before the people and discharging it’ USp. 21, 8-9; meniŋ börimlerimni sen üzüp ‘you will discharge my debts’ do. 32, 6-7: Xak. xı ol yip üzdi: ‘he broke (qata'a) the cord’ (etc.) Kaš. I 165 (üze:r, üzme:k); ıšlar üzüp kečürge:n ketta faššel xutta ‘he settled the afTairs’ (?) 1 522, e: KB bu sözni ešitgil sözüg munda üz ‘hear this word and cut short your words here’ 153; o.o. 655, 1008, 5383, 5458: xııı (?) Tef. üz- ‘to break’ (a rope) 335: Čağ. xv ff. Ü7, ktr ya'tti bi-gusil ‘break’ Vel. 106; ÜZ- ('with ü-’) gusixta kardan ‘to break apart, tear off’ San. 71 v. 25 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv üz- ‘to pluck (a flower or fruit), to destroy’ Qutb 204; MN 92; Nahc. 281, e: Kom. xıv ‘to break, tear apartüz- CCG; Gr. 271 (quotn.): Kip. xıv üz- (‘with front vowels’) inqata’a ‘to break’ (Intrans.; ? error); üz if sil ‘separate’ Id. 12: xv faššala ‘to cut out’ (a garment) üz- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28b. 4; qata'a üz- ûo. 30a. 10: Osm. xıv ff. üz- ‘to tear apart, break off’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 754; II 962; III 740; IV 813.

Dis. AZA

azu: (or)or’. Survives in NE Tuv. azi; elsewhere displaced by Pe. or Ar. l.-w.s or by phr. like Osm. yoksa. Türkü vııı (I have made the Türkü people rich and numerous) azu: bu: savımda: igid barğu: ‘or is there anything false in these my words?’ I S 10: vııı ff. azu:... azu: ‘either ... or’ Toyok llh. 1 and 4 (ETY II 178): Man. azu... azu C/tuas. 230; M III 38, 3-6 (in: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. azu (in TT VIII a:zu) and azu... azu are common; e.g. in Suv. 135, 7-22 azu occurs twice, azu yeme twice and azuča yeme twice: Civ. azu II I 167; II 18, 59: Xak. xı azu: kalima fa.xyir bayna'l-šay'ayn ‘a word (offering) a choice between two things’; hence one says üzü:m ye:gil azu: ka:ğu:n ye:gil ‘eat grapes or (a?c) melon’; generally used in interrogative sentences (fi’I-isliflwtn); one says kelir mü: sen azu: ban:rmu: sen ‘are you coming or (am) going?’ Kaš. I 88: KB azu is common, e.g. 16, 243, 1018, 1678, 4701 (three times in questions): xııı (ŋ At. azu (mis-spelt in all MSS.) 448 (bun-); Tef. azu/adu/ya ... ye adu/y3 a dura occur, often in questions 42-3.

VU izi: (second year) ‘the year after next’. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ızı: al-qubabib ‘the year after next’; hence one says arkın (sic) ızı: .‘next year and the year after’ Kaš. I 89; a.o. I 108, 14 (arkun).

D oza: (formerly, before) Ger. in -a: fr. oz- used as an Adv. of time, ‘formerly’, and perhaps also of space, and as a Postposn. w. Abl. meaning ‘before’. Survives in NE Alt., 'Pel. ozo/olzo R I 1095, 1145; SE 'Par. oza R I 1143; Türki ozu BŠ 769. Xak. xı oza: al-daltru'1-selif ‘time past’ Kaš. I88 (verse, oza: meaning ‘formerly’): KB kamuğda oza ‘before all (the others)’ 51; similar phr. 250, 4993, 5151: x 111 (?) At. ari zahrı tatğu 'asaldın oza ‘you will taste the bee’s sting before the honey’ 440; Tef. oza Postposn. 233: Xwar. xıv oza ‘formerly’ MN 66; Postposn. Nahc. 328, 15.

üze: (above, on high) originally an Adv., ‘above, on high’, also used as a Postposn. w. the unsuffixed case, or occasionally Loc., of N.s and Gen. of Prons., meaning ‘above, upon, on’. In Uyğ. it developed some rather different meanings, in some cases being used practically as a substitute for the Instr. case. Survives only (?) in SE Türki üze, Jarring 328. It was replaced almost everywhere in the medieval period by üzere (above, on high) with Suff. -re:. This word is first noted in (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. 337; Čağ. xv ff. San. 73V. 23; Kip. xııı Hou. 26, 20 and Osm. xıv TTS I 754, etc. and, in one form or another, s.i.s.m.l. Türkü vııı üze: is common both ss Adv. and as Postposn., e.g. IE 1, II E 2 (asra:) — (my ancestors ruled) kiši: oğlı:nda: üze: ‘over the children of men’ / E 1, II E 3; tardu:š bodun üze: šad ertim (II olurtım) ‘I was (enthroned as) šad over the Tarduš people’ IE 17, IIE 15: vııı ff. üze: as Adv. and Postposn. w. unsuffixed case is common in IrkB; (if a man carries that stone) özi: üze: ‘on his person’ Toy. 16-17 (ETY II 58): Man. üze on kat kök ‘the ten-fold heavens above’ Chuas. 42: Uyğ. vııı üze:... olunp Šu. 3: vııı ff. Man.-A ezrwa teŋri üze kedilip ‘being placed as clothing on the god Zurvan’ M I 2t, 3-4 (ı); o.o. do. 28, 14 and 20: Man. bu yer iize ‘on this earth’ M II 5, 8 (ı); amvardıšnlığ ot üze agar yoründek kıltıgız "you have made a remedy for him with the herb atnvardišn' TT III 28-9; a.o.o. of üze ‘by means of, with’: Bud. üze occurs as an Adv. but is commonest as a Postposn. meaning: (1) ‘on’, ertenilig orunluk üze olğurdı ‘he seated him on a jewelled throne’ PP 46, 2 -3 and many o.o.; (2) ‘in’, rather than ‘on’, U II 40, 107-8 (učruğ); (3) most often, ‘by means of, with’ öz kazğančım üze edgü kılınč kılayın ‘I will do good deeds with my own earnings’ PP 12, 2; i:š üze: bütürme:-‘zle:r ’thev do not make good by labour’ TT VIII A.2; o.o. do. Z/.8 (ögdi: (customs)); U I 29, 6-7 (u:d), etc.: Civ. üze ‘with’ TT VIII 1.20 (ičle:gü); kum üze ‘in the sand’ TT I 51; köz üze sürtser ‘if one rubs it on the eyes’ H I 65-6, and many similar o.o. in H /, II; (my vineyard) Sügü ögen iize ‘on the (banks of the) Sügü river’ US/>. 13, 3; bitig kılmıš kün üze ‘on the day on which the contract was made’ do. 13, 5-e: O. Kır. ıx ff. üze: teŋri: yarlikadi: ‘heaven on high decreed’ Mal. 32, 5: Xak. xı iize: occurs about 25 times as a Postposn., usually translated 'ale ‘upon, 011’, e.g. yo:l ü:ze: (sic) 'aid qdri'ati'l--tarlq ‘on the surface of the road’ Kaš. I 66, 17; \281\ I 197, 4 (ešül-); I 219, 14 (2 artur-); n.m.e.: KB bayat rahmatı erdi xalqi üze 'God’s mercy was upon His people’ 42; yašıl kök yarattı üze yulduzı ‘He created the blue sky and the stars above’ 127; o.o. 79, 302, 382, 709, etc.: xıı (?) KB VP munug hikmati kör bu tört neg iize’its instruction is about these four things’ 72: x 111 (?) KBPP (countless blessings) Muhammad Mušfafe iize 6-7; At. kečür sen me 'umrug könilik üze 'and pass your life in uprightness’ 154; (if an elephant is loaded) üzesinde zar ‘with gold (l.-w.) upon it’ 487; Tef. üze is common as a Postpo9n., ‘on, upon, over, about (e.g. a subject), in (a manneŋ’; otWer forms üzele, üzeslge, üzesinde (and üzre) 336-7: xıv Rbğ. toprak üze ‘on the earth’ R I 1299 (quotns.): Čağ. xv ff. üze üzerine Vel. 106; üze abbreviation of üzre bar rü wa bar bele ‘upon, above’ San. 74r. 15; (üzre same translation and quotn. 73V. 23); Öz/üz ... (3) metaph. fawq wa bele ‘above’ 73V. 7 (a false etymology, the quotn. contains üze): Xwar. xııı üze (but more often üzere) ‘upon’ 'Ali 4e: xııı (?) Oğ. 230-1 (üst): xıv üze ‘on’ Qutb 204; MN 432 (and üzre 3, etc.); üzemge ‘on me’ Qutb 125 (özemge): Kom. xıv ‘by means of, because of’ öze (sic) CCG; Gr. 186 (quotns.).

?S özi: (fissure, cleft) Hap. leg.; Sec. f. (or error?) of 2 ö:z (fissure, cleft). Čigil xı özi: al-facc fî’l-cibel ‘a cleft in a mountain’ Kaš. I 89.

Dis. V. AZA-

?ED 1 azı:- (? VU üzi:-) (ooze, deafen) Hap. leg.; in its second meaning clearly a Den. V. fr. VU 3 ü:z (deaf); the front rounded vowel is confirmed by the Caus. f. üzıt-, q.v.; the etymology of the verb in its first meaning is obscure. Xak. xı küp azi:di: rašaha'1-hubb ‘the jar oozed water’, also used of any earthenware vessel (ine’ xazafiya) when it oozes; and one says kula:k azi:di: kedati'1-udun an tatasamm mina'l-calaba ‘the ear was almost deafened by the noise’ Kaš. III 253 (azı:r, azı:ma:k sic).

?ED 2 azı:- (? VU üzi:-) (ooze) the etymology of the verb in its first meaning (ooze) is obscure. Xak. xı küp azi:di: rašaha'1-hubb ‘the jar oozed water’, also used of any earthenware vessel (ine’ xazafiya) when it oozes; and one says kula:k azi:di: kedati'1-udun an tatasamm mina'l-calaba ‘the ear was almost deafened by the noise’ Kaš. III 253 (azi:r, azi:ma:k sic).

uza:- (long, drawn out (time, space)) ‘to be, or become, long, or long drawn out’, usually of time, less often of space. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some extended meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ol tınlığnıg yana özi yašı uzamakı bolur ‘and that mortal’s life becomes long’ U II 42, 36 ff.; similar phr. Hüen-ts. 52-3; USp. 102b. 26; TT VI 288 (one MS., remainder uzun bol-); a.o. TT IV 12, 43 (yoğunad-): Xak. xı KB kayu iške evse uzar keč kalur ‘whatever task a man hurries over drags out and gets delayed’ 556; (when wicked men are near a beg) uzadı isiz elgt ‘the wicked man’s hand is stretched out’ 889; o.o. 4460, 4965, 648e: xııı (?) At. 179 (1 ög); Tef. uza- ‘to be long’, etc. (and uzagan ‘tali’, of a palm-tree) 322: Čağ. xv ff. uza- (spelt)/uzal- direz šudan ‘to be, or become, long’ San. 72V. 16 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv uza-‘to be long drawn out’ Qutb 202: Osm. xıv and xv uza- ‘to withdraw from (somewhere Abl.)' in two texts TTS II 944i M 725.

Dis. AZD

(D) özüt (soul) apparently ‘the human soul’, that part of a personality which survives death, and so rather different fr. 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us) ‘the spirit’, the vital spark which distinguishes living beings from inanimate objects, but clearly connected with it etymologically. The morphology is, however, obscure. Survives in NE Alt., Koib., Sag., Tel., Tuv. (R I 1898), and Khak. üzüt ‘a ghost which haunts its former home’. Türkü vııı ff. Man. biznig özütümüz ‘our souls’ Chuas. I 8; kamağ yaruk özütlernig ‘of all the bright souls’ do. I 21; (the five gods are the majesty, the colour) özl özüti ‘the spirit, the soul’ (the might, light, and root of everything on earth) do. 46-7; o.o. do. 302; M III 15, 6-7 (ı); TT IIS, 46; 10, 76 and 92: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A özütümüz... bulzun (so read) ‘may our souls find’ (salvation, pardon, victory, and attainment of the heavenly country) M I 29, 31-4; a.o.o.: Man. tanmıš özütler ‘souls who have denied (the true faith)’ M II ir, 13; 12, 7 and 2 (in: Bud. (if one recites thi > sfitra for the departed and the sufferers in hill) ötrü ol özütler ‘then those souls’ (will be liberated) TT VII 40, 30: Civ. (making offerings and libations to the Buddha) özütke aš bergil ‘give food to the souls (of the departed)’ TT VII 25, 8; a.o. TT I 29. Kip. xııı al-šayten ‘devil’ özüt Hou. 33, 6 (MS. in error öriit unvocalized): xıv özüt al-mawte 'the dead’ Id. 13; Bui. 10, 3.

VU izdeg (fish trap) Hap. leg.; apparently Den. N. in -deg. Xak. xı izdeg nano' šabaka ‘a kind of net used for catching fish; thin stakes are fixed in a row in the water, and a gap is left in the middle of the river, and the net is put in the mouth of the gap; the fish enters it and is immediately pulled out’ Kaš. I 116.

Dis. V. AZD-

D azıt- Caus. f. of a:z-; ‘to make (someone, Acc. or Dat.) lose his way, to lead (him) astray’; and metaph. ‘lo lead (someone) into error, to confuse (him)’. Survives in SE Türki 6zit-BŠ 582 and SW Osm. Cf. azğur-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 34 (2 ö:g): Xak. xı ol aga:r yo:l azıttı: adallahu'l-tariq ‘he made him lose his way’ Kaš. I 208 (azitur, azitma:k); ol kiši: ol yo:ldan azıtğa:n ‘that man is constantly making people lose their way’ / 155 ; a.o. II 234, 4: (Čağ. xv ff. azttkan translated yoldan azan Vel. 16 is an error for azikkan as pointed out in San. 38r. 23; azik-is an Emphatic f. of a:z- not noted earlier than San.): Xwar. xıv (and one part of their punishment) yoldm azıtmakdın bolğay ‘will consist of leading astray’ Nahc. 387, 2-3: Osm. xıv ff. azıt- ‘to lead astray’, etc. in several texts TTS I 65; II 87; III 57; IV 64 (with some dubious translations).

D ezit- (scratch, scarify) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of ez- (scratch, crumble, crush, melt), Cf. eztür-, Xak. xı ol oğlam kula:kın ezitti: ašrata uduna'l-sabi ‘he had the boy’s ear scarified’; also used of anything that is scarified and has \282\ long incisions made in it (xudiša wa šurifa tawila (n)) Kaš. I 209 (exitür, ezitme:k).

Dis. V. AZD-

D uzat- (uza:t-). (lengthen, stretch, stretch out, drag out, delay, remove, relocate, send off, escort, проводить, проважать) Caus. f. of uza:-; lit. ‘to make longer’, hence ‘to drag out, to remove to a distance’, and other extended meanings. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer II 594. Uyğ. vııı flf. Dud. PP 28, 5; 31, 2 (üntür-); Xak. xı ol yıšığ uzattı: ‘he stretched (madda) the rope (etc.)’; and one says ol ı:šığ uzattı: tawwalal-amr wa sazvwafahu tea matala ‘he dragged out the affair and postponed and put it off’ Kaš. I 209 (uza:tur (sic), uzatma:k); bu er ol ı:šığ uzatğa:n ‘this man always drags out (yutawiuil) an affair’ I 155; a.o. II 234, 3: KB uzat- is common in several meanings: (1) 'to drag out’, uzatma sözüg ‘do not drag out your speeches’ 27; o.o. 2369 (basit-), 2366 (ö:glen-), 5500-1; (2) ‘to stretch out (a hand Arc., to something Dat.)', üküš edgülükke uzattı elig ‘he stretched out his hand to many good deeds’ 151; o.o. 2139, 2507; (3) ‘to see (someone) off (проводить, проважать), kadašı uzattı kör ögdülmišig ‘his comrade saw Ögdülmiš off’ 3834; a.o. 5444; (4) other usages are uzatmazmen ila'wa kılığlı kišig ‘I do not let a petitioner be long-winded’ 811; kadašını kördi uzatu yatıp ‘he saw his comrade lying stretched out’ 5974; o.o. 2365-6, 9: xııı (?) At. uzatma amal ‘do not pitch your hopes (l.-w.) too high’ 293; Tef. uzat- ‘to stretch out (the hand), to spend a long time’ 322; a.o. 236 (olduk): xıv Rbğ. uzat- ‘to see off’ R I 1762 (quotn.); Muh. madda u:za:t- Mel. 31,3 (one MS., others and Rif. 115 tart- (tardy)): Čağ. xv ff. uzat- (-tı) gönder- ‘to see off’ Vel. 106 (quotns.); uzat- (spelt) Caus. f.; rehi kardan wa direz kardan ‘to see off; to lengthen, stretch’ San. y^r. 19 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv uzat- ‘to drag out (a speech, etc.)’ Qutb 202; ‘to see off’ Nahc. 81, 7; 110, 1: Kom. xıv ‘to see off, escort uzat- CCG; Gr. 268 (quotn.): Kip. xıv uzat- tmojvala Id. 13; But. s8r.; wadda'a ‘to see offuzat- Bid. 87V.: xv madda uzat- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 35b. 6; u'adda'a uzat- do. 38b. 8: Osm. xıv uzat- ‘to see off’ in one text TTS II 944.

D ozit- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of o:z-. Xak. xı bu: er ol atın ozıtğa:n ‘this man is constantly driving his horse ahead (of the others)’ (yasbiq bi-farasihŋ Kaš. I 155; n.m.e.

VUD üzit- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of (E) azı:-, q.v. Xak. xı ol anirj kula:km üzitti: taqqala sam'ahu wa ašamnıa min katra me takallama ‘he overburdened his hearing and deafened him with his volubility’; and one says sirke: küpni: üzitti: ‘the vinegar made the jar ooze (raššaha) with its acidity’ Kaš. I 209 (üzitür, üzitnie:k).

S izde:- See  iste:- (izde:-) (wish; to wish for, desire, inquire, seek, pursue, investigate)

D eztür- (scratch, furrow) Caus. f. of ez- (scratch, crumble, crush, melt); s.i.m.m.l.g. with several shades of meaning. Xak. xı ol oğlı: kula:kın eztürdi: *he had his son’s ear scarified’ (ašrata); also used of any long scratch or furrow (xadš axv x.itt) in the skin or the ground Kaš. I 220 (eztürür, eztürme:k).

D üztür- Caus. f. of üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge); ‘to cause, or allow (something Acc.) to be torn, pulled to pieces’, etc. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol yıp üztürdi: ahdaqa' l-habl ‘he hnd the cord (etc.) broken’ Kaš. I 220 (üztürür, üztürme:k).

Tris. AZD

D uzatı: for the form cf. ula:tı:; prob. Ger. in -ı: fr. uzat- (lengthen, stretch, stretch out, drag out, delay, remove, relocate, send off, escort, проводить, проважать); ‘for a long time’ and the like. Unlike most Advs. of this form, survives in NE Khak. uzada; NC Kır. uzata and SW Osm. uzadı, only (?) in the phr. uzun uzadıya ‘at great length’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A uzatı (so read ?) ‘for a long time’ M It), 3: Man. uzatı üzüksüz ‘for a long time continuously’ TT III 104; Hud. uzatı ‘for a long time’ U 1 20, 15; U 111 4, 14; TT V 6, 39; Hüen-ts. 1790; Suv. 354, 7-8 (ilinčüle:-); do. 247, 16-18 etc. (2 örüg): Civ. uzatı ‘for a long time’ TT VII 27, 11; VIII /.6; Af.35 (uza:tŋ; II It 34, 31; in TT VII 36, 2 (USp. 42, 15) prob. ‘lengthways’.

D özütlüg P.N./A. fr. özüt (soul); n.o.a.b. The moaning seems to be ‘relating to the souls of the departed’, or in some contexts perhaps ‘deceased, no longer in the body’. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (thereafter they continuously devoted themselves to) özütlüg iške edgü kılınčka ‘spiritual works (or work for the souls of the departed?) and good deeds’ T7’ II 10, 8e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A özütlüg nlgošaklar ‘the deceased (?) Hearers’ M I 28, 24; Man. M III 36, 7 (iii) (etözlüg).

D üzütlük Hap. leg., but cf. üzütle:-; although there is not a close semantic connection presumably a P.N./A. fr. *üziit Active Dev. N. fr. üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge), Xak. xı üzütlük al-dinn hi'l-šay' ‘niggardliness over something’ Kaš. I 1 50.

Tris. V. AZD

D uzatıl- Pass. f. of uzat- (lengthen, stretch, stretch out, drag out, delay, remove, relocate, send off, escort, проводить, проважать); ‘to be lengthened’ and the like. Survives in NC Kzx. and SW Osm., Tkm. Xak. xı KB sözüıjni kısurğıl uzatıldı yaš ‘shorten your speeches and your life will have been lengthened’ 176.

D üzütle:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. *üzüt; cf. üzütlük. Xak. xı ol anı: üzütle:di: baxxalahu rca nasabahu ile'I-bitxl ‘he called him a miser and attributed miserliness to him’ Kaš. I 299 (üzütle:r, üzütle:me:k).

Dis. AZĞ

D 1 aza:k Dev. N./A. fr. a:z-; syn. w. 2 azuk. N.o.a.b., but see Doerfer II 479. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A azağ (sic) nomlağlar ‘false preachers’ M III 29, 4 (in: Man. azağ (sic) nomluğlar TT IX 89: Iîud. kaltı puranı ulati azak nomluğlar sözleyürler ‘as the false preachers, the Purenas, etc., say’ U II 8, 13-14: Xak. xı atğalır okm: azn:k tegmedi: bu: sa:v uša:k lam yabluğ ilayya hedihi'l-namîma hi’av hedihi'l-fattena turîd an tarmı ilayya bi~ -sahm ğarb ‘this slander did not reach me, \\ although this trouble-maker meant to shoot a stray nrrow at me’ Kaš. II 20, 6 (for ğarb cf. 2 azuk); n.m.e.

Dis. V. AZĞ-

S 2 azak See adak.

azığ ‘a large tooth or tusk’ of a human being or animal, originally ‘canine tooth’, later usually molar’. An early, First Period, l.-w. in Mong. as arağajara'a (Haenuch 8). S.i.a.m.l.g. w. minor phonetic changes. See Doerfer II 474. Türkü vııı ff. tO0u:zug azı:ğı: sınmirš 'the boar’s tusk was broken’ IrkB e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the demon... tears countless mortals) aafğları üze ‘with his fangs’ U I 45, 17//17 10, 71; a.o. TT V 24, 48: Xak. xı azığ ‘the caninc tooth (al-ndb) of any animal’ Kaš. I 64: Čağ. xv ff. azu Aanden-i niš ‘canine tooth’, in Ar. neb San. 39r. 13: Kip. xııı al-dirs ‘molar tooth’ azığ Hou. 20e: xıv azu: (‘with back vowels’) al-<firs td. 13; a.o. do. 20 (uluğ): xv dirs azık (in margin azı) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23a. 6.

1 azuk properly ‘food for a journey’ for man or beast; sometimes more generally ‘food, provisions’. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer Ii 475. Türkü vııı (our horses were lean and) azu:kı: yok erti: ‘they had no food for the journey’ IE 39: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 10, 9 (ii) (alkm-): Bud. azuk ditto U III 29; 36 (damaged): Xak. xı azuk al-zed ‘provisions for a journey’ Kaš. I 66 (prov.); four o.o., same translation: xııı (?) At. čığaylık yarmlik azuk yokluki ‘poverty is lack of food for tomorrow’ 187; Tef. azuk ‘food’ 43 (and azuksiz): xıv Muh. zadiCl-tariq 'food for a journey’ azuk Mel. 82, 15 (azikjazuk); Rif. 188 (azıIk): Čağ. xv ff. azuğ/azuk tıiša wa xwürak ‘food (for a journey)’ San. 39r. 14 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv azik/azuk ditto Qutb 18: Kom. xıv ‘food’ azix CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv azık al-zed td. 13; al-zawweda, same meaning azık Bul. 8, 17: xv zed azık Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 13a. 1; 23a. e: Osm. xıv ff. azuk till xvi, azık fr. xıv onwards, both meanings; c.i.a.p. TTS I 64; 7/86; ///56; 71/63.

D 2 azuk Intrans. N./A.S. fr. a:z-; cf. 1 aza:k. Xak. xı azuk o:k sahmu’l-ğarb wa hıma'lladi le yudre man ramehu ‘a stray arrow, that is one shot by a person unknown’: azuk munuk al-ebiqu l-člell ‘runaway, lost’ Kaš. I 6e: KB azuklar yolındın keterdi meni ‘ (God) removed me from the way of those who had gone astray’ 385: Čağ. xv ff. (under 1 azuk) Teli'-i Harawi derived this word fr. a:z- and translated it gunıreh ‘lost’ and Naširi followed him; they were mistaken San. 3or. 14.

D uzak N./A.S. fr. uza:-; ‘long drawn out, long lasting’; hence, through such phr. as ‘a long journey’, ‘far away, distant, remote’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. IğHg erse uzak bolur ‘if he is ill, it becomes a long drawn out affair’ TT VII 28, 21 etc.: Xak. xı al-amr ide te/a ‘a long drawn out affair’ is called lizak ı:š; henčč one says yala;wač uzak bardı: abta’a'I-mursi/‘the envoy has been gone a long time’ Kaš. I 66; igledim andın uza:k (siŋ 'I was ill a long time (tawila (n)) because of it’ I 380, le: xııı (?) Tef. uzak (you should not sleep) ‘for a long time’ 322: xıv Muh. (l) Rif. 109 (at-): Čağ. xv ff. uzak dür wa ba'id ‘far away, distant’ San. 73V. 18: Osm. xv uzak ‘long’ of time or space in two phr. TTS II 944; IV 797.

D ozuk Intrans. N./A.S. fr. o:z- ; survives only (?) in NE Bar. ozok ‘previously’ R I 1146; NC Kzx. ozik ‘in the front rank’. Xak. xı ozuk at nl-farasul-sehiq fi'l-halaha wa gay-rihe ‘a horse that wins a race, etc.’ Kaš. I 66.

D azğa:n (astray, wild rose, wild briar) N./A. of Habitual Action fr. a:z-; lit. ‘habitually going astray’, but in practice normally used as the name of a shrub, ‘wild rose, wild briar’, and the like. Survives in its literal sense in some NC, NW languages and for ‘wild rose’ in SE Türki Shaw 8; BŠ 48; Jarring 31 and SW xx Anat. azan/azzan/ azğan SDD 142-5. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. in a list of P.N.s azğan čeček terim Suv. 137, 18: Xak. xı (in a prov.) yığač yavuzi: azğa:n ‘the worst (ardal) kind of tree İ3 the (one called) azğa.n; this is a tree (Pshrub) which has white and yellow flowers like a rose and a red fruit like the drop of an earring; in our country it is planted round the edges of vineyards (? ; fi xassi'l-kurüm), because it is useless as firewood, since when it is kindled it splits and flies out of the fire and sets light to clothes or anything else in the house Kaš. I 439, 7; n.m.e.

D azğun N./A.S, fr. a:z-; lit. ‘lost, straying’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE. Meanings vary fr. the original one to ‘dissolute, wild, ferocious’, and ‘thin, emaciated’. Xak. xı KB (as dangerous as a wild boar, as strong as a wolf) adığlayu azğın (MSS. in error azğıŋ ‘as ferocious as a bear’ (as vicious as a mad dog) 2311: xııı (?) Tef. azğun ‘lost, astray’ 42 (and azğunlık): Čağ. xv ff. azğun gumreh wa ešufta ‘lost, distracted’ San. 39r. 9 (quotn.): Kip. xıv azğun ‘mis-spelt ozğun) al-dell ‘lost’ Id. 12: Osm. xv azğıın/azkun ‘erroneous’ in two texts TTS II 86.

E azğır See azğun.

Dis. V. AZĞ-

D azğur- Caus. f. of a:z- ‘to lead astray’, esp. in a moral sense. S.i.s.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ff. Man. azğuruğlı yolka ‘to the road that leads astray’ Chuas. 127; a.o. do. I 18-19 °:ğ): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 9, 11-12 (ii) (2 a:r-): (Xak.) xıv Rbğ. azğur- ditto R I 577: Čağ. xv ff. azğur- (-duŋ, etc.) azdur-Vel. 17; azğur- (spelt) Caus. f.; az reh ba-dar hurdan va adlel kardan ‘to lead astray’ San. 38V. 1 5 (quotns.).

D ozğur- Caus. f. of o:z-; ‘to rescue, save (someone Acc. or Dat., from something Abl.)’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. osxir- Uyğ. vıii ff. Man. t[ünertg] tamudın tüzüni ozkurtuguz (st'c) ‘you have rescued them «II from gloomy hell’ TT III 67-8; o.o. do. 47 (irklet-), 70: Hud. kayusiga emgektin ozğurğaysen ‘you will save everyone of them from suffering’ PP 6, 2; o.o. U II 58, 5 (ii) (I ba:ğ); Suv. 166, 4-5 (ozğıırur kutğarur ‘rescues' (Hend.)); 582, 17; 585, 16 (oged-tür-): Civ. bu kart igke adaka tegdiVkde ozğurur 'when a man falls victim to these dangerous septic swellings it cures him’ H II 7, 1.

Dis. V. AZĞ-

Tris. AZĞ

D oza:ki: N./A.S. fr. oza:; ‘previous, of old time', and the like. Survives in some NE and SE dialects. Türkü vııı ff. Man. M III 15, 9-11 (i) (yörüg): Uyg. vııı ff. Man.-A ozakı özke ‘in a previous incarnation’ M I 9, 4: Xak. xı (after oza:) hence one says oza:kı: bilge: anča: aymıš ‘a sage of old time (hakîmul-dahri'1-selif) said as follows’ Kaš. 7 88; a.o. I 385, 2e: KB senigde ozaki ajun tutğučı ‘the ruler of the world who preceded you’ 5137; o.o. 2699, 5339: xııı (?) At. bu bir söz ozakı urulmıš matal ‘this one saying is an old time proverb’ 164; Tef. odaki/ozaki ‘previous (ly)’ 233: Čağ. xv ff. ozağu kün dün ki gün değil öteki gün ... ve usun gün ‘the day before yesterday ... a previous day’ Vel. 106; ozağu kün parîrüz ‘the day before yesterday’ San. 73V. 16 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ozaki ‘previous (yeaŋ, former (times), (men) of old time’ Qutb 202; Nahc. 11, 6; 266, 2; 368, 2-3: Kom. xıv ‘the day before yesterday’ ozav kün CCG; Gr.

D azığlığ P.N./A. fr. azığ; ‘having tusks, canine teeth’, etc.; s.i.a.m.l.g. except SC, SW with some phonetic changes. Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. (an elephant) Sanskrit îšedanta ‘with strong tusks’ yoğon azığlığ TT VIII C.7; kadir yavlak azığlığ tıgraklığ tınlığ ‘a creature with strong and dangerous teeth and claws’ U II 35, 21-2: Xak. xı azığlığ at al-farasul-qerih ‘a horse that has cut all its teeth'; also used of any animal that has cut its canine teeth (,tala'a nöbuhu) Kaš. I 147: KB idi yaxšı aymıš azığlığ kör er ‘the mature man very aptly said’ 283; a.o. 2287: xııı (?) Tef. azığlık (animals) ‘having tusks’ 42: Xwar. xıv azığlık (a wolf) ‘with sharp teeth’ Qutb 18.

D azukluğ P.N./A. fr. 1 azuk; ‘having food for a journey’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some phonetic changes and extensions of meaning. Xak. xı azukluğ er inšen di7 sad ‘a man who has food for a journey’ Kaš. I 148 (prov.).

D azukluk A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 azuk; ‘food prepared for a journey’. Survives only (?) in SW. Xak. xı azukluk me u'idda U'1-zed ■ • -'-«oared as food for a journey’ I 274, 17- ’ . fr. uzak; survives only (?) in n various cognate meanings. Xak. xı uzaklık al-ibta fi'l-amr ‘dilatoriness over something’ Kaš. I 150.

D azkina: Him. f. of 1 a:z; ‘very few, very little’. S.i.m.m.l.g. w. some phonetic changes and some additional Suffs., e.g. askınčak. Türkü vııı uluğ İrkin azkıfia: eren tezip bardı: ‘the great İrkin and very few men fled’ 1 E 34; azkina: türkü jbodun] ‘very few of the Türkü people’ T 9: Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. Sanskrit alpotsukas ‘worrying about trifles’ azkya sıkıšlıkın TT VIII 7J.6; pttlaka-metram ‘equal to the weight of a (single) seed’ a:zkya: te:ginče: do. F. 12; o.o. do. A.9, 17; azkina kaldı ‘very little (of the treasure) remained’ PP 7, e: Civ. azkı-a oyup‘scooping it out a little’ 77 ! 147; a.o. 161: Xak. xı KB azkina tat ‘taste a little (food)’ 5440: xııı (?) Tef. azğma/azkma ‘a little; a few’ 41: Čağ. xv ff. az azgına kam kamak wa andak andakak ‘very little’ San. 39r. 6 (quotn.): Osm. xıv azkinek (sic) ‘včry little’ in one text 7'TS I 290.

D azğanču: no doubt to be so spelt and not asğanču; morphologically obscure but ultimately derived fr. a:z-; the context indicates the meaning ‘deceit’, but perhaps ‘flattery’ is also implied. N.o.a.b. See azğanču:la:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tağun azğanču sözle-‘to speak in deceitful and flattering (?) words’ occurs several times in an unpublished text TT IV 18, note A72, 8.

S azkiya See azkina:.

D uzkiya (skilfully, wisely) Dim, f. of u:z; ‘rather skilfully, wisely’. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. mandal ktlzun uzkiya ‘let him make the mandala (magic circle) skilfully’ Suv. 487, 7-8: Civ. knıjül keŋ tutup uzkiya olurzun ‘let him sit (i.e. conduct himscfl) wisely with mind at ease’ USp. 45, 13.

Tris. V. AZĞ-

D azığla:- Den. V. fr. azığ;.survives only (P) in NE Alt., '1 'cl. azu:la:- ‘to gore’ R 1 573. Xak. xı toijuz atığ azığla:dı: ‘the boar struck the horse with its tusks (hi-nabihŋ and wounded it’; and one says men toguzni: azığla:dım ‘I struck the boar on its tusks’; also used in both senses of any wild beasts (siba') that have tusks Kaš. I 304 (azığla:r, azığla:ma:k).

D azuklan- Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 azuk; ‘to procure, or have, food for a journey’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. m er azuklandi: šara'l--racul dıi l-sed ‘the man came into possession of food for a journey’ Kaš. I 294 (azuklanur, azuklanma:k).

D azğanču:la:- (deceive) Den. V. fr. azğanču:; the contexts indicate the meaning ‘to deceive’; the spelling in U I, which is quite clear, is cither an error or a dialect form. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. meni ozğančuladı bu moğoč-lar ‘these Magi have deceived me’ U I 9, 15 : Bud. (in a long confession of sins) \285\ azğunčuladım (sic) erser ‘if I have l>ccn deceitful’ (/ II 7b, 7; azğančuladlm do. 35, 24; azğančulndımız tağunladımız erser TT IV 8, 72; özümde yavızlarığ körüp učuz-ladım azgančuladım erser ‘if, seeing evil things in myself, I have belittled them and been deceitful’ Suv. 136, 13-14; a.o. do. 220, 3.

Dis. EZG

D ezig (oppression) Dev. N. fr. ez- (scratch, crumble, crush, melt); survives in NC Kır., Kzx. ezü: ‘oppression’; morphologically distinct fr. ezlk, Pass. N./A.S. ‘crushed, bruised’, etc. which survives in SE Türki BŠ 580 and SW Osm. Xak. xı ezig kufi xadša fi'l-cild füla (n) ‘any long scratch in the skin’ Kaš. I 71.

ezüg (or ezük?) (false, lying; falsehood, lie) ‘false, lying; falsehood, lie’. N.o.a.b. Cf. ötrük, Igld, yalğa:n. Türkü vııı ff. Man. kimnl üze yeme ezüg tanuk ünmez ‘and he does not rise up as a false witness against anyone’ M III 22, 12 (in: Uyğ. vııı (f. Dud. ezüg yalğarı söz ‘false lying words’ U II 76, 5; 85, 22; TT IV 8, 70; ezügüg ‘a lie’ Suv. 135, 12; (the decrees of the Buddha) ezüg igld bolmaz ‘are not false (Hend.)’. USp. 106, 28; o.o. U III 69, 1; 70, 29; Suv. 371, 8 (atğanğu:): Kip. xııı al-kidb ‘lie’ (ötrük/yala:n; and ‘truth’ is also called čın and ‘lie’) ezü:k (? sic, MS. erü:k) wa hiya luğa le ya'rifuhe ahad ‘but it is a word (news?) that no one knows’ Hou. 27, 4.

SE uzik See üjek.

D 1 özek (core, center) Dim. f. fr. 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us); basically ‘the core or centre’ (of something), with various specific applications. S.i.a.m.l/g. except SE. See Doerfer II 595. Xak. xı özek al-abhar wa Iıtnva 'irq fl betini'1-šulb ‘the spinal cord, that is the vein in the centre of the spinal column’ Kaš. I 71 (quotn. fr. the Koran illustrating al-abhaŋ: Čağ. xv ff. özek (spelt) meda iva rtša-i qurfth wa damemtl ‘the matter and pus in ulcers and boils’ Sa?t. 73V. 18: Kip. xv qalbu'l-šačara ‘the heart of a tree’ özek Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 29b. 13; naxe' ‘spinal cord’ özek do. 36a. 11.

D 2 özek Dim. f. fr. 2 ö:z (fissure, cleft); ‘a small valley’. Survives in NE Alt., Tel. özök R I 1302; NC Kzx. özek MM 493 and SW xx Anat. özek SDD 1125. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT V 28, 122-3 ö:z); this word corresponds to ch'i ‘a stream, or valley between two mountains’ (Giles 1,007) *n the Chinese originai: (Xak. xı see üzük).

VU?C or S özök Kaš.'s explanation is possible, but it is perhaps a Sec. f. of 1 özek, with the vocalization altered to suit the etymology. Čigil xı özök laqab li'1-nise' ‘a Proper Name for women’; hence one says alturn özök naqiyatu'l-nafs ka'l-dahabi’l-xeliš ‘with a soul as pure as pure gold’, and ertini: özök šefiyatu’l-badan ka l-durra ‘with a body as pure as a pearl’; because the peerless pearl is called erdini: and is contracted (sic, see ertini:); this Proper Name is used of Čigil women; its origin is ö:z al-nafs and the kef i.e. -ök) attached to a word to mean ‘precisely that thing’; hence one says ol ernl ok keldür ‘bring that man (and not someone else)’; with words with back vowels and those containing qdf or ğayn ok is used instead Kaš. I 71; a.o. I 141 (ertini:).

D üzük Pass. N./A.S. fr. üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge); ‘broken, torn off’, and the like. It is not dear whether the entry in Kaš. is correctly placed here, or whether it should be transcribed özök and regarded as a Sec. f. of 2 özek. In a number of medieval and modem languages üzük is a Sec. \\ f. of yüzük, q.v., and the word in Čağ. relating to a tent may belong there. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 48 (ula:-): (Uyğ. see üzüksüz): Xak. xı üzük hull me istancala mina'l-ard wa šera hiyed ‘any piece of ground which is swampy and becomes waterlogged’; and any ‘branch of a valley’ (xalic mina'I-awdiya) is called üzük su:v Kaš. I 71: (xiv Rbğ. (some of their statements are) üzük ‘abbreviated’ R I 1896, but the older B.M. MS., 2v. 16, has kesük, same meaning): Čağ. xv ff. üzük (‘with -k’) xargah asbabi... wa xatim ‘components of a tent... (and finger-ring’) Vel. 106 (see above); üzük ( (1) anguštar ‘finger-ring’ (quotn.)); (2) namd-i rü-yi alečuq ‘the felt covering of a tent’; (3) para wa gusixta ‘piece, fragment; broken, torn’ San. 74r. 8.

özge: (other, other than, different) ‘other, other than (something Abl.), different’. Poorly attested in the early period, the occurrence in Talas is very dubious, the Uyğ. documents quoted are xııı or later, and the supposed occurrence in KB 1375 (see R I 1294) is imaginary (etözke read at özge), but s.i.a.m.l.g. Cf. adın, adruk, ögi:. Talas ıx ff. (?) özge: uya:rı:na: adrılmıš ‘separated from his other capable men’ (?) Talas II 5 (ETY II 134) (after a gap; özge: is reasonably clear in the facsimile but the next word is prob. wrong, and the whole very dubious): Uyğ. xııı (?) ff. Civ. özge alban yasak tutmayın ‘not being liable to any other land tax or tribute’ USp. 22, 42-3; özge kiši ‘a third party’ do. 32, 8 and 10; a.o. do. 112, 5: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. özge ‘another; other than’ 243: xıv Rbğ. ditto R I 1303 (quotn.); Muh. ko:čdan ö:zge: ğayri'l-qabš ‘apart from (i.e. in addition to) the ram’ Mel. 18, 11; Rif. 97: Čağ. xv ff. özge (‘with -g-’) (kendüye ve) ğayri ‘ (to himself and) other’; and it is also used in praise or censure, when one says of someone özge dür Vel. 105 (quotns.); özge (spelt) (1) ğayr ‘other (than)’; (2) nahw digar ‘another’; özgege ba-dtgari ‘to another’ (quotn.) San. 73V. 25: Xwar. xıv özge ‘other (than), Qutb 125; MN 82, etc.; Nahc. 85, 17: Kom. xıv ‘other’ özge CCI, CCG; Gr. 186 (quotns.): Kip. xııı ğayra ‘other than’ (ayru:k; and there is another expression) özge: (and another öıjü:) Hou. 54, 13 ff.: xıv özge: both ğayr ‘other’ and seyir ‘the rest’ td. 13: xv özgey («V) means ğayrahu (and ayruk much the same), and also sited ‘except’... ille ana ‘except me’ menden özgey Kav. 40, 7fT.; ğayr özge Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26b. 10; 89b. 13: Osm. xıv ff. özge ‘other (than something Abl.)’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 573; II 764; HI 572; IV 636.

Tris. EZG.

Tris. EZG

D üze:ki: N./A.S. fr. üze:; ‘situated upon’ and the like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (the majesty, etc.) kamağ yer üzekiııig ‘of everything on earth.’ Chuas. 45: Uyğ. vııı fr. Bud. kaltı tırgak Uzeki toprak teg ‘like (i.e. as little as) the dirt under a finger nail’ TT VI 336; yana sizni üzeki ayančag köŋülin idi unutmaz ‘and with supremely (?) reverent thoughts he never forgets you’ Hüen-ts. 1805-7: Civ. sarığ üzeki ağrığka 'for a disease of the gall-bladder’ (?) H 11 12, 100: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. (the earth and) ol kim anig üzekini ‘that which is on it’ 337.

D ezügči (liar) N.Ag. fr. ezüg (false, lying; falsehood, lie); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ezügči yogağčı kiši ol erür ‘he is a liar and a false accuser’ Suv. 563, 4-5.

D üzukük Hap. leg. A.N. fr. üzük. Uzük-lüg in USp. 17, 6 is a mistranscription of üjüklvig ‘in the handwriting of’, P.N./A. fr. F üjek; and the suplposed occurrence in KB 1988 (R I 1896) is a mistranscription of örüglük. Xak. xı üzüklük inqita (sic) ‘severance, interruption’ Kaš. I 152.

D ezügsüz (true) Priv. N./A. fr. ezüg (false, lying; falsehood, lie); ‘free from falsehood’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U I n 35. ' Oğldsiz); Hüen-ts. 216; Suv. 347, 9.

D üzüksüz (uninterrupted, continuous(ly)) Priv. N./A. fr. üzük; ‘uninterrupted, continuous(ly)’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 315 (1 üŋ; TT II 10, 8e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. tutčı üzüksüz ‘always and continuously’ TT III 26; o.o. do. 104 (uzatı:); M III 25, 11 (ı): Bud. amru üzüksüz ‘continously and uninterruptedly’ Suv. 109, 7; 464, 17; o.o. TT VS, 68; U I 26, 2; TM IV 255, 132-

Tris. V. EZG-

U ezügle:- (deceive) Den. V. fr. ezüg (false, lying; falsehood, lie); ‘to deceive’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı If. Bud. tınlığlarığ ardım ezügledim erser ‘if 1 have tricked and deceived people’ Suv. 135, 10; a.o. do. 220, 1.

D özekle:- Den. V. fr. 1 özek. Survives, with different meanings in NE Tuv. özekle- ‘to put a wick in a lamp, to stoke a stove, to light a fire’ and SW xx Anat. özekle- ‘to bring together to a central point’ SDD 1125. Xak. xı ol ko:yuğ özekle:di: qnta'a abhara l-ğanam 'he cut the sheep’s jugular vein’; also used for striking it Kaš. I 306 (özekle:r, özekle:me:k).

Dis. AZL

D azlık A.N. fr. 1 a:z; ‘scantiness, deficiency, insufficiency’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE. Xak. xı KB migin döstug erse bir ol azlıkı ‘if you have friends by the thousand, (the loss of) one leaves a gap’ 4190: Čağ. xv ff. azlığ kami rva qusür 'shortage, insufficiency’ San. 39r. 11 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı (?) (there was so much booty that) at ka’atir ud azlık boldı ‘there was a shortage of horses, mules, and oxen' Oğ. 273-4.

D uzluk A.N. fr. u:z; ‘craft, profession’ or, more generally, ‘skill, dexterity’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. Türkü ıx ff. Yen. Mal. 31, 1-2 should probably be read (Uz Bilge: Čaıjšı:) uzlıkın üčün alpın üčün erdemin Üčün ‘because of his craftsmanship, toughness, and manly virtues’: Xak. xı uzluk al-hirfa ‘a craft’ Kaš. I 253, 1 (ögren-); n.m.e.: KB (a man cannot get any advantages from his enemies) kali kıldı erse özi uzlukı ‘however much skill he himself exorcises’ 4191; (another class of the community are the uzlar, craftsmen) tirilgü tilep özke uzluk kllur ‘they exercise their craft because they wish to make a living for themselves’ 445e: Osm. xıv ff. uzluk ‘skill, tact (as a virtue), cunning (as a vice)’, in several texts TTS I 738;// 945Î 7^ 798.

D izlik A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. i:z (? ı:z) (footprint, track, trace, scratch); lit. ‘something connected with footprints or tracks’. Survives only (?) in NW Kaz. izlik ‘track, path’ and SW xx Anat. izlik ‘a line’; izlek ‘footpath’ SDD 778, 804. Xak. xı izlik ‘the Turkish shoe (al-hida') made from the hides of slaughtered beasts’ Kaš. I 104 (prov., see oldı:-): Kip. xııı . al-sarmftca ‘slipper’ (bašma:k, also) izlik Hou. 19, 5: xıv izlik ma yulbas fVl-ricl ‘foot-wear’ Id. 13.

D özlüg P.N./A. fr. 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us); originally ‘possessing a vital spark, living’, and the like. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. özlü; Tkm. ö:zH, where it has a rather wide range of meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. sansız tümen özlüg ölürür ‘they kill countless myriads of living beings’ PP 1, 5-6; o.o., same meanings, Suv. 21, 11; U IV 40, 190; kısğa özlüg yašlığ tınlığlar ‘short-lived mortals’ U II 42, 27-8; uzun özlüg yašlığ ‘long-lived’ Suv. 474, 21; isig özlüg ertinigiz ‘yenir jewel of life’ U III 14, 11 (in: Civ. iti USp. 13, 12 (2 uruğ); 16, 17 özlügüm (üz) seems to mean ‘my/our blood relations’ or the like: Xak. xı KB özlüg ukuš ‘inborn understanding’ 1870; kičig oğlan özlüg etöz meıjzeği ‘a small boy is like a living body' 3603: Xwar. xıv özlüg ‘living, lively’ Qutb 125.

D özlük A.N. (sometimes Conc. N.) fr. 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us); in the early period used only of horses, where it is not clear whether the connotation is ‘personal’ (ö:z ‘self’ of the owneŋ or ‘spirited’ (ö:z ‘vital spark’ of the horse); in either event it means, in practice, ‘a high bred blood-horse’. S.i.m.m.l.g., where it usually means ‘personality’ and the like, but has other meanings also. Türkü vııı (in a list of precious objects) özlük atın ‘their blood-horses’ II N 11; II S 12; o.o. Ix. 4, 15; vııı ff. IrkB 17 (3 öıj): Yen. özlük at Mal. 28, 3: Xak. xı Özlük ai-mttqarraba (? so read, the MS. has al-maqarr bihi, which seems to give no sense) mitta'l-xayl, tea kadelika hull šay' xassahu'l--racul li-nafsihi ‘a favourite horse’, also ‘anything which a man reserves for himself’ Kaš. III 438: Čağ. xv ff. özlük xtmidi tea hast! zva onnniyat ‘personality, existence, \\ egotism' (quotn.), also be xuttd ‘solitariness’ (quotn.) Satt. 741-. 6.

Dis. V. AZL-

D üzlüg (ü:zlüg) P.N./A. fr. 1 ü:z; ‘fatty, sticky, glutinous’, and the like. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı (after 1 ü:z) hence ü:zlüe aš ‘fatty (dasim) food’ Kaš. I 45; (after 1 üz) hence üzlüg mü:n 'fatty broth’ / 36; n.m.e.: Xwar. xııı üzlü ‘marrowy’ (sic?) 'Ali 56.

Dis. V. AZL-

D azıl- Pass. f. of a:z-; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı yo:l azıldı: dulla'l-fariq ‘the way was lost’ Kaš. I 196 (azilur, azilma:k) :xııı (?) At. yirak turğu yumšak tep azıfmağu ‘you must keep well away (from a snake) and must not be deceived into thinking that it is harmless’ 216.

D ezil- (scratched) Pass. f. of ez- (scratch, crumble, crush, melt); ‘to be scratched’, etc. S.i.a.m.l.g. with the same extensions of meaning as ez-. Xak. xı anıŋ eti: ezildi: xudiša Inhmuhu ‘his flesh was seratehed’; also used of anything in which long scratches are made Kaš. I 196 (ezilür, ezilme:k; in the MS. the alif is unvocalized, the printed text is falsely vocalized): Čağ. xv ff. 6zil- (spelt) saylda šudan ‘to be ground, worn down’ San. ioov. 19: Xwar. xıv ezil- ‘to be rubbed, worn down’ Qutb 23; mahesını tükel ezildi ‘his beauty was completely destroyed’ Nahc. 79, 10; a.o. 103, 6.

D uzal- Pass. f. of uza:-; irregular, since uza:- is Intrans., and practically synonymous with it. Xak. xı er uzaldi: ta'ayye'l-racul wa baqiya fi amr le yanfaric 'anhu sari'a (n) ‘the man was unable (to finish) and persevered with an affair but did not dispose of it quickly’; hence one says iglig uzaldi: ‘the pangs of death were difficult ('asura) for the sick man’ so that he could not be put an end to (la yuqda) because of his strength (i.e. ‘he lingered’) Kaš. I 196 (uzalur, uzalma:k, MS. in error -me:ht); (of flowers in the spring) üküš yatıp uzaldi: fa-fela me qese fi'l-ard ‘and for a long time they stayed below ground’ / 233, 28; sensiz özüm uzaldi: translated nafsl tašteq ilayka ‘my soul longs for you’ /// 131, 23: KB bu beglik uzala uzun boldı yaš ‘this rule endured and had a long life’ 405; maga öznese kim uzalıp ölür ‘whoever rebels against me dies a lingering death’ 678; o.o. 801, 809, 1096, 42el(everywhere mis-spelt özel-): xıı (?) KB VP bu tört nlk šarlflar uzala kilur ‘these four good and distinguished people play a prolonged part’ 64: xııı (?) At. (the miseŋ wabal kötrüp bardı uzala sögüš ‘has gone (from this world) bearing a load of retribution and prolonged curses’ 242: Čağ. xv ff. uzalip/uzala usanup ve büyüyüp... ve uzanup yattp ‘growing longer and bigger... lying outstretched’ Vel. 106 (quotn.); uzal- see uza:- Satt. 72V. 16.

D üzül- Pass. f. of üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge); ‘to be torn, or pulled to pieces’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some extended meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ktiniije kolğučılar üzülmedi ‘the daily (stream of) beggars was uninterrupted’ PP 7, 2-3; tamuda tuğdačı tınlığlarnıg üzülmek! bolur ‘there occurs a cessation of mortals born in hell’ U II 38, 74-5; similar phr. do. 43. 25; (the chain of life and death) üzülmez ‘is unbroken’ TT VI 015; similar phr. do. 205 (alkınč), 381; ašılzun üzülzün ‘may they (respectively) increase and be brought to an end’ TT VII40, ı$-,o.o.Hüen-ts. 11, 209,1925: U III 60, 5: Civ. (my claims against the other parties (?)) üzülmeyür ‘are not cancelled USp. 112, 9: Xak. xı üzüldl ne:g ‘the thing was broken’ (inqata'a) Kaš. I 196 (üzülür, üzülme:k); bu yıšığ ol üzülge:n ‘this cord is constantly breaking’ (abada (n) yanqati') I 158: KB (whenever I test the evil-doeŋ kete bardı künde üzüldi küči ‘his strength goes away and is broken in a day’ 247; o.o. 6x46 (ulaš-), etc.: Xwar. xıv üzül- ‘to be broken’ Qutb 204: Osm. xıv ff. üzül- ‘to be broken, interrupted’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 754; II 962; III 740; IV 814.

D özle:- Den. V. fr. 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us); the meaning in Xak. presumably comes fr. this word in its sense of ‘the core or centre of something’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. özle- ‘to desire’. Xak. xı ol u:nuğ özle:di: mallala’l-'acin ‘he baked the dough in the embers’ Kaš. I 286 (özle:r, özle:me:k): KB sukun ačmıš özler kačan tok bolur ‘when is the man who is famished with covetousness and desires (more) satisfied ? 5384: xıı (P) /CÖFPkamuğ bu kitebnı alıp özlemiš ‘they all took this book and made it their own’ 13: xıv Muh. ixtara ‘to choose (for oneself)’ ö:zle:- Mel. 22, 3; Rif. 102 (misspelt): Osm. xvııı özle- in Rumi, xwastan wa falab kardan ‘to desire, long for’ San. 73V. 1 (quotn.).

D 1 a:zlan- Refl. f. of azla:- which is not noted earlier than (Xak.) xııı (?) At. 360 and Xwar. xıv Qutb x8; Nahc. 402, 13, where it means ‘to depreciate, despise’. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. SDD 144. Xak. xı ol bu: yarma:kığ a:zlandı: ‘he considered this (sum of) money small’ (qalil)-, also used of other things Kaš. I 297 (a:zlanu:r, a:zlanma:k): KB ukuš azın azlanma ašğı üküš ‘do not underestimate (the value of) understanding; it has great advantages’ 305.

DF 2 a:zlan- Refl. Den. V. fr. 2 a:z (desire, lust, greed); pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. azlanmak is used (instead of 2 a:z) to translate the technical term tfsnd ‘lust’ (lit. ‘thirst’) U II 9, 13; ro, 15; (if in giving alms) azlandım kıvırğaklandim erser ‘I have been greedy and mean’ Suv. 136, 15-16; adın kišiniŋ edgüsige azlanmamak künilememek ‘not to lust after or envy other men’s good things’ do. 220, 3-5.

D u:zlan- Refl. Den. V. fr. u:z; survives only (?) in SW Osm. Red. 251 ‘to be good, excellent’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. MI 17, 1 (u:z): Xak. xı er u:zlandi: abde'1-racul fi sanatihi hıısn 'amal wa hadeqa ‘the man created fine and skilful work in his craft’ Kaš. I 297 (u:zlanu:r, u:zlanma:k).

Dis.Y. AZL-

D üzlen- Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 ü:z; survives only [ ?) in SW Osm. özlen- ‘to be fatty, glutinous’. Xak. xı ešič üzlendi: irtajaa dasamu I-qidr ’the fat in the pot rose vto the top)’ Kaš. I 2^S (üzîtnür, üzJenme:k).

D üzlün- Refl. f. of üzül-, syn. w. it. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. üzlünzün v.l. in one A1S. for üzülzun T T VI 381: Xak. xı uruk ützlündi: (nc) ‘the rooe broke’ (inqata'a) Kaš. - -rv ■'iiz’ür.lir. üziüoınerkb

D üzlüš- Recip. f. of üzül-; lit. ‘to be torn jpart from one another’. Survives only (?) in NAY Kaz. üzülüš- (of a creditor and debtor) to settle their accounts' R I 1349. Xak. xı iizlüšdi: ne:g ‘the thing broke’ (inqata'a)-, and 3ne says begi: kisi: (sic:; this is the word required, the three dors changing it to kip: stem to have been added lateŋ U2Îüsdi: ‘the

i,;i.nn :- •• . the bo-b.---;l ami v^ik vas

- ’ • o.:: -; Ai: n -'bun v.;sr.

. fr--' \be d, b'or’ b> < -‘ :ent) Kaš. J '.••.40 ; bzbiš-ne:k).

Tris. AZL

D uzala: See uzal-.

D ibebbsiz Priv. N.'A. fr. an A.N. fr. üze:; it, ‘without anything above’, that is ‘supreme, i!S-highestb Pec. to Uyğ. U> g. vııı tl. Bud. .izeliksiz translates Sanskrit anutlara, same ncaning U II 39> 101; üzeliksiz nom bošgunmıš öz baxšılarım ‘my own teachers ,vho have learnt the supreme doctrine’ TT VII 40, 145; o.o. Suv. 24, 10 etc.

D üzlünčü: fr. üzlün-; ‘termination, ılîimateb Pee.ter Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. mig eyıg yolmiŋ bu ok üzlünčüsi erür this indeed puts an end to his evil road (of ransmigrations)’ L: II 43, 16-1S; similar phr. lo. 44, 29; üzlünčü tiib ‘the ultimate basis’ 'lihn-ts. 154; a.o. TT V III A.31.

D iizlünčülüg P.N.A. fr. üzlünčü:; n.o.a.b. byğ. \iii fi. Pud. kiglbrznek İizlünčülüg

■ ı’ur ‘hen t-nds the ir.tr- • action’ TT VIII ' ' 7-

Tris. V. AZL-

D ibu-Ie:- Den. V. fr. üze:; survives onlv (?) n \ ii Tuv. ü'-îün üze:le- ‘to c\:uaınf -uper-••■iaüv’, am! :->K Türki ii/eU*- *t< .-k:m the: top

V.vt . nn, ).

uzf.-len- fb.'fl. f. of uzc-le:- ; M.*rvi\ es onlyf ?) n NW K:.r. T. ‘lo pounce on (someone)’ 243. U\ İ’. Mil tf. Fbid- (faiih i<- the prime -•'2'Jv of u ...n • IM in eb nii tüvke ‘the hn'be-t

nm’ 7 7 1' -o, 3.

pis. A /.\1

) ü/iiîn N.S A. fr. «İZ - ; bT. ’;• -;:gl e act of

kuı!/’, !!l ]•>•,!. .• V. . A s bnr.ch

■if g;.ipe>, .1 'i.' L’h- ;'; pe’. S.! a n; l.g Hi ibn

sense w. son it- phonetic changes; in NC a-.-s NW Kaz. cüzüm (fr. the Sec. f. yüzürn» See Doerfer li 473. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kuru6 üzüm suvi ‘a decoction of dried grapes’ #*j 83; in H II several phr. including kuruft üzüm and it üzümi ‘wild grapes’ (lit. ‘dog'’ grapes’); asğu üzüm ‘grapes hanging (on the vine)’ USp. 88.. 45-e: xıv Chiv-Uyğ. p'u-t’ao ‘grape’ (Giles 9,497 10,827) üzüm Ligeii 277; R J 1303: Xak. xı üzüm r<J-'i.

Kuš. I 75: J 2■ -:b-:r ; _

20 O.o.: xııı (ŋ At. 370 (edic:-); Tef. ditto 337: xıv Muh. al-karm ‘vine’ ü:züm ağači:; al-inab ü:züm!\iizüm; al-zabîb ‘raisin’ kun: yürzüm Mel. 78, 9; Rif. 182 (jüzüm omitted; ‘raisin’ ku:ru: üzüm): Kom. >;ıv ‘grapes’ yüzüm CCI\ Gr. 132 (quotn.): Kıp. xııı aJ-'inab yüzüm (and borla:) h'ou.

7. zo: xıv üzürn a!-'uuib İd. 13; a!-zah:h kuri; uzi;m Bul. 8, 7: xv šacuru'l-xııeb \ üzüm

- - - b- •-' - z . i > i b h ^ vL’.’tikT

: ı-: / i. ^ 5 ^ 1 ^ ■

D . : • ;D-:,. N. ir. a:z.- : has. s tr^r r :jot b'U-’^d but links wit};, the Kip.

V-.; .rd be’ow and the Osm., rnx'-arang ‘hyt-rid.

• - ^ Cencıünp something urmari.-ral. S.i.s.m.l. with a wide r.’nge of meanings. Xak. xı azma: kul! kab§ ptqoa iv.tnhu cildu’l--lay Jittayn fa-le yaqdrr had 'aJd'l-s:fod ‘a geîded ratn’ Kaš. I 130: (Kip. xıv azman 'a horse gelded when fully grow n’ İd. 13).

Tris. V. AZM-

D üzmele:- Den. V. fr. üzme: Dev. N. fr. üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge) which exists in some modern languages. Survives only (?) in NC Kzx. üzbele- ‘to pull up gently’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. alku törlüg tsuynuŋ tözin yi’tizin birtem üzmeleppolling up completely the roots (Hend.) of all sins’ TT IV 12, 58-9.

D özümlen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. üzüm. Xak. xı badıč üziîmlendi: süra'l-'arîš ad 'iuah ‘the \ine-1 reli is became covered with grapes’ Kaš. I 295 (üzürnlenür, iizüm-hm n!v:k).

Dis. AZN

D uzun Intrans. Dev. N./A. fr. uza:-; ‘long’ of time arid space, The phr. uzun tonluğ bvitfı l.'-ng cb.thes’ in the early period meant b-. -Trian’ not, as originally sugtTesf ed, ‘monk’.

S.-.:: m.l.i’. I iit vııı T -.2 (/*■■’vjp ff.

hl-H 47; uzo:n to;;lu:ğ Jo. 22 (iyğm-), 42 (itji’j): Man. uzun tmıluğ Chuas. 117: Uyg-Yin IF Man.-A erli uzun tonlugli ‘a and a V-, ornan' M I 16, 15-le: Man. uzun sansar bin- long cham of rebirths’ (Sanskrit Su-i. ^ta) 7 T 11 17, 75 A: B id. uzun sansür U III 76, 15 (ı); Suv. 133, 12; uzun tuib::ru ‘fur a lo;n ti.i.r and O' ,. pb 1 ely ’ V III 2, l i ; o.o. !!•< M.-mg ‘!>>ng’ of t::nc Sut\ 140, 2 iT.; 474, 2 1 M»zK:e); 47X, j ~ u/un loiıluğ I bS>. 104. \\ S u ; i-.’Ui! korkle e 1 iglig ‘ha\:r.tz Ion;; J. a ely ) .;ud>’ Si<-\ nig, 2 3; a.o. ('Sp. 104, 12 \289\ yigac Civ. uzun isig ‘a persistent fever’ H i^'il 8, 49; IO> 64-5 — uz-un tonluğ TT V// =6; i’; 37» 5 (USp. 42, 5); (102 bales of) ,j,n tanda boz ‘long cotton cloths a cubit î^?de (? V USp. 13, 2-3: Xak. xı uzun ‘any-^]ncr' long’ (taii'il) Kaš. I 77; six o.o.: KB uzun keč yašağıl ‘live long!’ 1553; o.o. 1585,. .-96 (östeg) — kali bolsa elgig bodunka r^un ‘if vour hand is outstretched to the ~ n]c‘ 230; uzun yol 'a lone journey’ S37; - o I 120: Alîiv, ') At. UZUII \-.-l n;r.‘) \\ Tef. uzin/uzun ‘long, length’ (of time Ind space) 322-3: xrv Muh. al-tuzojl uzu:n Mel 4S, 10;    142 (u:zu:n), 152: Čağ. w fT- uzun dir ez ‘long’ San. 74r. 12: Xwar. Vîiî (') Oğ. 313 (usluğ): xıv uzun ’long’ (of rime) Qutb 202; MN 147: Kom. ditto (and -- see) CCJ\ Gr. 268 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-'JÎ.Cİ/ uzu:n Hou. 25. 15: xıv uzun al-tawtl : mm Ka?'. ij. 18. etc.; 7 W;. 23b. 5: \\ ] t i'/.en o-.-- fr. 1 0:7, pe/haps an .Sm't i'nir. \\ ii. • î 1 ; ;ru heart or centre ioi :mme*hing)\ In .-VS .• • v;- i,nh m M.-iufc Ne ] ../i -mmmmo Khak Anot’ ıcr özen meaning ‘brook, river’, m.d bearing the ■- m»e jelat'on to 2 0:7. is noted in Kip. fr. xııı omvmds, Hou. 6, t8; /<f. 12, etc.. and s.i.a.m.l.g. except SE. Uyğ. YİVİ it. Bud. özenindin •from the heart of the lotus (1-w.Y U 11 44, \2 : Kip. xıv özen saqu*l-$acura soa'l-rukb (? read rukn) ‘the trunk, shaft of a tree (or pillar?)’ Id. 12; al-seq özen (MS. ören) Bu!. 3, 13.

Dis. V. AZN-

D 1 uzan- Refl. Den. V. fr. u:z; ‘to work at, or be the master of, a craft’. Survives in NE Tel. R f 1759, Khak. and Tuv. and NC Kır. Uyğ. vııı tf. Man. TT 111 68, 122 (1 a:l (method, device, trick, deceit, guile)); Bud. al altağ uzanrnakim iize ‘owing to my mastery of devices (Hend.)’ Suv. 363, 20-1; kirn birök örji öıji šastralarda uzaııınakliğ bramanlar bar erser ‘whatever Brahmans meters in various sesîra’s. there are’ U III 27, 3 tf.; o.d. Wicv-ls. 1785-7; Suv. 593. 11.

D 2 uzan- Refl. f. of u/a:-; ‘to be long, •-»t retched out’, and the like. First noted in ;Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. 322, Kip. xııı Hou. 41, 21; O'-m. xıv ff. 'TTS I 737, etc. Survives in ■" *e N \\ and SW languages. \\ V! " ' .....‘m m I- -to ■ ■••••'•-it- l)jt.y \ pr;--i;m.ihiy iven. *» . m -e:-°z.tm. invanir lit. ‘to be self-centied’ and ‘he like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı tf. yenie: bu: ^'^vılö anča: (rsic, MS. ?eııček) ozne-mirs’er \ eg a:lığ bulursjğalı: una:ma:du:k-lar ‘and they argued (?) in this way about >‘m - ühject but did not agree in l.ndmg a g<>od ;• Toy. II 2v. 2 (ETY 11 179): Man. 4■' medbn i/, er.ser ‘if we have been rebellious’ 73: Uyg. VIII II. Pud. v II n, 17- iX \\ • ;o r un-); Xak. xı oğul atmka: ö/>ıe:di: ‘the '■n V...I ;';,-ol, rit (’ıltü) to his f;;tb.-r, -J.*Hİ did T,"t obey (huh \<ui‘‘ud) hi:'» orders’; olso used \\\ in other contexts Kaš. I 288 (özne:r, özne:me:k): KB 678 (uzal-), 6S1, 960, 2420, 4303: Kip. xıv özne- (? iic, vocalized özen-) zalama ‘to act wrongfully, or tyrannically’, etc. Id. 13.

Tris. AZN

üzeŋü: (or üzeŋgü:?) (stirrup) ‘stirrup’. S.i.a.m.l.g., including Čuv. yerana Ash. V 91. The original form is uncertain, but the first is the likelier. This is basically the NE form, the vııı in ii' j fsb9, etc. being ezene/iz.eije/ izepi/üzege/üzerji/üzör>ö; elsewhere the form is üzeŋgi or the like, but this sound change is not unusual in these languages. See Doerfer II 598. Xak. xı KB (if the begs look after the common people, they become great and rise) iizegü bar erse čiŋgen (rso read) berk kapar ‘if a man has a stirrup, he knots it and pulls it tight' \\\\\\\\\ leather’ üirerjü: ka:yj:šı ditto: Čağ. \\ ff. ib-.cijii rikeb Son. 75 V. 20; (Xw.sr. xıv ü.'.(:3jüîük ‘stirrup’ Qutb 204): Kom. xıv ‘stirrup' ü/ e*iiği CCI, C (JG; Gr.: Kip. xıı al-riheb ü:ze:gü: (sic, ?r, presen ting ü:?.e:nü:) Hou. 14, 1: xv aî-rikeb üzengi: Kav. 64, 3; Tuh. 16b. 12: Osm. xıv and xv üzegü (? representing iizegü) in several texts TTS 11 961; 111 739; IV 812.

D uzunčı: this seems to be the only possible transcription of this word, which is pec. to KB, and describes a person of an unpleasant character; presumably N.Ag. fr. uzun, in which case some meaning like ‘bore, long-winded’ is indicated, perhaps ‘grumbler’. Xak. xı KB (have nothing to do with two kinds of people) birisi uzunčı vorjağ kılğučı biri iki yüzlüg kiši umdučı ‘one is the grumbler who makes accusations, the other the twofaced he^ar’ 4272; ufakčı ki^ig kibna özke yakın, uzunčıg özüıjdin y;rak tut sakın ‘do not make an intimate of the calumniator, take care to keep the grumbler away from \ .iu’ 5303; a.o. 5863.

Dis. AZR

t-. . .. •• .• ^ ' t .... . "r.,rh\ S.i.s.m.l., oiten m the phr. azar azar 'hrtie by little'. Xak. xı KB kımız süt ye yurj yağ yfı \ uörut kurut yadım ye kıdiz lı;tm :izar evke t vıt ‘kumis, milk, or wool, fat i>v yv^urt, elite sc, rugs or felt, take a little of each for your home’ 4.'.52 (azar is the reading of the best MSS., ,itj in Ar.it's text is an error).

D üzre See üze:.

D a/.rak ('<.mpar;itive f. of 1 a:/.; Smaller, h-u.-r, %ery little’. S i.a.m.l.g. except NC \.5k„ xı a'/ra:k :ujar oküngil la'a^af \290\ 'alayhi qalila (n) ‘regret it very little’ Kaš. III 361, 4; n.m.e.: Xwar. xıv azrak ‘less’ Qutb 17.

Tris. AZR

D ürere: See üze:.

S üzerlik See yü:ze:rlik.

Tris. V. AZR-

D üzirken- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us); the suggested translation is conjectural. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. özirkentiıjiz yomkını ‘you have brought masses of them back to their (true) se!ves ([?)’ TT 111 101.

D üzere (above, on high, upon, over, on) See üze-

Dis. V. AZS-

D üzse:- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge), Xak. xı °1 yıšığ tizse:di: ‘he intended and wished to cut (yahdiq) the rope’ Kaš. I 276 (üzse:r, üzse:me:kj.

Dis. V. AZŠ-

D ozuš- Recip. f. of o:z- ; 'to race one another’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol meniŋ blrle: at ozušriı: ‘he competed with me in horse racing’ (fi sibiiqi'l-xayl); also used for helping Kaš. I 184 (ozušu:r, ozušma:k, MS. in error me:k).

D üzüš- Co-op. f. of üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge); ‘to pull off, tear, break, etc., together’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. and one xix Osm. text TTS I 755. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. alım berim üzüšdimiz ‘we have ceased to trade’ USp. 111, 5-6; (I have received half a yastuk of silver from Inanču) üzüšüp kesišip ketdimiz ‘we have (thus) reached a final settlement’ do. ri6, 11: Xak. xı ol maga: üzüm üzüšdi: ‘he helped me to pick ('aid qatf) grapes’; also used in the case of cutting a rope (/i hadqi'l-habl) and for competing Kaš. I 184 (üzüšü:r, UzUšme:k): Čağ. xv ff. üzüš- (spelt) Co-op. f.; be-ham qat' kardan ‘to break together’ San. 72V. 9 (quotn.).


Preliminary note. The initial labial sounds in the Turkish languages were discussed at length in a paper of that name (Studies, p. xvıı) and the conclusions there reached are summarized in Studies, pp. iji-2. Briefly they are as follows:
(1) there were originally in pre-vııı Turkish both voiced and unvoiced initial labial plosives, b- and p-, but the latter had disappeared nearly everywhere by vııı, and is now found only in a few words in some languages in the Oğuz group, which was unusually conservative in some matters;
(2) contrary to this tendency, some Oğuz languages converted the initial b- in three words ba:r, bar-, (go, leave, outward, behave) and be:r- (bear, give) (bear), and words derived from them into v- at an early date (va:r, var-, (go, leave, outward, behave) and ve:r- (bear, give) (bear));
(3) m- was not an initial sound in native Turkish words in pre-vııı Turkish, but evolved by a process of retrogressive assimilation in most languages, probably during vııı, in words containing a nasal sound later in the word. In this case, too, the Oğuz languages were conservative and retained the original b-, which is also found sporadically in Türkü vııı, and vııı ff. Yen., and in Uyğ. vııı, Šu. only. Where the later nasal was n or b the position is quite clear, "I’ is ben in the languages just mentioned and men elsewhere. But where the nasal was n the position is confused by the fact that in most words this n had become y before the word comes to our notice. Exceptionally we can be sure that 'dung' was *bañak because, in addition to the Uyğ., Xak., etc. form mayak, Kaš. records an Oğuz form baynak, but in the case of a word like muyğak (buñğak) (deer type (fem.)) the original form *bufiğak can only be inferred.

In the present section all words are indexed with initial b-; where there is evidence from the Oğuz languages that it was originally p-, (p-), or in doubtful cases (? p-) is added after the word. Where a word containing a nasal is noted only with initial m-, it is indexed in that form, but the original form with initial *b- is listed here with a cross-reference, but where the original b- survives somewhere, even if only in a modern language it is indexed in that form.

Mon. BA

*ba: See ba:lığ. (wounded)

?F wa: (exclamation) Exclamation; not a proper Turkish sound, perhaps a l.-w. fr. the Arabic Excl. wa ‘alas’, etc., also used in Persian. Cf. 2 ya:. Xak. xı wa: harf inker li-amr emir muxetib ‘an exclamation of dissent from something which someone says’; hence one says wa: ne: te:rsen inker 'alayka bi-me taqül ‘I disagree with what you are saying’; also harf tawaccu' ft-alam ‘an exclamation of distress in time of pain’ Kaš. III 215.

1 be: (bleat) Hap. leg.; onomatopoeic. Xak. xı be: hikeya 'an tueci'1-da'n ‘an onomatopoeic for the bleating of sheep’; hence one says ko:y be:le:di: ‘the sheep baaed’ Kaš. III 206.

2 be: (2 me:) (mare) (Chimese ma)mare’. Survives in NE Alt., Leb., Tel. pe: R IV 1212; Khak., Tuv. be; biye in NC Kzx. and several NW languages. These forms point to be:, not bi:. Türkü vııı ff. (the beg went to his horses) a:k (sic) be:si: kulurnla:mi:š ‘his white mare had foaled’ IrkB 5: Xak. xı be: al-ramaka ‘mare’; for (all) Turks except the Oğuz Kaš. III 206; III 88 (yoza:-); 310 (yelne:-); xııı (?) Tef. be: mare’ 100: xıv Muh. (1) (after ‘mare’ kısra:k) al-huble wa me lihe walad ‘ (a mare) in foal or with a foal’ be: Rif. 170 (only): Čağ. xv ff. biye (spelt) mediyenmare’ San. 150V. 3: Kom. xıv ‘mare’ bey CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv al-hicru’l--ragüt ‘a mare with a foal at the udder’ be: Hou. 12, 8.
3 ma:/3 me:/2 ba:/2 be: (mare) (Chinese ma) See 2 be: (mare) (Chimese ma). Cf. Russian merin.

VU ?F 1 bi: (knife)knife’ or the like. Prob. the base of bile:- (sharpen). Pec. to Uyğ. and normally used in the Hend. bi bıčğu. Possibly a Chinese l.-w. fr. some word like p’i ‘to split’ (Giles 9,018). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit kšurasya dhere va ‘like the sharp edge of a razor’ y[üli]günüg bisi (spelt pisŋ te:g TT VIII A. 1; (all kinds of dangers including) ağu bi bıčgu o:t suv ‘poison, sharp instruments, fire and water’ U II 59, 4 (ı); o.o. of bl bıčğu do. 71, 4 (ı); U IV 20, 237; TM IV 253, 41 (osğuč); Tiš. 31a. 1; 49a. 3.

VUS 2 bi: See bö:g (tarantula).

1 bu: (this) ‘this’. C.i.a.p.a.i. The oblique stem seems to have been bun- (changing in most languages to mun-) fr. the earliest period, but the Plur. was bu:la:r for a long time. The Abl. and Loc. are often used as Advs. meaning ‘hence’ and ‘here’ respectively. See also bunča:, buntağ. Türkü vııı bu: ‘this’ is common; bunt: II N 15; bunta: 'here' I S 10, etc.; vııı ff. bu is common in IrkB, etc.: Man. ditto (but see bunča): Yen. ditto: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A bu; Dat. mugar MI 23, 8; a.o.o.: Man. bu; muni teg ‘like this’ TT III 26, 104, etc.: Bud. in Brehmî script (TT VIID invariably spelt bo/bho/po, oblique cases mon- and mun-/mu:n- in about equal proportions; this prob. represents a dialect pronunciation, perhaps under the influence of ol, rather than the original form: Civ. as in Bud.: O. Kır. ıx ff. bu occurs and possibly bunta: ‘here’ in Mal. 13, 5: Xak. xı bu: harf wa ma'nehu hede a particle meaning ‘this’; hence one says bu: er ‘this man’ Kaš. III 206; a.o.o.; one says mugaır aydım ‘I said to \292\ this man’ III 375; munu: harf wa ma'nahu huwa de a particle meaning ‘this’; it is the answer to the question ka:nı: ayna hmva ‘where is it?' III 237; other oblique cases are mumla: ‘here’, mundin 'hence', bu:la:r ‘these’; bu:ni: ‘this’ occurs once I 445, 17 (xuma:ru:) perhaps a scribal error: KB as in Kaš.: xııı (?) At. the forms are bu, mum, muga, munda, mundin; Tef. the forms are bu, muni, munig/munug, mugar, munda, mundin, bular/munlar 108, no, 225-e: xıv Muh. höde bu: Mel. 5, 4; 8, 15, etc.; Rif. 75, 81, etc.; he'ule’ bu:lar 8, 15; 81; hehtıne mu:nda:; min hehtıne mu:ndan 15, 3; 91: Čağ. xv ff. munug, munda bunug, bunda Vel. 385-6; bu Demonstrative Pron. in ‘this’ San. 141 v. 24 (quotn.); munug, muna/muga, munda do. 320V. 9 ff.; some declensional forms, with quotns., do. 15V. 16 ff.: Xwar. xııı bu, in oblique cases both b- and m- e.g. bunlar/munlar 'Ali 9: xııı (?) the forms in Oğ. are bu, mum, etc., bunda (twice)/munda (8 times), munlar: xıv bu, oblique cases in m- Qutb (only munda ‘here’ listed 112); MN passim: Kom. xıv bu and oblique cases with m- in Sing, and b- in Plur. are common CCI, CCG; Gr. 67: Kip. xııı lıede bu:; he'ıtle’ mu:nla:r IIou. 50, 14: xıv bu: bi--vıa'ııe de İd. 28; in the grammar do. 118-19 bu:, bula:r, bunda: are mentioned; in Bui. 15, a grammatical section, the forms given are bu:, munlar, bunun, bum:, munlarun (li-he'ule’), bulara: and bularun (lahum), munlarun (lahum fi'1-ibtide' ‘to them in the beginning’?): xv in a para, on the Demonstrative Pron. in Kav. 49 the forms quoted are bu:, bu:lar and munda:; in a similar para, in Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 42a. bu and mu are given as alternative forms; forms occurring elsewhere are bular/mular, munu, munun, munda: Osm. xıv ff. bu, bunu, etc. are the normal forms at all periods, bular was the standard form till xvı and occurs sporadically later TTS I 122 ff; II 174 ff-; HI 115’ff ; IV 130 ff.; munda occurs in one xıv text II 698.

2 bu: (bug, bus, pus, muz) (steam, fog, mist)steam’; this is the oldest form of this word, but in almost all modern languages in which it survives the form is bug or the equivalent. S.i.a.m.l.g. Almost syn. w. bus but an etymological connection is improbable. See Doerfer II 791. Xak. xı bu: al-buxar ‘steam’; hence one says ešič bu:si:steam from a cooking pot’ Kaš. III 20e: xıv Muh. (l) al-buxar bu: Rif. 184 (only): Čağ. xv ff. bug 'the steam’ (buxeŋ which rises from boiling water or a cooking-pot and the like; the steam (i.e. mist) which rises from the ground or in the mountains is called duman San. i3er. 23; reverse entry do. 225V. 20: Kip. xıv bu:ğ me yartafi' min buxari'I-qidr ‘the steam which rises from a cooking pot’ Id. 33: Osm. xıv ff. bugsteam’ in several texts TTS I 120; II 171; IV 128.

Mon. V. BA

ba:- (bind, tie, fasten) ‘to bind; to fasten (something Acc., to something Dat.)', both lit. and metaph. \\\ N.o.a.b.; in about xııı it was replaced by bağla:-, q.v. Cf. čığ- (tie up, wrap) (cigar, cigarette), čıg- Türkü vıii T 27 (t:): vııı (T. IrkB i4 (edgü:t1:); 33 (ur- (lay down, set up, put up, strike, hit, устраивать)); (?) Toy. IVr. 3-5 (see aya:-): Man. beš teŋri yarukın evke bark (k)a badımız erser ‘if we have bound the light of the five gods to our house and household goods’ Chuas. 235-6; kentü köŋülin nığošaklar üze bamaz ulamaz ‘he does not fasten (Hend.) his own mind on the Hearers (l.-w.)’ M III 22, 12-13: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ol üč yeklerig anxrwznta badı ‘he fastened those three demons to the Zodiac (l.-w.)’ M I 19, 1-2; aydı bag tep ‘he said “bind him” ’ Man.-Uig. Frag. 400, 2: Bud. (hang a bell on each tree) ıšığ bag, kamağ ıšığ bašın birgeru baptie a cord (to each) and tie the ends of all the cords together’ PP 80, 1-2; bayurmen ‘I bind’, in a mystical sense U II 69, ı-$ (ı); a.o. U 111 83, 2: Civ. ağrığın bazun ‘let him bind up his painful (parts)’ TT VII 29, 22; a.o. IIII 16, 19: Xak. xı ol atığ ba:di: ‘he tied up (šadda) the horse’ (etc.) also anything that one ties up with a rope and makes fast (kull šay' 'aqada 'alayhi bi'l-habl wa awtaqahu) Kaš. III 247 (ba:r, ba:ma:k); at ba:dim rabattu'l-faras ‘I tied up the horse’ III 250, 3; a.o. III 224, 12 (kası:): KB katığ be anı ‘tie it (your tongue) up firmly’ 964; o.o. 542 (katığ), 741, 1456, 1496, 1588: xııı (?) At. nelük malka muıiča köŋül bamakig ‘why do you fix your mind so (firmly) to wealth’ 183; similar phr. 220 (in both verses there is a v.l. bağlamak).

Mon. BB

S bew/böv See bö:g (tarantula).

Dis. BB

baba (papa, dad, father) (OTD p. 77 BABA отец (father))
p. 451 dede: (father, daddy, grandfather, old man, dervish) (daddy) baba (another quasi-onomatopoeic) ‘grandfather; old man, dervish’, and the like.

Dis. V. BBG-

E büvkür- See bürkür-. (spurt, gush, pour down)

Dis. BBL

PUF bibli: (? pipli:) (pepper) Hap. leg.; unvocalized but in a section headed fa'li, etc. L.-w. fr. Sanskrit pippall ‘long pepper'. See bitmül. Xak. xı bibli: al-der fulfill ‘long pepper’ Kaš. I 430.

Dis. BBR

PUF papur (?) See butar. (papyrus)

Mon. BC

VU buč buč (bird song) Hap. leg.; onomatopoeic for bird-song. Xak. xı Kaš. II 290 (simürgük).

Mon. V. BC-

bıč-/bič- (cut) ‘to cut’; one of several words with this meaning, cf. üz- (tear, lacerate, split, pluck, discharge), kes- (cut), etc., with restricted meanings like ‘to cut out (a garment)’ in some modern languages. The original form was almost certainly bič-, but there is great inconsistency about the vocalization, some modern languages having a back vowel in the verb and a front one in der. f.s like bıčak or vice versa. Survives with back vowel in NE and NC Kır. and front vowel in NW, SW; in SE, SC where -ı- does not occur the true form \293\ is uncertain. Türkü vııı (at the funeral) bunča: bodun sačlın kulkaki:n y[aŋaki:n b]ıčdı: ‘so many people lacerated their hair, their ears, and their checks’ II S 12: Vi 11 ff. (ants gnawed an old ox) beli:n biče: ‘cutting into its waist’ IrkB 37: Man. M I 7, 16 (üz-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. yiti kılıčın bičip ‘cutting with a sharp sword’ U II 78, 30-1 ; bıčğalı U IV 10, 49-50 (uğra:-); o.o. U III 37, 8; 45, 12: Civ. tıgrak bıčsar ‘if a man cuts his nails’ TT VII 32, 2 and 17; ton bıčsar ‘if a man cuts out a garment’ do. 38, 10: bıčğu do. 32, 1 (tirgak): Xak. xı er et bıčdi: ‘the man cut (qata'a) the ment’ (etc.) Kaš. II 4 (bıča:r, bıčma:k); Mıglflk erin bıčtımız 'we killed (qatalna) the men of Miqlak’ I 434, 9; 6 o.o. translated qata'a: KB kılıč ursa bıčsa yağı boyum ‘if the sword strikes and severs the enemy’s neck’ 286; (this danger) bıčığlı kesigli turur 'cuts (Hend.)’ 810: xııı (?) At. 376; Tef. bič’ and kes- bıč- ditto 105: xıv Muh. hašada ‘to reap’ bı:č- Mel. 25, 7; Rif. 107 (bı:š-); al-qat' bıčmak 35, 7; 120; ditto bi:čmek 36, 13 (Rif. öt-): Čağ. xv ff. bič- (spelt) qat' hardan, and metaph. hašed tea diraw kardan, ‘to reap’ San. I43r. 22: Xwar. xıv bičigli ‘reaping’ Qutb 32; bič- ‘to cut’ MN 45: Kip. xııı hašada l)ič- (-gil) zva hmva tafšilu'l-qumeš zva huwa'l-tawsJt bi'l-sayf also ‘to cut out’ (cloth) and ‘to cut in two’ with the sword Hon. 33, 20; faššala mina'l-tafšil bič- do. 42, 21: xıv bič- (with -č-) huwa muštarak hayn hasdi'l--zar' zvafašli l-qumeš Id. 29 ;faššala bič- (-mek) Bul. 70V.: xv faššala wa zvassata biš- (maturate, ripen) (sic) Kav. 9, 8; zvassata biš- (maturate, ripen) do. 25, 10; faššala (üz- and) bič- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28b. 5; wassata do. 38b. 9.

Dis. BCA

VU bača: (faulty, defective) Hap. leg., but see bača:sız (faultless, defectless); spelt bča, perhaps a l.-w. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (or Türkü vııı ff. Man.?) (all men demire this) yeme birkinye mün bača sınımda sürjü-kimde [gap]p bolmadı erser ‘and if (or because?) there has not been one single defect or fault (?) in my body and bones’ MI 23, 31-4.

PUF po:čı: (lute, guitar) no doubt a Chinese l.-w., perhaps p'a tzil ‘lute, guitar’ (Giles 8,551 12,317). Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı po:čı: kopuz al-arann mina'I-a'wad, tva huzva naw mina'l-barehit 'a lute which is plucked (?)’, it is a kind of guitar Kaš. III 173; počı: a!-kiran wa huzva'I --arann mina'1-mazehir ‘a lute’, it is a stringed instrument which is plucked (?) III 219.

Dis. V. BCA-

bača:- (fasting) ‘to fast’ for religious reasons. No doubt a pure Turkish word, contrary to the views expressed regarding bača:k (fasting) N.Ac. fr. bača:- (fasting), q.v. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. neče yaıjılu bačak bačadımız erser ‘if we have sometimes kept irregular fasts’ Chuas. 137-8; o.o. do. 248, 258, 27e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. kim mača atayu arığ bačak bačasar ‘whoever calls on me and \\ keeps a pure fast’ A1 III 49, 7: Civ. (if a childless woman wants a child) yeti künke tegi begli yutuzlı bačap ‘the husband and wife must fast for seven days, and . . TT VII 26, 4-5.

Dis. V. BCD-

D bıčtur- (cut) Caus. f. of bič- (cut), S.i.a.m.l.g. w. the same phonetic variations as bič- (cut). In some NE and SE languages it has acquired the restricted meaning ‘to have (an animal) castrated’. Xak. xı er yığa:č bıčturdı: ‘the man ordered that the wood should be cut (bi--qat'ül-xašab) so that it was cut’ Kaš. II 171 (bıčturur, bıčturma:k): xııı (?) Tef. bıčtur-‘to order to cut off’ (hands and feet) 105.

Dis. BCĞ

D bača:k (fasting) N.Ac. fr. bača:- (fasting) ‘a (religious) fast’. A Turkish l.-w. in Mong. as bačak (Kow. 1081) and also mačak (Kow. 1996) which shows that it must also have been used in Uyğ. Bud. Salemann, who was unaware of the etymology and true meaning of this word, suggested that it was a l.-w. fr. Sogdian p’fyk ‘hymn’, a word which does exist as a l.-w. in Turkish, see pašık, and Benveniste accepted this in Journal asialique, vol. 236, 2, p. 184, but it is an error. N.o.a.b. It was displaced in the medieval period by oruč noted in (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. 239; xıv Muh. Mel. 27, 15; Rif. in; Kom. xıv CCI, CCG; Gr. 179 (quotn.); Kip. xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 68b. 9 and Osm. xvı TTS III 549; IV 612 and still surviving in some NW and SW languages, which is an Iranian (?Sogdian) l.-w. with prosthetic 0-, cf. Persian rüza. Türkü vııı ff. Man. bačak sıdımız erser ‘if we have broken our fast' Chuas. 256; bačak olurup ‘while keeping a fast’ do. 257; bačak bača:- do. 137-8, etc. (bača:-); (when dav dawned) kičig bačak erdi ‘it was the small fast’ TT II 8, 62; o.o. Chuas. 285, 330; M III 38, 4-5 (•>): Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. M III 49, 7 (bača:-): Xak. xı bača:k šazvmul-našere ‘a Christian fast’ Kaš. I 411.

D bıčak (knife) Dev. N. (N.I.) fr. bič- (cut); ‘knife’ and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. back vowels, and also w. front vowels in some SC, NW languages. See Doerfer II 721, 844. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bıčak U IV 32, 7 (eligle:-); yiti bicekin ‘his sharp knife’ U III 64, 9: Civ. biček učında ‘on the point of a knife’ HI 117; a.o. II 30, 167: Xak. xı biček al-sikkin ‘a knife’ Kaš. I 384 (prov.); over 20 o.o., normally same translation, once al-sayf ‘sword’: KB (he holds) bedük bir bičekig ‘a big knife’ 772; o.o. 810-1, 4131: xııı (?) Tef. bıčak 105: xıv Muh. al-sikkin bı:ča:k Mel. 12, 1 ff; 71, 6; Rif. 86, 173: Čağ. xv ff. biček igne, süzan ma'nesma ‘needle’ Vel. 134 (quotn.); bıčak (‘with -č-’) kerd ‘knife’, in Ar. sikkin San. i44r. 7 (quotn.); biček (spelt) siizan, in Ar. ibra do. 1441". 9: Xwar. xıv bıčak ‘knife’ Nahc. 214, 7: Kom. xıv ‘knife, dagger’ bıčak CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv bıčak (with -č-) al-sikkin td. 29:xv sikkin bıšak (sic) Kav. 44, 13; 64, 1; \\ al-tabar'axe’ nactk, ?crror for bıčak do. 63, 19; haššed 'reaper’ (s/c, but apparently an alteration) bıčak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 13b. 2; sikkin bıčak 19b. 4: Osm. xıv ff. bıčak in several phr. TTS I 95: II 136; IV 99.

D bıčığ (contract, agreement, cut (garment)) Dev. N. fr. bič- (cut); ‘an agreement’; the semantic connection is not obvious, but the derivation is certain, cf. bıčğa:s. Survives only (?) in NE Trl. pıčıı:; SC bičik ‘the cut of a garment’ R IV 1318. Xak. xı bıčığ (misvocalized bačığ) al-miteq ıva'l-ahd ‘contract, agreement’; hence one says ol meniŋ birle: bıčığ (sic) kıldı: 'ehada ma i ‘he made an agreement with me’ Kaš. I 371: xııı (?) Tef. bıčığ translates al-'ahd and bıčığ kıl- 'ahida 93 (unvocalized; Borovkov, misled by the main entry in Kaš., transcribed as bačığ).

D bıčuk (cut, half, piece; dilapidated) Pass. N./A.S. fr. bič- (cut); properly ‘cut’, but usually ‘half’, cf. yarım (yerim, yerim) (half). The word is unvocalized in Kaš., but was prob. still spelt bıčuk; in the medieval period it tended to become bučuk by regressive assimilation. Survives in SE Türki pučuk ‘snub-nosed’ Shazv 58; ditto and ‘with broken edges’ BŠ 127; ‘a piece; dilapidated’ Jarring 232, and SW Osm. bučuk ‘half’. Xak. xı bıčuk (?) ‘anything cut’ (maqtu); hence ‘half anything’ (nisf kidI frt.v’) is called bıčuk; one says bıčuk yarma:k ‘half a dirham' Kaš. I 377: xıv Muh. (under al-ba u'l-maksftra) al-maqtu bi:čuk Mcl. 82, 17; Rif. 189; nišfıt'1-layl ‘midnight’ dü:n bu:ču:ki: 80, 8; 185: Čağ. xv ff. bučuğ/bučuk kast ki hini-yi ü macrııh gošta ma'yûh štula ‘a man whose nose has been injured and has become disfigured’ San. 130V. le: Xwar. xıv bučuk batman ‘half a batman' Nahc. 97, 7: Kip. xııı al-nišf bučuk Hou. 23,1 : xıv bučuk (‘with -č-’) al-nišf td. 29; al-nišf (yo:sım?) Tkm. bučuk Bid. 9, 2: xv al-nišf bıšuk (sic)', some people say yarrum; the latter is used only to qualify a noun (mudefa (n)), but bušuk (sic) is used both that way and in isolation (mufrida (n)) Kav. 64, 19; nisf bučuk (and yarım) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 36b. 6; 62b. 5: Osm. xıv ff. bučuk ‘half; c.i.a'p. TTS 1119; II 171; III 113; IV 127: xvııı bučuğ/bučuk... and, in Rûmî, nišf San. 130V. 16.

S bučak See bučğa:k. bučğa:k See bıčğa:k. (cut off, chip, chopped, severed, segment, corner)

S bučuk See bıčuk. (cut off, chip, chopped, severed)

D bıčğu: (saw) Dev. N. (N.I.) fr. bič- (cut) ; ‘saw’ or other cutting instrument. Survives in NE Alt., Leb. pıškı, Tuv. biski ‘a churn stick’, and in several NW and SW languages as bıčkı (and the like) ‘saw’. Uyğ. vııı ff. bi bıčğu see 1 bi:; kılıčı bičgesi (sic) ‘swords and saws (?)’ Kuan. 27: Xak. xı (in a para, on the N.I.) bı:čğu: (sic) ism li-elati'llati yuqta' bihe'1-šay’ ‘the word for an instrument with which something is cut’, derived fr. bı:č- qata'a Kaš. I 13, 11; (in a similar para.) ytğa:č bıčğu: ‘the axe (al-fa's) with which wood, etc., is cut’ II 69, 27; n.m.e.: xııı (?) Tef. bıčku ‘sword’ 105: Čağ. xv ff. bıčğı (spelt) arra ‘a saw’, in Ar. miııšer San. i44r. 8: Xwar. xıv bičgü (sic) ‘saw’ Nahc. 11, 6-7: Kom. xıv ‘saw’ bıčkı; ‘scissors’ bučkı (sic) CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-minšer bıčku: Unu. 23, 15: xv ditto bıškı: (sic) Kav. 25, 9; bıčku Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 34a. 3; 49a. 3.

D ıčğbu:č (scissors) N.I. fr. bič- (cut); ‘scissors’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı bıčğu:č ‘scissors’ (al-miqrad), that is anything used to cut things Kaš. I 452; Kip. xııı al-miqass ‘scissors’ (kıptı:; also called) bıčkuč (mis-spelt and unvocalized); Tkm. sindu: IIou. 23, 11.

D bıčğa:k (cut off, chip, chopped, severed, segment, corner) Dev. N. (Conc. N.) fr. bič- (cut); lit. ‘something cut off’, ‘segment’, and the like, with various particular applications. In some languages, even Uyğ. (see bučğaksız), became bučğak by labial assimilation at a very early date. Survives in Kaš’s last meaning in NE Šor pıškak; Tel. pıčkak R IV 1318-22; Tuv. bıškak; SE Türki pučkak BŠ 127 and NC Kır. bučkak and for ‘corner’ and the like in several NW and SW languages as bucak/bučak. See Doerfer II 842 and .^843. Xak. xı bučğa:k qutrul-ard ‘a region, or zone (segment) of the earth’, hence one says ye:r bučga:kı:: bučğa:k ‘a corner’ (al-zezviya) and the like: bučğa:k cild akeri'i'1-cuzur yuc'al nıinhu'1-hide ‘the skin of the shank of a slaughtered beast used to make a shoe’ Kaš. I 465: Čağ. xv ff. bucak (sic}) kune zva dil'-i xtlna ‘the corncr or side of a house’ San. 130V. 10 (quotn. FudûH, i.c, Rumi?); yaka bučkak-dağı kentler ‘remote villages’ Bebur (Gibb facsimile, 311 v. 13): Kom. xıv kün tuvušnıŋ bušğakı (sic) ‘the eastern quarter’ CCG; Gr.: Ivip. xııı al-zezviya mina'l-lmyt zva ğayrihi bu:ca:k IIou. 6, 14: xıv bucak (with -C-) al-zezviya td. 28; zezviyatu'l-bayt bucak Bid. 14, 10: xv snzviya bucak Tııh. 18a. 3: Osm. xıv IV. bucak ‘corner’ TTS I 119; II 170; III 112; IV 127.

S bučğa:k See bıčğa:k. (cut off, chip, chopped, severed, segment, corner)

D bıčğıl (crack) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. bič- (cut). Xak. xı bičğıl šuqequ'!-yad zva'I-rie.l zva kadCdika šuqequ'l-ard ‘cracks in the hands or feet’, also ‘cracks in the ground’ Kaš. I 4S0; (in the grammatical introduction) bi:čğı:l (sic) ye:r šuqequ'l-ard, derived fr. bı:čı:ldı: (sic) nc:ŋ ‘the thing was cut’ (inqata'a) I 15, 4 (see bıčılğa:n).

D bıčğa:s (agreement, contract) der. fr. bič- (cut); for the meaning cf. bıčığ (contract, agreement, cut (garment)). There is no doubt that Kaš. intended the word to be spelt in this way, it is placed with bekmes and kirba:s in a section headed -S, but there is no other known word with the Suff. -ğa:s and it may be a Sec. f. of -ğa:č dissimilated fr. the preceding -č-, Xak. xı bıčğa:s al-'ahd zva’i-mittiq bayna'l-qazvm zva ğayrıhım ‘an agreement or contract between (the members of) a tribe, etc.’ Kaš. I459 (verse): xıv Muh. (?) a/-maxetira 'danger’ (P) bıčğuš (jfc?) Rif. 189.

Tris BCĞ

D bučğaksız (no corners) Priv. N./A. fr. bučğak (bıcğa:k) (cut off, chip, chopped, severed, segment, corner); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bııd. ulušı \\ balıkı bulugsuz bučğaksız ‘their country will have no remote corners (Hend.)’ TT VI 427.

Tris. V. BCĞ-

D bučğaklan- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. bučğak (bıčğa:k) (cut off, chip, chopped, severed, segment, corner). Xak. xı bučğaklandı: ne:ŋ šdra li'l-šay’ zarvdyd ıca aharı ‘the thing had corncrs and shanks’ Kaš. II 273 (bučğaklanu:r, bučğaklanma:k).

D *bıčakla:- See bičekle:-.

Dis. BCG

S biček See bıčak.

S bičge/bicgü See bıčğu:č (scissors).

F bečkem (? pečkem)/berčem (? perčem) (horse’s tail, tuft of hair, forelock, mane) (чуб). Benveniste pointed out in Journal asiatique, vol. 236 2, 1948, pp. 183 ff. that bečkem is an Iranian word which survives in Wakhi as bickam ‘a horse’s tail’. Perčem (parčam) is a Pe. word, still used as a l.-w. in SW Osm. for ‘a tuft of hair’, one left when the rest of the head is shaved; ‘a horse’s forelock’; ‘a lion’s mane’ and the like. See Doerfer II 840. Xak. xı bečkem al-sawm wa İıuıva'1-harlra aw danab baqari'l-wahš yatasawivam bihi'l--batdl yazoma'l-qitdl ‘a badge, that is a piece of silk or the tail of a wild ox that warriors wear as a badge on the day of battle’ Kaš. I 483 (verse): Oğuz xı the Oğuz call it berčem ditto.

F bečküm (? pečküm) (portico, portico bench) Hap. leg. Benveniste pointed out (op. cit. under bečkem (horse’s tail, tuft of hair, forelock, mane) (чуб)) that this is an Iranian word, corresponding to Sogdian pišknp and Pe. bačkam, paškam ‘sofa; court; vestibule’. See Doerfer II 722. Xak. xı bečküm saqifatu’l-bayt ‘a portico, or long stone bench, in front of a house’ Kaš. I 4S4.

Tris. V. BCG-

D bičekle:- (cut (knife), stab) Den. V. fr. biček (bıčak); ‘to cut with a knife, etc’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. bıčakta-, Kzx. pıšakta-, Xak. xı ol anı: bičekle:dı: waca'ahu bi'l-sikkin ‘he stabbed him with a knife’ Kaš. III 340 (blčekle:r, blčekle:m:ek).

D bičeklen- (have a knife) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of bičekle:- (cut (knife), stab). Xak. xı er bičeklendi: ‘the man owned a knife’ Kaš. II 265 (bičeklenü:r, bičeklenme:k). .

DF bečkemletı- (have a bunchuk, forelock) Hap. leg.; Red. Den. V. fr. bečkemm (horse’s tail, tuft of hair, forelock, mane) (чуб). Xak. xı er bečkemletıdi: ‘the man wore a badge (tasawwama) on the day of battle (etc.)’ Kaš. II 277 (bečkemlenü:r, bečkemlenme:k).

Dis. BCL

VU 1 bečel (clitoris-equipped, penis-equipped) n.o.a.b. It is difficult to see any connection between the two meanings; the ba in Kaš. is unvocalized and the two words may have been pronounced differently. Xak. xı bečel al-matke' mina'l-nise' wa'l-amtan \\\ mina’l-ricel tva'l-xayl wa cami’i'l-hayaııen ‘of a woman, with a large clitoris; of a man, horse or any other animal, entire (i.e. not castrated)’ Kaš. I 392. Kom. xıv ‘with an injured hip’ bečel CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv bıčal (v.l. bača! ‘with -č- and back vowels’) ‘crippled (al-zamin) of a man, horse, etc.’ Id. 29.

VU 2 bečel (injured (hip), crippled )

Dis. V. BCL-

D bičil- (cut, reaped) Pass. f. of bič- (cut); ‘to be cut’, etc. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. the same variation in vocalization as bič-, Xak. xı yığa:č bičildi: ‘the wood (etc.) was cut’ (quti’a) Kaš. II 122 (bıčılu:r, bıčılma:k): Čağ. xv ff. bı čıl- diraw šudan ‘to be reaped’ San. I44r. 5.

Tris. BCL

D bıčılğa:n (crack) Hap. leg.; N./A. of Habitual Action fr. bičti- (cut, 3 p. sg.?), Syn. w. bıčgıl (crack); Kaš.'s statement that that word was der. fr. bıčıl- applies to this one. Xak. xı bıčılğa:n al-šuqeq fi'l-aydi wa'l-arcul wa'l-ard ma'a (n) ‘cracks, both in the hands and feet and in the ground’ Kaš. I 519.

Dis. BCM

D bičim (pattern (garment), slice, покрой) N.S.A. fr. bič-; survives only (?) in SW Osm., Tkm. bičim (sic) ‘the cut (of a garment); form, shape, manner’. Xak. xı bi:r bičim ka:ğu:n ‘a slice (šatba) of melon’, or something else Kaš. I 395; a.o, I 15, 15.

D bıčma: (cut to fit) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. bič- (cut). Survives only (?) in SW Osm. bičme, which, as well as being an ordinary N.Ac., also means ‘cut out, fashioned (for a particular purpose)’. Xak. xı bıčma: yorı:ncğa: al-qattu’l-maqtu ‘reaped lucerne’; note that words with the suffix -ma:/-me: and a Pass. meaning ('aid ma'nd'l--maf'fd) are genuine words (ism mahd) and I mention them accordingly Kaš. I 431 (this explanation arises from Kaš.'s earlier statement that he does not list conjugational forms separately).

Dis. BCN

F be:čin (ape, monkey)ape, monkey’; l.-w. of Indo-European, prob. Iranian, origin, cf. Persian büzina; prob. entered Turkish as the name of one of the animals in the twelve-year cycle. A l.-w. in Mong. as bečin (Kow. 1121, Haltod 284). N.o.a.b.; now displaced by other l.-w.s, usually Ar. maymun. See Doerfer II 821. Türkü vııı beči:n yılka: ‘in the Monkey Year’ I NE; II. T. II 1 (ETY II 109): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in a list of unclean animals) bečiniŋ UII 31, 53; o.o. of bečinmonkey’ U IV 28, 10; 44, 6 etc.: Civ. böčin (in TT VIII spelt pečin, pčen) as an animal in the cycle of years, etc. is common in TT VII and VIII and USp.: Xak. xı be:čin al-qird ‘monkey’; be:čin ‘one of the twelve years in Turkish’ (bi'1-turkîya) Kaš. I 409; be:čin yılı: in the list of years I 346, 10: xıv Muh. al-qird be:čin Mel. 72, 6; 81, 1; Rif. 174, 18e: Čağ. xv ff. bečin (spelt) büzinamonkey’ San. i44r. io (quotn.): Xwar. xıv (Yazld \296\ drinks wine and plays) becinler birle İtler birle ‘with monkeys and dogs’ Nahc. 183, io-ü: Kip. xıv al-qird bečin (-c-) Bui. 10, 15. (The twelve-year cycle calendar is not Persian, it is known as Chinese, and the name was given within the Chinese milieu, thus the name precedes the Türkic calendar and the Persians; neither Central nor Eastern Europe of the 3rd mill. BC are known as monkey habitats, which excludes the Arians as carriers of the name for the monkey, if anything, the büzina is a loanword in Indo-European, learned by some migrants in the South-Central Asia, and the Türkic nomads are the first suspects in transmitting innovations between China and the west . G. Clauson’s logic is beyond comprehension)

VUF bujin (hellebore) Hap. leg-; no doubt a l.-w., PSogdinn. Xak. xı bujin, with -j-, al-xarbaq ‘hellebore’ Kaš. I 3ijS.

Dis. V. BCN-

D bičin- (cut) Refl. f. of bič- (cut); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı cr özüge: et bıčındı: ‘the man pretended to cut (vuqatti') meat for himself’; also used for doing it by oneself (al-infired bihŋ Kaš. II 141 (bıčınu:r, bıčmma:k): Kıp. xıv faššala 'to cut out (elothes)’ (bič- (cut) and) bičin- Bul. 70v.: Osm. xvı and xvııı bičin- ‘to cut out (clothes) for oneself’ in two texts TTS I 96; IV 101.

Tris. BCS

VUD bačasız (bača:sız) (faultless, defectless) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. bača: q.v.; spelt bčasız. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (or Türkü vııı ff. Man.?) muns[üz] bačasız arığ turuk ‘free from fault and defect (?) pure and clean’ M I 24, 2.

Dis. BCŠ

D bıčıš (cut) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. bič- (cut). Xak. xı bıčıš ‘the word for any piece (qit'a) (cut ~ qit'a) of brocade given to a guest who attended banquets given by notables, and feasts’ Kaš. I 366.

Dis. V. BCŠ-

D bıčıš- (cut) Hap. leg.?; Recip. f. of bič- (cut). Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: yığa:č bıčıšdı: ‘he competed with me in cutting (// qat') wood’ (etc.); also used for helping; also used of two men when they part company (al-raculen ide tahecara) Kaš. II 92 (bıčıšu:r, bıčišma:k).

Mon. BD

bat Preliminary note. There is no doubt about the existence of an Adv. bat (? pat) which was originally a pure onomatopoeic (see Kaš.), and came to mean ‘quickly’ and the like. There is no reason to doubt the authenticity of a second bat noted in Kaš., and prob. surviving in NC Kır. Finally there are two or perhaps three early occurrences of what seems to be a different word which may survive in NE Tuv. (For some nefarious reasons, if anything must have had initial be (i.e. bed, like in English bad), it nevertheless is given as spelled with anything but be. Cf. 3 bat, bo:d- meaning “bad”, Anglo-Saxon baed, and the English bad. Are we so inattentive to miss a trickery?)

1 bat (? pat) (quickly, hurriedly, extremely) originally an onomatopoeic for the sound of a falling object hitting the ground, but normally used as an onomatopoeic meaning ‘quickly, hurriedly’. Survives in NE Tuv. patextremely’ (e.g. tired) Pal. 328; SE Türki pat ‘quickly, soon’ Shaw, BŠ, Jarring; NC Kır. bat ditto; SC Uzb. bot ditto; SW Osm. pat ditto, and onomatopoeic. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (the child) bat tüšer ‘is soon born’ H I 23; bat edgü bolur ‘he quickly recovers’ do. 28; o.o. TT VII 28, 28 (orjal-); 28, 37: Xak.xi one says bat kel, like the expression (VU) šap kel in telling (someone) to hurry (bi'l--tsre'); and for the sound (li-šawt) of anything \\\ light which falls bat tüšdi: (‘it fell with a plop’) Kaš. I 319: Čağ. xv ff. bat züd wa sari' ‘quick, quickly (quotn.); bat bat züd züd San. 119V. 13: Xwar. xııı bat ‘quickly’ 'Ali 47- '

2 bat (glue, paste) perhaps survives in NIC Kır. batglue, paste’. Xnk. xı bat al-tacir ‘the thick juice of pressed dates’ Kaš. I 319.

3 bat (bad, worthless, insignificant) (bad) the first two quotns. below come fr. inscriptions of which the text is very dubious, but if rightly read may be the word which survives in NE Tuv. patworthless, insignificant’ Pal. 328; the third quotn, may have 1 bat (? pat) (quickly, hurriedly, extremely) in an unusual meaning. Türkü vııı (gap) yavız bat biz azığ üküsüg körtig er[slg]ti: süle[li]m ‘we are in a bad way (situation) and worth very little; you have seen how few (we are) and how many (they are); let us take the field bravely’ Ongin 7: O. Kır. ıx ff. (gap) bat ermiš öldfm ‘I was worthless and died Mal. \\ 10, 11; Uyğ. vı 11 ff. Bud. (if a man has offended the begs and they contemplate killing or torturing him, their swords and saws (?) and whips break into small pieces and) neg bat kılu umaz ‘they cannot do him harm’ (?) (nothing bad happens to him) Kuan. 27.(For some nefarious reasons, if must have been be (i.e. bed, like in English bad), it nevertheless is spelled with anything but be. Cf. 3 bat, bo:d- meaning “bad”, Anglo-Saxon baed, and the English bad. Are we so inattentive to miss trickery?)

bet (face) (wlita, litso, лицо) ‘the (human) face’. Rare in the early period being syn. w. 2 yü:z (ñ-) (face) but survives with this and extended meanings, ‘cheek, the surface (of water)’, etc., as bet/bet in NC Kir, Kzx.; SC Uzb; several NW languages and in SW Osm. in the phr. bet beŋiz ‘complection (chikiness)’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (tantric) bir yegirminč isak (?) atlığ uzik ol beti üze urğu ol ‘the eleventh is the letter called isak (?); one should put it on one’s face’ TT VII 41, 2-5: Čağ. xv ff. bet ru wa 'arid ‘face, cheek’ San. 119V. 19.
(OTD p. 103, BIT I лицо, физиономия (face, mug))

bit (louse, bug) originally ‘louse’, but also used for ‘bug’ and other parasites, including those on stored products. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A tonnuij bitl ‘body (lit. clothes’) louse’ M I 8, 14: Xak. xı bit al-qaml ‘louse’; and the worm (al-düd) which attacks wheat is called tarığ biti: Kaš. I 320: xıv Muh. al-qaml bi:t Mel. 74, 6; Rif. 177: Kom. xıv ‘louse’ bit CCI; Gr.\ Kip. xııı al-baqq tva'1-fasefıs ‘bug’ (kandala:) Tkm. bešik biti that is ‘the cradle louse’ (qamlu’I-mahd) Hou. 11, 20 ff.: xıv bit al-qaml Id. 28; Bui. 11, e: xv ditto TnJi. 29a. 8.

1 bo:d (body, clan, stature, height (body)) prob. originally ‘stature, the size of a man’; but from the earliest period it also clearly means ‘a clan’, the Sing, of bodun (people, body of people, human mass) q.v.; the meaning underlying the latter is perhaps ‘lineage’ that is the size of a clan as a number of natural families. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in NE bot/pot/pos/poy, elsewhere usually boy, usually ‘stature’, but in NE ‘self’; the meaning ‘clan’ is rare, but survives in SW Osm. See Doerfer II 812. Türkü vııı (the Türkü people (bodun) died, disintegrated, and were destroyed) Türkü širi (?) (Sirs, known from Classical times, one of the Scythian Saka tribes) bodun yerinte: (Cf Sp. era “was”) bod kalmadı: ‘no clan remained in the country of the fortunate (P) Türkü people’ \297\ T 4; (if it had not been for Elteriš Kağan and myself) bod yeme: bodun yeme: kiši: yeme: idi: yok erteči: erti: ‘there would not have been a clan or a people or (even) an individual’ T 60: Uyğ. (vııı bod has been read in Šu. E 10 and W 1 but in both places seems to be part of a longer word, in E 10 a place-name (? Boduklı:) and in W 1 of bodun): vııı ff. Bud. körk megiz ög bod üze atkan-ğuluksuz üčün ‘because of their freedom from attachment (to this world) in respect of perceptible qualities (Sanskrit vııaya) form and substance’ Suv. 60, 6-8; a.o. do. 593, 20: Civ. bodka: tegmište ‘when he has grown to full stature’ USp. 98, 20: Xatf. xı bo:d qaddul--insen iva qamatuha ‘the size and stature of a man’, hence one says uzu:n bo:dluğ kiši: ‘a tall (taii'ilu'l-qadd) man’ Kaš. III 121; o.o. I 412, 21 (1 ta:l); III 216, 21 (tapı:); and see Oğuz: KB (God does not walk or lie down or sleep) ne megzeg ne yagzağ kötürmez boduğ ‘He has nothing like or resembling Him and does not wear a physical form’ 17; o.o. meaning ‘body’ 371, 1099 (1 ok (arrow)); 1055 (egil- (bent, bowed, bend, stoop, crawl)) — kapuğda kalın bod terildi tolu ‘a dense mob of people has assembled at the gate’ (but where can I find a competent man to manage my affairs?) 1614; kalın bod kara baš ‘a dense mob, common people’ 1622: xııı (?) At. halel yegü kanı körünmez bodı ‘where is the man that cats (only) permitted food? His shape is not seen’ 418: xıv Muh. al-qadd wa'l-qama bo:y Mel. 48, 7; 66, 14; 83, 15; Rif. 142: Čağ. xv ff. boy (1) qamat San. 142V. 12: Oğuz xı bo:y al-raht wa'l-qabila ıva’l-'ašîra ‘clan, sub-tribe, tribe’; anecdote describing its use in the phr. bo:y kim ‘what tribe do you belong to?’ Kaš. III 141; o.o. under words described specifically as Oğuz I 44, 13 (1 u:č, al-qawm ‘tribe’); / 338, 27 (kim, al-qablla iva huwa ism cam', a ‘collective noun’); II 209, 2 (čakrıš-, al-qawm); III 447» t3 (toldra:-, al-nes ‘the people’, MS. to:y in error); o.o. of bo:y under words specifically or by implication described as Xak. I 51, 16 (ögüt, al-qawm); 237, io (alkıš- (destroy, quarrel), al-qawm); 238, 17 (emgeš-, al-nes); II 274, 10 (tarmaklan- al-hilal wa'l-qaba'il ‘clans and tribes’); 316, 21 (yulıt-, qabila): Xwar. xıv bod/boybody, stature’, etc. Qutb 35; boy ditto MN 6, etc.; boy ber- ‘to submit’ Nahc. iii, 17; 380, 9: Kom. xıv ‘bodyboy common CCI, CCG; Gr. 63: Kip. xııı al-qadd wa'l-qama bo:yi: (sic) Hou. 19, 17: xıv boy al-qama td. 37; ditto boyi: (sic) Bul. 9, 11:xv badanbody boyu, corrected to boy Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 8a. 3: Osm. xıv boyclan’, c.i.a.p.; ‘body, stature’ in two texts; ‘branch’ (not ‘bank’ as translated) of a river in one xvı text TTS I 114; II162; III 109; IV 121.

2 *bo:d (color)colour’ or the like. This word seems to be the original form of boy in Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. and the basis of 1 bodu:- (dye, color). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kara boy ‘black coloured’ M II 11, 18 (emig).

E 3 bo:d (bustard (bird))bustard’ follows 1 bo:d (body, clan, stature, height (body)) in Kaš. III 121;, it is an obvious error for to:d (bustard) , q.v.; the \\\ following entry bo:d mončuk presumably contains a similar error.

1 bu:t (bu:d) (leg, thigh) (boot) properly ‘the thigh'; sometimes more generally ‘the leg’, ‘the hind legs (of an animal)’, and the like. The original -d, which could in any case be inferred fr. the long vowel, survives in SW Az. bud and the oblique eases (budu, etc.) in Osm. and the long vowel in Tkm. bu:t. S.i.a.m.l.g.; cf. udluk. Uyğ. vııı ff. (Bud. but kötürmeče tınlığ oğlanıga ‘for the sons of men who walk on their legs’ TT VII 40, 141-2 is thus transcribed in the text, but the word is more likely to be bod ‘having a bodily form (body)’): Civ. kolin butin sizlatur ‘it makes his arms and legs ache’ TT VII 25, 2; kayu kiši[nig koli] butı bašı yomğı tepreser ‘if a man’s (arms,) legs, and head all twitch’ do. 34, 2-3: Xak. xı bu:t al-faxid ‘the thigh’ Kaš. III 120; (of a bird) butı: sinu.-r tankasir ricltthu ‘its leg breaks’ / 254, 24: KB (of farmers) kereklîg kišiler turur bu butu ‘these are the mainstay (?) of people, essential (to the community)’ 4400: xııı (?) Tef. bud/but ‘leg’ (in phr. ‘arms and legs’) 109, 112: xıv Muh. al-faxid bu:t Mel. 48, 3; Rif. 142 (followed by ‘thigh bone’ uyluk): Čağ. xv ff. but bud, ren ma'nesına ‘thigh’ Vel. 146; but az ren te sar-i angušten-i pe ‘the leg from the thigh to the toes’ San. i3or. 23 (quotn.): Kom. xrv ‘thighbut CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-faxid but Hou. 21, e:xiv bud (sic) al-faxid, and some of them substitute -t and call it but td. 29; but al-faxid do. 33: xv al-warik ‘haunch, hip-bone’ bu:% Kav. 61, ’];faxidbut Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27b. 4.

F 2 but (Buddha) the normal rendering of ‘Buddha’ in Uvg. Bud. is burxan, but but, prob. a l.-w. fr. the Chinese rendering of Buddha, fo (Giles 3,589; Ancient Chinese b’jtat in Karigren’s Grammata Serica, No. 500 1.) occurs in namo but the Uyğ. rendering of the Sanskrit formula namo Buddheya ‘homage to the Buddha in TT IV 14, 69; VII 40, 3 etc. But in the passages below is more likely to be a l.-w. fr. Pe. than Chinese direct, but the Pe. word itself is likely to be a l.-w. for Chinese prob. through Sogdian, dating from the time when there were Buddhist temples in the Sogdian-speaking areas. Cf. burxan. See Doerfer II 716. (Xak.) xııı (?) At. öz elgin but etip idim bu tedi ‘making an idol with his own hands he said “this is my lord” ’ 124; Tef. but/but burxan ‘idol’ (also but xena ‘idol temple’) 112: Xwar. xıv but ‘idol’ Qutb 38.

VU 3 bu:t (? bu:d) (tip, gratuity) pec. to Kaš.; the meaning common to his two translations seems to be something like ‘a valuable object’. Xak. xı bu:t the word for any ‘large and precious turquoise’ (fayruzac) hung on the forelocks (al-naıvöšŋ of the sons and daughters of notables; hence one says kız bu:t urdi: (MS. un:di:, but wada'at requires urdt:) wada'ati’l--ceriya delika ‘the servant maid put on that object’ (presumably on the child, not herself): bu:t the word for the provision (mira) made for \298\ anyone who brings a gift or present from a notable; for example if one man gives a horse to another, the groom is given a dinar or a sheep, and such a sheep is called bu:t Kaš. III 120.

VU böd (enlightenment, throne) ‘a royal throne’; N.o.a.b. In IS I the first passage quoted appears as buödke: olurtım, but this seems to have been an error and is changed in II N, the later inscription. Türkü vııı (I Teqri: teg Tepri:de: bolmiš Türkü Rilge: Xagan) bödke: olurtım ‘have taken my scat on the throne’ II N ı (I S i ‘at this time’, see above); bödke: özüm olurıp ‘I myself, sitting on the throne’ IIE 2; bödke: körügme begler-gü yagıltačusiz ‘will you begs, when you look to the throne, misbehave VIS 11; II E 8.
BODIMANT [скр. bodhimanda] рел. трон познания (место где Будда достиг познания)(OTD p. 107)

Mon. V. BD-

bat- (sink, set (sun)) (bath) basically ‘to descend and disappear’ (as opposed to en- (descend, fall, sink) which is merely ‘to descend’), hence ‘to sink; (of the sun, etc.) to set.’ S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (the sun and moon) tuğar batar ‘rise and set’ Chuas. 24: Uyğ. vııı keče: ay [b]atar erikli: sügüšdlm ‘I fought at night as the moon set’ Šu. E 1 (Ramstedt read yaruk batar, but the photograph shows no room for the extra letters): vııı IT. Hud. (then those mortals, as they revolve in the river of this world) čomar batar tegzinür, ‘sink (Kend.) and revolve’ TT VI 195 v.l.; o.o. of čom- bat- U 77/44, 2 (ı); TT IV, p. 15, footnote 4-5; a.o. TT VIII K.s (ellg): Civ. ay teŋri battı ‘the moon has set’ TT 7 40; in TT VII 1, an astronomical text, batar, of a star, means both ‘sets’ and ‘is below the horizon’; a.o. USp. 28, 45 (2 uruğ): Xak. xı kü:n battı: ğarabati'l-šams ‘the sun set’; and one says koruğjı:n (misspelt) suvka: battı: racabati'l-anuk fi l-me' ‘the lead sank in the water’ (etc.); also used of anything which disappears from sight (ğeba 'ani'l-'ayn) Kaš. II 293 (bata:r, batma:k); (the duck) suvka: bata:r yağûš fi’l-me' ‘dives under water’ I 528, 10; a.o. II 128, e: KD künüm batğalır teg ‘as mv sun sets’ 1072; xıv Muh. (?) ğeša bat- Rif. 99 (only); ğebati'l--šants kün battı: do. 113; al-ğa7cš batmak do. 120: Čağ. xv ff. bat- fini raftan ‘to descend, sink’ San. ııgr. 28: Xwar. xıv kün batar (quasi-Noun) ‘sun-set’ Qutb 29: Kom. xıv ‘to sink, setbat- CCG; Gr. 53 (quotn.): Kip. ğatasa of the sun, moon or star, ‘to set’, bat- Hou. 35, 18; ğeša mina'l-gaws ‘to sink’ su:da: bat- do. 47, 17: xıv bat- ğatasa (normally ‘to dive’) Id. 28; bat- ditto, do. 33; ğeša bat- Bid. 65r. xv ğatasa bat- Kav. 8, 15; 76, 4; gariqa ‘to sink, be submergedbat- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27a. 2.

PU be:d- (bä:d-) (bad, spoiled) Hap. leg.; the first letter is undotted, but as the word comes between i:d- and bu:d- (freeze to death) it must have been be. Xak. xı anig kö:zi: be:dti: abšarat 'avnuhu da'ifa (n) ‘his eyesight was weak’ Kıš. III 439 (fatha over first letter; be:de:r, be:dme:k). (It must have been be (i.e. bed, like in English bad). Cf. 3 bat, bo:d- meaning “bad”, Anglo-Saxon baed, and the English bad.)

S bit- See büt- (ending, starting, achieve, heal, believe, rely, happen) (butt).

bu:d- (freeze to death) ‘to die of cold’; survives with the same meaning only (?) in SW xx Anat. biy-/buy-/buyu-/buz-/büy- SDD 202-42; Tkm. buy-. Xak. xı er tumluğka: bu:dtı: ha šir a'l-racul mina'l-hnrd wa meta ‘the man suffered from the cold and died’ Kaš. HI 439 (bu:da:r, bu:dma:k).

büt- (ending, starting, achieve, heal, believe, rely, happen) (butt) has an extraordinarily wide range of meanings, the starting-point of which seems to be ‘to become complete’. This developed in two contrary directions, ‘to come to an end, be finished’, and ‘to be ready to start’ with various special applications. S.i.a.m.l.g., in NE, SE, NC Kır. büt-/püt- in NC Kzx., SC, NW, and SW bit-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. Sanskrit sampan-naprahdna (a man) ‘whose efforts are complete’ (i.e. ‘crowned with success’) bütmiš (pütmiš) katığla:nma:klığ TT VIII A.5; na krtarn bhavati ‘it is not done’ (by wisdom) yaratılmıš bolma:sa:r a:zu bütmiš (pilitmiš) do. A. 11; (a man strives only so much) yevad arthasya nišpattı ‘as to achieve his purpose’ ne:če:ke: tegl asığnıg bütmekl bol-sar (pütmeki polsar) do. /s.44; alku törlüg küsüšleri kanıp bütüp ‘his desires of all kinds are satisfied and fulfilled’ TT VII 40, 130; similar phr. U III 85, 12; U IV 14, 135-6 — uluğ nlagadturğu iš büter ‘the great task of weakening (the devils) comes to a (successful) end’ TT V 10, 97-8; a.o. Suv. 530, 1 — (a stainless pure magic body) bütti ‘has come into existence’ TT V 8, 52: Civ. in fortune-telling texts, e.g. TT 7 75, 176; VII 28, 28 (ugra:- ) phr. like iš büter or bütmez are common — in medical texts büt- ‘to heal (Intrans.)’ is common, e.g. beš on yıl kart bütmeser kiši etin yakğu ol bat büter ‘if a man has an ulcer which will not heal for five or ten years, he must rub it with human flesh and it heals quickly’ III 30-1 — kimüni bütüp ‘if a man’s voice fails’ do. 14e: Xak. xı er ü:ni: bütti: ‘the man’s voice, failed’ (xafat) because of hoarseness in the chest, or illness, or a blow; and one says anıg alımı: büttı: taba t a dayııuhu 'alayhi wa šahlıa ‘the debt due to him was proved and authenticated’; and one says ba:š bütti: indamala'l-curh ‘the wound healed’; and one says kul tegrhke: bütti: ‘the servant acknowledged (aqarra) the uniqueness of God’ Kaš. II 294 (continues in Kip., q.v.); (when the wise man sees it) sö:zke: büte:r yusaddiq kalemi ‘he confirms my statement’ III 137, 6; o.o. 7 219, 26; III 166, 20; 240, 2e: KB büt- is common, usually ‘to believe, rely on (someone Dat.)', e.g. büt maga 742; o.o. 25, 46, 51, 290, 725, 729, 915, 1090, etc. — berge bašı büter ‘the wound inflicted by a whip heals’ 2580: xııı (?) At. bu til bašık-tursa bütmez büter ok bašı ‘if the tongue wounds (the wound) does not heal, (as) an arrow wound heals’ 139-40; Tef. bit- (of a girl’s breast) ‘to grow, fill out’ 104; büt- ‘to believe in (someone Dat.)' 113: xıv Muh. nabata (of a plant) ‘to growbit- Mel. 31,9; Rif. 115: Čağ. xv ff. büt- (-ti, etc.) bit-... eker yerden nabet bit-... veye carelıat onulup bit-... ve ye bir iš ve bir bina tamem olup bit- \\ ‘of a plant, to grow; of a wound to heal; of a task or building to be completed’ Vel. 144- 5 (quotns.); btit- (1) rüyidan giyeh wa sabza of a plant or vegetable, to grow’; (2) Utiyem yaftan za xııı wa carehat ‘of an injury or wound, to heal’; (3) sdxta šudan wa ancam yaftan ‘to be done, finished’; (4) ha-amal (imadan wa hešilšudan ‘to be produced, to come to pass’; (5) wutuq wa i'timed kardan ‘to trust, rely on’ San. I28r. 16 (quotns.); bit- (1) to (4) as above, ‘in these four meanings (grow, heal, completed, ?) a duplicate (muredif) of büt- above’ do. I43r. 7: Kip. xı (after Xak. entry) and one says ot bütti: tala'a'l-nabet wa nabata ‘the plant emerged and grew’, also used of fruits when they grow; and one says oğla:n bütti: ‘the child was born’ (wulida); and one uses bütti: of anything that grows or is born or created (xuliqa) Kaš. II 294 (büte:r, bütme:k): Xwar. xıv bit-/büt- (1) ‘to be completed, achieved’; (2) ‘to believe in (someone Dat.)' Qutb 34, 39; Nahc. 26, e: Kom. xıv ‘to growbit- CCG; Gr. el(quotns.): Kip. xıv bit- (sic) nabata Id. 28; inqada wa nabata ‘to be accomplished; to growbit- Bui. 24r.: xv qada (tquda) ay al-šuğl ‘of a task, to accomplish (? to be accomplished)’ bit-7m/i. 30a. 7; nabata bit- do. 37a. 4: Osm. xıv ff. bit- ‘to come into existence, be produced', and the like; ‘to sprout, grow’; c.i.a.p. TTS I no; II 156; III 106; IV 116.

Dis. BDA

S biti: See bitig (written (inscription, book, letter, document,, contract)).

PUF buda (liquorice)liquorice’ ultimately der. fr. Sanskrit madhuka (see H. W. Bailey in Fuad Köprülü Armağanı, Istanbul, 1953, p. 53). Arat’s translation ‘grape’ based on a supposed derivation fr. Chinese p'u t'ao (see üzüm) is an error. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bir sunča budam ‘a piecc of liquorice an inch (l.-w.) long’ II I 146; buda tübi ‘liquoricc root’ do. 191; o.o. do. 150, II II 14, 133.

BODI [ скр. bodhi] рел. прозрение; достижение совершенной мудрости (OTD p. 107)

botu: (? poto:) (camel colt) ‘camel colt, usually under a year old’; see Shcherbak, p. 106. An early l.-w. (with Mong. suffix) in Mong. as botoean (Hacnisch 20, Kow. 1181). S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as bota or the like; this final -a, and the Mong. form, strongly suggest an original final -o:. The SW forms, Osm. puduk; Tkm. pota hint at an original initial p-. See Doerfer II 777. Xak. xı botu: fašilu'l-naqa ‘a camel colt’ Kaš. III 218 (the word is in a Chapter containing dissyllables ending in long open vowels; the final waiv in the MS. was rather misshapen and a later scribe put two dots over it and turned it into qaf; the word has therefore usually been mistranscribed as botuk, cf. čatu: (horn-shaped, tree root, knife-handle)); a.o. 7 120, 19 (agra:-); 77 341 ’ 4 (bozlat-): xıv Rbğ. bota Shcherbak, p. 10e: Čağ. xv ff. bota oğul ‘child’ Vel. 146 (quotns.); bota bača wa farzand-i edamt wa seyir haywanat 'umuma (n) wa bača-i šutur xušuša (n) ‘a human child; the young of an animal in general, and a camel in particular’ San. i3or. 25 (29) (same quotns.; the translation, other than the last phr, is due to a misapprehension; one quotn. refers to botalik teve ‘a camel with a colt’, in the other botam is used to address a dying son, obviously in a purely metaph. sense): Xwar. xıv (like) ingen ingen (sic) bodalarıga igreyü ‘camels calling to their colts’ Nahc. 73, le: Kip. xv al-qa'iidu ’l-šagir ‘a small camel colt’ bofa: Kav. 61, 20; hawliyu'l-ibil ‘a one-year-old camel colt’ bofa Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 13a. 2.

D büte: (plenty, abundant) Ger. in -e: of büt- (ending, starting, achieve, heal, believe, rely, happen) used as an Adv.; noted only in Xak. Xak. xı büte: harf tea ma-'nahul-kalir a Particle meaning ‘a great deal’; hence one says men aŋar büte: yarma:k be:rdim a'faytuhu <words omitted> ‘I gave him <a great deal of money) (plenty, abundant)’; and one says bu: ı:ška: büte: boldı: mada zaman mina'l--dahr li-hede ‘the (plenty of) time for this is past’, like (bi-manzila) the Oğuz word kibe: for a period of time (li-burha mina'l-dahŋ Kaš. III 217: KB büte boldı elig yüzin körmedim ‘It is a long (plenty of) time since I saw the king’s face’ 1587; a.o. 3635.

Dis. V. BDA-

bedü:- (grow, increase) ‘to be, or become, big, great, etc.’ Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. bedi- and SW Osm. büyü-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. katığı bedümiš padd ‘the padd (? ; l.-w.) whose violence has become great’ TT III 88: Bud. U II 9, 6 (ükli:-); see also E kedi:-: Xak. xı oğla:n bedü:di: ‘the boy became big’ (ka-bura); also used of anything that becomes big after being small Kaš. III 259 (bedü:r, bedü:me:k; everywhere spelt bedü:-; this verb and bödi:-, which is so spelt, are placed under the cross-heading -D-, and before the cross-heading -D- which is followed by udi:-, bodu:-, etc.; it seems fairly certain that both -D- and bedü:- were intended, see bedüt- (increase), but seem to be dialect pronunciations); a.o. 7 319, 11 (kop, also spelt bedü:di:): KB bedu:-, consistently so spelt, is common, e.g. (God gave him wisdom and) yalguk bedüdi ‘man became great’ 150; o.o. 289, 731, 737, '757» 5153; xıv Muh. (?) 'azuma ‘to be, or become, big’ (VU) beyü:- (unvocalized) Rif. 131 (only); irlafa'a ‘to rise’ PU berü:- (unvocalized, first letter undotted) should perhaps be read bedü:- 102 (only): Kip. xv xayala ‘to behave conceitedly (out of context)biyi- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14b. 11.

BODI [ скр. bodhi] рел. прозрение; достижение совершенной мудрости (OTD p. 107)

DF biti:- (write) ‘to write; to write (something Acc.)'. This word is considered to be a Den. V. in -i:- fr. *bit, an unrecorded l.-w. fr. Chinese/»' 'writing brush’ (Giles 8,979; Pulleyblank’s Middle Chinese' pi.it); it became an early l.-w. in Mong. as biči- (Haenisch 15), and this Mong. word has been reborrowed in some NE languages (but Khak. pas- looks more like a l.-w. fr. Russian pisat' (which in turn is a version of the Türkic biti:-/biči-)); otherwise survives only in SE Türki pit- Shaw; püt- BŠ; piti-/püt-/pütü- Jarring. Cf. 3 yaz-, Türkü vııı beggü: (eternal) taš tokı:tdım bitildim T had this memorial stone driven into (the ground) and inscribed it’ 7 S 12-13; o.o. 7 SE, I SW, II STF, Ix. 28: vııı ff. biti:dim IrkB, Postscript; .1°° \\ Tun. IV II (ETY II 96): Uyğ. vııı bitig [biti:]dim Šu. Sb.: vııı ff. Man.-A bitidim M I 28, 22: Bud. bitideči bititdeči ‘writing (this siitra) or causing it to be written’ Suv. 447, 17; Civ. bitl- (usually in the form bitidim) is very common in the contracts in USp.: O. Kır. ıx ff. bitigli: Mal. 24, 3 ; bitidim do. 42, e: Xak. xı (in grammatical section) er bitig bitildi: kataba'l-raculu'l-kitdb ‘the man wrote a letter (or book, etc.)’ Kaš. II 325, 7; n.m.e.: KB bitl- is common 114, 258, 1342, etc.: xıı (?) At. bitidim 465, 475: Tef. biti- (and? bit-) ‘to write’ 104: xıv Muh. kataba biti:- MeL 30, n; 39, 2; 41, 6; Rif. 114, 131: Čağ. xv ff. bitl- (-dl, etc.) vaz- ‘to write’ Vel. 134-6 (quotn.); bitl- (spelt) nuzvistan ‘to write’ San. i43r. 13 (quotns ): Xwar. xııı (?) (Then Oğuz Xan sent his orders to the four quarters and) blldürgülük bitidi ‘wrote to inform them’ Oğ. 104: xıv bitl- ditto Qutb 34. MN 78, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to write’ bitl- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv bitl- kataba Id. 28: Osm. xıv and xv bitl- ‘to be destined’, i.e. written by fate in a few texts TTS 1110; II 156; IV 116.

S buta:- (prune) See butı:- (prune).

butı:- (prune) ‘to prune’ (a tree, etc.). This was no doubt the original vocalization of this verb, cf. butik, but it became buta- early in the medieval period. S.i.s.m.l. in its original meaning and also for (of a tree) ‘to throw out branches’. Xak. xı Kaš. III 337 (butikla:-); n.m.e.: Kip. xıv buda- qallama ‘to prune’ Id. 29: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 30a. 6 (in margin in second hand budadı ay ğašana, same meaning): Osm. xvııı buda-, in Rumi, pir astan bağ wa diraxt az šex-i zeyid ‘to prune the superfluous branches off a vine or tree’ San. 13m 28.

?D 1 bodu:- (? bodo:-) (dye, color) ‘to dye (something Acc.)’; presumably Den. V. fr. 2 *bo:d (color) q.v. Survives in NE Tel. pudu-; Tuv. budu- and in all other language groups as boya- or the like. Xak. xı ol to:nuğ bodu:di: šabağa'l--tawb ‘he dyed the garment’ (etc.) Kaš. III 260 (2 bodu:- (fasten, nail) follows in same para.): xıv Muh. sabağa bo:ya:- Mel. 27, 13; Rif. 111; al-šabğ bo:ya:mak 37, 14; 124: Čağ. xv ff. boya- (-b) bir rengle boya- ‘to dye with a colour’ Vel. 158; boya- rang kardan San. 141V. 27: Xwar. xıv boya- ditto Qutb 35: Kom. xıv ditto CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı šabağa bo:ya:- Hon. 37, 2 (Imperat., in error, -gil): xıv ditto Bul. 55V.:xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23a. 2.

VU 2 bodu:- (fasten, nail) ‘to fasten, or nail (something Acc., to something Dat., or üze)’. N.o.a.b., but see bodul-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the merciless rulers of hell) örtlüg yerke bodiyu čalarlar ‘throw them down and fasten them to the fiery ground’ TT VI p. 73, note 308, 30; örtlüg yer üze etözlerln boduyu tokıp do. 31-2: Xak. xı (after 1 bodu:- (dye, color)), and one says ol okın urdı: keyikni: yığa:čka: bodu:dı: rame'l-šayd wa alzaqahubi'l-šacara ‘he shot the wild animal and fastened it to the tree’ (etc.) Kaš. III 260 (bodu:r, bodu:ma:k, mis-spelt bodu:rma:k).

bödi:- (dance) ‘to dance’. An l.-w. in Mong. as bfici- (Kozv. 1220, Haltod 311) which fixes the first vowel as -ö-, not -ü- as usually transcribed, but suggests that the original form was bödi:-; this links with the fact that in Kaš. this word, though spelt bödi-, is indexed under -D, see bedü:- (grow, increase); but this form, if authentic, must have been a dialect pronunciation. Survives only in several NW languages as blyl-; the NC forms Kır. blyle- Kzx. bile- are Den. V.s fr. bly (bodlg, q.v.). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U I 41, 21; IV 8, 36 (ırla:-); TT X 144-5 ( ,:ŋ; °-°-do. 469; U II 24, 4; 25, i: Xak. xı ki:z bödi:di: (sic) raqašati'l-ceriya ‘the servant girl (etc.) danced’ Kaš. III 259 (bödi:r, bödi:me:k, see above; prov. containing bödi’g): xıv Muh. raqasa (VU) bftyi:- Mel. 26, 11; Rif. 109; al-raqš (VU) böyimek 120 (only, -mak in error): Kom. xıv ‘to dance, clap’ beyl-/biyl- CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı raqaša be:y- Hou. 34, 14: xıv böy- raqaša Id. 37 (and see 1 bük- (bend, fold, twist, bow, kneel, revolted)).

Dis. BDB

SF bitbül See bitmül (pepper).

Tris. BDB

SF pitpltl See bitmül. (pepper)

Dis. BDC

F badıč (vine treillage (lattice))vine trellis’; no doubt like other words connected with vines, e.g. 2 ba:ğ, bo:r, an Iranian l.-w. N.o.a.b. The word is noted in Pe. as zvdyic (Steingass 1454) and Tajik vo'iš (Tef. 88). Xak. xı badıč al-'ariš ‘vine trellis’ Kaš. I 295 (üzümlen-); n.m.e.: xııı (?) Tef. 'ale ’urušihe badıčları örtmenleri üze 88 (apparently alternative translations for al-ariš which means both ‘vine trellis’ and ‘open hut with a light roof’).

Tris. BDC

DF badıčlık (trellis (lattice)) Hap. leg.; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. badıč (vine treillage). Xak. xı badıčlık (MS. -d- for -d-) yiğa:č ‘wood (al-xašab) prepared for the manufacture of a vine trellis (' arišu' l-karm)' Kaš. I 502.

Dis. BDD

D bütüt (accomplishment, success) Hap. leg.; Active Dev. N. fr. büt- (ending, starting, achieve, heal, believe, rely, happen); ‘the successful performance (of a task)’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT I 140 (ešidüt).

Dis. V. BDD-

D bedüt- (increase) Caus. f. of bedü:- (grow, increase); to ‘make something, big, greater, etc.’ Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. bidlt- and SW Osm. büyüt-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kičig atıg bedüt (t)üg ‘you have increased your small reputation’ TT I 8: Xak. xı ol oğla:nığ bedütti: rabbe'1-šabi wa kabbarahu ‘he brought up the boy and made him grow up’ Kaš. II 300 (bedütü:r, bedütme:k. This verb, kadit- and kidıt-, q.v., are placed in a section preceded by -D-, which is followed by one preceded by -D- and ends in \301\ the following sentence, ‘some of them (i.e. the Turks) make the dais in all these verbs ye on the (false) assumption ('aid tawahhum) that they are dal (with a dot over). I heard this among the YağnaTuxsi:, and Oğuz and parts (afref) of the Uyğur.. The alteration of del to 4al is also permissible in Ar., as one says me 4uqtu ’adttqa (n) tva ’adüja (n).’ The spelling bediit- was therefore deliberate, but seems to represent a dialect pronunciation): KB the word is consistently spelt bedüt-; (know that knowledge is great (bedük) and understanding great (uluğ)) bu İki bedütür üdürmiš kuluğ ‘these two make tj^e chosen servant great’ 152; o.o. 298, 1001, 1359, 4015 (anın), 5801 (buka:): xıv Muh. (?) ’azzama ğayrahu ‘to make (someone else) great’ (VU) beyüt- (unvocalized) Rif. 131 (only).


Contents Türkic languages

Classification of Türkic languages
N. Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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