Contents Türkic languages

Classification of Türkic languages
N. Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
 Türkic languages

Sir Gerard Clauson (1891–1974)
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
Oxford аt the Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Ely House, Glasgow, New York, Toronto, 1972

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Sir Gerard Clauson An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
Preface Abbreviations Suffixes A - EGE EGE - ARD ARD - BDD BDĞ - CCĞ CD - DLM DLS - ĞDĞ ĞDL - GCY GDE - SDĞ SDM - YĞĞ YĞL - ZR Full
Pp i - xxxi Pp xxxiii - xxxviii Pp xl - xlviii Pp 1-100 Pp 101-200 Pp 201-300 Pp 301-400 Pp 401-500 Pp 501-600 Pp 601-700 Pp 701-800 Pp 801-900 Pp 901-988 Pp 1-988
1 M 1 M 1M 7M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 7M
PREFACE Pp i - xxxi  v
ABBREVIATIONS, SHORT TITLES, ETC. Pp xxxiii - xxxviii xxxii
SUFFIXES Pp xl - xlviii xl
Mon. A Ä E I O Ö U Ü Pp 1-100; 101-200; 201-300 1
INITIAL LABIAL PLOSIVES B P V F W 201-300; 301-400 291
INITIAL DENTAL PLOSIVES D T 401-500; 501-600 433
INITIAL VELAR PLOSIVE Ğ K X 501-600; 601-700 578
L 701-800 763
M 701-800 765
N Ŋ Ñ 701-800 774
R 701-800 780
S 701-800; 801-900 781
Š Ș 801-900 866
Y 801-900; 901-988 869
Z 901-988 982
Sir Gerard Clauson
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
ASCII text pages 1-100

Mon. A

Preliminary note. There were never many Turkish words consisting of a single vowel, and all of them except a: (ah, exclamation) became obsolete at a very early date. To Kaš., with his background of Arabic philology, the whole concept was strange, but he did devote a section, headed rather inscrutably dawatu’l-arba'a, four-letter words I 39~40, in the chapter containing two-letter words of which the first is hamza to such words. It originally contained one word hamza alif, four hamza waw, and three hamza ye, but in the surviving MS, some of the second group have had letters added to them. As w is not a genuine Turkish sound, the second group must all have been o: (security, assurance) (what?, exclamation) (is, are, this, that, is that) elided f. of bul-, buol- (be, exist), u: (sleep) (refusal, negation) (able, capable), ö: (think, meditate, remember) (awe), or ü:. Of the third group one was almost certainly ay (moon, (lunar) month, crescent) (exclamation) (oh), the others probably ı:: or i: (vegetation, shrubbery, bush) (refusal, negation) (brocade (textile)). The only common word, ı:, occurs in Kaš. as yu, its true nature and meaning having already been forgotten.

a: (exclamation: ah! appreciation, amazement, surprise) Exclamation, usually vocative in character, occasionally expressing surprise, in the early period usually affixed to the word qualified, later, perhaps under foreign influence, placed before it. The attachment of -a/-e metrigratia at the end of lines in KB and other poems İ9 a Pe. trick, and perhaps not native Turkish. S.i.a.m.l.g., but also in contiguous non-Turkish languages. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ttiztin oğlum-a ‘my good son’ U III 35, 26; anačım-a ‘my dear mother’ U III 9, 2 (ii); baxši-a ‘my teacher' U IV 28, 4; a.o.o.: Xak. xı a; an exclamation (harf) of surprise (al-tahayyuŋ', hence one says ol meni: a: kıldı: 'he surprised me’ Kaš. I 39: KB -a is a common verse-fîller, e,g. tuš teij-a (or -e?) rhyming with saga 7: Čağ. xv fT, a: (jfe) 'vocative' (lıarf-i nida) San. 27V. 1 (quoin. including a: yiğit ‘oh youth'; also described as an abbreviation of an in such words as alar for anlar): Kom. xıv e ‘vocative exclamation’ CCG; Gr. 84 (quoin.): Kip. xv ‘vocative’ (aU -munediwa'l-Tnufriğ) a e.g. a kiči (for kišŋ ‘oh man’ Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 60b. z (also 84b. 3 ; 85b. 7); harful--nida a (also placed before the name of a person called, e.g. a Altunbuğa Kav. 52,1i.

1 ı: (vegetation, shrubbery, bush) usually translated ‘vegetation’, but the contexts show that it meant something between a plant and a tree, probably 'bush’ (singular or collective); n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ıda: tašda: kalmıšı: ‘those of them who remained in the bush and stony desert’ T 4; atığ ika: bayujr ertimiz ‘we tied the horses to bushes' T 27: Uyğ. vııı ıda: kavušalım ‘let us assemble in the bush' Šu. E 10-11; vjııfT Man.-A b^š törlüğ ıda ığačda ‘in the five kmds of bushes and trees' M 7 8, 19-20; kaltı iğ yağı yarden t&min örtürürče ‘as one can grow bushes almost immediately on newly planted ground’ M I 14, 10; bir narwan (?) atlığ 1 a bush called narwa7i (}) (Persian ttarwdn ‘witch elm, Ulmus montana)’ Man.-Uig, Frag. 400, 4; ol 1 učında olurdı ‘he sat on the top of that bush’ do. 401, 1; Man. ne tağlan 1 ığač kaya kum barı ‘whatever mountains, bushes, trees, rocks, and sand there are’ M III 8, 3-4 (in: Bud. (fruits that grow) 1 ığaeda U I 27, 5; 1 tarığ ‘bushes and cultivated land’ U I 27, 3; U II 77, 27; TT IV ıo,6; VIII K.4;a.o.o.: Xak. xı one says yi: yığa:č for ‘tangled trees’ (maltaffa mina'1-šacaŋ, originally ylfü: 'bushy' (mutarešš) but contracted Kaš. III 216 (perhaps a false etymology); a.o. HI 25 (yiği:).

PU 2 ı: (refusal, negation) Hap. leg.; apparently so vocalized in MS. Xak. xı ı: ‘a word used to express refusal’ (kalimatul-inkeŋ alternative to 2 u: Kaš. I 40.

PU ?F 3 ı: (brocade (textile)) Hap. leg.; like many names of fabrics prob. a l.-w., perhaps Chinese; apparently vocalized ay; if ı: or ı: perhaps some Chinese word like i ‘variegated, rainbow-coloured (clothing)’ (Giles 5, 434). Xak. xı ı: ‘orange-coloured brocade' (dibac neranciyul--lawn) Kaš. I 40.

PU 1 o: (security, assurance) Hap. leg.; the word, no doubt hamza waw was inadvertently omitted in the MS. and replaced in the margin by o:ka: presumably taken from the example; it is not clear whether this word is an abbreviation of , which appears as below and elsewhere in the medieval period, or whether the latter is an expanded form, prob. the latter. Xak. xı <o:> al-kafil, ‘surety, security, pledge’; one says men anı; o:ka: aldım ‘I took him as security’ (kaffaltu bihŋ Kaš. I 40; (xiv Muh. (l) gamana wa kafala ‘to stand surety’ orglan- Rif m (only)): Xwar. xıv man takallafa li ‘whoever has guaranteed to me’ translated kayu... maga bolsa Nahc. 346, 7; same phr. 162, 6 and 15.

PU 2 o: (exclamation: what?, ) Hap. leg.; originally hamza waw, but later a fatha was placed over the hamza and an alif added in both places. Xak. o: ‘an exclamation (harf) in reply to a caller’. When ye Muhammad is called out, the man who answers says o: meaning ‘what are your orders?’ Kaš. I40 (see 2 u:).

S 3 o: See ol. (is, are, this, that, is that) elided f. of bul-, buol- (be, exist)

1 u: (sleep) ‘sleep'; the Dev. V. is exceptionally udi:-, which suggests that this word may originally have been *u:d, but that word is nowhere noted in this sense; not noted later than xi. Türkü vııı uda; basdimiz ‘we surprised... in their sleep’ I E 35, 37; II E 27; uka (sic) basdımız T 27; vııı ff. Man usinta odunti ‘he woke from his sleep’ M I 6, 21-1: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man, (gap) uu (j/c) üze udiyu 'sleeping a... sleep’ TT III 160: Bud. uvlanndin (? read uularındın) odğıırup ‘arousing... from their sleep’ U 111 11, 8; U TT VIII ,4.13 (see udik); Civ. uda Usp. 77, 14 (see ud-): Xak, xı u: (later altered to udu:) ‘sleep’ (al-nawm)\ hence one says udı:dı:m ‘I slept’, abbreviated from u;dı:dı:m Kaš. I 40; u:din (MS. in error u:dun) am: odgura: ‘arousing him from sleep’ II193, 4; similar phr. 146, 20; ağır u:m: učursa:dım 'I wished to drive away heavy sleep’ III 247, 23: KB u teğ ‘like sleep’ 1424; kiterse usi ‘let him repel sleep’ 2331; o.o. 3952, 4963, 6637.

PU 2 u: (exclamation: refusal, negation) (hi-ijbd'Vl-alif) Hap. leg.; in Kaš. išba normally means ‘back-vowels’, e.g. both 1 to:z and tu:z are so described to distinguish them from tö:z and tü:z, but, if some contrast with 2 o: is intended, it might mean, as in San., u not o, since ü: is not a very likely sound for an exclamation; see 2 ı:. Xak. xı u: ‘an exclamation of refusal (harf inkeŋ to obey an order’ (Kaš. L 40).

Mon. V. A-

Preliminary note. The only two basic verbs of this shape are u:- (able, capable) and ö:- (think, meditate, remember) (awe); in various medieval and modern languages more such verbs appeared as the result of the elision of final consonants, e.g. e-/i- (< 1 er- (are, were, was) (are, Sp. ere)) ‘to be’.

i- (i:-) form of 1 er- (are, were, was) (are, Sp. ere) “to be”, a base of ermek “to be” (erü:r, erme:k), Cf. i:di:.

u:- (able, capable) there are a few early occurrences of this verb as an ordinary finite verb meaning ‘to be capable’ and the like, but it is normally used as an Aux. verb following a verb in the Ger. f. -u:/-ü:, or less often -ğalı:/-ğeli:, meaning ‘to be able’. Kven in this sense the word is rare after xı except in the Neg. f. The Pres. Particip. uğa:n, however, used as a N./A. meaning ‘God; Almighty’ survived rather longer. The later history of the Neg. f. is discussed by Mal. in USp., pp. 224-5. Briefly the Ger. suff. -u:/-ü: and u:- coalesced to produce -uma-/-üme- the ‘Impossible’ f. of the verb. This stage was reached in Osm. in the early medieval period, but later, probably as the result of a general tendency to ‘unround’ round vowels, this became -anrıa-/“eme-, producing such forms as Osm. seveme- 'to be unable to love’. It has been suggested that in such forms the -a-/-e- is a reduced form of al- which is used as an Aux. verb in the same sense in some modern languages, but this is improbable. It is more plausible that the Osm. Continuous Pres. Suff. -uyor (not subject to phonetic harmony) is a survival of the positive form of u:-. Türkü vııı etinu: yaratu:nu: umaduk 'because they could not organize \\ themselves (fiend.)’ / E 10, 11 E 9; usar 'if possible’ T 11: vııı ff. kanıšayu: uma:tı:n ‘without being able to move’ IrkB 16 (and four o.o. of Neg. f.); edgüsi: uyu:n: ‘his good and capable men’ do. 28: otsu:z suvsu:z kalti: uyi:n ‘how can I (get on) without fodder or water?’ do. 45; (the fat horse’s mouth became hard) idi:si: uma:z ‘its master cannot (control it)’ do. 65; ada:rtu: uma:z ‘cannot endanger him’ Toyok 25, 29 (ETY II 59): Uyğ. vııı (T. Man.-A sözieyü umağay ‘will be unable to speak’ M I 15, 2-3: Man. yok kim ol ümasar Šımnu küčige kopuğ uğay ‘there is nothing that he cannot do; by the power of Ahriman he will be able to do everything’ M II 5, 10-11: Bud. berü umadı 'he could not give’ PP 15, 8 (a.o.o. of Neg. f.); kilu usar ‘if he can make’ PP 35, 4; ertlni evdigeli uyur 'he can collect jewels’ TT V 26, 91-2; Sanskrit abhavyate ‘incapacity’ uma:-ta:čı bolma:k VIII A.44 (a.o.o.); körgeli udačı bolğay ‘he will be able to see’ Suv. 444,4: Civ. tin alu umasar ‘if he cannot draw breath’ H I 141-2 (a.o.o. in II ID: Xak. xı uğan ‘having power over all things’ (al-qedir 'ala'1-ašye), hence God is called uğan teŋri: ‘almighty God’ Kaš. I 77; (N.B. no occurrences of u:-) ujğanča: ‘to the best of your ability’ I 44, 2: KB uğan bir bayat ‘the one almighty God’ 2 (a.o.o.); usa 4if possible' 549, 721; uğanča (mis-spelt uğınča) 425e: xııı (?) uğan ‘God’, common in At.: xıv Pbğ. uğan used both as a name and as an epithet of God. R I 1007; Alull, qadara tva ataqa ‘to be mighty, to be able’ u:- Rif. 114; al-qedir u:ğa:n Aİel. 13, 1; Rif. 88; al-qatvi ‘powerful’, one of the names of God u:ğa:n Rif. 137: Čağ. xv ff. ukan (57c) ‘God’ Bad. 100; uğan (also, incorrectly, uğun) ‘a name of God’ Vel. 108 (quotns.); uğan (spelt) ‘a name of God’ San. 76 v. 18 (quotn., points out that the word is once entered correctly in Vel. and is also split into oğan, the latter being entered separately (Vel. 308) with the same meaning and quotns.): Xwar. xııı uğan ‘God’ ’Ali 46; xıv ditto Qutb 195; MN 378: Kip. xııı Allah (teŋri:, and in a dialect (luğa) which only a few people know) uğa:n//on. 3, i2;xıv uğan Allelı, Id. 15.

ö:- (think, meditate, remember) (awe) ‘to think; to think of (something Acc.)’, hence ‘to remember' (something Acc.)’; often used in the Hend. ö- sakın- (think, reckon, count, desire, worry) (think); common down to xi, not traceable thereafter. Türkü vııı anığ bilig anta: öyü:r ermiš ‘they then seem to have thought evil thoughts’ / S 5, II N 4 a:čsar tosık ömezsen bir todsar a:čsık ömezsen 'if you are hungry you do not remember being satiated, but if you are once satiated, you do not remember being hungry’ I S S, II N e: vııı ff. turuk at semrirti: yeri:n öpen ‘a lean horse remembering the place which fattened him’ IrkB le: Uyg. vııı ff. Man.-Abu savı ... ömeksakınmakkergek ‘he must meditate (Hend.) on this word of his’ M III 12, 7-8 (iii): Man. amrağım öyürmen ‘I think of my beloved' M 7/8, 8: Bud. ajuti ödeči Sanskrit jûiisnutra ‘remembering former \3\ existences’ U II 44. 34~5I texanlarig öp sakınıp‘meditating (Hend.) on the Buddhas’ UII80, 61; edgü ögli 'having good thoughts’, and ayığ ögli ‘having evil thoughts’ PP passim', ögeli köŋülğerip ‘thinking deeply (heartily)’ U II 8, 22; o.o. 9, i| 9, 11-12 (mis-spelt ongalŋ\ 47, 73-4; USp. 102b. 22-3, a,o.o.: Xak. xı ö:di: ne:ŋni: ‘he understood (fatina) the matter, after he had thought (tafakkara) about it’ Kaš. I u, 19; öme: ‘do not (stop to) think’ I 93, 3; n.rn.e.: KB ešitgü öğli ‘he will hear and think about (what the sage says)’ 306; öyü sakınu (Hend.) 4334; etözke önıiš berme yapğıl kapuğ ‘do not ıšive the body what it thinks about [i.e. desires], close the door (on it)’ 4560. (OTD p. 1 ’А: ’a qïl- удивлять: ol meni ’a qildi он удивил меня ~ he awed, surprised, astonished me)

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.


Mon. AB

1 ap/ep, etc. (intensifying particle, very) Reduplicative intensifying prefix, usually placed before N./A.s connoting colour or physical shape. Occasionally at later periods the two words are fused, and the compound thus formed entered in dicts.; in such cases the final consonant of the prefix is sometimes doubled. Other such prefixes are listed below. C.i.a.p.R.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. for a possible occurrence see 2 ap; Xak. xı ap/ep ‘a strengthening and intensifying particle’ (harf ta kid wa mubalnga); to describe something ‘particularly good’ one says ep edgü:, and in Oğuz for ‘intensely white’ ap ak... up/üp ‘a strengthening particle for [words connoting] colours’; hence one says, in Čigil, üp ürüŋ intensely white’ Kaš. I 34: xıv Muh. šadidul--bayetf ‘intensely white’ ap ak Mel. 68, 5; Rif. 168: Čağ. xv ff. San. iev, 8 ff. contains a short note on prefixes of this nature, enumerating several of them, ap (ağ), sap (sarığ), etc.; some of these reappear in the lexicon, e.g. ap (‘with p’) ağ/akvery white’ 27V. 7: Xwar. xııı (?) ap ak Oğ. 231: Ktp. xııı IIou. 31, 4 ff. has a note on such prefixes and lists several, ap (ak), kap (kara:), etc.: xıv appak šadîdu’l-baye^, followed by a note and another example Id. 7: xv Kav. 5, 4 ff. and Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 85a. 6 ff. have similar notes with examples appak, etc.: Osm. xrv ff. Several examples, from all periods, appak, apagsizda, apagsizina, etc. TTS I 1, 32; II44; III 30; IV 32.

2 ap (nor, neither... nor) a Conjunction unique in having a Neg, connotation and being used with the positive form of the verb (the meaning was not understood by F. W. K. Müller and he mistranslated U 11 4, 2-3). There are two usages, (1) ap... ap ‘neither... nor’; (2) Neg. verb . ’ . apnor’, sometimes followed by positive verb. Not traceable later than Tef. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bilmezler ap nomluğ (?) yoluğ ukarlar ‘they do not know [the way and direction], nor do they understand the way of the Law’ U 11 4, 2-3; ap yeme közünür ajunda ap yeme iklntl ajunda ‘neither in this world nor the next’ U III 86, 8-9; o.o. Suv. 528, 2-3; Tiš, 48a. 3; USp. 102, 3S-9; in a long list in TT VII 40, 77 beginning *if any monk or nun, lay brother, or lay sister’ the words ap ayağlığ ap \\\ ayağs:z uluğ kičig can hardly mean ‘neither honorable nor dishonorable, great and small’, and this must be a rather unusual use of 1 apvery honorable, very dishonorable’: Xak. xı ap a word taking the place of la, ‘not’, as in ap bu: ap ol ‘neither this nor that’ Kaš. I34: KB (the mind of an ignorant man is like a sand dune) ögüz kirse tolmaz ap ot yem önür ‘if the river comes in it does not fill, nor do spices and fragrant herbs grow on it’ 975; xııı (?) ap yeme koni ol ap yeme yaruk bitig ‘neither is he upright nor is [his] writing clear’; yetmes anlarka ziyan ap yeme asığ ‘no harm nor advantage comes to them’ Tef. 35.

a:v (hunting, game) originally prob. a Conc. N. ‘wild game’, but from the earliest period also used abstractly for ‘hunting wild game’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE where the synonymous word ag (3 eg, q.v.) is used. From about xı onwards the sound change v > w took place in some languages, and in case of doubt it has been transcribed aw. In some modem languages aw represents 2 a:ğ. Türkü vııı av avlasar ‘when he goes hunting’ Ix. 9; vııı ff. er avka: barmhš ‘a man went hunting’ IrkB 12; xanlik süsi: avka: ünmi:š ‘the army of the Khanate set out on a hunt’ do. 63: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bičin avka barmaglar ‘do not go hunting monkeys’ U IV 28, 25: Xak. xı a:v al-šayd, primarily ‘hunting’, also ‘game caught hunting’; hence one says beg avka: čıktı: “the beg went hunting’ Kaš. I 81; ‘the Turks call “huntinga:v, but they [i.e. Oğuz and related tribes] call it a:w’ I 32, 1: KB (if a chief has zeal and generosity, he becomes famous) tileki yorır ötrü av ‘his wishes are fulfilled and his hunting [successful]' 2125; a.o. 3602: xııı (?) av ‘hunting’ Tef. 35; xıv Muh. ‘the people of Turkestan call “huntinga:v and those of our country a:w’ Mel. 7, 19; Rif. 79: Čağ. xv ff. awhunting’ (šayd wa šiker) San. 53r. 27 (adding incorrectly that it also means ‘a person" (jo*s); this was due to the mistaken belief that Collective numerals like birew (biregü:) were two words bir ‘one’ and ew ‘person’): Xwar. xııı (?) aw ‘hunting’ Oğ. 17, etc.: xıv av ‘wild game, hunting’ Qutb 16; Nahc. 155, 12-le: 116; Kom. xıv uvhunting’ CCG; Gr.: Kip. xrv aw ‘hunting’ Id. 25; ‘hunting’ (al-fayd zva'!--qanš) do. Bui. io, 5; xv šayd aw (also awlak) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22a. 9.

eb (em) (female genitalia, pudenda) (OTD p. 172 EM II женский половой орган (МК I 38) (female genitalia).

S ep See 1 ap. (intensifying particle, very)

e:v (home, house, mansion) basically ‘dwelling place’ (дом, кров, укрытие, крыша, резиденция, жилье, навес, родина), with the particular connotation of a separate dwelling place, the exact meaning, ‘tent, house’, etc. depending on local circumstances. In some literary texts it also has the same metaph. meanings as Ar. bayt, e.g. “celestial mansion’. C.i.a.p.a.l. The phonetic history is unusual; the original form was e:v, but this had become ew in some languages by xı and from this followed the development ew > üw > üwl > üy; üy, less often öy, is the normal form in all modem language groups except NE, where it has undergone further distortions, and SW where \4\ ev still survives, as it does sporadic üy elsewhere. The phr. ev  ‘dwelling and movable property' is common, particularly in the early period. Türkü vııı evdwelling place’, presumably ‘tent’ is very common and ev bark occurs 3 or 4 times, see ETY Index and bark: vııı ff. ev occurs in IrkB 5, 9 and 55, but not 8 (see evin): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man., Dud. ev and ev bark are common, see Caf. and TT I-V Index. etc.: Xak. xı the word is very common, but the main entry, Kaš. I 81 (53, 7 of the facsimile) is confused. It is in a section devoted to words beginning with long vowels and comes between a:v (alif alif va) and 1 a:k (alif alif qdf), but is spelt alif va and translated al-bayt, bi-išmdmıl-ahf, tva’l-qasr fihi of šah ’dwelling place, with a front vowel, the form with a short vowel is more correct’, which clearly implies that it should he spelt e:v in this entry, though ev is more correct in current usage; ‘the Turks call al-bayt ev, and they [i.e. the Oğuz and related tribes] ew I 32, 1; a.o. II 21 (1 sök- (tear)) q.v.; see bark, kurša:ğ: KB ev (1) ‘residence, dwelling place’ 948, 1524 a.o.o. (2) üŋürde evi ‘his home is in a cave’ 6155; ‘celestial mansion, i.e. sign of the Zodiac’ 131, 132, 743, 744 (evrül-); (in the MSS. usually spelt alif ya ve, i.e. ev, less often alif ve ev): xıv Aftth. al-bayt ew Mel. 76, 4; Rif. 179: Čağ. xv ff. üy ev, xdna via'ndsina ‘house’ Vel. 122 (quotn.); üy xona San. 92r. 15 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ew 'Alt 40; xııı (?) bedük bir üy ‘a large house’ Oğ. 248; (he went back) yurtıka üyke ‘to his country and home’ do. 309: xıv <5v Qutb 52; MN 137; Nahc. 11, 10-14: Kom. xıv ev (5 or 6 spellings, see Gr. 96) ‘house’ CCI, CCG: Kip. xııı al-bayt ev (uwŋ Hou. 6, 3; fi'l-bayt e:vde: (sic) do. 15, 17: xıv ev (tiwy) al-bayt Id. 25; al-ddr ‘houseev (reme), saray ‘palace‘ (?) ditto Bui. 14, 9: xv al-bayt ev (zodw) Kav. 27, 14; 59, 9; bayt üy ; Tkm. ev Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 8a. 5: Osm. ev in various phr. fr. xıv onwards TTS I 284-5 (ev bark); II 407; 111 271; IV 315-16.

S ip See yip. yip ‘cord, thread, string’, and the like (whip)

VU o:b o:b (bla-bla) Hap. leg. Xak. xı ‘one says to a man when he boasts about something and fails to carry it out o:b o:b’ Kaš. I 43.

VU 1 op (working team of animals) survives in NC Kır. op ‘a group of animals used to tread out the corn’, Arğu xı op ‘with -p’ al-rdkts mina'l-ttrdn ‘an ox used on the threshing floor’ Kaš. I 34.

PU 2 op (exclamation (herding)) Hap. leg. Xak. xı op op an exclamation (harf) used when a donkey stumbles; equivalent to Arabic laa (n) meaning ‘hold up' Kaš. I 34.

(S) up/1 üp See 1 ap (Xak.). (intensifying particle, very)

uv (sleep) (OTD p. 619 UV сон).

*2 üp See üple:- (pillage, steal).

Mon. V. AB-

ab- (spurt) read in Uyğ. vııı İT. Bııd, kan abip ünti ‘the blood spurted out’ U 11 27, 22 is no doubt a misreading of ak-.

a:v- (crowd, surround, swarm, pack) ‘to crowd round (someone, etc. Dat. y-, not noted later than Xak.; see 2 avia:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (in the end comes death and the descent into a dark hell; countless demons come) tumanlığ yekler avar ‘foŋgy demons crowd round’ M 11 ii, 10-11: Xak. xı arja: aŋa: kiši: a:vdi: ‘people crowded (iz-dahama) round him’ Kaš. I 174 (a:va:r, a:vma:k); körünčkc: kiši: avdı: ‘people gathered round (hnffa... hatvl) the thing to see it’ I 167 (ava:r, avme:k in error); a.o.o.: KB (the people of the world hearing this, and longing for him) ava yığlu keldi ‘came crowding together’ 460; ava yığlu terlür agar xalq ever (correct transcription thus) ‘they crowd together and assemble, people hurry towards him' 6107.

e:v- (hurry) ‘to be in a hurry, to hurry’; survives in SW (onIv?), Xak. xı erevdi: 'the man hurried’ (’acila) Kaš. I167 (verse; eve:r’ tvme:k) er e:vdi: ‘the man hurried ’ Čaccala) III 183 (e:ve:r, e:vme:k); a.o.o.; KB ev- ‘to hurry5 is common, and usually described as a vice, 32.3, 538, 1107, 1998 a.o.o.: xııı (?) evüp sözleme 'do not speak in a hurry' At. 357; ev- 'to hurry’ Tef. 68: xıv Muh. ista'cala ‘to be in a hurry’ ew- Mel. 22, 8; e:v- Rif. 103; asra'a (terkle-; in margin) e:w- Mel. 22, 10: [Čağ. xv ff. evüıj ‘hurry’ Vel. 84, a dubious entry; San. n8v. 26 says specifically that the word is Rumi]: Xwar. xıv ev-/ev- ‘to hurry’ Qutb 23, 62; Nahc. 133, 8: Kip. xııı *accala e:w- ILou. 42, 12: xıv ew- (v.l. ew-) ista'cala Id. 25: Osm. xıv ff. ev- (sometimes spelt ev-) c.i.a.p. TTS I 396; II 554; III 389; IV 445.

o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss) ‘to gulp down, swallow’; the evidence for a back vowel is overwhelming; but the facts that ‘to sip' is given as an alternative meaning of öp-, and that the der. f.s öpül-, öpün-, öpür-, öprül-, and öprüš- are all shown with İnlin, in -me:k suggest that at any rate in Xak. (there is no trace of these words elsewhere) there may have been an alternative form with a front vowel with the attenuated meaning ‘to sip’, which has a slight semantic connection with öp- ‘to kiss’. Survives in NE Tob. up- R I 1780: NC Kzx. op- Shnit. 153î NW Kar. T. op- Koto. 240; Kaz. up- R I 1780: SW Anat, up- SDD 1419. Türkü vııı IT. azu: turu:k suv erscr opa:yi:n ‘or, if it is clear water, I will swallow it’ Toy. III r. 1-3 (ETY II 178): Xak. xı er su:v o:pdi: ‘the man swallowed ('abba) the water' Kaš. I 172 (o:pa:r, o:pma:k); (after 1 öp- (kiss)), and one says mü:n öpdi: 'he sipped (hasa) the soup (etc.)' I 163 (öpe:r, öpme:k); mü:n öpti: (sic) III 122 (so:r-): Kip. xıv ob- (‘with back vowel’) 'abba Id. 7: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26a. 9: Osm. xvı ob-/op- translating 'abba TTS IV 596.

uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)) ‘to crush, crumble, reduce to powder’. The word seems to have been extended to uva- in some languages in the medieval period, see uvul- (Pass. f. of uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)) (crushed, broken), uvun-; a Caus. f. uvat- and a Dev. N. ufak (uvak) also appeared in \5\ this period. Survives in NE u:- R I 1591: SE Türki uwa- Shaw le: SW Az., Tkm. ov- Osm. oğ-/ov-, with some developments of meaning. Xak. xı ol etme:k uvdi: ‘he crumbled (fatta) the bread’ Kaš. I 167 (uva:r, uvma:k corrected from itvme:k) \ uwdi: (sic) I 11, 20 (uwa:): KB elğin uvawringing his hands’ 5967; Kom. xıv ‘to break up, crush uv- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv uw- (not vocalized) fatta, and in the Kiteb Beylik uw- (spelt aw-) tahana 'to grind’ Id. 25: xv /araka 'to rub (something) in the fingers’ u- (or uw-?) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28a. 13; kabasa ‘to squeeze’ do. 31b. 1.

1 öp- (kiss) ‘to kiss’; c.i.a.p.a.l.; the absence of citations prior to xı is fortuitous, der. f.s occur at an earlier date. Xak. xı ol meni: öpdi: qabbalani ’he kissed me’ (prov.; öpe:r, öpme:k) Kaš. I 163: KB öp- ‘to kiss’, usually ‘to kiss the ground’ as a token of respect, is common 451, 939 a o.o.: xıv Muh. ‘to kiss (basa wa qabbala) öp- Mel. 23, 14; Rif. 105; al-taqbil öpmek 38,8; 119: Čağ. xv ff. öp- ('with -p- ’) büsidan ‘to kiss’ San. 57 v. 11 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı öp- ‘to kiss’ 'Ali 2e: xıv ditto Qutb 120; MN 38, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to kissöp- CCI, CCG; Gr.

2 öp- See o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss). 1 op working team of animals; 2 op an exclamation for donkey op op

Dis. ABA

aba:/l apa:/ebe:/epe: (ancestor, senior) (Lat. ava., Norse edda) words of this form, connoting various terms of relationship abound in modern Turkish languages with meanings as various as (1) ‘ancestor’; (2) ‘grandfather’; (3) ‘grandmother’; (4) ‘father’; (5) ‘mother’; (6) ‘paternal uncle’; (7) ‘paternal aunt’; (8) ‘elder brother’; (9) 'elder sister’; (10) (presumably metaph.) ‘midwife’. Some, e.g. aba:paternal uncle’, an abbreviation of Mong. abaga, and other words beginning ab..., etc. are certainly foreign; others, often occurring in only one language group, are of unknown origin. The only early forms seem to be Türkü, etc. apa:ancestor’ and Oğuz ebe: ‘mother’. Kaš. does not record the former, but it occurs in KB. In this early period it is often impossible to be sure whether the vowels are back or front and the consonant voiced or unvoiced; the following are the likeliest transcriptions. Türkü vııı ečü:m apa:m ‘my ancestors’ IE 1, IIE 3; IE 13, II E 12; ečürmiz apa:miz IE 19; Ongin 1; apa: also occurs as an element in P.N.s, possibly as a title, e.g. apa: tarxan (senior tarxan, or “our father tarxan”) T 34; this phr. occurs in Chinese refces. to the Türkü and seems to be interpreted as ‘commander-in-chief’, see Liu Mau-tsai, Die chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken, T’u-küe, index, s.v. A-po-ta-kan: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (the god Zurvan who is) ečesi (sic?) apasi ‘the ancestor’ (of all the other gods) Ml 22, 3 (in: Civ. Tartıš apam possibly ‘my ancestor Tartiš’ USp. 12, 2: Tibetan (sic) xı PU aba: al-eb ‘father’ Kaš. I 86 (said to be an Arabic l.-w., with an absurd pseudo-historical explanation; ‘father’ in Tibetan is a-p’a): Xak. Xi KB ajunka apa inmišinde beru ‘since \\\ our ancestors came down to earth’ 219; apa oğlanı ‘ancestors and their descendants’ 1386, 1732, 1922, 1958, etc.; apa yazdı erse ‘if an ancestor has sinned' 3520; a.o. 3522 (evin): Čağ. I’U ebe cadd, ‘ancestor’ (and in Rumi, zan-i qabila ‘midwife’); apa ('with -p-’) xwahar-i buzurg ‘elder sister’, also called egeči (Mong. l.-w.) San. 27v. 5; ebem kömeci a plant called panirak and ndn-i kuleğ in Pe. and xubbazi in Ar., ‘the round-leafed mallow’ do. 27V. 15: Oğuz xı ebe: al-umm ‘mother’, pronounced with -p- by the Karluk Türkmen Kaš. I 8e: Kip. xıv ebe: al-umm tva ašluhu li'l-cadda tvayuqalli'l-umm 'aid tariqi'l-tahannun originally ‘female ancestor’, used for ‘mother’ as a term of respect Id. 7; ebem ečkisin koštu: qaws quzah ‘rainbow’ (lit. 'my mother has collected her goats’) Id. 7; Bui. 3, 1: xv cadda (dede in margin) ebe Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 11 a. 11: Osm. xıv ff. ebe; in xıv and xv ebe seems to mean ‘grandmother’ TTS I 252; II 357, by xvııı it meant ‘midwife’ (see Čağ.); it is also noted in one or two phr. including ebem gömeči II 358; IV 274.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.

PU 2 apa: (bear, bear-ancestor (animal))bear’ (animal); ‘bear’ is normally 1 adiğ, but there is a good deal of folklore, mixed up with an ancestor-cult, about bears in Siberia, and this word is prob. merely 1 apa: used metaph.; survives in NE Kač., Koib., Sag. R I 620 and Khak. aba, same meaning. Kip. xı (PU) apa: ‘with back vowels’ al-dubb ‘bear’:... apa: bašı: al-tannüm ‘Cannabis sativa’; it is a plant which grows like al-qitta ‘Cucumis sativus’ and has a thorny stem, it is eaten in the mountains I 86 (this is the normal meaning of al-tannüm but the description hardly agrees with it).

ava: (exclamation: pain) an exclamation; as such Hap. leg. (?), but of a class common in Turkish. Xak. xı ava: harf ta'allum 'exclamation of pain, equivalent to Ar. wawayli'; a man who is in pain says ava: ava: Kaš. I 89.

oba:, etc. Preliminary note. There are three early words of this general form; the only one certainly Turkish is uva: (cold rice); oba: (dwelling, habitat)clan' is Oğuz and may well be a l.-w., though not demonstrably so; PU opo: (face powder) ‘white cosmetic' is prob. a Chinese l.-w. Ova ‘plain' is peculiar to Osm. and seems to be quite a modern word. Oba: ‘heap of stones, grave mound’ and the like, noted from Kom. xıv CCI onwards is a l.- w. fr. Mong. obo (Kow. 370, Haltod 78).

What a bunch (i.e. bunča) of nonsense baloney. Oba is an innate Türkic word, it is a habitat, obitel (обитель), obo, and the like derivative allophones visible with a naked eye. The habitat, obitel, obo etc. are all Turkisms, assimilated at different times and from different Türkic vernaculars. Well known are toponyms Duloba (land of dynastic clan Dulo, the clan of Attila) aka "Samo state", Altyn-oba (Golden land, capital), and such. The Russian Primary chronicle documented the land of the Tokharian tribe Tuhsoba, the land of the Tuhsi tribe, far from being "a small encampment or large tent". A tomb is naturally called oba, it is a home for the deceased. Kurgan graves are a must in Tengriism, the Türkic religion, hence the "grave mound" is a kurgan and an oba, among other similar appellations. Ditto the ova "plain", it is the same expression for a limitless steppe habitat. The Mong. obo is a Türkic l.- w. with the same semantics "habitat" and extension to "grave", among others. That the English, Latin, and Mongolian on the two ends of the Eurasia share the same word with Türkic languages attest to something that a linguist should know before she or he engages in etymology.

Rice and grains were not a Türkic staple, and on the contrary, the cold rice with its name uva: must definitely be a l.-w. As probably is the Chinese opo:, a cultural borrowing into Türkic, but etymologically it may be a l.-w. into the Chinese too. Not all Chinese words originated in the Chinese milieu, e.g. bisa 比薩 for "pizza".

Oba is a denoun derivative of the verb abï- "hide, conceal" with innumerable derivatives, of which habitat, obitel, and obo are but a few examples. The denoun adjectival form of abï- is аbïl "settlement, village", which produced allophonic derivatives "village" and "world".

oba: (habitat, clan, extended family, camp, encampment, hut) name of a small social unit, possibly ‘clan’, but prob. even smaller, ‘extended family’ and the like; from this the word came to mean ‘the dwelling place of such a unit; small encampment or large tent’, and thence more generally ‘tent, but’, and the like; survives in these later senses in Osm., including Rep. Turkish and Anat. (SDD 1081, 1411), and Tkm. (o:ba) only (?). Oğuz xı oba: al qabila ‘clan’ (? , an imprecise word) Kaš. I 8e: Čağ. xv ff. oba ‘the small tents (xaymaha) which nomads pitch and in which they reside, when they stop \6\ somewhere; and metaph. the place where they stop’ San. 581-. 22: Osm. xıv ff. oba c.i.a.p., in xıv to xvı it seems to mean ‘a small encampment’, in a xıv text an ev qawmi ‘the family living in one tent’ is more important than one man, and an oba qawmi ‘the families living in a small encampment’ are more important than an ev qawmi; from xvı onwards it seems to mean ‘a tent or hut’, particularly a large one occupied by more than one family TTS I 533! 11 713; HI 530; IV 596.

ОPU вихрь (upsurge, OTD p. 368)

D uva: (dish (food)) Dev. N. in -a: fr. uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı uva: ‘a kind of food’ (ta'dm); to make it rice is cooked and thrown in cold water; then it is drained and mixed with ice (or ‘snow’), canid) and eaten to cool one (li’l-teilda) Kaš. I 90; ‘a kind of food is called uwa: (sic) derived fr. the word uwdi: (sic), fatta, because sugar is crushed in it’ I 11, 20.

VU ?F opo: (face powder) ‘a white cosmetic or face powder’, contrast erjlik ‘rouge’; prob. a Chinese l.-w., the second syllable perhaps po ‘white’ (Giles 8,556); survives in NE Šor oba R 11157; Tel. obo R I 1159: SE Turki upa Shaw, Jarring, etc. (and Tar. upta R I 1782): NC Kır. upa; Kzx. opa; cf. kirše:n. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A opoča TT II 17, 77 (öpül-): Civ. kunčıt yağı (PU) opo katıp ‘mixing sesame-seed oil and white lead’ II1132, similar phr. II12, 89: Xak. xı opo: al-isfidec ‘white lead’ Kaš. I 8e: Čag. xv ff. opa (‘with -p-’) ‘liquid white (safid db) which women put on their faces’ San. 58r. 23 (quotn.): Kip. xv isfidec (klrše:n and) opa Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 4b. 13.

Dis. V. ABA

abi:- (hide) Hap. leg., but see abıt-, abın-. Xak. xı ol am: kišfedin abı:di: ‘he hid him (satarahu) from the people’; also used of any thing that one conceals (ivdrd) from someone Kaš. III 250 (abi:r, abi:ma:k).

*аvi:- See avıt-, avın- (enjoy oneself, be happy, наслаждаться, be friendly, kind, be comforted, consoled), etc.

Dis. ABB

S üpüp See üpgük (hoopoe (family Upupidae)).

Dis. ABC

S avuč See adut.

D avči: (hunter) N.Ag. fr. a:v (hunting, game); ‘hunter’; s.i.a.m.l.g.w. phonetic changes. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. avčı ‘a hunter (of wild game)’, included in a list of various kinds of hunters PP 1,8; avčı keyikčı U IV 32, 2: Xak. xı avčı: al-qetıiš ‘hunter’ I 63, 12; 311 (ağdı:-); al-še'id ‘hunter’ / 425, 19; n.m.e.: KB avčı it ‘hunting dog’ 3601: xıv Muh. al-sayydd ‘hunter’ awči: Mel. 57, 16; Rif. 15e: Čağ. xv ff. awčı šayydd San. 53V. 1: Xwar. xıv avčı ‘hunter’ Qutb le: Kip. xv šayyed (awlawči; in margin) awčı Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22a. 9.

D evči: (wife, woman) N.Ag. fr. e:v (house, home) with the specific connotation of ‘housewife’, hence more generally, ‘wife, woman’; s.i.s.m.l., mainly NE. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. er evči ‘man and woman’ (or 'husband and wife’?) Kuan. 137, 138 (mistranscribed iči in UII 19, 19; 20, 20): Civ. un oğlnniığ evči süti ‘the milk of a woman who has born a man child’ II I 18, 65; epči karabaš bözči ‘[my] female slave, a weaver’ USp. 73, 4; xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘woman’ epči R I 923; IJgeti 134: Xak. (xi the word does not occur; ‘woman’ is ura:ğut or i:šle:ŋ xıv Muh. al-mar a ebči: Mel. 45, 4; 54, 14; Rif. 138: Kom. xıv 'woman, wife’ epči; ‘domestic servant’ evdeki epči CCI; Gr.

Tris. ABC

?D aba:či: (bogy, evil spirit) Hap. leg.; morphologically a N.Ag. but not semantically connected with aba:/apa:; there is, however, a semantic connection with aba:ki: q.v. Xak. xı aba:či: al-cetüm ‘a bogy’; to frighten a child one says aba:či: keldi: ‘the bogy has come’ Kaš. I 136.

(D) avičğa: (old man, old age) properly 'an old man’, but with some extended meanings; an old word w. ending -ğa:, cf. kurtga:; survives w. extensive phonetic changes in NE only, e.g. Khak. apsax; Sag. apčax;Tuv. ašak.'Türkü vııı ff. Man. Âl III 11, 15 (i) (ersi:-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. avičğa ‘old man’ PP 25, 7; a.o.o.: Civ. abučğa do. USp. 32,22: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘mother, nurse’ (sic) abuška R I 632; Ligeti 125: Xak. xı avičğa: al-šayx ‘old man’ Kaš. I 143: KB avičğa ditto 1638 a.o.o.: xııı (?) avunča ditto Tef. 3e: xıv abuška ‘old man, husband’ Rbğ. R I 632: Čağ. xv ff. abuška term of address by a wife to her husband, meaning šûy ‘husband’ Vel. 5 (quotn.); avuška same as abuška^ do. 33 (quotn.); abušğa ‘husband’ San. z-]\. 17 (same quotn.): Xwar. xıv abuška ‘old man’ Nahc. 69, 15; 285, 16 a.o.o.: Kom. xıv ‘old man’ abuška CCI; abıška CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-šayx abıška Hon. 24, le: xv (al-šayx karı) wa l/adi akbar minhu ‘and for someone even older’ abıška (and kartay) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20b. 3; haram ‘advanced old age’ (kart and) abıška 37b. 8.

F avujğum Hap. leg.; the -j- suggests an Iranian l.-w. Xak.]xi avujğu:n al-qaraz 'the fruit of Quercus aegilops with which hides are tanned’ Kaš. I 157.

Dis. ABD

S awut See adut (palm, handful).

S 1 evet See yemet. (yes)

E 2 e:vet (hurried) is written quite clearly in a verse in Xak. xı tegme: e:vet ıška: körüp turğıl ele: ‘look at everything which is hurried, stop and go gently’ Kaš. III 26, 1, but is prob. a scribal error for e:vek, q.v.; e:vek ıš is almost a stock phr. and the only other record of this word seems to be in SYV xx Anat. evet SDD 558; ivet do. 802.

uvut (modesty, shyness)modesty, shyness’; practically synonymous with uyat, q.v., with which it is often used in Hend.; nearly all modern languages use \\ uyat in this sense and there does not seem to be any certain survival of this word except in SW XX Anat., but Sfr Türki uwat Shaw; uvat BŠ; ubat/uvat Jarring seems to preserve some memory of it. Sometimes transcribed ovutf but uvut is certainly correct, cf. uvtan-, uvutluğ. Türkü vııı ari:ğ uvutı: yeğ fa prov.J ‘modesty in a pure man is better [than pride]' T 3": Uyğ. vııı ff. Iîud. uvut uyat üze čavıkmıš ‘famed for his modesty’ (Hend.) Suv. 489, 12; in TT V 24, 60-1 uvut uyat (mistranscribed avyat) ‘modesty, humility’ is one of the seven constituents of piety: Civ. uvut ičine sürtser ‘if one rubs [the ointment] into the sex/ial organs' H 2 78; uvut yatımda ‘in the sexual organs’ TT VII 21, 8; uvut yarinde meg bolsar ‘if there is a mole on the sexual organs' do, 37, 4 (USp. 42, 3): Xak. xı uvut al-frayd ‘modesty, shame’; uvut al-da'wa ile ta’em awtl-sulten ‘a sum' mons to a meal or [the presence of] the Sultan’ Kaš. I 51 (there is no other trace of the second meaning); uwut luga ‘dialect form’ of uvut li'l-haya I 83; o.o. I 116, 5; 131, 22 (see utanč), 469, 12, same translation: KB uvut bGrdl ‘ (God) gave [man] modesty’ 149; o.o. 1660, 2290-2, 4981, 6474: xııı (?) uvut/uğut ditto Tef. 230, 232: Xwar. xıv uvta (metri gratia for uvutta) tur- ‘to be shamed by (something Abl.y Qutb 201: Kip. xııı 02$ ‘vegetables’ is said also to mean ‘fire; remedy’ and al-haye Hou. 8> 18 (presumably read u:f): xıv ud al-haye (also called uyad) Id. 9; Tkm. (uyat and) ut al-haye do. 27: Osm. xıv ff. ud/ut is common till xvı and ut yerl till xvıı , both occur sporadically thereafter TTS I 730; II 934; III 718; IV 790; ud/ut yerl is mentioned in xix dicts; in xx Anat. ud SDD 1412 occurs and ut is fairly common do. 1422.

Dis. V. ABD-

D abıt- (hide) Caus. f. of abı:- (hide) but with the same meaning; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ol özin mendin abıttı: ‘he hid (katama) himself from me’; also used when one conceals and hides (satara . . , wa katama) anything Kaš. I 206 (abitur, abitma:k); ol an*: kišhdin abi:ddi: (sic) ‘he hid and concealed him (satarahu zva axfdhu) from the people’ also used of anything that you hide (waraytahu) from someone else / 216 (abitur, abitmajk, sic); ol er ol ö:zin kiši-.din abıtğam ‘that man has a habit of hiding himself (al-ixtifd') from the people’ I 154, 14.

D avit- (comfort, amuse, distract) Caus. f. of *avi:- ‘to comfort (e.g. a crying child Acc.); to amuse or distract (someone Acc.); s.i.m.m.l.g., often in altered forms, e.g. NE Tel. u:t- R I 1702; Tuv. a:d-/a:t-: NW Kar. L. T. uwut- R I 1786, uvut- Kotu. 276; see yubat-. Xak. xı KB seve baktı erse sen özni avit ‘if it looks lovingly at you, take comfort’ 135; yok erse mig edgün avıtğu ičerek ‘if he is not [to blame] you must comfort him with countless kindnesses’ 642; o.o. 628, 3574: xııı (?) avut- ‘to console’ Tef. 3e: Čağ. xv ff. awut- (spelt) tasallî dadan ‘to .comfort’ San. 53r. 4 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv avit-/avut- ‘to comfort, console’, Qutb 17; oyut- ditto 116; avut- Nahc. 107, 4; Kom. xıv uwut- (?) ditto CCG; (Jr. 268: Kip. xıv awut- ‘to comfort’ (šdğala) a crying child’ Id. 25: Osm. xv avit- ‘to comfort’ TTS II 68.

evdi:- (gather, pick up) ‘to gather, pick up (things /Jar.)’; pec. to Xak. and t/yg., where it has been mistranscribed as E idi:-, q.v. Xak. xı ol ylnčü evdi:di: ‘he picked up, gathered (laqafa) pearls'; also used of fruit Kaš. I 273 (evdi:r, evdi:me:k): KB (I composed the whole of this book in eighteen months) üdürdüm adırdım söz evdip tere ‘I chose, picked out, and collected what I had to say’ 6624.

D evdil- (gathered, picked up) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of evdi:- (gather, pick up). Xak. xı evdildi: ne:ŋ ‘the thing was picked up’ (ultuqifa) Kaš. I 246 (evdilür, evdllme:k).

D evdin- (pluck, pick) Refl. f. of evdi:- (gather, pick up); survives only in SW xx Anat. evtin- (of a dying man) ‘to pluck at the bedclothes’ SDD 563; ividln- do. 802. Xak. xı <oI>ö:zİge: yemi:š evdindi: ‘he gathered (pick) (iitaqata) fruit for himself’ Kaš. I 251 (no Aor.; evdinme:k); a.o. 7/254, 15. *

D uvtan- (shy, abashed) Refl. Den. V. fr. uvut (shy, abashed); ‘to feel shy, bashful; to be ashamed (of something Abl.); to be abashed (by something Abl.y \ generally abbreviated to utan- from an early date; survives in NW Kaz. oftan-: SW utan-; syn. w. uyal-, q.v. and uvutlan, Xak. xııı (?) At. amg bahšišindin built uvtanur ‘the clouds are abashed by his generosity" 57: xıv Rbğ. uftan-do. R I 1784; Muh. istahyd ‘to feel shy’ u:ta:n- (? uwfa:n-) Mel. 22, 8; Rif, 103 (in margin uftam-); hacala ‘to be ashamed’ 25, 4; al-haye' u:fa:nmak (? uwta:nmak) 38, 9; 125; Čağ. xv ff. utğan- (-ıp) utan- Vel. 91 (quotn.); utğan- (spelt) a Refl. V., šarm kardan ‘to be bashful, ashamed’ San. 6ov. 25 (same quotn.): Oğuz xı ol mendin utandı: istahyd minni ‘he felt shy of me’ Kaš, I 199 (utanu:r, utanma:k); a.o. I 291 (uvutlan-): Xwar. xııı utan- ‘to be shy, ashamed’ 'Ali 55: xıv uvtan- do. Qutb. 201; (there is a word in my heart but) aymakka uftanurmen ‘I am shy of saying it’ Nahc. 360, 3: Kip. xıv (after uyat) Tkm. ufan- istahyd Id. 27; istahyd utan- Bul. 25r.; xv istahyd (u:yal- and also) ufan- used chiefly by Tkm. Kav. 76, 9; istahyd (uyal- and) utan- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 6a. 10.

D öptür- (kiss) Caus. f. of 1 öp- (kiss); ‘to order (someone Dat., if mentioned) to kiss (someone Acc.y; survives at least in SW; contrast öpür-. Xak. xı ol ant: öptürdi: amarahu hatte qabbala ğayrahu ‘he ordered him to kiss him [i.e. a third party]’ Kaš. Iz\7 (öptürür, öptürme:k): Čağ. xv ff. öpdür- Caus. f. bûsemdan ‘to order to kiss’ San. 57V. 29.

Tris. ABD

D evdindi: (gleaning) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. in -di: (Pass.) fr. evdin- (pluck, pick). Xak. xı evdindi: ne:ŋ ‘gleanings (luqdfa) of anything’ Kaš. I 145 (hitherto misread as avnndt'.y but -d- is clear in the MS.).

Tris. ABD

D uvutluğ (modest, humble, ashamed, bashfulness) P. N./A. fr. uvut (shy, abashed); ‘modest, ashamed’; survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. utlu SDD 1423. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kamlar uluğı uvutluğ boldi ‘the chief of the magicians became ashamed’ Man.-trig. Frag. 401, 910: Hud. Sanskrit hri ‘bashfulness, shameuvu:tlug (so spelt, but uvu:tluk intended) TT VÎII vJ.33: Xak. \t uvutluğ kiši: al-raculu'l-raqiqul-hayyi ‘a humble, modest person’ Kaš. I 14e: KB (of the Prophet) uvutluğhumble’ 43 ; (of a girl) ‘modest’ 4476; n.o.o.: Xwar. xıv uvutluğmodest’ Qutb 201: Osm. xıv to xvıı utluhumble, modest’, TTS I 731; II 935; III 718.

D uvutsuz (shameless, immodest, sex) Priv. N./A. fr. uvut (shy, abashed);shameless, immodest’, in the early period usually with a sexual connotation; n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. uvutsuz bilig sürüp ‘having sexual intercourse’ Ml 5» 6; a.o. 6, 15: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A uvutsuz išig sürü umaz ‘cannot have sexual intercourse’ M I 16, 19-20; uvuftsuz bijlig do. 35, e: Bud. uvutsuz biligin UII77, 23; 86, 40 (mis-spelt uutsug?); a.o. U IV 38, 143: Xak. xı KB evek erse kilkl uvutsuz közi ‘if his character is hasty and his eye shameless’ 849; (keep away) uvutsuz kišiditl ‘from a shameless man’ 1309: xıv Muh. (?) al-zvaqih ‘shameless, impudent' u:tsiz Rif. 153 (only).

D uvutsuzluk (shameless, immodest, sex) A.N. fr. uvutsuz (shameless, immodest, sex); ‘immodesty, shamelessness’; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB uvutsuzluk erke idi teksiz Ig ‘shamelessness is a completely unparalleled disease in a man’ 1662: Osm. xıv utsuzluk ‘ (female) immodesty (sex)’ TTS I 732.

Tris. V. ABD-

D uvutğar- (ashamed) Hop. leg.; Den. V. in -ğar- (Trans.) fr. uvut (shy, abashed). Xak. xı ol meni: uvutğardi: alca'ani ile'l-haye' hatte hayîtu ‘he put me to shame, so that I was ashamed’ Kaš. I 290 (uvutğarur, uvutğarma:k)

D uvutlan- (shy, abashed) Refl. Den. V. fr. uvut (shy, abashed); ‘to be abashed, shy’; apparently survives only in SW xx Anat. udlan-/utlan- SDD 1412, 1423; cf. uvtan-, uyal-. Xak. xı er uvutlandi: istahyd*l-racul ‘the man felt shy’; the Oğuz sav utandı:, leaving out several letters Kaš. I 291 (uvutlanur, uvutlanma:k).

Dis. ABĞ

S aba:k See aba:ki: (idol, jinn, ghoul).

?D avağ (coquetry, affectation)coquetry, affectation’; possibly a Dev. N. fr. a:v (hunting, game)-; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB avağlar neče tutsa bermez özin ‘however much [fortune] may play the coquette, it does not give itself’ 403; (you must be frank with your Secretary and Vizieŋ söz ačsa avağları yürigü kerek ‘if you are frank, you must put up with their affectations’ 2680: Čağ. XV Zam. avağ is quoted as an equivalent to eda in Tarama Dergisi I 203 and naz in I 615.

ıvık (gazelle (fem.)) ‘the female gazelle’; the male is VU sukak (gazelle (male)), q.v.; n.o.a.b.; it seems possible that the medieval word spelt ayrak and the like is a misreading of this word, and accordingly the occurrences are listed here, but this could be a Dev. N. fr. ayır- (adir- (separate, branch)) in the sense of ‘an animal with branching horns’, the translations of it are somewhat different. Xak. xı ıvık al-zabya ‘the female gazelle, which haunts hot places and deserts’ Kaš. I 67; o.o. 239, 17 (udlaš-); 265, 17 (avlat-): KB sukak ysl ıvık 5374: xıv Muh. (}) a!-ğaze! ‘gazelle’ i:wuk Rif. 175; (Mel. 72, 8 has arğalı:, a Mong. l.-w. meaning ‘mountain sheep’): Čağ. XV Zam. i:vuk ‘gazelle’, quoted in Hon., p. 59 s.v. aitvuk: xv ff. ayrak/ayrağ (sic, spelt) btız-i-küht nar ‘the male mountain goat5 and some say that it is an animal like the marel deer, which has twisted (pičida) horns San. 57r. le: Xwar. xıv ıvık/ıvuk ‘ (female?) gazelle’ Qutb 207; bir tlši ıvuk ‘a female gazelle’ Nahc. 295, 12: Kip. xııı al-gazal (elik, in) Tkm. i:vuk (vocalized with (fowmfl over ye) IIou. 11, 6; kabšul-cabal ‘mountain sheep ayrak (unvocalized, ?read i:vuk) do. it, 8: xıv al-ğazeî (keylk, also called) ırvvığ (k) (sic, but vocalized aywug) Bui. 10, 7: Osm. xvı ff. ayrık (so transcribed) occurs in two xvı and one xvııı-xix dicts, translating Ar. and Pe. words for ‘antelope’ and ‘wild sheep’ TTS II 84; III 54.

S uvak See uvšak.

Tris. ABĞ

aba:ki: (idol, jinn, ghoul) an unusually shaped word but cf. aba:čr., q.v.; as such Hap. leg., but survives as abak and the like as shown below and in NW Kar. T abaxidol’ Kow. 150; Krim. abak ditto. R I 621 (quotns.): SW xx Anat. apakjinn’ Tarama Dergisi I 176 (cm); aba:ki:ghoul’, do. I 259 (^1//); opak ‘jinn’ SDD 1092. Xak. xı nba:lci; al~xayelullati tunšab ftl--mabaqil tawaqqiya (n) *aml-*ayn ‘a figure put up in kitchen gardens to avert the evil eye’ Kaš. I 13e: Kip. xııı (in a list of things connected with women, clothing, etc.) al-lu'ba ‘doll’ aba:k lion. 18, e: xv jar; ‘shape, figure, etc. (sin/) abak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21a. 6 (with a side-note saying that sin can cast a shadow (in 22b. 5 it translates sanain ‘idol’) but abak cannot); šûra ‘picture’ abak 22b. 5.

Dis. EBG

PU epek (bread) Hap. leg.; but there are similar NW Kaz. childish words epey/epi in R I 919 and i:pi do. 1566; no doubt a mispronunciation of epmek. Xak. xı children call ‘bread’ (al-xubz) epek Kaš. I 68.

D e:ve:k (hurry, light, swift, hasty, daring, punctual, attentive) N/A.Ac. fr. e:v- (hurry); ‘hurry; hurrying, in a hurry’; survives in NE Kač., Koib., Sag. ebeklight, swift, daring’ R I 927; Khak. ibek (of a horse) ‘swift’ and in Kač. (of a man) punctual, attentive’. Xak. xı eve:k al-raculul-'acül ‘a man in a hurry’ Kaš. I 122; e:vek 'acala ‘hurry’ I 77, 10; n.o.o. usually spelt e:vek; see 2 e:vet: KB evekhasty’ 849 (uvutsuz); 1997: xut (?) evek ‘hurry’ Tef. 68; \\ Xwar. xıv andın evekrek išim bar ‘I have something more urgent than that to do’ Nahc. 436, 3; a.o.o.: Osm. xiv-xvi evek 'hasty, urgent’ in several texts TTS 7396; III 389; IV 444.

S ibik/übük See üpgük (hoopoe (family Upupidae)).

öpke: (anger, lung) originally in a concrete sense ‘lung’; by extension ‘anger’ an emotion supposed to originate in the lungs; originally prob. öpke: but övke: (? öfke:) occurs quite early, and a Sec. f. öyke: as early as xtn; in one form or another s.i.a.ın.l.g. Üyğ. vııı ff. Man. öpke bilig ‘anger’ TT II 16, 35 (F) >fnd 46; 17, 54; öpke mzbam ‘the passion of anger’ do. 17, 73, and 81; övke nızvam TT III 29: Bud. (birds peck his entrails and) öpkesin ‘his lungs’ U III 79, 4 — öpke ‘anger’ U II 25, 1; övke ‘anger’ U II 85, 25; övke köŋül öritmeyük ‘not allowing angry thoughts to arise’ U III 42, 12; a.o.o.: Civ. tevenig övkesin ‘the lungs of a camel’ H I 60; öpke:si ‘his lungs’ TT VIII 1.1; Xak. xı öpke: al-ri'a ‘lung’; öpke: al-ğayz ‘anger’, so called because anger is generated in the lungs, and the two are closely connected Kaš. I 128; I 158, etc. (ürül-); 164 (öč-); 176 (öčür-); 233 (öčrüš-); III 392 (tagız-); 428 (amurt-); öfkesinde: I 195 (ürül-): KB öfke (so spelt in Fergana MS.) ‘anger’ 322, 781: xıv Muh. al-ri'a öpke: (ba) Rif. 141: Čağ. xv ff. öpke (so spelt) šuš ‘lung’ San. 581-, 27; öfke qahr wa xišnı ‘rage, fury’; also spelt öyke yyr. 11; öyke (spelt) ‘rage, fury’ 92V. 16; Xwar. xıv evke/öfke/övke ’anger’ Qutb 23, 121, 125: Kip. xııı al-ri'a öyke:; Tkm. öyken Hon. 21,14 (neither vocalized):xiv öpke: (be) al-ri’a td. 7: xv al-ri'a öfke: Kav. 61, 10; al-ri'a öpke (be), in margin öyken Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 1 ıb. 8: Osm. xıv ff. öyke ‘anger’; öyken ‘lung’ c.i.a.p. TTS I 570; II 759, 760; 77/569, 57o; 71/632.

üpgük (hoopoe (family Upupidae)) the earliest of several early onomatopoeic names for this bird; the others are assembled below; some s.i.s.m.l., occasionally with the extended meaning in Čağ. Türkü vııı ff. kara: üpgü:k ‘the black hoopoe’ IrkB 21: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. üpüp kušnug sügükin ‘the bones of a hoopoe’ TT VII 23, 5: Xak. xı üpüp al-hudhud ‘hoopoe’; dialect form of (luğa fŋ üpgük Kaš. I 78; Čigil xı üpgük al-hudhud Kaš. I 110: xıv Muh. hudhud übü:k (not vocalized) Mel. 73, 4 (v.l. ibi:k); Rif. 17e: Čağ. xv ff. übük ‘the crest’ (tec) on the heads of such birds as the cock and the hoopoe (hudhud), and metaph. ‘hoopoe’; the latter is also called püpük and püpüš and, in Rumi, ibik; übük kušı ‘hoopoe’ in Pe. šenasar San. 58V. 2: Kip. xv hudhud übük Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 37b. 10: Osm. xv ff. ibik/ibük c.i.a.p. TTS II 511; III 351; IV 405.

S ipgin See yipgin.

Dis. V. EBG-

PU evük- (reside, stay) (homeless, roofless) (eviction) hitherto (yet)  transcribed bük-; occurs only in Türkü vııı ff. Yen, and O, Kir, ıx ff. \\ where it is very common. With one dubious exception the only known form is evükmedim in a standard formula in funerary inscriptions. It takes the Dat. and is used in contrast to adnı- ‘to be separated from’, e.g. (xanimka:) elimke: evükmedim kuyda: kunčuyımka: adrıltım Mal. 8, 1-2, which must mean something like ‘I could not stay with my acan and realms; I have been separated from my wife in the women’s quarters’. The object of adnı- is nearly always a person, wife, son, etc., that of evük- more often an institution, ruler, realm, and the like. Radloff (R IV 1876) is prob. right in suggesting that it should be transcribed evük-; if so it can be taken as a Den. V. in -ük- (Intrans.) from e:v meaning ‘to reside, stay(homeless, roofless).

Tris. EBG

E ebegü ‘rib’, error for eye:gü (rib).

D öpkeči: (etc.) (angry, bad tempered) N.Ag. fr. öpke:; ‘angry, bad tempered’; s.i.s.m.l. Üyğ. vııı ff. Bud. övkeči Kuan. 64; Civ. terk öpkeči ‘quick tempered’ TT VII 17, 23.

D öveklik (urgency, (undue) hurry) A.N. fr. e:ve:k (hurry, light, swift, hasty, daring, punctual, attentive); ‘urgency, (undue) hurry’; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı eveklik al-acala fi'1-umür ‘urgency in affairs’ Kaš. I 153: KB öveklik kišike isiz ‘undue hurry in a man is a vice’ 629; o.o. 1996, 2078 (similar).

D öpkelig (etc.) (angry, bad tempered) P.N./A. fr. öpke:; usually ‘angry, bad tempered’; s.i.s.m.l.: Xak. xı KB öfkelig ‘bad tempered’ 342, 780, 850: Čağ. xv ff. öpkelig kineya az dilevoar ‘a metaphor for bold, bellicose’ San. 58r. 27; öykelig xašmnek wa qahmliid ‘furious, enraged’ 92V. 17: Xwar. xıv (the envious man) menim fadli:mka övkelig turur ‘is hostile to My grace’ Nahc. 4x4, 4.

Tris. V. EBG-

D öpkele:- (etc.) (wound lung, angry) Den. V. fr. öpke: in both meanings; (1) (? only Xak.) ‘to wound in the lung’; (2) ‘to be angry (with someone Dat. or Abl. y; s.i.s.m.l. in various forms. Türkü vııı ff. oğlı: öginte: kaŋı:nta: övkele:pen ‘a son, being angry with his mother and father’ IrkB 58: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. y^rke teŋrike... yerinür övkileyür («c) he is disgusted and angry with earth, heaven...’ TT VI 17-18; övkelegülük Suv. 228, 15 (yirin-): Xak. xı ol agar öpkeledi: ra'ehu wa huwa an yadrib 'ale ri’atihi ‘he struck him in the lung’ (öpkele:r, öpkele:me:k); ol andın öpki:-İe:di: 'arada 'anhu limö ğadiba ‘he shunned him because he was angry’ (öpki:le:r, öpki:le:me:k) Kaš. I 317 (the difference in spelling seems deliberate but is not confirmed elsewhere except once in Uyğ.): xıv Rbğ. öpkele- ‘to be angry’ R I 1310; Muh. (?) ğadiba öpke:le:- (e>a) Rif. 113 (only; v.l. öpke;len-): Xwar. xıv efkele-/öfkele- ‘to be angry’ Qutb 19, 121 (also evkelen-/öfkelen-): Kom. ‘to be angry’ öpkele- CCI; Gr.

D öpügse- (kiss) Hap. leg.; Desid. Den. V. fr. a N,Ac, of 1 öp- (kiss); cf. öpse;-. Uyğ. vııı ff. 10 \10\ Man. öz amrakımın öpüğseyürmen 'I wish to kiss my own beloved’ MII 8, 10 (ii).

Dis. ABL

D evlig (homeowner, married) P.N./A. fr. e:v; lit. ‘possessing (one’s own) dwelling’, usually ‘married’, applied both to men (‘the head of the household’) and women (‘living at home’); s.i.a.m.l.g.; in NE somewhat distorted. Xak. xı evlignİ: rabbu'l--bayt ‘the master of the house’ / 106, i; II 176, 27; evlüg (sic) al-zatcca 'the woman of the house’ I 251, 9; n.m.e.: KR aya evlig er sak ‘householder, beware!’ 164; (there are twelve signs of the Zodiac) kayu iki evlig kayu birke en ‘some occupy two celestial mansions (i.e. Ar. bayt), some have the width of one’ 138; kah evlig almak tilese özüŋ 'if you wish to take a wife’ 4475: xııı (?) Imran eviügi ‘the wife of Imran’ Tef. 68: xıv Rbğ. evlig ‘wife’ Tarama Dergisi I 841 (s.v. sevce)\ Muh. al-muta'ahhil 'married’ ewllrg Rif- 153: Čae’ xv ff. Uyluk (‘with -k’) evlü, in the sense of ‘householder’ (ketxuda) Vel. 122 (quotn.): üylük (spelt) xanwari ‘family, household’ San. 92V. 18 (same quotn.; perhaps here really the A.N. in -Ilk): Kip. xııı al-muta'ahhil (PU) i:lü: (so spelt, error either for evlü: or üylü:) Hou. 25, 4: xıv ewlü: (‘with front vowels’) al-mutazazcicac ıca ma’nehu dü'l--bayt ‘married’, literally ‘house-owner’ İd. 25.

PU ablam (unvocalized) (rat) Hap. leg. Xak. xı dmvaybba min cinsi'1-curden ‘a small animal of the rat family’ Kaš. I 120.

Dis. V. ABL-

D e:vil- (hurry) Hap. leg.?; Pass. f. of e:v- (hurry) used impersonally with the logical subject in the Dat. Xak, xı i:ška: ivildi ’ucila H l-amr ‘the affair was hurried’ Kaš. I 271 (e:vllür, e:vllme:k).

D opul- See uvul-. (Pass. f. of uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)) (crushed, broken) (Rather, Pass. f. of op- “up-”, i.e. “uplifted”)

D uvul- (crushed, broken (chewed, пережеван, разжеван)) Pass. f. of uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)); ‘to be crushed, broken into small pieces’; s.i.n.m.l.g., usually as uval-/uval-/ufal-, but Osm., as well as ufal-, has oğul- (pronounced oıvul-, ovul-) ‘to be rubbed, kneaded’, which seems to be a survival of this word. The rare Türkü word hitherto transcribed opul- might be a Pass. f. of o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss), but the meaning ‘to be swallowed’ (chewed, пережеван, разжеван) is awkward, and it is perhaps likelier that it should be transcribed uful- and taken as a Sec. f. of this word. Türkü vııı (gap) binip oplayu: tegip sanča: ıdıp at ufulu: (?) Ünti: yana: ağıtrp (gap) ‘he mounted... and attacked, panting with fury and plying his lance; his horse was crushed (?); he got up, making it stand up again’ Ix. 19; (gap) Ulügi: anča: ermiš erinč yaği:ka: yalguıs oplayu: tegip ufulu: kirip özi: kišğa: kergek bulti: ‘his fate was, it seems, this; panting with fury and attacking the enemy all alone, entering (the battle) and being crushed, he met his end at an early age’ Ix. 23: Xak. xı uvuldi: ne:ŋ ‘the thing was crushed’ (futta) Kaš. I 197 (uvulur, uvuj-m«:k): Kip. xv ğušiya ilayhi ‘to faintuvul-, \\\ Tkm. uğul- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27a, 11 (cf. uvun-). Osm.xvi (s.v. ovundu) uvulan nesne ‘something which is crushed’ TTS IV 615.

?S öpel- See öpül-. (Pass. f. of 2 öp- (see o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss)) (to be sucked in, swallowed; to collapse, subside)

D öpül- (sucked in, swallowed; collapse, subside) Pass. f. of 2 öp- (see o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss)); the only modern form seems to be NW Kaz. ubil- ‘to be sucked in, swallowed; to collapsc, subside’. IJyğ. vııı ff. Man-A (sinful human beings in the long cyclе of rebirths) otča öpelür (sic) opočn (?) kinlenürler tegzinilrler ‘are swallowed [by the earth] like grass and crushed like white face powder (?) and go round and round’ TT II 17, 77-9: Xak. xı sü:t öpÜldi: husiyatil-maraqa tva ğayruhu ‘the milk in error, ‘broth’, etc.] was sipped’ Kaš. I 193 (öpülür, öpülme:k).

D 1 avla:- (hunt) Den. V. fr. a:v (hunting, game); ‘to hunt (wild game)’; s.i.a.m.l.g., with some phonetic changes. Türkü vııı av avlasar ‘when he hunted wild game’ Ix. 9: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. avlap ölürdi ‘he hunted and killed’ (innumerable wild animals) V IV 34, 57: Xak. xı beg av avla:di: ‘the beg hunted wild game’ (šeda... al-šayd) Kaš. I 287 (avla:r, avla:ma:k): xıv Muh. išteda ‘to hunt’ a;wJa:- Mel. 22, jj; Rif. J03: Čağ. xv ff. awla:- (spelt) (1) šiker kardan ‘to hunt’ (and (2) melidan, in Arabic dalaka, ‘to rub, polish’, hardly to be regarded as a translation of 2 avia:-; inexplicable) San. $2r. 21: Xwar. xıv avia- ‘to hunt’ Qutb 16; MN 271: Kip.xııı išteda mina'1-šayd awla:- Hou. 34, 4; šeda mina'1-šayd awla,*- (vocalized u:la:-) do. 41, 11: xıv (awlu:‘hunting grounds’, the verb derived from it is) awla- tšfeda Id. 25: xv šeda awla- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22b. 8: Osm. xıv avia- ‘to hunt’ (actually ‘to fish’) TTS I 53.

D 2 avla:- (surround, облава) ‘to crowd round (someone Dat.), to surround’; ava: the Ger, of a:v-, q.v., is used almost as an Adv. and this seems to be an abbreviated form of avarla:-, a Den. V. fr. that word noted only in Kaš. Survives only (?) in NE Khak, abla- 'to attack (someone) in large numbers; to surround (someone or something)’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (then the demons, seeing King Častana...) teğlrmileyü avlap ‘milling about and crowding round him’ U IV 8, 19-20; same phr. do. 18, 192: Xak. xı amo tegre: kiši: ava:la:di: 'the people surrounded him (haffa hawlahu)\ this word is used only of disorderly behaviour, in other cases the word used is a:vdi; Kaš. I 310 (ava:-la:i\ ava:la:ma:k); agar kiši: avla:di: 'the people crowded round him’ (izdahania 'alayhŋ I 287 (avla:r, avla:ma:k): Osni. xvı sim ü zerle kemer avlayıp 'wrapping his belt round (surround) with silver and gold’ TTS II 69..

D evle:- (housed, live, dwell, marry) Den. V. fr. e:v; survives in one form or another in NE Küer. R I QZi; SE Türki Shaw 29; NC Kır., but usually meaning ‘to live in a house; to marry’; the usual modern word for the meaning in Uyğ. is evlendir-. Uyğ. ıx (I had seven younger brothers, three sons and three daughters) evledim bağladım \11\ «I installed (my brothers and sons) in dwellings of their own and married (my daughters) into (other) clans’ Suet 6 (translation from Grenbech, ‘The Turkish System of Kinship’, Stadia Orientalia... Johanni Pedersen dicata, Munkspaard, 1953).

PU opla:- (sigh) Den. V. fr. a word which survives in NC Kır. op ‘a sigh’ and SVV Osm. uf/u:f ‘an expression of impatience or disdain; an onomatopoeic for a pufT of breath ’ Redhouse 258; survives in Osm. ufla- ‘to ejaculate uf' do. 259. Türkü vnt oplayu: teg- ‘to attack panting with fury’ is a stock phr. in descriptions of battles, Ix. 19 and 2^ (see uvul-) o.o. Ix. io ( i J, (15); J B 32’ 3^; N 3, (4), 5*

VUD üple:- (pillage, steal) Den. V. fr. 2 *üp, which seems to be identical with NE Tuv. üp, Pal. 54, citing the phr. dayın üvü ‘trophies (of an enemy)’; the verb itself survives in Tuv. üple- ‘to pillage’. Xak. xı ol anig tava:rin üple:di: ‘he stole (nahaba) his property’ Kaš. I 284 (üple:r, üple:me:k).

D avlat- (hunt) Caus. f. of 1 avla:- (hunt); ‘to order (someone Dat.) to hunt (something Acc.y: Xak. xı ol maga: ıvık avlattı: ‘he ordered me to hunt (ašedam) the gazelle (etc.)' Kaš. I 265 (avlatur, avlatma;k): Čağ. xv ff. awlat- Caus. f.; (1) šikerfarnuldan ‘to order to hunt’; (and (2) melenidan ‘to order to rub’, cf. 1 avla:- (hunt)) San, 52V. 14.

VUD üplet- (pillage, steal) Caus. f. of üple:- (pillage, steal); survives in NE Tuv. üplet- ‘to (let oneself) be pillaged’. Xak. xı ol amŋ tava:nn (ipletti; anhaba me/ahu ‘he ordered that his property should be stolen' Kaš. I 264.

D avlan- (hunt) Refl. f. of 1 avla:- (hunt); s.i.s.m.l., usually in a Pass. sense. Xak. xı er ö:zİQe aivlandi: (sic) ‘the man busied himself with hunting for himself’ (bi'1-išfiydd li-nafsihŋ Kaš. I 298 (a:vlanur, a:vlanma:k): Čağ. xv ff. awlan- Refl. f.; šiker šudan ‘to be hunted’ San. 52V. 15.

D evlen- (housed, marry) Refl. f. of evle:- (housed, live, dwell, marry) lit. ‘to get a dwelling of one’s own’, normally (of a man) ‘to get married’, in this sense s.i.a.m.l.g.; the alternative translation is pec. to Kaš.; in modern languages ‘to have a halo’ is normally ağillan- (not noted earlier than xv ff. Čağ.). Xak. xı ay evlendi: ittaxada'l-qamar data ‘the moon got a halo’; and one says ol bu evni: evlendi: ‘he got this house as a residence (maskart), and reckoned himself as one of the community of residents’ (min ctitnla qdtinihŋ Kaš. I 259 (evlenür, evlenme:k); ay kopup (vocalized kapup) evlenüp ‘the moon rose in a halo’ I 258, 1 : xıv Muh. tazawicaca (of a man) “to get married’ ewlen- Mel. 24, 5; e:wle:n- Rif. 10e: Čağ. xv fî. üylen- (spelt) ‘to be a householder' (šöhib-i xana); and metaph. an expression for ‘to take a wife, get married’ (zan giriftan wa tazaıvıvuc hardan) San. 91 v. 15 (quotns.): Kip. xıv ewlen- tazatcwaca (s.v. evlü:) İd. 25: xv razawivaca üylen-: Tkm. ewlen- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) gb. 8. \\\

D avlaš- (surround, облава) Co-op. f. of 2 avla:- (surround, облава); Hap. leg.?; the Co-op. f. of 1 avla:- (hunt) is noted only in Čağ.: Xak. xı kiši: avlašdi: (обложить) ‘the people crowded together round (izdahama 'aid) something’ Kaš. / 24o (avlašu:r, avlašma:k).

D evleš- (house) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of evle:- (housed, live, dwell, marry). Xak. xı beg <anifl> birle: evlešti: oyna:p (translated) ‘the beg gambled with him (laabahu) and made the stake (al-xatar) between them a dwelling place (fcay/)’; followed by a note on this use of the Recip. f. Kaš. I 240 (evlešü:r, evlešme:k, mis-spelt ma:k).

VUD üpleš- (pillage, steal) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of üple:- (pillage, steal). Xak. xı bo:dun (bi:r> ekindi: tavainn üplešdi: 'the people pillaged (ağdra) one another’s property’ Kaš. I 238 (üplešür, üplešme:k).

Tris. ABL

aba:li: (exclamation: denigrate) Hap. leg., but the kind of word often omitted from dicts. Xak. xı abarli: harf yttqdl 'inda'l-istiqldl bi'1-šay’ ‘an exclamation used to disparage a thing’ Kaš. I 137.

avilku: (tree (type)) pec. to Kaš.; like tavilku: morphologically inexplicable and prob. a l.-w. Xak. avılku: šacarul-qurm 'the qurm tree’ (species uncertain); it has a red fruit, which is used to colour tutmač (q.v.); its bark is used to treat ophthalmia and dye cloth Kaš. I 489; a.o. III 146 (2 ka:t).

Tris. V. ABL-

D ava:la:- See 2 avla:- (surround, облава).

Dis. ABM

PU apam/apag (if)if’, used with the Conditional mood. The earlier form is fairly common in Uyğ., the later is not traceable after xiv. In the early period the -sar form was not always strictly Conditional, and this word perhaps became superfluous and fell into disuse when its usage became more restricted; the word was sometimes used by itself and sometimes followed by birok. Von Le Coq in Turan, 1918, p. 457 stated, without giving a reference, that F. W. K. Müller described this word as an ‘Aramaeo-Sogdian ideogram’; this is complete nonsense, apparently based on a misunderstanding of the Sogdian ‘ideogram' ’P'and’, sometimes followed by zy, which was formerly read ny. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. apam blrok... kodmasar ‘if he had ceased (to preach, etc.)’ TT III 64-5: Bud. apam blrök bu etözümln titsermen ‘if I renounce this body of mine' Suv. 614, 1-2; the word is common in Suv. see TT 129, note 198: Civ, apam bir adakin sisar ‘if he breaks one of his legs’ TT I 198; apam (by itself) USp. 61, 13; 98, 19, etc.; apam birök do. 13, 13; 57, 16 etc.: Xak. xı apag a conjunction (harf) meaning law ‘if’; one says apag sen barsa:sen ‘if you go’ Kaš. I 133; o.o. I 399, 22; II 209, 20: KB apaŋ iki ajun kolur erse sen ‘if you desire the two worlds’ 226; o.o. 895, etc.: xıı (?) \12\ KB VP apaŋ dostuy erse ‘even if he is your friend’ 21: xıv Rbğ. apaŋ ‘if R I 623 (no quotns.).

VUD öpüm (sip) Hap. leg.; the translation suggests this rather than opum; N.S.A. fr. 2 öp- (op-). Xak. xı bir öpüm mün hasiva min maraqa ‘a sip of soup’ Kaš. I 75.

?S epmek (bread) ‘bread'; cf. etmek (bread) the older, and prob. the original, form; in sonic modern languages there is a third form ekmek (bread); cf. also epek (bread); survives only (?) in SW Az. epmek/eppek (bread) R I 925. Yağma, Tuxsi, and some Oğuz and Kip. xı epmek al-xubz ‘bread’ Kaš. I 101.

Tris. ABM

PUF abamu (endless, everlasting) (abysm)endless, everlasting’; no doubt a l.-w. (Indo-European?) Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. mentioned in Hüen-ta. Briefe 36, note 1990, as occurring in unpublished parts of that text, translating Chinese yung, same meaning (Giles 13,504), and in such phr. as abamu kalpka tegi ‘to endless ages’.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.

PUDF abamuluğ (endless, everlasting) (abysm) Hap. leg.?; P.N./A. fr. abamu (endless, everlasting) (abysm). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. buyanlığ bilge biliglig yivigin beš tağlarka megzetl abamuluğ A*eč kilzun 'may he make a provision of virtue and wisdom everlasting and enduring like the five mountains' Hüen-ts. 1990.

Dis. ABN

apag See apam. (if)

VUF a:wan (uvnc unvocalized). Say ram xı (under uvut) ‘similarly a:wan “a tree” (al-šacara) in the language of Snvram, that is Ispıceb’ (is also pronounced a:wan), Kaš. I 84. 4.

evin (seed, fetus, grain, berry, fruit, semen, hair) properly ‘seed, grain', less often ‘berry, fruit'; the curious idiom whereby it is used in Uyğ. Bud. as a numerative is prob. due to over-literal translation; Pe. dona, same meaning is also so used. Survives in NE Tel. ebinkernel’ R 1931 and SW xx Anat. efin 'juniper berry’ SDD 507; evinseed’, etc. do. 598. Türkü vııı ff. evintin ‘from the berries’ (?) IrkB 8 (see i:n, might be evintin ‘from its house’): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kaltı uruğ evin... örürče ‘just as a grain or seed springs up’ (in fertile ground) Af 117, 15: Bud. buğday evininče ‘the size of a grain of wheat’ Pfahl. 6, 6 (on this passage see Clauson, ‘Turkish Ghost Words’, JRAS, 1955, p. 134); tü evini sayu ‘each individual hair’ TT V 12, 117 (for o.o. see note thereon, p. 19); bir evin tüsige 'a single one of his hairs *U IV 20, 259: Civ. evini (misread evisi) ‘her seed’ (i.e. foetus) HI 22; üc tört evin yarma mončuk murč ‘three or four split peppercorns' do. 149: Xak. xı evin oUhabb ‘seed’ Kaš. I 77; ewin ‘dialect form of evin’ / 84, 5: KB apa učmak ičre yedi kör evin ‘our ancestor (i.e. Adam) eat the seed (i.e. fruit) in paradise’ 3522: (Xwar, xıv (a net to catch birds is useless) \\\ evünsüzwithout seed in it’ Qutb 17): Osm. xv evin suyu 'semen’ TTS III 260 (s.v. erJik); (of a plant) evin bağla- ‘to form seed’ IV 316.

D avınč (friendliness, kindliness) N.Ac. in -č fr. avın- (enjoy oneself, be happy, наслаждаться, be friendly, kind, be comforted, consoled), 'friendliness, kindliness'; survives in NW Kar. I,, uvants; T. uvıırtč R Î 1786, Kozu. 276; became a l.-w. in Persian as utvanc (Steitigass 122), and thence back into Osm. as üvertč, described as a Persian l.-w. (Redhouse 271); cf. avınču:. Xak. avınč al-muenasa bi'1-šay' ‘friendliness, kindness about something’ Kaš. I 132 (and see avın-); III 449 (duplicate entry): KB (may his rule continue) sevinčin avınčın klivenčin ‘in happiness, kindliness, and pride’ 123; o.o. 937 (similar) 1424, 1849, 3629: xıv Muh.(?) al-mudnasa avınč ‘in Turkestan’, awinč ‘in our country’ Rif. 79 (only); mu'nis avınča: (sic) do. 148.

EF avant See anvant. (cause, reason) (event)

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.

Dis. V. ABN-

D abın- Hap. leg., Refl. f. of abı:- (hide); mis-vocalized uban-. Xak.xi <ol>mendin abindi: ixtnfa minni ‘he hid himself from me’ Kaš. I 198 (abmu:r, abinma:k).

D avın- (enjoy oneself, be happy, наслаждаться, be friendly, kind, be comforted, consoled) Refl. f. of *avi- (enjoy, be happy, be friendly, kind, be comforted, consoled, наслаждаться); ‘to enjoy oneself, be happy’; to be friendly, kind (to someone Dat.)\ to take pleasure in (something/)#/.)’; s.i.m.m.l. g. with phonetic changes. Xak. xı ol maija: avındı: istanasa hi ‘he was friendly, kind to me’ Kaš. I 202 (avinujr, avinma:k); (after avınč) same phr. translated dnasa bi, same meaning I 132, 22; badram kılıp avnalim ‘let us hold a festival and еnjoy ourselves’ (nota'allal) I 263, 14: KB avın- is common; ‘to enjoy oneself’ 49, 95, 1427 (avınču:), 2694 a.o.o.; ‘to take pleasure in (something Dat.)’ 1424, 2093 (see oyun); a.o.o.: xıı (?) Tef. aŋar avundi ‘was friendly to him’ 3e: xıv Rbg. čifti birle avunip ‘enjoying himself with his wife’ RI70: Čağ. xv ff. awun- tasalliynftan ‘to find comfort’ and the like San. 52V. 17 (quotns.): Xwar. xv avın- ‘to be comforted, consoled’ Qutb 17: Osm. xıv avın- ‘to take comfort’ TTS II 68.

D evin- (hurry) Refl. f. of e:v- (hurry); pec. to KB? Xak. KB (prefer quiet deliberation in all things) magar te'at erse Gvingil yügür ‘but if you receive an order, hurry and run’ 1999.

D uvun- (crushed, broken, faint (feel crushed)) Refl. f. of uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)); survives in fewer modern languages than uvul- with the same phonetic changes, most having uvan-/ufan-, but SW Osm. has both that form and oğun- in different meanings; the first is usually used in a Pass. sense ‘to be crushed, broken into small pieces’, the second for ‘to faint’, i.e. feel oneself to be crushed; the meaning in Kaš. is not traceable elsewhere. Xak. xı ol ozi^e: etme:k uvundi: ‘he occupied himself with crumbling (bi-fatt) bread for himself’; and one says ol eligln uvundi: faraka yadayhi 'he wrung his hands’, because of a calamity which had overtaken him or because of distressing \13\ news or pain' Kaš.l 202 (uvunur, uvunma:k); II 147 (tevin-): xııı (?) Tef. uvunur iki ayasın ‘he wrings his hands’ 230; Xwar.xııı VU uğun- ‘to faint’ 'Ali 5e: Kip. xıv uğun- uğmiya 'alayhi ‘to faint’ Id. 2e: xv ğušiya 'alayhi ‘to faint’, in margin uğun- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27*1, ii (see uvul-); ivqašafa ‘to be broken, split', in margin uwati- do. 6a. 8 (see kertil-); tafattata *to be crushed’, in margin uwan- do. 10a. 3 (these three side-notes prob. in a SW hand): Osm. xiv-xvi uvan- ‘to be broken up, crushed; to disintegrate' TTS I 732; II 938; III 720; IV 792; ufan- do. tillxix I 712, III 697; and uğjjn- (once in xv uvun*) ‘to faint, lose consciousness’ till xix I 716; U 921; III 707; IV 777; xvııı uwan- (speit) in Rumi, bi-hiss šudan 'to be unconscious’ Son. 89r. 15.

D öpün- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss) Refl. f. of 2 öp- (o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss)); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kaltı arslan Öküzüg böri koynka öpünü kellrče ‘just as a lion comes to swallow up an ox or a wolf a sheep’ M III 11, 8-10 (i) (thus in MS. but obviously both objects should be in the same case, Acc. (with öpün-) or Dat. (with kel- (to come)): Xak. xı ol mÜ:n öpündi: 'he pretended to sipfo'tf/ww) the soup, without actually sipping it’ Kaj. I 198 (öpünür, öpünme:k).

Tris. ABN

D avınču: (pleasant, concubine) Dev. N. in -ču: (Intrans.) fr. avin-; lit. ‘something which gives pleasure', but normally ‘concubine’; n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. avi:nču: xatu:n bolzu:n ‘may the concubine become a queen' IrkB 38: Xak. xı avınču; ne:ŋ al-šay'ulladi uta'allal bihi wa yusta'nas 'a thing which gives enjoyment and pleasure’; hence ‘concubines’ (al-cawarŋ are called avınču: Kaš. I 134: KB avınču sevügler bile avnur Öz ‘(now) he enjoys himself with the love of a concubine’ (soon he will be lying flat hidden beneath the ground) 1427: Xwar. xıv köpül avunčası ‘the comfort of his heart’ Qutb 16, a.o.c.

D evinlig (seeded, pregnant) P.N./A. fr. evin; survives in SW XX Anat. evinli (crops) ‘in which the seeds have formed’ SDD 559. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. adınağunuŋ korığlığ evinlig uzuntonluğka yaztım yagıltım erser ‘if I have sinned against another man’s private pregnant woman’ A. von Ie Coq Chuastuanift (AKPAW, 1911) 27, 8-9.

Dis. ABR

D evre: Ger. in -c: of evir- (turn, overturn, skirt, alternate); occasionally used as an Adv. meaning ‘again, in return’, and the like; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB (whatever a man plants in the ground comes up) negü berse evre anı ok alır ‘whatever he gives he receives back’ 1394; o.o. 638: xııı (?) TV/ evre (occasionally spelt ebre) is common, translating Ar. fa- ‘then, again’ and in such phr. as evre yan- ‘to turn back', evre čık- ‘to come back out’ 67, 68. \\\

PU? D oprı: (hollow, valley) prob. Dev. N. in -ı: fr. *opur-, Caus. f. of o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss); ‘hollow, valley’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M 111 29, 10 — 11 fsıšiığ); Xak. xı opri: al'hufra 'a hollow’ Kaš. I 125; III 134 (ko:l): Ktt (Thou hast created all things) yazı tag tegiz kötki opri yerig ‘plains, mountains, seas (or lakes?), high ground and valleys’ 21; yazı ta:ğ kır opri ‘plains, mountains, high ground, and valleys’ 69, 96.

S avurt See adurt. (cheek-pouch, щека)

D opra:k (shabby, ragged, overaged, clothing, linen, rubbish, ветошь) N./A.S. fr. opra:- (age, overaged, decay, worn), q.v.; originally ’shabby, ragged’, esp. of clothing; hence later ‘clothing’ in general; also anything ‘old, disintegrated’; survives in SC, NW, and SW in several forms both with back and front vowels. Xak. xı opra:k al-tawbn'l-xalaq tea ğayruhu 'shabby clothing, etc.’, hence opra:k to:n ‘shabby clothing’ Kaš. I 118; oprak yasik ‘a shabby bow-case’ III 16, 25; neče:me: oprak kedük erse: ‘however shabby a felt cap (sic) may he’ 711 38, 21: KB todur ač yaligm ham oprak bütür ‘feed the hungry and clothe the naked’ 3923; bütür oprakığ 4527: xıı (?) At. yarağ bulsag oprak yaliŋnl bütür ‘if you find an opportunity, clothe the naked’ 330: Čağ. xv ff. eprik (‘with -p-’) kuhna tea mundaris ‘old, worn-out’; and metaph. edam-i pir-i musinn ‘an old man’ San. 27V. 12; ofrağ (spelt) raxt wa libes ‘clothing’ San. 77r. 10 (quotn.) Kip. xjv aprak (be, so vocalized) a\-qumöš ‘linen’ or ‘rubbish’? td. 7 (the word has both meanings): xv qumeš aprak (be) wa hmua'l-xalaq (and šüpreJc) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 29a. 10 (see čüprek): Osm. xv-xvi yıprakshabby’ TTS II 1051; IV 884.

S ovruğ See oğruğ. (collar-bone, broken (огрызок))

S evrek See ördek. (duck)

?E evrik Error? for 1 irig. (mouldering, decayed)

PUD ıprük (mixture of curdled and fresh milk) Hap. leg.; so vocalized, but prima facie Dev. N. in -ük (Pass.) fr. öpür-, to be read öprük. Xak. xı iprük ‘a mixture of curdled and fresh milk which is drunk; it is a laxative (datvö' müshil) for anyone who has been constipated by drinking sour milk or butter milk' Kaš. I 101.

D evren (firmament, dome-shaped oven (tandyr), snake, dragon) presumably Dev. N. fr. evir- (turn, overturn, skirt, alternate); if so, the general connotation is of something which revolves; hence ‘the firmament’ which was regarded as a revolving dome; and thence in Kaš. ‘a dome-shaped oven’; in NW, SW it was used for ‘snake’, presumably because it coils its body; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı evren šay’ yubne 'aid hi'a kûrtl-hadded yuxbaz fihi ‘a thing built in the shape of a blacksmith’s oven in which bread is baked’ Kaš. I 109: KB yarattı kör evren tučı evrülür ‘ (God) created the firmament which revolves continuously’ 126; o.o. 92, 119, 344, 1642, etc.: xıv Muh. al-fahk ‘the firmament’ ewren (mis-spelt üwzen) jevren (mis-spelt akran) Mel. 78, iG; evre:n (mis-spelt evz:en) Rif. 183: \14\ Kip. xııı al-tubdn ‘adderewre:n (unvocalized) Hon. ii, 17: Osm. xıv ff. evren ‘large snake, dragon’; n.i.a.p, TTS I 285; II 408; III 272; IV 316.

Dis. V. ABR-

evir- (evür-) (turn, overturn, skirt, alternate, translate) basically 'to turn (something Acc.), with various special applications like ‘to turn (a wheel Acc.); to overturn (a cup Acc.); to turn (the face, Acc., towards someone, Dat., or away from someone, Abl.)\ and, in the early period, ‘to translate (something, Acc., from one language, Abl., into another, -ča/-če)\ S.i.a.m.l.g., sometimes in forms so distorted that they are hard to distinguish from modern forms of egir- (surround, encircle, twist, spin). Often associated, and syn., w. čevür- (twist, rotate, turn, translate) and tevür-, q.v.; in Ar, script easily confused w. 2 ör- (plait) which has a similar meaning. Türkü vııı (we travelled for ten days) yantakı: toğ evirü:skirting the spurs on the side (of the mountain)' T 26 kogmen yišığ evirü:skirting the Kügmen mountain forest’ 7 28: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. nom tilgenin evirgey (v.l. tevirgey) 'he will turn the wheel of the law’ TT VI 455; (the acts of the body, the mind, and the tongue) ajunlar berü evirdeči ‘which cause the (various) states of existence to alternate' U II 7, 9; similar phr. do. 80, 64; 81, 69 — enetkek tılıntın tavğač tılınča evirmiš ‘he translated from Sanskrit into Chinese (Tabgach Türkic)’ UI 14, 1-2; similar phr. U IV 6 passim; — (my mother and father, my wives) evirü uluğlanm ‘my various great ones’ TT VII 40, 144: Xak. xı ol meni: yo.ldin evürdi: ‘he turned me inside (šarafanŋ from the road’; and one says ol aya:k evürdi: («e) ‘he overturned (qalaba) the cup’ (etc.) Kaš. I 178 (evüre:r, evürme:k); bu: er ol ı:šığ evürgem tevürgem ‘this man is constantly upsetting and disturbing (hmctedl... tva qulldb) the business’ I 157, 17; similar phr. I 521, 24; II 81, 24 (tevür-): KB evür- is common; evrer yüzin 'he turns his face away’ 403; similar phr. 628, 649, 718, etc.; isizniŋ kını birle kılkın evürreform the wicked man’s character with punishment’ 5548: xııı (?) At. yüz evrüp 424; Tef. İčin evürse ‘if you turn (the fabric) inside out’; yüz evür- (both ‘away from’ and ‘towards’) 69: Čağ. xv ff. 6wÜr- (spelt) garddnidan ‘to turn (away)’ San. n8r. 14 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv evür- ‘to turn (towards or away)’ Qutb 23; MN 377; Nahc. 323, 2: Osm. xv evir- ‘to turn’ (the eyes Acc., away from something Abl.) TTS I 285. (OTD p. 162 EBIR- обходить, делать круг)

VUD öpür- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss) Caus. f. of 2 öpü- (o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss)); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ol mağa: mü:n öpürdi: ahsdnil-maraqa ‘he made me sip the soup’ (etc.) Kaš. I 176 (öpürür, öpürme:k); bu: er ol sü:t öpürgern ‘this man is in the habit of giving many sips (İhsa*. . . katira (n)) of milk to someone’ I 157, 7.

opra:- (age, over-aged, decay, worn) ‘to grow old, decay’, and esp. (of clothes) ‘to wear out’ (İntrans.). S.i.a.m.l.g. in a surprisingly wide variety of forms, including NF, NC ura-/u:ra- and SW Osm. ipra-, ipri-, yepre-, yipri-. The oldest form seems to be apra-, but this is noted only once, and the basic form can be taken as opra:’, Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (as the poison takes hold of him) ad[urt]i (?) erni yerup eyeki tamğakı aprap (sic) 'his cheeks (?) and lips split, his chin and his throat decay’ TT II 16, 14-le: Civ. (gap) opratı öl[ür] (?) (gap) TT I 201 (unintelligible, possibly oprat-); Xak. xı torn oprardi: ‘the garment wore out’ (baliya) Kaš. I 273 (opra:r, opra:ma:k); keg torn opra:ma:s 'a loose-fitting garment does not wear out’ III 358, 15: KB bu edgü karımaz yeme opramaz ‘this good man does not get old or decrepit’ 1640: xıv Rbğ. ötükleri opradi ‘their boots wore out’ R I 1163: Mtih. (-) 'ataqa rva qaduma ‘to become, or be old’ (eski-; in margin) o:pra:- Rif. 112 (only); al-datür ‘to be decrepit’ o:pra:- 123: Čağ. xv ff. öpre- (spelt)/Öpren- kuhna wa mundaris šudan ‘to be old and worn out’; in Rumi epri:- Sarı. 57V. 29; ofra-/ofran- ‘identical with opra-/opran- (sic)' same translation do. 77V. 7: ipre- (spelt)/ipren- ‘identical with öpre-/öpren-’, same translation do. 93r. 3.

VUD öpürt- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss) Hap, leg.; Caus. f. of, but syn. w., öpür- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss), Xak. xı men ačar su:vöpürttüm hamaltuhu 'aid šurbi'1-me' wa ğayrihi ‘I urged him to drink water (etc.)’ Kaš. III 427 (öpürtür, öpürtme:k).

D oprat- (wear out (clothes)) Caus. f. of opra:- (age, over-aged, decay, worn); 'to wear out (clothes)’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l.g. w. the same phonetic changes as opra:-. Xak. xı ol to:nin opratti: ‘he wore out (abla) his garment (etc.)’ Kaš. I 2el (opratur, opratma:k): Čağ. xv ff. opnrtmns (j/c) pirenmez ve eskinmez ‘imperishable’ Vel. 86 (quotn.): ipret- Caus. fM kuhna kardan ‘to make (something) old’ San. 931-. 5: Xwar. xıv oprat-‘to destroy’ (?) Qutb 194.

D evril- (revolve, turn) Pass. f. of evir- (turn, overturn, skirt, alternate); usually ‘to revolve’, sometimes ‘to turn (Intrans.) away from (something Abl.)*: S.i.a.m.l.g. w. the same phonetic changes as evir-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. sansarmŋ berü evrllmekin ukup ‘understanding the constant revolution of samsdra’ (i.e. the alternations of birth, death, rebirth, etc.) (J II 11, 10-11; ölüt ayığ kıiınčtm evrilmescr ‘if he does not turn away from the evil deed of killing5 U III 4, 12-13 ; (if the passion of lust rises in their minds) ayiğ törü eyin evrilürler ‘they constantly behave (?)in accordance with evil practices’ do. 79, 4 (İİ); o.o. U II 40, 102-3 O yan-); USp. 43, 7; loo, 2; Suv. 192, 6; 348, 5: Xak. xı erevrüldi; raca'a'l-racul min wachihi ‘the man turned back from his course’; also used of anyone who departs (insarafa) from his course Kaš. J 248 (evrülür, evrülme:k): KB (the moon is in the constellation of Cancer) bu ev evrülur, evi evrülür ham Özi čevrülür 'this celestial mansion revolves; its celestial mansion revolves and it itself revolves’ 744; o.o. 119, 126 (evren): xııı (?) Tef. evrül- 'to turn back’ 69: Čağ. xv ff. 6wrül- (spelt)gardidan ‘to revolve’ San. î i8r. 29 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv evrül- ‘to \15\ turn towards; to turn downwards' (Intrans.) Qutb 23; ‘to be mixed with’ Nahc. 179, 6.(OTD p. 162 EBIR- обходить, делать круг)

VUD öprül- Pass. f. of öpür-; the equivalent form with back vowels, obrul-, survives in SW Osm. Red. 234 and xx Anat. SDD 1081 meaning (of ground) ‘to subside, collapse’. Xak. xı mti:n öprüldi: husiyati'l-maraqa ‘the soup was sipped’ Kaš. I 245 (öprülür, Öprülme:k). Osm. xiv, xv obrul- ‘to subside, collapse’ in several texts TTS I 534; II 714; III 530 (vocalization fixed by Dev. N. obruk ‘chasm’, etc.). .

D evriš- (wrestle, turn, comfort, surround, encircle) (3 separate meanings-words!) Co-op. f. of evir- (turn, overturn, skirt, alternate); with a curiously wide range of meanings. S.i.s.m.l.g. w. phonetic changes. Xak. xı anıŋ birle: telim evrlšti: merasahu katira (n) ‘he often wrestled with him’; and one says aniQ kačmeš atın evrJštj: ‘he helped to turn the horse’s course back towards him (fi radd wachVl-xayl ilayhŋ after it had run away from him’; and one says ol mapa: tawa:r (sic) evrišti: ‘he helped me to turn over (fi taqlib) the goods (etc.), that is to turn them upside down’ (yue'al zahruhd li-bajn) Kaš. I 235 (evrišü:r, evrišme:k); (of a poor man in winter) odğuč bile: evrišü:r yata'allal bi-qabasVl-nar ‘he comforts himself with a firebrand’ I 248, 6 (the form must be right, as it rhymes with other similar words, but a der. f. of avit- (comfort, amuse, distract) might have been expected): Čağ’ xv ff. evrüš- piremün-i čizi gardidan ‘to surround, or encircle, something (i.e. avriš-)', and metaph. kdwıš kardan ‘to meditate, turn (churn) (something) over in one’s mind’ San. i:8v. n (quotns.).(OTD p. 162 EBIR- обходить, делать круг)

D opraš- (age, overaged, decay, worn) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of opra:- (age, overaged, decay, worn). Xak. xı to:nla:r oprašti: axadati’l-atudb fVl-bild ‘the garments began to wear out’; also of other things Kaš. I 232 (oprašu:r, oprašmark; prov.).

VUD öprüš- (sip, compete) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of öpür-. Xak. xı ol maoa: mli:n öprüšdi: ‘he helped me to sip ('aid hasiv) the soup (etc.)’, also used for ‘to compete’ Kaš. I 232 (öprüšü:r, öprtišme:k).

Tris. ABR

PU?F avurta: (? avirda:) (foster-mother, wet-nurse) ‘foster-mother, wet-nurse’; in Osm. (only?) ‘midwife’; the word looks foreign (? Iranian). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit dhdtri ‘wet-nurse’ a:virda: TT VIII D.i 1: Xak. xı avurta: zi'r ‘fostermother’ Kaš. II 144 (tutun-); n.m.c.: KB (if you have children) avurtası edgü kiši tut arığ ‘engage a good clcanly woman as their foster-mother’ 4505: xıv Muh. zi’ru’l-šabi oğla:n awurta:si: Mel. 11, 7-8; Rif. 85: Osm. xıv to xvı avurda ‘midwife' in two or three texts TTS II 69; III 47; IV 51.

D evrifinčsiz (irreversible) Priv. N./A. fr. a Dev. N. fr. the Refl. f. of evril- (revolve, turn); ’which cannot be turned back (or aside)’; an epithet applied usually to the believer’s mind; sometimes used in Hend, with ağınčstz ‘unshakeable’, q.v. Pec. to Uyğ. Bud. Uyğ vııı ff. Bud. evrilinčsiz...\\\ köŋül TT V 22, 35; ağınčsız evrilinčsiz... köpüllüg Pfahl. 6, 3; evrilinčsiz törö Suv. 190, 16-17; evrîlinčsizin (mis-spelt evrinügsüzin) ağınčsızın do. 488, 13.

E avrındı: See evdindi: (gleaning).

E evrinügsüz See evrilinčsiz (irreversible).

F avru:zı: (dish type (mixed food)) Hap. leg.; indexed under Z as the last consonant; l.-w. fr. Pe. afrûsa, same meaning. Xak. xı avru:zi: (MS. avzu.rı:) al-mağlût mina'l-ta'dm 'mixed food’, e.g. wheat and barley flour mixed and baked together Kaš. I 145-

Dis. V. ABS-

evü:s- ‘to winnow’; very scantily attested; survives only in SW xx Anat. efis-, evls-, evse-, evs- SDD 508, 559, 561, 562. Xak. xı evü:s- n.m.e.; (İn the Grammatical Introduction) evü:sgü: (q.v.) is derived from the expression evü:sgü:l nasafa'1-šay' ‘he winnowed the thing’ Kaš. I 13, 18: Kip. xv nasafa üyüs- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 37a. 10: Osm. xvı ff. evs- occurs in three xvı and one xvııı Pe. dicts, in translations of words meaning ‘winnowing basket’.

D 1 evse:- Desid. Den. V. fr. e:v; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı er evserdi: išteqa*I~racul ild baytihi zva tamanna ‘the man longed for his home’ Kaš. I 277 (evse:r, evse:me:k); a.o. 279, 18.

D 2 evse:- Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of e:v- (hurry), Xak. xı er evse:di: tamannd'l-raculu'l-acala ‘the man wished to hurry’ Kaš. I 277 (evse:r, evse:me:k).

D öpse:- Desid. f. of 1 öp- (kiss); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı men anı: öpse:dim tamannaytu taqbilahu 'I wished to kiss him’ Kaš. I 275 (opse:r, öpse:me:k); er ki:zin öpse:di: ‘the man wished to kiss his daughter’ I 280, 13.

D evset- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of I evse:-. Xak. xı oğlum meni: evsetti: ‘my son made me long (mannani wa $aivtvaqnnŋ for home’ Kaš. I 262 (evsetür, evsetme:k).

Tris. ABS

D evü:sgü: Hop. leg.; N.I. fr. evü:s- (winnow). Xak. xı ‘the word evü:sgü: lima yunsaf bihi'l-jay*' for ‘the thing with which something is winnowed’ is derived from evü:s-, q.v. Kaš. I 13, 18; n.m.e.

Dis. ABŠ

D uvuš Dev. N. fr. uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)); as such Hap. leg., but oğuš, which is etymologically identical, survives in SW Osm. meaning ‘a way of rubbing with the hands’, Red. 257. Xak. xı uvuš futdt ‘fragments’ of anything hence duqdqxCl-xubz ‘bread-crumbs’ are called uvuš etme:k Kaš. I 61.

D öpüš Dev. N. fr. 1 öp- (kiss); ‘a kiss’, S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı öpüš al-taqbil ‘a kiss’, tea huwa \\ bavna'I-ilnayn ‘with -p-’ Kaš. I 60: \iv Muh. a!-Inha ‘a kiss’ öpü:š (/vŋ .!/<•/. ,Sj, 5; Rif. 188.

D uvša:k (small, minor, slander) Dev. N./A.S. fr *uvša:-; very rare in its original form and soon replaced by ušak which s.i.a.m.l.g. A more or less synonymous word uvak, a similar Dev. N./A.S. fr. uva- (< uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands))) is noted as early as xıv in Osm. and s.i.s.m.l.g., in Osm. since xvıı as ufak. Basically ‘crushed, broken up small’, but in most languages hardly more than ‘small’, 'something small’, e.g. ‘a boy’; ‘slander’ which occurs from an early period and in several languages is an obscure metaph. meaning. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man, (gap) ufšak (sic) kılınčlığ ikirčgü köŋüllüg yalguklarka ‘to men who make slanders (?) and have undccided minds’ TT III 117: Civ. (if a mouse) uvšak ısırsar ‘bites (a garment) into small pieces’ TT VII 36, 4-s; uvšnk yumğaklur ‘broken (i.e. varicose) veins’ \\ // 31, 196 and 198 — ušak kart ‘a small swelling’ \\ I 68; ušak toğrap ’slicing it up fine’ do. 7e: Xak. xı šiğenı I-fay' ‘small things’ are called ušak ne:g; hence al-šİbyen ‘boys' are called ušak oğla.ti; and duqaqu'l--hatab ‘bits of wood’ are called ušak o:tuŋ; this word is not used in a singular sense (Id yufrad) but only in the plural (//7-cam') Kaš. I 67; uša:k al-namima ‘slander’, one says uša:k so:z ‘slanderous words’ (kaiem) I 122; sa:v uša:k al-namtma II 20, 6; uša:k ne:g III 279 (tovra:-): KB yegü alsa tišle ušak tančula ‘if you take food, bite it and chew it up small’ 4601: xııı (?) At. ušak taš ‘small pebbles’ 60: xıv Rbğ. ušak kıl- ‘to grind’ (grain); ušak ‘as small’ (as ants) R I 1149 (quotns.): Muh. samak sığar ‘small fish’ ušak ba:li:k Mel. 77, 6; Rif. 180 (u:šak); siatu'l--xalq ‘the lower classes’ utšak i49 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ušağ/ušak rizn iva haqir ‘crushed, small’ San. 75V. 26 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ušak (faš, etc.) Qutb 201; ušak taš Nahc. 73, 17: Kom. xıv ušax ‘ (bread-)crumbs’; uyšax (ire) ‘deformation’ CCG; Gr.'. Kip xıv ušak šiğercii!da(n) ‘very small (things)’ Id. 15: Osm. xıv İT. ušak (1) ‘small’ (without connotation of plurality); (2) ‘small boy’ c.i.a.p. TTS I 729; II 933; III 717; IV 77s-

evšük (cross-beam, lintel) Hap. leg.; al-mida has several widely divergent meanings, of which the likeliest is 'cross-beam, lintel’. Xak. xı evšük al-aridn Kaš. I 105.

Dis. V. ABŠ-

D e:viš- (hurry) Co-op. f. of e:v- (hurry); ‘to hurry’, sometimes with a connotation of group action or competition; survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. eviš- SDD 559. Xak. xı kiši:le:r ı:ška: e:višdi: ‘the people hurried (‘acila) about the business’ Kaš. I 186 (e:višü:r, e:višme:k): Osin, xiv-xvi eviš-/eviš- same meaning, in several texts TTS II 5541 HI 3^9» IV 445.

D uvuš- (crush, grind, rub, wringing (hands)) Co-op. f. of uv- (crush, grind, rub, squeeze, wringing (hands)); s.i.s.m.l. w. phonetic changes e.g. NE, NW u:š-, SW oğuš«/ovuŠ-, and some variations of meaning. Xak. xı ol mağa:etme:k uvušdi: ‘he helped me to crumble (fi fall) the bread (etc.)’; also for ‘to compete’ Kaš. I 185 (tıvtıštı:r, uvušm;ı:k), D öpüš- Recip. f. of 1 öp- (kiss); ‘to kiss one another’; s.i.s.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud, (the two brothers) öpišti (sic) ltučuštı ‘kissed and embraced one another’ PP 52, 8: Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: öpüšdİ: qabbalam tva and qabbaltuhu ‘he kissed me and I kissed him’ Kaš. I 1 So (öpüšür, öpüšme:k): Čağ. xv ff. öpüš- (spelt) Recip. f., yakdigarre bûstdan ‘to kiss one another’ San. 57V. 27: Xwar. xıv öpüš- ditto Qutb 120.

D *uvša:- (crushed, crumbled) Den. V. fr. uvuš; lit, ‘to become crumbled, crushed’, etc.; the only trace of this verb itself is dubiously in Muh., but it forms several derivatives. (Xak.) xıv Muh. tafattata ‘to be crushed, crumbled’ (mis-spelt tağattata) (u:šan- (or uwšan-) Mel. 24, 7); u:ša-- (or uwša:-) Rif. 106.

D uvšat- (crush, crumble) Caus. f. of *uvša:- (crushed, crumbled), 'to crush, crumble’ (something Acc.); s.i.m.m.l.g. usually as ušat-. As in the case of uvša:k there is a more or less synonymous verb uvat-, Caus. f. of uva:’ (< uv*), noted as early as xııı in Kip. (7/oh. 42, 20) and s.i.m.m.l.g. with phonetic variations, e.g. NE a:t-, o:t- SW ufat-. The Refl. f. ušan- is common from xıv onwards, but there is no trace of a parallel verb uvan-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if people find gold ore, break it up, smelt and purify the gold, and make ornaments out of it) uvšatmıš (misprinted uyšatmıš) altutı tözi yeme tegšllmez ‘the basic character [lit. ‘origin’] of the crushed gold (ore) does not alter’ Suv. 71, 20-1; Xak. xı ol etme:k uvšattı: ‘he crumbled (tafattata) the bread (etc.)’; this is the correct (form, al-šahîh), also pronounced ušat- Kaš. I 262 (uvšatur, uvšatma:k); ol etme:k ušattı: he crumbled (fatta) the bread (etc,)’; also used when one crushes and crumbles (radda... wa fatta) anything I 211 (ušatur, ušatmark misprinted -me:k in printed text): KB till sözde yazsa ušatur tıšın ‘if his tongue makes a mistake in speaking it breaks his teeth’ 2515: Čağ. xv fî. ušat- (mak) uvat- ‘to break’ (one’s bonds) Vel. 107 (quotn.); ušat- šikastan ‘to break’ San. 25 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ušat- ‘to break’ (a bottle, etc.) Qutb 201; MN 12; Nahc. 216, 10: Kip. xıv uwšat- kasara ‘to break İd. 26 (in one MS. only, vocalized awšat-): xv faqaša 'to crack (an egg, nut, etc.)’ ušat- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28a. 12; mafqth ušatıptır do. 34lı. 4: Osm. xiv-xvi ušat- ‘to break’ in several texts TTS I 730; II 934; III 717; IV 790; and yuvat- (11c) in one xıv text IV 909.

Tris. ABŠ

S abuška See avičğa:.

Dis. ABY

S avya: See ayva:.

Dis. ABZ

D opuz (jagged, бугристый, кочковатый) Dev. N. fr. o:p- (gulp, swallow, sip, kiss) (Dev. N. fr. op “up”)rough, uneven ground’; survives only in SW xx Anat. obus, \17\ obuz SDD 1082; öbüz do. 1100; ubuz do. 1411. Xak. xı opuz hull flalz fi'l-ard ‘any uneveness in the ground’; hence one says o:y opuz yd'it tea fadfad 'hollows and rough ground' Kaš. I 54.

Dis. V. ABZ-

evze:- (flurried, confused, distressed) Hap. leg.; but cf. SW xx Anat. evzil-/evzin- ‘to be flurried, confused, distressed’, SDD 563. Xak. xı ol sö:zni: agar evze:di: 7vašd iiayhi bi-hddd'1-kalern 'hfe told him this story embellished with falsehoods’ Kaš. I 275 (evze:r, evze:me:k MS. evre:- but indexed under Z).

Tris. ABZ

F abızan Map. leg.; l.-w. fr. Persian ebzan ‘a bath filled with medicated water’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. abızan kılmıš kergek ‘you must give him «1 medicated bath’ H II 22, 131-2.

E avzu:ri: See avru:zi:. (dish type (mixed food))

obuzluɣ, оpuzluɣ, bumpy, бугры/бугристость (OTD p. 368)

Mon. AC

1 a:č (a:c) (hunger, hungry, covetous)hunger, hungry’; early forms are all a:č but the word is a:c in SW (Oğuz) languages from the earliest period; homophonous w. 2 a:č- (a:c-). Originally 'hungry' in a physical sense, hence metaph, ‘covetous’ and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g.; Čuv. vyč (vısy), Ash. V 217. Türkü vııı Türkü bodun a:č (sic) erti: 'the Türkü people were hungry’ II E 38; Uyğ. vill ff. Bud. bars ‘a hungry tigress’ Suv. 609, 17; a.o.o.: Civ. kannka ‘on an empty (hungry) stomach’ H I 19; bağırsuktın ditto HII 6,ii! Xak. xı a:č al-ğarten ‘hungry’ Kaš. I79 (prov.); six o.o. spelt and translated al-ğar[en or al-ed'i ‘hungry’: KB men men saga ‘I am hungry for you’ 923; 'every hungry (ač) man if he eats and drinks is then satisfied, and if a covetous (közi ) man dies he lays aside his covctousness (ačlık)’ 2003; a o- 3923 (see opra:k (shabby, ragged, over-aged, clothing, linen, rubbish, ветошь)): xıv Muh. al-cayi’ a:c (sic?) Mel. 54, 16; Rif. 157: Čağ. xv ff. ac gurusna ‘hungry’ San. 32r. 25: Xwar. xıv hungry’ Qutb 3; Nahc. 257, 7: Kip. xııı al-edyi Hou. 26, 5: xıv (cim) al-edyı id. 8: xv ciyan (gipsy, poor)hungry’ (acik; in margin) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 11b. 13: Kom. xıv ‘hungry’ ač CCI\ Gr. (phr.): Osm. xıv fF. ac ‘hungry’, and various derivatives, ačın, ačla, etc., c.i.a.p. TTS 11-3, II z, IV 2.

VU 2 ač (hey, exclamation) an exclamation pec. to Kaš.; the form with h- is prob. der. fr. Ar. Xak. xı kalima taqum bi-maqdm yai'1-nide' ‘a word equivalent to the (Arabic) word yd’ used to summon (someone)’; one says berü: kel ‘Hi! Come here’ Kaš. I 35: (VU) hač hač kalima tuzcar bihi't-xayl 'a word used to make a horse go faster’, originally ač ač, with ha substituted for hamza; this agrees with the Arabic, when one says hachactu bi’t-ğananı ‘I shouted hac hac to the sheep, when riding ahead of them’ II 282.

(I, interior, inside, into, from within, within, in) (inner > I) ‘the interior, or inside (of something)’; originally, and often still, in a concrete sense. \\\ The word early acquired a number of specific connotations, esp. in its derivatives (1) ‘the interior of the human body' (cf. iče:gü:); (2) ‘inner’, as opposed to outer, clothing (cf. ičton (trousers, underwear) (shatny, штаны)); (3) ‘the interior of a household, esp. a royal household’ (cf. ičre:ki:); (4) secret, or mental processes, as opposed to physical. With the 3rd Pers. Suffix in the Dat., Abl., and Loc. it serves as a Postposition meaning ‘into, from within, within’. In a few phr., the older of which are listed as main entries, it has been fused with another word to form a compound word. S.i.a.m.l.g., with some variations in final consonant. Türkü vııı iči:n tašı:n ‘the interior and exterior (of the tomb)’ I S 12, II N 14; ič buyruk ‘court official’ II S 14; vııı ff. kere;kü iči: ne:teg ol ‘what is the interior of the tent like?’ IrkB 18: Yen. Türgeš el ičinte: beg ben ‘I was (been) a chief in the Türgeš realm’ Mal. 37, 3: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kaš ičinte törümiš ‘created in the Kaš.(?)’ TT III 115: Bud. the word, usually in the form ičinte, is common, e,g. karam ičintewithin the ditch’ PP 39, 5; balık ičiŋeI (entered) into the town’ do. 41, 7; kač kün ičintewithin a few days’ do. 33, e: Civ. kar ičinte iğ kirdi ‘disease entered (inside) the upper arm’ TT I 18; common in H I and II, TT VII, and Usp. (in 12, 11; 47, 15, mis-spelt in ištin taštın ‘at home and abroad’ (in and out)) — yič ‘the bowels’ H I 67 (see ki:r): Xak. xı ‘the interior (batin) of anything’; hence ‘a belt’ (al-îvišdh) is called kur because it is a girdle for the stomach (al-batin); and ‘a secret' (al-sirr) is called sö:z, that is Ualdmfi’l-bdfin ‘words (hidden) within’: et ‘tender meat from near (inside) the liver’ Kaš. I 35; four o.o.; KB ay taš biligli ‘oh (God) who knowest the inside and the outside (of everything)’ 11; kamuğ iš ičinde yitig tutsa köz ‘a man must keep a sharp eye on everything' 329; (if it were not for the merchants) kačan kedgey erdi kara kiš iči ‘when would you wear a lining of black sable’ 4425; xııı (?) At. iči ‘the inside’ (of a man) 383; (of a snake) 214; ičiŋeinto’ 308; ičinde ‘in’ 53, 218: Čağ. xv ff. andarün tva batin ‘interior, inside’ San. 96v. 10 (quotn,); followed by several phr. beginning w. ič: Xwar. xııı (?) Oğ. ošol orman ičindein that forest' 22; ičikeinto’ 233: xıv ič ‘inside’ Qutb 56; ičinde ‘in’ MN 74, etc.; awwal babı... ičindein its first chapter’ Nahc. 2, 13; a.o.o. Kom. xıv ‘interior, inside CCI, CCG; Gr. 104 (phr.): Kip. xıv (cim) cawwdni ‘interior’ Id. 9 (also ičkur, ičton (trousers, underwear) (shatny, штаны)); fi ‘in’ ičinde: (cim) Bul. 15, 9: Osm. xıv ff. in various forms, e.g. ičinsecretly’, and phr., c.i.a.p. TTS I 363-4; II 514-5; III 353-5! IV 407-10. (Khazar runic (ik) Ik “I” in “I have read this”, above: balık ičiŋe ‘I (entered) into the town’ or “mine, my town”)

1 u:č (u:c) (extremity, end, tip, edge) ‘extremity, end, tip’, primarily in a physical sense, w. some metaph. extensions, e.g. ‘the frontier’ (of a country)’. The voiced consonant survives in the SW (Oğuz) languages. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some variations in the final consonant. Türkü vııı bizinte: eki: učı: sıgarča: artuk erti: ‘their two wings were one and a half times as numerous as us’ \\ T 40: vııı ff. uci:ga: begedmekke: tegi:r ‘he achieves his object of becoming a beg' Toy. 24 (ETY II 59): Uyğ. vııı [gap] učı: Selegeke: tegh čerig etdi: 'their... wing disposed its forces up to the Selenga River’ Šu. E 4: viji ff. Man.-A (from the top of the head) adaknaŋ tıragak učıga ‘to the tips of the toe-nails' MI 17, 20; ol 1 učmda olurdi ‘he settled on the top of that bush' Man.-Uig. Frog. 401, 1: Mon. orukuguz učın bulmadın ‘without reaching the end of your path’ TT III 46; a.o. do 24: Bud, tug učmda ‘on the point of a standard’ U II 38, 77; (stretch out the two middle fingers of both hands and) učı bileti tegür ‘bring them together at the tips’ TT V 8, 56; yer orun uč kıdığ ‘a borderland’ Iliien-ts. 177: Civ. biček učında ‘on the point of a knife' III 117; a.o. TT VII 20, 17:xiv Chin.-Uyg. Dict. ‘the tip of a branch’ uč Ligeti 172: Xak. xı u:č ‘the extremity (taraf) of anything’; hence butotk u:čı: ‘the tip of a branch’: u:č e:l al-lagr ‘borderland’ Kaš. I 44; a.o. III 426 (čert-): KB (death is a sea) učı yok tübi ‘with no limits or bottom’ 1140: xııı (?) Tef. uč ‘end, limit’ 333: xıv Muh, ra'su l-Iisan ‘the tip of the tongue’ ti:l u:ču (cim) Mel. 47, 4; Rif. 140: Čağ. xv ff. uc (‘with -c') ‘the tip, edge or summit (nazvk wa dam ıva zaŋ of anything’ San. 651-. 6 (quot.): Oğuz xı u:č nafedu'l-šay' ‘a shortage of something’; hence bo:yda: ne: u:č wa:r ‘there is no serious shortage in the clan’ (qawm) Kaš. I 44: Xwar. xıv uč ‘end, extremity' Qutb 194; MN 72: Kom. xıv ‘end’ (physically, or of time) uč CCG; Gr. 263 (phr.): Kip. xııı u:c eri: raculu'l-taraf ‘frontiersman’ Hon. 30, 2: xıv u:c (‘with back vowels’) taraf kull šay’\ also used for 'the rump' (al-atya)y hence ucun tepretgi! alyatak buzz tva harrik ‘move over your rump’ Id. 8 (there is a v.l. ucap, which suggests that the second meaning is an error for uča:): xv tar of uc Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23b. 4 (in Kip. consistently with c/m, but this might represent -č): Osm. xıv ff. uc ‘end, edge, frontier’ noted in various phr. fr. xıv onwards TTS I 708-10; II 915-7;. III 695-7; IV 772; ucundan 'because of’ also occurs at all periods, but can hardly be derived either from this word or from üčün; the likeliest explanation is that uc here is an early corruption of Ar. zvach which has such a meaning.

VU 2 uč (tee (kind)) Hap. leg.; a kind of tree; this entry follows that of Uč ‘with back vowels, the well-known town’, i.e. Uč Turfan. Xak. xı uč ‘a mountain tree (šacar), from which are made the pens with which the Turks write, and also distaffs and walking sticks’ (al-mağezil tva'f--iššî) Kaš. I. 35.

1 ö:č (ö:c) (revenge, malice, spite) originally ‘malice, spite’, but from quite an early date ‘revenge, vengeance’, in which meaning it s.i.a.m.l.g. The final -c survives in the SW (Oğuz) languages in this word and its derivatives. Practically synonymous with kek, q.v. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. öč kek alıšu ‘taking revenge on one another’ TT II 17. 84.-Č: Bud. öıjro ajuntakı öč (spelt ooč) kek özü [gap; tıjltağınta ‘because she felt malice and spite (inherited) from a previous incarnation’ V II 23, 13-14: Xak. xi. ö:č al-hiqd ‘malice’; ö:č kek kamuğ kišknig yaİpuk ü:ze: alım bil translated al-ta'r matlüb bihi ka'l-dayn 'vengeance is a thing sought after like a debt' Kaš. I 43; ödleg ö:čin aldümu: ‘has time taken its revenge on him?’ 141, 17; ö:čin kekin irtešür ‘they seek to take revenge on one another’ I 230, 4; a.o. II 103, 27: KB Öč in 145, 369, 1053, 2290, 2311 means ‘malice, spite’; (a Rood army commandeŋ tltir buğrası teg kör Öč sürse kek ‘must act as maliciously and spitefully as a stallion camel with a herd of females’ 2312; (do good) isizke öčün ‘in return for evil’ 929: xııı (?) Tef. öč ‘vengeance’ 252; xıv Muh. ai--diya tval-qasa} ‘blood money, retribution’Ö.*Č Mel. 83, 7; Rif. 188: Čağ. xv ff öc (‘with -c’) intiqom ‘vengeance’ Son. 65r. 7: Kom. xıv ‘vengeance’ öč CCG; Gr. 181 (phr.): Kip. xıv ö:c ('with front vowel’) al-ta'r Id. 9: xv ta'r öc Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) nh. 11; 90b. io-ü: Osm. xv ff. öc ‘vengeance’ occurs occasionally TTS I 557; II 742

2 ö:č (stake, bet) (очко) ‘a stake in gambling’ is not noted before Kip. xııı ff Iiou. 22, 3-4 etc. and Osm. xv ff. TTS I 557, etc. It can hardly be taken as a sec. meaning of 1 ö:č, but was an old word, see öčeš.

üč (three)three’; c.i.a.p.a.i. with some variations of the final consonant. Türkü vııı and vııı ff. common: Uyğ. vııı ff,, all varieties, common: Xak. xı üč ‘the number three’, hence üč yarma:k 'three silver coins' (dirham) Kaš. I 35: xııı ff. Tef., At. noted: xıv Muh. taleta ‘threeü:č (sic) Mel. 81, 7; 82, 4; Rif. 188: Čağ. xv fİ. üč ('with ’) ‘three’ San. 65r. 8: Kom. xıv ‘threeüč CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı taleta ü:č Hou. 22, 3 : xıv ditto Id. 8; taleta üč (cim) Bul. 12, 10: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 60b, 7; üš (sic, as usual for -č) Kav. (Egypt 15th c.) 65, 6.

Mon. V. AC-

1 ač- (open) ‘to open’ (Trans.), originally in a physical sense, with some extensions, physical, e.g. ‘to untie (a knot), to clear (the sky)’, and metaph., e.g. ‘to disclose, explain’. C.i.a.m.l. Türkü vııı [gap] süpügin ačdımifc ‘we opened (a way?) with our lances’ T 28. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (then the great king) ačğay belgürt-gey ‘will disclose and display (his beaury)’ MI 11,5; kapağın ačdı ‘he opened his door’ M I 13, 7; a.o. 13, 12: Bud. temir son ačtı ‘he untied the iron chain’ PP 33, 2-3; kapiğ ačıp U II 76, i; kÖzin ačıp ‘opening his eyes’ U III 35, 29; ayağ kılınčmuznı... ača 'disclosing our evil deeds’ TT IV 4, 18; a.o.o.:Xak.xi knpuğ ačdı:‘he opened (fataha) the door’ Kaš. I 163 (ača:r, ačma:k); kara: bulıtığ yel ačar urunč bile: 61 ačar ‘the wind clears away (tuqši*) the black clouds, with a bribe one opens the door (taftah beb) of the kingdom’ 1354» 91 ağzı: ačıp 'openinghis mouth’ \\ 188, 11; a.o.o.: KB ačtı uštmax yoli ‘He opened the way to Paradise' 63; maga ay ač-a ‘speak \\ and explain to me’ 267, 1000; sözüg ačsamu yeg ‘would it he better to make a statement?’ 1018; n.o.o.: x 111 (?) Tef. ač- (1) ‘to open’; (2) ‘to conqucr (a city, etc.); ačmak 'victory’ 64, 65; At. yiiz ačar ‘it reveals its face’ 221: xıv Muh. fataha ač- Mel. 7, 17-18; 19, 11 etc.; Rif. 79, 99, etc.; atvdaha 'to explain’ ač- 23, 12; 105; našara ‘to disclose, publish’ aš- (sic) Rif. 115: Čağ. xv ff. ač- (-kuŋ, etc.) ač-Vel. 10; ač- (‘with -Č-’) kušûdan ‘to open’ San. 3rr. 2 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ač- 'to open’ 'Ali 28: xııı (?) sen munda kal kalık ‘stay here and open the window’ (?) Oğ. 254: xıv ač- ‘to open’, etc. Qutb MN 265; Nahc. 88, 8 etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to open, to reveal’ ač-CCI, CCG; Gr. (phr.): Kip. xııı fataha ač-Hou. 34, 9: xıv ditto. Id. 8; fataha wa kašafa (‘to reveal’) ač- Bul. 58r.: xv qadafa (‘to pour out’) wa fataha ač- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 30a, 13; kašafa wa fataha wa 'addd (‘to cross a river, etc.)’ ač-do. 31b. 1; ač- aqhara muta'addi ‘as a Trans., to cause to be conquered’ Kav. 9, 5 (cf. 2 a:č-): Osm. xıv ff. ač- c.i.a.p. in various metaph. meanings, esp. ‘to conquer, to publish, to polish’ TTS I 2; II 4; III 2; IV 3.

2 a:č- (a:c-) (hungry) ‘to be hungry’; homophonous w. 1 a:č (a:c); s.i.s.m.l., in SW (Oğuz) languages as ac-, but in others displaced by acık-, q.v. Türkü vııı a:čsa:r (sic) ‘if a man is hungry’ / 5 8, IIN e: vııı ff. Man. ača suvsamak-a [gap] ‘ (I have suffered?) hunger and thirst’ TT II 8, 37: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ačmak 8uvsamak emgekl ‘the pangs of hunger and thirst’ Suv. 118, 4: Xak. xı er a:čtı: ‘the man was hungry' (caa) Kaš. î i72 (a:ča:r, a:čma:k): KB sukun ačmıš özler ‘souls starved by greed’ 5384: xııı (?) Tef. Maryammp karnı acdı ‘Maryam was hungry’ 64: xıv Muh. caa a:c- MeL 24, 16; Rif. 152: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb facsimile 49V. 15; Nahc. 269, 7: Kom. xıv 'to be hungry’ ač- CCI; Gr. : Kip. xıv ac- caa Id. 8: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 12a. 5; Kav. 9, 5 (after 1 ač- (open)) (in all Kip. entries cim, but -ti: in xv): Osm. xiv-xv ac- (-dŋ ‘to be hungry’ is common TTS I 2; II 2; III 1; IV 3.

ič- (drink, absorb) 'to drink’ primarily of animated beings, but also of porous objects, earth, etc, ‘to absorb’; used without an Object the implication is often ‘to drink to excess’. C.i.a.p.a.i. Türkü vııı ff. suv İči:pen ‘drinking water’ IrkB 17: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kanigizlarm İčgell ‘to drink your blood’ U IV 12, 108; a.o.o.: Civ. İČ- ‘to drink’ is common, esp. in medical texts, in H /, II; T T VII, VIIi: Xak. xı er su:v İčdi: ‘the man drank (šariba) water (etc.)’; also used of anything that drinks or absorbs (šariba aw našifa) anything Kaš. I164 (İče:r, İčıtıe:k); seven o.o., two with Perf. in -ti: : KB suv İčer 73; bor İčse ‘if a man drinks wine’ 339; a.o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. ič- ‘to drink’ 127; At. y<6mez ičmez ‘ (God) does not cat or drink’ 262: xıv Muh. halafa ‘to swear an oath’ and ič- Mel. 25, 10 (Rif. 108 is corrupt, perhaps read antik-); šariba i:č- 27, 12 (no ü:č- in error): Čağ. xv ff. ič- (‘with -Č-’) šarab wa nüšıdan 'to drink’ San. 95V. 24 (quotns.) Xwar. xııı (?) İč- 'to drink', common in Oğ.:xiv ditto Qutb 56; MN 84, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to drink’ ič-; to swear an oath’ and ič- CCI, CCG; Gr. Kip. xııı šariba ič- (cim) Hou. 34, 6; ditto (čim) 53, 2; xıv ditto Id. 8: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21b. 7, a.o.o. šariba ič- («c) Kav. 7,13; iš- 9, 8; al-mašrub ‘a drink’ İšmek 63, 3.

uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute) basically (of a bird) ‘to fly’, with various metaph. extensions. The oldest is, as an honorific (of a superior), ‘to die’; others are ‘to go with great speed; to disappear; to twitch; (of colours) to fade’, and, at any rate in recent Osm., ‘to be dissolute’. C.i.a.p.a.i. Türkü vııı Kül Tegin .. . učdı:4 Kül Tegin .. . died’ I NE; ečim xağan uča: bardı 'my (paternal) uncle, the xağan, died’ II E 20; a.o.o. of uča: bar-: vııı ff. (the young bird) uča: azti: ‘lost, its way in flight’ IrkB 15; uča: uma:tm ‘because it could not fly’ 61: Uyğ. vııı kapım xağan učdı: 'my father, the xağan, died Šu. N 12; vııı ff. Bud. učuğma tınlığlarığ ‘flying creatures’ TT IV 8, 57: Civ. kök kalıkda učar küš ‘birds flying in the sky’ TT I 23; kuğu kuš učtı ‘the swan has flown away’ ditto 215; bu yılda ağa učup 'as my elder brother died this year’ USp. 22, 53-4 (post- xııı ): Xak. xı kuš učdı: ‘the bird flew’ (fara); anıp kutı: učdı: ‘his luck deserted him' (dahaba); er attın kodı: učdı: 'the man fell (saqata) off the horse’... er tı:nı: učdı: inqata'a nafsu'l-racul ‘the man’s breath failed’ Kaš. I 163 (uča:r, učma:k; two phr. not quoted here belong to öč- (quelling, затухать), q.v., the last, however, seems to belong here); and four o.o.: KB uč- (of birds) ‘to fly’ 23, 74, etc.; tirigllk učar 'life is fleeting’ 231; (if a stool collapses) učar ol eri 'the man on it falls off (flies)’ 803: xııı (?) Tef. učar kušlar 334; At. učğan yügürgen nep-e ‘beings that fly or walk’ 6; a.o.o.: xıv Muh. tdra u:č- (sic) Mel. 28, 12; Rif. nr; al- -firen učmak 36, 12; 122: Čağ. xv ff. uč- (-mak, etc.) connotes movement, e.g. (of the eye) ‘to twitch’, (of the heart) ‘to flutter’, (of a bird) ‘to fly’, (of sleep) ‘to desert one (flies)’ Vel. 94-6 (quotns.); uč- (‘with -Č-') (1) tirdn wa paridan ‘to fly’; (2) ixtifdc ‘to quiver, twitch’; (3) tnahw wa ma’dum šudan ‘to perish’ San. 62V. 19 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv uč- ‘to fly away' Qutb 194, MN 351: Kom. xıv ‘to flyuč- CCIy CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı tdra uč- (cim) Hou. 41, 20: xıv ditto id. 8, Bui. 6or.: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 24a. 3; uš- tdra Kav. 9, 9; 78, 8: Osm. xıv ff. uč- (xv, once -) is noted in metaph. meanings in TTS I 710; II 934; III 696.

öč- (quelling, затухать) (of a fire) ‘to go out, be extinguished’, with some metaph. extensions. In Ar. script indistinguishable fr. uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute), so that its separate existence was not recognized in Kaš. or xix Osm. dicts. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. various phonetic changes, including SW xx Anat. öč-, SDD 1100. Cf. sön-sön-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. blllgsiz bilig öčser ‘if ignorance is extinguished’ (and so on, 24 occurrences) UII12, 24 ff.; alku ada tuda barča öčer aikinur ‘all dangers completely disappear and come to nothing’ TT V \20\ io, 87; o.o. IV 20, note 42; VI11 /Î.18 and 43: Civ. ot yalını öčti ‘the flame was extinguished’ TT I 124: Xak. xı (among examples of uč-) 0:t öčdi: ‘the fire went out (sakana) \ ernig öpketsi: öčdi: ‘the man’s anger died down’ (sakana) Kaš. I 164: KB (in old ape) tatığ bardı öčti kuruğsak otı ‘the savour of life has pone and the fire in tlic helly died down’ 175; bu dnwlut otı barča tičgü turur ‘the fire of pood fortune is all extinguished’ 5324: xııı (?) At. öcer mıhnat otı ‘the fire of affliction dies down’ 351: Čağ. XV ff. ÖČ- (-tŋ if used of a candle, means ‘to go out’ (söyün-) Vel. 95 (quotn.): öč- (‘with -Č- ’) AvmwHNj šudatt šama’ tva ataš 'of a candle or fire to be extinguished’ San. 62V. 23 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv öč- ‘to be extinguished’ Qutb i2o (<?f-), 194 (»*>), 202 (rtf-).

Dis. ACA

eče: etc. Preliminary note. There are in some modern languages, esp. NE and SW XX Anat,, a good many words of the form ACA which are terms of relationship or respect. Some are certainly Mong. loan-words, e.g. ecemaster’ and various forms of ečige *father and others may be. The only certain old Turkish words of this form are eče:, eči:, and ečü:.

eče: (eke:) both this word and eke:, q.v., seem to have meanings straddling the generations (see eči:), this word meaning both ‘one's mother's younger sister’ and ‘one’s own elder sister’ and eke: both ‘one’s father’s younger sister’ and ‘one’s own elder sister’; this would explain why this word survives in residual form in NW and SW attached to tay (tağa:y, q.v.) to give the meaning ‘maternal aunt' (Osm. teyze). As an independent word survives on1y (?) in SW xx Anat. ace, ece, ede (Lat. ava., Norse edda), Ici SDD 67, 503-5, 780 which all mean, inter alia, ‘elder sister’. Xak. xı eče: syn. w. eke:, that is al-uxttt'l-kubra ‘older sister’; the -č- was changed from -k- as in Ar. carm from garm and cunbod from gunbad Koš. I 86 (this phonology is absurd; both words with initial g- (so marked in the text) are Pe. l.-w. and the sound change is normal in such cases): Čağ. eče (‘\vith -č-')zatt-i wiumwj'anelderly woman’ San. 32V. 4.

1 eči: ((junior) paternal uncle and ‘elder brother) as pointed out in K. Gronbech, ‘The Turkish System of Kinship', in Studia Orientalia... Johanni Pedersen dicata, Munks-gaard, 1953, this word means ‘a close male relative younger than one’s father and older than oneself’, i.e. both ‘(junior) paternal uncle and ‘elder brother’. It soon lost its first meaning, and in the medieval period was displaced almost everywhere by the synonymous Mong. l.-w. ağa (aka)] it survives, however, in SWxx Anat. in forms like those quoted under eče:. Türkü vııı eči:m xağan olurtı: ‘my (junior) paternal uncle ascended the throne’ / E te, HE 14, a.o.o. in this sense; ini:li: eči:li: kikšü:rtüki:n üčü:n ‘because (the Chinese) aroused mutual enmity between younger brothers (and nephews) and elder brothers (and uncles)' I E 6, II E 6; a.o.o. of eči: and ini: in apposition: vııı ff. Yen. inîm ečimiz Alol. 29, 4; üč ečime: 32, 1 and 13: Man. inili ečlİl Chuas. I 31; ini ečl M III 6, 6 (iii); in/i, ečilerin do. 22, 10 (in: Uyğ. vııı ff. lUid’ ÖČİ specifically “elder brother' is common in PP\ a.o. U III 82, 13 (in U II 19, 18; 20, 21 eči is a misreading of evčŋ: Civ. İni tfči TT I 137; eči is common in USp., prob. only ‘elder brother’: O. Kır. ıx IV. eči:/eči: is fairly common, and might have either meaning Mal. 6, 2 etc.: Xak. xı eči: al-axu'l-akbar sinna (tŋ ‘elder brother’ Koš. I 87; III 7 (yurč): Kli ata bardı öš tuš öči ye ini ‘your father has gone and your comrades ana elder and younger brothers' 3784 (prob. spurious): xııı (?) Tef. eči synonymous with Ar. 'omm ‘paternal uncle’ 8e: Kip. niv ečİ: al-'amm Id. 9; al-'amm ečči: Bul. 9, 3 (dm in both), VU 2 eči: Hap. leg.; prob. a Sec. f. of ečü:. Barsğe;n xı eči: al-šahla ‘an old man (or woman)' Kaš. I 87.

ečü: (ancestor) seems to mean rather vaguely ‘ancestor’; very rare; perhaps survives in SW XX Anot, aču ‘grandfather’ (also ‘elder brother’) SDD 69. Türkü vııı ečü:m apa:m, etc. see 1 apa: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ečesi (yie) do.: Xak. xı KB  (in an invocation of God) ay menfili ečü ‘oh’ everlasting ancestor’ 10.

uča: (? uca:) (backbone, loins, haunches, rump ) an anatomical term used both for men and animals, ‘the loins, haunches, rump’, and the like; s.i.m.m.l.g., with voiced consonant in some NE languages’and SW Osm., ■ perhaps the original pronunciation. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. tört yaıjıda učada 'on the fourth day of the month (the soul is) in the loins’ TT VII 20, 6-7: xıv Chin.-Vyğ. Dict. ‘the back’ uča R I 1734; Ligeti 273: Xak. xı uča: al-zahr ‘the hack’ Kaš. I 87: Čağ. xv ff. uča ‘the back’  (arka), more specifically the backbone (otjurğa kemiğŋ in the middle of the back, and more generally ‘the back parts’ (orka mahallinda); with a note on the ’Turkish custom of regarding the Joins as the most honorable joint at a feast Vel. 96 (quotns.); uca (‘with -c-’) (1) pušt ‘the back’; (2) malca’ wapaneh ‘protection, support’ San. 9 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv uča ‘back’ Qutb 194: Kom. xıv ‘the back’ uča’ CCG; Gr. 263 (quotn.): Kip. xıv u:ca: al- , -kafal ‘the haunches’ Id. 2e: xv al-xešira ‘the haunches’ uca Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14a. 5; al-'acaz ‘the buttocks’ ditto 24b. 7 (dm everywhere): Osm. xv ff. uca ‘buttocks’ c.i.a.p. TTS I 708-9; II 914; III 694; IV 771; San. esr. 16 gives surtn ‘buttocks’ as a specifically Rtlmi meaning of the word.

Dis. V. ACA

-ačı:- (? acı:-) (acid, ache) originally ‘to be bitter’ in a physical sense, later also ‘to be sour’; at a very early date developed several metaph. meanings, the commonest (of a disease, etc.) ‘to be painful’, hence (of a person) ‘to feel pain’, and hence ‘to feel the pain of others, to feel compassion’; in most languages the original physical meaning is lost; Sami, 22, says that in Osm. ağrı:- connotes deep-seated pain, acı:- superficial, but more acute and lasting pain, and S1Z-intermittent muscular or nervous pain. S.i.a.m.l.g., with voiced consonant in some NE languages and the SW (Oguz) languages. Uyğ. vııı tf. Civ. igiŋ nğrığıg nčıdı ‘your disease and pain have become acutc’ TT I 49: Xak. xı sirke: ačı:dı: hamuda'l-xall 'the vinegar (etc.) was sour’; also used of the pain (waca') of a wound when it aches (amadda) Kaš. III 252 (ačı:r, ačı:ma:k): KB urağun ičer teg ačır körse men ‘I taste bitterness, see, like one who drinks urağun (q.v.)' 815; (ögdülmiš) kečmiš tiriglİkke ačıp ‘regretting his past life’ (begins to repent) Chap. 73 title (5631*2): xıv Muh. kamuda acı:- Mel. 25, 10: Rif. 108: Čağ. xv i ff. acı- (‘with -o') talx šudan ‘to be bitter’ San. 3ir. 18: Kip. xv haraqa ‘to have a burning feeling’ acı- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 13b. 8*

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.


D 1 öče:- (öce:-) (hostileness, revengefulness) Den. V. fr. 1 ö:č (revenge); ‘to feel hostile, desire revenge'. Rare, but survives in several NE languages, R I 1285, 1286, 1289, 1876, and Tuv. öje-, Xak.xi KB öčep kck sorar ölse ‘if he dies seeking revenge’ 4651: (Kom. xıv ‘to incite, goad on’ öčü- CCG; Gr. might be a survival of this word).

D 2 *öče- (öce:-) See 2 öčeš- (bet).

Dis. ACD

D öčüt Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. 1 öče:- (hostileness, revengefulness), Xak.xi Öčüt al-ta’r wa’l-hiqd ‘revenge, malice’; its origin is 1 ö:č Kaš. I 50.

C ičton (trousers, underwear) (shatny, штаны) compound of ‘inner’ and to:n ‘garments', used specifically for ‘drawers’, hence more generally ‘trousers’. S.i.m.m.l.g., an early loan-word in Russian as shtany. The form in some modern NE, SE, and NC languages, ıštan, suggests that some of these may be reborrowings from Russian but SW Osm. ičdon is a direct survival. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. tiši klšlniŋ ictonıniT) ağında ($o read) ’in the gusset of the woman’s trousers’ TT VII 26, 9-10: (Xak.) xıv Muh. (l) al-sardwil ‘trousers, drawers’ išton Rif. 167 (only); al-tikka ‘trouser band’ ušta:n ba:gı: (mc) Mel. 67, 7 (Rif. ile:rsük): Čağ. xv ff. ıštan diz donu ‘knee-length drawers’ Vel. 63 (quotn.); Ištan corruption (muharraf) of ič ton zir cdma ‘under-garment’, in Ar. izdr San. ioev. 6 (quotn.): Kip. xııı al-sardzutl (könče:k and i:m and) İčton al-qumešu*l-dexil ‘underlinen’ IIou. 18, 13: xıv ičton (ewŋ al-sardioil, that is, taivb cawwdni ‘inner garment', compounded of ič ‘inner’ and ton ‘garment’ Id. 9:xv libes ‘clothing’ (könček and) İčton Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 31b. 11.

Dis. V. ACD-

D ačıt- (P acit-) (acerbic, bitter, sour, pain, grief, grim) Caus. f. of ačı:- (acid, ache); lit. ‘to make (something Acc.) bitter, or sour’; metaph. ‘to cause pain or grief to (someone Acc.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g., almost always in a metaph. sense in SW and lit. sense elsewhere. Türkü vııı ff. Man. teŋrig neče ačıt (t)ımız ağrıt (t)ımız erser ‘inasmuch as we have pained and grieved God’ Chuas. 57; a.o. 90: Xak. xı ol sirke: ačıttı: hammada’l-xall ‘he made the vinegar (etc.) sour’; and one says ol anig köŋlfn ačıttı: amadda qalhahu bi-fact a ‘he pained his heart with misfortune’. Kaš. J 207 (ačıtur, ačıtma:k); ol küp ol süčigni: ačıtğam ‘that jar always makes the wine (in it) sour’ I 154: KB kašı közi tügmiš ačıtmıš yüzîn ‘he knitted his brows and his eyes and made his face grim’ 770: xııı (?) At. ačıtma ağız ‘do not make your mouth [i.e. words] bitter' 162: Čağ. xv ff. acıt- Caus. f.; (1) talx kardan ‘to make bitter’; (2) metaph, sûzndk kardan be xeriš 'to make inflamed (or painful) with an itch’ San. 31 r. 29 (quotns.): Osm. xvı acit-‘to cause pain’ TTS II 2; HI 1; IV 3.

D ačtur- Caus. f. of 1 ač- (open); ‘to order (someone Dat.) to open (something Acc.).' S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol kapuğ ačturdı: ‘he ordered the opening (bi-fath) of the door’, also used for opening anything else Kaš. I 218 (ačturur, ačturma:k): Čağ. xv ff. ačtur- Caus. f. (of 1 ač- (open)) San. 3ir. 18: Kip. xıv ačtur- aftaha ‘to cause to open’ Id. 8.

D ičtür- Caus. f. of ič- ‘to give (someone Dat., something Acc.) to drink’. Very rare alternative to ičür-, q.v. Xak. xı ol maga: su:v ičtürdi: ašrabani l-md' ‘he gave me water (etc.) to drink’; ičürdi: is also used in this sense Kaš. I 218 (ıčtürür, lčtürme:k): Kıp. xv ‘they sometimes omit the letter -d- and say for asqd ‘to give to drink’ ičir-, the original form being ičdir- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 83a. 3-4

Tris. ACD

D ictinsiz Hap. leg.; Priv, N./A. fr. the Abl. of ič; ‘having no interior’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit nirantarabehya iti kftvd ‘having made it completely external’ ičtlnsiz (gap) TT VIII AA.

D ičtirti: Adv. in -tirti: fr. ; properly ‘inside’, but in practice ‘inside one another, interlocked’. Pcc. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. atsız erŋek kičig ergek ičtirti sola ‘interlock the ring and little fingers (of both hands)’ TT V 8, 55; on ergek ičtirti solap ‘interlocking the ten fingers’ do. 10, 95.

Tris. V. ACD-

DC ičtonlan- (trousers, underwear) (shatny, штаны) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. ičton (trousers, underwear). Xak. xı er ištonlandı: ‘the man wore trousers’ (al-sardwil); originally lčtonlandı:, but the -č- was changed into -š- because of the proximity of the points of utterance (al-maxrac) Kaš. I 314 (ištonlanur, ištonlanma:k).

Dis. ACĞ

D 1 ačığ (? acığ) (sour, bitter, grievous, painful, anger, angry) (acidic) N./A.S. fr. ačı:- (acid, ache); originally ‘bitter’ in a physical sense, in some languages ‘sour’, although this is properly ekšig; it soon \\ acquired metaph. meanings ’grievous, painful’, and in some languages 'anger, angry’. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. phonetic changes; in some NW and SW' languages there is a curious development, aci being used for 'bitter, painful', and ačik for ‘anger’. The latter might be taken as a Dev. N. in -k but there is no early trace of such a word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ačığ emgek ‘grievous pain’ M I 9, e: Bud. ačığ ünin siğtafyuj ‘sobbing in a doleful voice’ U III 13, 5 (ı); agazimtaki tatağlar... ačığ bolup ‘the sweet tastes in my mouth becoming bitter’ V III 37, 30-2; ačığ emgek U IV 30, 34; 40, 188: o.o. TT VII 40, 25-6; Suv. 514, 15 (tarka:): Civ. ačığ nara ‘a bitter pomegranate’ H II 16, 2; (when two hearts are linked as one) eldin xandin ačığ bolur mu ‘can there come distress from the realm or ruler?’ TT I 179: Xak. xı ačığ ‘anything bitter’ (murŋ Kaš. I 63; o.o. murr II 75, 13; hdmid ‘sour’ II 311, 15 and 19; III 272, 23; al-hdmid ua’l-murr II 299, 25: KB ačığka tatiğ ‘sweet for bitter’ 1087; ačığ bu Ölüm ‘death is grievous’; 1170; ağuda ačığ ‘more bitter than poison’ 3913; a.o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. ačığ (1) ‘bitter’; (2) ‘pain, grief’ 64: At. süčüg tattig erse ačığka anun 'if you have tasted sweetness, prepare yourself for bitterness’ 209; a.o. 43e: xıv Muh. al-murr ačığ/ačı Mel. 56, 6; Rif. 154; ditto acı:ğ 66, 3; 165; al-hemid a:cı: 66, 3; 165; al-hirrtf ‘pungent' acığ Rtf. 154 (in 165 ekšf:); al-me'u't-rndtih ‘salt wateraci: su: 76, 17; 180 (ačığ): Čağ. xv ff. acığ/acık (‘with -o’) talx ‘bitter’; hayf tva ta’assuf ’ oppression, grief' Vel. 10; acığ (‘with -o’) (1) xa§m tea ğayz ‘anger, wrath’; (2) talx San. 32V. 5 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ačığ ‘bitter’ Qutb 3; MN 341; Nahc. 135, 5 etc.: Kip. xııı al-murr ačı: IIou. 27, 10; al-matfad ‘pan> inflammation’ ačık (unvocalized) 32, 20: xıv aci: al-murr td. 9: xv hemičl (&kši and)aci  Tuh. 13a. ti taban ‘milk’ is translated inter alia by acisour’ 31b. t2; al-md'u'l-mdlih a:ci: su: Kav. 58, 15: Osm. xv ff. acığanger' in Dede (xv) TTS II 2; acığ/acık ‘pain, painful' in xv and xvı and aci ‘bitter’ (physical and metaph.) fr. xv onwards TTS I 1, 2; II 2; III 1; IV 1, 2.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.


Dis. ACĞ

D 2 ačığ (open, gift, contentment, wellbeing), although the semantic connection is tenuous, presumably a Dev. N. fr. 1 ač- (open) cf. ačın-; and more specifically from a ruler’; Kaš.'s second meaning is not noted elsewhere. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. yüklerin ačtılar ertütin ačuğın ölündiler (the Magı) ‘opened their packages and presented their gifts (Hend.)’ VI 6, 12-13 (mistranscribed and mistranslated): Civ. (if the base of his ear twitches) beğlerdin ačığ ayağ alır ‘he will receive gifts and honors from the TT VII 34, 10-11: Xak. xı \\ ačığ the word for ‘gift from the Sultan’ (ce’izatu’t-sulten); hence xa:n mača: ačığ bd:rdi: acdzanVf-vialik ‘the king gave me gift’: ačığ al-tana‘*um ‘contentment, wellbeing’, hence ö:zü:gni: ačığlığ tut ’make yourself comfortable (na”im) with good food’ // Kaš. I 63: Kli (the king speaks) menJŋdjn ačığ bolsu šendin tapuğ let there be is from me and service from you’ 596; el(l)igme ačığ birle ačtı kapuğ ‘and the king opened the door with gift’ 61ft; o.o. 1035, 2399, 2495,5218.

D ačuk N./A.S. (Pass.) fr. 1 ač- (open); lit. 'open' with metaph. extensions, esp. (1) ‘clear’ (sky); (2) 'frank, friendly’ (disposition); (3) ‘obvious, manifest’; (4) in recent Osm. ‘an open financial account, deficiency, bankruptcy’. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually as ačtk and the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ačuk ndirtlığ ‘clearly distinguishable’ TT VI 3S3 (v.I.); ačuk (gap) U III 35, le: Xak. xı ačuk ‘anything open’ (maftuh); hence ačuk kapuğ 'an open door’; ačuk kö:k ‘a cloudless (mušhiya) skv'; and anything obvious (bayyin) is called ačuk ı:š Kaš, I 64: KB ačuk tuttı yüz ‘he maintained a friendly attitude’ 500; ačuk ‘friendly’ 691, 2122; xıır (?) Tef. ačuk ‘obvious, clear’ 65: xıv Muh. al-mafuîh ačuk (cim) Mel. 56, 4; 82, 16; Rif. 154, 188: Čağ. xv ff. ačuk (‘with -č-’) kušeda ‘open’ San. 32V. 2 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ačuk 'open, clear’ Qutb 3; Nahc. 2, 16; 23, 6 etc.: Kip. xıv ačuk (cim) al-maftüh İd. 8: xv maftüh ačık Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 48b. 7: Osm. xıv ff. ačuğ/ačuk ‘open, clear’, fr. xvı onwards ačık TTS II 3, 5; III 2.

očok/očak (? ocok) (hearth, fireplace, building, group (fireplace gathering), family, guild, regiment, shackle(ring), очаг,) originally ‘hearth, fireplace’, and the like; hence esp. in SC, SW ‘a building' of which the hearth is the centre’, and hence ‘a group of persons assembling in such a building’, that is ‘family, guild, regiment of Janissaries', etc. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in some NE and NC languages očok and the like; in the SW (Oğuz) languages ocak. The evidence points to ocok as the original form. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in a list of parts of the house) očok taš ‘hearthstone’ TT VI 8e: Xak. xı očak al-kenun ‘fireplace’ Kaš. I 64; köčürme: očok (sic) ‘a fireplace which is transported from place to place’ / 490, 2e: xıv Muh. al-tntcmara o:ca:ğ (cim) Mel. 68, 15; Rif. 169: Čağ. xv ff. ocağ/ocak (1) etašden-i matbax ‘a kitchen fireplace’ on which they put cooking-pots; hence metaph. düdmen zva xanadan-i buzurg a large family or clan’; (2) ‘an iron ring’ (tawq) which they put on a prisoner or criminal San. esr. 19 (quotn.; there is no other trace of the last meaning): Kom. xıv ‘fireplaceočak CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-ketntn o:ca:k (misspelt icoca:k) Hou. 6, i5:xv/«fm7« ocak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 31a. 5; Kav. 64, e: Osm. xv ff. ocak is recorded for ‘fireplace’ fr. xv and with metaph. meaning fr. xvıı TTS I 534; III 530; IV 596.

VU ?D učuk assuming, as seems reasonable, that it is not očok, there is one early occurrence of this word, which might, in the context be taken as a Dev. N. fr. uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute). There is one certain survival of such a word, Kom. xıv učux ‘chaff’ CCG; Gr., no doubt so called because it flies about. This meaning survives in N W Ka:',., R I 1327. It is difficult, if not impossible, to connect uč- with Čağ. xv ff. učuğ/učıtk (‘with -Č-’) (1) tabxdl ‘fever spots’; \\ (2) metaph., xdl ‘a mole (or stye ?) which grows in the eye’ San. 65V. 18, or Osm. xıv ff. učuk ‘epilepsy’ TTS I 712; //917; III 696; IV 773 (and San. 65V. 20). The early passage might possibly (other alternatives have been suggested) be translated as follows: Türkü vııı (we lived in the Čoğav kuz»: and Kara: kum, eating gazelles and hares; the people’s bellies were full) yağımız tegre: učuk teg erti: ‘our enemies were all round us like a flock of birds’ T 8.

Tris. ACĞ

VU ačkı: (elder brother, (junior) paternal uncle) 'elder brother, (junior) paternal uncle’; cf. ečî:. Tbe Xak. entry follows očak and might imply a basic forpn *ačık, but the Kip. forms point to ačkı:. N.o.a.b. Xak. the Xakani (Turks), addressing an elder hrother (al-axi'l-akbar) say ačkım; the qdf is inserted only with the 1st Pers. Poss. Suff.; it is not permissible to say ačkıg Kaš. I 64: Kip.xui al-'amm ‘paternal uncle’ ačkı: («e; also afa: karındašı:) td. 31, 19: xıv ačğı: (cim, un-vo-alized) al-šağir yuxdfibu'l-kabir ‘a junior thus addresses a senior' td. 9.

D učğuk Hap. leg.?, possibly the earlier form of some medieval words mentioned under učuk; presumably Dev. N. fr. uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute). Xak. xı učğuk ül-zukem ‘catarrh, cold in the head’ Kaš. I 98.

C ičkur (belt) compound of ‘inner’ and 1 kur (belt, girdle) (gir > girdle (sash))belt'. Survives in some NE, SE, NC, and SW languages as ıčkır, učkur, and the like. Xak. xı Kaš. I 35 (ič): xrv Muh. aUkamarrdn ‘belt’ učkur Mel. 67, 8; Xwar. xııı *AH ičkur ‘belt’ 47: Kom. xıv 'belt' ıčkır CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv İčkur al-kamarrdn ‘a Pe. word’ Id. 9: Osm. xvııı učğur in Rumi, band-t izer wa band-i šalwdr 'the belt of the trousers or drawers’ San. esr. 29.

Dis. V. ACĞ-

D ačık- (a:cik-) (famished, starving, hungry) Intensive form of 2 a:č-; originally stronger than the latter, 'to be famished’, but now the normal word for 'to be hungry’ in a.m.I.g.; SW Osm. acık-, Tkm. a:cik-. Xak. xı er ačıktı: tadawwara'l--racul mina’l-ctV 'the imn writhed with hunger’ Kaš. 7 190 (ačıka:r, ačıkma:k); the suffix -k- is used in a Pass. (or Intrans.) sense when a rmn is overcome by something, e.g. er ačıkdı: cd'a'l-racul li-kawnihi mahbtls aw mahšûr ’alayhi ‘the man was hungry because he was imprisoned or put under restraint’ I 21, 2: Čağ. xv ff. acık- guruma šudan ‘to be hungry’ San. 32 r. 12: Xwar. xıv ačıkmıš böri ‘a hungry wolf’ MN 7e: Kom. xıv ‘to be hungry’ ačık- CCG; Gr.

D učuk- (? ucuk-) Den. V. (Intrans.) fr. 1 u:č. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ı:š učuktı: balağa'l amr dxirahu ‘the matter reached its conclusion Kaš. I i9o (učuka:r, učukma:k): KB učukmiš tün-e ‘the night was coming to an end’ 62le: Osm. xıv göge erišmeğe burcu učukmiš ‘his star had finally reached the (height of) heaven’ TTS I 712.

(D) ıčgın- (slip, disappear) to allow (someone or something Acc.) to disappear; to let (something) slip’; morphologically a Refl. f. but with no known basic form. Survives in NE Alt., Tel. ıčkın-/ıkčın-; Sag. ıškın» R. I 1355, 1384, 1391; Khak. is xııı -; Tuv. ıškın-; NW Kaz. ičkin-. Türkü vııı Türkü bodun el!edük tflirn ıčgınu: idmiš ‘The Türkü people let the realm which they had created completely disappear’ / E 6, IIE 7 (with id- as Aux. V.); torü:sü:n ıčgınmıš bodunığ 'the people who had allowed the Türkü customary law to disappear’ IE 13 (// E 11); o.o. Ongin 1 and 2 (derived from /); vııı ff. uzu:nto:nlu:g közQÜ:si:n kölke: ıčğınmi:š ‘a woman let her mirror fall in a lake’ IrkB 22: Man. bîrÖk ol kiši ögin köŋLİlin ıčğınsar ‘if that man loses his understanding and senses' M III 17, 10-11  (ii); 18, 9-10 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. blrer birer ögümin köŋülümin ıčğınurmen ‘I lose my understanding and senses one by one’ VIII 37, 1; erdemlig etözüm ıčğınsarmen ‘if 1 lose my (present) virtuous body’ (when shall I be born again with another as good?) U II 88, 79: Civ. (if a man has a mole on his lip, it means that) tavar ıčğungučı bolur ‘he is going to lose his money’ TT VII 37, 9-10: Xak. xı ol kušnı: eligden ıčğındı: ‘he let the bird slip (aflata) out of his hand’; (prov.); er ıčğındı: ‘the man broke wind (radama) in a public gathering, and to his confusion could not restrain himself’ Kaš. I 253 (ıčğınu:r, ıčgınma;k); o.o. I 447, 7; III 307, 2: KB til ıčğınmasa ‘if he does not lose control of his tongue’ 2350: xııı (?) Tef. dîn ıčğınğaylar ‘they will abandon the (true) faith’ 130: Čağ. xv ff. ičkin- mutahayyar oU ‘to be confused’ Vel. 49 (quotn.; a mistranslation, the phr. means ‘letting the fish slip from his hand’); ıčğm- (‘with -č-') San. 96V. 8 (some quotn. and mistranslation): Xwar. xıv ıčğın- (once učğun-) ‘to release, let go, lose’ Qutb 194, 205: Kom. xıv ičkin- ‘to escape’ (? tc) CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv tafallata ‘to escape’ (jic) ıškın- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9b. 1.

Tris. ACĞ

D 1 ačığlığ (acığlığ) P.N./A. fr. 1 ačığ; s.i.m.m.l.g. with a wide range of meanings including NE ‘miserable, unhappy’; NC ‘angry'; NW usually ‘angry’; SW ‘distressing, tragic, distressed, grieved’. Xak. xı ačığlığ küp dann dii humüdet muhammid m a šubba flhi ‘a jar containing sour things which turns whatever is poured into it sour’ Kaš. I 147: Čağ. xv ff. acığlığ xišmvek ‘angry’ San. 32V. 8.

D 2 ačığlığ P.N./A. fr. 2 ačığ; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ačığlığ er al-raculul-muna'am ‘a comfortable, contented man’ Kaš. I147 (prov.) I 63 (2 ačığ).

D ačığlık (ačığlık) (bitterness) A.N. fr. 1 ačığ, 'bitterness’. S.i.m.m.l.g., normally retaining this meaning and only occasionally having the metaph. meanings of i ačığ and 1 ačığlığ. Xak. xı ačığlık al-mamra 'bitterness' Kaš. I 150: xııı (?) Tef. ditto. 65: Xwar. xıv ditto. Qutb 3; Nahc. 164, 9; 33S, 6.

Tris. ACĞ

D ačukluğ P.N./A. fr. ačuk, N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ačukluğ (MS. ačuğluğ) kiši: al-insenu’l-talq hasanu'l-xulq ‘a generous, good-natured man' Kaš. I 147: KB ayu birdim emdi ačukluğ saga 'I have now spoken frankly to you’ 851; similar phr. 2176.

D ačukluk (openness, clearness, frankness, friendliness, kindness) A.N. fr. ačuk; ‘openness (lit. or metaph.), clearness, frankness’, and the like. S.i.s. NE, NW, SW languages. Xak. xı yü:z ačukluğı: taldqatu'l-icach ‘cheerfulness of countenance’; kapuğ ačukluğı: ‘means that the door is open’ (maftûh) Kaš. I 150 (so spelt in IMS., but in the list of words ending in -luk): x 111 (?) Tef. ačukluk ‘clear utterance’ 65: Osm. xıv ačukluğfriendliness, kindness’ TTS I 3; xvı ačukluk (unvocalized) 'clearness (of utterance)’ IV 3.

D očaklığ (očaklığ) P.N./A. fr. očak; survives only (?) in SW Osm., where it has extended meanings. Xak. xı očaklığ ev ‘a house with a fireplace’ (al-kdnün) Kaš. I 147.

D očaklık (ocaklık) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. očak; survives only (?) in SW Osm. where it has extended meanings. Xak. xı očaklık ye:r ‘the place for a fireplace’ (al-kdnfm); and one says očaklık titig for any material for making a fireplace, clay and the like Kaš. I150.

Tris. V. ACĞ-

D očaklan- (ocaklan-) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. očak. Xak. xı ev očaklandı: ‘the house had a fireplace’ (kemın) Kaš. I 293 (očaklanur, očaklanma:k),

D ačığsa:- Hap. leg.; Desid. Den.V. fr. 1 ačığ. Xak. xı er ačığsa:dı: ‘the man longed for something sour’ (al-humûdn) Kaš. I 302 (ačığsa:r, ačığsa:ma:k); same phr. 1279, 25.

D ačığsı:- (acidic) Hap. leg.; Simulative Den. V. fr. 1 ačığ (acidic), quoted in a grammatical section; n.m.e. Xak. xı üzüm ačığsı:dı: ‘the grapes turned sour (acidic) (kamuda), and the sourness (acidity) increased at the expense of the sweetness’ Kaš. 7 282, 7.

Dis. ECG

ičük (fur-skin, pelt, fur-coat) ‘fur-skin’, hence later ‘fur-coat’. Recorded in Vam. 231 (? xtx. Uzb.) as ičik; survives in NC Kzx. išik. Xak. xı ičük ‘any fur-skin (fartv) taken from a sable, sqirrel, and the like’ Kaš. I 69: Kom. xıv ‘a fur overcoat’ ičik CCG; Gr.

F üjek (written character, letter, syllable) ‘written character, letter, syllable’. The word has a Sogdian look and may have reached Turkish through that language, but seems ultimately to go back to Chinese îzû (Giles 12,324; Old Chinese (Pulleyblank) dzyiy), same meaning; the spelling varies greatly, the final sound is always kef or the equivalent, but in Uyğ. the initial is more often 11- than U-. Survives with much the same meanings in NK Tel. tizük R I 1895; Tuv. üjük Pal. 428; NW Kaz. icik TT V 12, note A 5: SW xx Anat, üzük SDD 1442. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bir ujek (.f/c) a 'single letter’ UIII 76, 12 (ı); ujek bošğurğalı berürler ‘they teach them the alphabet’ ditto 80, 1; v ujek ‘the letter v’ TT V 4, 5 (and other similar phr., see p. 12, note A 5); in TT VII 41 (passim) uzik (rujik) means ‘a Chinerc character’, and in Suv. 27, 21; 272, 10, etc. usik (ujik) means ‘syllable’: Xak. xı üjük al-hicn’ 'the alphabet’... and each letter (harf) of the alphabet is called üjük; hence one says bu: ne: üjük ol ‘what is this letter?’ Kaš. I 71 : Kom. xıv ol söznig ušuğın CCG; Gr. 267; prob. ‘the spelling of that word’, not as there translated: Kip. xııı al- qalam ‘a pen’ üšük Hou. 23, 8.

ečkü: (goat, female goat) generic term for ‘goat’, but in some languages, since there are special words, kočıja:r (q.v.), etc., for ‘ram’, specifically ‘female goat’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with wide variations in pronunciation; the earliest form was ečkü, and keči: an Oğuz corruption which survives in the SW (Oğuz) languages, although ečki and išk survive in SW xx Anat. SDD 505, 799. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ečkü öti ‘the gall of a goat’ III 24; ečkü, esp. in the phr. ečkü süti ‘goat’s milk’ is common in II II; (in a list of livestock) iki sağlık ečkü ‘two milch goats USp. 36, 2; bukanı ečküni (sic) ‘cattle and goats’ 68, 3: Xak. xı ečkü: al-'anz ‘goat’ Kaš. I 128; four o.o.: Čağ. xv ff. üčkü (‘with -k-') keči Vel. 97 (quotn.); üčgü (so spelt) buz ‘goat’ San. 65V. 4 (quotn.): Oğuz xı keči: al-mi'ze ‘goats’ Kaš. III 219: Xwar. xıv ečkü Qutb 156 (ičegiŋ: Kom. xıv ‘ (male) goat' ečki CCI; Gr.: Kip./Tkm. xııı al-ma'z mutlaqa (n) ‘goat’, generic term ečki: (sic), also calİed keči: (sic) Hou. 15,7: xıv ečki: (chn) al-mi’ze' Id. 9; keči: (‘with -č-J al-mi'ze; and in Kıp. ečki: (‘with -č-’) 79; al-me'iz ke:či: (cinŋ Bul. 7, 13: xv al-nta'z ekši (in margin ečki, kečŋ Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) na. 4; xarrub ‘carob bean’ eške münüzi 14a. ıı; ma'z eški 37b. 10; al-ma'iz keši: Kav. 62, 1.

D ičgü: Conc. N. fr. ič-; originally quite neutrally ‘drink’, usually in association with 1 a:š (food) ‘food’. S.i.a.m.l.g., except NC, but usually meaning ‘strong drink, intoxicant’, or even ‘orgy’, by about xvı became ički nearly everywhere. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A aš ičgü ‘food and drink’ M III 13, 20 (ı): Bud. aš ičgü PP 71, 7; U IV 38, 117: Civ. aš ičgü TT VII 24, 8 and 22; [gap] ičgü TT I 211: Xak. xı ičgü: ‘anything that is drunk’ (al-mašrüb) Kaš. I 128; xııı (?) Tef. ičgü ‘drink’ 127: xıv Muh. al-mašrüb i:čgü: (sic) Rif. 164; al-šarba ‘a drink’ i:čgü: Mel. 83, 10; Rif. 189: Čağ. xv ff. ičgü šurb tea tacarru ‘drinking and imbibing’ (with some implication of excess) San. 96V. 21 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ičgü ‘drink’ Qutb 56 (ičgüličkü): Osm. xıv ičgü et- ‘to carouse’ TTS II 515: xv icki eyle- ditto III 355.

D ičgek (drinking) Dev. N. in -gek, connoting habitual action (“habitual action” denotes continuous tense, in this case “drinking”, -gek (-ek/-ak) corresponds to verbal -ing and nominal -er “drinker” in English), fr. ič-; only in conjunction with ye:k ‘demon’, q.v. Ye:k is the older word, and ičgek was prob. coined to use in conjunction \25\ with it to describe another kind of demon; in some Bud. texts ye:k corresponds to Sanskrit yakša and ičgek to bhüta, ‘ghost’ and the like. Türkü vııı ff. Man. yekke ičgekke Chuas. 144-5: Uyğ. vııı ff- Bud. yek ičgek TT V 10, 84; VI 131; common in VII, X; in VII 13 yek is yakfa in 1. 3 and ičgek bhüta in ]. 10; ye:k ičge:k VHIO.9: Civ. yek ičgek TT I

D üčgil Den. N./A. fr. üč; ‘triangle, triangular’. Survives in NC Kzx. üškil 'triangle’ and SW xx Anat. üčgül ‘triangular; trefoil’ SDD 1427. Uyğ. vııı ff. üčgil Caf. 210, quoting two minor texts: Xak. xı üčgil al-šay'u'1-mutallat that is a tKÎng which has three sides (arkan) Kaš. I 105: Kip. xv in a list of words of this form, including mutallat, in Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 62a. 3 ff. the text is corrupt, passing straight from İkigül to bešgül, but the form was no doubt üčgül.

D ičkin Hap. leg.; presumably Dev. N. in -In (Intrans.) fr. ičik-, Xak. xı ičkin er al-raculu*Uadi daxala mina'l- aduww mustas-lima (n) tva amamlhu, ‘a man who comes over from the enemy asking for peace and is granted asylum’ Kaš. I 108.

Dis. V. ECG-

D ičik- (submit) Intrans. Den. V. fr. ; ‘to submit to an enemy or foreign ruler’. Fairly common in Türkü; not noted after xi. Türkü vııı (having revolted, they were unable to organize and establish themselves and ) yana: ičikmiš ‘submitted again’ (to the Chinese) IE 10, II B 9; seven o.o.: Uyğ. vııı sigarı: bodun ičikdİ: ‘half the people submitted’ Šu. K 6-7; three o.o.: Xak. xı er İčikti: istaslama'l--racul fi'l-harb tva daxala ile' 1-harbV l-dxir te’i'a (n) ‘the man asked for peace in a war and obediently submitted to the other side’ Kaš, I 192 (ičike:r, ičikme:k); eri: atı: ičiktı: ‘his men and horses asked us for peace’ (istaslama ilayne) II 118, 16.

D öčük- (quell, затухать) Emph. f. of öč- (quelling, затухать); pec. to Xak. Xak. xı er timi: öčükdi: ‘the man’s voice failed (xafat) in battle, and his breathing was interrupted (xııqata'a nafsuhu) because of a douche of cold water or a heavy blow’ Kaš. I 192 (öčüke:r, öčükme:k); same phr. II 118, 15: KB (he went to sleep a little and 'then woke up again) öcükmiš kömür teg ‘(quelling) like a dying ember’ 3951.

D ičger- (subdue ) Trans. Den. V. fr. ; ‘to bring (something Acc.) into (something Dat.); to subdue (an enemy)’; for the second meaning cf. ičik-. Not noted after xi. Türkü vııı (I campaigned against the Basmil... gap) ičgertim ‘I subdued them’ IIE 25: Uyğ. vııı • [gap] ičgerlp Šu. N 7; anfı: ičjgermedim S 4: vııı ff. Bud. kız berišip kelin İčgerip ‘giving one another daughters in marriage and receiving daughters-in-law (from each other’s families)’ TT VI 311; Sanskrit anugfhniyem ‘we will favour, treat graciously’ i:čge:re:lim VIII A.41; in IV 12, 53 tört ıčgermek represents ‘the four smftyupasthena 'the four things on which the mind should concentrate’: Xak. xı ol atın evke: ičgerdi: 'he brought (adxala) the horse into the house’; ol am: begke: ičgerdi: ‘he falsely accused (tvaše) him to the beg’ Kaš. I 227 (ičgerür, ičgerme:k).

Tris. ECG

D iče:gü: (intestines, entrails) Den. N. fr. with the Collective Suff. -e:gü:, cf. yüze:gü, q.v.; 'intestines, entrails’. S.i.a.m.l.g. in a rather wide range of forms, both shorter, ičeg and the like, and with altered final vowel, e.g. NE ičege. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (when after death) iči ičegüsi tešilser ‘his internal organs and intestines split’ U III 78, 2-3; o.o. do. 43, 24; TT X 548: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘entrails’ ičegü R I 1520; Ligeti 155: Xak. xı iče:gü: ism me tahüt ' alayhi'l-dulu ‘a word for what is enclosed by the ribs’ Kaš. I 137: Xwar. xııı (?) Oğ. (a falcon was eating) ičegüsln 'his entrails' 41: Kom. xıv ‘entrails’ ičeg CCI; Gr.: Kip. xv ınušren ‘intestines’ išegl Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 33b. 7; the word also occurs in 23b. 7 where there is an omission in the MS.; it should read tabib ‘physician’ < otači; talaq ‘bowels’) ičegi: Osm. xıv and xv ičegü ‘intestines’ in several texts TTS II 514; IV 407.

D üče:gü: Collective f. of üč; ‘all three, three together’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW usually in abbreviated form with -g- elided. The forms with -len-/le attached, which appear from Čağ. onwards (San. esr. 26) are Turco-Mong., the Mong. Collective Suff. -e'ülen having been substituted for -e:gü:. Türkü vııı (the Chinese, Oğuz, and Kıtan) bu üčegU: kavıš (s)ar ‘if these three assemble’ T 12; üčegü:n kavıšıp sülelim ‘let us all three assemble and launch a campaign’ T 21: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bu üčegü and biz üčegü is fairly common in USp. in contracts to which three persons are parties, e.g. 25, 9: Xak. xi. KB üčegü turur tüz ‘all three (legs of a stool) stand level’ 802: Čağ. xv ff. üčegü (‘with -g-’) üčünci ‘third’ (sic, in error); üčew ijči ‘the three of them’ Vel. 94; üčew (spelt) tfh te ‘three together’ San. 65T. 25 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) Oğ. üčegüsi ‘the three (persons named) together’ 337, 338: Kom. xıv ‘three together’ üčÖv CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv in a list of Collective numerals üčew Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 61b. 10.

D ičiglig Hap. leg.; if correctly read P.N./A. fr. a N.Ac. of ič-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ötrü ičigli[g] yarašı sevigüg bolur ‘thereupon it becomes fit to drink, palatable, and pleasant’ Wind. 250, 42-3.

D ičgerü: (inwards, inside, interior) Directive f. of ; properly an Adv. of motion ‘inwards’; s.i.m.m.l.g., usually as a N./A. ‘the inside, interior’, the -g- being elided in the SW and devoiced in most other languages. Türkü vııı ff. Man. ičgerü kirip ‘entering within (the tomb)’ MI 5, 3: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (gap) ičkerü (sic) TT III 84: Bud. Ötrü ičgerü ka^ı ei (l)i (g)ke ötük berdi ‘thereupon (going) into (the palace) he /26/ presented a petition to his father the king’ PP 15, 4-5; similar phr. 23, 2; ičgerü balikka kirgeysiz ‘you will enter the town’, 39, 8: Civ. (in a list of penalties, to the king a gold ingot, to the princes a silver ingot) ičgerü ağılıkka bir yastuk ičgerü ağılıkka bir at ‘to the court (or government?) treasury a yastuk [q.v.] and a horse’ USp. 78, 14-I5: ’,v 'Chin-Uyğ. Dict. 'within’ ičgeri R I 1518; Ligeti 155: Čağ. xv ff. not listed, but in San. 96V. 19 if. ičkerrek andaritntar 'more internal’ (quotn,); İčkerikl andarûm ‘situated inside’: Kom. xıv ‘within, among’ ičkeri CCI, Gr.: Kip. xv caıvıva (tı) ‘inside’ iškeri; Tkm. išeri Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 11a, 10 a.o.o.

D ičgerülüg P.N./A. fr. ičgerü:; the word must have survived until fairly recently as ŠS. 47 lists JčkewilJk (wew error for rd) mušehib ‘a gentleman-in-waiting on the Sultan’ (with other synonyms). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ičğerü-2Ug edgü y^mišig ‘the good fruit belonging to the palace’ PP 72, 7.

Tris. V. ECG-

D öčüktür- Hap. leg.; Caus. f, of *öčük-, Intrans. Den. V. fr. 1 ö:č. There is no early record of such a verb but it survives, with phonetic variations, in NC Kır., Kzx. R I 1306; and NW Kaz. R I 1873 (Xak.) xııı (?) At. öčüktürme emi tilin ‘do not arouse feelings of revenge (or anger?) in men with your tongue’ 139.

D ičükle:- (cover with fur-skin, pelt, fur-coat) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. ičük (fur-skin, pelt, fur-coat). Xak. xı ol to:nuğ ičükle:di: ‘lie covered (alsaqa) his garment with the fur (furw) of sables, squirrels and the like’ Kaš. I. 305 (ičükle:r, ičükle:me:k).

DF üjükle:- Den. V. fr. üjük (üjek). Survives in NE Tuv. üjükle- ‘to read letter by letter’ Pal. 428. Xak. xı (after üjük) hence one says bitig üjükle:di: hıce'l-hurûf wa’l--kiteb ‘he speJt out the letters and the document’ Kaš. I 71, 27; n.m.e.

Dis. ACL

VUD üčleč Hap. leg.; Conc. N. fr. üč with the rare suffix -leč. The arrow presumably had a trident-shaped head joined to the shaft by an iron collar. Xak. xı üčleč (lam not vocalized) ‘a featherless arrow (al-mi'rdd) used for shooting hares’; tvi kuwa taleta qtt.lbdn yudatnm ra'sithd bi-kadida ‘it consists of three rods joined together with a piece of iron’ Kaš. I 95.

D a:člık (a:clık) A.N. fr. 1 a:č; 'hunger, famine’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE; in SW (Oğuz) languages aclik (Tkm. a:clik). Xak. xı a:člık («V) al-macd'a ‘extreme hunger’ Kaš. I 114: KB 2003 (1 a:č): xııı (?) Tef. ačlık (1) ‘hunger’; (2) ‘covetousness’ 65: Xwar. xıv ačlık ‘hunger’ Qutb 3; Nahc, 28, 8.

D učluğ (u:cluğ) P.N./A. fr. 1 u:č; ‘pointed, sharp’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııt ff. Bud. süvri \\ učluğ trisul 'a sharp-pointed trident’ TM IV 255, 138.

D ičlig P.N./A. fr. ic; lit. ‘having an inside’. S.i.8. NE, NW, SW languages with various extended meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ol ok keče ičlig bolup 'becoming pregnant that very night’ TT VII 26, 16; o.o., same meaning X 36; VSp. 102a, 3.

D ičlik A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. ; survives in NE Tuv. ištik and SW Osm. ičlik. Xak. xı ičlik waliyatu'l-sarc ‘the stuffing of a saddle’ Kaš. I102; ičlik bolsa: at yağrı:ma:s ‘if the saddle is stuffed, the horse is not galled’ I 104, 25.

D öčlüg (ö:clö:g) (spiteful revengeful) P.N./A. fr. ö:č; ‘spiteful revengeful’. S.i.s. NE, NC, NW languages with phonetic changes. Uyğ. vııı JT. Bud, öclög (sic) keklig ‘malicious and revengeful’ TT VIII N.8; a.o. Hürn-ts. 2095 (urundŋ. Xak. xı (after kek) hence one says öčlüg keklig kiši: sekibıı'l-hiqd rva'I-ta'r 'a spiteful and malicious man’ Kaš. II 283, 14; n.m.e.

VUF ajlaŋ (unvocalized) (chameleon) Hap. leg. As it comes between uldag and izdep and is preceded by L, indicating the second consonant, its general form is certain; no doubt one of the numerous Iranian l.-w. in Oğuz, see ören. Oğuz xı ajlaŋ al-hirbe' ‘chameleon’ Kaš. I 116.

Dis. V. ACL-

D ačıl- Pass. f. of 1 ač- (open); lit. ‘to be opened’, with various extended and metaph, meanings. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. köŋüllerl ačıldı ‘their minds were enlightened’ (?) TT VI 303; in the Chinese date formula in Suv. 199, 19 k'ai ‘to open, be opened’ (Giles 5,794) is translated ačılmak: Civ. tepri kapığı ačıld) ‘the gate of heaven was opened’ TT I 144; ačıl- (of a blocked ear) 'to be unblocked’ HI 57, 58. 59; (of a sore throat) ‘to be relieved’ ditto 154; a.o. II II 12, 90: Xak. xı kÖ:k ačıldı: infataha'l-amr ‘the thing opened’ (sic); also used when taqašša'ati,l-$ame’ 'the skv cleared’; and one says Jcöıjül ačıldı: inšaraha'1-šadr ‘the heart was gladdened’; also used of anything that is opened Kaš. I 193 (ač*lu:r, ačılma:k); tüpürme:zinče: ačıl-ma;s ‘unless (the wind) blows, (the sky) does not clear’ II 71, 14: KB okısa ačılğay ‘if you read, it will be explained’ 358, 927; ačıldı taŋuk ‘gifts were presented’ 5951 (for meaning cf. 2 ačığ): xııı (?) Tef, ačıl- (of the sky) ‘to clear’; (of a town) ‘to be conquered’ 65: xıv Af»f/. (?) futika ačıl- (cim) Rif. 130 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ačıl- kušeda štıdan ‘to be opened’ San. sir. 14 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ačıl- ‘to be opened’ Qutb 3; (of spring) ‘to begin' MN 8e: Kom. xıv 'to be opened’ ačıl- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv ačıl- (cim) infataha İd. 8; Bul. 33r.: Osm. xıv ff. ačıl- ‘to be explained, disclosed’, etc. TTS I 2; II 4; HI z.

D ičil- Pass. f. of ; ‘to be drunk’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı suîv ičildi: ‘the water was drunk’ \\  (šuriba) Kaš. I 194 (ičilür, ičilmek): Čağ. xv ff. ičil- Pass. f.; mišida pulun ‘to'he drunk’ San. 96V. 7.

D öčül- (extinguished) Pass. f. of öč- (quelling, затухать); ‘to be extinguished’. Technically ungrammatical, since öč-, which has the same meaning (extinguished) and is also used in Hend. with alkın- (extinguished), is Intrans. and should not have a Pass., but survives in NE Tel. üčül- R I 1874. Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. (if our sins) öčülmedi alkınmadı erser ‘have not been extinguished and wiped out’ TT IV 20, note B 42, 1. 10; similar phr. Suv. 164, 15.

D ičle:- Den. V. fr. ; ‘to^inc (a garment)’. Survives only (?) in NE Bar. efsle- Ii I 869; Tuv. ište- Pal. 196. Xak. xı ol to:nuğ ičlerdi: ca'ala li'l-tawb bitena ‘he lined the garment’ Kaš. I 286 (ičle:r, ičle:me:k).

D ačlın- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of ačıl- and syn. w. it. Xak. xı kapuğ ačlındı: ‘the door (etc.) opened’ (in fataha); an alternative form iluğa) of ačıl- Kaš. I 256 (ačlınur, ačlınmak).

D ičlen- Refl. f. of ičle:-; survives in NE Tuv. išten- (1) (of a house, etc.) eto be occu-picd’; (2) ‘to be pregnant’ Pal. 196, and has recently been revived, with »different meaning, in SW Rep. Turkish. Xak. xı tarığ ičlendi: in'aqada habbatxCl-zar’ 'the grains of the cereal crop swelled’; also used of any commodity of which the inner parts (wasat) are eaten when they are mature (mat'üm) Kaš. I 257 (ičlenür, lčlenme:k).

D učlan- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 u:č. Xak. xı učlandı: ne:g šera'l-šay' da atref‘ the thing became pointed’ Kaš. I 256 (učlanur, učlanma:k).

D üčlen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. üč. Xak. xı (ičlendi: ne:ŋ šera'l-šay' taleta ‘the thing turned into three’; e.g. one says iki: ka:z (ičlendi: talallata'l-batten ‘the two ducks [mc, but read ‘geese’] became three’ Kaš. I 256 (üčlenür, üčlcnme:k).

D ačlıš- Co-op. f. of ačıl-; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı kapuğlarr ačlıšdı: infatahati'l-abtveb ‘the doors opened (together)’; also used of things that are locked (v\unğaliqa) Kaš. I 239 (ačlıšu;r, ačlıšma:k): Čağ. xv ff ačılıš- (spelŋ Co-op. f.; ba-ham tve šudan tva šikeftagi tua inbiset kardan ‘to be open, to expound, and to be glad, together’ San. 3m 17.

Tris. ACL

D ičle:gü: Hap. leg.; Conc. N. fr. ičle:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (the invalid) ya:ra:šı ičla:ğu:la:r (sic, in error) üze: išle:miš (? error for ičle:miš) tonla:riğ kedmiš kere.k ‘must wearing clothes made (or lined ?) with serviceable linings’ TT VIII 1.20.

Dis. ACM

D ačım Hap. leg.; occurs in a rather difficult passage in KB (see yör-) and seems to be a N.S.Â. fr. ač-; it might mean ‘the amount \\ revealed by a single act of husking’. Xak. xı KU (eat any kind of food and drink to satisfy your stomach) kerek arpa yör tut todurğu ačım ‘or husk barley and take enough husked barley to satisfy you’ 4769.

D ičim N.S.A, fr. İČ-; properly ‘a single drink, or act of drinking’, as opposed to ičgü ‘drink’; survives in NE Tuv. fjim ‘a single brew’ (of tea, etc.) Pal. 187 and in SW. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if we have consumed) yem ičim ‘food and drink’ (or ‘a meal’?, destined for a religious community) TT IV 6, 38: Xak. xı KB yem ičimdin tatığ ‘sweeter than food and drink’ 4402; o.o. 4769, 6005: Xwar. xıv ičim ‘drink’ Qutb 5e: Kip. xv in a miscellaneous list of verbs and Dev. N.s ičim ičti Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 84r. 13.

F üjme: ‘mulberry’; the -j- suggests that it is an Iranian l.-w. Survives only in SE Türki, iicma («V) Shaiv 19; ücme/üjme 795» 8°°; ücme Jarring 329; Tar. üjüme R I 1907; see üjmelen-, čüsüm. Xak. xı üjme: al-tüt ‘mulberry’, ‘with -j-’ Kaš. I 130.

VUF ajmuk ‘white alum’; the -j- suggests that it is an Iranian l.-w. Spelling uncertain; in the six occurrences here and in the Refl. Den. V. the hamza is vocalized three times with fatha and twice with kasra and is once unvocalized, while the mint carries damma twice here, and fatha four times in the verb; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ajmuk al~ -šabbu’l-abyad ‘white alum’. The baldness of a bald man (qara'u'l-aqra) is described metaph. with the phr. ajmuk ta:z meaning that his head seems to be smeared (mulattax) with alum; ‘with -j-' Kaš. I 99.

SF učmak See uštmax.

(D) ičmek survives in NE Bar., Tob. ‘woollen, or fur-lined gloves’ R I 1523; SE Türki ‘saddle-pad ’ Shaw 31. The last meaning, cf. ičlik, suggests a connection with ič; there may also be a connection with ičük. Xak, xı ičmek farwu'l-birqen ‘sheepskin’ Kaš. I 102: Čağ. xv ff. ičmek piisün ‘fur-garment’ San. 96V. 26.

Tris. V. ACM-

VUDF ajmuklan- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. ajmuk, q.v. Xak. xı tarz bašı: ajmuklandi; ‘the head of the bald man, and his baldness, was unhealthy’ (or unsightly?, fasada); and one says yc:r ajmuklandi: ‘there was an abundance of alum in the ground (etc.)’ Kaš. I 313 (ajmuklanur, ajmuklanma:k).

D ičmeklen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. ičmek. Xak. xı er ičmektendi: labisa farro baraqan ‘the man wore sheepskin (clothing)’; also for ‘to own sheepskin’ Kaš. I 313 (ičmeklenür, ičmeklenme:k).

DF üjmelen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. üjme: ; vocalized iijümlen — no doubt in error, since the other words in the section, arpalan-, \\ etc. are of the form here reconstructed. Xak. xı yığa:č üjmelendi: ‘the tree had a crop of mulberries’ (šera . .. du tût) Kaš. I297 (ujmelenür, üjmelenme:k).

Tris. V. ACM-

Dis. ACN

F a:ju:n (world, yer, Earth) the Sogdian word "zten idjftn) life, living being’, and the like, used as a Buddhist technical term to mean 'state of existence; one of a series of lives in the process of birth, death, re-incarnation’; was also used as a l.-w. with the same meaning in Turkish Bud. and Man. texts. On the adoption of Islam it came to be used as a translation of Ar. al-dunye ‘ (this) world’, as opposed to at-exira ‘the next world’, when dünye was not itself used as a \\ l.-w. Survived in Čağ. until about xv and, although not traceable in Old Osm., has recently been adopted in Rep. ’Turkish as acun (world) under the false belief that it was a real Turkish word suitable to take the place of dunye. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. küzütıür ajunta ‘in their present life’ TT II 16, 28; beš ajun ‘the five forms of existence’ TT III 1, 31, 47, etc,: Bud. közünür ajunda Suv. 474, 20; beš ajun TT IV 6, 20; 12, 33, and 38; bir otuz katın ajunlarda ‘in the twenty-one layers of worlds’ Ti§. 47b. 8; ögre ajundaki kılınč ‘deeds performed during a previous incarnation’ TT VIII F. 15; and many o.o.; in TT VIII spelt a:junla:šunla:sun. Xak.xi (described in the main entry as ‘Čigil’ but common in Xak. quotns.) ajun al-dunye; hence bu: ajun al-dunye-, ol ajun al-dxira; a Čigil word, ‘with -j-’ Kaš. I 77; 16 o.o., usually translated al-dunye, but sometimes in verses, e.g. I 160, 5; 407, 27; 420, 6 al-zamen ‘time’ (as the enemy of man): KB ajun ‘this world' is common, 63 (e:t-) 8t, 125, 231, 1044, etc.: xııı (?) Tef. bu ajuti/acun ‘this world’ 40, 6e: At. ajun ' (this) world’ is common: xıv Rbğ. bu ajun R I 52e: Muh. at--dunye is called aju:n in Turkistan and acu:n in ‘our country’ Mel. 7, 13; Rif. 79; al-dunye aju:n 44, 13; 137 (followed by bu: aju:n, ol aju:n): Čağ. xv İT. acun ( with -c-’) al-dunye Vel. 9 (quotns. fr. Lutfi and Mir Haydar, addınız that in the MSS., esp. of Lutfi, it is usually spelt ocun); ocun dünye tea 'elim (‘world’) San. 65V. 29 (quotn. Mir Haydar, followed in the same para, by üčün, with quotn.). As Naıce'i is not quoted, the word was probably obsolete in his time); Xwar. xıv ajun (‘this) world' (and ajunluğ 'belonging to this world’) Qutb 18; acun MN 34 etc. (not in Nahc.)*

ičin Hap. leg.; ‘torch’; ?Chinese l.-w.; cf. yula:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. lkileyü tamdurmıš erdi bilge biliglig ıčınığ ‘he has kindled again the torch of wisdom’ Hüen-ts. 1908-9.

D ičin (inside, mutually, between, secretly) Instr. of used as an Adv.; ‘inside, mutually’, and later ‘secretly’. Survives in NE Tuv. Pid. 187; NC Kzx. AIM 418 and became obsolete in SW Osm. only recently, see Red. 291. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (they curse and abuse one another) takı ičin yontušu \\ okıšurlar ‘and quarrel and shout at one another’ M I 9, 10-ti: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘inside’ ičin R I 152/: Xak. xı İČİn a Particle (harf) used to express baytı ‘between’; one says ola:r ičin ö:tišdile:r tašelahü fi me bay-nalıurn ‘they reached a mutual understanding’ Kaš. I 7e: KB yarašık tadular karıštı İčin ‘the harmonious natural elements in man were in mutual conflict’ 1053: Čağ. xv ff. İčin ara ('with -č-’) dar ıcašt tea dar mivena ‘in the middle, between’ San. gev. 28 (quotns.): Osm. xrv to xvı (only) ičin ‘within, between themselves, secretly’ in several texts TTS I 364; II 515; III 314; IV 408.

D uča:n (boat, sailing ship) Pres. Particip. (in Western form, for učğa:n) of uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute) used as a Noun, ‘sailing ship, or boat’. Definitions of size vary; n.o.n.h.; cf. kayğık, kemi:. Čağ. xv ff. (?) učan (spelt) kašti-yi buzurg ‘a large ship’, just as a medium sized (tnutmeassit) ship is called keme and a small (kûčik) one kayık San. 6.sr. 24 (prob. an xvııı word, not Classical Čağ.); Kip. xı uča:n hull safına det canehayn ‘any ship with two sails’ Kaš. I 122: xıv učan al-safinatu’l-’■šağira ‘a small ship’ td. 9; But. 4, 14: xv safına (keme) rva'l-sağira učan Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19a. 7 (cim everywhere).

üčün (postposition, Noun: because of, for the sake of, for; Verb: because, in order to) (чем, почему) one of the four primeval Turkish Postpositions (see K. Gronbech, Der türkische Sprachbau, Kopenhagen, 1936, p. 35), and one of the two never used as an Adv. After a noun ‘because of, for the sake of, for’; after a verb usually ‘because’, less often ‘in order to’. The form of the verb to which it is attached varies, even within the same text, apparently without affecting the meaning, see v.'G. ATG, para. 30t. C.i.a.p.a.i., consistently as üčün and the İike; Yakut isln, Pck. 967 and Osm. lčün/İčİn (from about xvı ?) being comparatively recent aberrations. Türkü vııı teŋri: yarlikaduk üčü:n özim kutim bar üčü:n ‘because heaven so decreed, and because I mj’self enjoyed the favour of heaven’ I S 9, II N 7; anı: üču:n 'because of that' IE 3; begleri: bodunı: tüzsiz üčü:n ‘because their begs and common people were undisciplined’ IE 6; IIE 6; nnd many o.o. in I, II, TOngin, and Ix., mostly with verbal forms in -duk/-dük, and always ‘because (of)’; vııı ff İsi:ğ Saqu:n İte:čük üčü:n bitirdim ‘I wrote (this) for Isig Saijitn (and?) Itcčük’ IrkB Colophon'. Yen. erdemim üčünbecause of my manly qualities' Mal. 29, 6; a.o.o.: Man. ne üčün ‘why?’ M III 6, 7 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. anı üčüntherefore’ TT II 6, 7; küseyür erti birkerü (read birgerü) künt[em]ek tı sizni körgü üč[ün] ‘because they unanimously wished to see you daily (?) and continuously’ TT III 96: Bud. üčün is very common, e.g. ne üčün PP 4, 5; üčün ‘for the sake of his son’ PP 8, 5; o.o. TT V 24,69 (turgur-) and 7o (odğur-) etc : Civ. ög bitfg yok bolınıš üčün ‘because fhe original document has disappeared’ USp. 5, 3; temiš üčün 'because they said’ 21, 5; a.o.o.: O. Kır. ıx ff. er erdemim üčünbecause of my manly qualities’ Mal. 11, 9; 24, \29\ 5 etc.; n.o.o.: Xak. x« üčün a P;trlicle (harf) used to express aci ‘ (for) the sake (of)’; one says senlf) üčün keldim ‘I came for your sake’ (li-aclik) Kaš. I 7e: KB ummat üčün ‘for the sake of the people’ 40; yagluk üčün ‘because of error’ 197; ukuš birle kılmıš üčün ‘because he had acted with understanding’ 304; and many o.o.: Xlll (?) Tef. üčün ‘for the sake of, because of’ 342: At. I>ed tspahseler Beg üčün ‘for Ded Ispahsfıler Beg’ 69: Čağ. xv ff. (after ocun, see a:ju:n (world, yer, Earth)) üčün halima-i ta'lil, 'a particle of cause’, that is az birey-i on ‘hecause of that’; also pronounced İčüıı San 6er. 1: Xwar. xııı (?) Oğ. anuŋ üčün ‘fnerefore’ 200-1; a.o.o.; xıv üčün ‘because of’, etc. Qutb 202: AIN 260, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘because of, for the sake of’ üčün CCI, CCG; Gr. 269 (quotns.): Kip. xııı li-acl üčün Hou. 54, 20 (with several examples): xıv üčün (cim) aci Id. 9; Bul. 15, 7 (ü:čü:n): xv ja'n 'sake' üčün Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21a. 11; 'aldvıatu'l-acl ‘mark of sake’ üčün 89b. 13; li-acl üčün Kav. 33, 10.

Dis. ACR

D üčünč Ordinal f. of üč; ‘third’. The only form up to Kaš. inclusive; üčünči which s.i.a.m.l. except one or two in NE, with minor phonetic variations, first appears in KB and then only metri gratia. Türkü vııı üčünč I E 33; / N e: vııı ff. üčü:nč IrkB 5 and 15: Uyğ. vııı ff. üčünč Man.-A M III 12, 4 (ii); Man. TT II 6, 28: Bud. PP 17, 6; Suv. 199, 12: Civ. common in \\ II and USp.: Xak xi. ücünč al-telit fi'l-'adad ‘third’ Kaš. I 131; III 448: KB üčünči 133, 789: xııı (?) At. üčünč 33: xıv Muh. al-telit ü:čunči: (ciro's) Mel. 82, 8; Rif. 187:‘Čağ. xv ff. üčüne iičünci Vel. 94; üčüne (so spelt) siyyum; üčüncİ siyywttin San. 6er. 3: Xwar. xııı (?) Oğ. üčünčüsüke ‘to the third of them’ 68:xiv üčünč Qutb 202: Kom. xıv üčünči CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv üčünči (cim's) Id. 8:xv, ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 61b. 2; üšinel Kav. 67, 13.

Dis. V. ACN-

D ačın- Preliminary note. In the early period the Reft, f.’s of 1 ač- (open) and ačı:- (acid, ache) would have been homophonous, and it is difficult to decide which form the early occurrences represent, but on balance they all seem to represent the former. If so the earliest occurrence of the latter is in a side-note (prob. ift a SWhattd) to Kıp. XV ta'allama 'to feel pain’ avvurun- (for ağrın-) Tuh, gb. 4 with acın- in the margin. On the other hand, at the present day the only survival of the Refl. f. of 1 ač- (open) seems to be NE Sag., Šor adın- (change (of state)) (sic) *to open the mouth’; acm- (with a wide range of phonetic variations) 'to feel pain, grief, anger, or compassion; to grudge; to be pitied', etc., which s.i.a.m.l.g., is clearly the Reft. f. of ačı:- (acid, ache).

D ačın- Refl. f. of 1 ač- (open); the meaning in some of the passages below is linked with those of 2 ačığ, 2 ačığlığ and, partly, ačıl-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. evin barkın ačmığh [kü]digli kiši -people who look after and tend the \\ houses and property’ (of kings, beg's and notables) Wind. 32-3: Bud. (the ox-herd took him to his house and) ačındı ‘tended him, or made him comfortable’; (he entrusted him to those in the house, saying) artuk edgü ačınımlar ‘tend him very well’; biray artuk ačındı ‘he tended him for more than a month’ PP 67, 6-68, 2; isig özügde artukrak ačınu köyü közedü tutdug 'you have kept him tending and watching over him more carefully than your own life’ U IV 36, 81-3; ökünürmen bilinürmen ačınurmen ya-dinurmcn ‘I repent, admit, disclose, and publish’ (all my misdeeds) Suv. 137, 23: Civ. [gap] suvın ačınmıš kerek ‘you must treat... with water’ IIII 25, 65 : Xak. xı beg erin ačındı: al-amir akrama wa na”ama cundahu ‘the beg showed regard and granted favours to his army (etc.); and one says er atın ačındı: ahšana*l-racul li-farasihi qadhn wa 'alaf ‘the man gave his horse barley and fodder’; and one says er ko:yın ačındı: ‘the man pretended to open (yaftah) his bosom’; also used of a sick man or a child in the cradle when he throws off his hed-clothcs (kašafa *an diterihŋ Kaš. I 199 (ačınu:r, ačınma:k): KB ačın-occurs (1) without an Object, e.g. (may these my good qualities be useful to the king) ačınsun ‘rnay he show favour’ (and may my pains disappear) 468; (2) governing the^cc., e.g. tapuğsuz ağırlap ačındım seni "although you were undutiful I honored you and showed favour to you’ 646.

rE ıčan- this word is read four times in TT /, but nowhere else, and translated ‘to avoid, take care’. The text is, however, very badly written, and it may well be a misreading of man- ‘to trust, rely on’; if not, it is perhaps an earlier form of išen-, same meaning. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (there is a deceitful official in the realm; he impedes your efforts) örkİ kišİ-lerke ıčanğıl (? ınanğıl) edremlig kišilerig ayağıl ‘rely on (?) highly placed people, and honor virtuous people’ TT I 65; in 196-7 and 214-15 the word is in coordination writh saklan- ‘to protect oneself' instead of aya:-; a.o. 207.

Tris. ACN

D a:ju:nčı: N.Ag, fr. a:ju:n (world, yer, Earth); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB ajunčıka erdem kerek mig tümen anın tutsa elgün keterse tuman ‘a world ruler must have countless good qualities, he must hold the realm by them and disperse the fog’ 285 ; (if you desire a kingdom, be cautious, oh) ajunčt İtiši 44e: xıv Muh. šehibu'1-dunye ‘lord of the world’ aju:nčı: Mel. 50, 4 (tnis-vocalized oju'.nčı:); Rif. 145.

Dis. ACR

D učar (bird (in flight, waterfall), flying) Aor. Particip. of uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute) used as a N./A.; survives in NE, SE, and SW usually for ‘a bird on the wing’ but in NE Tel. R I 723; Tuv, Pal. 418 only for ‘waterfall’ and in SW xx Anat. SDD 1411 with this additional meaning. Xak. xı KB (if he praises a horse) yügrür učarığ yeter ‘it gallops and overtakes a bird \30\ the wing’ 2401; učarığ učurmaz seniŋ ırıg ‘your (hunting) birds do not let on the wing escape' 5379.

[repair damage]

ičre: with Suff. -re:; used both as an ’within, inside’ and as a Postposition sting both motion into and rest within îthing). Survives only (?) in SE and SW. cü vııı ičre: ašsız tašra: tonsiz ‘with ■od in their stomachs and no elothes on backs’ I E 26, HE 21; Apa: Tarxıın-: ičre: sav idmiš ‘he sent word tly to Apa Tarxan’ T 34: vııı ff. (the ; army went out hunting) sûğnr ičre: keyi:k kirmiš: ‘roedeer and antelopes ed the ring of beaters’ IrkB 63: Man. rğaıı ičre ‘inside the stupa’ M / 6, 3; aruk ordu ičre oluruğma Chum. 14 -Jyğ. vııı icre: ben bıılğayı:n *1 will stir ternal trouble’ Šu. S 4: Xak. xı n.m.e., nine occurrences as postposition, e.g. ičre: ‘in the cooking pot’ / 223, 25: KB ak icre ‘in paradise’ 3522 (evin): xıı (?) rP bu Bıığra Xan ol waqtt ičre 'in ime of this Iîutîra Xan’ 2^: xııı (?) Tef. lln ‘from inside’; ičre Postposition 127: İčre Postposition 8, 122, 48e: Xwar. čre ‘in, within’ Qutb 56; AIN 15, etc.; • 360, 13: Osm. xıv ičre Postposition less often ‘into’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 364; II, III 355; IV 409 \\

učurug N.Ac. fr. učur- ; ‘causing to fly’ with ph. extensions. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ- vııı ff. tuğ učruğ töpö tartığda ulatı etig îkler üze ‘with ornaments and ademse) such as flying flags, hnir ribbons and ke’ V II 40, 107-8; (the Buddha who is) ıčruğlar el(l)igi 'the king of perfume wrings’ V II 57, 1 (ii); a.o. Suv. 490, 23.

üčrer Hap. leg.; ‘three each’, prob. only a ii error for üčer the regular Distributive of ÜČ, of which there is no early occur, but possibly a longer form parallel to r. Uyğ. vııı IT. Civ. üčrer ‘three each' 32, 16.

Dis. V. ACR

ačur- (a:cur-) Caus. f. of 2 a:č-; pec. to ; later replaced by aciktur- first noted ■m. 32T. 25. Xak. xı ol am: a:čurdı: ahu 'he starved him’ Kaš. I 268 (a:čurur, •ma:k); bu aš ol kiši:ni: ačurğa:n food is quickly digested and quickly s a man hungry again’ (sari’ 11 l-hadm zva 7- icd'a) I 1 î6, 18; ačrup özüg ‘starving iclf’ III 68, 2. Ur- Caus. f. of ič-; ‘to give (someone something Acc.) to drink’, with some ded meanings. S.i.a.m.l.g., cf. ičtür-. . vııı ff. Civ. tıkta:k ya:ğ ičürmiš :k ‘you must give him bitter oil to drink’ VIII I 24 (tikta:k is a Sanskrit l.-w.): xı ol agar su:v ičürdİ: nšrabahu'1-nın’ nvc him water (etc.) to drink’ Kaš. I 177 ür, ičürme:k); ö:lü:m o:tın ičü:rdü:m 'I made him drink (asqnytuhu) a deadly \30b\ potion’ I 47, 16; o.o. I 157, 10 ; 218 (ičtür-):x 11 (?) KHVt’ (God never leaves mankind hungry) yetürür Ičürür 'he gives them food and drink’ 5: xıv Muh. saqe'l-m (V su: i:čilr-Mef. 27, 6 (Rif. tart-): Čağ. xv ff. ičÜr- (‘with -Č-') Caus. f.; ttüšenidan ‘to give to drink’ San. <) (yr. 21 : Xwar. xııı IT. ičür- ditto 'AH 25: xıv lčir-/ičür- ditto Qutb 5e: Kom. xıv İčir- ditto CC (7; (h. 105 (quotn.): Kip. xııı asqd ičir- Hon. 34, e: xıv ditto Id. 8: xv ditto. Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 54b. 10 (citn, everywhere); asqa i:šir- Kav. 69, 2.

D učur- Caus. f. of uč- (fly, die, pass away, speeding, disappear, fail, twitch, flutter, fade, dissolute); 'to make, or let (a bird etc.) fly\ with some metaph. extensions. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. Sanskrit vaha-mena (read vehayanıana) ‘driving, propelling’ and the like uču:ru TT VIII A.32: Xak. xı ol kuš učıirdı: ateral-tayr ‘he made the bird fly’; and one says ol ani: attın učurdı: 'he made him foil (asqatahu) off his horse' (etc.) Kaš. I 176 (učurur, učurma:k); a.o.o. I 156, 16 etc.: KB 5379 (učaŋ: xııı (?) Tef. učur-‘to make (dust) fly’ 334: Čağ. xv ff. učur- (-di, etc.) at-, partnb et- ‘to throw’; ‘to throw something light to the winds’ Vel. 95-6 (quotns.); učur- (‘with -Č-*) Caus. f. of uč-; paramdan ‘to cause to fly’; muxtalic adxtati ‘to cause to quiver or twitch’; ma'dum kardan ‘to destroy’ San. 63V. 5 (quotns.): Osm. xv ff. učur- occurs with various meanings TTS I. 712; II 918; IV 774.

D öčür- (extinguish) Caus. f. of öč- (quelling, затухать); ‘to extinguish’ (a fire, etc.), with some metaph. extensions. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ot üčüri (?) ‘extinguishing a fire’ U II 9, 4; nızvanılarığ . . , ücürüp ‘suppressing the passions' TTIV 12, 56-7; o.o. TT VII 40, 71 (to extinguish debts); Suv. 96, 22 (‘to wipe out the evil deeds of others’): Civ. öčürgülük in a damaged passage II II 2.9, 172: Xak. xı ol otuğ öčürdi: 'he extinguished (atfa'a) the fire’; anıg öpke:sin öčürdi: ‘he calmed (askana) his anger’; and one says ol am: urup tırnı: öčürdi; 'he beat him until lie reduced him to silence’ (askata na'matahu) Kaš. I 176 (öčürür, öčürme:k); a.o. I 522, 4: KB bu erlik otın öčürmek üčün ‘in order to suppress this manly ardour’ 3608 (and see 3609): xııı (?) 7ef. öčür- ‘to extinguish’ (a fire) 252: At. ol otnı öčür 340: xıv Rbğ. bu otm öčürüg R I 1287: Čağ. xv ff. öčür- (-se, etc.) söyündür- ‘to extinguish’ Vel. 95-6 (quotns.); öčür- (with -č-') Caus. f. of. öč-, muntaft’ sdxtan ‘to extinguish’ San. 63V. 7 (quotns.)

D ičrüš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of ičür-. Xak. xı ol maga: su:v ičrüšdi: ‘he helped me to give water to drink’ (fi saqyi’l-nid’)', also used for ‘to compete’ Kaš. I 233 (ičrüšü:r, ičrüšme:k).

D učruš- Co-op. f. of učur-; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ol maga: kuš učrušdı: ‘he helped me to make the bird fly’ ('aid ifdrati'I-tayŋ; also used for ‘to compete’ Kaš. I 233 (učrušu:r, učrušma:k); erkek tiši: učrušu:r \31\

‘the n / 529 D ö< Xak. öčrii; with'] used fire’ J (F) a< D u:<j The ’ be co word ükü:î kork: yok *: from unluc (have enjoy D öče and tl brack times Bas. Türk uluğ luk) bîank  Čağ. ‘an u 19; iı D ič withii the r< ičrek 2, II  bediz paintexan i chanıl reki 1 Uyğ. M I orun* holde ‘situa ičrek (?) Af D uč Xak. the t učur: tartı;) D a:< IV.

Dis. V. ACŠ-

nale mul female (birds) mate’ (yatazmvac) , 4; III 178, 16.

öčrüš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of öčür-, xı ol anıŋ öpketBİn meniŋ birle: šdi: ‘he helped (should he ‘competed \ me to calm (fi taskin) his anger’; also for 'to help in extinguishing (fi itfa') a Kaš. I 233 (öčrüšü:r, öčrüšme:k).

Tris. ACR

:ırğa See adğır.

;ru:ğlu:ğ Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. rfčruğ. Whole paragraph is very cryptic and may rrupt, but even if atlığ is inserted, the has no obvious meaning. Türkü vııı ff. } allığ ögrünčiiîŋ yok kovı: atlığ ınčı:ŋ yok učru:ğlu:g (atltğ) kutu:Q if you have many titles you get no pleasure them; if you have a reputation for being ky, you have no (reason to) fear; if you a reputation for being)... you do not the favour of heaven’ IrkB 36.

öčürgü: N.I. fr. öčür- ; lit. 'an extinguisher’ he like, but actually ‘horse blanket, sha-\ Survives in one form or another, some-with initial i- in NE (including Khak. 257), SE and NC R I 869, 1517, 1876. ii vııı ff. tokurz kat öčürgü:ŋ topu: («V, obviously corrupt, ?read toplağu:-anča: terltzüm ‘pile (?) nine layers of ets on it and so make it sweat' IrkB 50:xv ff. öčergü (so spelt) takaltü-yi zirin nder horsecloth or shabrack’ San. 65r. *lrgü (so spelt) do, 96V. 17.

ičre:ki: N./A.S. fr. ičre:; lit. ‘situated 1’, but sometimes metaph. ‘belonging to syal court’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı anta: 1: bodun ‘the people living therein’ I S N 2; Tovğač xağan (n)ıŋ ičreki: :člğ ‘the Chinese Emperor’s court ;r’ I S 12, IIN 14: vııı ff. Yen. Kara: čregi: (*tc) beti ‘I was Kara Xan’s court berlain (?)’ Mal. 37, 1; Man. köŋül lč- (gaP) 'in mind’ M III 19, 11 (in: vııı ff. Man.-A ičreki az ‘internal lust’ 17, 8: I3ud. (in a list of names) İčreki čılar ‘the court officials’ (lit. ‘placers’) Pfahl. 23,^4: Xak. xııı (?) Tef. İčreki ted in’ 127: O. Kır. ıx ff. Küč Kıyağan i: Küč Kuyağan the court chamberlain’

ol. 4 (a balbal); similar name 11, 1.

Tris. V. ACR

-ursa:- Desid. f. of učur-; pec. to Kaš. xı ol kuš učursa:dı: ‘he wished to make >ird fly’ Kaš. I 280, 20; ağır u:tti: 5a:d«m ‘I wished to drive away (tsta-heavy sleep’ III 247, 23; n.m.e.

Dis. ACS

;sik (a:csik) Hap. leg.; prob. Dev. N. ı:čsı> Simhlative f. of 2 a:č-. Türkü \\ vııı (if once you are satisfied) a:čsık ömezsen 'you do not remember having been hungry’ / S 8, IIN 6.

D učsuz (u:csuz) Priv. N./A. fr. 1 u:č ‘having no tip, point, boundaries’, and the like. Survives in NW Kar. T., Kaz. R I 1330, 1732 and SW Osm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Dud. učsuz kıdığsiz ülgüsüz 'boundless (Hend.) and immeasurable’ (merits and good deeds) Suv. 584, 12.

Dis. V. ACS-

D ačsa:- (access) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of 1 ač- (open). Xak. xı er kapuğ ačsa:dı: ‘the man wished to open (yoftah) the door’; also for opening anything else Kaš. I 276 (ačsa:r, ačsa:ma:k).

D ičse:- Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of ič-, Xak. xı ol su:v ičseıdi: ‘he wished to drink (šurb) water (etc.)’ Kaš. I 276 (ičse:r, ičse:me:k).

Dis. ACŠ

D 1 öčeš (öceš) (feud, quarrel) Dev. N. in , connoting mutual action’ fr. 1 ö:č, is not recorded in earlier times, but survives, in one form or another in NE, SE, NC, SC meaning ‘feud, quarrel’

D 2 öčeš (öceš) (bet, wager, point, wish-bone, очко) (очко) Dev. N. in , connoting mutual action’ fr. 2 *öče:-; ‘bet, wager’. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. öceš ‘the wish-bone of a fowl’ (often used for betting). The homophonous word öčeš, derived fr. 1 ö:č, is not recorded in earlier times, but survives, in one form or another in NE, SE, NC, SC meaning ‘feud, quarrel’. Xak. xı öčeš al-muxdtara ‘a bet, wager’ Kaš. I61.

Dis. V. ACŠ-

D 1 ačıš- (open, compete) Co-op. f. of 1 ač- (open); survives in NE Khak. Bas. 37 and SE Türki Shaw 3. Xak. xı ol maga: kapuğ ačıšdı: 'he helped me to open (fi fath) the door’; also for ‘to compete’ Kaš. I 180 (ačıšu:r, ačıšma:k).

D 2 ačıš- (? ačıš) Co-op. f. of ačı- and almost synonymous with it in its literal and metaph. meanings except that this word tends to connote plural or group, rather than individual, action. Survives in NE Khak. Bas. 37; SE Türki Shaw 3; Tar. R I 1511; SW Osm,, etc. Xak. xı in a note on the use of the Suff. -š- to connote simultaneous action by members of a group and the like, sirke: ačıšdı: hamada'l-xall ba'duhu fi ba'd ‘the whole of the vinegar was (or became) sour’ Kaš. I 181, 16; n.m.e. Čağ. xv ff. ačıš- süztıek šudan za xııı tea cirehat ki be xertš bešad ‘to ache, of a sore or wound which irritates’ San. 31 v. 6 (quotns.).

D iČİŠ- Co-op. f. of İč-; ‘to drink together’, etc. Survives in NE Khak. Bas. 66, 69 and SW Osm., Tkm. Xak. xı ol meniŋ blrle: sü:t İčİšdİ: ‘he competed with me in drinking (ft šurb) milk’; also used for ‘to help’ Kaš. I 181 (lčlšü:r, lčlšme:k); to:n temi: İčlšdi: ‘the garment (completely) absorbed (našafa) the sweat’ I 181, 18: Čağ. xv ff. İčiš- Co-op. f,; be-ham nûšidan ‘to drink together’ San. 96V. e: Kom. xıv İčiš- ‘to help (someone) to drink’ CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv İčiš- ‘to have a drinking competition’ TTS II 516.

Dis. V. ACŠ-

D öčeš- Preliminary note. There are two verbs of this form, the Recip. f.s of 1 (hostileness, revengefulness) and 2 öče:- (очко) respectively. The first seems to s.i.a.m.l.g. except NW and SW and the second only in SW, but it is not always easy to decide which verb is concerned since such meanings as 'to wrangle, argue' might come from either.

D 1 öčeš- (öceš-) (overcome, win) Recip. f. of 1 öče:- (hostileness, revengefulness); ‘to be hostile to one another' and the like, Türkü vııı tr. Man. yaruk künler tütıerig tünlerke utrunğalı öčešgeli turdılar ‘the bright days arose to resist and fight with the dark nights' M III 19, 9 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. nizvanilar birle sügüšmek öčešmek ‘to light (Mend.) with the passions’ M III iz, 13-14 (in: Xak. xı KB öčešme bu begler bile ‘do not enter into conflict with these begs' 4086; öčešme bu dawlat bile sen yaraš ‘do not enter into conflict with fortune, come to terms with it’ 4299: Čağ. xv ff. öceš- (‘with -c- spelt and conjugated as ocaš-) keıvif tva mu arada hardan; the latter means ‘to oppose, resist'; kevoiš k. means ‘to dig, investigate’ and is not appropriate; it may be a translation of Ar. baht; in Pe. baht kardan means ‘to argue, wrangle, wager’ which looks more like 2 öčeš- (bet) San. 64r. 23 (quotns.; the mis-spelling suggests that the author was not really familiar with the word): Kip. xıv kabara ‘to treat scornfully, try to overcome’ ičiš- (sic, with cim; perhaps an error for öčeš-) Bul. 78r.

D 2 öčeš- (bet) Recip. f. of 2 *öče:- (очко) ‘to wager, or bet, with one another’. Türkü vııı ff. [bir İklnti:] si:ke: savı:n öčešmišler ‘they argued (or wagered ?) with one another’ (and one said ‘1 maintain that the stars have authority over everything’ and the other said — rest lost) Toy. Ur'. 1-3 (ETY II 179)- Xaj^ xı ol meniŋ birle: öčešdi: bereni fi šay’ ‘he bet with me about something ’ Kaš. /i 81 (öčešüır, öčešme:k); (after öčeš) same phr. translated xatara mal fi šay’ ‘he bet with me about something’ I 61, 9: xıv jVf«/ı. (?) rahatta ‘to bet’ oxša:- (sic, error for öčeš-) Rif. 109 (only): Kom. xıv ‘to bet’ öčeš- CCG; Gr.: Ktp. xv rehana očeč- («V, with ciWs) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 17b. 5.

Dis. ACZ

učuz (ucuz) (easy, cheap, worthless, effortless) basically ‘not requiring effort', hence in the earliest period (of actions) ‘easy’, of persons ‘not worthy of respect’, and of concrete objects ‘easy to get’ and so ‘cheap, worthless’ Survives only (?) in NW učuz/učsuz R I 1328, 1330, 1729, 1732, 1738 and SW Az., Osm. ucuz; Tkm. uci:zcheap, despicable’, and the like. Türkü vııı yuyka: erkeli: toplağalı: učuz ermiš ‘when a thing is thin, it is easy to crumple it up’ T 13; vııı ff. Man. (various things) közümde idi učuz yenik boldi ‘have become quite worthless (Hend.) in my eyes’ TT II 8, 44: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. učuz yenik TT IV 10, 16; U II 77, 18; 86, 35; ečim... ağırlığ bolğav, men takı učuz bolğaymen 'my elder brother... will rcspect’ PP 29, 4; ayafcsiz tot učuz ‘un- , worthy of honor or rcspect’ UII77, 19; 86, 36; • tot učuz (of ‘words’) \\ IV 8, 31-2; oJ oğla» ögin emgetmedin učıız tuğğay ‘that boy will be born easily without causing pain to his mother’ TT VI 278; similar phr. VII 27, 10 and 13: Xak. xı učuz ne:g 'h cheap (raxif) thing’; and anyone 'base and despicable' (af-dalilul-muhan) is called učuz Kay I 54: KIİ bu tört ner> učuz tutma ‘do not regard these four things (fire, an enemy, illness, and wisdom) as unimportant’ 308; o.o. 540, 901, 1245, 1603, 6452: x 111 (?) Tef. učuz (?) ‘despised’ 334: At. učuz ‘chenp’ 480: xıv <d--raxis u:ču:z (cim) Mel. 55, 12; Rif. 153: Čağ. xv ff. ucuz arzen ‘cheap’ San. 65V. 14. Xwar. xııı učuz ‘cheap’ 'Ali 49 (once učsuz):xiv ditto Qutb 195: Kom. ‘worthless’ učuz CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-raxiš učuz (cim) Hou. 27, 2: xıv ditto Id. 9; učuz bol- raxttfa tva sahufa 'to be, become cheap, or easy’ ditto; (under c-z) čuz bol- (cim) hena ‘to become easy; to become contemptible, base’ 43: xv raxis ušuz («e) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 17a. 9: Ostn. xıv ucuz tut- ‘to despise’ TTS I 710.

Tris. ACZ

D učuzluk (ucuzluk) (cheapness, disrespect) A N. fr. učuz (easy, cheap, worthless) and surviving in the same languages; ‘cheapness, disrespect’, and the like. Xak. xı učuzluk al-ruxša fil-as'er ‘cheapness of price’; učuzluk al-madalla tva'l-šağer ‘vileness, worthlessness’ Kaš. I 149: KB (do not go near 0 beg when he is angry; if you do) učuzluk anuk 'humiliation awaits you5 783); a.o. 2118: xıı (?) Tef. učuzluk (1) ‘low prices’; (2) ‘contempt, humiliation’ 334: Xwar. xıv učuzluk ‘cheapness’ Qutb 195.

Tris. V. ACZ-

D učuzla:- (ucuzla:-) (discourtesy, disrespect) Den. V. fr. učuz (easy, cheap, worthless); ‘to treat with disrespect’, etc.; survives in SW. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit svalebham neva-manyeto ‘one should not disparage one’s own gains’ öz butunčı neg učuzlağulu:k ermez TT VIII E.9; nomuğ učuzladačı ‘treating the doctrine with disrespect’ Iliien-ts. 101; o.o. do. 165; Suv. 136, 10 (tota:-): Xak. xı beg ant: učıızJa;dı: ‘the beg treated him with disrespect' (ohetıahu) Kaš. I 301 (učuzla:r, učuzla:ma:k); (after učuz) same phr. and translation I 54, 21: KB kišig til učuzlar ‘his tongue brings a man into disrespect’ 163.

D učuzlan- (ucuzlan-) (reckon, guess (negative)) Refl. f. of učuzla:- (discourtesy, disrespect); survives in NW, SW. Xak. xı ol bu: ne:gni: učuzlandı: 'addahede'İ’šay’ raxis 'he reckoned that this thing was cheap’ Kaš. I 292 (učuzlanur, učuzlanma:k).

Mon. AD

1 a:t (a:d) (name, clan, title, reputation)name’; originally perhaps clan, rather than personal, name (see adaš); by extension ‘title’ and 'good name, reputation’. S.i.a.m.l., SW Az., Osm. ad; Tkm. a:t (before vocalic suffixes a:d-). Türkü vııı Türkü «..f».n nnmo 'Türkü' 1 F. n fatıtn II E 7^: \\ a:tlğ I W z; Ix. i; [pn/>J a:t birtim ‘I gave him the name (or title) of. . .' \\ E 41; (we gave him) xafcan at ‘the title of xaftan' I K 20 (atığ II E 17); ati: küsi: 'his good name and reputation’ I E 25, II E 21; \\ E 22 and 3e: vııı ff. bir kiši; a:ti: ‘one man’s name’ Tun. Ilia. 5 (ETY II 94); a:ti: Tun. IV 6 (do. 96): a:ti:m do. 12: Yen. er atim ‘my name as an adult’ (as opposed to a child) Mal. 38, 3: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A teŋri attga ‘in the name of God’ M I 25, 2; atı eštl (miš kUsl sorulmıš 'whose name has been heard, and whose fame has been asked about’ (in all quarters) M I 26, 27-8: Bud» edgU kü at PP 7, 1; burxan atın ‘the Buddha’s name’ U I 29, 16; at yol Suv. 444, 5 (yo:l); many o.o.: Civ. ecjgü at TT VII 29, 10; at yol ditto 37, 11; atitj küg TT I 43, 146; birer atın megizin sözlelim ‘we will enumerate their names and physical appearances one by one’ H II 22, le: O. Kır. ıx FT. atım ‘my name is’ (common beginning of an inscription) Mal. i, 2, etc.; er atım ditto 2, 5, etc.; oğlan atım ‘my name as a child’ 45, 1; a.o.o.: Xak. xı a:t al-ism ‘name’; a:t al-laqab 'title’; hence one says beg a:ga:r a:t be:rdi: ‘the beg gave him a title’ (.alqabahu) Kaš. I 78; III 77» 17 (y°dul-); 250, 19 (ata:-); a.o.o.: KB bu at 6; a.o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. at ‘name’ 62: At. ditto, common: xıv Muh. al-ism ‘name’ a:d Mel. 50, 5; at Rif. 145: Čağ. xv ff. at ism Vel. 6 (quotn.); at nem ‘name’ San. 3or. 27 (quotn ): Xwar. xıı (P) at (or ad) ‘name’, and at (or ad) koy- ‘to name’ (name down) Oğ. common: xıv at 'name' Qutb 14; MNi, etc.; at ber- ‘to name’ Nahc. 2, 16, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘name; nounat; ‘to nameat tak- CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv ad al-ism Id. 9:xv al-ism ad/at Kav. 57, 17: Osm. xıv ff. ad in various phr., c.i.a.p. TTS I 3, 4; II 5, 6; III 3» 4ÎIV4. 5

2 at (horse)horse’; nearly always with the implication of 'riding horse’; cf. 2 yılkı: (livestock, quadrupeds, animal, sheep, camels, cattle, horses), yunt (yund) (horse); in a few modern languages at means ‘gelding’, as opposed to adğır ‘stallion’. C.i.a.p,a,I. Türkü vııı, vııı ff.: Uyğ. vııı ff.: O. Kır. ıx ff. at ‘horse’ is common: Xak. xı at al-faras ‘horse’, bi-išbe'i'1-alif ‘with back vowel’ Kaš. I 34 (prov.); many o.o.: KB bu Aytoldi ettl kör at ton tolum ‘Aytoldi put his horse, clothing and weapons (fully dressed) in order’ 474; a.o.o.: xııt (?) Tef. aj ‘horse’ 62: xıv Muh. al-faras at/at Rif. 81, 170: Čağ. xv ff. at asb ‘horse’ Vel. 6; at *umum asb ‘generic term for horse; the name for one of the chess-men’ San. 3or, 25: Xwar. xıv at ‘horse’ Qutb 15; MN 69; Nahc. 408, 17 etc.: Kip. xııı al-faras mutlaqa (n) 'generic term for horse’ at Hou. 12, 6: xıv a:t (sic) al-faras İd. 15: xv faras at Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27b. 10; Kav. 17, 2; 31, 21; 61, 19.

e:d (thing, product, property, commodity, ware) (lit. “made” (n., adj.)) acc. to Kaš. ‘a manufactured article’, but this may arise fr. a supposed, but impossible, etymological connection with et-; in practice the word generally means 'movable property, other than livestock’ and most commonly occurs in the phr. e:d tavar ‘movable property and livestock’. An early l.-w. in Mong. as ed (llaenisch 47 (et in error); Koto. 197, Haltod 45); as there is no trace of the word in Turkish between xı and xx the NE forms es/es (before vowels ez) R I 870, 871; Khak. Bas. 57, 63; Tuv. et Pal. 589, 590 may be reborrowed fr. Mong. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kaltı uz kiši uzlanğu ed bulmasar ‘just as a craftsman, if he cannot find raw material for his craft’ MI 17, 1: Bud. ed tavar U I 27, 2; 29, 2; U II 10, 15; U III 80, 19; TT V 24, 55; VIII A33; X 383; Suv. 135, 22; 195, 17 edler ‘useful goods’ Suv. 530, 2 (tayaklik): Civ. ed tavar TT I 10; VII o.o.; el(l)ig yastukluğ ednl ‘goods to the value of fifty yastuks’ USp. 62, 7; (in a will) eyimni ‘my personal property’ ditto 78, 5 (the only occurrence in this form): Xak. xı e:d hull šay’ mašnu ‘any manufactured article’, e.g. brocade and the like; iva qad yuqsar fa-yuqel ed zva hedeašahh ‘also pronounced ed with a short vowel, and this is more correct; and one says edgü: edgood manufactured article’; e:d al-felu'l-cayyid ‘good luck’; hence one says iglig tutruğı: e:d bulu:r ‘it is lucky for a sick man to make a will’ (zvasiya); this is said to any sick man to urge him to make a will Kaš. I 79 (the second word seems to be merely the first in a metaph. meaning): KB tavğač edi ‘Chinese (Tabgach Türkic) merchandise’ 68; arttı ed ‘his property increased’ 618.

et (meat, flesh) flesh’, including both ‘ (living) flesh’ and ‘(butchers’) meat’; occurs in various phr. of which the most important, etöz ‘the human body’ (lit. ‘flesh and spirit’) is listed separately. S.i.a.m.l.g. (Türkü vııı eti:da: in IN 11 is an error for tılda:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (? -A) balık etin yemišler ‘they eat the flesh of fish’, M I 35, le: Bud. et ašlığlar ‘meat eaters’ UII60, 2 (iii); it etin satğučı ‘sellers of dog’s flesh’ TT IV 8, 58-9; etin kanın satar ‘he sells their flesh and blood’ PP 3, 4-5 (but the reading közimür et burxan in ir, 3 is an error for k. ajun b.); et yin see 1 yi:n: Civ. yig etler ‘raw meat’ TT I 192; burun ičinde et önüp ‘the flesh in his nose swells’ III 141; et is ‘living flesh’ in seven occurrences in H I and II and ‘meat’ in six; o.o. USp. 91, 5 and 30; TT VII25, 1 r: xıv Chin. — Uyğ. Dict. ‘flesh’ et R1833; Ligeti 13e: Xak. xı et bi-išmemVl--alif ‘with front vowel’, al-lahm ‘meat’; and ‘level ground’ (al-sahl mina'l-ard) is called et yer Kaš. I 35 (there is no other trace of the second meaning, ‘level’ is normally tüz); nearly 100 o.o.: KB etigni yegey ‘he will eat your flesh' 194: xıv Muh. al-lahm et Mel. 6, 16; Rif. 78 (in a list of words containing some of which are not normally considered to contain e); 65, ri; 164: Rbğ. et R I 833: Čağ. xv ff. et et güši ma'nestna ‘meat’ Vel. 43 (quotn.); et güšt San. 95V. 8: Xwar. xııı (?) yig et ‘raw meat’ Oğ. 10: Kom. xıv ‘flesh’ et CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-lahm et Hou. 15, 16 (see bıš-» kesek): xıv et ('with front vowel5) al-lahm Id. 7; Bui. 7, 15: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 31b, 5; Kav. 62, 18.

S ıd/id See yı:d. (scent, odor, smell)

ıt (dog) ‘dog’; used in a number of phr., normally to connote inferior quality, but in some for obscure reasons, e.g. it dirsegl ‘a stye in the eye’ (lit. 'dog’s elbow’). The vowel was a back one in Türkü and Xak. and still is in NE Tuv., Pal. 571, but is a front one elsewhere. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ıt yıl 'the Dog Year' (in the 12-year cycle) II S 10; vııı ff. Man. it ürdükl ‘the barking of a dog’ M III 45, 1 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ıtnıg U II 31, 52 (in a list of obnoxious animals); a.o. TT IV 8, 58 (et): Civ. it sütin ‘dog’s milk’ III 21; a.o.o. it yıl TT VII common; it bumıča ‘the size of a rose-hip’ (lit. ‘dog’s nose’) 22,7: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘dog’ it R I 1498, Ligeti 158: Xak. xı it al-kalb ‘dog’ Kaš. I 35; many o.o. including ıtığ (4 o.) ltka: (3 o.): KB esriŋ ıtıg ‘your hunting panther and your dog’ 5379: xıv Muh. al-kalb i:t Mel. 72, 7; 81, 1; Rif. 174, 18e: Čağ. xv ff. it kelb Vel. 43; it sag ‘dog’ San. 95V. 5 (quotn. and several phr.): Xwar. xıv it ‘dog’ Qutb 62; MN 230; Nahc. 14, 16, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘dog’ it CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-kalb it Hou. 11, 8 (and see köpek): xıv ditto Id. 8; Bul. 10, 10: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 30b. 10; Kav. 62, 4.

u:d, etc. Preliminary note. There are seven basic words in this group of which the original pronunciations can be firmly fixed as u:d (bovine, ox), o:d, ot, ö:d, ö:d, öt, and ü:d, which are not easy to keep apart since in the early period -d was pronounced -t. There may also at one time have been a second *u:d ‘sleep’, see 1 u:. In some medieval languages uvut has become ut/ud and uğut u:t.

u:d (bovine, ox) (> udder)bovine, ox’, without reference to sex, not ’bull’, which was öküz (? ököz) (ox, castrated bull, bullock) or buko:, nor ‘cow’, which was ingek; almost syn. w. sığır. It early became the word for ‘ox’ in the twelve-animal cycle, and lingered on in this meaning in the west long after it had become obsolete as a common noun. The entries in some Osm. dicts., Sami 208 (ot), Red. 242 (od), 249 (oz), 255 (°t) are muddled reminiscences of this. Survives as uy, a common noun, in some NE, SE, and NC languages. Sporadic spellings with -d are errors. See Doerfer II 584. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (they kill and destroy) kentü sürüg uduğ koyanığ ‘oxen and sheep of their own herd’ MI 8, 8: Bud. yerin ud mayakı üze suvatip ‘moistening its ground with ox-dung’ U I 29, 6-7 (Sut\ 519, 6); aman tınlığlar yunt ud čokar ‘some men slaughter horses and cattle’ PP 2, 8; o.o. do. 65, 2 and 6; Stiv. 341, 22: Civ. (one kid, one horse) bir ud blr ingek ‘one ox, one cow’ USp. 55, 10: ud yıl 'ox year’ USp. 63, 1; 107, 1; TT VII (common); VIII P.34: ud in such phr. asud ötl 'oxgall' is common in II I, Ii: Xak. xı al-baqar ‘ox’ is called u:d (bovine, ox) (MS. u:d) in Čigil and one says u:d (u:d) yılı: for one of the twelve Turkish years Kaš. I 45; o.o. in ordinary Xak. II 358 (al-tatvr ‘bull’, mügret-); 7/293, 1 III 364, 15 (al-baqar, süs- (butt, abut, thrust)); III 403 (al-tawr, mügre:-): KB ud ‘the constellation Taurus’ 139; ud teg yatur ‘he lies down like an ox’ 988; ud ingek öküz ‘cattle, cows, and bulls’ 5372: Čağ. xv (T. uy (? , imele ile should indicate o-) stğtr ‘ox’ Vel. 122 (quotns.); (öd ‘gall’ and) ‘the Ox Year (sel-igatv), which the people of Iran write as ud yıl; this is an obvious error; they should write uy yıl, because it means ‘Ox Year’, and the Turks call ‘the ox’ (*e««>) uy San. 6ev. 14; uy (1) gdw, either male or female (quotns.); (2) the name of the constellation Taurus (al-tawŋ; (3) ‘Ox Year’ (previous statement repeated) San. g2r. le: Xwar. xııı (?) ud buzağları (sic) köp ‘it had many oxen and calves Og. 263; at ka:tir (MS. kağattŋ ud ‘horses, mules, and oxen’ 273.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.

1 o:t (o:d) (fire, anger)fire’; normally lit., occasionally metaph. for ‘anger’. Sometimes spelt oot in Uyğ., ? to represent the long vowel or distinguish it fr. 2 ot (grass, vegetation). S.i.a.m.l.g.; SW Az., Osm. od; Tkm. o:t (o:d... before vowels). Türkü vııı biriki: bodunığ ot suv kılmadım ‘I did not make the united people discordant’ (lit. ‘fire and water’) 7 E 27, II E 22; a.o. do. 37; 27 (borča:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. oot yalını birle ‘with a blaze of fire’ U I 8, 12: Bud. ot yalın TT V 6, 44; 8, 91; a.o. t/77 8, 27 (2 tamit-); the word spelt od, odh, ot occurs several times in TT VIIi: Civ. otka kömüp ‘burying it in the fire’ H I 35; a.o.o.; oot TT 7 19, etc.; oot yalını 123; oot ‘the element of fire’, common in TT VIi: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. oot see čakıl-: Xak. xı o:t al-ner ‘fire’ Kaš. I 43 (prov.); 7 164 (öč- (quelling, затухать)) and nearly 30 o.o., sometimes spelt ot: KB ot ‘fire’ as one of the elements 143; 249 (ütül-); 375 (öč-); a.o.o.: xııı (f) Tef. ot ‘fire’ 239;'^/. ditto, common: xıv Muh. al-ner o:d Mel. 17. 6; 23, 2; Rif. 95; o:t 68, 17; 169: Čağ. xv ff. ot etiš ‘fire’ Vel. 86; ot ‘a generic term for fire’ San. 62r. 1 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ot ‘fire’ Qutb 120: Kom. xıv ditto CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-ner o:tHou. 8, 18; 17, 15: xıv ditto Id. 15; of Bui. 4, 11: Osm. xıv ff. od c.i.a.p. TTS I 535-6; 77714-17; 777531-3; IV 597-9

2 ot (grass, vegetation) ‘grass, vegetation’, usually that growing naturally as opposed to a cultivated crop (tarığ); the basic word and its derivatives soon acquired three special connotations: — (1) ‘medicinal herb, remedy’; (2) ‘useless vegetation, weeds’; (3) occasionally ‘poisonous herb, poison’ (normally agu:); there seems to be a difference between ot em ‘curative herbs’ and ot yem (see 1 yem) but the two are often confused and may be identical. C.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ff. yaš ot ‘fresh grass’ IrkB 17, 53: Man. (the five kinds of) otuğ ığačiğ ‘vegetation and trees’ Chuas. 318: Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. birök otačı emči erser ot yem alğay ‘if he is a physician (Hend.) he will accept the fragrant herbs and spices’ U I 7, 3-4 (but ot em ‘curative herbs’ must have been intended): Man.-A (however many physicians come) otın blrle ‘with their curative herbs’ M I 15, 7: Man. 11 ığač ootlar (so spelt) ‘shrubs, trees and vegetation’ Wind. 7-8; otča TT II 17, \35\ 77-9 (Öpül-): Butl. otı yašı yaš ’its vegetation and fresh grass is fresh’ TT V 28, 124; ot em ‘curative herbs (Mend.)’ Suv, 598, 2; ot yem TT X 326 (damaged): Civ. ankabuš čurni otı ‘a remedy of assafoetida powder’ HI 6; ot ‘remedy’ common in H II; beš bağ ot ‘five bales of hay’ USp. 91, 10-11; occurs several times in TT VIII spelt odh and ot: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘ (medicinal) herb’ ot Ligeti 88: Xak, xı ot al-nabt ‘vegetation’, hence ot tindi: nabatal-nabt ‘the vegetation sprang up’; ot a word used for all kinds of ‘fodder’ (camVVl-alaf), hence atka: (“лошадиный”) ot bĞ:rgil VlifVl-faras ‘feed the horse’; ot al-dawe\ ‘remedy, medicine’, hen<#ot İčtim ‘I drank the medicine’ . . ot al-summ ‘poison’, hence beg agair ot be:rdi: ‘the beg gave him poison to drink’ Kaš. I 35; ot yem III 5 (see 1 yem); 12 o.o.: KB ot em kalmadı ’no remedy (Hend.) remained (untried)’ 1061; (if he cultivates it) orar er tĞrllgÜ otı ‘the man reaps the crop ready to be gathered’ 1393; ot yem 975 (2 ap): xııı (?) Tef. ot ‘grass, vegetation’ 239: xıv Muh. (in a note on the difference between o and U) if pronounced o:t it is a Singular Noun meaning al-hašiš atvVl-datve’ awi’l-qayd (?) ‘fresh vegetation or remedy or?’ Mel. 7, 1; Rif, 78 (al-qayd has no appropriate meaning and may be corrupt): al-kadis ‘haystack’ o:t gü:n 60, 5; 159 (prob. an error for örtgü:n); Čağ. xv ff. ot yerde biten ot ‘vegetation growing in the ground’ Vel. 8e: ot giyah 10a ‘alaf ‘vegetation, fodder’ San. 62r. 2; ot yem dawa’i tva ğade’i ‘drugs and provisions’ San. 62V. 19 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ot ‘grass’ Qutb 120: Kom. xıv (1) Vegetation, herbage’; (2) ‘medicine’; (3) ‘ointment’ ot CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-hašiš 0Č, which is also al-daıve’ Hou. 8, 18; (after o:Ča:čı:) al-daıve’ o:Č; al-aqqnr ‘drug, aromatic plant’ yem 23, to:xiv o:t nahdt Id. 8; of al-datvd’ 15 and Bui. 5» 13; al-diryaq ‘medicine, antidote’ o:t Bul. 11, e: xv daıoe’ ot Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 15b. 10: Osm. xıv ff. ot ’remedy’, c.i.a.p.; ot yem xvı (IV 613) translates Pe. abrez ‘spices’ and a syn. Ar. word TTS I 550; II 736; III 549; IV 612; xvııı Ot in Rumiy nüra ‘depilatory’ San. 62r. 3.

ö:d (time, period, hour)time’, both as ‘a point in time’ and ‘a period of time’; in astronomical terminology apparently ‘an hour’. Survives in NE Tel. öy R I 1172; Tuv. öy Pal. 319; SE Tar. öt R I 1259; SW xx Anat. öd DD 1101. See ödleg, kolu. TUrkÜ vıır ol ödke: ’at that time’ IE 21; II E 18; antağ ödke: ‘at a time like that’ IE 40; a.o. IN 10 (ay-) (note that bu ödke: in / S 1 was corrected to bödke: in II N 1); vııı ff. Man. ol ödün ‘at that time’ Chuas. I 6-7: Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. ol ödün U I 5, 2: Man.-A üküš ödte berü ‘for a long time’ M I n, 17; ol ödke 11,3; edgü ödke koluka ‘at a good time and moment’ 26, 20: Man. ol ödün ‘at that time’ TT II6, 33: Bud, ol ödün PP 4, 2; ölgülük ödi ‘the time when he must die’ U II 28, 7; ötrü yayiı kıšlı tört öd bolur ‘then the four seasons, summer and winter (etc.) come into existence’ (within each of the four seasons (öd) two periods (öd) are distinguished \\ and eight first days (yağı kün) come into existence) TT VI 324-6; (in the fortunate earth-monkey year) üdrüimiš edgü ödke kutluğ koluka ‘at a chosen good time and an auspicious moment’ Pfahl. 6, 1; (in the Türk Türgeš country) ödi kolusı tumiığ ‘their seasons are cold’ Iliien-ts. 106; (since the seven planets cannot conceal themselves from them) öd kolutar etigin yaratmıšlar ol ‘they have constructed instruments for (measuring) time’ 132; öd kolu ermez ‘this is not the time (Hend,)’ (to speak at length) TT X 27; kimnig kurtuİmaklJğ ödin kolusın odğu-rak bilser ‘if he knows intimately the moment of anyone’s liberation’ 273-4: Civ. küntüz iki ödte ‘twice daily’ H II 8, 32; üküš ödün lsig ‘a recurring fever’ ditto 10, 65; tünle tokuzunč ödte ‘in the ninth hour of the night’ TT VII 9, 32-3; yunt ödinde... sıčğan ödinde ‘in the (Chinese style) double hour of the horse ... of the mouse’ do. 25, 23 and 25; o.o. TT I 3, USp. 70, 5; in the astronomical text TT VIII L. the word occurs several times spelt üt, there are other similar apparent mis-spellings in these texts due to a shift in the phonetic values of Brlhmî letters: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘the four seasons’ tört öd R I 1259; Ligeti 189: Xak. xı ö:d (spelt ö:d in error) al-zaman ‘time’; bi-šammati’1-tveıv ‘with front vowel’ Kaš. I 44; eleven o.o.: KB (God created) öd ödleg ‘times and seasons’ 3; many o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. öz (sic!) ‘time’ 242; At. (the wise man knows) iš ödin ‘the time for action’ 113: xıv Rbğ. Ö:d ‘time’ R I 1259: Muh. al-waqt ‘time’ 0:y Mel. 79, 15; Rif. 184. (ö:d, öd, öδ, öz, öy) (ODT: čer, čerig, čerlik, kezä, kezïg, kezïk, müddat, оɣur, öd, öδ I, öz VII, qur, rüzgar, sap, sapča, sapču, tïδïn, tuš, vaqt, vaxt, zamana, time, period/season, chain/series, queue; время, пора, череда, очередь)

1 o:t (o:d) (bile, gall; the spleen, the gallbladder) ‘bile, gall; the spleen, the gallbladder’; both the liquid and the organs secreting it. As the spleen was supposed to be tbe organ connected with fear, and les9 often anger (usually associated with the Jungs, see öpke:), the basic word and its derivatives sometimes connote cowardice and other emotions. S.i.a.m.l.g.; SW Az., Osm. öd; Tkm. ö:t (ö:d- before vowels). Türkü vııı (because heaven and earth were in disorder and) Ödi:ge: küni: tegdük üčün yağı: boltı: ‘because envy entered their spleens they became hostile’ II E 29 (an almost unique example of intervocalic -d- in Türkü): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. öt in such phr. as ud oti ‘ox-gall’ is common in HI and II; Öt taman ‘the gall-duct’ II 32, 11: Xak. xı o:t al-mardra ‘gall’; aqall šamma minhu *the front enunciation of the vowel is less than that of it5 (i.e. the preceding entry ü:t) Kaš. I 43 (the difference noted seems to be that between ö> and Ü:-): KB öt ağu 779 (see ağu:, reading uncertain):xiv Muh. (in a phonetic note on the difference between ö and Ü) ‘and if the damma of the karnza inclines (amalat) moderately to kasra its (Mel. ö:d, Rif. 0:t) meaning is al-mamra Mel. 7, 5; Rif. 78; al-marera ö:t 48, 1; 142: Čağ. xv ff. öd zahr ‘poison, bitterness’ in Ar. marera San. 6ev. 14: Kip. xııı al-moröra ö:t Hou. 21, 18: xıv Öt ditto Id. 8: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 32b. 8; Kav. 61, 10: Osm. xıv ff. öd is noted in various idioms TTS I 558; II 742; III 554; IV 619.

D 2 öt (thought, consideration, advice) (awe) presumably Dev. N. in -I fr. ö:- (think, meditate, remember) (awe); seldom used by itself, usually in the phr. öt savadvice and counsel’, or in association with 1 erigadvice'. In TT VIII spelt iit, cf. ögüt. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. ögü:m öti:n alayı:n kačım $avı:n tıglayı:n ‘I will accept my mothers advice and listen to my father’s words’ IrkB 58; Man. sizler olar savmča ötinče yonglar ‘act in accordance with their advice and counsel’ TT II 10, 77-8: Dud. bu öllerig savlarığ alıp ‘deigning to accept this advice and counsel' U II 49, 31 -2; öt erig see 1 erig: Xak. xı KB öt sav 1356; öt sav erig 1548, 2617, 3984; tusulğaymu erki saga ötlerim ‘will my advice really be of value to you?' 5121. (OTD p. 1 ’А: ’a qïl- удивлять: ol meni ’a qildi он удивил меня ~ he awed, surprised, astonished me)

ü:t (ü:d) (hole, aperture)hole, aperture’. Kaš.'s and Muh.’s remarks point clearly to an initial ü:-, and the Oğuz form and long vowel to an original final -d. Survives only in NIC öt Koib., Sag. R I 1260; üt Alt., Šor, Tel. R I 1862; Khak. Bos. 257; Tuv. pal. 435. Uyğ. vııı ff. Dud. iki burun ii ti ‘his two nasal apertures’ TT VI 407: Civ. burun ütinde H II 16, 2 and 11; a.o.o.; (if a mouse) bir ök üt kilsar ‘makes just one hole’ (in a garment) TT VII 36, 7: Xak. xı ü:t al-taqb fVl-ciddr wa’l-xašab ‘a hole in a wall or piece of wood’, bi-šammati' l-waw ‘with a front vowel’ Kaš. I 43 (contrast phonetic note on 1 ö:t); / 382, 18 (see 1 karak) and five o o: xıv Muh. in a phonetic note on the rounded vowels ü:t ‘the hole’ (taqb) of the ear, or a needle or the like is distinguished in character from ut-, ot, and ö:t, but only by length from üt- MeL 7, 2; Rif. 78; taqhu'i--tad (; ‘the aperture in a nipple’ emče:k ü:ti: 141: Oğuz xı (in a phonetic note) similarly the 'Turks call al-(aqb ü:t and they the Oğuz) ü:d I 31, 22.

Mon. V. AD-

*1 ad- (odd) See adın- (other), adır- (separate, branch), etc. << ?? 2 adın- (change, astound)

*2 ad- (sober up, recover consciousness) See 2 adığ (sober), adıl- (sober up, recover consciousness), etc.

at- (at-) (shoot, throw, discharge, flash) basically ‘to throw, to shoot’, with a very wide range of extended and metaph. meanings. (Red. for examples lists 22). There is a wide variation in the cases of the direct and indirect object; the original usage seems to have been to put the object thrown in the Acc., the target (if mentioned) in the Dat. and the weapon (if mentioned) in the Abl.; another usage is to put the target in the Acc,, and the weapon in the Instr., and another to mention only the weapon in the Acc. In some phr., e.g. taŋ at- ‘of the dawn, to break’ there is no stated Object; and in some languages at- has almost become an Aux. V. C.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Mon.-A ağu Xormuzda tegrlke atğaymen ‘I will discharge poison at the god Hormuzd’ M I 19, 15-16; atmıš ağusı ‘the poison which he had discharged’ 20, 1; taš alıp Zrušč burxanag at(t)ilar ‘they took stones and threw them at Zoroaster the \\\ Prophet’ Mau.-Uig. l’r<ig. 400, 9-10; a.o. 40t, 7: Hud. ya kurup ok atıp ‘stringing a bow and shooting arrows’ U II 78, 31; okın atıpshooting with arrows’ TT IV 10, 12 (the two texts are strictly parallel): ya kurup ok atkalir ‘stringing his bow he constantly shoots arrows’ 7'T I 162: Xak. xı er ok attı: ‘the man shot (ramd) an arrow’ (etc.); and one says tag attı: inbafaca'I-štıbh ‘the dawn broke’; and one says ol attı: ne:gni: ‘he threw (tarahn) the tiling’ Kaš. I 170 (ata:r, atma:k); yašın atıp yašnadı: ‘the lightning flashed’ / 236, 1; I 403, 27 (karın); ltka: uvut atsa: ‘if one instills discipline (dufi'a'l-/hîiyî’) in a dog’ I 116, 4; about 20 o.o.: KB özüg otka atma ‘do not throw yourself (your life) in the fire’ (for the sake of this world) 1284; a.o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. cedünı otkn atmak ‘to throw, the magician in the fire’; meni utsunlar ‘let them shoot me’; tag at- 62; At. erni otka yüzın atyučı til ol ‘it is the tongue that throws a man’s honor in the fire’ 159: xıv Muh. rama bi'1-nišdb ‘to shoot an arrow’ ok at-, rama ba'ida (n) ‘to shoot a long distance’ i:ra:k (Rif. u:za:k) at- Mel. 26, 14; Rif. 109; al-rame (Rif. tua’l-hadf) ‘to shoot (and hit)’ atmak 34, 13; 120: Čağ. xv ff. at- at- biy-- anddz ma'nesina ‘to throw, shoot' Vel. 6 (quotn.); at- (1) andaxtan ‘to throw, shoot’; (2) tali’ šudan ‘to dawn’ in the sense of the dawn breaking (fulu-i subh), but in this sense ‘dawn’ must be mentioned San. zjv. 8 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı (?) at- ‘to shoot’, and in idioms Oğ. 112, etc.: xrv at- ‘to throw’; (of dawn) ‘to break’ Qutb facsimile 44V. 1, etc.; MN 140, etc.; Nahc. 17, 5 etc.: Kip. xııı rarnd at- Hou. 34, 10: xıv at- (‘with back vowels’) ramd Id. 7: xv at- in grammatical section Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 53a. ramd 'ani'l-qaivs ‘to shoot from a bow’ at- Kav. 74, 1.

e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize) has a long semantic history; it originally meant ‘to organize, put in order’ (a meaning surviving only (?) in NE Tuv. Pal. 576), then ‘to ornament, adorn’ (cf. etlg), then ‘to create’ (as part of an organized plan), then by a gradual process of attenuation simply ‘to make’, and finally ‘to do’. This attenuation occurred chiefly in the Western languages; the Eastern languages, perhaps for the colourful reason given by Kaš., rather avoided the word and continued to use kıl- for ‘to make, do.’ S.i.a.m.l.g., nearly always for *to make, do’, but in most languages used chiefly to form compound verbs out of foreign, esp. Ar. nouns. The consonant of this verb, unlike that of at-, is -d- before vowels in the SW (Oğuz) languages and this no doubt represents the earliest form. The intervocalic -d- in the NE languages is not significant as it occurs universally. Türkü vııı the word is common (over a dozen occurrences) usually in the phr. bodun et- ‘to organize a people (group of clans or tiihcs) into a realm (e:l)’, often with an implication of conquering them first; e.g. Suğdak bodun eteyi:n teyJn ‘saying “I will organize the Sogdian people” ’ (I crossed the Pearl River) IE 39; another phr. \37\ is čerig ‘to marshal troops in battle order’; e.g. sügüš bolsar čerig eter erti: ‘when there was going to be a battle, he used to marshal (organize) the troops’ Ix. 9; the later meaning perhaps occurs in bark etgü:či: bediz yaratıgma bitig taš etgü:či: 'ornamenting the grave goods, having the painted decoration carried out, and ornamenting the memorial stone' IN 13; also occurs in the Hend. et- yarat-; eg. Az bodun etip yaratıp ‘organizing the Az people’ IE 19; the proper name or title fil etmiš ‘having organized a realm’ first occurs in Origin 4: vııı ff. eli:g etmi:š men IrkB, 48; Man. biz adruk adruk dtfp yaratıp nomka kigürsüg törö bar e:ti ‘there was a rule that we should organize (Mend.) various things and introduce them into the doctrine’ Chuas. 228-9 (exact meaning obscure): Uyğ. vııı čerig etdi Šu. E 4; El etmiš (xic) N 1: vııı ff. Man.-A. (various gods) y^rig teŋrig yaratğall etgell anuntilar ‘prepared themselves to organize (Hend.) heaven and earth’ M I 14, 4-5: Man. (like the servants of kings and begs who sweep and clean their dwellings and household goods and) eter tölteyür ‘arrange them and provide them with cushions (?)’ Wind. 35: Bud. ölutlük etlik etdimiz turğurdumuz erser yağıšlığ teŋrilik etdimiz erser ‘if we have organized and set up slaughterhouses and butcher’s shops, and erected temples where libations are poured’ TT IV 6, 45-6; o.o. VI 35; 290; VII 2S, 35: Xak. (and Oğuz) xı teŋri: meniŋ ı:šım e:tti: ašlalta'lleh amri ‘God put my affairs in order’; and in Oğuz they say ol yükünč etti: šalld ‘he prayed’, and they (the Oguz) use e:tti: for anything that they do (faalü), while the Turks say kıldı: for ‘make, do’ ('amila) except that this word is in current use for ‘copulation’ (yacri 'ald'1-mucema'a), so they avoid (hddiŋ it in favour of another, so as not to embarrass (yastahyŋ the ladies by using it. And this word may be used min bdbi'l-mital ‘in examples’ (i.e. of compound verbs?) Kay. I 171 (e:te:r, e:tme:k); about 20 o.o., all in compound verbs with onomatopoeies 2 bo:k, 1 čak, etc.: KB dt- is common for ‘to organize, set in order’ and the like; e.g. (opened the way to paradise) ajun etgüke ‘for (the ruler) who sets the world in order’ 63; (the earth seeks to adorn itself) körkİn etip ‘setting its form in order’ (smartening itself up) 64; o.o. 146, 303, 474 (2 at (horse)) etc.: xitt (?) Tef. et- ‘to prepare (food); erect (a castle)' and in compound verbs 65: At. et- is common, e.g. (1) but etipmaking an idol’; (2) eter bolsaŋ išni sanıp saknıp et 'if you are performing a task, perform it after due reflection’ 367; (3) in compound verbs, e.g. sabr etbe patient’ 349: xıv Muh. the texts of Mel. and Rif. differ widely; Mel, 16, 14 has eygü:lük ^derisen ta:puk Ğtgemen 'if you do good, I will serve you’, Rif. 94 has a similar phr. but with kıl- for &t-; Mel. has a number of compound verbs with 4t-/e:t- in 22, 12; 23, 2; 24, 2, etc.; most do not appear in Rif. which does, however, have talafa ''to perish’ (as e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize) 106, šalle wa // taabbada ‘to pray’ namez et- nj, and dayyaqa ‘to constrict’ datr et- in: Čağ. xv ff. et- Vei. 41-7 lists various conjugational forms translating them eyle- (edie:-) and sometimes adding fi'l ‘to make, do’; et- (‘with 6-') kardan 'to make, do’ (also used in compound verbs) San. 93r. 15 (quotns.): Oğuz xı see Xak.: Xwar. xııı et-/ed- ‘to make, do' ’Ali 34: xıv et- ‘to make’ Qutb facs. 57r. r8; in compound verbs MN, 44 etc.: Kom. xıv et- (1) ‘to do (something Acc., to someone Dat.); (2) in compound verbs CCI, CCG; Gr. 95 (quotns): Kip. xıv et- fa'ala İd. 8; et-/et- in compound verbs Bui. 30v., 4or., 53r., etc.: xv ’amila et- (and eyle-) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26a. 7.
e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize) p. 36; OTD none
(thing, product, property, commodity, ware) (lit. “made” (n., adj.)) p. 33
ED вещь, имущество, богатство p. 162
1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God)) p. 41
2 idi: (very, extremely, (not) at all) p. 41
D eded- (thrive) Hap. leg. (?) ; Den. V. in -ed-, Intrans., fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize)
(D) etet- (bad going, difficulty)  Hap. leg. Xak. xı ol am: etetti: awqa'ahu fi muqesetVl-mihna ‘he put him in a serious difficulty’ Kaš. I 207 (ete:tür (sic); etetme:k).
D etit- (edit-) (set up) Caus. f. of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize)
etig (edig)
(act, action, correction, rectification, performances, events; method of construction, ornament) Dev. N. fr. et- (ed-)
etek (skirt, edge) (edge)
etig (edig) (act, action, correction, rectification, performances, events; method of construction, ornament) Dev. N. fr. et- (ed-)
etük (edük) (boot, slipper)
edgü: (good)
D edik- (thrive, prosper, succeed)
D edger- (act, repair) Trans. Den. V. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize)
D edgü:ti: (properly, well) Adv. fr. edgü: (good)
D edgürlük (goodness, benevolence, kindness) A.N. fr. edgü: (good)
D etigsiz (edigsiz), (non-adorned: not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; out of time; inactive; supra-mundane)
D edlig (propertied, precious, useful, convenient) P.N./A. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize)
D etil- (edil-) (done, made, created, ornamented, adorned, put in order, organized) (made ideal); Pass. f. of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize) p. 56
D edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create) (made ideal, ornamented) Den. V. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize) p. 57
D edlet- (made ideal, ornamented) Caus. f. of edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create)  (do, make, create, construct, appoint, improve, cultivate, esteem)
D edlel- (made ideal, examined) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create)


ı:d- (send, free, release, abandon, perfect tense) (-ed, completed) ((Gmc. git-, Eng. go, Skt. i, Lat. vado, ito, Slav. idit, Trk. ij-)) ‘to send (something Acc.’); and by extension 'to allow to go, to release’; in the early period also an Aux. V. with Gerund in -u:/-ü: connote completed action. As a basic verb survives in NE ıs-/ı R I 1385, 1409; Khak. ıs-/ız- Bas. 332; Tuv. ıd- Pal. 569; NC Kzx. ıs- R I 1384 (not in MM); NW Kar. L., T. ı:-/ıy- R I 1409; Kow. 193; but mostly replaced by later forms of the compound verb ıdu: ber- like ibar-, e:ber-, e:ver-, yeber-, yiber- which s.i.a.m.l.g. except perhaps SW. Türkü vııı id- is fairly common; the -d- is assimilated before -s-, e.g. ıs(s)ar and -t- e.g. ıt(t)ı:; normally ‘to send'; e.g. arkiš tirkiš ıs(s)ar ‘if you send envoys and missions’ (to China) 7 5 8, II N 6; less often ‘to abandon’; e.g. Türkü begler Türkü a:tın ıt(t)ı: I E 7, II E 7; as Aux. V. xağanladuk xağanı:n yitürü: idmiš ‘they completely lost the xağan whom they had made their ruler’ IE 7; IIE 7; o.o. I E 6; II E 7 (ıčğın-), Ix. 19 (uvul-): vııı ff. ıdmı:šsent’ IrkB 19: Man. tegrl küčîn ögrünčülügün teŋri y^rigerü ıdur ‘he sends divine strength and joy to the country of the gods’ M III 17, 1-3 (ii); a.o. Chuas. 241; unıtu ıtdı (sic) ‘he completely forgot' Chuas. 115: alkunı ölürgey bir tirig ıdmağaylar ‘they will kill them all and not leave one of them alive’ TT II6, 16-17: Uyğ. vııı Kırkız tapa: er idmiš 'he sent a man to the Kırğız’ Šu. E 10; a.o.o.: vııı ff. Man.-A teŋri y^rigerü ıdtı M I 13, 20 ff.: Bud. koptin sigar nom bİIdečiİerke arkıš [tir-] kİŠ ıdıglarsend envoys and missions in every direction to those who know the doctrine’ U III 29, 2-3; a.o.o. (common in this sense); sačların artlarında ıdıp 'letting (divaricate) their hair down on their backs’ U IV 8, 38; a.o.o.; in Hüen-ts. as an Aux. V. seems rather to connote humility, e.g. ayitu ıdur biz ‘we venture (are going) to ask’ 1826; a.o.o.: Civ. ıd- ‘to send’ is common USp. 9, 3; 24, 14 etc.: Xak. xı ol maga: at ı:dtı: ‘he sent (ba'ata) me a horse’; and one says teŋri: yala:wač ı:dtı: ‘God sent an envoy (or ‘prophet’, arsala... rasuh (n)Y Kaf. III 438 (ı:du:r, ı:dma:k); ıdu: be:rip bošuttım atlaqtuhn li-yadhab ‘I released him and let him go’ I 210, 21; II 312, 24 (tonat-); and four o.o.: KB ıd- ‘to send’ is common, 34, 93, etc.; ıdayın tese ıd kalı tutsa tut 'if he says “I will release” hür, if “hold” hold him’ 750: xııı (?) Tef. ıd- (occasionally ız-) (1) 'to send’; (2) ‘to \38\ stretch out’ (a hand); ıdu ber- 'to release’ 128-9: At. ıd- ‘to send’ 31, 36, 79; sözüŋ bošlağ ıdma yığa tut tılıŋ ‘do not let words (go, move) loose at random, keep a firm hold on your tongue’ 135: xıv Muh. arsala ıy- (or ı:-) Mel. 22, 5; Rtf. 102; šamara (? read šamaza) ka taraka 'to hurry (? to shrink from) and abandonıy- (or ı:-) 27, 11; 110: (Čağ. xv ff. ıd- is not listed; yiber- ‘to send’ Vel. 412; San. 347V. 22): Xwar. xııı id- (sic ?) ‘A/i 47: xıv id- Qutb 58, iy- 58, ıd- (sic) 205; (VU) iy- MN 129; id- 'to send’ Nahc. 19, 8; 30, 16; 230, 16; 315, 2-3 etc.: Korn, xıv ‘to send; to admit (?)’ i-/iy- CCI, CCG; Gr. 272: Kip. xıv i- arsala, with a note saying that ıdı: is conjugated but idi: kana not except in the Perf. Id. 7: xv arsala ı- Tuh, 5a. 7.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.


1 it- (push, shove, push over, knock, bump) ‘to push, or shove (something Acc.), to push (it) over’. S.i.a.m.l.g., except perhaps NC and SC, where it seems to have been displaced by iter- a der. f. of recent formation. Xak. xı ol ant: itti: šadamahu wa dafaahtt bi-yadihi mv ricfihi hatte asqatahu tld’l-ard 'he bumped against him and pushed him with his hands or feet so that he threw him to the ground’ Kaš. I 171 (ite:r, itme:k); (if the waves rise in my lake) ta;mığ iterr translated ‘they beat on the walls of my castle as if they were going to shift (push) it (yuztlnhu) from its place and knock (push) it down’ (yadfa'uhu) HI 137, 5: Čağ. xv ff. ite sal- and it- both translated iti ver- Vel. 42-3: it- (‘with i-’) čizire be dast zadan tva afgandan ‘to strike something with one's hands and knock (push) it down’ San. čšt. 16 (quotns.); ite sal- dast zadan tea pas afgandan 94r. 25 (quotn.): Kom. xıv ite ber- ‘to bump against’ CCG; Gr.: Ktp. xıv it- dafa'a İd. 8: xv dafa'a it-/ite ber- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 16a. 2.

S 2 it- ‘to stray'. See yit- (go, gone, stray, get lost, perish).

S 3 it- ‘to smell’. See yidi-.

E 4 it- ‘to make, do’. Mistranscription of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize).

*od- See oduğ (awake, alert), odğur- (wake up), odun- (wake up), etc.

u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit) ‘to follow’, with metaph. extensions ‘to conform to; (of a garment) to fit', and the like. There is no doubt of the existence of this verb, which survives as uy- in SW Az., Osm., Tkm., and some NW languages, but the only forms noted in the early period are the Gerund udu: used as an Adv. sometimes meaning ‘then, thereafter’ and, in /Oxj.,the Infin. udmak (servant) (sic?) used as a noun. Another form occurs in KB and more in Tef. Türkü vııı elterıš xağan kazğanmasar udu: ben özim kazğanmasar ' jf elteriš Xagan had not striven to succeed, and I myself, following him, had not striven to succeed’ (there would never have been a (Türkü) realm or people) T 55: vııı ff. (the dawn broke) udu:then’ (the land got light) udu: ‘then’ (the sun rose) IrkB 2e: Man. (the sacred king Bögü Xan — gap — ) kamağ dindarlar udu atlantilar ‘all the Elect rode behind him’ TT II 8, 63; Uyğ. vııı (I said ‘vou are my people’) udu: kelig ‘come and follow me’ Šu. E 2 ; (many of them went down the Selenga) ben Seleğe: keče: udu: yorı:dım ‘1 crossed the Selenga and marched following them’ E 4; o.o. E 3 and e: (vııı ff. Civ.; the word has been erroneously read in USp. 77, 14, the correct reading seems to be biz bitigke uda kirnııšče ‘as we were put on the register in our sleep’ (i.e. without being informed about it)): xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘to follow’ udu (mis-spelt udtıp) kel-  (to come) R I 1702; Ligeti 273: Xak.xi udu: half a ‘behind, following’; hence one says men anig udu: keldim ‘I came behind him’ (halfahu); and men senig udu: bardım iqtafaytuka ‘I followed you’ Kaš. I 87; udmak al-tehıtaa'l--šekiri ‘follower, servant’/ 99; eren kamuğ artadı: neigler udu: ‘mankind have been ruined, when they have coveted wealth’ (lamme tamı at fi'l-anmel) II 17, 16; (God created the world) Čiğrt: udu: (MS. ud in error) tezginür ‘and thereafter the firmament revolves’ II 303, 9; (the supposed form tty-in Brockelmann’s and Atalay’s Indices is an error for 2 uya:, see ka:b): KB udu: occurs in the phr. udu bar- 571, 2710, etc. and udu čık- 5444; (the begs are the leaders; wherever the leaders go) udula barır barča udmıš kiši ‘all the followers follow’ 5202 (for udula see udu:la:-): xııı (?) Tef. (ud-)/uz-/uy- ‘to follow’ (someone Dat.) ‘occur in several con-jugational forms’ 321, 323: At. (God created night and day) udu (written ttduu, misread udup) biri birke yorır ög sog-a ‘they follow one another in front and behind’ 14: Čağ. xv ff. uy- (-up) mutaba'at et- ‘to follow’ Vel. 124; uy- ımnvefaqat tva nmteba'at kardan ‘to conform; to follow5 Stitt. 89^19: Xwar. xıv uy- ‘to follow’ Qutb 19e: Kip. xıv uy- taba*a\ uyğan al-tebi' td. 2e: xv taba'a uy- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9b. 4; teıva'a ‘to agree with (someone)’ uy- 24a. 9; tvafaqa ‘to conform’ uy- 28b. 7: Osm. xv uy- 'to follow’ TTS 1 735.

ut- (üt-) (win, beat, defeat, victory, conquer) (1) 'to win (something Acc.) at gambling’; (2) ‘to beat, defeat (someone, various cases)’ (a) at gambling; (b) in battle, etc. S.i.a.m.l.g. nearly always in meaning (1), less often in 2 (a), rarely in 2 (b). Türkü vııı ff. (a gambler) tokuzo:n boš kon utmi:š ‘won ninety ownerless sheep’ IrkB 29; (if a man wears a reddish white stone) kopka: utğay ‘he will beat everyone’ (or ‘win everything’? at gambling) Toy. 18 (ETY II 59): Uyğ. Man.-A y^gedmek utmak boizun ‘may they have success and victory’ M I 28, 18; 29, 32-3; utmıš (?) yegedmiš vrešti[ler] ‘the victorious and successful angels’ 27, 1: Bud. (oh my daughter, by your wisdom) utdug yegedtig 'you have won and succeeded’ (in nn argument) U II 21, 11-12; similar phr. (of a competition in unselfishness) U III 46, 18; 69, 21; tört törlüg šımnu süsin utup y^gedlp ‘successfully conquering the army of four kinds of demons' TT IV 12, 55; o.o. USp. 104, 21; Hüen-ts. 2062-3; TT X 80 and 252: Civ. utmak yegedmek TT I 2: Xak. xı ol am: utti: qamarahu fVl-la'ib tva ğayrihi ‘he beat him at gambling and other things’ Kaš. I \39\ 170 (uta:r, utma:k; verse) \ andağ erig kim uta:r ‘who can heat (yağhb) a man like that?’ I 200, 20; bizke: kelip ö:č uta:r ‘coming to us they wreak (yaqdu) their vengeance’ II 103, 27: KB yağığ utğučı ‘conquering the enemy’ 2141; same meaning 2641, 4883; sözümni utup ‘trying to defeat my arguments’ 4004: xııı (?) Tef. ut- 'to defeat’ (in a contest of skill) 332: xıv Mulı.ğalaha fVl-qimar u:t- Mel. 6, 18; Rif. 78 (in a phonetic note on the rounded vowels, saying that this is the meaning in the normal Ar. pronunciation): Cağ. xv ff. ut-‘to win’ of a gambler Vel. 87 (quotn.);-ut- ('with -u-’) hurdan qimdr uy giratv ‘to win at gambling or betting’ San. 58V. 8 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ut- ‘to win’, esp. ‘to win (a game Acc.y Qutb 201; MN 35: Kip. xııı ğalaba uj-Hou. 38, 8: xıv ut- qamara Id. 8; uf- zafara ‘to be victorious’ 15; ğalaha wa zafara wa qadara bi-ma'ne rahaha (‘to overcome in the sense of gaining’) uf- Bui. 6jr.: xv zafara wa ğalaba ut- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 24b. 1 (and 27a. 2): Osm. xıv ff. ut- ‘to win’, esp. at gambling; ‘to acquire (something Acc.) by conquest’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 731; II 935; III 718; IV 790; a pronunciation üt-, peculiar to Osm. and still surviving in xx Anat., SDD 1439, is recorded as early as xvi.

VU üd- Hap. leg.; previous editors have read öd-, taking the word as connected with 2 ot (grass, vegetation) , and translated it ‘to give advice’, but this is etymologically impossible; it seems in fact to be the basic verb of udig ‘sexual passion’, q.v.; but the text may be corrupt. Cf üdlen-. Türkü vııı ff. kara: üpgü:k yıl yarurmaz-kan tedi: Üdmeč körmeg ürkittig ‘the black hoopoe, before the year became bright, said, “Do not get excited (?), do not look, you frightened me” ' IrkB 21 (the double -tt- is unusual in Runic script, and the word may be an error for ürkitmeg).

1 öt- (pierce, pass, cross, pass over, forgive, give up, renounce, purge) the basic connotation is movement through or over; it is both Trans, and Intrans., in the latter case almost always with ‘time’ of some sort as the Subject. If Trans, it can govern several cases, with different shades of meaning; with the Acc. it usually means ‘to cross’, e.g. a river, the movement being over rather than through; with the Dat. it means ‘to penetrate into (something)’; and with the Abl. (and/or Loc.) ‘to pass right through (something)’ and come out the other side. There are various metaph. meanings, e.g. ‘to pass over, forgive (sins, etc., Abl.y; ‘to give up, renounce (something)’; and, if Intrans., (of the bowels) ‘to be purged’; (of goods) 'to move freely, be easily marketed’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW only Tkm. and XX Anat. SDD 1120. Cf. üŋ- (excavate, hollow out), 2 i:r- (notch, breach), 1 keč- (g-) (pass, cross, expire, past). Türkü vııı T 3 (ölüt-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (they fall on sharp spits, and these) bütün «tözlerinde (or -den?) arkuru turkuru ötüp üner ‘pass right through their whole bodies and emerge (the other side)’ TM IV 253, 57-8; (I wish to go home) nemen ötgeymü men 'how shall I get through ?’ Hüen-ts. 27; (he loves the aged, \39b\ he knows the wise) takı artukrak blligleri ötmiš (?) ol 'and he has penetrated their superior wisdom' 125-6; syošıg nomta ötmiš ol ‘he has become completely familiar with Hînayena doctrine’ 1792-3: sav söz ötmeyükče ‘as no message (Hend.) has come through’ 2040; in a list of devils in V II 61 ötmišfg y^dečiler (12) which comes after ‘eaters of pus, tears, moisture, spittle, mucus, vomit’, no doubt means ‘eaters of faecal matter’. Civ. tın buzğak Ötür ‘the shortness of breath passes off’//1164; kan ötüp edgü bolur ‘the bleeding ceases and he recovers’ ditto 183-4; similar phr. H II 8, 23; karın ötmez isiglig ‘suffering from constipation and fever’ ditto 10, 57; karın ötmeser ‘if he is constipated' TT VII 22, le: Xak. xı ok keyikten ötti: ‘the arrow passed through (nafada) the antelope’ (etc.); also used of anything which passes through anything; and one says kan:n Ötti: utliqa'l-batn wa ntaše 'the stomach was purged and suffered from diarrhoea’ Kay I 171 (öte:r, ötme;k); (the stream) ta:ğiğ öte:r ‘passes through (yanfid) the mountain’ I 424, 17; sü:si: kalın kim öte:r fa-min katratVl--cund lam akid a'buru ‘and because of the density of his army I cannot contrive to pass through’ (sic> not a lit. translation) I 371, 2; 1 473, 5 (kudruk; this might belong to 2 öt-): xııı (?) Tef. öt- (with Abl.) ‘to pass through’ (a place, or time) 251: xıv Muh. al-ubür ‘to cross’ ö:t- (-mak, in error); al-qaf (normally ‘to cut, sever’, here perhaps ‘to separate from someone’) 0:t- (-mak, in error) Rif. 122 (only); al-ishal (Rif- al-insihel) 'diarrhoea’ ö:z ö:tmek Mel. 65, 2; Rif. 164 (both texts corrupt, Mel. has e:ze:tmek, Rif. o:ze: ö.'tmek): Čağ. xv fî. öt- (-ti etc.,'with Ğ-*) variously translated geč- ‘to cross’; git-‘to go’; fareğat et- and vez geč- ‘to give up, cede’; te'tir ve sirayat 'to spread, penetrate’ Vel. 87-8 (quotns.); Öt- (by implication ‘with Ğ-’) gudeštan 'to pass, pass over, cross’, etc. San. 58V. 5 (quotns,): Xwar. xıv balta takı ötmedi ‘and an axe could not cut through it’ Nahc. 30, 2: Kom. xıv öte, as a Postposition, ‘through’ CCG; Gr. 184 (quotns.): Kip’ xv nafada öt- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21b. 10; 37b. 2; manfiid ötüptür 34b. 5: Osm. xıv ff. öt- 'to pass over, or through’, common in xıv and occurs sporadically till xvıı TTS I 569; II 759.

2 öt- (sing (bird), chatter, talk nonsense) basically (of a bird) 'to sing’; hence metaph. of other animals or inanimate objects ‘to emit some kind of sound’; never (of human beings) ‘to sing’, but in SW ‘to chatter, talk nonsense’. Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. et-Pal. 576 and SW Osm. öt-, Cf. sayra:-. Xak. xı tatlığ öter sanduvva.č ‘the nightingale sings (yutrib... bi-ilfadnihŋ sweetly’ / 529, 7; III 178, 16; and four o.o.; n.m.e.: KB tinin ötti keklik ‘the partridge sang his song’ 76; o.o. 77, 78: xıv Muh. saca'a'l-fayr (of a bird) ‘to sing’ ö:t- Mel. 78, note 8 (not in all MSS. or Rif): Xwar. xıv öt- (of a bird) ‘to sing’ Qutb 124: Osm. xvı öt- (of a goat) ‘to bleat’ TTS IV 631: xvııı öt- (‘withd-’) in Rumi, xivanandagi wa sareyİdan ‘to sing’, and metaph. \\ bi-hûda-gu'i tva jdj-xai ‘to talk nonsense. babble’ San. 5SV. 6.

üt- (singe) ‘to singe'; rather rare and sometimes misspelt owing to a supposed connection with 1 o:t (fire, anger) (e.g. ot- Red. 236). Survives only (?) in NC Kzx üt- R I 1863; üyt- MM 481; NW Kaz. üt- R 11343; SW ,\x Anat. üt- SDD 1439. Xak. xı ol ba:šığ ütti: ašdta ša'ra'1-ra's tea ahraqahu 'he set fire to the hair of the head and burnt it off’; also used of other things Kaš. I 171 (üte:r, utme:k): xıv Muh. (in a phonetic note on the rounded vowels) ‘and if you do not pronounce the word with a tediv (i.e. long tŋ and join the hamza to the td’ with a slight lengthening (bi-tnadd hafif) you have the 2nd Pers. Sing. Imperat. of thrdqu l-ğatıa?n ‘to singe a sheep’ Mei. 7, 3; Rif. 78: Čağ. xv ff-üt- (öfî-r^n'-i damma i.e. ‘with 11-/Ü-’, but erroneously writh back vowel) ‘to pass a flame rapidly over the head and hide of an animal or an ear of wheat to remove the hairs and the like’ San. 58V. 9: Kom. xıv ‘to singe’ üt-CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv üt- azdla bi-ndr ša'ra'l--ğanami*l-mudkd ‘to burn off the hair of a slaughtered sheep’ Id. S: xv šaıavata (misspelt, šarvata) bi'1-tıdr ‘to singe’ iit- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21b. 9.

Dis. ADA

ada: (danger, devil, injury, damage, pain, ад "hell") not noted later than Uyğ., whore it is often used in the Hend. ada: tuda:; the contexts indicate that it means ‘danger' or the like; a l.-w. in Mong. as ada 'devil, evil spirit’ (Koto. 64, Haltod 14), which reappears as a reborrowing in NE and NC R I 477 (ada), 557 (aza); not connected, or to be confused, with the Ar. l.-w. add, ‘injury, damage, pain’, and the like (Why not? Prejudice?). Cf. adart-, Türkü vııı ff. Man. uluğ ada ıyınč basınč boîğay ‘there will be great danger and persecutions (Hend.)’ TT II 6, 15; a.o. 22; Uyğ- vııı ff. Man.-A ada tuda (ISIS, tiiz, an easily corrected error) bizni ara yok ‘there are no dangers (Hend.) among us’ M I 10, 1-2: Man. (may ail men be saved) alp adalanntin ‘from fheir grievous dangers’ TT III 168; a.o. M I 31, 3-4 (ı): Hud. both ada and udn tuda are common; e.g. (when you go to sea) böš törlüg ada bar ‘there are five kinds of danger’ (sea monsters, rocks, demons, waves, winds) PP 17, 1; 0.0, PP 18, 5 etc.; U II 51, 5Î 6-t, 8; 73. 5 (>”); Tiš. 48a. 7; b. 4; ig ağrığ ölüm ulatı ada tuda bolur 'there are dangers (Hend.) like disease (Hend.), death, and so on’ TT VI 232-3; o.o. V 10, 87 (öč-); VIII K. 12 (a:da: tu:da: ig a:grağ); 0.6 (ig ağrığ a:da: tuda:); Kuan. 15, 86; ig a:da: TT VIII K.9; Civ. ada bolmaz 'there is no danger’ H II 8, 28; tgap] ada iğ bolsar ‘if there is a dangerous illness’ 30, 160; both ada and ada tuda are common in TT I and VII.

ata: (aa:) (father, princes, tutor, paternal uncle) (father)father’; this word and ana: ‘mother' first appear, instead of kaŋ (q.v.) and 1 ö:g (mother) (q.v.) in Uyğ. Dud., but are still rare in that language C.i.a.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Dud. badra kız atası begke ınča tep tedi kagım uluğ el(l)ig \\\ busušluğ sakınčlığ bolmazun ‘the maiden Bhadra said to her father, the beg, “Let the great king my father not be sorrowful and anxious” ’ (J II 20, 2 ff; o.o. do. 25, 19; Hüen-ts. 120: Xak. xı ata: al-db ‘father'; ata: sa:ğu:n al-tabib ‘physician’ Kaš. I 86, and 403, 5 (sağun); about 20 o.o.: KB atafather’ 37, 110, 3784 (eči:) a.o.o.: xııı Tef. atafather’ 62: At. atafather’ 291, 495: xıv Muh. abûhu ata:sı: Mel. 11,9; Rif. 85 (mis-spelt); al-db ata: 49, 5; 143; al-cadd ‘grandfatherulu:ğ ata: 49, 5; 143; and other phr.; Čağ. XV ff. ata pidarfather’, and they call Šufi sheikhs and asectics (wrtjffyr.v-f šüfiya tva zuhdd) ata San. 30V. 1; ata beg/beggreat father’ and metaph. laid tva rabbi-yi awldd-i saldtin ‘a princestutor’ 30V. 2 (quotns. and note on the Atabeg dynasty): Xwar’ xııı atafather’ *Ali 3e: xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 183, etc.:xiv ditto Qutb 15; Nahc. 14, 12: Kip. al-db ata: Hou. 31, 19: xıv ata:/aa: (aa: = atsa?) al-ab Id. 8 (ata (sic) adam); may be a corruption of something like ‘the father of all mankind’ Adam (forefather Man)); al-'amm ‘paternal uncleaa: karında:š; al-amma aa: kız karında:š Bul. 9, 3 (there is a gap in the MS, where aa: should be): xv ab ata Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 3b. 11; biynin aa:sı: ‘the bey’s father’ Kav. 27, 5; a.o. 44, le: Osm. xıv ff. atafather’; c.i.a.p, TTS I 51; II 64; III 45; IV 48-9.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the origin puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent. Ata was borrowed into Germanic and Romance languages, among others, and is a cognate of adam “man” (lit. “my man” with possessive suffix -am) and is at least as old as the Bible.

atı: ((junior) nephew’ or ‘grandson) ‘the son of one’s younger brother or of one’s own son’, that is ‘(junior) nephew’ or ‘grandson’; cf. eči: (and see Gronbech, op cit. therein) and yegen. L.-w. w. the same meaning in Mong. as ači (one of the very few Turkish terms of relationship so borrowed). Survives only in NE Sarig Yuğ. 19, atı ‘grand-child; small child’. Türkü vııı (after him his younger brother became xağan) oğlı: atı: xağan bolmiš erinč ‘his son and grandson became xağan’ I E II E 5; Kül Tegin atcsı: Yoluğ Tegin biti:dim ‘I Yolug Tegin, Kül Tegin’s nephew, wrote (this inscription)’ I SE; [Bilge: Xa]ğan atı:sı: Yoluğ Tegln \\ SH'T (as Y. T. was the atı: of both of these brothers, he must have been the son of a younger brother, and could not have been the grandson of cither): vııı ff. Atı: Öz Apa: Tutuk proper name? Tun. IV 6-7 (ETY II 96; ati: might here mean ‘his name is’): Uyğ. ıx yeğenimin atimin körtlm amtı: öltlm ‘I saw my daughters’ (and younger sisters’?) daughters and my sons’ (and younger brothers’ ?) sons, and nowr I have died’ Sttci 8.

E ı:du: a word read in Kaš. I no, 10, and translated ‘trouble, distress’ by Brockelmann with a query and by Atalay without one. It occurs in a verse, Kaš.’s translation of which is too free to help, spoken by a man in a lovers’ quarrel, aydı: seniŋ u:du:, emgek tellm i:du: (or ı:du:), yumšar katığ u:du:, köglüm saga: yüğrük. The first u:du: is the Gerund of ud- and the second is 1 udu:sand-dune’. The word after tellm might be the Gerund of ud- used in a slightly different meaning as a \41\ Postposition meaning ‘after’, or it might be the Gerund of ltd- although that verb has no obviously appropriate meaning. In any event it cannot be a noun. It must mean something like 'He said, (“I wentj• following you, and after (?) many sufferings, the hard satid-bank softened, and my heart hastened to you”.’

1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God)); properly 'master, owner’, but in Moslem texts often ‘the Lord’ (God). The phonetic history of this word is exceptionally complicated. The original form must have been idi:, but the syn. word ige/iye/i-e is so old that its independent existence cannot be completely excluded. It seems, however, more probable that this is merely a Sec. f. with an unusual vowel change in the final. The position is complicated by the existence of a syn. Mong. word ece (n) which is as old as the xııı SH (Haenisch 42), and looks like a Turkish loanword. Idi: could have become ici in Mong., but ige/iye could hardly have become ece, so if the two words are identical the word must have been borrowed before the vocalic change took place and later altered to conform with it. It survives in a wide range of Sec. f.s, which are not always easy to identify: — NK e: 7? / 657; it 1407; ie 1411 ; Khak. c: Bas. 334; Tuv. e: Pal. 591' SK ’lar. ege R I 694; Türki iga Shaw, ege BŠ\ ige Jarring: NC Kır. e:, ege Kzx. iye MM, Shnit.: SC Uzb. ega; NW Kaz, iye R I M34, 1578; Kk., Nogay iye; Kum. es: SW Az. yiye; Osm. is; Tkm. eye; xx Anat. eye, iye, ez. Has sometimes been mistaken for 2 idi: ((not) at all, very, extremely) the existence of which was not at first realized. See Doerfer II 636. Türkü (vııı only 2 idi: occurs); vııı ff. (the fat horse’s mouth has become hard) idi:si: umaz 'its master is powerless (to control it)’ IrkB 65: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bušı idisi tirti kuv-rağı 'the community of Tîrthakas who own (i.e. receive) alms’ USp. 103, 19-20: — the normal Uyg, forms are İge, İye, i-e, different MSS. of TT VI having different forms in the same passage; ezrwalarmŋ i-esi ‘oh Lord of of the Brahmas’ U I 23, 10; ol el uluš iyesi ‘the master of that realm and country’ Suv. 90, 15; y^r suv iyesi 469, 4; cv iyesi (v.l. igcsi, i-esŋ ‘master of the house’ TT VI 65, 346; ev igesi VII 28, 17; ev iyersi VIII 0.8: Xak. xı idi: al-sayyid wa'l-matvld 'lord, master’; hence one says idim nc: te:r ‘what does my master say?’; and God (alleh ta'ele) is called idi:; they sav idimiz yarlığı: amr rabbind 'Our Lord’s commands’ Kay I 87; four o.o.: KB idi: is common; (1) of God, e.g. idim ‘my Lord’ 124, etc.; (2) in the same usages as Arabic aî-šehib ‘owner, possessor’ e.g. ay dawlat idisi ‘Öh fortunate one’ 551:x 11 (?) KB VP uluğluk idisi ‘Lord of greatness’ 2; ay yer kök idisi ‘Oh Lord of earth and heaven’ 3: xııı (?) Tef. itsi: (? iyisl) ‘his master’ (that is his elder brother) 121; idisi 122: At. idi (1) ‘Lord’; (2) ‘owrner’ is common: xıv Muh, (in a passage on pronunciation) 'they call al-šeJtib İ:di: in Turkestan and i:yi: (MSS. in error *:/*:) in our country’ Mel. 7, 11; Rif. 79; al-šöhib wa’l-malik i:di: (spelt i:dŋ 44, 9; 137: Rbğ. idi 'Lord (God)’ R I 1508: Čağ. xv ff. the position is complicated; Vel. 40 has eye (sic) fdhib (quotn.); San. 57r. 1 adds, after aye, 'and, spelt iye, sahib'\ this word is not, however, entered under alif makmr ma’a'1-ye, but iyefc- and fyelen- are — Vel. 68 has igesi (‘with -g-’) translated fdhibi (quotn.) and San. io8v. 2 has ige (‘with -g-’) melik tva fdhib (same quotn.) — San. gjr. 13, under a single entry has idi xudd tva xudaivand ‘the Lord; master’ with a quotn. fr. Ndsir, edi ‘was’, and nil ‘its smell’, and also 97r. 18 İdî kut translated šehib-i sa’edat ‘lord of felicity’ (a false etymology of ıduk kut): Xwar. xııı idi ‘Lord; master’ 'Ali 11, 47; iye 51; xıv idi ditto Qutb 56; 4v idilcri Nahc. 107, 1; idi ‘Lord (God)’ 249, 4; 251, 2: Bulgar xıv the sound d does not occur in the language of most of the Turks but it does occur in Bulgar in idi: al-rabb Id. 9 (also in adak, udu-): Kip. xıv (after aya: ‘with back vowels’) wa'l-malik tval-sdhib 27 (presumably eye:): xv melik tva sehib İye Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 35a. 12 (and 90a. 7): Osm. xıv ff. eye (sometimes mistranscribed aya) and, less often, iye ‘master, owner’ is noted in over a dozen xıv to xvı texts TTS I 287; II 41; III 274; the synonymous word is is c.i.a.p., sometimes as is and isleri III 382, but usually with the Poss. Suff. as issi / 388; II 546; III 381; IV 437; the two words occur side by side in ‘aql iyesi fikret issi (xiv, III 382).

2 idi: (very, extremely, (not) at all) Intensifying Adv., originally used only to qualify Neg. verbs and expressions, meaning (not) 'at all’ and the like; later more generally to qualify any Adj., meaning ‘very, extremely’. Not noted later than Xak. unless NC Km mdt ‘very5, e.g. indi kara ‘pitch black’ is a reminiscence. Replaced in the West in the medieval period by iŋen (possibly an Old Oğuz word) as shown below. This, too, is now obsolete. Türkü vııı (1 campaigned in all kinds of country). Ötüken yıšda: yeg idi: yok ermiš ‘there was no beîfer (pJace) at aJJ than the Ötüken mountain forest’ / 5 4 (II N 3); (my ancestors campaigned as far as the Kadirkan mountain forest to the east and the Iron Gate to the west) eklin ara: idi: oksiz kök Türkü anča; oIuru:r ermiš ‘between the two the original (?) Türkü lived thus with no tribal organization (?) at all’ I E 2-3, II E 4: Türkü sir bodun yeritnte: idi: yorimazu:n usar idi: yok kısalım ‘on no account let the Türkü sir (}) people move out of their own territory, if possible let us completely wipe them out’ T 11; (up to that time the Türkü people) tegmiš idi: yok ermiš had never at all reached’ (the Iron Gate, etc.) T 47; idi yok erteči: erti: ‘there would positively not have been’ T 60: vııı ff. Man. idi sevmezmen ‘I do not at ali like’ (living the life of an ordinary man) TT II 8, 42; idi učuz yenik 8, 44 (učuz): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. idi yok is fairly common TT IV 6, 25; 12, 56 (see 1 yo:k); VI 54 (v.l.), 247, etc.: Xak. xı KB (understanding and wisdom) idi edgü neg ‘are very good things’ 215, 453; idi artuk erdem ‘very great virtue’ 281; idi ters ‘very \42\ perverse’ 491; and many o.o. (the word does not occur in Kay): (Xwar. xıv igen ‘very’ Qutb 60; iŋen üküš ‘very many’ Nahc. 6, 3; 231, 10; a.o.o.: Kom. xıv ‘very’ iQen CCG; Or.: Kip, xıv inen (jic) cidda (n) ‘very’ Id. 24; (in one MS.) İ0®n (spelt ingen) körklü: fi hod-dihi malih ‘extremely beautiful’ 25: Osm. xıv ff. İı>en, and sometimes igende, ‘very’ common up to xvıı , noted once in xix TTS I 366; II 5 t 8; III 357-8; / V 410).

S iti 'sharp'. See yitig (sharp, alert, quick, clever).

S oda See ota:ğ: ota:ğ (? oda:ğ) (hovel, hut, shack, tent)

VU 1 udu: (ridge, mound, heap, dune) pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı udu: alpakama 'mound, heap’; hence al-katîb ‘a sand-dune’ is called kum udu:; and a town in Arğu is called Udu: Kent Kay I 87; a.o, 110, 11 (idu:).

S 2 udu: See ud-.

E 3 udu: See 1 u: (Xak.).

Dis. ADA-

D ata:- (a:da:-) (name, nominate, dedicate, promise, betroth) Den. V. fr. 1 a:t (a:d) (name); primarily ‘to call out (someone’s Acc.) name; to call out to (someone Acc. or Dat.); to call (someone Dat. or Acc. something, wn-suffixed case)'; later in extended meanings, esp. ‘to nominate (someone Acc.) to a post; to betroth (i.e. name someone as prospective husband or wife); to dedicate (something Acc.) to God or some sacred place'; from this finally developed ‘to promise (something).’ S.i.a.m.l.g. in SW Osm. ada:-, Tkm. a:da:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. meni atasar ‘if he calls out to me, calls my name’ M III 48, 2 (v); maga atayu ‘calling out (naming) to me’ do. 49, 6-7: Man.-A (the unhappy people because of their sufferings) atayurlar ‘call out names’ (name) (and curse one another) M I 9, 8: Man. sizni atayu ‘calling out (name) your names' TT III 97: Bud. anı tĞmİn edgü ögli atın (mistranscribed öz-e) atağalı teglmlig bolur ‘it is seemly to call (name) him immediately by the name of “well-disposed” ’ VIV 46, 57-8; anı adaš böšük atın atağalı teglmsiz bolur ‘it is not seemly to call (name) him by the name of “kinsman or relation by marriage”’ do. 64-5; o.o. Suv. 190, 12; Hüen-ts. 305; Civ. atig atayu kut kıv özin keltl 'on calling (name) your name divine favour (Hend.) came of its own accord’ TT I 1le: Xak. xı ol aoar a:t atatdt: laqqabahu bi-laqab ‘he gave him a title’, also used for sammehu bVsm ‘he gave him a name’ Kaš. III 250 (ata:r, ata:ma:k): KB (for this reason) attm Aytoldi tep atadı ‘he named me Aytoldi’ 748: blllgsiz kišiğ bilge yılkı atar ‘a wise man calls an ignorant one “animal” ’ 985: xııı (?) KBPP Čınlığlar Adabu’l-mulflk atadılar ‘the Chinese called (the Kutadğu: Bilig) “the education of kings” ’ 19: Tef. ata- *to call (name) (someone Acc. or Dat. something unsuffixed case or Acc.) atamuš waqt 'a predetermined time 63: xıv Muh. (î) samme ata:- Rif. no (only): Čağ. xv ff. ata- (-di etc.) (1) ata-, adla-, ad koy- ‘to name(name down); (2) ada-, ya'ni nemzed («V) eyle- 'to betroth’ Vel. 6-7 (quotns.); ata:- (1) nemtdatt ‘to name’; (2) nemzad hardan, in Ar. xatha ‘to betroth’ San. 28r. 19 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ata- ‘to name’ Qutb 15: Kıp. XV samme (afla- and) ada- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20a. e: Osm. xıv and xv ada- (once mis-spelt adı-) ‘to name; to dedicate’ in three texts TTS I 3, 4; U 5.

E idi:- (to collect, gather up) error (-v- misread as -İ-) for evdi:- (gather, pick up), q.v.; ‘to collect, gather up’. Pec. to Uyğ. The statement in TT V 34, note B90, that there is a Dev. N. idiš fr. this V. in Kaš, is an error; see Kaš. III 62, footnote. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (just as a man who has hands, if he reaches a jewel island) köflül eyin ertlni evdigeli (idigelŋ uyur 'can pick up jewels to his heart's content’ (but if he has no hands) ötrü ertini evdlyü (idtyü) umadm kuruğ kalır ‘then remains frustrated because he cannot pick up jewels’ TT V 26, 91-3; evdidiler (ididileŋ yığdılar ‘picked up and collected’ Suv. 627, 17; 642, 4.

D 1 ota:- (fire, anger) Den. V, fr. 1 o:t (fire, anger); survives only (?) in NE Tuv. oda- Pal. 299; the alternative form otla:-, first noted in Čağ. xv ff. as otla- San. 6ir. 27 survives in NE Tuv. otta- Pal. 314; SW Osm. odla-. Yağma:-, Yemek xı ol otuŋ ota:dı: istale bi'1-ner tea ahrnqa'l-hatnb ‘he warmed himself at the fire and burnt firewood’; this is a rare word but used in these dialects Kaš. III 252 (ota:r, ota:ma:k).

D 2 ota:- (mow, cure) Den. V. fr. 2 ot (grass, vegetation) ; has developed two meanings; (t) ‘to cut grass, etc.; in modern times usually more specifically 'to pull up weeds’; (2) ‘to treat with medicinal herbs’. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually in the first sense; in SW only in Tkm. and xx Anat. SDD 1095; cf. otla:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (and however many physicians come with their remedies) anı otayu umağay ‘they will be unable to treat him (successfully)’ M I 15, 7: Civ. ota-'to treat (a patient)’ H II 26, 84 and 93: Xak. xı ol tanğ ota:dı: šarnaqa,l-sar\ tva huzoa an yaqta’ širneqahu kayle yufsidahu ‘he cut the grain (crop), that is cut the crop so that it should not spoil’; also used of plough-land (1al-hart) when the ears (of corn) are cut off (hušidati'1-rııüs) Kaš. III 250 (ota:r, ota:ma:k): KB (oh ignorant man, go and) İgİgni ota ‘have your disease treated’ 158; otağıl derü birle ‘treat him with drugs' 5244: xııı (?) Tef. ota- *to weed' 239: Oğuzxi (after 1 ota:- (fire, anger)) and one says in Oğuz emči: agar ot ota:di: al-fabib *alacahu bi'1-daıve’ ‘the physician treated him with medicine’ Kay III 252 (ota:r, ota;ma:k).

D udı:- (sleep, clot, curdle, coagulate, numb, negligent, slothful) unusual Den. V. fr. 1 u: q.v.; basically ‘to sleep’, with several metaph. meanings; the earliest (of blood, milk, etc.) ‘to clot, curdle, coagulate’ must have existed in Xak., see udıt- (ferment, усыпить), udıš-, etc.; later (of a limb) 'to become numb’, (in colloquial English ‘to go to sleep’); also, more generally, ‘to become negligent or slothful’. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually meaning ‘to clot, curdle'; 'to sleep' only in \43\ NE and SW (elsewhere displaced in this meaning by der. f.s like uykula-). It is sometimes possible to be confused between der. f.s of this verb and those of *od-, which has the opposite meaning ‘to be awake’. Türkü vııı (for the sake of the Türkü people) tün ııdıtnadım kürıtüz olurmadım ‘1 did not sleep by night or rest by day’ 1 E 27, HE 22; tün udımatı: küntüz olurmati: 'without sleeping at night or sitting down during the dav’ T 51-2: vııı ff. udı:ğmağ odğu:ru: yatığlı:ğ turğuru: yorı:yu:rmen ‘I go about waking the sleepers and rousing those who are lying down’ IrkB e o: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 160 (1 u:): Bud. az udiŋ ‘sleep a little’ PP 55, 5; udıyu yatmıš oğulı 'his son who lay asleep’ U III 64,1; yatıp udiyur erken Suv. 620, 16-17: Civ. (he must drink the medicine and) udığu ol H I 20; udıyu umasar II 8, 41: Xak. xı er u<Ji:di: 'the man (etc.) slept’ (nema) Kaš. III 259 (udi:r, udi:ma:k); KB (God does not walk about or lie down or) udimaz 17; many o.o.: xııı Tef. udi-, uzı-, uyu- ‘to sleep’ 321, 322, 324: xıv Muh. na'asa ‘to doze’ u:y- (? u:yu-) Mel. 31, 15; Rif. 116; al-na'es u:yumak 37, 3; 123; nema u:yu- 41, 7; uyu:- 131; nema u:di:- (sic) 115 (only): Čağ. xv ff. uyu- (-p) uyu-Vel. 124 (quotn.); uyu- (spelt) xweb kardan ‘to sleep’, also called uykula- San. 90r. 2 (quoins.)-, uy- (in the same entry as o:y- (hollow out, gouge out, engrave, pierce < hole, to hole)) za xııı hastan tva mest hastan 'to form a scab; to coagulate’ 89^ 18: Xwar. xııı uy- (or uyu-?) ‘to sleep’ 'Ali 29: xııı (?) (he pitched his tent and) šük bolup uyu turdi 'settled down quietly to sleep’ Oğ. 13e: xıv udi-, uyı-, uyu- ‘to sleep’ Qutb 195, 197; hič udimassen 'you never sleep' Nahc. 289, 9; 'Sqtlnig udimaki ‘the sleep of a wise man’ (is better than the wakefulness of a fool) 423, 4: Kom. xıv ‘to sleep’ uyu- CCI, CCG; Gr, 264 (quotns.): Kip. xııı nenıa mina'l-nawm u:yi:- Hou. 44, r: Bulgar, xıv udu- nema and in other languages uyu- Id, 9 (see 1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God))): Kip . xıv uyı- nema, and in the Turkistani language (sic) udi-, as we said above Id. 2e: xv xadara (of a limb) ‘to go numb' uyu- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 15a. 9.

öte:- (öde:-) (ötä-, ödä- (OTD)) (settle, carry out an obligation, debt) (oath, ought, see ötä- (v.)), probably an elided form of öŋte:- (öŋde:-), see öŋdi: (customs, Common Law), a derivative of 1 öŋ (front, before, first, previous, superior) in the sense of “before, previous”; basically ‘to carry out an obligation’, hence (1) ‘to carry out one’s obligations to God’, e.g. by offering prayer at proper times; (2) ‘to carry out one’s obligations to superiors’ by giving what is due to them; (3) ’to pay a debt’. Cf. and/ant (oath). Survives in some SE, SC (üta-), NW) and SW languages; Az., Osm. öde-, Tkm. ö:de-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (these wicked men) üč yavlak yolta öz ötek öteyür ‘repay their debts (metaph.) in the three evil ways’ TT II 16, 22-4; ötek berim ötemekleri erser 'as for their paying their debts (Hend.)’ ditto 17, 85-7: Xak. xı ol anıŋ alımın öterdi: qada daynahu ‘he paid his debt to him’; (in a verse) teıjri:gerü: tapğin öte:r ‘he performs his duty to God’ Kaš. III 252 (öte:r, öte:me:k): KB muniŋ šukrı emdi neteg öteyın ‘how can I now give (adequate) thanks for this?’ 390; similar \\\ phr. 1033; tapınsa öter beg tapuğčı haqqin ‘if a servant is obedient, his master gives him his due’ 597; a.o.o. of haqq öte- 1478, 1560, 1593, etc.: xiii (?) Tef. öde-/öte-‘to pay (a debt); to perform one’s duty (to God)’ 242, 251: xıv Muh. adde'l-dayn ‘to pay a debt’ bore ö:de- Mel. 22, 4 (Rif. 102 bo:rc ber-); inqnda'l-dayn ‘to settle a debt’ bo:rc ö:de:- 23, 8; ö:te:- 104: Čağ. xv ff. öte- ide kardan ‘to pay (a debt), fulfil (a duty)’ San. 6ir. 10: Xwar. xııı öte- ‘to pay’ 'Ali 49: xııı (?) kök teŋrike men ötedim ‘I have given what was due to high heaven’ Oğ. 75: xıv (whoever borrows money and fails) borcmi ötemekke ‘to repay his debt’ Nahc. 409, 15: Kip. xıv awfa ‘to pay a debtö:de- Bul. 30V.: xv awfa öte- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 5b. 11; wafa ditto, öte- 38b. 8: Osm. xviii öde- (and ödeš-) in Rümi, ide kardan; also metaph. mukefet ‘ (to give) compensation, recompense' San. 6ev. 13.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.

üti:- (iron, утюжить) Hap. leg.; the connection of this word with üt- is obvious, but cannot be explained morphologically; Kaš. clearly distinguished between the two verbs, and regarded ütüg (iron, утюг) as derived from üti:- (iron, утюжить), not üt-, Xak. xı ol to:nuğ üti:di: ahraqa zVbira'l-taicb bi-ha-dida wa malhsahu ‘he ed the nap of the garment with an iron and pressed it flat’ Kaš. III 252 (üti:r, üti:me:k).

Dis. ADC

D atač (dear father) Dim. f. in ata: (father); ‘little, i.e. dear, father’; in the first two passages below the word has been read as a proper name, Tačam, but this is almost certainly an error. Türkü vııı bilge: atačım yoğıg korığıgm: ko-[rıdıjm 'my wise, dear father, I held your funeral feast and enclosed (?) your grave plot’ Ongin 12; the word has also been restored in Üne 1 of the Supplementary Inscr.: vııı ff. Yen. amtı: atačımka: adrrndim (? read adrıldım) ‘I have now been parted from my dear father’ Mal. 32, 14: Xak. xı atač oğu:l šabi mutašayyix kat annahu abu’l-qatvm ‘a boy ■who behaves like an old man, as if he was the father of the clan’ Kaš. I 52.

VU eteč (hole, pocket (game)) Hap. leg.; neither this nor the A.N. (Conc. N.) are vocalized in the MS., but as the Suff of the latter is -Hk the vowels must he front ones. Xak. xı eteč al-mardah, wa hiya'l'hufratu'llati yal'ab fihe l-šibyen bi'l-catvz ‘the target for throwing things, that is the hole in which children throw when playing the nut game’ Kaš. I 52.

D etči: (butcher) N.Ag. f. et; ‘butcher’; this word was read atči by Arat in KB, but the context strongly suggests that this is an error; atčı: is otherwise unknown, and etči: n.o.a.b. Xak.xi KB (I dreamt that I was climbing a staircase and) bašında bir etči maga suv b^rür 'at the head of it a butcher gave me water to drink’ (I drank it down and then flew off to heaven) 6035; (in the interpretation) ol etči turur kör atalığlarığ atašız kılığlı ay \\ kılkı arığ; ol etči turur kör etilmišlerig buzuğli yorıtmağlı canlığ tirig ‘that butcher, oh 'irtuous man, is the one who makes those who have fathers fatherless; that butcher is the man who destroys what has been set in order and does not leave mortals alive’ 6055-e: xıv AIuh. (?) qaššeb etči: (cim) Rif. 157 (only): Kip. xııı at-cazzer ‘butcher’ etči: Hou. 23, 21; at-fahhem ‘meat-selleretči: 50, 20.

D udčı: (shepherd, herdsman, cowherd, cowboy, ox-herd) N.Ag. fr. u:d (bovine, ox); ‘ox-herd’; survives as uyčı/uyču in NE R I 1604 and NC Kır. Uyğ. vııı IT. Bud. xan udčısı ‘the king’s ox-herd’ PP 65, 1; udčı er 66, 3.

D otčı: See ota:čı: (physician).

Tris. ADC

D ota:čı: (physician) Dev. N.Ag. fr. 2 ota:- (mow, cure); ‘physician’. L.-w. in Mong. as otačijotočı (Kow. 383, Hal tod 79), which is prob. the origin of NE Tuv. oduču Pal. 300; otherwise survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. otacı/otču SDD 1094-5. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. otačı emčl U 1 7, 3 (2 ot): Man.-A otačı ‘physician' AT I 15, e: Bud. bütün balıktaki otačılar ‘all the physicians in the town’ U 111 41, 5; a.o. Suv. 591, 5: Civ. otačılar baxšılar ‘physicians and religious teachers’ II11 8, 25: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘phvsician’ otčı R I 1119; Ligeti 189: Xak. xı (after 2 ot al-daıve’) hence al-tabib ‘physician’ is called ota:čı: Kaš 135, 8; I 299, 22 (enüčle:-): KB otačı tirildi ‘the physicians assembled’ 1057; o.o. 1065, 2109, 4631: xıv Aluh. al-tabib o:ta:čı: (cim) Alet 58, 6; Rif.. 15e: (Čağ. xv ff. otačı yayldq ‘summer station’; otačı Xitay the name of an özbeg clan (ürüğ) San. (S2r. 8; otočı in the Mongolian language means šikastaband ‘bone-setter’ 62V. 7; the first entry seems to be an attempt to explain the first word of the clan name, in this context it may have meant 'pastoralist'; the last entry is the Turkish word reborrowed from Mong.): Xwar. xıv otačı ‘physician’ Qutb 120: Kom. xıv ‘physician’ otačı <7<7<7; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-tabib o:ta:čı: Hou. 23, 9: xıv otčı: (one MS. otačı:, cim) al-tabib id. 15: xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 23b. 7 (see iče:gü:): Osm. xıv fF. otačı (perhaps sometimes to be read otčı) occurs in several texts down to xvir, TTS I 550; II 736; III 549; IV 613; xvııı otčı ('with -č-’) fabib ua carreh, (‘surgeon’) in Pe. bisqk San. bit. 11.

VUD etečlik Hap. leg.; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. eteč (hole, pocket (game)), q.v. Xak. xı etečlik al-mazvdııılladi yuhfar fihi'l-mardah li'l-lubi'l-cawz ‘the place in which the target for throwing things is dug for the nut game’ Kaš. I r 5 r.

D otačılık (clinic, лечебница) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. ota:čı: (physician); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-AMrdaspntteŋri-lerniŋ otačılıkı ‘the place of healing of the Mardespent gods’ A1 I 27, 33: Osm. xıv ff. otacılık (or otčılık?) ‘medical treatment’ in ........ — J-----------tto t 11 \\

Dis. ADD

adut (palm, handful) basically ‘a handful', but sometimes used for ‘the palm of the hand', which is properly aya:; had a very unusual phonetic history; under the influence of the -u- the -d- became -v-f-w- instead of -y-, and, perhaps as compensation, the -t became -č as early as xı (KB). S.i.a.m.l.p. in a wide variety of forms, one NE Tuv. adıš,' Pal. 42, very archaic; some much abraded NE ants, o:s, o:š, u:š R I Sı, 1138, 1149, 1772; SE Tar. ö:č R I 1133; NC Kır. u:č; Kzx. UlS; elsewhere usually avuč or the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud, ayača aš bermiš adutčn suv tuttnıš ‘giving a pnlmful of food or holding a handful of water’ Suv. 168, 23; Sanskrit muštine ‘with a handful’ a:dut (spelt a:tudh) üze: [gap] TT VIII C. 14: Xak. xı adut al-hafna ‘a handful’; one says bi:r adut ne:g ‘a handful of something’, that is what will fill the palm (mil'u'l-kaff) Kaš. I 50; awut dialect form (luğa) of adut for ‘handful’ I 82: KB ukušsuz kiši bir avučča tetik ‘a man without understanding is only a trifle intelligent’ 297: xııı (?) Tef. a\vuč ‘handful’ 3e: Čağ. xv ff. awuč kaff-i dast ‘the pajm of the hand’ San. 53V. 2 (quotn,); in a Qašîda in the Vienna MS. of KB, Malov Pamyatnihi drevnetyurkskoi pis'mennosti 342 ff. bir avuč yalka ‘as trifling wages’ (God gave man a soul) 27: Xwar. xıv avuč 'handful’ Qutb le: Kom. xıv ouč (? for owuč) ‘handful’ CCI; Gr.: Kip. xıv al-lıafna awuč (cim) Bul. 9, 13: xv qabda 10a hafna ‘handful’ awuč (c/;n) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28b. 11; qabša ditto 30b. 9; rehatu'1-kaff wa’l-qabsa avda (n) ‘palm of the hand’, also ‘handful’ awč (sic, cim) Kav. 61, 2: Osm. xıv ff. avuč ‘palm of the hand’ in several texts TTS I 54; II 69; IV 289; xvııı avuč oyum, in Rumi, a kind of gambling game (qimdŋ which consists in taking some things in one hand and asking ‘odd or even’. If the other guesses wrong he loses San. 53V, 3.

Dis. V. ADD

D atat- (atad-) (matured, вырос) Hap. leg.; Den. V. in -ad-, Intrans., fr. 2 at (horse). Xak. xı ta:y atattı: 'the foal grew to maturity (tafarrasa), that is was reckoned to be a horse’; (prov.) ta:y atatsa: at tınu:r oğu:l eredse: ata: tinu:r ‘when the foal grows to maturity, the horse has a rest; when the son grows to maturity the father has a rest’ Kaš. I 206 (verse; no Aor. or Infin.).

D eded- (thrive) Hap. leg. (?) ; Den. V. in -ed-, Intrans., fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize); ‘to thrive’ or the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (plants and trees come into existence) kolugaları ulğadurededür ögirer ‘their young shoots grow, thrive, and rejoice’ Wind. 249, 8-9.

(D) etet- (bad going, difficulty) Hap. leg. Xak. xı ol am: etetti: awqa'ahu fi muqesetVl-mihna ‘he put him in a serious difficulty’ Kaš. I 207 (ete:tür (sic); etetme:k).

D etit- (edit-) (set up) Caus. f. of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize). N.o.a.b., cf. etitir- Uig. vııı ftrdln etitdim "I had \\ my throne set up there' Šu. ‘S N; a.o. .V 10 (orgi:n).

D udit- (ferment, усыпить) Caus. f. of udi:-; lit. ‘to put (someone Acc.) to sleep’; with various metaph. meanings like ‘to extinguish (a fire); to make (milk) curdle'. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as uyut-, but NE Koib., Kač., Sag., Šor uzut- R I 1770; Khak. ditto; Tuv. udut-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. igligig udltmıš kergek ‘you must put the sick man to sleep’ II II 33, 222: Xak. xı ol meni: udıttı: anernam ‘he put me to sleep’; and one says ol yuğrut udıttı: raıvıvaba'1-re’ib ‘he curdled the yoğurt’; and one says ol uditma: udıttı; cabbanal-cubunn he made the curd cheese'; and one says ol ot udıttı: 'he extinguished (atfa'a) the fire' Kay I 207 (no Aor. or İnfin.); bu ot ol kišimi: udıtğam ‘this drug always puts (people) to sleep’ (yurqid) I 154, 20: KB otuğ suv uditsa yana tirlümez ‘if water extinguishes the fire it cannot come to life again’ 2396; (carelessness) udıtur kišig ‘puts a man to sleep’ 5267; o.o. 2373, 5266, 5448: xıv Muh. (nema uyu:-); navcwama ğayrahu u:yu:t- Mel. 41, 7; uyu:t« Rif. 131: Čağ. xv ff. uyut- xıvebendan ‘to put to sleep' San. čor. 21 (quotn,): Kom. xıv uyut- ‘to let (someone) sleep' CCG; Gr.: Kip, xjii nawwama ğayrahu uryit- Hou. 44, 1: xv (raqada yat- (lie down, sleep, settle)) raqqada [ ? tva rawivaba omitted] 'l-laban ‘to put to sleep, [and to curdle?] milk’ uyut- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 17a. n-12: Osm. xvı uyut- (-y- written with kef)‘to curdle (milk)’, in one text TTS III 725.

Tris. ADD

D uditma: (moist curd cheese) Pass. Dev. N. fr. udit- (ferment, усыпить). Pec. to Kay Xak. xı uditma: al-cubunnu'l-rafb ‘moist curd cheese’ Kaš. I 143; o.o. I 208, 3 (udit-).

Tris. V. ADD-

D adutla:- Den. V. fr. adut. Like that word s.i.a.m.l.g. in a wide range of Sec. f.s, often meaning ‘to grasp, or squeeze, in the palm of the hand’. Xak. xı ol yarma.k adutla:di: hafana'l-raculul-dirham fi kaffiihi ‘the man took a handful of money’; also used for ğarafa'1-me' fi yadihi ‘to scoop up water with one’s hands’ Kaš. I 299 (adut1a:r, adutla:ma:k): Čağ. xv ff. awucla- (so spelt) ba--kaff-i dast giriftan ‘to take in the palm of the hand’ San. 53r. 11 (quotn.).

Dis. ADĞ

adak (leg, foot, piedmont, estuary) originally rather indefinitely ‘leg, foot’; in some contexts one meaning seems to be required to the exclusion of the other, in others vice versa. Became a l.-w, in Mong. as adak (Kow. 68, Ilaltod 15) but apparently only in the metaph. meanings ‘the foot (of a mountain) the end, or mouth (of a river); end; final’. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as ayak or the like, in its original meaning; but in some languages adak was reborrowed fr. Mong. with the meanings current in that language. Türkü vııı Türkü bodun adak kamšatdı: ‘the Türkü people let their feet waver’ (and began to panic) IN 7; \\ same phr. but katnšat (t)ı: \\ E 30: vııı fi. Man. (seeing with our eyes... touching with our hands) adakin yorip ‘walking with our legs’ Chuas. 314; (his clothing) bastan (jjc) adak (k)a tegi ‘from head to foot’ M I 5, 13: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A. (as the eye is dear) adakka ‘to the legs’ (and the hand to the mouth) M I 23, 5; a.o. 17, 19 (1 u:č): Man. baštın berü adakka tegi ‘from head to foot’ (perhaps metaph. ‘from beginning to end’) M I 30, 24-5: Bud. eligin adakin beklep ‘binding him hand and foot’ PP 63, 5; (of a bull) tort adakin ‘his four legs’ do. 65, 5; o.o. U II 24, 2; U III 35, 10; TT VIII (several): Civ. adak ağrığka em ‘a remedy for a pain in the legs’ II I 137; a.o. TT I 198 (apam); (in certain circumstances) Bulmıška ton etük adak baš b^rmezmen ‘I shall give Bulmi? no clothing or footwear at all’ USp. 51, 7 (adak baš seems to be attached ungrammatically to the previous words); o.o. H II 30, 189; TT VII 2i, 4; 25, 4: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘his foot’ adaki Ligeti 125: Xak. xı adak al-ricl ‘leg, foot’ Kaš. I 65; ayak al-qadam ‘foot’ dialect form (luğa) of adak I 84; in the Chapter on phonetics I 32, 3 ff. it is said that the Čigil and other (genuine) Turks call al-ricl adak and some Kıpčak, the Yeme:k, Suwa:r, Bulğa:r, and other peoples stretching to al-Rüs and al-Rüm call it azak, and (by implication) the Yağma:, Tuxsi:, (other) Kıpčak, Yaba:ku, Tata:r, Ka:y, Čumul and Oğuz ayak; about 40 o.o. of adak, usually al-ricl or al-qadam, nearly always spelt ada:k: xııı (?) At. (by fate the thorn pierces) adakka ‘thefoot’ 455; Tef. adak/ayak ‘leg, foot’ 40,44: xıv Rbğ. adağ (mis-spelt adağ) ‘foot’ R I 478; Muh. al-ricl aya:ğ Mel. 48, 6; aya:k Rif. 142; in the phonetic passage Mel. 7, 9-11; Rif. 79 (which is corrupt and should be restored as follows) it is said that the Turki-stenîs call al-qa4b ‘leg’ ada:ğ/ada:k and the Turks of our country aya:ğ/aya:k: Čağ. xv ff. ayağ/ayak pay ‘foot’ Vel. 39; ayağ/ayak pe San. 57r. 5 (quotn.); ftdak («V) ‘a wooden object (fûbŋ like a cart which they make for children, so that they may be put into them and learn to wralk’ 33r. 29 (no doubt the Mong. l.-w. reborrowed): Xwar. xııı ayak 'foot’ 'Ali 13: xııı (?) adaki ud adaki teg ‘his legs were like an ox’s legs' Oğ. 12; a.o.o.: xıv adak ‘leg, foot’ Qutb 3; ayak do. 6; adak MN 106; ayak do. 115, etc.; (he walked looking at) adakiga ‘his feet’ Nahc. 237, 12: Kip. xıır (after a list of parts of the leg) macmuul-ricl ‘the leg as a whole’ aya:k Hou. 21, 9; xıv adak al-ricl in Bulğar, elsewhere pronounced ayak İd. 9 (cf. 1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God)), udi:-): xv al-ricl aya:ğ Kav. 61, 9: riel ayak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 16b. 8: Osm. Xiv' ff. ayak in numerous phr. and idioms TTS I 54-7; //71-5; M 48-51; IV 51-&-

1 adığ (bear (animal))bear’ (animal). S.i.a.m.l.g. in various forms, usually ayi/ayu, cf. Shcherbak, p. 130; sometimes also with metaph. meanings like ‘the constellation of the Great Bear’, and, in Osm. ‘a clumsy fellow’. Cf. 2 apa:. The Mong. equivalent ötege is mentioned, as such, in \46\ San. 62r. 19 hut does not seem to have been used as a l.-w. in Turkish. Türkü vııı ff. adtğlı: (oquszIi: ‘a bear and a boar’ IrkB e: Uyğ. xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘bear’ adığ Ligeti 125: Xak. xı adığ al-dubb ‘bear’ Keif. I 63 (prov., which also occurs in I 332, 12): (KB adığlayu ‘like a bear’ 2311): xıv Muh. al-dubb ayuğ/ayu Mel. 72, 4; ayı:ğ Rif. 174: Čağ. xv ff. ayığ/ayık ‘the animal called ayt’ Vel. 39-40 (quotns.); ayığ/ayık xirs ‘bear’, in Ar. dubb Son. 57V. 7 (quotn.): Oğuz, Kip., Yağma: xj ayığ al-dubb, dialect form (luğa) of adığ Kay I 84: Xwar. xııı (?) (the infant Oğuz’s) kögüzü aduğ kögüzü teg ‘chest was like a bear’s chest’ Oğ. 13-14; a.o.o.: Kom. xıv ‘bear’ ayu CCI; Gr.: Kip. xıv ayu al-dubb !d. 26; Bui. 10, 13: xv ditto. Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 15b. 3; Kav. 62b. 6.

D 2 adığ (sober) Dev. N./A.S fr. 2 *ad-, which survived as ay- ‘to make (someone) sober’ in SW Osm. TTS II 82; III 54; originally lit. ‘sober’, that is not drunk; later sometimes metaph. ‘sober-minded, sensible'. S.i.a.m.l.g, usually as ayık or the like, except SE, SC where it has been displaced by Pe. hušyer. Xak. xı adığ al-šehi mina'l-sttkr ‘sober (free) from intoxication’; hence one says esrük adığ ‘drunk and sober’ Kay I 63: xıı (?) Tef. aduğ ‘cautious’ 41: xıv Muh. al-šehi ayık/ ayuk Mel. 55, 1; in Rif. 152 tva’l-hezim ‘and resolute’ is added and the word mis-spelt *aštk Čağ. xv ff. ayık hušyer ‘sober' Vel. 39; ayığ/ayık hušyer San. 57V. 10: (Xwar. xıv ayiğlık ‘sobriety’ Qutb 6): Kip. xııı al-šehi (opposite to ‘drunk’ esrü:k) ayık Hou. 26, 15: xıv ayuk al-šehi Id. 26: xv šehi ayık Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22b. 4; 47b. 12: Osm. xıv ff. ayığ/ayık‘sober’ in several texts TTS II 78; IV 57.

ayiğlık ‘sobriety’

S aduk See ağduk (fault, defect; useless, bad; excessively heavy, stranger, foreigner)

D iduk (sent, sacred) Dev. Pass. N./A.S. fr. i:d-; lit. 'sent’, but used only in the sense of ‘sent, i.e. dedicated, to God’, hence ‘sacred’ in a more general sense; the phr. iduk kut ‘the sacred favour of heaven’ was early adopted as a royal title by some tribes; in course of time its origin was forgotten, and in Son. it is spelt idi kut and given a false etymology (see 1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God))). Survives in various forms, ıyık, ı:k, ızık, etc. in NE, NC, and SW xx Anat. SDD 777, 1098. Türkü vııı (the Türkü divinity on high thus set in ordeŋ türkü iduk yeri: suvi: ‘the sacred Türkü territory’ 7 E 10, II E 10; tduk yer suv IIE 35; T 38: iduk ötüken yıš ‘the sacred Ötüken mountain forest’ IE 23 (// el9); Basmıİ iduk (k)ut ‘the Iduk kut of the Basmıİ’ II E 25: iduk baš a place name II E 25: Uyğ. vııı iduk baš kedlnte: ‘west of Iduk Baš' Šm. E g: vııı ff Man. iduk kagimiz ‘our sacred father’ TT III 18, 20; o.o. do. 57, 108; el(l)igimiz iduk kut ‘our king the I^uk kut' M III 35, 9, 14 and 19; iduk örgin ‘the sacred throne' do. 35, 18: Bud. iduk ‘sacred’ is fairly common, Suv. 349, 3; 447, 15; USp. 43, 8: Civ. USp. 40 and 41 are documents of a late period addressed to tduk kut teŋrike-nlmiz: O. Kır. tx ff. öz yerim iduk yerim ’my own land, my sacred land Mnl. 42, l : Xak. xı iduk kull jny’ muherak ‘anything blessed’; its origin is that any animal which is set free (yusayyab) is called iduk; its back is not loaded nor its udders milked nor its fleece shorn because of a vow incumbent on its owner: tduk ta:ğ nl-caboltt’l-memu'l-faıvil ‘an inaccessible long mountain’ Kay I 65: KB iduk kut 'the blessed favour of heaven’ (not as a title) is fairly common, 343, 354, 1335, etc.; iduk also occurs in other contexts, e,g. ofbegllk i960: xıv Muh. (?) al-qade wa'l-qodr ‘destiny, fate’ iyi:k Rif. 189.

?D ota:ğ (? oda:ğ) (hovel, hut, shack, tent) originally ‘a small temporary building’. S.i.a.m.l.g., the idea of temporariness prevailing in NE and SE, and smallness elsewhere. Morphologically a Dev. N. in , possibly fr. 1 ota:- (fire, anger) with the connotation of a place to light a fire in (see Muh. below). The Osm. form oda suggests a connection with 1 ota:- (fire, anger) and so 1 o:t (o:d) (fire, anger). See Doerfer II 489. Xak. xı ota:ğka: öpkele:p süke: sÖ:zle:me:dük (sic, ?read sö:zle:me:di:) ğadiba *ale'l-aqremhi fi'1-xayma fa-me takallama bn'dahu ma*a*l-cund ‘he got angry with his neighbours in the tent and thereafter did not talk to the army’ Kay III 208, 13; n.m.e.: KB (he became acquainted with people and) otağ tuttı özke ‘took a small house for himself' 499; etse otağı iši ‘if he puts his domestic affairs in order’ 2562: xıv Rbğ. (if you leave Joseph) otağda ‘in the tent’ R I 1104: Muh. al-tnatcqid ‘fireplace’ o:ta:ğ Mel. 76, 10; Rif. 180 (there may be a small omission here, o:ca:ğ translating al-mawqid and some Ar. word to be translated by o:ta:ğ)’ Čağ. xv ff. otağ/otak saroy-i nišiman ‘dwelling house’ abbreviated in Rumi to oda San. 02r. 8: Xwar. xııı otağ ‘tent’ 'Ali 12; xıv ditto Qutb 120: Kip. xıv ofak is used for al-xaytna ‘tent’ and al-waton fi'l-barriya ‘a place where one lives in the desert’; they say otakın kanı: ayna manziluk ‘where do you live?’ Id. 15: Osm. xıv ff. otağ/otak (possibly taken from some cognate language) occurs at all periods with the specific meaning of a ‘tent belonging to a distinguished person’ TTS I 551; II 737 > III 550; IV 613: oda (sometimes in xıv odağ \\ II 716) meaning more vaguely ‘tent, dwelling, is also common I 535; II 715-16; (but most of the occurrences of oda in TTSvttt the Dat. of 1 o:t (o:d)): xvııı oda (spelt both with final alif and final ho) in Rum, abbreviation and corruption of otağ xena teo sarey ‘house, dwelling’ Son. 6ev. 15 (quotn.).

D udık N./A.S. fr. udı: ‘sleepy, asleep’. N.o.a.b.; in the medieval period displaced by uyku (a contraction of *udı:ğu: or the like) which occurs in Xwar., Čağ., Kom., Kip., and Osm. fr. xııı onwards and s.i.a.m.l.g. Not to be confused with odıtğ which has exactly the opposite meaning. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man,■‘A katıglnnaŋ kim ürke udukun sakhin-makan eretjler bu bir odğuruğlı dınkutı teijrlke ‘strive to keep yourselves from long sleep for this one God of the majesty of the \47\ faith who rouses (men)’ M III 9, 6-8: Bud. Sanskrit styenamiddhamca 'inertia and apathy’ udik (spelt utik) u yeme TT VIII A. 13; (another danger is this) talim balık uduk erken saklamadin tušar alkunı kemi birle 8İ()UrUr 'you may inadvertently bump into a predatory fish (Sanskrit makara) when it is asleep, and it will swallow everyone including the ship’ PP 17, 1: Xak. xı al-raculu'l--wasnan, 'a sleepy man’ is called udtk er Kaš. I 65: KB negü ol igig emdi udkup neteg ‘how is your illness, and how are you sleeping ?’ 1069 (the two best MSS. read uykuŋ and this may be the right reading).

D oduğ (odoğ) (awake, alert) N./A.S. fr. *od- (awake, alert); ‘awake, alert’. Apparently survives only in NE Tuv. oduğ. There must have been an alternative form *odğak which survives, perhaps in Xwar. xıv oyağ Qutb 115; Nahc. 15, 9 and certainly in SC Uzb. uyğok. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit jegarato ‘for the man who is awake' otfoğ (spelt otog) ermekte: eyen TT VIII E.24-5 (damaged); Sanskritpratijegareta Met him be awake’ odoğ (spelt odhavh) erkülük ol do. E.41: Xak. xı oduğ er al-raculu'l-yaqzdn ‘a man who is wide awake'; and they call a man with an alert mind (al-raculu'l-mutayyaqizu'l-qalh) oduğ köŋüllüg er, that is ‘an intelligent man’ (al-raculu'l--fatin) Kaš. I63: KB sak tur oduğ ‘stand up alert and wakeful’ 1452; a.o. 2354: xııı (?) Tef. odağ ‘wakeful’ 233.

D uduğ (obedience, service) N. A. fr. u:d-; ‘obedience, respectful service’, or the like. N.o.a.b. in the Hend. tapığ uduğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (then for seven days the prince) lular tapağm uduğın ašadı ‘enjoyed the service and obedience of the dragons’ PP 50, 4-5; tapağm ugugin egsiltmeser ‘if he does not diminish his service and obedience’ U II 15, 12-13; Ötledl erigledi tapığ uduğ kılğuka ‘he advised and exhorted them to give service and obedience’ TT VII 14, 3; o.o. U I 26, 1; U IV 48, 76.

D odğuč N.I. fr. 1 o:t (o:d) (fire, anger). Survives only (?) in S.E. Türki otkač ‘dry shavings, etc. sold ready packed for kindling material’, Shaw 17. Xak. xı odğuč al-šula mina'1-ner ‘a firebrand’ Kaš. I 95; otuğ odğuč birle: öčür-me:s ‘you cannot put out a fire with kindling material’ I 177, 5; a.o. 1248, 6 (evriš-); in the last two occurrences mis-spelt odğuč.

D atğa:k (jaundiced, bile, colic, type of plant, “лошадиный”, курослеп, лютик?) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. at (horse) but with no close semantic connection (“лошадиный”); as according to Brockelmann, para. 52a., this suffix is particularly used for plant names, the second may be the original meaning and the others metaph. extensions. Xak. xı atğa:k al-šufer tva'l-qatvlanc ‘bile, colic’; and a plant (nabt) with yellow flowers is called atğa:k; used metaph. for any face which is yellow with grief (išfarra mina'l-huzn) Kaš. I 118.

D atka:ğ (attachment, barb, gills, burr) Dev. N. fr. *atka:-; used to translate the Bud. (and later Man.) technical term \\\ vikalpa 'attachment (to this world)’; a l.-w. with the same meaning in Mong. (Kow. 62, and, with altered meanings, Haltod »6). Survives only (?) in NE Tel. R I 464; Tuv. Pal. 71 atkak 'the barb of a fish-hook; the gills of a fish’. Uyğ. vırı ff. Man. (you have turned mankind away from evil deeds and) yafšınmıš Hinmiš atkağtin ‘from the attachments which fasten and tie them (to this world)’ TT III 27-8.

VU utğun (strap) Hap. leg. Xak. xı utğun ‘a broad strap on the left side of the saddle to which the buckle (halqa) of the girth is fastened and secured with its tongue’ Kaš. I 107.

adğır (stallion) ‘stallion’. A very early (First Period) l.-w. in Mong. as acirğa. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as ayğır or the like, see Shcherbak, p. 87. Acirğa is listed in San. 32V. 5 specifically as a Mong. word meaning nar 'male' that is fahl ‘stallion’; the latter word was corrupted to fuel ‘horse-radish’ in some intermediate authority, and the word with that meaning appears in some later authorities ŠS. 5; R I 510; Sami 22, etc. See Doerfer II 648. Türkü vııı ak adğırığ ‘a white stallion’ I E (35), 3e: vııı ff. ögüri:ge: kutlu:ğ adğır men ‘1 am a stallion fortunate in his stud' IrkB 5e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. adğırnıŋ sigirin alıp ‘take the sinew of a stallion’ H I 7e: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘stallion’ ayğır R I x 5; Ligeti 127: Xak. xı adğır fahlu’l-xayl, ‘stallion’ Kaš. I 95; many o.o.: KB adğır is mentioned as the name of a star, possibly Sirius, in 5676, 6220: xııı (?) Tef. adğır ‘stallion’ 40: xıv Muh. al-hišen ‘stallion’ ayğır Mel. 69,12; Rif. 170; al-farqaden> and y in Ursa Minor’ ak ayğır 79, 10; 184: Čağ. xv ff. ayğır fahl-i nar ‘stallion’ San. 57r. 28: Oğuz xı (in an Oğuz proverb) ayğır/a/j/ Kaš. III 122, le: Xwar. xıı (f) ayğır‘stallion’. Oğ. 373, and o.o. of ak ayğır: Kip. xııı al-fahl ayğır Hou. 12, e: xıv ayğır al-hišen. Id. 27; aUši'Ta'Uyameniya. ‘Sirius’ ak ayğır Bul. 2, 14; xv al-fahl ayğır Kav. 61, 20; kišen ayğır Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 13a. 3.

Dis. V. ADĞ-

D atık- (adık-) (name) Intrans. Den. V. fr. 1 a:t (a:d) (name) lit. ‘to be named’, but usually ‘to have a (good or bad) reputation’. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. adik-/atik- ‘to have a good, or bad, reputation’ SDD 71, 124: Xak. xı KB atıkmiš İsiz ölse ‘if a notorious sinner dies’ 246; similar phr. 928: Čağ. xv ff. atığıp adlanup ‘named’ Vel. e: atık- nemeteardan too mašhûr šudan ‘to have a name, be famous’ San. 30 r. 11 (quotns.).

*atka:- (attached, clung) See atka:ğ (attachment, barb, gills), atkan- (attached, clung).
о Cf. adɣan-, adqan-, atqan- привязываться, прицепляться

D atkan- (attached, clung) Refl. f. of *atka-; a Bud. (and hence Man.) technical term for ‘to be attached’ (to this world). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (gap) ilkiteberü atkanıp ‘being attached (to this world) from the beginning’ TT III 43: Bud. (they enter the five states of existence and) beš ajun ol tep atkanmazlar yapšınmaziar ‘and so far as the five states of \\ existence are concerned they are not attached, and do not cling to them’ TT VI, p. 82, note 462, 1. 5; a.o.o. in the same note; Suv. 595, 7.
о Cf. adɣan-, adqan-, atqan- привязываться, прицепляться

S utğan- See uvtan-.

D atğar- (mount) Trans. Den. V. fr. 2 at (horse); 'to help (someone Acc.) to mount a horse’. Survives with the same and extended meanings like ‘to see off (an honored guest)’ as atkar- in NE Lcb., 'Id. R I 464; NC Kır. Xak. xı ol meni atğardı; ‘he helped me to mount ('aid rukub) the horse (etc.); and made me mount’ (arka-banŋ Kay I 225 (atğarur, atğarma:k): xtıı (?) Tef. (Plıaraoh) čerlğ atğardı ‘made his troops mount’ 63.

(? D) odğar- (recognize) prima facie a Den. V. in -ğar-, but there is no trace of *od; ‘to recognize (someone Acc.)'. Survives, with much the same meanings, as oyğor- in NE Tel. R I 971, and NC Kır. and uyğar- in Kzx. Xak. xı ol am: ke:dtn odgardi: 'arafahu ba'd tafakkur zva mudda ‘he recognized him after a moment of reflection’ Kay 1225 (odğarur, odğarma:k), D otğar- Trans. Den. V. fr. 2 ot (grass, vegetation); ‘to pasture (an animal Acc.), to drive (it) out to pasture’. Survives in NE otkar-/ottar- R I 11 n, 1115; Khak. otxar- Bas. 132; and SW (all) otar-. Xak. xı ol at otğardı: ra'al-faras ‘he pastured the horse (etc.)' Kay I 225 (otğarur, otğarma:k): xııı (?) Tef. otğar- ‘to pasture’ 239: Osm. xıv ff. otar- ‘to pasture’ and occasionally, fr. xvıı onwards, ‘to poison’; c.i.a.p. 7’7’lÎ I 552; II 738; III 550; IV 614.

D odğur- (wake up) Caus, f. of ; ‘to wake (someone Acc.). Survives only in NE uskar-/us-kur- R I 1747-8; Khak. usxur- Bas. 252 and SW Osm. uyar-; Tkm. oyar-. Other languages use some form of *odğat- (Caus. Den. V. fr. oduğ) which first appears as oyğat- (/oyat-) in Xwar. xıv Qutb 115; Čağ. xv ff. San. 90V. 26; Kip. xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 6a. 5. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 20 (udi:-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A katağlanturdı saklanturdi od-ğurdl ‘he made them strive and be vigilant and woke them’ M I 13, 4-5; özütleriğ odğuruğlı ‘rousing the souls’ do. 26, 12; a.o. M III 9, 8 (udik): Bud. köŋülgermek basa basa (wŋ odğurdačı üčün ‘because he rouses the thinking process more and more’ TT V 24, 70: Xak. xı ol meni odğurdı: avqazani mimı'l-manemi ‘he aroused me from sleep’ Kay I 225 (odğurur, odğurma:k); about a dozen o.o. mainly as examples of conjugation; ol meni: oyğurdı: ‘he woke me’, dialect form (luğa) of odğurdı: / 269 (oyğu-rur, oyğurma:k): /ti? (the warning of time) meni odğuru berdi ‘roused me’ 5690; a.o. 6637.

Tris. ADĞ

D ata:ki: (father) Den. N. ata: (father); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ata:ki: ya abati ‘father!’; kalima isti'tef 'a respectful word’ Kaš. I 136; -ki: a sufHx expressing respect ('atf) attached to terms of relationship (asma'u'l-qaraba); hence one says atarki: va ubbavy (and ana:kı: ye untayma) III 212.

D uduğču: Hap. leg. (?); N.Ag. fr. uduğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. men tapağčıo uduğčug bolayin men ‘let me become your obedient servant (Ilend.)’ V III 83, 9.

D atkağlığ (attached, clinged, barbed) P.N./A. fr. atka:ğ (attachment, barb, gills, burr). Survives in NE Tuv. atkakliğ ‘barbed’ (hook, etc.) Pal. 71. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. atkağlığ fıšaylığ meŋiler ‘pleasures of the senses which attach (men to this world)’ TT III 121.

D adaklığ P.N./A. fr. adak; ‘having legs, or feet’; usually with a qualifying word ‘having (so many) feet’, etc. In one form or another s.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (if I have offended against) eki adaklığ kišike ‘twolegged human beings’ (or four-legged (tört butluğ) animals) Chuas. 80: O. Kir, ıx ff. tört adak (Iığ) yılkım sekiz adaklığ harımım ‘my four-footed livestock and my eight-footed goods’ Mal. ro, 10; seklzadaklığ barim do. n, 3; 42, 6 (the reference is perhaps to eight-wheeled wagons or eight-strutted tents): Xak. xı adaklığ ne:r> šay’ dxi riel ‘a thing possessing legs’ Kaš. I 147: KB kamuğ üč adaklığ ‘everything with three legs’ (is stable) 802, 804: xıv Muh. dazvetu'l--arba'a ‘four-legged (animals)' dö:rd aya:ğhı: Mel. 45, 6; Rif. 138 (second word corrupt).

D adaklık A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. adak. Survives in SW Osm. ayaklık ‘stilt; anything used as a foot or leg’. Xak. xı adaklık al-yašabu'Uati yutaxxad minhe svqul-'aTİš fıl-kurûm ‘wood used to make vinc-trcllises in vineyards’ Kaš. I 149.

D adığlığ P.N./A. fr. 1 adığ (bear); ‘possessing, or full of, bears’. In one form or another s.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı adığlığ ta:ğ ‘a mountain writh many bears’ (dibaba) Kaš. I 147.

D ıdukluk Hap. leg.; A.N. (conc. N.) fr. ıduk. Türkü vııı ff. (a cow... gave birth to a white dappled bull-calf) ıduklu:k yara:ğay ‘it will be suitable as (an animal for) dedication to heaven’ IrkB 41.

D oduğluk (wakefulness, alertness) A.N./fr. oduğ; ‘wakefulness, alertness’. Survives only (?) in NW Kaz. uyawlik. Xak. xı oduğluk al-tayaqquz fVI-umür ‘alertness in affairs’ Kaš. I 149: KB oduğluk bu saklıknı ögdİ eren ‘men praise this alertness and watchfulness’ 442; o.o. 440 (Pspurious), 2353: Xwar. xıv tünle oyağlık kılmaklık ‘keeping watch at night’ Nahc. 313» 7.

D udukluk Hap. leg.?; A.N. fr. uduk (udik). Xak. xı udukluk (mis-spelt with -d-) ğaflatu'l-imen 'ani'l-šay' tva tanetvum 'anhu 'a man’s negligcnce and inertia regarding something’ Kaš. I 149,

D atkančsız Hap. leg.; a dubious word which occurs as a v.l. of alkınčsiz un Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 362, and is prob. only a scribal error for that word.

D atkanğu: (attached, clinging) N./A.S. fr. atkan- (attached, clung); ‘attachment (to this world)’; practically syn. w. atka:ğ (attachment, barb, gills, burr). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. altı kačığlarnıč altı atkanğularnııj ezükin igidin ‘the deceitfulness and falseness of the six objects of sensual perception and the six attachments (to this world)' Suv, 371, 7 fT.; o.o. U II 10, 19, and 26 (mis-spelt and mistranslated); TT VI 189 (v.l.).

D atkanğuluksuz (non-attached, non-clinging) Priv. N./A. fr. an A.N. of atkanğu: (attached, clinging). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. atkanğuluksuz yokuğ bildiler uktilar 'they knew and understood the nothingness (Sanskrit iunyata) which is free from attachment (to this world)’ TT VI 462 (and see note thereon); a.o. Suv. 60, 8 (1 bo:d).

D odğuratı: (rousingly, vividly) Adverb in -ti:; as this Suff. is attached only to N./A.s, the word is presumably der. fr. odğurak, q.v.; the connotation is that the intellect is aroused, so that the conscious action of the mind etc. is stimulated; the best translation is therefore 'rousingly, vividly’. Hitherto transcribed utğuratt and translated ‘completely’, but neither form nor meaning are etymologrcaMy justified. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (damaged passage) odğu-rati belgü[lüg] körtgürü berdi ‘he demonstrated ... so that it became vividly manifest' M III 26, 11 (ı): Bud. (then npplying his mind to the matter) odğuratı ukar ‘he vividly understands’ U II 9, 12: odğuratı beJgülüg TT VI 296; (my good sons, listen carefully) odğuratı nomlayu bireyin ‘I will preach rousingly to you' do. 383.

D adğırark Dim. f. of adğır (stallion); properly ‘a young stallion’. Survives in NE Alt., Leb. ayğırak R I 16, 17; Bar. ayğrak do. 17; NC Kır. ayğırak do. 16, in this meaning. Kay’s meaning is otherwise unknown. Xak. xı adğıra:k al-a'sam mina’l-wuul, wa huwa bi-manzilatVl-kabš li'1-šiydh ‘the white-footed antelope’; it is in the same relation (to the doe) as the ram to the nannygoat Kaš. I 144.

D odğurak N./A.S. fr. odğur-, sometimes used as an Adv., cf. odğuratı, q.v.; the two words appear as alternative readings in the MSS. of TT VI. Basically the meaning must be ‘rousing’ or the like; applied both to human actions (preaching, etc.) and human sensations (perception, feeling, etc.), in the latter case perhaps best translated ‘vividly, convincingly’, or the like. Pec. to Uyğ. Hitherto transcribed utğurak, or more recently otğurak, and translated ‘completely’, but these seem to be errors. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (thus long and continuously you have wrought great benefits; by virtue of your good deeds) odğurak burxan [kutm bultuguz ?] ‘you have convincingly [attained the blessed status of?] Prophet’ TT III 105: Bud. (then after reflection) odğurak tuydum ‘I vividly perceived’ U II 5, 16 and 4, etc. (tuy-); (my dear son hear) meniŋ odğurak sözlemiš savımın ‘my rousing words’ V III 82, i i-ta; o.o. U134, 18; U III 80, 25; Tiš. 50b.' 6 (see note); TT VI 279 (see note \\ for o.o.); Hüen-ts. 318; 2084: Civ. odğura:k (spelt otğura:k) čıvšarğutı šor ya:ğlağ kuru:ğ a:šla:r‘startlingly acid, salt, oily, and dry foods' TT VIII 1.19.

D adğırlık A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. adğır (stallion). S.i.a.m.l.g., except? NW usually as ayğırlık meaning ‘the behaviour of a stallion’. Türkü vııı ff. (the beg visited his horses; his white mare had just foaled) altu:n tuyu:ğlu:ğ adğırlık yara:ğay 'the golden-hoofed stud will flourish’ IrkB 5.

Tris. V. ADĞ-

D adakla:- Den. V, fr. adak. S.i.a.m.l.g. as ayakla-, etc. with a wide range of meanings, ‘to fit legs (to furniture); to trample on; to wade; to give (someone) a leg up on to a horse; to measure in paces’, etc. Xak. xı ol am: adakla:dt: ‘he struck him on the leg’ Čala riclihŋ Kaš. I 304 (adakla:r, adakla:ma:k).

D (S) adukla:- Den. V. fr. aduk (ağduk (fault, defect; useless, bad; excessively heavy, stranger, foreigner)). Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ol am: adukla:di: istatrafahu li-kawnihi machul ‘he found him strange because he wasj unknown to him’ Kaš. I 304 (adukla:r, adukla:ma:k); körüp sü:ni: adukla:di: translated nazala ‘alayhi ğaflata(n) ta'accaba minhu wa'statrafa ‘he stopped suddenly before it, and was astonished by it, and found it strange’ III 339, 19 (mis-spelt adikla:dt:; the translation should be ‘when he saw the army, he was astonished’).

D udıkla:- Den. V. fr. udık; ‘to be sleepy, drowsy’, as opposed to udu- 'to sleep, go to sleep’; later in languages in which udi:- became obsolete it took the meaning of that verb. S.i.a.m.l.g., except NW?, often in much abbreviated forms like uxla-, ukta*. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (his stomach swells) ba;šı teg-zinür udi:kla:r ‘he is dizzy and drowsy’ TT VIII 1.8: Xak. xı yağı: begdin udik-la:di: al-aduwwa axadathu sina min hudüri'U -amir ‘the enemy were drowsy and unaware of the presence of the beg’ Kaš. III 339, 18; men udikladim wasantu ‘I was drowsy’ III 349, 3 (a.o.o. in a conjugational para.); n.m.e.: xııı (?) Tef. ukla- ‘to sleep’ 325: Kip. xv nema ‘to sleep’ uyukla- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 37a. 5.

D adaklan- (footed, stand) Refl. f. of adakla:-; ‘to have legs; to stand, or move on one’s feet’. Survives in NE Khak. azaxtan-: NC Kzx. ayaktan-SC, NW, SW ayaklan-. Xak. xı adaktandı: ne:ŋ ‘the thing possessed legs’ (riel); prov. alım ke:č kalsa: adaklanur ‘if a debt remains unpaid for a long time, it acquires legs’ (ficl); that is the creditor sends to ask for it Kaš. I 293 (ada:klanur, ada:klanma:k — sic).

D atakımsın- (reputation, fame) Hap. leg.; occurs in a very late Uyğ. text in a prov. in which it is parallel to begimsin-, also Hap. leg.; morphologically Refl. f. of a Simulative Den. V. fr. a Dev. N.S.A. in -m; but the parallel form suggests that both words were felt to be Den. V.s in -msin-. If so, the word must be regarded as \50\ a Den. V. fr. atak a Dev. N. ata: (father)- meaning ‘reputation’ and the like, which s.i.a.m.l.g. but is first noted only in Čağ. xv ff. adak Vel. 11; San. 33V. 1. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. atakimsin-mayuk atığ bulsar ‘if a man who is not accustomed to being famous gets a reputation’ (he defecates on every mountain pass) TT VII 42, 5.

D adğırlan- (stallion) Refl. Den. V. fr. adğır (stallion). Survives only (?) in SW Osm. ayğırlan- ‘to become, or behave like, a stallion’. Xak. xı ta:y adğırlandı: fa ala'l-muhr fi'la'l-fahl ‘the colt performed the functions of a stallion’; also used of mares when they acquire (šerat datvet) a stallion Kaš. J 313 (adğırlanur, adğırlanma:k): Osm. xvı ayğırlan- (of a colt) ‘to become a stallion’ TTS II 77.

Dis. EDG

etek (skirt, edge) (edge) originally ‘the skirt’ (of a garment); hence ‘the edge’ (of a skirt) and metaph. ‘the edge’ (e.g. of a plain, the shore, etc.). S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı etek al-dayl ’skirt’ Kaš. I 68: KB kara tün kötürmiš etekin örü ‘the black night lifted its skirts’ 3952: xıv Muh. al-dayl e:tek Mel. 66, iš; ete:k Rif. 16e: Čağ. xv ff. etek qaftan eteki daman ma'nanna ‘the skirt of a robe’ Vel. 47; ötek daman, and metaph. damana-i küh wa kanera-i šalıre ‘the skirts of a mountain, the edge of a plain’ San. 95V. 7 (quotn): Xwar. xıv etek ‘hem’ Qutb 53; (the child) senig etekiŋde ulalğay ‘will grow up under your care’ Nahc, 178, 12: Kip. xııı al-dayl etek Hou. 19, 1: xıv ditto Id. 8: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 15b. 7: Osm. xıv ff. etek ‘skirts; edge’ in one or two typical contexts TTS 1 284; II 406.

etig (edig) (act, action, correction, rectification, performances, events; method of construction, ornament) Dev. N. fr. et- (ed-); like that verb it has more than one meaning. Survives only (?) in NE Tel. edü: ‘act, action’ R I 860; Tuv. edig ‘correction, rectification’ Pal. 576; SW xx Anat. edi performances, events; method of construction’ (and other meanings) •SDD 505. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. etig, by itself, normally means ‘ornament’ e.g. etözindeki etigleri barča yagkira turur ‘all the ornaments on her body tinkled, jingled’ UII 24, 5; a.o. do. 40, 108 (učruğ); Suv. 71, 19; but in Hüen-ts. 132 (ö:d) ‘machine’ — etığ yaratiğ, too, normally means‘ornament’ e.g. (baths, perfumes) Sanskrit vibhiisana ‘personal ornaments’ eteg yarartığ TT VIII D.13’, Sanskrit bhar-anabhiisana ‘adornments and ornaments’ ditto, do. 38-9; (you appear) etigin yaratığın itinmiš yaratınmıš ‘adorned (Hend.) with ornaments (Hend.)’ TT X 476; but has other meanings; etözulatıedlz etmiš etig yaratığ tüšmek kamılmak tüblüg tetir ‘all created things, the body and so on, which have been exalted are said to be destined by nature to fall and lie on the ground’ U III 33, 14-16; in two phr. in TT VI the meaning is jess certain, ne törlüg etig yaratığ bar erser... eter ertiler 133-4; and etig yaratığ kılğalı sakınsar 452^3 possibly ‘whatever the undertaking was, they undertook it’ (without \\\ consulting soothsayers and astrologers), and ‘if you contemplate some undertaking’ (you must first recite this scripture), but they might mean ‘whatever (manufactured) article they made’, etc.: Civ. altunötig Ğlgigde tutğay-sen ‘you will hold a gold ornament in your hand’ TT VII 30, 9; taš tört uluğnıg etigi ‘the external ornaments of the four great ones' do. 41, 17-18: — et (ig (sic) tilek bulğulukı sarp ‘it is difficult to achieve one’s undertakings or desires’ TT I 221-2 (perhaps an error for ötüg): Xak. xı KB etig is fairly common in the phr. etig etin- ‘to attend to one’s business, carry out one’s undertakings’ 462, 475, and etig kıl- 258, 6091, etc., and occasionally occurs by itself with the same meaning, e.g. 777.

etük (edük) (boot, slipper) normally a professionally made ‘boot’ (cf. čaruk); the meaning ‘slipper’ seems to be pec. to SW. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW Osm., Tkm. edik. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT VII 42, 1 (uldag); USp. 51,7 (adak): Xak. xı etük al-xuff ‘boot’ Kaš. I68; 10 o.o. same translation; in III 283,9 (siğza:-) mis-spelt etik: xııı (?) Tef. etük ‘boot’ 8e: xıv Muh. al-xuff e:dük Mel. 67, 10; etürk Rif. 167: Čağ. xv ff. ötük (‘with -k’) ayağa gelen edik Vel. 90 (quotn.); ötük kafš wa miiza ‘shoe, boot’ San. 62V. 13 (quotn.): Kom. xıv ‘boot’ etik CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-xuff etürk Hou. 19, 4: xıv etik al-xuff, wa huwa turkiya; Tkm. edük İd. 8: XV al-xuff etik Kav. 64, 2; etik Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14b. 5: Osm. xıv ff. edük is the only form down toxvi, thereafter edik gradually displaces it; in the early period the meaning is clearly ‘boot, top-boot’; it is impossible to say when it came to mean ‘shoe, slipper’ TTS I 253; II 359; 77/236; IV 275.

D ötek (ödek) (obligation, indemnity, compensation) Dev. N. fr. öte:- (öde:-) (settle, carry out an obligation, debt) (oath); survives in SW Osm. ödek ‘indemnity, compensation’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (then the unfortunate human beings) kentü körmiš ötekin emgekin ‘because of the retribution (?) and sufferings which they have experienced’ M I 9, 7-8: Man. TT II 16, 23; 17, 85 (öte:-): Bud. ötek berimig ‘obligations' TT VII40, 72-3; a.o. Suv. 6, 17 (ötekle:-): (Xak.) xıv Muh. cize wa add ‘repayment, paymentö:te:k Mel. 44, 16; Rif. 138: Čağ. xv ff. ötek ada San. 62r. xi: Osm. xıv ff. ödekdebt, compensation, penalty’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 557; II 742; III 553; IV 618: xvııı ödek (‘w. -k’) in Rumi add wa guzariš ‘payment, a sum paid’; metaph. mucözet ‘compensation’ San. 6ev. 17.

VUD üdig (passion, sexual desire) Dev. N. fr. üd-; ‘passion, sexual desire’. N.o.a.b., Xak. xı üdi:g (sic; Perror) hayacenu'l-šawq wa'1-'išq ‘intensity of passion and love’ Kaš. I 69; üdig al-šawq ile'l-mah-bûb awi'l-watan ‘passion for one’s beloved or one’s home’ II 311, 25 (komit-) 4 o.o. translated al-šauq: KB üdiglerim učsun ‘may my passions fly away’ 6300: xıv Muh. (7) tawaccuu'l-'isq ‘the pangs of love’ üyig Rif. 144 (only): Xwar. xıv üdüg ‘passion’ Qutb 121.

D 1 ötüg N./A. Ac. fr. 1 öt- (pierce, pass, cross, pass over, forgive, give up, renounce, purge); w. various meanings. Survives in NE Kumd. edü:; Tel. ödü: R I 860, 1279; Khak. ötig Bas. 138, ‘sharp, pointed’, and perhaps SW xx Anat. ötük (so many) ‘times’ SDD 1120. Xak. xı ötüg al-hayda ‘diarrhoea’; hence one says aga:r ötüg tutti: ‘he was seized with diarrhoea’ Kaš. I 68: Čağ. xv ff. ötük (‘w. -k’) gečmiš ‘past’ Vel. 90 (dubious, not in Satt.).

D 2 ötüg (request, report, propose) 'request, memorial to a superior’, etc.; cf. ötün-, N.o.a.b., but a l.-w. in Pe. as ötük, see Doerfer II 574. Etymologically obscure. Doerfer points out that the V. fr. which it is derived is a l.-w. in Mong. as öči- (for *oti-), ‘to report, propose’, etc. w. Dev. N.s öčig, öčil (Haenisch 120, Kow. 541, etc.). It is possible that there was a Turkish V. öti:-or ötü:-, now lost, fr. which this word and ötün- were derived. Alternatively it might be taken as a Dev. N. fr. 1 öt- (pierce, pass), distinguished both phonetically and semantically fr. ötek. Türkü vııı yalavačı edgü: savı: ötügi: kelmez ‘no envoys, friendly messages, or memorials come from them’ II E 39: vııı ff. IrkB 19 (1 ağan): Man. alkıšımızötügümüz ‘our praises and prayers’ Chuas. 2le: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A takı üküš törlüg muntağ ötügler ötüngey ‘and he will pray many such prayers’ MI 11, r-2: Bud. burxanka ınča tep ötüg ötündi ‘he humbly addressed the Buddha in these terms’ U II 16, 21-2; same phr. TT VI 012, 364, 377; o.o. PP 15, 5 (ičgerü:); Hüen-ts. 247, 310 (ükšürüg): Civ. Tuğluk Temürke bağčılarnıg ötüg ‘the memorial of the vine-growers to Tuğluk Temür USp. 22, 38; meniŋ ötüg bitiğim ‘my memorial in writing’ do. 45, 13: ötüg šavka yonma ‘do not accede to requests’ TT I 35: Xak. xı ötüg al-qišša wa’l-hacatu'l-lati turfa' ile'l-sulten, wa ašluhu hikeyatu’l--šay’ ‘a memorial and request submitted to a Sultan, originally a narrative about the matter’ Kaš. I 68; I 199, 18 (ötün-): KB ötüg ötnümezmen 791; (if a poor man, widow, or orphan) qıšša berse ötüg anı barča tıglap ötünse ötüg ‘presents a request or memorial (to the Chief Ministeŋ, let him listen to everything and present the memorial (to the king)’ 2498: xııı (?) Tef. ötüg ‘request, prayer’ 251: Čağ. xv ff. ötüg tûmer-i abwab-i waqa’i' wa sargudašt ‘a book of narratives of events and happenings’ San. 6zv. 13 (translation doubtful, Persian quotn. fr. JVaššef): Kıp. xııı al-qtšša ötüg wa huwa šarhu'1-hel ‘that is an exposition of circumstances’ Hou. 23, 7.

D ütüg (flatiron) Dev. Conc. N. fr. üt-, ‘flat iron’; hence Russian utyug; survives in NW Kaz. ütük; Kk. ütik; Kum. itiv; Nog. iytüv: SW Az., Osm. ütü; Tkm. ütük; the forms with -k possibly influenced by Russian. See Doerfer II 420. Xak.xi ütüg hadida ka'1-mityen tuhmefa-yuhraq bihe zi'biru’l-tawb li-yatamal-laš ‘an iron implement like a trowel which is heated, so that the-nap of a garment may be rubbed with it to flatten it’ Kaš. I 68.

edgü: (good) ‘good’ in every sense of the word, (of people) ‘morally good’; (of things) ‘qualitatively good, serviceable’; (of fortune, etc.) ‘good’. Older than the more or less synonymous yaxšı:, q.v. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SC, but rare in NE (only? Tuv. ekŋ and SE. Modern forms vary ezgi, izgi, eyi, iyi, etc. Türkü vııı edgü: bilge: kiširg ‘good, wise men’ I S 6, II N 4; edgü: ağı: börürr ‘they give goodly treasures’ I S 7, II N 5; a.o.o.: vııı ff. edgü: ‘good’, and yavlak or yavız (bad) ‘bad’ are the terms used to classify the omens in IrkB; Man. edgüg anığağ ‘good and evil’ Chuas. I 27-8; edgü kılınčlığ ‘doers of good’ Chuas. 70: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. edgü ‘good’ is common TT III 38, etc.: Bud. edgü ‘good’, usually in a moral sense is very common; edgü ögli ‘having good thoughts’ is a common laudatory phr. U I 17, 6; PP 4, 2 and passim; TT VIII B.2; 0.10, etc.: Civ. edgti ‘good’ qualifying a remedy, the state of a patient, etc., common in H I and II; edgU bor ‘good wine’ USp. 71, 4; a.o.o.: Xak. xı eŋgü: al-hasan ‘good’ of anything Kaš. I 114 (verse); about 20 o.o. translated hasan and xayr ‘good’: KB edgü common: xııı (?) At. eŋgü common; Tef. edgü, eygti common, ezgü once (?) 70, 72: xıv Rbğ. edgü R I 844, 899: Muh. al-cayyid ‘good’ is pronounced edgü: (so read) in Turkistan and eygü: in our country Mel. 7, 10; Rif. 79; al-šelih ‘virtuous’, upright’ eygü: (-g- marked) 54, 15 (v.l. eyyü:), 152: Xwar. xııı edgü/eygü 'Ali 10:xiv edgü Qutb 19; edgü (v.l. eygü) MN 39, etc.; edgü Nahc. 2, 15 and passim: Kom. xıv ‘good’ eygi/egi (? for eyŋ CCI, CCG; Gr. 85 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-cayyid eygi: Hou. 25, 10: xıv eygü xayr (MS. xayyir ‘generous, fine’) Id. 27; (key cayyid) in Kıp. eygü do. 8e: xv xayr eygi (in margin eyŋ Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14a. 9: Osm. xıv ff. eygü once in xıv TTS I 287; eyü fr. xıv to xvııı I 290; III 278; IV 322; eyi fr. xv onwards III 275; iyi (? eyŋ ditto I 396; iyü (? eyü) in xvı IV 447.

D ödki: Hap. leg.?; N./A.S. fr. ö:d (time). Türkü vııı ff. Man. üč ödki nomuğ ‘the doctrine relating to the three times’ (past, present, future) Chuas. 159.

(D) ötki: the form is certain but morphologically obscure; semantically connected with öte:-. Survives in SW xx Anat. ötkü same meaning SDD 1120. Čigil xı ötki: al-'iwed ‘equivalent exchange’; one says bu atka: ötki: be:rdim ‘I gave an equivalent (in exchange) for this horse’ Kaš. I 128.

D ötgek (diarrhoea) Dev. N. fr. 1 öt- (pierce, pass); cf. 1 ötüg; the basic meaning seems to be ‘diarrhoea’ or the like; survives in this meaning in NE Tel., Kumd. ötkök; Sag.; Šor öttek R I 1269, 1294. The Kom. entry is quite clear, but the word seems to be confused with a later word for ‘cough’, cf. NW Kk. cötel-; Nog. yötkir-‘to cough’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kan ötgek ‘diarrhoea with bleeding’ HI 83 (the remedy, a daily draught of an infusion of mulberries \52\ and raisins, is consistent with such a translation): Kom. xıv ‘cough’ ötkek CCG; Gr.

Dis. EDG

D ötgünč Dev. N. fr. ötgün-, q.v.; survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. ödgönč, ödgüč, ötküč ‘story, narrative’ SDD iioi, 1120. Xak. xı ötgünč al-hikeya ‘a story'; hence one says ötgünč ötgündi: ‘he told a story’ Kaš. I 161: KB (there are two kinds of good men; one is hereditarily (anadın tuğup) good, and acts uprightly because he is good) takı biri edgü kör ötgünč bolur, isizke katılsa ol İsiz bolur ‘and one is good (only) by imitation; if he consorts with wicked men he becomes wicked’ 874; similar phr. regarding wicked men 877.

Dıs V. EDG

D edik- (thrive, prosper, succeed) Intrans. Den. V. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize); ‘to thrive, prosper, succeed’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (thus if a man has not faith) ol kiši edikü umaz ‘than man cannot prosper’ TT V 26, 118: Civ. (the strength of ancient kings wiJI not he beneficial (tusul-mağay) and the methods of modern sages) edikmegey ‘will not succeed’ TT I 107; o.o. 76, 118, 147 (ağzan-): Xak. xı KB isizlik edikmez neče edlese ‘wickedness does not prosper however hard it works’ 347: xıv Muh. (?) cedo ‘to be excellent’ edi:k- Rif. 107 (only).

D etik- Hap. leg.; Intrans. Den. V fr. et (meat, flesh). Xak. xı oğla:n etikti: tarabbala’l-šabi via kabura ‘the boy put on flesh and grew bigger’ Kaš. I 192 (etike:r, etikjme:k).

(D) ötgün- (ötgön-) presumably Refl. Den. V. fr. 2 ötüg; Kaš.’s etymology of ötün-, q.v., though implausible, confirms the connection; Ar. hake has the same double meaning ‘to narrate’ and ‘to imitate’; the basic meaning in both cases may be ‘to tell (a story) with illustrative gestures’. Survives in NE Šor, Sag. ökten-; Tel. öktön- R I 1182-3; Khak. Öktin- ‘to imitate’; SW Osm., Tkm. öykün- ditto. Xak. xı ol maga: ötgündi: hakeni fi amri tva bereni ‘he imitated (Hend.) me in my affairs’; prov. karğa: ka:zka: ötgünse: buti: sinur ‘if a crow imitates (heke) a goose (Kaš., as usual, ‘duck’) its legs are broken’ Kaš. I 254 (ötgünütr, ötgünme:k); ötgünč ötgündi: hahe hikeya ‘he told a story’ I 161, 9: KB (whoever reads this writing to-day, knows it well) agar ötgünür andın edgü kelir ‘and imitates it (i.e. acts in conformity with it) and from that good comes’ 259; ukuš ötgünür kör bilig bildürür ‘understanding expounds and know ledge makes known’ 398: Čağ. xv ff. otken- (‘with -k-’, -lp, -dŋ öykün- ve taqlid eyle- ‘to imitate’; öykün- ve benze- ‘to resemble’ Vel. 89, 90 (quotns.); ötgen- (spelt, ‘with -g-*) taqlid kardan; Fİreği translated it sabaqat kardan ‘to take the lead’ and Teli’-i Harawt nezidan ‘to give oneself airs’; both were wrong San. 6or. 20 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı öykün- ‘to imitate’ 'AH 51: Osm. xıv ff. Öykün- (once in xv öyken-) c.i.a.p. TTS I 571; II 761; III 570; IV 633; xvııı öykün- (spelt) in Rûmî, taqlid kardan, in Čağ. ötgen- San. 92r. 14.

D edger- (act, repair) Trans. Den. V. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize); survives only (?) in NW Kar. L. etker- R J 844. Xak. xı ol kičig sö:züg edgerdi: ‘he heard the trivial (af-xasis) statement, exaggerated its importance and acted on it’ (tea kabbarahti tva 'amila bihŋ; this V. is usually used in the negative form (machüdata (n)); one says ol amŋ sö:zin edgermedh mahtafala bikale-mihi tva me belehu 'he did not think much of his statement and paid no attention (not acted) to him’; and one says ol yavuz ne:ŋni: edgerdi: ‘he repaired (ašlaha) the damaged article’ Kaš. I 227 (edgerür, edgerme:k); edgermedip (not acted) ok ata:r 'they discharge arrows paying no attention to the danger (lit. ‘death’) from them' (leyubeli bil-numt fihŋ 723 7,27; edgermedip ide lam yuhdar 'anhtt tea titrika mulimala (n) ‘if you do not beware of him (an enemy) and disregard him’ II 29, 13.

DD ötgür- (penetrate (subject)) Caus. f. of 1 öt- (pierce, pass); ‘to cause to pass through’, with various metaph. meanings. S.i.s.m.l.g. (not SC, SW); cf. 2 ötür- (penetrate (subject)). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ötgür- in Hüen-ts., note 2104, 2 (arğu:) means 'to Jet (water) pass into (a Jake)’; otherwise it is used only of mental processes, and has been translated ‘to get to the bottom (of a problem), understand it thoroughly’, and ‘to explain’ (something to others); both meanings seem to occur; in TT VI 162-88 ötgürü usar occurs six times and must mean 'if he can thoroughly understand’ (something Acc.); bilgeler alku muni bilmez ukmaz ötgürü umazlar 'wise men do not know or understand and cannot get to the bottom of all this’ do. 211; but in do. 146-9 (if good men and women read and preach this scripture for the sake of all mankind) teriıj yörügün uktursar ötgürser (and understand the very deep doctrine of the root) the central phr. must mean ‘and make them understand and penetrate its deep significance’ in PP 74, 1 ff. (the prince interrogated certain wise men) kim yeme ötgürü umadilar ‘who were, however, unable to explain’; and see ötgürü:: Xak. xı ötrüm karın ötgürdi: al-mushil atlaqa'l-batn ‘the purge loosened the bowels’; and one says ol evke: bitig ötgürdi: ‘he got a letter through (anfada) to his home’; also used of getting anything through something (anfada šay) 'an šay') Kaš. I 226 (ötgürür, ötgürme:k): Čağ. xv ff. ötker- (‘with -k-\ -di, etc.) gečür- ‘to cause to pass through’; fireğat etdir- ‘to cause to abandon'; atar etdir- ‘to cause to make an impression’ Vel. 88 (quotns.); (ötgüz- (-ip) gečür- do. 89 seems to be nn error for ötgür- but might be a Sec. f.); ötger- (spelt) Cnus. f., gudarenidan ‘to cause to pass through’ San. 59V. 21 (quotns.): Kip. xv naff ada ‘to transmit, send through’ ötger- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 55a. 7; (ötker- translating sa'ala ‘to cough’ in do. 20a. 9 and 'atasa ‘to sneeze' in 26a. 5 is the different and later word referred to under ötgek).

Tris. EDG

(D) ite:gü: (beam) Hap. leg.; prima facie a Dev. N. in -gü:, but there is no trace of *ite:-. Xak. xı ite:gü: al-xašabatu’llati yurkab 'alayhd falaku'1-fehitn ‘the beam on which the upper millstone is mounted’; it is raised if coarse flour is wanted and lowered if fine flour and the like are wanted’ Kaš. I 137.

D etükči: (edükči:) (bootmaker) N.Ag. fr. etük (edük) (boot, slipper); ‘bootmaker’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW Osm., Tkm. edikčİ. Xak. xı (in a grammatical section; etük means ‘boot’ and) etükči: al-xaffaf ‘bootmaker’ Kaš. II49, 5; n.m.e.: KB (in a list of craftsmen, blacksmith, decorator, bow-maker, etc.) etükči 4458: Kom. xıv ‘bootmaker’ etikčl CCI; Gr.

D ötekči: N.Ag. fr. ötek. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. ötegči börimči biz ‘we are debtors (Hend.)’ Chuas. 309 (mistranslated; the meaning clearly is ‘we have not carried out our religious obligations’): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. USp. 55, 27 (ortuk)..

D ötügči: N.Ag. fr. 2 ötüg. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. (in a prov.) um:tma:z ötü:gči: ‘an intercessor who does not forget’ Tun. III A.9-10 (ETY II 95): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ötügči bolu teginürblz ‘we venture to be petitioners’ (to all the Buddhas) Suv. 159, 17: Xak. xı ötügči: šafı ild'l-malik ‘an intercessor with the king’ Kaš. II 144 (tutun-); n.m.e.: KB mazelim ödinde ötügčilerig körü alsa ‘in times of injustice (the Chief Ministeŋ should see and receive petitioners’ (or ‘intercessors’?) 2499; ötügči kereksiz muŋadsa özüm ‘if I am a petitioner and distressed unnecessarily’ (he listens to my words without interrupting) 3767: xıv Muh. (?) \\ 'dridu'l-halem ‘a petitioner’ ö:tü:gči: Rif. 156 (oniy).

D edgü:ti: (properly, well) Adv. fr. edgü: (good). N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı bu savımın edgü:ti: eši:d ‘listen carefully (properly) to these words of mine’ IS 2: yelme: karğu: edgü:ti: urğıl ‘organize reconnoitring patrols and signal towers efficiently (properly)’ T 34: vııı ff. katığtı: ba: edgü:ti: ba: ‘fasten it firmly and well’ IrkB 14 edgürti: ötü:n... edgü:ti: yalvar ‘pray fervently... plead fervently’ do. 19; edgü:ti: sakı:nmi:š ‘she thought carefully (properly)’ do. 42: Man. edgüti tüketi alkanmadimiz erser ‘if we have not praised (God) properly and comprehensively’ Chuas. 212; o.o. 257, 285: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ešitip edgüti köŋülgerdi ‘he heard and carefully (properly) considered’ Suv. 596, 23: Civ. edgüti kesip ‘cutting it up finely (properly)’ HII 18, 68.

D eteklig (skirted) P.N./A. fr. etek; ‘having a skirt’ (and later a hem, etc.). S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı eteklig (‘with -g’) to:n al-tawb ide cuila mawšûf bi'l-dayl ‘a garment provided with a skirt’ Kaš. I 152.

D eteklik (skirty) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. etek. S.i.s.m.l. in NW and SW. Xak. xı eteklik bö:z kirbes mu add li-yutaxxad minhul-dayl ‘linen designated to make a skirt’ Kaš. I 152..

D etiglig (ediglig) (adorned) P.N./A. fr. etig (edig) (act, action, correction, rectification, performances, events; method of construction, ornament); with various meanings derived fr. that word. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (the Hearers) tonlar yumšak inčge etiglig [yjaratığlığ tlle-mez kolmaz ‘do not desire or ask for clothes that are soft, fine, and ornamented (Mend.)’ M III 22, 3-5 (in: Bud. ttikel etlglig közüŋü körklüg burxan ‘the completely adorned mirror-shaped Buddha’ TT VI 410-411; o.o. TT VIII A.35; /. 17 (yiviglig) — kanyu tınlığ etiglig yaratığlığ iš küdüg kent uluš ev bark etgeli yaratğalı sakınč sakınsar ‘whoever contemplates organizational or constructive work (Hend.), (that is organizing) a town or country or (making) a house and household goods’ TT VI 79-80 — in some passages, e.g. Suv. 262, 24 ff. (see TT VI note 386) it corresponds to Chinese yu wet (Giles 13,376 12,521) which translates the Bud. technical term samskrta ‘active, creative, functioning, productive, causative, subject to cause, condition, or dependence’, contrast etigsiz, q.v.; nomluğ etözleri etiglig nom ermez üčün ‘because the dharmakdyas are not active (or ‘moving’, Chinese hsing (Giles 4,624)) dharmas' Suv. 62, e: Xak. xı KB (a man like this attains his desires; in both worlds) etiglig İši ‘his work is constructive’ 331; similar phr. 345; etiglig az edgü üküšte kör-ü ‘a small well-organized (army), see, is better than a mob’ 2340; asığ kılmadı sü Ğtiglig tolum ‘an army and well-organized armaments brought no advantage’ 4830 (or ?read Ğtiglik ‘equipment’); etiglig sarayığ buzuğli ölüm ‘death which destroys the well-equipped (or ‘ornamented’?) palace’ 1180: xııı (?) At. bu Ğtiglig erke ezed öz kul ol ‘compared to a man who behaves like this (even) the free man himself is a slave’ 344.

D etüklük A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. etük (edük) (boot, slipper). S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı etüklük sağrı: zarğab muadd li--yuiaxxad mrnhu’l-xuff 'leather designated to make boots’ Kaš. I 152.

VUD üdiglig P.N./A. fr. üdig. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB (the nightingale sang in the flower garden) üdiglig ešitti ‘he heard it with passionate longing’ 5972: xıv Muh. (?) al-'ešiq ‘lover’ ü:yiglig Rif. 144 (only).

D ötüglüg Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. 2 ötüg. Xak. xı ötüglüg kiši: ‘a man who has a request (dii İtaca) to make to the Sultan’ Kaš. I 152.

D edgürlük (goodness, benevolence, kindness) A.N. fr. edgü: (good); ‘goodness, benevolence, kindness’, and the like. S.i.m.m.l.g. with the same phonetic changes as edgü:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. edgülük ıšimke basutčı boluglar ‘be a helper to my deeds of benevolence’ U III 14, 15 (ii); similar phr. USp. 43, 7; 100, 3; edgülük Sumeru tag ‘a Mount Sumeru of benevolence’ do. 102a. 2e: Civ. kiši ara edgülük yoluŋ alp ‘your way of benevolence among men is difficult’ TT 1160: Xak. xı edgü:lü:kü:g... kıl ahsin ‘do good deeds’ Kaš. I 44, 2; edgü:lüküğ körmedip ‘before he sees the good’ (al-xayŋ I 420, 6; \\ bakkıl apa.r cdgü.-lükün ‘look on him benevolently’ (hi'l-ihsen) 7 129, 5; five o.o.; n.m.e.: KB kamug edgülük kıl ‘do all kinds of good' (by deed and word) 230; many o.o.: xııı (?) At. (the Prophet compared this world to a cultivated field; labour in it and) tan edgülük 'plant pood deeds’ 192; two o.o.; Tef. edgülük ‘good deeds’ 70: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 19; Nahc. so, 5, etc.

Tris. EDG

D ötgürü: (totally) Gerund of ötgür- (penetrate (subject)) connoting thoroughness or completeness. It is described in t'. G. ATG para. 280 as a Postposition after the Loc. or Abl. meaning ‘because of’, but it often occurs in other contexts, and even in this context does not seem to have this meaning. Pcc. to Uyg. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. negüde ötgürü karımak ölmek törüyür ‘why exactly do old age and death come about?’ \\V 77 5, 14; (the dead man’s corpse begins to stink and his parents) ötgürü... tezerler ‘incontinently run away’ V 111 43, 21; (the evil spirits) ötgürü artukrak bulğanıp ‘being all the more thoroughly confused’ U IV 8, 35; (from time immemorial) ötgürü bu künki künke tegi ‘right down to the present day’ TT VI 015; bu üčegünüg kavıšmakındın ötgürü ötrü kölige bel-gürer ‘precisely because these three unite a shadow then appears’ Suv. 52, 18-20; a.o.o.: Civ. (if he is satisfied, he may keep it himself, if not) adın klšike ötgürü satšun ‘he may sell it outright to a third party’ USp. 13, 11; a stock phr. in contracts 30, 15; 56, 16; 57, 12; 61, ii, etc.

D ötgürgü: Dev. N. (Conc. N.) in -gü: fr. ötgür-, Pec. to 77 77; prima facie it should mean ‘aperient, purge’, but is used more generally for 'remedy’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bu orunlarda ünmiš kartlarka (or kart-larnlrŋ ötgürgüsin sözlelim ‘let us describe the remedy for ulcers which come up in ihese places’ 77 77 8, 6-7, 14 and 21; a.o. do. 8, 28.

D etigsiz (edigsiz), (non-adorned: not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; out of time; inactive; supra-mundane) Priv. N./A. fr. etig (edig) (act, action, correction, rectification, performances, events; method of construction, ornament); Bud. technical term opposite to etigJig, normally used to translate Chinese tou tvei (Giles *2,753 12,521) which translates Sanskrit nsamkfta ‘not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; out of time; inactive; supra-mundane’; see TT VI, note 386. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tayšıg etigsiz buldukmaz teriŋ yörügln ‘the profound definition of the Maheyena as not subject to condition and unattainable’ TT VI 386; etigsîz megülük taluyda ‘in the ocean of supra-mundane joy’ Suv. 354, 7; a.o. do. 647, 5 (ašat-). '

Tris. V. EDG-

D ötekle:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. ötek. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (w hen the time has come) ötük («e) b^rim öteklegülük ‘to repay debts’ (Hend.) Suv. 6, 17-18.

D eteklen- (skirted) Refl. Den. V. fr. etek. N.o.a.b.; the basic form is first noted in Čağ. (Vel. 47; San. 95r. 12) and s.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı to:n eteklendi: ‘the garment had a skirt’ (dayl) Kay I 294 (eteklenür, etcklenme:k): Čağ. xv ff. eteklen- Refl, f. (1) (of a fire) 'to be fanned with the skirts’ (daman); (2) 'to be made into a skirt’ Sort. 05V. 4.

D etüklen- (edüklen-) Refl. Den. V. fr. etük (edük) (boot, slipper). Pec. to Kay Xak. m er elliktendi: ‘the man owned boots’ Kay 1 294 (etÜklenÜr, etüklennıe:k); a.o. 777 348, 12.

D edgüleš- (mutually benefiting) Recip. Den. V. fr. edgü: (good) N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. edgülošmišniŋ utlısın sevinčin ‘the reward and joy of benefiting one another’ V IV 46, 5e: Xak. xı KB katıîğıl bularnıg bile edgüleš 'associate with these people (the ’idama) and benefit one another’ 4354.

D ötgürüš- (penetrate (subject)) Recip. f. of ötgür- (penetrate (subject)). N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ötgürüšdi: Kay I 232, 19 (ötrüš-): Čağ. xv ff. ötgeriš- Co-op. f.; 'to pass (something) through (gitdardnidan) together’ San. 6or. 18 (quotn.).

Dis. ADL

D ötül Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. 1 öt- (pierce, pass); a rather dubious word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (a remedy for chronic fever and) yöl tözlüg ötül ‘windy (?) diarrhoea’ 77 77 10, 54 (hut see yel).

utli: (requital, recompense, reward) syn. w. and usually used to translate Chinese pao (Giles 8,731) ‘requital, recompense, reward’, that is something given or received in return for something done. Not noted later than Uyg. and possibly foreign. The first vowel is fixed by utlisiz in TT Vlll. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (the five pure gods) kim y€ gedmek edgü uth (spelt Utlŋ ell tirler 'who bring the good rewards for success’ M 111 6, 2-3 (iii): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (whoever endures sufferings for the sake of the body will find that) amŋ utlisi ‘the recompense for that’ (is death and dissolution) M III 11, 12 (ii); o.o. do. 1 t, 16 (ii); 12, 6 (t): Man. [gap] utli sevinč [gap] TT III 17 (see below): Bud. edgü kılınč utlisi ‘the reward for good deeds’ Kuntt. 218; similar phr. USp. 106, 51; edgü kılınčıŋmŋ tüšin utlısın ‘the fruit and reward for your good deeds’ U I 27, 15 (and see utli, p. 59); similar phr. TT X 220; men mčıp utli bildeči bolu teglnürmen nep utli bilmedečl erxııezmen ‘I venture to know my obligations in this matter, I am not one who does not knownot knowr his obligations’ V 11 41, 13-14; utli sevinč and sevinč utlı ‘the reward and pleasure’ (of doing good, etc.) UIV 46, 38, 52. 5& (ed6U:*eŠ-). &3! 48, 78.

D 1 a:tlığ (a:dlığ) (named) P.N./A. fr. 1 a:t (name); properly ‘named’, and often so used after a proper name or title; but more often ‘having a (good) name, famous, distinguished’. C.i.a.p.a.i.; SW Az.; Osm. adli; Tkm. a:tlı. TÜrkÜ vııı ff. a:tlı:ğ yÜzlÜ:g otu:z er ‘thirtv notables’ (Hend.) Tun. IV 8 (ETY II 99); IrkB 36 (učru:ğlu:ğ): Man. (princesses, high ministers) ulug atllğ-lar ‘great notables’ TT II 8, 64; atlığ yüzlüg \55\ begler M III 10, 3 (ı): Uyg. vııı (because of the wickedness of Tay Bilge Totok and) bir eki: atlığ yavlakın üčün ‘because of the wickedness of one or two notables’ Šu. E 5: vııı ff. Man.-A ayağlağ tapağlağ (so read) atlağ teŋri ‘his honored, rcspected, and famous holiness’ (followed by proper name) M I 27, 2: Bud. atlığ yüzlüg PP 12, 5; 20, 3; U II 19, 18; Kuan. 136, 138; TT VII 40, 75 (v.l.); atlığ yolluğ ‘famous and fortunate’ TT V 26, 103; atlığ ‘famous’ U II 36, 47; Naranda atlığ lu kanı ‘the dragon king named Naranda’ PP 50, 5; o.o. of atlığ ‘named’ Suv. 99, 14; TT IV 26; TT VII passim: Civ. ayığ atlığ ‘with a bad reputation’ TT VII 12, 8; atlığ‘named’common in TT I, VII, USp., H II. Xak. xı (after 1 a:t (name)) hence ‘the head of a clan’ (kabiru'l-qawm) is called atlığ Kaš. I 79, 2; n.m.e.: KB bir atlığ kišig ‘a distinguished person' 501: xııı (?) Tef. adlu/atlığ ‘named’ 39, 63: xıv Muh. al-musamme ‘named’ a:dlığ Mel. 50, 7; al~muhtašam ‘distinguished’ atlığ Rif. 145: Čağ. xv ff. atlığ/atlık nemder ‘famous’ Vel. 7 (quotn.); atlığ , . . (2) they say fulSn atlığ that is 'named (mflwwm) so- and-so’; (3) metaph. nemder wa mašhür ‘famous’ San. 30V. 22 (quotns.)’ Xwar. xıv atlığ/atlı ‘named’ Qutb 15; Nahc. 3, 3 etc.: Osm. xv adlu ‘famous’ (once) TTS II6.

D 2 atlığ (cavalry, rider, horseman, mounted) P.N./A. fr. 2 at (horse); ‘horseman, mounted’. C.i,a.p.aJ. Türkü vııı [Tavjğač atlığ süsi: ‘the Chinese army of cavalry’ II S 1; eki: ülügi: atlığ erti: 'two-thirds of them were mounted’ (and one-third on foot) T 4; bir atlığ ‘one horseman’ T 24: vııı ff. a:la: atlığ ‘with a dappled horse’ IrkB 2; a.o.o.: Xak. xı atlığ er aUraculu'1-feris ‘a mounted man’ Kaš. I 97; five o.o.: xıv Muh. atlığ bi-faras ‘mounted’ Rif. 77; al-feris atluğ Rif. 146, 153 : Čağ. xv ff. atlığ/atlık atin suıver ma'nesina ‘horseman’ Vel. 7; atlığ (1) suwdr San. 30V. 21 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv atlığ/atlı («e) ‘mounted’ Qutb 15: Kom. xıv ‘cavalry-manatlu CC7; Gr.\ Kip. xııı al-feris aflu: Hou. 26, 14; dil faraš aflu: 51, 20; feris atlu: 55, 10: xıv atlu: al-feris ay dul-faras Id. 15: xv feris atli Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27b. 10: Osm. xıv both atlı and atlu are noted TTS 7/671 IV 50.

D ıtlığ P.N./A. fr. it. S.i.s.m.l. with front vowels. Xak. xı ıtlığ ev ‘a house owning a dog (kalby Kaš. I 98.

D udluk A.N. (thigh-bone, its joint part) (Conc. N.) fr. u:d (bovine, ox), which suggests an original meaning of ‘a joint of beef’, but in practice ‘thigh’ of any man or beast. Survives only (?) in SW Osm., Tkm. uyluk; cf. 1 bu:t (leg, thigh). Türkü vııı (of a horse) udluki:n 8i:yu: ‘breaking its thigh-bone’ 7 E 3e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (on the 29th day of the month the soul is situated) udlukta beIte ‘in the thigh and waist’ TT VII 2r, 10: Xak. xı udluk mustağlaz 'azmi'l-dire' ‘the thick part of the bone of. the foreleg’ Kaš. I 98: xıv MwA. (P) ‘azmu'l-faxd ‘thighbone’ uyiuk (misvocaiized i:lik) Rif. 142 (only): Čağ. xv ff. uytuk (spelt ‘with u-') ran 'thigh', in Ar.faxdSan. 92V. 17

D 1 otluğ (o:dluğ) P.N./A. fr. 1 o:t. S (fire, anger).i.m.m. I.g.; in SW Az., Osm. odlu; Tkm. o:tlı. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. otluğ čakir tllgen ‘a fiery cakra wheel’ TT V 6, 43; otluğ ırğağ ‘a fiery hook’ do. 12, 118: Čağ. xv ff. otluğ/otluk etišin ‘fiery’ Vel. 91; otluğ/otluk etišin wa etišnek ditto San. 62r. 26 (quotn.).

D 2 otluğ (grassy, poisonous) P.N./A. fr. 2 ot (grass, vegetation). S.i.m.m.l.g.; in SW Osm. otlu; Tkm. otli; but note that in Osm. ‘poisonous’, a meaning belonging to this word is also pronounced odlu owing to some confusion with I otluğ. Xak. xı otluğ ta:ğ cabal mušib ‘a mountain covered with vegetation’ Kaš. I 98.

D otluk A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 2 ot (grass, vegetation). S.i.m.m.l.g.; in NC ‘manger’, elsewhere usually 'pasture’. In some languages there is a homophonous A.N. fr. 1 o:t (fire, anger) meaning ‘a strike-a-light’ and the like. The text of the MS. of Kaš. is as shown below; the printed text has atluk and odluk in error; but the Argu form is peculiar and some confusion with udluk may have occurred. Xak. xı otluk af~eri fi luğatihim ‘manger’ in one of their dialects Kaš. I 98: Arğu : xı odluk mabaytu’l-baqar mina’l-ert 'a place where cattle spend the night’, (derived) from ‘manger’ Kaš. I 98. Čağ. xv ff. otluğ /otluk makeni ki giyeh wa 'alaf dešta bešad ‘a place that has much grass and fodder’ San. 62r. 25.

D edlig (propertied, precious, useful, convenient) P.N./A. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize); ‘possessing property; having value, useful, convenient’. Survives only (?) in NI Koib., Sag. estig ‘having property, rich’ R I 885; Khak. istig ‘convenient, comfortable, sympathetic’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. edlig sanlığ bolup yorimakig (? sarp) ‘if you have property and treasure (?) your course is (? difficult) TT I 84 (the editors suggest reading atliğ sanliğ and translating ‘distinguished’ but (1) edlig is quite clear in the text; (2) sanlığ, q.v., does not have this meaning except in SW; san here is prob. a Sec. L of sag for tsag, q.v.): Xak. xı edlig ne:g kull šay’ yuntafa' bihi ‘anything which can be used to advantage’ Kaš. I 103.

D etlig (fleshy, fat) P.N./A. fr et; ‘fleshy, fat’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı (after etlik) and a corpulent man (al-raculu’l-da xııı ) is called etlig kiši:, with a -g; and a man who owns meat (al-lahm) is also called etlig kiši: Kaš. I101; xııı (?) Tef. etlig ‘corporeal' 86.

D etlik (fat stock) A.N. (Cone, N.) fr. et (meat, flesh). Survives only (P) in NW Kaz. itlik; SW xx Anat. etlik SDD 555 ‘fat stock’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT IV 6, 45 (&t-): Xak. xı etlik mi'laqu'l-lahm ‘a meat hook’; and a sheep prepared for slaughter is called etllk ko:y that is ‘sheep for meat’ (šdt lahm) Kaš. I 101.

D ödleg (time, noon, midday) Dev. N. fr. *ödle:- (time) Den. V. fr. ö:d (time), There is no obvious difference in meaning between ö:d and ödleg in Xak.; Kaš. translates \56\ both al-zamen ‘time’. Elsewhere ödleg consistently means 'noon, midday’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. ögle (öyle) ‘noon’; Tkm. öyle ‘afternoon’. Xak. xı ödleg al-zamen ‘time’ Kaš. I 102 (verse); ten o.o., usually in the context of time taking its revenge: KB törütti xalayiq öd ödleg bu kün ‘ (God) created living beings, time (Hend.), and today’ 3; (a child when born) mindi ödleg ati 'mounts the horse of time’ 1388; kečtl ödleg kün ay ’time, days, and months passed’ 5950; o.o. 1582-4-e: xıv Rbğ. özleg namazı ‘the midday prayer’ R I 1304 (quotns.): Muh. al-zuhr ‘mid-day’ ö:yle: Me!. 80, 3; Rif. 184: Čağ. xv ff. öyle xcaqt-i zuhr Sou. 92V. 19: Oğuz xı öyle: al-zuhr Kaš. I 113: Kip. M the Kıpčak make the -y- -z- and say özle: Kaš. I 113 Xwar. xıv ertedin ödlegke tegi... ödlegdin kečeke ‘from dawn to midday , . . from midday to night’ Nahc. 210, 11; ödleg namazı do. 30, 1: Kip. xııı al-zuhr (düš, also called) oyle:n Hou. 26, 15: xıv tcaqtul-zuhr öylen (mis-spelt eylen) Bul. 13,13.

D ötlük Hap. leg.; A.N. fr. 2 öt. Xak. xı ötlük al-'iza ‘advice, admonition’; and ö\vüt is also used for al-'iza, its original form was ögüt Kaš. I 102.

D ü:tlüg (ü:dlüe) P.N./A. fr. ü:t; ‘pierced, perforated’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. üttig Bas. 257; Tuv. üttüg Pal. 435. Xak. xı (under yinčü:) ü:tlüg yincü: ai-iu'lu'ul--?>ıafqûb ‘a pierced pearl’ Kaš. III 30, 17; n.m.e.: Kom. xıv ‘pierced’ ütlü CCG; Gr.

PU (D) ötlüm Hap. leg.; morphologically a N.S.A. but ? of what; the translation is conjectural. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if you call on the Kuan-ši-im Buddha, burning incense before the holy Buddha and) ötlüm ötlüm teg-zindürü ‘continuously^?) turning (the prayer wheel)’ VSp. 102b. 22.

Dis. V. ADL-

D adıl- (sober up, recover consciousness) Pars. f. of 2 *ad-, fee 2 adiğ (sober up); properly ‘to sober up, recover from drunkenness’; more generally, ‘to recover consciousness’. Survives as ayıl- in NE R I 34, 221; Khak. and SW Az., Osm., Tkm. Xak. xı esrük adıldı: afnqa'I-sakran x i'a’I-muğme ‘alayhi ‘the drunk man, and the man who had fainted, recovered consciousness’ Kaš. I 194 (adilur, ndilma:k): KB (do not let good fortune intoxicate you) adildukta ‘when you come to your senses’ (your eyes will fill with tears) 6137; a.o. 6142: Čağ. xv ff. ayıl- Jıušyer šudan ‘to come to one’s senses’, in Rumi ayıtısın. 55r. 20 (quotns.): Kip. xıv ayıl- šahe itlin sakra xca bari*a win marda ‘to come to one’s senses from drunkenness and rccover from an illness’ Id. 2e: xv šahe ayıl- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22b. 12.

D atıl- (thrown, shot) Pass. f. of at- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash); ‘to be thrown, shot’, etc. S.i.m.m.l.g.; with a wide range of meanings in Osm. Xak. xı ok atıldı: ‘the arrow was shot’; and one says čeče:k ağzı: atıldı: tafattarnti'l-tame'a ‘tlıe bud burst open’; also used of any blossom or flower (zahra tva nazcŋ, and of anything that opens without disintegrating (infaraca tttin ğayr bayntırta) Kaš. I 193 (atilur, atılma:k): Čağ. xv ff. atil- andaxta šudan ‘to be thrown’ San. 2Sr. 17: Xwar. xıv atıl- ‘to be thrown; (of an arrow) to be shot’ Quth le: Kip. xv hamaza (? rcad humiza ‘to be repelled’; the verb has several other meanings) atıl- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 38a. 1.

D etil- (edil-) (done, made, created, ornamented, adorned, put in order, organized) (made ideal); Pass. f. of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize) with the same range of meanings as e:t-. S.i.a.m.l.g. but usually only to form compound V.s w. N.s, generally foreign. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A [teijjrilik etilmiš ‘a temple was built’ Man.-ttig. Frag. 401, 13; a.o. M I 8,11-12 (ol): Bud. (crops) bıšarlar etilür ‘ripen and mature’ TT VI 327: Civ. yıl ay etilü elgigde kirdi ‘years and months in due order (?) came into your hands’ TT I 127: Xak. xı (after itil-) and one says oğla:n etildİ: tara'ra'a'l-šabi iva tazahhafa llhc boy grew up (Hend.)’ Kaš. I193 (etilü:r,etilme:k); buerol etilgem sapılğa-:n (mis-spelt saytlğa:n) hede'l-racul xarf/c tvahlc fil-umûr ‘this man is always busily engaged in affairs’; etilge:n (? ; afif unvocalized, perhaps a different word) ‘a disease of horses in which boils (ğudad) break out and then heal up’, called xuwim (‘farcy’) in Pe.; meniŋ ı:šım edgü:lükün ctilge:n (sic) ol atnri abada (n) yansatih bil-xayr ‘my affairs are always kept in good order’ I 158; o.o. I 53, 18 (uğuŋ; / 442, 7 (fi 209, 21): KB iši barča etlür ‘his affairs are all well organized’ 429; o.o. 497, 6056 (etči:): Čağ. xv ff. etil- (‘with e-’) karda šudan ‘to be done’ San. 94r. 17 (quotn. illustrating compound verb): Kom. xıv ‘to be made, created’ etil- CCG\ Gr,: Osm. xıv edil- ‘to be ‘to be raped, violated’ (and ‘to be done’) TTS I 253.

D idil- (sent, released, confidence, trust, entrusted) Pass. f. of i:d-. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. I iyil- ‘to be sent’ R I 1435; Kow. 193. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit prasrahdhi ‘confidence, trust’ (here ?‘entrusted’) 1 til-ma:kı bolor TT VIII A.26 (-t- often represents -d- in these texts): Xak. xı tutğun idildi: utliqa'l-asir ua' l-muqayyad ‘the prisoner (Hend., etc.) was released’ Kaš. I i94 (idilur, idilma:k): xııı (?) Tef. idil- ‘to be sent’ 128.

D itil- (pushed, upset) Pass. f. of it-; ‘to be pushed, upset’, etc. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı itildi: nc:ŋ ‘the thing was pushed’ (dufi'a) Kay I 193 (itilü:r, itilme:k); II 139, 10 (itin-): xııı (?) Tef. itül- (of a bird) ‘to hover in the air (without moving the wings)’ 127 (seems to belong here): Čağ. xv ff. itil- (‘with i-’) afganda šudan wa mafqild šudaıı 'to be thrown down; to be lost, missing’ San. g^r. 17 (the second meaning may be connected with yit- (go, gone, stray, get lost, perish), q.v., which is not noted in Čağ.).

D odul- Hap. leg. ?; Pass. f. of *od-; ‘to wake up’ (Intrans.). Xak. xı KB (See, my son (oğul, rhyme), in what a state I am, look at me and) odul ‘wake up’ 1215.

D udul- (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit) Pass. f, of u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit); ‘to be followed, conformed with’, etc. Survives only (?) in SW Osm., Tkm. uyul-. Xak. xı KB udul» in 5202 (u:d-) seems to be a Ger. of this verb: Čağ. xv fî. uyul- Pass. f.... (3) muwdfaqat karda šudan ‘to be followed, conformed with’ San. 89V. 23.

VUD otul- (? mis-spelling of olal-) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of 2 ota:-. Xak. xı tarığ otuldı: quit a širydfu'1-zar', wa huwa kufl nabtyu'tibuhu fa-yufsiduhu ‘the weeds, that is any plant which they destroy and get rid of in the standing com, were cut’ Kay 1193 (otuluij/otulma:k).

D ötel- (ödel-) Pass. f. of öte:-. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol bu: ıšta: öteldi: ta'anndfi hddd'l--amr wa merasa’l-šidda 'he worked hard at this matter and exerted his strength' Kay I 193 (ötelür, ötelme:k; an odd meaning, but must belong here): KB senigdin ötelsün maga: söz takı ‘let a statement be submitted from you to me and’ (a statement from me to you) 2670: xııı (?) Tef. kačan ödelse İš ‘when the task is ordained’ 242; ötelmesde ögdln saga anıŋ wahi ‘before his (Gahriel's) inspiration is conveyed to you’ 251 : Čağ. xv ff. ötel- Pass. f.; ade šudan ‘to be paid’ San. 61 r. 24 (quotn.).

D ütül- (singed, scorched, parched) Pass. f. of üt-; ‘to be singed, scorched; (of grain) to be parched’. Survives in NC Kzx. üytil-, NW Kaz. ötel-, SW Osm., Tkm. ütül-. Xak. xı ko:y bašı: ütüldi: ‘the sheep's head (etc.) was singed’ (uhriqa) Kay 1193 (ütülür, ütülme:k:) KB İsizlİk ot ol ot küyürgen bolur yolında kečig yok ütülgen bolur ‘wickedness is a fire; fire constantly burns (people); there is no means of getting along the road, it is constantly being scorched’ 249 (Arat reads otiifgen, but this word is not recorded and makes no sense).

D edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create) (made ideal, ornamented) Den. V. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize); in the early period ‘to turn (something Acc.) into something useful’, hence, e.g. ‘to cultivate (a garden, etc.)’, and also ‘to deem (something Acc.) to be useful’, hence ‘to esteem (someone)’. Later it came to mean simply ‘to make, create’, and finally, like e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize), it came to be little more than an Aux. V., used to form compound V.s w. N.s, usually foreign. In this sense it seems to have been regarded as more graceful than e:t-. Survives as eyle- in SE Türki, Shaw 37, BŠ. 807, Jarring 40 (also in its earlier sense); NW Kaz.; SW Osm., Tkm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ, (in a text about a vineyard, ‘I will give a rent of 60 measures of wine’) toŋuz yıl edlemiške ‘for cultivating it during the Swine Year’ USp. 6, 5; edlegüci bir erklük kiši ‘a responsible person to cultivate (the vineyard)’ do. 21, 5; bağnı edlepcultivating the vineyards’ do. 22, 41; bağlarımıznı eylep (sic) do. 22, 47-8 (a xıv text): Xak. xı ol edle:di: ne:ŋni: šana'a'llšay’ 'arada (n) ‘he made use (used) of the thing’ Kay I 286 (edle:r, edle:di:); tavar üčün teŋri: edlemedip ‘for the sake of money not respecting (esteeming) God’ (Id yubdli mina’lldh) I 86, 2;'edgü: savığ edlese: ‘if a man \\\ esteems (or values, rabbd) good advice’ III 155, 4: KB eliğ ursa begler kimi edlese ‘if the begs stretch out their hands and esteem someone’ 1630; a.o. 347 (edik-): xııı (?) At. tiken edlegen er ‘a man who cultivates thorn bushes’ (does not get grapes from them) 376; Tef. edle-/edle- ‘to cultivate’ 70, 123: Čağ. xv ff. eyle- (-y, etc.) eyle- Vel. 37-8; eyle- hardan ‘to make, do’ San. 50r. 7 (quotns. containing compound V.s): Xwar. xııı eyle- ‘to make, do’ 'Ali 2e: xıv eyle- ditto MN 3e: Kip. xııı 'amala ‘to make, doeyle:- Hou. 33, 15 (in compound verb 41, 18): xıv ditto Id. 2e:xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 26a. 7 (in compound verb 15b. 13): Osm. xıv ff. eyle- ‘to construct (an artifact, etc.); to appoint (an official)’ noted down to xvı TTS I 288; III 276; IV 321,

D etle:- (fatten) Hap. leg.?; Den. V. fr. et (meat, flesh). Xak. xı ol ko:yığ etle:di: ca'ala'1-šdt lahma (n) ‘he fattened (?) the sheep’ Kay I 284 (etle:r, etle:me:k).

D itla:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. it. Xak. xı ol ani: ıtta:dı: sabbahu wa ahdnahu wa 'addahu tnin cumlati’l-kifdb ‘he reviled and scorned him and reckoned him to belong to the dog family’ Kaš. I 285 (it!a:r, itla:ma:k).

D udla:- Hap. leg., perhaps used only in Ger.; Den. V. fr. u:d (bovine, ox). Xak. xı KB yedi arzu ni‘mat özüm udlayu ; my soul devoured desirable things and luxuries like an ox’ 5635.

D otla:- Den. V. fr. 2 ot (grass, vegetation). S.i.a.m.l.g., usually for ‘to graze, browse’. Cf. 2 ota-; the parallel Den. V. fr. 1 o:t is not noted before xv; see 1 ota:- (fire, anger) (bile, gall; the spleen, the gallbladder) Xak. xı at otla:di: ‘the horse grazed’ (i'talafa) Kaš. I 285 (verse; otla:r, otla:ma:k): xııı (?) Tef. otia- ‘to graze’ 239: xıv Rbğ. ditto R I 1113 (quotns.); Muh, dawd ‘to treat medically’ o:tla:- Mel. 26, 3; otla:- Rif. 108; tabba wa 'alaca ditto Rif. 111 (only): Čağ. xv ff. otla- čandan ‘to graze’ San. err. 28 (quotns.): Kip. xıv otla- ra'd ‘to graze’ Id. 8: (Kom. xıv ‘to treat medically’ otala-; ‘a hay field’ otalamak CCI; Gr: Osm. xıv otala-‘to treat medically’ in two texts TTS I 551, but, in KeL, Zaj. reads otla-).

VUD ödle:- Pec. to KB; if thus read Den. V. fr. ö:d, but perhaps the basic form of üdlen-, q.v. Xak. xı KB kali el(l)lg ödlep tilese seni ‘if the king desires you, choosing his time (? , or passionately)’ 1504; a.o. 1588 (sic in best MSS.).

D ötle:- Den. V. fr. 2 öt; ‘to advise (someone Dat., rarely Acc.) to do (something Dat.)’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı inime: oğluma: anča: ötledim ‘I gave my younger brothers and sons the following advice’ Ongin 11: vııı ff. Man. ol kamağ bodunka edgü kılmč kılmakka turkaru ötleyür tavratur katığlanturur ‘ (the king) continuously advises all the people to do good deeds and urges them on and makes them exert themselves’ TTII10, 88-90: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bizkendüke edgüke Ötleyürbiz \\ 'we advise him to do good’ PPzo, 7-8; ayığögli tĞgİnig Ötlep ‘advising Prince Paparpkara’ do. 35, 5; Sanskrit samedepayati (translated 'causes to give’; ? error) ötle:dİ (spelt iitle:tŋ TT VIII 0.6; o.o. TIiien-/s. 179, 2113 — [yunıjšak savın ötleyü erig[lcyüj ‘advising (Hend.) him with mild words’ U HI 15, n; o.o. of ötle:- erigle:- U III 89, 18-19; TT VII M, 3 (uduğ); 40, 86; .Suv. 597, 6-7 (ya:glig): Xak. xı KB saga otler 'he advises you’ 2204, 5713; meni ötlegil ‘advise me’ 5128.

D edlet- (made ideal, ornamented) Caus. f. of edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı of ta\va:nn (st'e) edletti: amara bt-išleh me kena muhmal min meliki ‘he ordered that any part of his property that had been neglected should be put in order (made ideal)’ Kaš. I 264 (edletür, edletme:k): xıır (?) Tef. eyletür bezelürler ‘they are ornamented’ (with gold bracelets) 72: Čağ. xv ff. eylet- Caus. f.; kunenidan 'to order to be made or done’ San. 56V. 7.

D etlet- (fattened) Hap. leg.?; Caus. f. of etle:-. Xak. xı ol ko:y etletti: amara hatte cu ilati'l-šet lafım ‘he ordered that the sheep should be fattened (?)’ Kaš. I 264 (etletur, etletme:k).

D udlat- Hap. leg.; apparently abbreviated Caus. f, of udu:la:- cf. udlaš-, Xak. xı ol oğlın maga: udlatti: atba'a waladahu xalfi ‘he sent his son after me' Kaš. I 264 (udlatur, udlatma:k).

D edlel- (made ideal, examined) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create). Xak. xı edleldi: nerıj ušfiha'i-šay' ‘the thing was put in order(made ideal); also used when anything is inspected (or examined, uftuqida) Kaš. I 295 (edlelü:r, edlelme;k).

D etlel- (fattened) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of D edlel- (made ideal, examined) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create). Xak. xı ko:y etleldi; eu ila'l-ğanam lafım ‘the sheep was fattened (?)’; also used of other (animals) Kaš. I 295 (etlelü:r, etlelme;k).

D atlan- (horse) Refl. Den. V. fr. 2 at (horse); it is not certain whether atla-, a verb which first appears in Xwar. xııı (?) Oğ. and occurs in other medieval and most modern languages, is connected with 2 at (horse); it seems to mean ‘to set out, march against’ (in Oğ.) and more usually ‘to stride’ cf. Osm. adım ‘a step, pace’, and so prob. has some other origin. S.i.a.m.l.g., in NE usually altan-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. TT II 8, 63 (u:d-): Xak. xı er atlandı: ‘the man rode (rakiba)' Kaš. I 255 (atlanur, atlanma;k); ol at atlandı: ‘he rode a horse’ I 285 (erroneously inserted between otla:- and the illustrative verse, in which atlanu:r occurs); two o.o.: xıv Muh. (l) ‘I hope our beg will not ride today’ begimirz bu: kü:n atla:nma:su:n Rif. 93-4 (only); Čağ. xv ff. atlan- sutver šudan ‘to ride’ Satı. 29V. 28 (quotns.; not described as Refl. f. of atla:-): Oğuz xı ol ta:ğka: atlandı: ša'ida'l-eabal ‘he climbed the mountain’, also used of climbing (// šuüd) anything Kaš. I 256 (atlanur, atlanma:k): Xwar. xıv ačlan- ‘to ride’ Qutb 15: Kom. xıv ‘to ride’ atlan- CCI; Or.: Kip. xıv atlan- rakiba ay ittaxada faras ‘to ride,, that is take n horse’ hi, 15: Osm. xıv /T. atlan’ ‘to ride; to mount’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 52; II 67; III 46; IV $o. L

D edlen- (used, constructed) Refl. f. of edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create) ; not noted later than xvi. Xak. x 1 edlendi: ne:g uttuxida'l-jav' 'arada (n) (MS, in error ğarada (n)) wa lam yutrak muhmala (u) ‘the thing was made use of and not left on one side’; as, for example, a fur coat is made from a skin or hoots from a piece of felt Kaš. I 257 (edlenür, edlenme:k): Osm. xiv-xvi cylcn- 'to be constructed’, or as Aux. V, in three or four texts TTS I 288; II -M3» IV .121 (in Osm. the word is normally a Sec. f. of eglen-).

D etlen- (fatten, потолстеть) (Etien) Refl. f. of etle:- ; survives only (?) in NE Khak. itten- Das. 65, same meaning. Xak. xı oğul edendi: tarabbala yl-šabi 'the boy put on flesh’; also used of anything that gets fat (tamina) after being lean Kaš. I 256 (etlenür, ctlenme:k).

D itlin- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. ot itil-. Xak. xı ta:š itlindi: 'the stone (etc.) was pushed on one side’ (indafa'a); also used of a child when it begins to crawl (tazahhafa); hence one says menip yü:zdin îtün uğruh 7mm ‘get out of my sight’; this is said in a fit of anger (al-ğadab) Kaš. I 256 (itlinür, itlinme:k).

D o:tlan- (o:dlan-) (fire, anger) Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 o:t (fire, anger); see 1 ota:- (fire, anger). Survives only (?) in SW Az., Osm. odlan-; Tkm. o:tlan- ‘to blaze up (lit. or metaph. in anger); to be burnt’, etc. Xak. xı at o:tlandi: iltahaba'l-faras carya (n) ‘the horse went at a fiery pace’; similarly one says er o:tlandi: iltahaba'l-racul ğadaba (tt) ‘the man blazed with anger’ Kay I 297 (o:tlanur, o:tlanma:k; in 2 special section for verbs with initial long vowels): Čağ. xv ff. otlan- Refl. f. etiš dargiriftan ‘to catch fire’ San. et v. 17A.

VUD üdlen- apparently Refl. Den. V. fr. *üd, a noun cognate to lid- q.v.; see also ödle:-. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. öz köŋülümin üdlenip sevinčlenip 'being excited and delighted in my own mind’ Hüen-ts. 215: Xak. xı yılkı: üdlendi: dabi'ati’l-dazvebb rva’šta-hati'l-fuhıd ‘the mares were on heat and the stallions excited’ Kaš. I 257 (üdlenür, üdlenme:k).

D atlaš- (ride) Recip. Den. V. fr. 2 at (horse). Survives only (?) in SW XX Anat. atlaš- (of two men) ‘to ride on the same horse’ SDD 125; Čağ. atlaš- Co-op. f. ‘to bustle about and jump together’ San. 2gv. 19 is prob. not connected, see atlan-, Xak. xı (in a grammatical section) oyna:dım atlašu: laibtu tva ea'altu'l-xatar fihVl-faras ‘I gambled and made the stake on it a horse’ Kaš. II114, 23; similar phr. II 226, 5; n.m.e.

D edleš- (mutually respected) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of edle:- (improve, cultivate, esteem, make, create). Xak. xı ola:r bi:r ikindimi: ečllešdi: ‘they esteemed (or respected, tafaqqada... kurma) one another’ Kaš. I239 (edlešür, edlešme:k).

D itliš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. itil-. Xak. xı İtlİšdi: ne:ŋ indafa'aû'l-ašye’ ‘the things \\ were pushed together’ Kaš. I 139 (itlišü:r, itlišme:k).

D udlaš- Hap. leg.; abbreviated Recip. f. of udu:la:> cf. udlat-. Xak. xı ıvık bi:r bi:rke: udlašdı: mašati’ l-zibey xr'Ifafa (n) 'the female gazelles walked one behind the other (in a line)’ Kay I 239 (udlašu:r, u<jhıšma:k).

D ütleš’ (üdleš-) Recip. Den. V. fr. ü:t. Survives only (?) in NW Kaz. iitleš- (of a needle) 'to pass through (something)' R I 1867. Xak. xı ütlešdi: ne:ŋ intaqabati' l-ašye' (MS. in error intaqabat) ‘the things were picrced’ Kaš I 238 (ütlešüır, ütlešnrcık); wa hedefi'l--nahb'zrxd this (is said) in regard to plundering'; and one says alpla:r ütlešdi: talehamatV l-abtel rva tacedalü ‘the warriors smote one another and fought’ (ütlešü:r, ütlešme:k; ‘and one says’ usually introduces a new V.; this V. was prob. Itliš-, misvocalized; this would suit the translation better, but in that case itllš- was entered twice w. two different meanings).

Tris. ADL

D adalığ P.N./A. fr. ada: (danger, devil, injury, damage, pain, ад "hell"); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. adalığ oruntartin ozğuluk ‘in order to escape from dangerous places’ TT III 139 Bud. ol taluy suvi ertigü korkınčığ adalığ ol ‘that ocean is extremely terrible and dangerous’ PP 26, 4-e: Civ. adalığ evigde ‘in your house which is exposed to danger’ TT VII 30, 1.

D atalığ (father) P.N./A. fr. ata: (father); ‘having a father’. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı KB 6055 (etči:).

D atalık (father) A.N. (and later Conc. N.) fr. ata: (father); ‘the position or duties, of a father; someone in the position of a father, e.g. tutor or stepfather’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı KB (if your father is dead, I will be a father to you) atalık kılayın ‘I will perform the duties of a father’ 1552: Čağ. xv ff. atalığ/atağlığ atalik Vel. 8 (quotn.; in San. 30V. 12 the second form is said to be an error);atalığ (ŋubuwwat ‘fatherhood’ (quotn.); (2) the name of a hereditary office in Turkistan and Xwarazm San. 30V. 13: Kom. xıv ‘stepfather’ atalix CCG; Gr.

D utlırlığ P.N./A. fr. utli: (requital, recompense, reward); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (your sons and people are lucky; your elder sisters and sisters-in-law are joyful) kunšı (PSec. f. of kunčuy) kız utlılığ ‘your wives (?)and daughters are grateful (P)’ TT I I5&.

D uth:siz Priv. N./A. fr. utli: (requital, recompense, reward); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit akftajtlaiaye ‘owing to ingratitude’ utlisiz bolmarki üze: TT VIII D. 14; a.o. U IV 40, 184-5 (sevlnčsiz).

Tris, V. ADL-

D ada:la:- Den. V. fr. ada: (danger, devil, injury, damage, pain, ад "hell"); existence doubtful, the word quoted might be merely the Plur. of ada: but see adalan-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (if one cuts out a garment on an unlucky day) ol toft birlen ök adalar ‘it is dangerous (or ‘there are dangers’) with that garment’ TT VII 38, 10-11.

(D) idala:- (give up, renounce) ‘to give up, renounce (something Acc.)’i rare and prob. pec. to Uyğ. where it usually occurs in Hend. with 1 tit-tıt- (tear, pluck), q.v. Morphologically obscure; perhaps, like udu:-la:- Den. V. fr. a Gerund *ida: (not known otherwise); perhaps survives in NE Tuv. idala- ‘to send, dispatch’ Pal. 563. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. isig öz yeme ıdalap adınağunı ölürmeyin ‘I will give up my own life (but) not kill others’ U III 4, 2-3; same phr. do. 57, 2 (ı); 71, 27; U IV 22, 274; 40, 187 — bu üčegüde birisin birisin titgülük ıdala-ğuluk kezigi ‘the order for giving up (Hend.) these three things one by one’ TT V 26, 107-8; amtı bu kızığ munda ok titeyin İdalayın ‘I will renounce (Hend.) this maiden here and now’ TT X 543 (see note for several o.o. of tit- idala-).

D udu:la:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. 2 udu: Ger. of u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit); cf. udlat-, udlaš-. Xak. xı ol am: udu:la:di: ittaba'ahu zva'qtafahu ‘he followed (Hend.) him’ Kay I 308 (udu:la:r, udu:la:ma:k).

S otala:- See otla:-.

D adalan- Hap. leg. and rather dubious; Refl. of adala:- q.v. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (various misfortunes happen) ol kapığ tonur andağ adalanur ‘the door is closed, thus one is in danger’ TT VI 234 (a v.l. only; some MSS. omit the phr, and others read andağ adrilur ‘thus one is parted (from one’s family)’).

D atlandur- (mount) Caus. f. of atlan- ‘to mount (someone), give (someone) a horse to ride’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (gap) tašğaru flinčüke atlandurdi ‘they mounted (the prince) for a pleasure excursion outside (the city)’ PP 1, 1: (Xak.) xııı ff. Tef. atlandur-*to mount (cavalrymen)’ 63: Čağ. xv ff. atlandur- Caus. f. suıver kardan ‘to mount (someone)’ San. 3or. 8 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv atlandur- ditto Qutb 15: Osm. xıv ff. atlandır- ditto in several texts TTS II 66; III 46\IV $0.

Dis. ADM

ADAM (man, human) fr. ata/ada “father” + -m “my”, lit.  “my father”, Arabic 'abi ابي “my father”
p. 173 tapu adamı (service man)
p. 187 adamılar ınančı ‘one on whom men (humans) rely’
p. 202 adam oğlı erte ne kılğusı turur ‘what a man is going to do tomorrow
p. 365 berilse agar adamı ‘if a man is given’
OTD p. 8 ADAM I человек, люди (man, people, humans)
OTD p. 8 ADAMI человек (man)
OTD p. 435 ïlim adamlarï ученые люди
OTD p. 571 adam toɣrïl  человек- хищная птица (man-raptor, predator)

Omission of the Biblical Adam and Eve can't be unintentional “error”. Nor can it be justified as a foreign loanword, because the Semitic aba/abi is unrelated to the Türkic ata “father”, and the possessive suffix -m can't be explained in the framework of Semitic languages. The numerous citations herein of the word adam in both Biblical and secular contexts shows that G. Clauson was not unaware of the innate Türkic adam “man, human” and its adoption in the incipient Judaism and the later religious offshoots as a symbolic personal name for the human forefather, complete with the Türkic suffix -m.

D atım (single shot, single shot distance) N.S.A. fr. at- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash); s.i.a.m.l.g. except SE, usually for ‘a single shot; the distance covered by one arrow shot’, the implication of the Xak. meaning is that a marksman does not need more than one shot at his target. Cf. oktam. Xak. xı atım er al-raeulu'l-7ıediq fi ramyi'l--muqdrfis ‘an expert archer, marksman’ Kaš. I 75; yazma:s atım al-remi le yuxfi’ ‘an archer who never misses’ III 59, 13; 379, 21: KB alp atım ‘a tough marksman’ 2043; o.o. 1949, 4046, 5911; Čağ. xv ff. atım they say ok atımı ‘the distance of a bow-shot’, in Ar. ğalıvdtu l-sahm San. 3ir. 1.

D ıdma: (freed) Hap. leg.; Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. ıd-. Xak. xı ıdma: yılkı: al-se'iba mina'l-haya-uıen ‘an animal which is allowed to go free’ Kaš. I 129 (see ıduk).

D udmak (servant)servant'. See u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit).

etmek/ötmek (bread) (oat) the oldest of three similar words for ‘bread’, the others being epmek (bread), q.v., and ekmek (bread), noted in NC, NW, and SW and prob. a recent Sec. f. due to a supposed connection with ek- (sow, scatter) (ek), Ötmek seems to be the earlier of the two forms. Although -mek is normally an Infinitive Suff. it is not possible to connect the word semantically with any verb, and it should be noted that Kaš. in his main entry spells it with -mek, not -me:k. Survives with initial Ğ- (occasionally Ü-) in some NE languages, R I 1275, 1868, and NW Kar. 7'., and with initial e- or i- (? ^-) in other NE languages, NC, NW, and SW, Uyğ. vırr ff. Ai«n.-A bir ötmekej) ‘one of your loaves of bread’ M III 12, 5 (ı); xıv Chin.-İJyğ. Dict. ‘breadötmek R I 1275; Ligeti 190: Xak. xı etmek al-xubz ‘bread’ Kaš. I 102; 26 o.o. of etme:k and three of ötme:k: KB tuz etmekni keg tut ‘have a liberal supply of salt and bread’ 1328: xııı(?) Tef. etmck/otmek ‘bread’ 86, 251: xıv iMuJi. al-xubz etmek (? unvocalized) Mel. 66, 2; Rif. 165: Čağ. xv ff. ötmek etmek... nen manesına Vel. 90; ötmek non bi rawgan ‘bread without fat’ San. 62r. 29: Xwar. xııı ötmek ‘bread' 'Ali 4e: xıv ötmek/ötmek Qutb 53, 124; etmek Nahc. 301, 4: Kom. xıv etmek/ötmek CCI, CCG; Gr,; Kıp. xııı al-xubz etmek (unvocalized) Hou. 15, 19; etmek (siŋ 50, 20: xıv etmek al-xubz Id. 7; al-navda ‘a kind of wheat cake’ kara: etmek Bul. 8, 15: xv xuhz etmek Kav. 44, 14; 62, 17; ötmek Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14a. 10: Osm. xıv ff. etmek ‘bread’; c.i.a.p. Tl'S 1 284; II406; ///270; IV 314; xvııı etmek (spelt) the Rumi word for nan. ‘bread’, in Čağ. ötmek San. 30V. 25.

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.

Tris. V. ADM-

D etmeklen- (bread) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. etmek (bread). Xak. xı er etmeklendi: kafura xubzul-racul ya'ni atrd ‘the man’s bread was abundant, that is he was rich’ Kaš. I 314 (etmeklenür, etmeklenme:k).

D udmaklan- (served) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. udmak (u:d-) (servant). Xak. xı er udmaklandi: šera'l-raeul de taba' ıca šak iri ‘the man had (many) servants and retainers’ Kaš. I 313 (udmaklanur, udmaklanma:k).

Dis. ADN

atan (camel) ‘a gelded camel’; a l.-w. in Mong, as atanataŋ (Koto. 60, Haltod 13). S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı atan al-xasi mina'l-ibif ‘a gelded camel’ Kaš. I 75 (prov.): xıv Muh, (under ‘camels’) al-xa$t ata:n Rif. 172 (Mel. 70, 10 axta, a Pe. l.-w.): Kip. xıv atan (mis-vocalized atttı) al-camalu'l-xašİ Id. 15.

D adın (other, another, change (of state)) (other) Intrans. Dev. N./A. fr. 1 *ad- ; ‘other, another’. Common down to xıv but not traced later; almost syn. w. adruk, öŋi:, özge:; later displaced, usually by Pe. digar. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A adın yerliğ er ‘a man from another country’ Asf J ia. ioi Man. adın tümğe köıjtiîler 'other simple minds’ TT 111 164: Bud. adın is common, e.g, adın ağılık 'another treasure' PP 7, 3-4; adın bir toyun ‘another monk’ U III 35, 19: Civ. adın kiši ‘a third party’, see ötgürü:; adın adın köz ağrığı ‘various eye diseases’ IIII 18, 60: Čiğli (Xak.) xr adın harf hi'ma'ne gayr an .Indeclinable meaning ‘other’ Kaš. I 76; / 98, 20 (adruk): 3 o.o. in Xak. texts: KB yaramaz senigdln adınka bu at ‘this name is not fitting for anyone other than Thee’ 6; on adın İki ay ‘ton and another two months’ 132; o.o. »781, etc.: xij (?) KBVP adtnlar ever ‘others hasten’ 47: xııı (?) At. anda adın 'other than that’ 116; three o.o.; Tef. adın ‘other’ 40: xıv Rbğ. adın ‘other’ R I 490: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 4.

K etin (barking (dogs), call (birds)) This word is read in M III 45, 5 (i) in a description of paradise; ‘the barking of dogs, the call of birds’, all confusing tiresome evil noises are not heard in the land; korkınčığ etin olar ara yok', Henning in Asia Major VII 122 suggested as an alternative itin ‘pushing’; but the obvious amendment is ün, almost the same outline in Uyğ. script. The passage then means ‘there are no terrifying sounds among them’.

D otuŋ (o:dduŋ) (firewood, get burned, mania, foul, wicked) Den. N. fr. 1 o:t (fire, anger). S.i.a.m.l.g.; NE Khak. odig: SW Az., Osm- odun; Tkm. o;dun: elsewhere otun. See Doerfer II 585. Cf. čava:r. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kuruğ otug ‘dry firewood’ U II 8, 26; do. 9, 28 (ötrü): Civ. üč bağ otııŋ ‘three bundles of firewood’ USp. 91, 12: Xak. xı otuy al-hatab ‘firewood’ Kaš. I 134; I 67, 3 (uvšak), ^nearly 20 o.o., spelt otu:g twice and o:tug once: xııı (?) Tef. otun/otug ‘firewood’ 240: xıv Muh. al-hatab o:dun Mel. 78, 8; Rif. 182: Čağ. xv ff. otun ditto R I 1 io6 (quotn. fr Babur; not in San.): Ktp. xııı al-hatab o:dun Hou. 17, le: xıv otun al-hatab İd. 15; Bui 4, 11: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 13a. 8.VU utu:nwicked, shameless, vile (mania); not noted after xııı unless SW xx Anat. utuncalamity, misfortune’ SDD 1423 is a survival. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. utun nizvanilar ‘the evil passions (mania)’ UII77, 15; utun yaviz ‘wicked and evil’ (mania) U III 17, 11; o.o. do. 20, 3; 42, 31; utun savlığ ‘foul-mouthed’ TT VI 119: Xak. xı uturn nl-zvoqih ivn'l-la'im ‘shameless, vile’ Kaš. I 123; u:tu:n al-tvaqihti'l-safih ‘wicked, insolent’, in antithesis to tüzürn ‘good’ in prov. I 414, 13: KB utun ‘wicked, shameless’ is common 121, 341, 1670, 1923, etc.: xııı (?) At. utun ‘wicked’ 108, 261.

D ötnü: (loan) abbreviated Ger. of *öten- Refl. f. of öte:-. Survives in SE Türki Ötne ‘(temporary) loan’ Shaw 18; Jarring 220 (also in phr. ötne ber-), Xak. xı Ötnü: harf ymta'mal fıl-qired ‘an Indeclinable used with respect to loans’; one says men yarma:k Ötnü b&rdim T gave the money as a loan’ (qarda (n)) Kaš, I 130.

D u:tanč N./A.S. fr. utan- (uvtan-); ‘shame; shameful’, and the like. Survives only in SW \\ Osm., Tkm. utanč. Xak. xı al-mundiya wa'l-ma'eyir mina'l-umür, ‘something calamitous and disgraceful' is called u:tanč (mis-vocalized u:tunč) ı:Š; its origin is from uvut al-haye ‘shame’ Kaš. / 131: Oğuz xı utanč (te' carries both fatha and damma) ı:š al-amru'lladi yustaky'e tninhu ‘a thing of which one is ashamed’ III 448.

P ötenč/ötünč (request) Preliminary note. The difference between these two words, Dev. N.s fr. *öten- (öten-), Reft. f. of öte:-, which survives only in SW Az., Osm. öden-, and ötün-resembles that between ötek and 2 ötüg. Only the first exists in Kaš. and the vocalization of the second syllable there is uncertain; in the first occurrence the vowel sign might be either fatha or damma, in the second it is missing, and in the third definitely damma; but in any event by the medieval period the word had definitely become ötünč; it survives in SW Az. ödeniš; Osm., Tkm, ödünč. The second, after its appearance in Türkü, is not noted until its reappearance in SC Uzb. ütinč; NW Kaz. ütinič R I 1864; Kk. ötiniš: S W Tkm. ötünč all meaning 'request' and the like.

D ötenč/1 ötünč (ödenč) (owe, loan, debt) Dev. N. in fr. *öten- (öden-); ‘loan, debt’, and the like. Xak. xı ötünč (? ; see above) al-qartf ‘a loan’; one says men aga:r yarma:k ötünč (?) btırdim aqradtuhu’l-dirham'l lent him money’ Kaš. I 131: xıv Muh. al-dayn ‘debt’ ödünč Mel. 83, 5; ö:tünč Rif. 188: Cağ. xv ff. ötünč (mis-spelt ötnüč, and misplaced) ödünč qard ma'nesina Vel. 121; ödüne (spelt) qard wa dayn San. 6ev, 20: Oğuz xı ötünč al-qar4, one says men aga:r yarmark ötünč be:rdim a'taytiihu’l-dirham qarda (n) ‘I gave him the money as a loan’ Kaš. III 448: Kom. xıv ‘loan’ ötünč CCI\ Gr. 185 (quotn.): Kip. xııı iqtarada ‘to borrow’ ödünč al- Hou. 36, 18: xıv al-qard ö:dinč Bul. 6, 3.

D p>

D 2 ötünč Dev. N. in fr. ötün-. Türkü vııı xağanı[m ben özüm] bilge: Tonukuk ötüntük ötünčimin ešidü: berti: ‘my xağan deigned to hear the representations which I myself, the Counsellor Tonukuk, submitted to him’ T 15.

Dis. V. ADN-

D a:tan- (a:dan-) Refl. f. of ata:-; generally used in Pass. sense, ‘to be named, called; to be famous'. Survives in NE; SE; SC Uzb. (atan- not otan-)\ SW Az., Osm. adan-. Türkü vııı ff. (when he goes home) özi: a:tanmi:š ‘he himself is famous’ IrkB 55: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. atanmıš künde translates a Chinese phr. meaning 'on a day on which one is nominated to a higher office’ TT VI435: (three months are the spring period; three months are called (t^tiŋ the summer period) üč aylar atanur küz ödler t^p ‘three months are named the autumn period’ Suv. 589, ilia: Xak. xı KB kim edgü atansa kiši \\ 'whoever is called a good man' 253; yori ud atanma 'go, do not (let yourself) be called an ox’ 1599; a.o. 6454: xııı (?) At. (be upright, act uprightly) atan koni 'get a reputation for being upright’ 165 (the metre requires the pronunciation a:tan): Tef. atan- ‘to be named’ 63: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 15: Kip. xıv adan- tasamme 'to be named’ Id. 9: xv ditto a(an-/adan- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9b. 4.

D 1 adın- (sober) Refl. f. of 2 *ad- (see 2 adığ (sober)); ’to sober up, recover from drunkenness’; practically syn. with adıl- (sober up, recover consciousness). Survives as ayın- and the like in some SE, NW, and SW languages. Türkü vııı ff. Man. ol tüzün er esrüki adıntı ‘that good man’s drunkenness passed off’ M I 6, 20-J: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (they wander about like drunken men) adinu umatin 'being unable to sober up’ TT VI 215-16 (v.l.; most MSS. have oŋulu): Xak. KB bir anča adın ‘sober up a little’ 2374: Osm. xvııı ayın- (spelt), in Rumt, same as (Čağ ) ayıl- htıšyer šudan ‘to come to one’s senses’ San. 56V. 24 (quotn. Fvdulŋ.

D 2 adın- (change, astound) n.o.a.b; in the Hend.adın- muŋad- which is directly parallel to the phr. adınčiğ muŋadınčığ (see adınčiğ (change (of state))), and must mean something like ‘to be surprised and disturbed’; it might be a Refl. f. of 1 *ad-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (then the supreme god Indra, hearing these words and) ertigü adinu muŋadu ‘being extremely surprised and disturbed’ U II 31, 47; a.o. Suv. 16, 18.

D atın- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash) Refl. f. of at- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash); survives only (?) in NE Khak. atın- ‘to shoot oneself’ Bas. 35; Tuv. attın- ‘to be shot’ Pal. 73: NW Kaz. atın-‘to swing oneself in a swing’. See itin-, Xak. xı ol ok atındı: ‘he pretended to shoot (yarmŋ an arrow without actually shooting it’ Kaš. I 199 (atinu:r, atinma:k).

D etin- (edin-) (set up, fix) Refl. f. of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize); with the same range of meanings as e:t-. S.i.m.m.l.g.; in SW edin-. Türkü vııı (they became hostile to China but) etinu: yaraturnu: umaduk ‘because they could not organize (Hend.) themselves’ I E 10, II E 9. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit mandanavidhatt ‘according to the rules for ornamenting (the body)’ etenmek yaratınmaklığ törösinde: TT VIII D.8: ağuluğ yılanın etözlerin atınip yaratınıp ‘ornamenting (Hend.) (fixing) their bodies with poisonous snakes’ U IV 8, 12-13; o.o. Hüen-ts. 230 (timen-); 319 (time:-): Xak. xı kıška: etin istaUddli l-šite’ ‘prepare (fix) yourself for the winter’ Kaš. I 82, 13; n.m.e.: KB (in spring tbe earth) atindi koli kašı ‘adorns (fixes) its arms and eyebrows’ 69; o.o. 462, 475 (etlg): xıı (?) KB VP (it explains) negü teg etingü hfla ‘how to prepare (fix, get ready, приготовиться) strategems’ 45; o.o. 4e: Osm. xıv edin- ‘to make (fix) for oneself’ TTS I 253.

D itin- (move, venture, set off) Refl. f. of it-; s.i.s.m.l. See itinču:, itindi:. Xak. xı ol na:rur itindi: (MS. etindi;) tazahhafa ile delikayl-cenib 'he set off in that direction’; also used when tadahraca'l--šay' bi-quwtoa ğayrihi ‘a thing is moved by \\ some external force’ Kaš. I 199 (itinu:r (altered in second hand to et-), itinme:k (in MS. et-); (as a result of these scribal errors and the substitution of -ma:k for -me:k in the printed text, hitherto transcribed atin-); (in a grammatical para.) er itindi: tazahhafa'l--racul, alternative form (luğa fihi) itildi: II 139, 7.

S utan- (hibernate) See uvtan-, D udin- Refl. f. of udi:-; survives only (?) in Osm. uyun- ‘to sleep quietly, go to sleep’. Xak. xı o:t udindi: xamadati'l-nar via f aft’ at ‘the fire died down and went out’; and one says yula: udindi: ‘the lamp (etc.) went out’ (tafi’a); and once says amŋ kuti: udindi: (afi*a endduhti ‘his good luck died away’ Kaš. I 200 (udinur, udinma:k; this must be the right spelling but the del is usually marked with damma or left unmarked); (if you strike a light in a hurry) udinu:r yula: ‘the lamp goes out’ (yantafi') III 26, 2: KB avınčiŋ küven-čiŋ udınğay (-n- undotted, Arat erroneously restores -*-) u teg ‘your joy and pride will fade away like sleep' 1424; udinmiš otuğ 4412; udinur bu ot 4694.

D odun- (odon-) (wake up) Refl. f. of *od-; ‘to wake up (Intrans.)’. Survives only in NE Tuv. odun-. In the medieval period displaced by *odğan- (Refl. Den. V. fr. oduğ) which first appeared in (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. oyan-/oygan-/ozan- 234, and is noted as oyan- in xıv Muh., oy ganin Čağ. xv ff. and Xwar. xııı 'Ali 47; xıv Qutb 115, and as oyan- (sometimes spelt uyan-) in Xwnr, xıv Qutb 196; Kom. xiv; Kip. xııı IIou. 35, 16; xıv Id. 26; xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 5a. 9; 6a. s and Osm. fr. xıv onwards; cf. odğur-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. M I 6, 21 (u:); Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit suprabuddhnm prnbttd-hyante ‘they wake up completely’ uz odon-ma:km odonorlar TT VIII E. 36 and 40; a.o. Suv. 16, 15: Xak. xı er odundi: istay-qaza’l-racul tnin manemihi 'the man woke from his sleep’ Kaš. I 200 (odunur, odun-ma:k; followed by udin- and then verse illustrating odun^): KB odunğıl ay kökčin ‘wake up, greybeard!’ 37e: odunmiš kiši 'a man who has woken up’ 1398; o.o. 1523, 3951, 4963: xııı (?) At. odun ‘wake up!’ 11.

D udun- (follow, obey) Refl. f. of u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit); ‘follow, obey’, and the like. Always (?) used in association with tapın-. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. lgld nomka uduntumuz tapıntımız erser ‘if we have followed and worshipped false doctrines’ Chuas. 148-9: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ayamak ağırlamak tapınmak udunmak kılıp ‘respecting, honoring, worshipping, and obeying’ U II 40, 105; tapın- udun- is very common in TT VI and VII; the Bud. texts in USp.; Kuan, etc.

D *üten- (öden-) See öküz (? ököz) (ox, castrated bull, bullock), ötenč.

D ötün- (request, plead, pray) a Refl, f. cognate to 2 ötüg, q.v.; ‘to submit a statement or request to a superior; to request, pray’; with preceding Ger. in \\ -u:/-ü: sometimes hardly more than 'to veil’ tuie to'. Survives, usually for ‘to request’, in NC Kır. ötün-; Kzx. ötln-: SC Uzb. ütln-: NW Kaz. üten-/ütin- Kk. ötln-: SW Tkm. ötün-. Türkü vııı xagamma: ötüntim anča: ötüntim ‘I made reprentations to my xağnn; this is what I represented’ T 12; o.o. do. 14, 15 (ötünč), 25; Origin 8: vııı ff. edgü:ti: ötü:n ‘pray well’ IrhB 19; kul savi: beghperü: ötü:nü:r ‘the slave addresses his master’ do. 54 (in both cases with parallel clauses containing yalvar-): Man. the refrain at the end of each section of Chuas. is ökünür-men yazukda bošunu ötünürmen ‘I repent and beg to be freed from sin'; yükünü ötün-tîler ‘they ventured to pray’ TT II to, 8r; sevinč ötüntller‘they prayed for (theiŋ favour' do. 83: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man,-A M111, 2 (2 ötüg): Man. ötünü tekİnürmen‘1 venture to ask’ TT IX 54 ’. Chr. ögmek alkıš ötündller ‘they presented their praises’ U I 6, 15-16; a.o. do. 6, 12-13 (2 Hud. ınča tep ötündl 'this is what he represented’ PP 4, 7; 5, 3 etc.; U III 35, 32; o.o. U II 16, 21-2 etc. (2 ötüg); UII 79, 52; TT IV 4, 14, etc.: Xak.xi olxa:nka; ötüg ötündi: rafa'a'l-qissa ile'l-malik ‘he submitted a petition to the king (etc.)’; its origin is ötgündi: hake ka-mesami'a ‘he spoke as.he had heard’ Kaš. I 199 (Ötünü:r, ötünme:k); Ötnür yapı: tapuğ ‘presents (yuhdŋ his duty afresh’ I 376, 12: KB ötündüm munu ‘I represented this’ 85; ötünse sözüm ‘if he presents my statement’ 529; o.o. 791 (2 ötüg), etc.: xııı (?) At. aya til törüt madh ötüngil kam ‘oli tongue! compose praises and present them, pray’ 41: Tef. ötün- ‘to pray’ 25r: xrv Muh. carada ‘to present, submit’ Öîtün- Rif. 112 (Mel. 29, 1 mis-spelt): Čağ. xv ff. Ötün-iltimes kardan ‘to request’ San. 61 v. 17: Xwnr. xııı ötün- ‘to pray, represent’ 'AH 4e:xiv ditto Qutb 125.

D adna:- (change) Intr. Den. V. fr. adın (change (of state)); ‘to become different, to change’; later with extended meanings, ‘to change colour or flavour, to putrefy’, etc. S.i.m.m.l.g, in various forms, usually aynı-, Xak. xı yd:r adnardı: tağay-yaratVl-ard ‘the land (etc.) changed’ Kaš. I 288 (adna:r, ndna:ma:k): xııı (?) Tef. ayna- ditto 72: xıv Rbğ. adna- ‘to change for the worse; (of meat) to putrefy’ R I 491 (quotns.); Muh. (?) tağayyara latvnuhu ‘his colour changed’ adna:ti: (sic, perhaps adnartti: intended) Rif. 106 (only): Čağ. xv ff. aym- (mis-spelt eynt-) mutağayyaru' l-hel šudan ‘to be changed in condition’, also called čaš- and šaš- (mis-speltčeš-y šeš-) San. 56V. 7 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ayna- ‘to change (Intrans.)’ Qutb e: Kom. xıv ‘to change character’ aynı- CCG; Gr. 32 (quotn.).

D adnat- Caus. f. of adna:- (change); ‘to change, alter (something)’. Survives in same languages as adna:-. Xak. xı er adnatti: tağayyara’ t-racul 'amma kdna ’ alayhi 'the man changed what was on him’; also used of anything that changes what is on it Kaš. I 266 (adnatur, adnatma:k; sic in MS., not -rne.k as in printed text): Čağ. \\ XV ff. aynit- (mis-spelt cynit-) Caus. f.; tnuxbaf wa mutağayyaru'1-hel saxtan ‘to disturb^), to alter the condition (of something)’ San. 56V. 23: Xwar. xıv aynat- ‘to change (Trans.)’ Qutb 6.

Tris. ADN

D atınču: (shot, thrown, discharged, flashed) Hap. leg.; Pass. N./A.S. fr. atın- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash), Xak. xı atmču: ne:g al-šay'u'1-matruh ‘a thing which is thrown away, discarded’ Kaš. I 133.

D ıdınču: (divaricate) Hap. leg.; Pass. N./A.S. fr. *idin- Refl. f. of ı:d-; cf. ıdma:. Xak. xı ıdınču: sač ša'ru'l-raculi'lladi arsala baKia’l-aıvl wa kadalika li-ğayrihi ‘hair which a man lets loose after it has been confined (?)’; also used of other things; and al-sd’iba mina'l-hayawdn ‘an animal which is allowed to go free’ is called ıdınču: yılkı: Kaš. I 133.

D itinčü: Hap. leg.; Pass. N./A.S. fr. itin-; cf. itindi:. Xak. xı itinčü: ne:g al-šay’u’l--madfû' ‘a thing which is pushed’ Kaš. I 133.

D adınčığ/adınsığ (different, another, special, exceptional, various, chosen, elect) Den. N./A. fr. adın (change (of state)). The two words, n.o.a.b., seem to be synonymous and to mean ‘different’ with various shades of meaning ‘special, exceptional, various’; used to translate Middle Iranian vıııd ‘chosen, elect’, see TTIII, note 18. Türkü vııı adınčı:ğ bark... adinči:ğ bedizspecial grave goods... special decoration’ (for a tomb) I S 12, IIN 14: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. adınčığ iduk kagimiz ‘our elect holy father’ TT III 18; lkl y (e)girmi törlüg adınčığ mugadınčığ belgü körtgürdi ‘he showed twelve special and disturbing signs’ M III 39, 1-3 (ii); adınčığ amrak (gap) ‘my special beloved (?)’ M II 8, 3: adınčığ türkč’e bašık ‘another (or ‘a special’) Turkish hymn’ do. 10, 1 (in: Bud. teg adınčığ erteni yincü ‘various jewels and pearls’ PP 34, 1; o.o. of teg adinčığ do. 71,5; Kuan 149 (see 2 teg); adınčığ edgü ‘specially good’ U IV 44, 31; adınčiğ mugadınčığ TT V 20, 9; adınčığ iduk xağan xan (sic) süsi ‘the army of the elect holy ruler’ TT VII 40, 123-4 — kišide adınčığdifferent from (other) men (?)’ USp. 105b. 7; teprim yarlığın adınčığ kılmağaymen ‘I will do nothing different from my god’s commands’ do. 106a. 41-3; birök mum ukmadm adınsığrak adira tutsar 'if, because they do not understand this, they take things for entirely different?)’ TT VI 195: Xak. xı KB erende adınsığ kišide ögi ‘exceptional among men and different from ordinary people’ 562; adınsığ bolur barča kılkıg sözüy ‘your whole character and language become different’ 718; a.o. 777.

The variety of euphemisms in Türkic in respect to the terms for deceased is no less extensive than in English. English uses departed, at peace, asleep, passed away, at rest, conk, croak, expired, and many other euphemisms, but no honest etymologist would mechanically derive the roots for peace, departure, sleep, etc. from the word for deceased taken from random extracts from old eulogies and epitaphs. In Tengriism, death is a change from one state to another in a continuity of personal life, thus the euphemism change with all its derivatives is appropriate for the burial situation, for grave ornamentation. grave goods, etc. precipitated by the change of state of the deceased. Literal translation of euphemisms rarely works.

E adunčsuz in Chuas. I 35 is an error; the correct reading is bošunčsuz, q.v.

D itindi: Hap. leg.; Pass. N./A.S. fr. itin-; cf. itlnčü:. Xak. xı itindi: ne:ŋ al-šay'u'l-*madffi, ‘a thing which is pushed’ Kaš. I 140.

D adna:ğu: (adına:ğu:) (others) (others) Den. N./A. fr. adın; ‘other people, others’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff.Bud. \\ adınağunı ölürmeyin ‘I will not kill other people’ U III 4, 3; (I will first seek the right road, and then become a guide) adnağuka ‘to others’ U II 5, 13; o.o. U 11 78, 31; 87, 49; TT IV 8, 69 and 72; 10, 10 and 13: Xak. xı KB (do not load your own heavy burdens) adna:ğu:ka 'aid ğayrik ‘on other people’; (do not starve yourself and satiate) adna:ğu:-ni: ğayrak ‘other people’ Kaš. III 68, 1-2; n.m.e.

D atanlığ (gelded camel) Hap. leg.?; P.N./A. fr. atan (camel). Xak. xı atanlığ er ‘a man who owns a gelded camel’ (ba'tr xasŋ Kaš. I 148.

D otugluk (o:ddugluk) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. otug; ‘woodpile’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l.g.; in SW Osm. odunluk, Tkm. o:dunlik. Xak. xı otugluk al-muhtafab ‘woodpile’ Kaš. I 162.

VUD utunluk A.N. fr. utu:n; ‘vileness, wickedness’. Pec. to KB but therein common; syn. with isizlik. Xak. xı KB utunluk kilur bušsa kılkı silig ‘if a man of good character loses his temper, he behaves wickedly’ 335; o.o. 931, 1155, 2078, 2653, 3780, etc.

S admsığ See adınčığ.

Tris. V. ADN-

D uduntur- Hap. leg.?; Caus. f. of udun-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tapmtururlar uduntıîrarlar ‘they make them worship and obey' (demons) TT VI 266.

D otugla:- (orddugla:-) Dev. V. fr. otug; ‘to gather firewood’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l. in NE. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (gap) otuglayu ‘collecting firewood’ (gap) M III 28, z (iii) (the context confirms this meaning).

D atanlan- (gelded camel) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. atan (camel). Xak. xı er atanlandi: ‘the man owned a gelded camel’ (ba'ir xasŋ Kaš. I 295 (atanlanur, atanlanma.k).

Dis. ADR

eder (saddle)saddle’. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as eyer but also NE ezer, e:r; SE Türki iger; NC e:r; SC Uzb. egar. Xak. xı eder al-sarc Saddle’ Kaš. II 224, 25 (2 kökleš-), 4 similar o.o.; n.m.e.: xıv Muh. al-sarc Ğyer Mel. 71, 8; Rif. 173; al-ğešiya ‘saddle-housing’ eyer ya:puğı: 71, 12 (Rif. 173 uses this phr. to translate al-namraqa wa'l-namariq ‘saddle-pad, saddle-pads’ (sic; text has al-ma'rifa wa’l-namdzin)): Čağ. xv ff. eger (‘with -g-’) eyer ztn ma'ndsina ‘saddle’ Vel. 68 (quotn.); eger (spelt) zin, in Ar. sarc San. io8v. 12 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv eyer ‘saddle’ Qutb 49; eder ditto Nahc. 53, 2: Kip. xııı al-sarc eyer Hou. 14, 1: xıv ditto Id. 2e: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19b. 3; sarcu'l-faras eyer Kav. 64, 3; 77, 2: Osm. xıv ff. eyer ‘saddle’; c.i.a.p. in phr. TTS II 411; III 274; IV 319.

D adrı: (ayrı) (branched, forked) Dev. N./A. fr. adir- (separate, branch); ‘forked, a forked object’. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as ayrı, but in NE also azra/azrı R I 578; Khak. azir; Tuv. adir. Ayru: in Kaš., see below, is \\ cognate but has a different meaning. Xak. xı adn: al-midrd ‘a pitchfork', that is (an implement) with which wheat-stalks are tosseci (yudrd) to winnow them; and anything with two branches (Inhu šıı'batdn) is called adri: hence a man is called adn: butluğ, that is munfaricu l-faxdayn ‘having divergent legs’ Kaš. I 126; adn: yığa:č šacara lihd šubatan ‘a forked tree’ II 331, 21; a.o. II 22, 26 (tul-); (misplaced between otra: and adn:, perhaps an incorporated side-note) aynı: harf tva mdnehtı in lam an Indeclinable meaning ‘if not'; hence one says muni: tilemese:sen ayru: ne: kerek ‘if you do not want this’, fa-ma dd tabtağî ‘then what do you want?’ I 12e: KB bu kursl adaki üč adri turur ‘this stool has three divergent legs’ 771: Čağ. xv ff. ayru (spelt) cidda(n) wa munfašil 'extremely', and ‘separated’ San. 57r. r§ (quotn.); ayn (‘with -1’) (1) cidda (n) wa munfašil, also pronounced ayru; (2) dü šdxa 'a forked piece of wood’, which they put on the necks of criminals; (3) šulur-i dü kûhen ‘a twohumped camel’ do. 57r. 23: Kom. xıv ‘forked' ayn CCG; Gr. 32 (quotn.): Kip. xıv ayn: al-ša'b (sic) wa'l-voddi ‘a side valley (?); a' valley’: ayru: (vocalized oyuru) al-tvddi Id. 27; al-ša'b toa'l-Kedi ayn: Bui. 3, 10: xv ğayr ‘other’ (özge, ayruk) ayrı (ayrlk (?) and baška) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 89b. 12 • Osm. xıv ayru ‘parting, separation’ TTS I 62; IV 62; xv 'other, different’ 7/85.

Dis. ADR

S otra: See ortu:. (center, middle) (Otragur Bulgars “Center Wing” Bulgars ~ Gk. Utigurs)

D utru: (opposite, other) (other, otherwise) (Utrugurs ~ Uturgurs) fr. u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit) abbreviated Ger. of *utur- used as Adv. or Postposition (see v. G. ATG para. 289) meaning 'opposite, facing, against’, with or without an implication of opposition or hostility. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SC and SW. Not to be confused with ötrü. Türkü vııı ff. utru: eki: aylığ kiši: oğlen soku:šmi:š ‘I met a two-month-old child’ IrkB 2; utru: yerde: oğrı: soku:šu:p ‘a thief met him’ do. 16; (a falcon went hunting water-birds; a predatory eagle) utru:... kopu:pan barmhš ‘rose to meet him’ do. 43: Man. yüzümüz utru ‘facing us' (there are great difficulties) TT II 6, e: Uyğ. vııı ben utru: yori:d[lm] 'I went to meet him' Šu. S 3: vııı ff. Bud. (then his younger brother . . ,) Kilimbl yek utru bardı ‘advanced against the demon Hidimba’ (I II 26, 17; el(l)ig begke utru yorıyu keldi ‘came to meet the king’ U III 63, 6-7; (gods, men, demons, whoever they may be) aniŋ utru turdačı yok ‘there is no one who can stand up against him’ U IV 22, 283; a.o. (obscure) Hüen-ts. 2005-e: Civ. utru kel- ‘to come to meet’ TT I 96, 112, 175; utruijda , . . keldl ‘came to meet you’ do. 113; Bu-sıt) tağı uturu borlukin ‘his vineyard facing the Bu-siq mountain’ USp. 2, 4: Xak. xı utru: qubdla hull šay’ ‘opposite, or facing, anything’; one says o:l maga: utru: keldi: caa bi-qubdlati ‘he came to meet me’ Kaš. I126; seven o.o. with similar meaning: KB (neither behind, in front, to the right nor the left, below, above noŋ utru orun ‘facing’ 18; (the moon) yašık birle utru ‘in opposition (in the astronomical sense) to the sun’ 137; keldl utru 193; many o.o.: xiti (?) At. ne iš utru kelse ‘whatever work comes your way’ 369; Tef. utru keU and such phr. as anlariŋ utruda ‘in front of them’ 333 (and see ötrü): Čağ. xv ff. utru karšu ‘opposite’ Vel. 91 (quotns.); utru muqdbil tva bar-d bar ‘opposite, facing’ San. 62r. 12 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv utru/uturu ‘in order to meet (someone); facing (something Dat.)’ Qutb 201: Kom. xrv ‘opposite, against’ utru (once spelt ortu) is common CCI, CCG; Gr. 267 (quotns.).

This is an example of the cases when turning to English cognate would help to rectify a translation, resolve the Hap. leg. puzzle, and provide a proper English equivalent.

D ötrü/ötürü (the latter rare) (then, so, ...; because of, following on) Ger. of 2 ötür- (penetrate (subject)) used as Adv. or Postposition (see v. G. ATG, para. 281). As an Adv. begins the sentence and means ‘then, thereupon'; as a Postposition follows the Abl. (and Loc. ?) and means 'because of, following on’. Survives only in SW Az. ötrü, Osm. ötürü, Tkm. Ötri (with Abl.) ‘because of, concerning’. Not to be confused with utru: (opposite, other) (other, otherwise) (Utrugurs ~ Uturgurs). Türkü vııı anta: otrü: ‘thereupon’ (or ‘therefore'?) T 12, le: vııı ff. Man. nede ötrü ‘why?’ Chuas. 165, 170; beš törlüg savdan ötrü ‘because of (or ‘by means of’) five kinds of speeches’ M III 20, 8 (ii) (mis-spelt utru); mča oydukta ötrü ‘because (the king) had thus spoken’ TT II 8, 53; anta ötrü do. 10, 86 — ötrü 'then, thereupon do. 8, 55 and 5e: Uyğ. vrrı anta: ötrü: Šu. S 5: vııı ff. Man.-A beš teorilerde ötrü (spelt utru) ‘because of (or through the intervention of?) the five gods’ M I 8, rg (and 9, 1-2); anta Ötrü (spelt utru) do. 9, 3: Chr. ötrü (starting sentence) ‘then, thereupon’ U16, 9; 8, 8; io, 4: Bud. nız^vanılığ otugda ötrü ‘because of the fuel provided by the passions' U II 9, 28-9 — ötrü (in TT VIII C.3 ötrü; do. 11.8 otrÖ; occasionally ötürü) and anda ötrü are very common; Civ. (starting a sentence) ö:trök (? crasis of ötrö ök) ‘thereupon' TT VIII 1.7: (Xak.) xııı (?) At. negdin ötrü ‘for the sake of material things’ 167; bu bir ‘aybdın ötrü ‘because of this single fault’ 363: Tef. andın ötrü ‘thereupon’ 333 (listed as utru): Xwar. xıv ötrü (1) ‘thereupon’; (2) (with Abl.) ‘after, because of' Qutb 124: Kip. xv ša'n ’for the sake of, because of' ötri (and üčün) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 21a. ir (and, only ötri, 89b. 1).

D adırt (distinction, difference) Dev. N. fr. adir- (separate, branch); ‘distinction, difference’ (between things Gen.). Survives only (?) in SW Osm. ayırt. See adırtla:-, *üdürt. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. [gap] adırtın ukıttıpız ’you have explained the difference between...’ TT III 118: Bud. (since it is fully elucidated in an extensive commentary in the Wei-shih-hin, he has not elucidated here) on törlüg edgülernlt) üč törlüg tötrü čınğaru sakınmak kolulamaknıp adırt ‘the difference between the ten kinds of good things and the three kinds of deep and searching meditation (Hend,)’ TT V 22, 21: Civ. [gap] ayığlı savignlt) adırtı yok ‘there is no difference between vour [good and] bad speeches’ TT I St. ’

adurt (cheek-pouch, щека) ‘cщекаheek-pouch’; judging by the analogy of adut, q.v., there is little doubt that this was the original form of avurt, but this form occurs only in one damaged passage. S.i.m.m.l.g. as avurt, a'urt, ort, urt, and the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (as the poison takes hold) ad[urt]ı erni yerup ‘his cheek-pouches and lips split' (his chin and throat decay) TT II 16, 14-15: Čağ. xv ff. awurt puri-yi dahan 'mouthful’, in Ar. šidq San. 53V. 5 (quotn.): Kip. x/u al-car'a mina'1-mö’ zva ğayrihi 4a mouthful of water’, etc., oğurt (perhaps miscopying of ovurt) Hou. 38, 18 (after tacarra'a oğurtla:-): xv šidq ‘pheek-pouch’ owurt Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20b. 7: Osm. xv 1î. avurt in various phr. in several texts TTS II 70; III 47; IV 5r.

D *üdürt (choice, selection) Dev. N. fr. üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter); cf. adırt. Not itself recorded but see üdürtlüg, *üdürtle:-. These words occur in association with similar der. forms of adırt, and the two words must have had comparable meanings, this one ‘choice, selection', and the like.

D adrık Conc. N. fr. adir- (separate, branch); morphologically parallel with adruk but semantically distinct, although some modern forms of the two words are identical,’ ‘a grass with divergent (adir- (separate, branch)) creeping rhizomes; couch-grass’, and the like. Survives in SE Türki acrikdhub-grass’ Shaw 3, ‘couch-grass’ 13$ 4; SW Osm. ayrık ‘couch-grass’. The form with -c- suggests a reborrowing fr. Mong., but the word is not traceable as a l.-w. in Mong. See Doerfer II 424. Xak. xı adrik ‘a plant (nabt) called al-til ‘Cynodon dactylori in Ar. Kaš. I 98: Čağ. xv ff. acrig (so spelt) riša-i giydh-i xušk ‘the fibre of a dry plant’, also called Čayır (not an ancient word) San. 32r. 29 (quotn.): Oğuz xı ayrık al-til; it is a useful (ttd’im) plant; the Turks call it adrık and the Oğuz change it (-d-) into -y- Kaš. I 113: Osm. xvııı ayruk (spelt) ... (3) in Rumi the name of a plant which is extremely tender and moist and fattens the cattle that eat it, called in Ye. farts I farts ‘perennial meadow grass' San. $yr. 20.

Oğuz change -d- into -y-:

An inspection of Anglo-Saxon cognates shows regular -y- to -g- alteration: öyen- “owe” > agen(lic) “own, owed, due”; anlaut g- may also be depicted as h-; that may also be the -d- to -g- alteration parallel that of -d- into -y-.

D adruk Pass. N./A.S. fr. adir- (separate, branch); cf. adnk; basically ‘divided, separated', hence usually ’different, other’, and esp. ‘different from, superior to (others)’; in comparisons the word compared with it is in the Acc. in Türkü vııı ff. Man., the hoc. (unless this is a misreading of the Abl.) in Uyğ. Bud. and the Abl. elsewhere. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SC; in NE ayrık, azrik’ azink; Khak. azirix; Tuv. adink; elsewhere ayrık. Cf, adın, ör>i:, özge:. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (we do not do what is) teŋri yarlığın adruk ‘different from (i.e. contrary to) God’s commands’ TTII6, 5; adruk adruk ‘various (things)’ Chuas. 228 (e:t-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. adruk uzlar ’various craftsmen’ PP 2, 5; adruk adruk do. 2, 7; Suv. 118, 6 (2 tag), 328, 6 a.o.o. — kišide adruk begrek er ‘a more distinguished person, superior to (ordinary) people’ PP 66, 4"5; alku sığunlarda keyiklerde adrukrak ‘superior to all (other) maral deer 8041125 D and stags’ U IV 34, 61 — (as for being brought together by contact) köŋül köčüldekller birle bürtüšüp yeg adruk tıltağlarka tuš kılur üčün ‘it is because the mind, when it comes into contact with what is in the mind, encounters better and superior influence s’ TT V 24, 71-2; o.o. of yeg adruk do. 26, 82; TT VII 40, 135: Xak. xı adruk kalima wa ma'neheğayr a word meaning ‘other’, in Oğuz (sic); the Turks use adın for 'other' (prov.) Kaš. I 98 (this is obviously a muddle; the Oğuz form was ayruk, see below): KD kišide kiši adruki bar telim bu adruk blligdin ayur bu tilim 'among men there are many who are superior to (other) men; from this superior knowledge my tongue speaks’ 201: xııı (?) Tef. ayruk 'another'; ayruk ayruk ‘different’ 45: xıv Muh. bi-ğayr amirihim ‘excluding their chief' beginden ayru:k Mel. 18, 8; Rif. 97; ğayr tva ayda (n) ‘other, and likewise’ ayruk Rif. 188 (only; the preceding entry al-melik 'owner5 ayruk is an inexplicable error): Čağ. xv ff. ayruk (spelt) (1) bigena ‘strange, stranger’; (2) digar 'other', which they also call dağı and daxi San. $"]r. 19: Oğuz xr ayruk luğa bi-ma'ndğayr Kaš. I113: Xwar. xııı ayrık/ayrı ‘other’ ’Ali 12: Kip. xııı ğayr ayru:k; ğayrak senden ayruk Hou. 54, 13 ff. (with other examples): xıv ayruk ğayr Id. 27: xv mufarraq ‘divided’ ayrık (perhaps for adnk) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 34b. 12; viafruq ‘separated’ ayrik (sic, with kef) do. 48b. 10; la tarcV ‘not returning, non-recurrent (?)’ ayruk do. 39a. 1; 90b. r; ğayr ayruk . . ayrîk 89b. 13 (and see adri:): Osm. xıv toxvi (only) ayruğ/ayruk, occasionally ayrık (1) ‘other, another’; (2) (usually with Neg. verb) 'again’ TTS I 61; II 82; III 54; IV 60 (common).

(D) otruğ ‘island’; too old to be a Dev. N. fr

2 otur- (sit) ‘to sit’, as has been suggested, since this form did not evolve fr. olur’ until the medieval period; possibly a Den. V. fr. 1 otur-, with the connotation of something cut off from the mainland. Survives in various forms in one or two NE languages and NW Kaz. utraw. A Dim. f. (?) otrač was current in Kom. and Kip. (Id., Bui., Tuh.), and survives in NW Kar. T., Kow. 442. Most SC, NW, and SW languages use some form of atağ/adağ first noted in Muh. and also noted in Kom. and Kıp. (Id., Bui., Tuh.), which it is difficult to connect morphologically with this word. Uyğ. viu ff. Dud. otruğ ‘island’ I3!3 33» 7; 36, 6; TT V 26, 91, and 94; -Suu 2U, 19 and 22 (spelt oturuğ); Hüen-ts. 1915; Kuan. 20-1 (ergü): Xak. xı otruğ al-cazira ‘island’ Kaš. I 97.

etrek Hap. leg. Oğuz xı errek al-ašqar mina'l-riedl ‘ (of a man) red-haired’ Kaš. I 101.

?D idrig Hap. feg.; possibly an earlier form of 2 irig; morphologically a Dev. N. in -g, but there is no trace of *idir-. Arğu: xı idrig al-šay'u*l-xašin ‘anything hard’; originally irig Kaš. I 102.

D iidreg Hap. leg.; Dev. N./A. fr. iidro. Xak. xı iidreg ne:g kuli šay' mi', tva huwa’ -zd'id ba'da'l-qilla ‘anything thriving, that is which increases after being scarce’ Kaš. I 103.

D ötrük (crafty, wily, untruthful, a lie) originally ‘crafty, wily’; later ‘untruthful, a lie’; presumably Dev. N./A. fr. 2 ötür- but hard to connect semantically. Survives oniy(?) in NC Kır., Kzx. ötrük/ ötürük. Cf. igld, ezük, yalğaın. Oğuz xı ötrük aî-muhtel 'crafty, wily’ Kaš. I 101 (verse): Čağ. xv ff. ötrük (‘with -k’) yalan söz ‘a lie’ Vel. 90; Ötrük darüğ ‘lie’ San. bzr. 14’ Kip. xııı al-kadib ‘a lie’ ötrük (also yala:n) Hou. 27, 4 (and see ezük); kadaba ‘to lie’ (ötügle:- (?) also) ötrük söyle:- (also yala:n söyle:-) do. 36, 4: xıv ötrük al-kadib İd. 8

S edrem See erdem.

D edrim Den. N. fr. eder (saddle); ‘saddle-pod’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. eyrim (often spelt egrlm). Xak. xı me tahta'1-hanwayVl-sarc mina'l-cenibayn ‘that which is beneath the saddle-tree on both sides’ is called edrim; it is (made of) leather and felt Kaš. I 107: xıv Muh. mixaddatu'l-sarc 'saddle-pad? eyrim Meh 71, 12; Rif. 173; al-cadya ditto eyrlm kečesi: Mel. 78, note 2: Čağ. xv ff. eyrlm namad-zin ‘saddle-pad’; also called tĞrllk; Naširi translated it ‘whirlpool’ San. 57r. 27 (‘whirlpool’ is egrlm): Osm. xv ff. eyrim ‘saddle-pad’ c.i.a.p. TTS I 289; II 414; HI 278; IV 321; xvııı egrim , . . and, in Rumi ‘the pad which they put below a saddle’ San. logr. 7.

D üdrüm (choice, chosen) N.S.A. fr. üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter); ‘a single choice; one specially chosen’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı üdrüm xiyeru’l-ašye' ‘the choiccst of things’ Ka§. hoy: KB bnsa FflrOqerdl klšiüdrümİ 'then there was FarOq, the choiccst of men’ 53 ; o.o. 50, 279, 417, 900, 1689 (habitually rhymes with küdrüm, q.v.).

D ötrüm (purgative medicine, purge) N.S.A. fr. 2 ötür-; ‘purgative medicine, purge’. N.o.a.b. Cf. ötürük. Xak. xı ötrüm al-datve'u'l-mu$hil ‘a purgative medicine’; and al-šubrum ‘spurge, Euphorbia’ , (a plant with milky sap) is called süt Ötrüm; and this is close to the Ar. Kaš. I 107 (meaning of last clausc obscure): ATİ? (another said) ötrüm ičürgü kerek ‘we must give him a purge to drink’ 1059.

PU otran (trousers, underwear) Hap. leg.; a dubious word entered, out of alphabetical order, between ürkün and lčgin. xı otran al-saretvil ‘trousers’. I heard this in Yağma: Kaš. I 108.

D adrıš Dev. N. fr. adir- (separate, branch); ‘parting, parting place’. Survives as ayrıš/ayınš only (?) in SE Türki BŠ 12 and NC Kır. Xak. xı adrıš ra’s kuU tariqayn ‘the starting point of any two roads’ Kaš. I 96.

D üdrüš (choice) Hap. leg., Dev. N. fr. üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter), Xak.xi üdrüš al~muxeyara bayna*l-ašye' ‘a choice between things’ Kaš. I g6.

Dis. V. ADR-

D adır- (separate, branch) Caus. f. of 1 *ad-; basically ‘to separate (two things Acc., or something Acc., from something else Abl,)’; hence ‘to distinguish (between things Acc.)' and even 'to single out, prefer (something)’; cf. üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter), q.v. Became a l.-w. in Mong. a9 ajira- ‘to part from (people), return home’ (Ilaenisch 4) with further developments of meaning (Kow. 124, Haltod 26). S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as ayır-, but NE Khak. azir-; Tuv. adir-; in NC Kır., Kzx. acıra- 'to part from (people)’, reborrowed fr. Mong. also occurs. In some texts it is difficult to distinguish between the Perf., etc. of adir- and adırt-, q.v. Türkü vııı ff. Yen. altı: yašımta: kag adırdım bilinmedim üč ečime: ayıta: adırdım (ıhc last word is prob. an error for adrıldim) ‘at the age of six I was parted from my father and did not get to know him; I snid farewell (?) and was parted from my three elder brothers’ Mal. 32, 16; Man. (in order to release the five gods and) yarukuğ karağ adırğah 'to separate the light and darkness’ Chuas. 9-10: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. özüg yadığ adırtıgız ‘you separated yourself (your life) and stranger^’ TT III 108; kaltl kiši bu munča savığ adıru bilmeser ukmasar ‘just as a man does not know and understand how to distinguish between sayings like these' M I 18, 3 (ı): Bud. lsig üzler-inte adirdimiz erser ‘if we have separated (living beings) from their lives’ TT IV 8, 63; similar phr. do. 10, 13, and 14; (relying on) edgüsin ayığiıı adira bilmekke ‘ability to distinguish between its good and evil’ Suv. 297, 9; (meditating and thinking) adara ukar ‘he understands how to distinguish’ U II g, 2; TT VI 195 (adınčığ); alkuda adrumıš ‘more distinguished than all others' Hüen-ts. 1902 (dubious, perhaps an error for üdrüm İš): Civ. in contracts for the sale of land, USp. 13, 107, 108, and 109 adir- occurs in stock phr. like bu borlukniQ sıčısı ögdüni yerke Karatemürnig borluk adırır ‘the boundaries of this vineyard; on the east Karatemür’s vineyard delimits it’ 13, 7; (in a document about slaves of different owners who had married without permission) adirmatin ‘without parting them’ do. 73, 7: Xak. xı ol edgüni: yavla:ktan adırdı: axtera'l-xayr mina'1-šarr tva mayyazahu ‘he preferred the good to the bad and distinguished between them' (adirur, adirma:k, mis-spelt me:k)\ in a prov. etli: tırnaklı: adirma:s ‘the flesh and the nail are not (i.e. cannot be) separated’ (le yufarraq) Kaš. I 177 (and see üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter)); (I sought wisdom and chose a wise teacheŋ özümni adırdım mayyaztu nafsi min bayna'l-nes ‘I set myself apart from other people’ III 228, 14: KB adırsa üdürse seče bilse öz ‘if a man singles out, selects and can pick’ (the right people) 329; üdürdi adırdı kütürdİ meni ‘he selected, singled out and raised me' 385; adirğan yarağlığ yarağsız kišig ‘distinguishing between useful and useless people’ 2236; o.o. 797. 3534: xııı (?) Tef. adır-/ayur- (.«V) ‘to part, separate (something Acc., from \67\ something Abl.y 40, 4e: Čağ. xv ff. ayır- (spelt) Trans, (lit. Caus.) V.; cude kardan ‘to part’; also pronounced ayr- San. 54V. rr (quotns.): Xwar. adir- ‘to separate’ Qutb 4; (go and suckle your child and) kačan kJm siitdin adirsaj) ‘when you ccase to suckle him’ Nahc. 349, 4: Kom. xıv ayir-/ayr- ‘to separate, to distinguish between’ CCI, CCG; Gr. 33 (quotn.): Kip. xıv ayır- farraqa, ‘to part, separate’ Id. 27: xv ditto. Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28a. 11: Osm. xıv ff. from the earliest times two forms ayir- and ir- existed side by side, meaning (in ‘to separate (two things, or one from another)’; (2) ‘to split (something into,two)’; (3) 'to distinguish, single out, choos^; (4) ‘to withdraw, relense (someone fr. something)’; ayir-is not listed in TTS but occurs in a xıv quotn, (/ 355) when it rhymes with ır-; ır-occurs in all periods down to xix, I 355; II 503; III 345; IV 397, and survives in xx Anat. SDD 774, but is hardly mentioned in xix dicts.

D attur- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash) Caus. f. of at- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash); with a range of meanings similar to those of at-. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol ok atturdi: ‘he ordered (someone) to shoot (bi-ramy) an arrowy and he shot it’; also when he tells him to throw away (afrahahu) something, and he throws it away Kaš, I 217 (atturur, atturma:k): xııı (?) Tef. atdur- ‘to order to throw’ 63: Čağ. xv ff. aftur- Caus, f. andezendan ‘to order to throw, or shoot’ San. 28r. 18.

eder- (pursue, chase) ‘to pursue’, primarily in the sense of chasing game or pursuing an enemy; hence more vaguely ‘to follow’. Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. eder-; NW Kaz., Nog. Iyer-; there is a NE Khak. Caus. f. izert-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. muyğak sığunuğ uvu[tsu2 bljlig üčün (SderÜr ermiš ‘the maral doe was pursuing the maral stag for sexual reasons’ M I 35, 5-7■’ Uyğ- vııı ff. Bud. [gap] eyin ederlp ‘following his wishes’ U II 40, 10; a.o. Suv. 16, 7: Xak. xı men anı: ederdim iqtafay-tuhu wa'ttnba'tu itrahu ‘I followed him and followed his tracks’ Kaš. I 178 (ederrur, edermetk; vocalization chaotic, fatha apparently changed to or from damma and also kasra on the alif)', bu it ol keyikni: ederge:n ‘this dog habitually chases (fileb) wild game’; also used of a man who habitually demands his rights (yatlub haqqahu) I 157; edergeli: ide xaracta li-tašid ‘if you go to hunt’ I 447, 6; o.o. III ir, 4; III 228, 12 (ederdlm talabtu); KB (this world is like a shadow) ederse kačar ‘if you chase it, it flees' 1409; (if your enemy flees, be satisfied) ederme udu ‘do not chase after him’ 239s; o.o. 3536, 3970, 4301: xııı (?) At. billglig billgni edergen bolur 'the wise man constantly pursues wisdom’ 105; Tef. eder-/ezer- ditto 122: Xwar. xıv eyer-‘to hunt’ Qutb 58: Kip. xv taba'a ‘to follow’ eyer- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 10a. 8.

D ettür- Caus. f. of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize); with a range of meanings similar to those of e:t-, S.i.a.m.l.g, In Kaš. included in a section for verbs with short initial vowel;;, which perhaps indicates \\\ that the initial alif maksur yd was intended to represent e-, Cf. etlt-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. etdUrdimiz ‘if we have had constructed’; v.l. for etdimiz in TT IV 6, 46 (et-): Xak. xı ol meniŋ ı:ši:m e:ttürdi: ‘he gave order? for putting my affair in order’ (bi-ijleh amrŋ; and one says ol etük östtürdi: 'he gave orders for the repair (bi-išleh) of his boot' Kaš. I 217 (öttürür, e:ttürme:k): xıız Tef. aš etdürdl 'he had food prepared’ 8e: Čağ. xv ff. ettür- Caus. f.; ba-digari kunenidan ‘to make someone else make, or do (something)’ San. 94r. 22.

VU (D) i:ttür- Hap. leg.; between ö:tür- and a:čur- in a section for verbs with long initial vowels; prima facie a Caus. f. in -tür-, but there is no verb *i:t- with an appropriate meaning; ‘to twist, spin’ is normally eğir- (twist, spin), q.v., which cannot be connected with this word. Xak. xı ol agar blllk i:ttürdi: afta-lahu'l-jatila ‘he made him twist (or spin?) the wick’; also used for anything that is twisted (or spun?) Kaš. I 267 (i:ttürür, i:ttürme:k).

S otar- See otğar-.

VU 1 otur- Hap. leg., but see otrul-, otruš-. Certainly with back vowels and, if otruğ, q.v., is etymologically connected, with o-. Xak. xı ol sač oturdi: qašša’l~ša‘r tw’/« -taieb wa nahwahu ‘he cut hair’, (cut out) clothes and the like Kaš. I 176 (oturur, oturma:k, sic in MS.).

S 2 otur- (meet) See olur- (? olor-) (sit, seat), *utur- (? utir-) 'to meet’; survives only in the Ger. utru: (opposite, other) (other, otherwise) (Utrugurs ~ Uturgurs), q.v.; the basis of utrun-, utruš-. Became an early l.-w. in Mong. as učira- ‘to meet’ (Ilaenisch 157) a form presupposing a Turkish *utir-. This Mong. verb was subsequently reborrowed as učra- San. 64V. 11 and s.i.m.m.l.g. as učra-, učura-.

üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter) ‘to choose (one of several Acc.); to part, separate, scatter (things, etc. Acc.); to separate (something Acc., fr. something Abl.y, with or without ögi, see v. G. ATGpara, 279. Practically syn. w. adir- (separate, branch) (Kaš. uses the same range of words to translate both) and perhaps an ‘attenuated’ form of it. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. üzür-, same meaning, which fixes the first vowel as Ü-, not o- as normally used to transcribe this verb and its der. f.s. Cf. also seč- (choose, select, pick out, peck, клевать). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. beš ajuntaki tin’ Uğlarığ blllgsiz bi[ligtLn] Ögl üdürtügüz ‘you separated the mortals in the five states of existence from ignorance’ TT III 31-2: Xak. xı ol üdürdi: (so read) ne:gni: ixtera'l-šay’ ‘he choose the thing’ Kaš. I 177 (üdürür, üdürme:k; follows the entry of adir- and erroneously vocalized edir- in all 3 places); bu: er ol tegme: ne:gni: üdürge:n ‘this man is constantly making a choice between things’ (yuxayyir bayna*l-ašye‘) I 157; (Bu^rač returned and) alpa:ğutın üdürdi: ixtdra abtdlahu ‘chose his (best) warriors’ I 144, 8; alp erenni: üdürdüm ‘I scattered (farraqtu) (the enemies’) warriors’ (and twisted their \\ necks) 1 370, 21; (treat your comrade well and) adm üdürme: ‘do not choose (la taxtdŋ another’ III 11, 3; bögü:ni: üdürdüm 'I choose (ixtartu) a wise (teacheŋ’ III 228, 13 (cf. adir- (separate, branch)): KB bu iki bedütür üdürmiš kuluğ ‘these two things make a chosen servant great’ 152; kayusın tilese üdürgil birin ‘choosc one of them whichever you wish’ 244; o.o. 148, 327, 329 (adir-), 2342 (îutğark), 3534: x 111 (?) Tef. üdür- ‘to choose; to prefer’ 242 (odür-), 321 (udur-): Xwar. xıv üdür- ‘to choose' Qutb 121 (odür-), 195 (udur-), 202 (iidür-); aragizda bir kačnı üdrüg ‘pick out one or two of yourselves’ Nahc. 365, 13; a.o. 282, 11: Tkm. xııı (after a list of Kip. meanings) ür- (vocalized mit-) intaxaba’l-šay' mina'1-ašye' 'to pick one thing out of several’ IIou. 36, 1: Osm. xıv (PU) tir- ‘to choose, pick nut’, 3 quotns. fr. one text TTS I 747.

D ötür-, etc. Preliminary note. There are three early verbs of this form, and in some modern languages verbs of similar form which are Sec. f.s of other verbs like öltür-; it is not always easy to identify the original forms of some of these verbs.

D 1 ö:tür- Hap. leg,?; Caus. f. of ot:- Xak’ xı ol maga: sö:z ö:türdi: dakara IVl-kalem ‘he reminded me of the statement (etc.)' Kaš. I 267 (öıtürür, ö:türme:k).

D 2 ötür- (penetrate (subject)) Caus. f. of 1 öt- (pierce, pass); with a range of meanings similar to those of 1 öt- (pierce, pass); cf. ötgür- (penetrate (subject)) which is more or less synonymous. Survives in NE Kač., Koib., Sag. as üttür- R I t868; Khak. öttir-; in NW Kaz. as ötür-; in SW Tkm, and in xx Anat. as ötür- SDD 1121 and perhaps üttür- 1439. Xak. xı ol ta:m ötürdi: ‘he pierced (taqaba) the wall’ Kaš. I 176 (ötürür, ötürme:k): Čağ. xv If. ötür- (spelt) Caus. f.; gudarönidan ‘to cause to pass through’; abbreviation of ötger- San. 59V. 14 (quotn.; pointing out that Vel. 79 gave the same quotn. with the mis-spelling ötiiz-): Kip. xıv ötür- taqaba Id. 8: xv naffada ‘to transmit, send through’ öttür- Tuh 54b. 11: Osm. xıv gögsün ötürdi ‘he sighed deeply, i.e. forced (the breath) through his chest’ TTS I 570.

D 3 ütür-/öttür- Caus, f. of 2 öt-. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. Öttür-, similar meaning. Xak. xı ol sıbızğu: (misvocalized) ötürdi: šayyahu hi'1-mizmer ‘he played the flute’ Kaš. I176 (ötürür, ötürme:k); sıbızğu: öttürdi:, same translation; also used of anything from which a sound comes as the result of your action (luidata minhu'1-šiyeh hi-fi‘lik) I 217 (öttürür, öttürme:k).

üdre:- (increase, multiply, flourish) ‘to increase, multiply, flourish’, and the like. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. üre-, same meaning. Xak. xı üdre:di: ne:g katura ray'u'1-šay’ ‘the yield of the thing increased’ Kaš. I273 (üdre:r, üdre:me:k): KB (at table — stretch out your right hand and pronounce the name of Cod) yĞgü üdreğey ‘your food supplies will increase’ 4597.

D adart- Caus. f. of*adar-, Intrans. Den. V. f. ada: (danger, devil, injury, damage, pain, ад "hell"). N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. (if you wear a clear blue stone) yat kiši: a:da:rtu: (sic) uma:z ‘a stranger cannot endanger you’ Toy. 23-4 (ETY II 58); similar phr, do. 29 (ağu:luğ): Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. Suv. 73-4 describes the ten stages through which virtuous beings pass on their way to perfection, in each of which they remove obstacles and dangers which ‘endanger’ certain things (Dat.) e.g. belgüg öčürmekke adartdačı tıdığ adalarığ ‘the obstacles and dangers which endanger the suppression of visible signs'.

D adırt- Caus. f. of adir- (separate, branch) and practically syn. w. it. In some forms difficult to distinguish fr. adir-; both the early occurrences might belong to adir-. Survives, with the same phonetic changes in most of the same languages as adir-. Türkü vııı ff. Yen. Mal. 28, 5 (inİlgü:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. bilge biligdin adrutačı (? read ad (ı)rttačı) ‘distinguished by wisdom’ TT V 24, 67 and 75: (Xak.)xiv Muh. in Mel. 38, 6; Rif. 125 ayi:rtmak is used to translate a word spelt al-infad ‘to (cause to) pierce through, transmit’ (cf. 2 ötür-) in Mel. and al-ittiqdd 'to burn’ in Rif.; neither meaning seems appropriate and some words may have fallen out between the Ar. and Turkish entry. Anfada does not occur in Muh., ittaqada is (correctly) translated yalına- (cf. adril-).

D üdret- (increase, multiply, flourish) Caus. f. of üdre:- (increase, multiply, flourish). Survives only (?) in SW Osm. üret-, same meaning. Xak. xı ol tava:riğ udretti: tamiuara’l-mcll zva nam-mehu ‘he increased (llend.) the property’ Kaš. I 2el(üdretür, üdretmak).

D adril- (separated, parted, break away) Pass. f. of adir-; 'to be separated, parted; to break away from (someone Ah!,, occasionally Dat.)\ S.i.a.m.l.g. w. the same phonetic changes as adir-. Türkü vııı Türkü bodun xanim bulmayin tavğačda: advıltı: ‘the Türkü people, because they had no xan of their own, broke away from China (Tabgach Türkic)’ T 2; kap yorıp Elteriš Xaganka: adril-maduk yagilmaduk teŋri: Bilge: Xağanda: adrılmalım ‘just as father marched and did not break away from Elteriš Xagnn or misbehave, let us not break away from the holy Bilge Xagan’ Ongin n: vııı ff. Yen. bağım bodunımka: adrıltim ‘I was parted from my clan and people (by death)' Mal. 27, 7; o.o. do. 27, 3 ; 28, 2 (?), 3 (?), 6 (adrılu: bardı:), 9; 29, 3; cf. O. Kır.: Man. yaruk tegrllerde adnltl ‘he was separated from the gods of light’ Chuas. I 16; yaruklı karalı kaltı adrılğay ‘how will the light and darkness be separated?’ do, 170-1: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A sizinte adraltukda berii ‘since being parted from you’ AII 10,5 : Man. adrılmalım ‘may we not be parted' M II 8, 17 (in: Bud. anirak yeme adrilur ‘friends, too, are parted’ PP 78, 5: O. Kır. ıx ff. adrıltim ‘1 have been parted from’ (my wife, children, people, etc. Dat., less often Abl.) occurs in nearly every funerary inscription; cf. Türkü vııı ff. Yen.: Xak. xı yo:l adnldi: tafarraqa'l-tariqan ‘the two roads \\ parted’; also used of two friends (alifayn), or two teeth (sinnayn) which have a gap (tazeyal) between them Kaš. I 247 (adrilur, adnlma:k): KB adnlurmen senigidin T am parting from you’ 127e: xiti (?) Tef. adril-, adrul-, azrıl-, ayrıl- 'to be separated, parted (from Abl.)’ 42, 43, 45; xıv Muh. al~ -infirdd 'to seclude oneself, be isolated’ ayrılmak Mel. 37, 8; Rif. 123: Čağ. xv ff. ayrıl- (spelt) Pass. f.; cude šudan ‘to be parted’ San. 54V. 28 (quotn ): Xwar. xııı ayruiam bizler ‘let its part’ Ali 28: xıv adril- ‘part’ Qutb 4; ayrıl- do. 6; AIN 371; oğul kızları-din xatunlandin adnlip ‘parting with their sons, daughters, and wives’ Naht. 256, 10; a.o. 271, 8: Kip. xııı fdraqa ‘to forsake’ ayril-Hou. 42, 21 : xıv ayirla- (ire) tafarraqa Id. 27:xv faraqa (oyir- and) ayirla- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28a. 11 (perhaps a Sec. f., not scribal error).

VUD otrul- Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of 1 otur-. Xak. X! sač otruldi: ‘the hair (etc.) was cut’ (qušša) Kaš. I 246 (otrulur, otru!ma:k).

D üdrül- Pass. f. of üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter); ‘to be picked out, chosen, set apart’. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. üzüril-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A tüzü üdrülmiš arığ dindarlar ‘all the picked pure Elect’ M I 28, le: Man. TT III 31-2 (ögi:): üud. yok čığay bolmaklik tilta-ğındın ögi üdrülür ‘he is separated from the cause of being poor and destitute’ TT V 22, 40-1; o.o. Pfahl. 6, 1 (ö:d (time)); U 11 42, 8 (mis-spelt ötrül-); Suv. 166, 7; 618, 4: Xak. xı üdrüldi: ne:g xuyyira,l-šay’ wa muyyiza ‘the thing was picked out and set apart’; also when a detachment and its men are set apart on one side (inhdzati'l-fi’a 1 va riceluhu ceniba (n)) one says ami} ererni: üdrüldi: imtdza riceluhu ceniba (n) ‘his men were set on one side’ Kaš. I • 247 (üdrülür, üdrülmcrk).

D ötrül- Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of 3 ötür-, Xak. xı sıbızğu: ötrüldi: ‘the flute was played’ (šuyyiha) Kaš. I 246 (ötrülür, ötrülme:k).

D utrun- Refl. f. of *utur-; ‘to oppose, resist, approach' (someone Dat.). N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. M III 19, 9 (i) (1 öčeš): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. uluğka utrundum totadim öznedim erser ‘if I have opposed, disparaged or rebelled against the great one’ U II 77, 17; a.o. do. 86, 34; (the five kinds of sin called) utrunmak ‘opposition, rebellion’ (Chinese texts nr, same meaning (Giles 8,227)) Suv. 134, le: Civ. saga utrundačı kišiler 'the people who oppose you’ TT I 50: Xak. xı ol mapa: utrundi: qdwamatii ‘he opposed me’; and one says ye:l yığarčka utrundi: istaqbalati'l--rihu*l-šacara 'the wind blew against the tree’ Kaš. I 251 (utrunur, utrunma:k).

D adrıš- Recip. f. of adir-; ‘to part from one another’ and the like; usually Intrans., occasionally Trans. S.i.a.m.l.g., w. the same phonetic changes as adir-. Xak. xı ola:r İtici: adrıšdı: taferaqa*l-rafiqen wa iazeyale 'the two comrades parted and went separate ways’; in a verse ye:rde: kopa: adrıšuır (the flowers) ‘spring from the ground and open’ (yanfaric) Kaš. I 233 (adnšu:r, adrıšma:k) — oia:r İkki: ayrıšdı: îazeyale ıva tafarraqe\ luğa fVl-čjel ‘alternative form with -d-’ 1 270 (ayrıšu:r, ayrıšma:k; prob. Oğuz): Čağ. xv ff. ayrıš- (-dŋ ayrıl- Vel. 41 (quotn.) (San. 55V. z spells this word ayrılıš- az ham cude šudan ‘to be parted from one another’, with two quotns, one the same as Vel*%).

VUD otruš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of 1 otur-, Xak. xı ol maga: kesme: otrušdı: ‘he helped me to cut (fi cazz) the forelock’; also used of anything of which the excess quantity is cut off with scissors (yuqta' ziyddatuhu bVl--miqrdd) Kaš. I 233 (otrušu:r, otrušma:k).

D utruš- Recip. f. of *utur-; ‘to oppose one another; to meet one another’. Survives only (?) in NE Tel. uduraš- R 1 1714 and forms like učraš- (San. 64V. 28) which are reborrowings fr. Mong. Xak. xı ol agar utrušdi: qdwatnahu fi amr ‘he opposed him over something’; and one says ol maga: utrušdi: wacahani 'he confronted me’ Kaš. I 232 (utrušu:r, utrušma:k); okta:ğalı: ııtrušu:r ‘each of them was on the point of shooting the other with an arrow’ (keda ... an yarmi... bi-sahm) II 97, 16.

D üdreš- (increase, accumulate) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of üdre:- with the connotation of cumulative action. Xak. xı kege:šli:g bili:g üdrešü:r al-tadbir ide kena mulaqqaha (n) bVl-šûre yazdad kull yawm husnuhu ‘when knowledge is fertilized by counsel, its goodness increases every day’ Kaš. I 232, 4; n.m.e.

D üdrüš- Co-op. f. of üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter). Survives only in NE Khak. üzüriš-, Xak. xı ol maga: tawa:r (sic) üdrüšdi: 'he helped me to choose ('aid taxyiŋ the wares (etc.)’; also used for competing Kaš. I234 (üdrüšü:r,üdrüšme:k).

D ötrüš- Hap. leg. (?); Recip., etc. form of 2 ötür- (penetrate (subject)); cf, ötgürüš-. Xak. xı ola:r bir bi:rke: bitig ötrušdi: ‘each of them got a letter through (anfada... al-kitdb) to his comrade’; its origin (ašluhu) is ötgürüšdi:; also used for helping and competing in getting anything through (jt tanfid kull šay') Kaš. I 232 (ötrüšür, ötrüšme:k).

Tris. ADR

PUD otura: N.o.a.b.; meaning clear, etymology doubtful; perhaps best explained as a Dev. N. fr. 1 otur-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in a prescription for a sore throat) bir sunča budanı tüz otura yarıp oturasın azkıya oyup oy kılıp ‘split a liquorice root about an inch long into (two) equal parts; hollow one part out a little making a hole in it’ (and insert various drugs) H I 146-7; a.o. do. 152.

D ötürü: See ötrü:.

PUD iterči Hap. leg.; inexplicable in this spelling; perhaps to be read as ederči Dev. N.Ag’fr. eder-, ‘hunter’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in \\ a list of men regarded as disreputable because they take life) (butchers, poultry keepers, swineherds, fishermen, hunters, trappers, fowlers) iterči (?) (killers of flying and creeping things) TT IV 8, 57. (See čıvğačı:,)

D adırtıklığ Hap. leg.; occurs in Uyğ- vııı ff. Bud. in TT VIII G.67 translating a lost Sanskrit word. Presumably P.N./A. fr. a Dev. N. in -k fr. adirt- and more or less synonymous with adırtlığ.

D adırtlığ (discriminative, discriminating, distinguishable; detailed, подробно > дробить, дробь, дроби) P.N./A. fr. adirt; ‘possessing discrimination, able to discriminate; distinguishable; detailed’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A üčöüki adırtlağ üdürtlügyörüglügtirigöz ‘a living soul able to discriminate and choose (between good and evil) and provide explanations in the three times’ M I 26, 16-17: Bud. anı blzige adırtlığ yarlıkazun ‘let him communicate it to us in detail’ U III 68, 25; ay emdi adırtlığ sözlegil ‘speak to us now (and explain) in detail’ VSp. 105b. 8; a.o. TT VI 383 (ačuk).

D üdürtlüg (selective) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. *üdürt; ‘able to choose’ Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 26, 15-17 (adırtlığ).

D adırtsız Priv. N./A. fr. adirt; n.o.a.b. Uyğ." vııı ff. Bud. meniŋ yürekimte lsig özümte adırtsız köŋülın olurğıl ‘sit with thoughts inseparable from my heart and soul’ U III 83, 5-7; (they had a form and body) kamağ yalamuklarda adırtsız ‘indistinguishable from (those of) all men’ TT VI 356 (with adruksiz v.l. for adırtsız).

D utrııkı: N./A.S. fr. utru: (opposite, other) (other, otherwise) (Utrugurs ~ Uturgurs). Survives only (?) in NETuv.udurğu ‘front’ (teeth). Xak.xi KB kiši utrukı aška sunma elig ‘do not stretch out your hand to food in front of other people’ 4130; o.o. 2716, 4598: xııı (?) Tef. yüzi utrukim ‘what is in front of his face’ 333.

D adruksuz Hap. leg. (?); Priv. N./A. fr. adruk; ‘indistinguishable’; synonymous with adırtsız, q.v. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 356.

D Ötürük Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. 2 Ötür-; ‘diarrhoea, suffering from diarrhoea’; cf. I ötüg, ötrüm; morphologically identical, but semantically quite distinct, fr. ötrük. Survives, xv. the same meaning, only in SW XX Anat. ötrük, Ötürek, ötürü, ötürük SDD 1120-1. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ötürük ‘diarrhoea’ II I 2; ötürke (? error for ötürükke or ötügke) cm ‘a remedy for diarrhoea’ do. 190.

D ederliğ P.N./A. fr. eder (saddle); s.i.a.m.l.g. with the same phonetic changes as eder. Xak. xı (after ederlik) and with -g (i.e. ederlig) šehibu'1-sarc 'owning a saddle’ Kaš. I 151.

D ederlik (saddletree) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. eder (saddle); ‘saddletree’. S.i.s.m.l.g, Xak. xı ederlik ‘the piece of wood (al-xašab) on which the saddle is placed' Kaš. I 151.

S edremlig See erdemlig.

D üdründi: (chosen, choice, select) Pass. N./A.S. fr. Refl, f. of üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter); ‘chosen, choice, select'. Survives only (?) in SW Osm, öründü/öründl Red. 247. Xak. xı üdründi: nc:ŋ ‘a choice (al-muxtar) thing’ Kaš. I 145: KB bayat kullarında eg üdründüsi ‘the choiccst of the servants of God’ 2598: xııı (?) KBPP yala-vačlarda üdründüsi ‘the choicest of the Prophets’ e: Xwar. xıv teorlnig üdründi kuli ‘the chosen servant of God’ Nahc. 90, 12; xaiayiqlarmŋ mellarınıŋ üdründüsi ‘the choicest of the people’s property’ do. 250, 4: Osm. xıv ff. öründü (wt?) ‘chosen, sclect’; c.i.a.p. down to xvıı TTS I 747; II 955; III 733; IV 805: xvııı öründü (spelt) in Rumi, intixab ‘choosing, choicc’ San. 71V. 22.

D utrunuk Hap. leg.; Pass. N./A.S. fr. utrun-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (gap) a:y tergri ya:rokin utrunuk ertürmiš ke:re:k ‘he

must spend his time exposed to the moonlight’ TT VIII 1.18.

Tris. V. ADR-

D adırtla:- (distinguish) Den, V. fr. adirt; ‘to distinguish between (two things Acc.y, with various extended meanings later. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. artla- R I 316; Krım ayırtla- R I 32; and SW Osm. ayırtla-. Considering the constant parallelism between adir- and üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter) and their respective der. f.s, a parallel form *üdürtle:- must have existed but only its SW Osm. form üyürtle- seems to be noted. It still survives in Rep. Turkish as ögürtle- (öyürtle-) but in xx Anat. where the recorded forms are örtle- SDD 1, 116; üyükle-, üyütle- i, 441; ügürtle- 170?; ügütle- 1708, initial ü- prevails. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit vicayo ‘investigation’ nom a:tirtla:ma:k TT VIII A.21; Sanskrit bhinneštı ‘in the divided’ a:tırtla:mıšla:rda: do. F.4 (in these texts -t- prob. pronounced -d-); edgü ayığ kılınčığ adırtlağalı uyur "he can distinguish between good and bad deeds’ U III 5, 12-13; (wisdom) edgüll ayığlı nomlanğ čınğarıp adırtlap ‘investigating good and bad doctrines and distinguishing between them’ TT V 24, 76; a.o. Suv. 302, 12: Civ. ot küyürdl altunuğ adırtlağuluk belgü bar 'there is an indication of refining fire-smelted gold’ TT I 70-1: (Xak.) xıv Muh. (}) ixtera ‘to choose’ (özle:-; in margin of one MS.) üyürtle- Mel. 22, 3 (perhaps a SW gloss): ČAğ. xvff, ayırtla- (spelt) az ham cttde kardan ‘to separate from one another’; and metaph. tafriq wa tatnyiz-i nth u bad *to distinguish and discriminate between good and bad’ San. 55r. e: Osm. xıv ff. ayırtla- ‘to choose, select; refine (metal); investigate (a matter), settle (a dispute); weed, clean (a field)’ c.i.a.p. TTS I 58; II 78; III 52 ; IV 58; once (xiv) ayıtla- I 59 (? mis-spelling) — üyürtle-, sometimes spelt ügürtie- ‘to pick out, choose, select’, in all periods I 742; II 949; III 727; IV 801: xvııı üyürtle- intixfib ‘to choose' San. Č2r. 13.

D *üdürtle:~ See adırtla:-.

Tris. ADS

D ederle:- Den, V. fr. eder (saddle); ‘to saddle (a horse, etc. Acc.)’. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. same phonetic changes as eder. Xak. xı er at ederlerdi: 'the man saddled (asraca) the horse’ Kaš, I 300 (ederle:r, ederle:me:k): xıv Muh. asra-ca'l-debba eyerie:- Mel. 22, 7; Rif. 103 (in margin ederle:-); . . , isreche ‘to saddle it’ eyerlemek (spelt -mak in error) Mel. 39, 4; Rif, 12e: Xwar. xııı eyerie- ditto 'Ali 55:xiv ederle- ditto Qutb 18: Kip. xııı asraca min isrdri'l-faras eyerie:- (misvocalized) Hou. 36, 14: xıv eyerie- asraca Id. 2e: xv ditto Kav. 77, 1; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 76b. 1 and 3.

D utru:lan- (opposite, other) (other, otherwise) (Utrugurs ~ Uturgurs) Refl. Den. V. fr.utru: (opposite, other) (other, otherwise) (Utrugurs ~ Uturgurs). Survives only (?) in NE Khak., Tuv. udurlan-; but the basic and Recip. f.s s.i.s.m.l.g. 5İak. xı ol agar utru.’Iandt: wacahahu ‘he confronted him’ Kaš. I 296 (utrulanur, utrulanma:k, sic).

Dis. ADS

D atsız (a:dsiz) (nameless) Priv. N./A. fr. 1 a:t (name); ‘nameless’, used particularly in the phr. atsız erŋe:k 'nameless (i.e. ring) finger. S.i.a.m.l.g. In some contexts, e.g. the Proper Name Atsız, it is hard to decide whether this is the word concerned or the parallel Priv. N./A. fr. 2 at (horse) 'horseless’ (first noted in Kip. xııı Hou, 52, 3). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT V 8, 55 (İčtirti:): (Xak.) xrv Muh. al-banšar ‘the ring finger' atsız Mel. 47, 12 (mis-spelt ana.st:); Rif. 141 (mis-spelt ata:sı:)\ Čağ. xv ff. atsız bi-nam ‘nameless’ San. 30V. 15 (with a note on the P.N. Atsız): Kip. xııı al-banšar adsi:z parmak (be) Hou. 20, 15: xıv a^šız parmak (be) ditto İd. 12 (after orta: parmak): xv al-banšar adsız parmak (be) Kav. 6 r, 4: Osm. xv-xvi adsız ‘of evil repute’ in three texts TTS I 4; IV 4.

D edsiz Hap. leg.; Priv, N./A. fr. e:t- (e:d-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man,-A (just as craftsmen (uzlaŋ cannot use) edsiz neg ‘an unserviceable thing’ (i.e. as a raw material) M / 16, 14.

D etsiz (fleshless, lean) Priv. N./A. fr. et (meat, flesh); ‘fleshless, lean’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. Xak. xı KB (if you see the face of a shameless man) etsiz 8ÖQÜk ‘it is a bone with no flesh on it’ 220e: Čağ. xv ff. in San. 30V. etsiz bt-ğiîšt 'fleshless' mentioned as an alternative form of the P.N. Atsız.

D otsuz Priv. N./A. fr. 2 ot (grass, vegetation); ‘without grass or vegetation’. S.i.s.m.l. Türkü vııı ff. otsu:z suvsu:z kaltı: uyitn ‘how can I get on without grass or water?’ IrkB 45: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ, otsuz [gap] TT VII 17, 7.

D ödsüz Priv. N./A. fr. ö:d (time); ‘timeless; untimely, premature’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (if you lawlessly sin) ödsüzke ‘against the Timeless One' (i.e. Zurvan) TT II 6, 8: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ödsüz kolusuz ölmez ‘he does not die prematurely (Hend.)’ TT VI 348-9: Xak. xı KB kiši ödsüz Ölmez 2288; (death) busuğdın čıkar ieg čıkar ödsüzün ‘comes unexpectedly, like (someone) coming out of on ambush’ 4826.

Dis. V. ADS-

D atsa:- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of at- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash). Xak. xı ol ok atsa:di: ‘he wished to shoot (ramy) an arrow’ Kaš. I 275 (atsa:r, atsa:ma:k).

D etse:- Hap. leg,; Desid. Den. V. fr. et (meat, flesh). Xak. xı er etse:di: qarima'l-racul ile'1-lahm ‘the man craved for meat’ Kaš. I 275 (etse:r, etse:me:k).

D idsa:- Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of i:d-. Xak. xı ol kulın mapa: idsardi: ‘he wished to send (yab’at) his slave to me’ Kaš. I 276 (idsa:r1 idsa:ma:k).

D itse:- Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of it-. Xak. xı ol ta:šığ itscrdi: ‘he wished to move (yudah--ric) the stone’ Kaš. I2j6 (itse:r, itse:me:k).

D ötse:- Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of 1 öt- (pierce, pass), Xak. xı ol ü:ttln ötse:di: ‘he wished to get out (yaxruc) of the hole’; also used of (wishing to) pass through anything (fi nufüd min kull fay’) Kaš. I 276 (ötse:r, otse:me:k).

D etset- (meat) Hap. leg,; Caus. f. of etse:- (meat). Xak. xı ol meni: etsetti: aqramani ile’l-lahm tea šahheni ‘he made me crave for meat and whetted my appetite’ Kaš. I 262 (etsetür, etsetme:k).

D utsuk- (defeated, lose) Emphatic Pass. f. of ut-; ‘to be defeated by (someone Dat.)', to lose at gambling’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. bu yok tözlüg Öpke nızvanı eyln utsukup 'being overcome by this passion of anger rooted in nothingness’ TT II17, 80-3: Bud. adinlarka utsukmaksiz ‘unconquerable by others’ UII 51, 6; o.o. UII 58, 3 (ı); Hüen-ts. 1802: Xak. xı ol yarma:kin utsuk ti: qümira darehim fi*l--laib ‘he lost his money at gambling’; also of losing other things; prov. (utsuka:r yuğlab ‘he is defeated') Kaš. I 242 (utsuka:r, utsukma:k).

Tris. ADS

D udisik (sleep) Intrans. Dev. N. fr. udi:-; ‘sleep’. N.o.a.b. Türkü virr (when I heard this news) tün udısı:kım kelmedi: 'sleep did not come to me at night’ T 12 same phr. but with udısıkım T 22.

C ata:sa:ğu:n (physician)physician’; compound of ata:father’ and sa:ğu:n a title (?) (expert). N.o.a.b. Xak. xı (after ata:) ata:sa:ğu:n al-tabib ‘physician’ Kaš. I 86, 5; (after sağun) ‘and the Turkish physician (al-tabibuyl-turkŋ is called ata:sağufl /4<>3. 5.

D adašız (dangerless) Priv. N./A, fr. ada: (danger, devil, injury, damage, pain, ад "hell"); ‘free from danger, in safety’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A Igsizin adasizin turalim ‘may we remain free from illness and danger’ M 728, 27; Man. (ad)asızın tudasizin ‘free from danger’ M III 36, 2 (ii) (and MI 31, 1 (e)): Bud. adašız uzun yašamak 'a long life free from danger’ TT VII 40, 129; adašız tudasiz PP 33, 6; Suv. 192, i.

Tris. ADS

D atašız (fatherless) Priv. N./A. ata: (father); 'fatherless’. N.o.a.b. but prob. s.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı KB 6055 (etči:).

D idi:siz (masterless, ownerless) I’riv. N./A. fr. 1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God)); ‘without a master; ownerless’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. ersiz; Kzx. iyesiz, and SW Osm. where it is now spelt ıssız. Türkü vııı (may the country which our ancestors held) idisiz kalmazu:n (v.l. bolmazu:n) ‘not remain (v.l. become) ow nerless’ IE 19, II E 16 , I E 20, II E 17: Osm. xıv and xv isiz/ısız ‘ownerless, desolate’ in several texts; also A.N.s isizlik and ısızlık TTS I 390; II S49! HI 384.

Dis. ADŠ

D adaš/addaš N. of Assn. fr. 1 a:t (a:d) (name). Abdülkadir Itian in Türk Dili, Belleten 3rd Series, No 1, pp. 41 ff. argued that the original meaning was ‘friend, comrade’, and that 'namesake’ was a later, secondary meaning. This is etymologically impossible, but the meaning ‘comrade’ is so prevalent in the early period as to suggest that in this context 1 a:t (name) meant ‘clan (rather than personal) name’, so that addaš meant primarily ‘fellow clansman’; cf. kadaš. S.i.a.m.l.g. See Doerfer II 437. Türkü vııı ff. Man. yavlak eš tuš adaš kadaš ‘evil comrades (Hend.) and kinsmen (Hend.)’ Chuas. 197-8: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit saheyate ‘comradeship’ eš a:daš bolma:k TT VIII B.4; eš adaš ‘comrades’ is the term used for the hare, the monkey, and the beaver in the Hare Jetaka, U IV 44 ff., ‘kinsman’ would not here be strictly appropriate; on p. 46 adaš occurs twice, 52 and 66, once in adaš eš 62, once in eš adaš 69; and twice in adaš böšük (q.v.) 55 and 64, while eš appears once by itself, 48 and once in eš tuš 59; in all cases except adaš böšük the obvious meaning is ‘comrade’ or the like: O. Kır. ıx ff. Mal. 11, 8 (andlig): Xak. xı adaš al-xidti ‘friend, comrade, contemporary’ Kaš. I 61: KB adaš koldaš erdeš tutundı kalın ‘he acquired a crowd of friends and comrades (double Hend.)’ 1697; o.o. 317, 502, 524, 2276, 3485, 4542, often in association with kadaš: xın (?) Tef. attaš ‘namesake’ 62 (II at): xıv A/m/i. (?) muehid tea nutiaixi ‘ally, brother’ aya:š (error for ata:š or ada:š) Rif. 145 (only): Čağ. xv ff. adaš hamndm ‘namesake’ San. 33r. 23 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv adaš ‘friend’ Qutb 3: Kom. xıv ‘namesakeataš CCG; Gr.

D atıš (throwing, shooting) N.Ac. fr. at- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash). S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı atıš al-muremet ‘throwing, or shooting, at one another’ (also a masculine P.N.) Kaš. I 60: Čağ. xv ff. atıš tutuš syn. w. atar tutar San. 30V. 26 (quotn.; the latter, not an early phr., is translated in 30V. 8 ‘an exchange of abuse and blows; military science; the art of war’).

idiš ‘cup, vessel’, and the like. Survives as İdiš in some NE languages, including Khak. and Tuv.; NC Kır. and SC Uzb. Türkü vııı ff. uzu:nto:nlu:ğ idi:ši:n ayaki:n ko-durpan barmi:š ‘a woman left behind her her cup and bowl and went away’ IrkB 42 a.o.o.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. (the minds, thoughts, and bodies of mankind) burxanlarmŋ nom idiši t^tir ‘are called the vessels of the doctrine of the Buddhas’ TT VI 200-1; kara idiš (so read) eligiŋde kötüriip ‘carrying a black cup in your hand’ USp. 105b. 4; a.o. Suv. 28, 10: Civ. altun küzeč erser ornağlığ idiš ol ‘as for the gold jug, it is a vessel on a solid base’ TT I 189: Xak. xı idiš («e) al-qadah ‘cup’ Kaš. I el(and see Oğuz); lvrik idiš tizildi: ‘the pitcher and cups (al-aqddh) were arranged’ 111 131, 22; a.o. III 232, 27 (tolu:; in both these places spelt idiš): xıv Rbğ. idiš ‘cup’ R I 859 (quotns.): Muh. atdtu'l-bavt ‘household goods, utensils’ i:yiš Mel 68, 11; Rif. 168: Čağ. xv ff. idiš zarf ‘cup’ Vel. el(quotn.); idiš zurftf tva azvdtti ‘cups and vessels’ San. gyr. 16 (quotn.): Yağma:, Tuxsi:, Yeme:k, Oğuz xı idiš (sic) is used (in these languages) for kull qidr azo tawr azo ittd' ‘any earthenware pot or small vessel or vase’ Kaš. I 161: Xwar. xıv idiš (sic) ‘cup’ Qutb 57.

D itiš N.Ac. fr. it-. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. and xx Anat. SDD 801. Xak. xı itiš al-mudefa'a bayna' tnayn bi'l-yad ‘of two people, pushing one another with their hands’ Kaš. I 61..

D ödüš Hap. leg.; Den. N. fr. ö:d (time); the context suggests a meaning of ‘a period of 24 hours’. Türkü vııı tünü: ktinli: ydti: ödüške: suvsız kečdim ‘I made my way without water for a period of seven days and nights’ II SE.

D ötüš (veins) N.Ac. fr. 1 öt- (pierce, pass). Survives in SC Uzb. ötiš, and perhaps, somewhat distorted, in some NE languages. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (the root of his tongue, his throat, his lungs, his gullet) su:v ö:l ö:tüš (spelt ödüš) a:lta:čı ta:marla:rı ‘his internal passages lit. "veins” which allow the passage of water and (other) liquids’ TT VIII 1.1: Xak. xı ötüš (bi--išmemi'1-alif ‘with front vowels’) used when boys sit in a circle, and one of them bumps (yuqammis) against the boy next to him and says ötüš ötüš, that is 'add 'anka'l-qams ile man fi canbik ‘pass on the bump to the boy next to you’ Kaš. I 60 (listed as a noun, but prob. Imperat. of the Recip. f. of 1 öt- (pierce, pass)).

Dis. V. ADŠ-

D adıš- Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of 1 *ad-. Xak. xı er ada:kı: adıšdı: fahica'I-racul bi-riclayhi ‘the man straddled his legs’; also used of any things which are separated (inf araca) one from the other Kaš. I 181 (adıšu:r, adıšma:k).

D atıš- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash) Recip. f. of at- (shoot, throw, discharge, flash) ; with a range of meanings similar to those of at-. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: ok atıšdı: ‘he competed with me in shooting (fi'l-ratny) arrows’; also used of throwing (fi tarh) something Kaš. I 180 (atıšur, atıšma:k): Čağ. xv ff. atıš- Recip. f. andaxtan ‘to throw or shoot, stones, arrows, \\ or spears at one another’ San. 28r. le: Osm. xıv atıš- 'to shoot (arrows) at one another’ TTS I s2.

D etiš- (ediš-) (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize) Recip. f. of e:l-; with a range of meanings similar to those of e:t- (do, make, create, ornament, adorn, put in order, organize). Survives in NE Khak. fdfs- lias. 56 and SW Osm. ediš-. Xak. xı ola:r ičin e:tišdi:le:r tašelahû fitne baynahum 'they reached (made, organized) a settlement on matters of mutual interest’ Kaš. I 76, 6 (İČİn); n.m.e.: Čağ, xvff, etiš- (with 4-) Recip. f.; be yakdigar keri kardan *tn do something together’ San. g+r. 21.

D idiš- (itiš-) (push, quarrel) Recip. f. of i:d-; n.oitf.b. Xak. xı ol mapa: ertüt ıdıšdı: hedeni tva inrn ayda (n) ahdaytuhu fay' ’he gave me a present and 1, too, gave him something’; also used of anything when you compete with someone else in giving it (fi itjaqihŋ Kaš. I 182 (ıdıšu:r, ıdıšma:k): Kip. xv elči keleči lyıšıp ‘sending envoys and messengers to one another’ ‘Golden Horde letter dated’ a.d. 1428 4, 6, 14 a.o.o. (Kurat, Altın Ordu, Kırtm ve Turkistan Hanlarına Ait Yarlık ve Bitikler, İstanbul, 1940, p. 8), D itiš- Recip. f. of it-; ‘to push one another', hence later ‘to quarrel’. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol anıp birle: itİšdi: dafa'a ma'ahu *he pushed against him’; also used ofhelping or competing in pushing something (fi vuıdefa'a šay*) Kaš. I 180 (itišü:r, itišme:k): Čağ. xv ff. itiš- (with I-) Recip. f.; ham-digar-re be dast afgandan ‘to knock one another down with the hands’ San. 94r. 21.

D udıš- (sleep, clot, curdle, coagulate, numb, negligent, slothful) Co-op., etc. f. of udı- (udı:-) (sleep, clot, curdle, coagulate, numb, negligent, slothful). S.i.a.m.l.g. as uyuš- (NE Khak. uzus-) except SE, where uyuš- (Jarring 322) is a Sec. f. of uruš-, Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: udıšdı: bereni fi’l-nawm ayyuna anwam ‘he competed with me in sleeping to see which of us slept best'; and one says ada:k udıšdı: xadirati'l-ricl ‘the leg went to sleep, became numb’; and one says yuğrut udıšdı: tarawivaba'l-laban wa xatara ‘the milk (yoğurt) curdled and clotted’ Kaš. I 181 (udıšu:r, udıšma:k); Osm. xvı ff. uyuš- ‘to clot, coagulate’ in several texts TTS II 942; 77/724: xvııı uyuš- (spelt, with -mek in error) in Rumi, afsurda šudan-i xûn dar 'udw ‘of blood, to clot in a limb’; hence they say ayak uyuš- pe xujtan ‘of a leg, to go to sleep’, in Ar. xadira San. 92r. 12.

D uduš- (unite) Recip. f. of u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit); survives as uyuš-‘to come to a mutual understanding, unite’ in SE Türki: NC Kır. and SW Osm, The only supposed early occurrence is dubious, see udušur-. Čağ. xv ff. uyuš- Recip. f.; hucüm kardan tva muteba'at-i yak-dtgar namûdan ‘to crowd together and follow one another’ San. 89V. 29: Osm. xvı uyuš- ‘to reach a mutual understanding’ TTS III 724.

D utuš- (win, beat, defeat, victory, conquer) Recip. f. of ut- (üt-) (win, beat, defeat, victory, conquer). Survives in NW Kaz. utuš- RI 1325 and SW xx Anat. uduš- SDD 1413. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: yarma:k utušdb qemarant wa xatarani fVl-dirham ‘he gambled and betted with me for money (etc.)' Kaš. I180 (utušur, utušma:k).

D ötüš- (pierce, pass) Recip. f. of 1 öt- (pierce, pass). See ölüš.

Tris. ADŠ

D idišči: (chamberlain) N.Ag. fr. idiš. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB (the steward must supervise) idisči töšekči yeme aščıka ‘the cupbearer, bed-maker, and cook’ 2557; a.o. 4047.

D adašlık A.N, fr. adaš. Survives in SW Osm. adašlık ‘having the same name’ Sami 25. Xak. xı adašlık al- šadega ‘friendship’ Kaš. I 149; a.o. I 149, 3 (translated al-muwadda’ friendship), D idišlig P.N./A. fr. idiš. Survives in NE Khak. İdistig. Xak. xı KB idišlig suvuğ ‘the water in the cup’ 6045, 6057, 6060, 6062.

Tris. V. ADŠ-

D udušur- Caus. f. of uduš-. N.o.a.b. The word concerned has hitherto been misunderstood; Thomsen connected it with utru: (opposite, other) (other, otherwise) (Utrugurs ~ Uturgurs) and translated it ‘in the encounter’; Atalay derived it directly from uduš- which is morphologically difficult; Malov followed him. But to take it as a Ger. of the Caus. f. of uduš- gives it exactly the right sense. As such, the word is Hap. leg, but the parallel Caus. f. in -tur-survives as uyušlir- in SC Uzb. and prob. elsewhere. Türkü vııı bir erig oku:n urti: eki: erig udušuru: sančtı: ‘he shot one man with an arrow and speared two men sending them one after the other’ I E 36; similar phr. IN 2, \\ atız survives meaning ‘a small field’ and the like in SE Türki atız Shaw 3; etiz BŠ 581; Tar. etiz R I 843: NC Kzx. atız R I 460. Became a First Period 1,-w. in Mong. as atar ‘uncultivated ground’. Xak. xı atız kull šutba mtna’l ard bayna'I-'arimayn ‘any strip of land between two dykes’ Kaš. I 54.

Dis. ADZ

ediz/edi:z (high, lofty)high, lofty’. Survives in NE Tel., Tub. e:s R I 870: SE Türki iğiz Shaw 37; eglfc/igi2 Jarring 123; NC Kır. egiz Cf. yüksek, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. yüksek ediz orunluktin ‘from his lofty (Hend.) throne’ PP 61, 5; (a fire) ediz küyer Örtenür ‘blazes (Hend.) high’ V 12 8, 27; o.o. U 111 33, 14 (etig); Hüen-ts. 2091; Suv. 620, 16 (kalık): Civ. (earth mounted on earth) ediz bolti ‘hecame high’... ediz turur 'is high’ TT I 46-7: Xak. xı ediz kull murtafi' ‘anything high’ of land, etc.: ediz ta:ğ cabal meni' 'an inaccessible mountain’ Kaš. I 55; edi:z al-murtafi', of anything / 122: KB ay sirrka yakın ay köpülke e§iz ‘oh (God) near to the secret and high above the mind’ 20; (if the moon is full and) ağsa ediz 'rises high’ 733; ediz 'arš ‘the lofty throne’ 477e: xııı (:) At. ediz ‘lofty’ 60, 76; sımaktın edizrek ‘higher than Arcturus’ 49: xıv Rbğ, ediz ‘high’ R I 859 (described as Čağ.): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 19.

Dis. ADZ

C etoz (often written as two words et öz, but not declined separately) lit. ‘flesh spirit’, but used as a technical term in Bud. (and Man.) scriptures for ‘a live body’ as opposed to a corpse or a spirit; very common in early texts, but not adopted for Moslem terminology and not surviving later than about xiv. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man, etöz ertimllkin sakınıp ‘meditating on the transitoriness of the body’ TT III 137: Bud. bu suyluğ etözde ozalim ‘may we escape from this sinful body’ PP 51, 8; etö2 kodup adın ajunka barsar ‘if he lays down this body and rocs to another state of existence’ U III 43, 12; numerous o.o., U IV 28, 10; Suv. 446, 15; 613, 19; TT VIII (spelt etöz, e:toz, etiiz, c:fiiz), etc.: Civ. [gap] ka:yinturup İčse:r etözke: [gap] ‘if one boils... and drinks it, [it is good?] for the body’ TT VIII M.30; o.o. H II 24, 53, and 61: Xak. xı KB (anger and bad temper are bad for a man; with these two) tutčı emğer etöz 'the body is in constant pain’ 332; o.o. 990 (yavnt-), 991, 1194, 1438, etc. (common): xııı (?) At. see 1 0:z: xıv Muh. (l) al-nafs ‘the sclf (?)’ etö:z Rif, 139 (only, see 1 ö:z (soul, self, interior part of an organism, pith, marrow, centre, middle, core, essence, trunk, each) (us)): Kom. xıv söz etiz (jrc) bolup turur ‘the word became flesh’ CCG; Gr.

uduz (itch) (itch) ‘the itch’ and other skin diseases. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. uyuz. Cf. kotur. Uyg. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 443 (örmen): Xak. xı uduz al-carab ‘itch, scab’ Kaš. I 54 (prov.); six o.o., in three u<Ju:z: xıv Muh. (?) al-carab (kotur, v.l. in one MS.) u:yu2 Mel. 65,1: Čağ*xv ff. uyuz (spelt) 'Hlat-i carab ‘a disease, itch’ San. 92V. 27.

ottuz (ottoz) (thirty)thirty’. For the double -tt-which was the original pronunciation but is seldom written, see Clauson, ‘The Turkish Numerals’, JRAS, April 1959. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as otuz. Türkü vııı (Kül T<egin in that battle) otu:z yašayu:r erti: ‘was thirty years of age’ IN 2; otuz \\ E 28; II S 2: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. otuz M III 25, 4 (v); TT III 18, page number: Bud. otuz is common in TT VIi: Civ. otoz, consistently so spelt, is common in TT VIII (and USp.j: Xak. xı (in a Section headed bob fa”tll) ottuz yarmark taletüna dirham ‘thirty silver coins (etc.)’. This word is alsp used for ‘three’; 1 heard them say at (VU) Kinüt in Yağma: ottuz ičelim meaning 'let us have three drinks', although the word means ‘thirty’; and in my presence they drank three times three (verse) Kaš. I 142: xııı (?) Tef. otuz ‘thirty’ 240: xıv Muh. taletuna otu:z Mcl. 82, 4; Rif. 187: Čağ. xv ff. otuz ‘the number thirty’ San. 62V. 10 (quotn.) (this is not one of the numerals with double consonants discussed in 20V. 9ff): Kom. xıv ‘thirty’ otuz CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı taletin ofuz lion. 22, 10: xıv ditto Id. 15; Bui. 12, 12; xv ditto Kav. 39, 5; 65, 8; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 60b. 9.

Dis. V. ADZ-

PUD atız- (play) N.o.a.b.; ‘to play’ (a musical instrument); as the first letter in one place looks like a- and in the other 6-/İ-/1- its origin \\ is doubtful, but perhaps a Caus. f. of frt-is the likeliest. Uyğ. vııı (F. Bud. (bring me a lute and) eliğim atızu (?) ağzım yırlayu öz İğİdeyln ‘1 will support myself by playing it with my hand and singing with my mouth’ PP 70, 1-2; eligl kopuz atızu (?) ağzı yırlayu olurdı ‘he sat, his hand playing the lute and his mouth singing’ do. 71, 1-2.

D uduz- (lead, conduct) Caus. f. of u:d- (ut-) (follow, behind, then, thereafter, conform, fit); ‘to lead, or conduct (someone Acc.)'. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı yeti: yüz kiši:g uduzığma: uluğı: šad erti: ‘their chief, wbo led the 700 men, was a šad’ T 5; köglügče: uduz ‘lead them as you think best’ T 15: Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. (an angel appeared and) uduzup andın ‘leading them from there’ U I 9, 7: Bud. uduzup ‘leading him’ PP 64, 2; 70’ 4; o.o. U fl 33, 9; U III 16, 20: yörčlleyÜr uduzur erdl 'he guided and led’ Hüen-ts. 1938.

D utuz- () Caus. f. in -z- (cf. atız- (play)) fr. ut-. Survives only in SW xx Anat. utuz-/ütüz-SDD 1423, 1440. Like the later Caus. f.s, utğuz- first noted in Čağ. Vel. 92; San, 6ov. 11 and surviving in SE, SC, and uttur’ first noted in Kıp. Bui. eyr. 7 and surviving in NE, NW, and SW xx Anat. ütür-, it has the unusual Caus. meaning of ‘to allow others to beat oneself, to lose’. Türkü vııı ff. (a gambleŋ oğlun kisi:si:n utu:zmaduk ‘did not lose his son and wife’ IrkB 29 (and see ut-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit gane-periharena ‘by losing the community' kuvra:ğığ utuzma:k üze: TT VIII C.5: Čağ. xv ff. utuz- (and utkuz-, -di, etc.) utul-, yani yenil-, elinde olanın aldır- ‘to be beaten, to lose what you have in hand’ Vel. 92 (San. 59V. 18 erroneously corrected utuz- in one quotn. to otur- ‘to sit’): Kip. xv xasira ‘to lose’ Tuh, 15a. 2.

Tris. ADZ

D edizlik A.N. fr. ediz. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı edizlik al-irtifa ‘height, elevation’ Kaš. I 152: KB edizlik tiled! süzük c5n turuğ ‘his pure soul sought the heavenly height as his resting place’ 1521: xıv Rbğ. (l) ^dizlik (spelt edizlik) R I 859 (listed as Čağ. but prob. Rbğ.).

DC etözlüg P.N./A. fr. etöz. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. üküš [törlüg] Özütlüg etözlük (sic in error) [gap] ‘many kinds of deceased and still living (?)...’ M III 36, 7 (iii) (M I 31, 6 (ŋ): Xak. xı KB etözlüg kišike kereki bu ol ‘this is what a human being needs’ 1023.

D otuza:r (ottuza:r) (thirty each, thirty at a time) Distributive f. of ottuz; 'thirty each, thirty at a time’. Survives in SW Osm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ, (beginning with that sign of the zodiac) otuza:r sa:n ber ‘give them thirty numbers (?) each’ TT VIII L.20; otuzar tenbln süčügni bir kap ‘a wine skin containing thirty tenbin of wine’ USp. 10, 8.

Tris. V. ADZ-

D atizla:- (play) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. atız (play). Xak. xı er ye:rln atızla:dı: ittaxada'l-racül fi // nrdıhı diber via musannöt H'l-ziraa ‘the man made irrigation ditches and dikes on his land to cultivate it5 Kaš. I 301 (atizla:r, atizla:ma:k).

D uduzla:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. uduz. Xak’ X! ol anı: uduzla:dı: detvehu mwal-carob ‘he cured him of the itch’ Kaš. I 301 (uduzla:r, uduzla:ma;k).

D atizlan- (play) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of atizla:- (play). Xak. xı ye:r atizlandi: cuilati'f-ard mušeret 'the land was made saleable’ (i.e. provided with ditches and dikes). Kaš. I 292 (the Aor. and Infin. were originally e^öfclenür, etözlenme:k, and the -me:k was altered to -ma:k; this is prob. a case of haplography, the Aor. and Infin. of atizlan- and a sentence illustrating etözlen- (not recorded elsewhere) having been omitted by the scribe).

D edizlen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. ediz. Xak. xı ol ta:ğnı: edizlendi: 'adda'l-»cabal meni’ fatvil ‘he reckoned that the mountain was inaccessible and high’ Kaš. I 292 (edizlenur, edizlenme:k).

Mon. AĞ

D 1 a:ğ (crotch, gusset) ‘the space between the legs, crotch’; hence also ‘the gusset in a pair of trousers’. Survives in the latter meaning only (?) in NW Knm aw R I 66 and SW xx Anat. ağ SDD 72, 1601. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (if a pregnant woman cannot give birth, you must burn kısırın seed) ağı arası arasında ‘in the space between her legs’ HI 23; a.o. TT VII 26, 9-10 (İčton): Xak. xı a:ğ al-masefatü’llati baytta'l-faxdayn 'the space between the thighs’; and one says yü:z at meniŋ ağdın kečti: ‘a hundred horses have passed between my thighs’; tea huwa bi-manzilatVl-fitr bayna'l--išbıayn ‘and it is of the same order (?) as the space between two fingers' Kaš. I 80: KB 6536 (arkun): Kip. xı a:ğ tarcu'l-saretotl ‘the gusset of a pair of trousers’ İd. le: Osm. xv Ar. nayfaq ditto ağ TTS I 376 (s.v. im (üm)).

D 2 a:ğ (net, snare, web)net’, more particularly hunting or fish net. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SE, SC usually as ağ or aw. Cf. to:r. Xak. xı KB (the third is disease) tirigllk ağı ‘a net for (catching) life’ 307; (tbe body is a dangerous enemy) kamuğ yerde yadmıš tuzakı ağı ‘it has spread its snares and nets everywhere’ 3637; a.o. 4224:xiv Muk. (f) al-šabaka ‘net (altatt, unvocalized, and prob. corrupt follows) Rif. 160 (only): Čağ. xv ff. dem wa šibek ‘nets’ San. 43V. 12 (quotn. in Rumi): Xwar. xıv ağ ‘net’ Qutb 4; Kom. xıv ‘net, fish-net CCI; aw CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-šabaka Hou. 10, 18: xıv a:ğ al-šabaka in-samak ‘fish-net’ İd. 16; al-šabaka a:ğ Bul. 5, 2: xv ditto aw Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20b. 11: Osm. xıv av ‘spider’s web’ TTS I 53: xvı ditto II 7; IV 8.

1 a:k (white, transparent, tent)white’ originally as the colour of an animal’s coat as opposed to the more general word ürüŋ, q.v., later ‘white’ in all senses. C.i.a.p.a.l. It occurs, often with a metaph. meaning in numerous phr. of which, e.g., San., TTS, and R give long lists. See Doerfer II 504. Türkü vııı ak adğır ‘a white stallion’ I E 35, 36; ak at ‘a white horse’ / E 40; akwhite horse’ / N 2, 3, 5, 6, 9: vııı ff. a:k besi: “his white mare’ IrkB 5; a:k at do. 19: Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. ak kıšıg az ‘your white winters are rare’ TT I 159 (the only such occurrence noted in Uyğ., while ürüŋ is common). Xak., Oğuz xı a:k in Oğuz al-abyad min kull šay ‘white’ of anything; and among the Turks it is used in relation to the colour of a horse (/f šiyetVl-xayl)y and one says a:k at al-farasuUašhab ‘a white horse’ (and two place-names A:k Sa:y, A:k Tererk) Kaš. I 8r; ak bulıt örlenüp yartafi'u'l--muzn ‘a rain cloud rises’ I 258, 2; kerip tutarr ak torirn (the clouds) ‘spread their net over the sky', that is a rain cloud III 39, 13: xııı (?) Tef. akwhite, transparent’ 47: xıv Muh. al-abyad a:k Mel. 68, 2; Rif. 168; a.o. (adğıŋ: Čağ. xv ff. ak öy čadir ‘tent’ Vel. 24 (quotns.); ağ/ak safid ‘white’ San. 43V. 14; 45r. 21 and numerous phr., being the preferred form: Oğuz xı see Xak.; a:k saka:l er al-raculu'1-ašyab ‘a grey-bearded man’ Kaš. I 81: Xwar. xııı ağ ‘white’ ‘Ali 12: xııı (?) ak koyun ‘a white sheep’ Oğ. 363; ak 8akalluğ do. 312; ap ak ‘quite white’ 231, 343: xıv ak ‘white, whiteness’ Qutb 9; (akrakwhiter’ Nahc. 57, 7): Kom. xıv ‘white' ak/ax CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-abyad ak Hou. 31, 2: xıv ditto İd. 17 (and phr.); Bui. 2, 15 (phr.): xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 4a. 1 etc.; to emphasize white (// ta'kidVl-abyad) they say appak, originally ap ak Kav. 5, 7; a.o. 58, 18: Osm. xıv ff. and ak both occur in xiv; survives until xvı and thereafter only in popular verse TTS I 5 ff-; \\ 6 ff.; /// 4 ff ,’ IV 12.

F 2 ak (hateful)hateful’. Hap. leg.; Pelliot considered this to be an idiomatic use of 1 a:k, pointing out that Chinese pat ‘white’ (Giles 8,556) has a similar meaning in some contexts; but it seems more reasonable to suppose that it is a l.-w. fr. Chinese tcu (Ancient Chinese ’ak) ‘to hate, hateful' (Giles 12,779). Cf. akla:- (hate). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ayığ kılınčlığ ak oğlın ‘his wicked hateful son’ PP 62, 5.

*ığ (weeping, sobbing)weeping, sobbing’, the base of ığla:-, q.v.; not noted in the early period, but survives in NE Šor 1 R I 1351; Khak. 1:; Tuv. 1: (only with Poss. Suff. ı:sı: (Missing in Suffix Appendix)); NC Kır. iy.

1 ik (hiccup) (Apparently spelling hicc(up) would immediately associate with Türkic ik)hiccough’; an onomatopoeic, possibly but prob. not identical with *ığ (weeping, sobbing). Survives only (?) in NC Kır. and SW Osm. Sam. 244 (only) Cf. ıhla:-. Xak. xı ik ‘the hiccough (al-rabtc) which rises from the chest when cold water is drunk and bread eaten on the top of it’; hence one says anı: ik tutti: axadahu’l-rabtv ‘he was seized with hiccoughs’ Kaš. I37.

2 ik (ič) (I, 1st pers. pronoun) Khazar runic (ik) Ik “I” in phrase /ik øðim/ “Ik, myself” on Bilingual Khazar Coin of Sweden [Gábor Hosszú, 2012, Heritage of Scribes, p. 167]

1 oğ (disengaged, idle, free)disengaged, idle’; not noted before xıv but cf. 1 ağla:- (deserted, abandoned). Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. SDD 1085 (also with a phr. relating to a mill); Anat. uğu do. 1414 and do. 1091 \76\ are synonymous. Kip. xıv xeh feriğ 'free, disengaged’; one says bey oğmudur 'is the chief disengaged (ft'l-xahva) ?’; and teylrmen oğmudur 'is the mill disengaged (xrifiya)?' İd. le: xv xaltva (yawlak; in margin) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14b. 7.

S 2 oğ See 1 o:. (security, assurance) ?ö:- (think, meditate, remember) (awe)

u:g (rib, strut, beam, yurt, hut) (> ugil > igloo) ‘a tent rib, wooden strut forming part of the framework of a tent of the yurt type’; sometimes confused with 1 ok (arrow), see Čağ. below. Survives in NC Kzx. u:k, same meaning, R I 1606 (not in MM), and possibly NE Šor yurt ft / 1617 and SW Osm. huğ ‘a hut made of reeds or rushes’ TTS I 346; Red. 2174. See Doerfer II 602. Cf. uyuğluğ. Xak. xı u:ğ kull dil' min adlui'l-xiba' fi a'lehe ‘a rib in the upper part of a tent’ Kaš. 748: Čağ. xv if. čûbhe-yi fawkani-yi alečuq ‘the upper ribs of a tent’ San. 76V. 15 (quotn.); the same entry is made in yyv. 17 after the second meaning of 1 ok (arrow): Kip. xıv u:ğ ’fid min 'ideni'l- -xarkafi'Uati t uğraš fi qubbatihd ‘one of the beams of a tent which are fixed in its roof’ İd. 16.

1 ok (arrow, rod, clan, lot, inheritance)arrow’, ok yačı (archer). Owing to the use of arrows for various ritual and ceremonial purposes it came to be used at a very early date in the sense of ‘sub-tribe’ (and as such forms part of such tribal names as On ok) and also of ‘a lot’ in casting lots. O:k (so spelt) ‘a share of an inheritance’, noted in Kaš. is, no doubt, another special sense of this word. Later it came, like i:k, to mean 'a long piece of wood’, usually round in section, like an axle, rolling-pin, and the like, and so tended to be confused with u:ğ. S.i.a.m.l. See Doerfer II 605-6. Türkü vıı 1 oku:n urti: ‘he hit with an arrow’ 7 E 33, 36; On ok the tribal name of the Western 'Türkü occurs several times in 7, II, T: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ok ya altı ‘took bows and arrows’ Man.-Uig. Frag. 401, 7: Hud. (I will cause excruciating pain to that demon) vacırlığ okm tušğuru tokıp ‘smiting him and causing him to meet a rn/Vrt-likc arrow’ U II 26, 14; okın ıırsukmıš kišî teg ’like a man struck by an arrow’ Suv. 623, 17; a.o. do. 621, 8-9; o.o. TT IV io, 12; U II 78, 31: Civ. TT I 162 (at-): Xak. xı ok al-sakm ‘arrow’; ok ce'izatu'1-bayt ‘the cross-beam of a house'; hence one says ev oki: sahmu'l-bavt 'the main beam (lit. arrow) of a house5; ok yila:n 'the adder (al-afe) which throws itself at a man’ (also III 29, 27); ok al-quratullati yuqsam biha'I-ard tea l-ansihe’ ‘the lots which are used in dividing up land and shares (of anything)’ Kaš. I 37; 0:k al-nastb mina'l--mirdt ‘a share of an inheritance’; aŋa:r bi:r o:k tegdi: 'one share of the inheritance come to him’ / 48; about 60 o.o.: KD bodum erdi ok teg ‘my body was as (straight as) an arrow’ 371, 1099; bolur ok yačı ‘he becomes an archer’ 404e: xııı (?) At. büter ok bašı ‘an arrow wound heals’ 140; ya okun 228: Tef. ok ‘arrow; share, portion’ 235: xıv Muh. (}) al-nuššdb ‘arrows’ o:k (‘with o-’) Rif. 76, 173 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ok (1) tir ‘arrow’ (quotn.); \\\ (2) metaph. čûbhe-yi direz ki hele-yi 'imerat--re ba-dûn püšattd ‘the long beams which cover the roof of a building on the outside’ (quotn.; the rcfcc. to u:ğ follows): Xwar. xııı ok ‘arrow’ 'Ali 15: xııı (?) (they fought) ok birle ‘with arrows’ (swords and spears) Og. 160; a.o.o.; xıv ok ‘arrow’ Qutb 117; MN 91, etc.: Korn, xıv ox ‘arrow’ CC (S; Gr.: Kip. al-nuššeb ok Hou. 13, le: xıv o:k ditto İd. 17:xv ditto ok Kav. 64, 1; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 3elı. 5: Osm. xıv ff. ox ‘arrow’’ in several texts down to xvı TTS I 536; II 720; III 536; xıv ok bırak-‘to cast lots’ I 537.

2 ok/ök (emphasis particle: no other, exactly, very) enclitic particle, the vowel quality of which conforms to that of the word to which it is attached, and to which it adds emphasis. Attached to Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns it means (‘I’, etc.) ‘and no other’; in a context of time it means ‘exactly (then) and not earlier or later’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SE, where it is now obsolete, and SW where it was apparently never used. Türkü vııı özüm ök ‘I myself’ T 6; ben ök ertim ‘it was me (and no one else)’ (that was his Counsellor and Field-Marshal) T 7; üküš ök Ölürti: 'he killed very many’ T 7: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ol ok o:t teŋri: ‘that same Fire God’ At I 20, 14: Bud. ok is common, esp. after bu and ol; anda ok ‘immediately thereupon’ (/ 77 20, 2; temin ök ‘immediately’ see te:min: Xak. xı ok harf ta'kid fVl-fi'l a particle adding emphasis to a verb; hence one says bargil ok idhahanna ‘go!’; ok harf yufhabıı’l-hel ‘a particle accompanying expressions of time’; hence one says baya: ok keldim a tay tu qabl hedihil-se'a haqiqata (n) ‘I really did come a short time ago’; and one aays amdi: ok aydım qultu se'ata'idi ‘I said this very moment’ Kaš. I 37; a.o. 7 71, 16 (Özük): KB ok/ök are common, e.g. bayat ok 90; uluğluk ok-a (-a metri gratia) 552: xııı (?) At. men ök 90; (fine brocades are scarce) učuzı böz ök ‘it is just cotton cloth that is common’ 480: Tef. ol ok, etc. 235, 243: Čağ. xv ff. ok hamen ‘exactly’ Vel. 109; ok... (3) hamendam tva fi'l-fator ‘immediately, instantly’ (quotn.); (4) hamen ‘exactly’ (quotn.); (5) ham ‘also’ (quotn.) San. yyv. 17; Vel. 109 also translates ok ttaqd ‘for spot cash’ as opposed to nastya ‘on credit’; San. yyv. 23 quotes the verse differently, eliminating the supposed ok, and says that this and other translations by other authors are errors: Xwar. xıv ok as Suff. is common 'AH le: xıv ditto Qutb 117 (always ok never ök); AIN 75; özi yök (sic) tüšti ‘fell off of its own accord’ Nahc. 104, 10; altmJar ok 233, 4; Özİ ök 355, 12; a.o.o.: Kom. xıv ok/ox emphatic particles CC7, CCG; Gr. 178 (quotns.): (Kip. xv the Kip. verbal suffix -gaš/geš (-ğač/-geč) corresponds to ok fi'l-lugati'l-Tv.rk, as in emcH ok, anda ok, kündüz ok, kece ok Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 75a. 13 ff-).

Mon. V. AĞ-

-a:ğ- Preliminary note. a:ğ- 'to rise (from somewhere Abl.); to climb (something Dat.)’ is \\ common in the early period but seems to survive only in some meanings of NC Kır. o:-. SW Osm. ağ- ‘to rise, evaporate’, etc. and Tkm. a:ğ- (inter alia) ‘to climb (over); to overflow; to exceed (a stated period)'. Kaš. gives a:ğ- in the same para., a meaning which cannot be connected with ‘to rise', is, as such, unrecorded elsewhere, and is entered here as 2 a:ğ- (change). In modern times there is a verb ağ- meaning (e.g. of a horse's load, or a pair of scales) ‘to lean over to one side’ (tilt) and the like, which, though not recorded earlier, is Very common in modern times appearing as SE Türki ağ- Shaw J//BŠ 7, Jarring 14; NC Kır. o:- (some meanings) Yud. 593; Kzx. aw- R I 67, MM 50; SC Uzb. oğ-; NW Kaz. aw- R I 67; SW Osm. Xvııı ff. ağ- TTS I 12 and 53 (s.v. avrll-); II tj; XX Anat. ağ- SDD 1603; av- do. 730; Tkm. a:ğ-. In some languages the word also means ‘to faint’ and has other cognate meanings. It is difficult to connect this modern word with ‘to rise’, but it might have arisen from Kaš. f second meaning. See ak- (to flow, float, move, raid) Osm. xıv and ağınčsız (indomitable, unshakeable), which is also connected with this modern meaning.

1 a:ğ- (rise, climb, ascend, faint) ‘to rise (from somewhere Abl.); to climb (up something Dat.)’. Türkü vııı (gap) ytška: ağdı:climbed the... mountain forest’ II E 37: vııı ff. yaylağ tağıma: ağıpan 'climbing the mountain where I spend the summer’ IrkB 62: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A tamudan yokaru ağdukta ‘after climbing up from hell’ MI 13, 15: Man. ağmak enmek ajunlarığ körgittigiz ‘you have shown the rising and descending states of existence’ TT III 58; (he put the souls in a balance) t[arazu]g ağ[sar] ‘if the (pan of the) balance rises’ M II 12, 10: Bud. TT IV 6, 20 (tagil-): Civ. ağıp kelir soğık suv ‘the rising cold water’ TT 1104: Xak. xı ol ta:ğka a:ğdı: ša'ida'l-cabal ‘he climbed the mountain’; and one says built a:ğdi: naša'atıl--sahaba 'the cloud rose’ Kaš. I 173 (a:ğa:r, a:ğma:k); and over a dozen o.o. mainly in grammatical examples with ta:ğka:, and often spelt ağ-: KB ağ- is common, both with an Indirect Object, e.g. lorke ağar ‘he rises to a place of honor’ 1661, and without, e.g. ukušun ağar ol ‘he rises by (possessing) understanding’ 289; 0.0, 731 (yokairu:), 733 (Edizlik), 903, 1049 (en-), etc.: xııı (?) Tef. - ‘to climb’, etc. 3e: xıv Muh. ša'tda wa raqa ‘to climb, ascendağ- Mel. 28, 1; Rif. m: Čağ. xv ff. ağ- bele raftan wa 'urûc kardan ‘to rise, ascend’ San. 42r. 9 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ağ- ‘to rise, climb’ Qutb 4: Kip. xıv a:ğ- ša'ida İd. 15; Bul. 55V.: Osm. xıv ff. ağ- 'to rise’, esp. in the phr. göge ağ-‘to ascend to heaven'; c.i.a.p. TTS I 11; 11 12; III 7; IV 8.

2 a:ğ- (change) see Preliminary note. Xak. xı (after 1 a:ğ- (rise, climb, ascend)) and they say amŋ yü:zi: a:ğdı: tağayyara lawnu'nu ‘his colour changed’ Kaš. I 173; ölüm körüp yüzi: ağdi: (sic) \\\ fa-lamme laqe'l-mawl haltna (n) šahaba !aw-nuhu wa tağayyara wachuhu ‘when he met death inauspiciously, his colour became wan and his face changed’ III 327, 18; a.o. / 65, 9 (ağduk).

ak- (to flow, float, move, raid, come) primarily ‘to flow’ of any kind of liquid from tears to rivers. In Uyg. Bud. it and its derivatives, akığlığ, akığsız, are used in a very technical sense to translate Sanskrit srtt- and its derivatives. Later it was used for the movement of raiding parties and in some modern languages for ‘to float’, esp. downstream. S.i.a.m.l.g. as ak- with some traces of a Sec. f. ik- (see Kom.). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (tears) aktıflowed’ U III 66, 5 (İŋ; akmaz akıtmaz üt. ‘not flowing or causing to flow’, for Sanskrit anesrava TT VI 136 (and note): Civ. suv akar ‘water flows’ TT VII 29, 13; üküš telim yaš aksar ‘if the eyes water copiously’ II 1 65; yİrit) akarunning with pus’ IIII 26, 85: Xak. xı su:v akdi: sela'1-me' ‘the water (etc.) flowed’; and one says yağır akdi: ce’at Uate,ibu'l-’aduww ‘enemy raiding detachments came (pouring in)’ Kaf. I 168 (aka:r, akma:k); about 16 o.o. in one meaning or the other: KB akar suv 669; aka kelsü arzü ‘may what you desire come in abundance’ 943; a.o.o.: xııı (?) Tef. ak- ‘to flow’ 47: xıv Muh. al-iğera ‘to raidakmak Mel. 34, 7; Rif. 119; ağara ak- 104 (only); al-caryen to flowakmak 34, 11; 119; cara ak- 107 (only); al-me'ul-ceri aka:r su: 76, 17; 180: Čağ. xv ff. ak-/akıl- (spelt) rawen šudan-i eb ‘of water, to flow’ San. 44r. 25 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı ak- (of blood, etc.) ‘to flow’ 'AH 35: xıv ditto Qutb 9; MN 251, etc.; (two canals) ešiker akarflow in the open’ (and two) Örtüglüğ akarflow underground’ Nahc. 57, s; kefırlarnı akıp bulun kılıp ‘raiding the infidels and taking prisoners’ 161, 4: Kom. xıv ax- ‘to flow’ CCG; Gr. 30 (quotn.); ix- ‘to float with the stream’ CCG; Gr. 272 (quotn.): Kip. xııı al-ma'u'l-ceri aka:r su: IIou. 7, 3: xıv ak- sela Id. 17; akdllar carii li’l-ğera ‘they streamed out on a raid’ do. 18; al-nahr ‘river’ (inter alta) akar Bul. 4, 13: xv sela ak- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 20a. 8: Osm. xıv ff. ax- (xiv and xv only) / ak- c.i.a.p. in a wide range of meanings TTS I 14; II 17, ]8, 21; III 9; IV 12; the meaning ‘to lean to one side’ (/, ID belongs to (2) a:ğ- (change).

S iğ- (assemble, coagulate) pec. to H II; prob. a Sec. f. or mistranscription of yığ- (assemble). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (if blood flows (ünser) rub honey on various parts of the head and) kan ığğay ‘it will coagulate the blood’ H II 39, 4 and 7; o.o. do. 18 and 19.

S ik- See ak- (to flow, float, move, raid).

S oğ- See uv-. (crush, grind, rub, wringing (hands)) (oğa:r, oğma:k) (pp. 4, 76)

uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus) ‘to understand (something Acc.); hence in some modern languages ‘to find out; to hear (or to see)’. Survives in NE, SE, NC.; an early l.-w. in Mong. as uka- (Haenisch 160, Kow. 257). In some forms, esp. in unvocalized texts, liable to be confused with 1 oki:- (summon (cloud), recite, read). In the \77\ early period often in the Mend, bit- uk-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. bilmetin ukmatın 'because (we) do not know or understand (see)’ Chuns. 132: Uyg. vııı ff. Man. MI 18, 4 (i) (adir-): Bud. uk- is common, e.g. tetrü ukar (totally sees it) ‘he completely understands (sees)' U II 7, 6; o.o. do. 8, 22; 9,12; 11, 11; TT V26, 96; VIII0.1; PP6S, 5 —  bil- uk- U III 35. 22; TTIV 4, 11; VI331: Civ. ıšbolmtšın ukayarlıkap 'deigning to understand (see) what has occurred’ USp. 88, 11: Xak. xı er i:šm ukdi: delika'l-raculfatana amrahu ‘that man understood (saw) his business’ Kaš. I 168 (uka:r, ukma:k); three o.o.: KB uk- 'to understand (see)’ is common, esp. for ‘to understand (see) what has been said’, e.g. el(l)ig aydı uktum ‘the king said “I understand (see)” ’ 714; o.o. 155, 282, 657, 660, 680, etc.: xııı (?) At. ešit uk tnunj ‘hear and understand this (see)’ 62; a.o.o.: Tef. uk- ditto 324: xıv Muh. 'arafa tva 'alima ‘to know (see)u:k- Rif. 112: Xwar. xııı (?) ukğuluk tüztin bir er ‘an understanding (seeing) and gentle man' Oğ. 314 (reading doubtful): xıv uk- ‘to understand (see)’ Qutb 117 (ok-); 199 (uk-): Kip. xıv uk- fahima ‘to understand (see)’ Id. 17.

Dis. AĞA

ağı: (treasure, silk brocade) from xı onwards consistently translated ‘silk brocade' and the like; earlier contexts suggest the meaning ‘treasure’, and cf. aği:čı:, ağı:lık; ‘silk brocade’, as the main component of early Turkish treasures, may, however, have been the original meaning. N.o.a.b. The word ağ/ağı prob. used only in such phr. as ağı kurdu ‘caterpillar’ noted in Osm. xvı TTS II 9 and surviving in xx Anat. SDD 74, 76, 78, 131, 1602 prob. has nothing to do with ‘silk’ (worm); it seems to be a See. f. of ağu;. Cf. barčın. Türkü vııı ağı: occurs 5 times in IS 5-7, IIN 4-5, and several times elsewhere in the context of gifts given by the Chinese to the Turks; in I S 5, II N 4 it summarizes a list of such gifts ‘gold, silver’, and two words prob. meaning silken fabrics of some kind, so prob. means ‘treasure’; in a list of booty in T 48 sarığ altu:n ürül) kümüš kız koduz egri: teve: ağı: ‘yellow gold, white silver, girls, femmes soles, humped camels’.. . it looks more like ‘brocade’; in other occurrences it could be either, but ‘treasure’ is more probable: vııı ff. Man. [gap katıjğlanmaz ınčıp ağı bulur; yeme [ne tjörlüg ağı barım elğigerü kelser esirgenü kısğanu tutmaz kizlemez 'he makes no efforts but still acquires treasures; and whatever treasures and property come into his hands he does not retain and hide them in miserliness and greed’ M III 21, 1-4 (i) (here, esp. in the Hend., 'treasure’ must be the meaning): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ağı baram MI 15, 4-5; III 11, 20; 13, 6-7 (ı): Bud. ağı barım U II 76, 2; PP 7, 6 and 9; q, 2; TT VI 101, 233, 266; Tiš. 19a. 4: Civ. ağı barım TT VII 34, 3: Xak. xı ağır al-dibec ‘silk brocade’ Kaš. I 89; (do not rejoice) altun kümüš bulnupan ağı: tava:r ide wacadta... fitfda zva dahab tva dibec ‘if you acquire gold and silver and silk brocade’ II 153, 8 (but tavarr (untranslated) suggests ‘treasure’ would be betteŋ: KB ağı čuz ağır boldi ‘silk brocades (Hend.) are valuable’ 902; ačtı ağı kaznakı 'he opened his treasury’ (and distributed many things to the pooŋ 1034; čığayka üledl kümüš ham ağı ‘he distributed silver and treasure (or silk brocade?) to the poor’ 1564; ağı čuz 1426, 4773, 5367: xııı (?) Tef. altun kümüš ağu (j/c) barčın (‘brocade’) 39: xıv Muh. (}) al-tarvbu'l-ibrisami ‘silken clothing’ ağı: Rif. 167 (only): Kip. xıv ağı: ‘a kind of silk’ (al-hariŋ Id. 17: Osm. xıv (when a boy grows up he must marry, and you must give him) ağı atlas at katır ‘brocade, damask, a horse, and a mule’ TTS 17; bağıšladı altun kızıl u ağı ‘he gave red gold and brocade’ II 9.

akı: (generous, openhanded) ‘generous, openhanded’. TT VI 57, note 4 suggests that this is a Dev. N. in -ı: fr. ak- (to flow, float, move, raid), which is possible but improbable. Survives only (?) in NE Bar. ağu: / 172; SW Osm. axi ‘a member of a charitable religious order’. It has been suggested that the latter İ9 der. fr. Ar. ax ‘brother’, but this is improbable, see aki:lik. See Doerfer II 435. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bušı bĞrgeli akı tmlığlar az ‘generous people who gives alms are scarce’ TT VI 4: Xak. xı akı: al-catued ‘generous’; hence ‘a ripe walnut’ (al-cawzu'l-farik) is called akı: yağa:k ‘that is a generous walnut’ Kaš. I 90 (presumably because it is split open like a hand): KB akı keŋ elig ‘generous and openhanded’ 43, 55; o.o. 104, 257, 948, etc.: xııı (?) At. axi ‘generous’, always so spelt in Ar. script is common: Xwar. xıv akı ‘generous’ Qutb 10: Kip. xııı al-karim ‘generous’ akı: (opposite to ‘mean’ čokma:r (?)) IIou. 26, 2: xıv ağı: ditto Id. 17: Osm. xıv axi (used by wife to husband); xvı (used by father to son) TTS II 7.

1 ağu: (poison)poison’. S.i.a.m.l.g., often contracted to o:, u:, etc.; see ağı: (treasure, silk brocade). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A sîzlerde almıš ağu ‘the poison received from you’ M I 19, 15-16; 20, 1 (at-): Man. ağusı küčedıp ‘the poison in him taking strong hold of him’ (or ‘making him violent’?) TT II 16, 13: Bud. (there is a poisonous snake) ağu tını ‘his poisonous breath’ PP 38, 4: Civ. ağu ‘poison’ H II 6, 9; 30, 170: Xak. xı ağu: al-samm ‘poison’ Kaš. I 89; a.o. III 339, 21: KB ağu kıldı ‘it has poisoned’ (my food) 370; (begs when they are angry) bolur öt ağu ‘are gall and poison’ 779 (better reading than ot ‘fire*?); ağu boldi ‘he is poisoned’ 4655; a.o. 3913 (1 ačığ): xııı (?) At. iči pur ağu ‘its inside is full of poison’ 214; Tef. ağu ‘poison’ 39: Čağ. xvff ağu zahr ‘poison’ San. 44r. 8 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ağu ‘poison’ Qutb 5; Nahc. 33, 11: Kip. xııı al-murr ‘bitterness’... also ağu: al-samm so used by analogy because of its bitterness Hou. 27, 10: xıv ağu: al-samm İd. 17; awu: ditto, do. 26; ditto ağu: Bul. 11, e: xv samm awu in Tkm. ağu Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 19b. 2.

2 ağu: in Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. [gap] közlügler köplüg ağu teg buttuğfar ‘having... eyes, \\ and legs like abundant . - .’ TT IX 85 can hardly mean ‘poison’, but its actual meaning and etymology are obscure.

Dis V. AĞA

-oki:- Preliminary note. The two verbs of this form are obviously distinct but the pronunciation of the second is obscure. Al-hdfu'l-rakika is Kaš.’; term for ‘voiced k’, i.e. g, and it is possible that he meant that the second verb was originally, or alternatively oği-. This is supported by some later forms.

1 oki:- (summon (cloud), recite, read) originally ‘to call out cloud’, hence ‘to summon (someone Acc.)’, ‘to recite or read aloud’, and finally simply 'to read’ which is the normal modern meaning. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE. (Türkü vııı okığlı: kelti: has been read after a gap in II E 28, but hardly fits the context, the true reading is probably something like [uts]u:kığli: kelti:): Uyğ. vııt ff. Man. bu emig İki kata okiyu tegintim I have ventured to recite this spell (?) three times’ M I 29, 13-15; o.o. do. 30, 17, 26, 6 and 7; okiyurlar ‘they call on’ (the Wind God) Wind. 249, 18: Bud. toyu:nla:rığ okip‘summoning the monks’ TT VIII II. 1; inisin okiyu 'calling for his younger brother’ PP 58, 3; okumak törüsin ‘the ceremony of invoking’ (gods, demons, etc.) TT V 10, 114; o.o. USp. 103, 13; Suv. 447, 16, etc.: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. 'read the book’ bitig oki R I 1008; Ligeti 18e: Xak. xı ol meni: oki:dı: da*dm ‘he summoned me’; and one says er bitig oki:di: ‘the man read (qara'a) the book’ Kaš. III 254 (oki:r, oki:ma:k); a.o. \\ 333> 5 (s^krlt-): KB silig kız okir teg köQÜl bermišin ‘as a pure maiden calls the man to whom she has given her heart5 75; (if a generous man dies) atı tirig tep oki ‘call out that his name lives’ 257; bu kün kim okısa 'whoever reads (the book) today’ 259; o.o. 3»9’ 7*9. 3535: xııı (?) At. okığlı kiši ‘the man who reads (my book)’ 44; 3 o.o.: Tef. oki- ‘to call out; to read’ 235: xıv Muh. (?) qara'a oki- Rif. 114 (only); ö/-čı>fl*a o:ki:mak 124: Čafi’ xv ff. oku- xwdndan *to recite, invoke, read’ San. 77r. 12 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı oku- 'to call out’ 'Ali 29: xıv oki-/oku-'to call out, recite’ Qutb zi8; MN 50, etc.: Kip. xııı qara’a oki:- Hou. 33, 13: xıv oki:-qara'a, and in Kıpčak («c) oğu:- İd. 17; qara'a oku- Bul. J2r.: xv ditto Kav. 9, 14 a.o.o.; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 30a. 2 a.o.o.: Osm. xıv ff. okı- (xiv only) /oku- ‘to enli, summon’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 538; 11 723; 111 537; IV 603.

PU 2 oki:- (belch, vomit) 'to belch, vomit’. Survives in NE Tel. oki- R I 994; Tuv. ogu- and SW xx Anat. ögü- SDD 1104. Xak. xı er okirdi: 4the man vomited’ (taqayya'a); wa hede rikkatu'l-kdf (see Preliminary note) Kaš. III 254 (okıtr, okı:ma:k); Kip. xıv öki- (so spelt; v.l. Ögü-, so spelt) taqayya'a Id. 18.

Dis. AĞC

S ağuc See ağuz.\\\

ığač (ığa:č) (tree, shrubs, wood, pole, stick, staff, beam, column, (saddle)-tree, vine, branch, farsah, 30-inch length, strike by a stick, penis) originally ‘tree’, in Uyğ. esp. in the phr. 1: ığačshrubs and trees’; hence 'wood (generally), a piece of wood’, fr ek- (eg-) (sow, scatter) (ek). At least fr. xı onwards the word was also used for a large unit of linear measurement, conventionally a parasang of 4 or 5 miles, perhaps originally a time-distance measure like ‘an hour's journey’; it is hard to see any semantic connection between the two meanings. The phonetic history, too, like that of ığla:-, q.v., is complicated. Before xı the form was consistently ığač but in Xak. became yığač with a prosthetic y-, which survives only in SC Uzb. yoğoč ‘wood’ (for ‘tree’ Persian daraxt is used) and Čuv., yavaš/yivač (yavaš, yıvasy) Ash. IV 161, 297. In all other modern language groups the form is ağač, with variations of the in NE, NC. Türkü vııı čıntan ığač kelürüp ‘bringing logs of sandal-wood’ II S 11; at yete: yadağın ığač tutunu: ağtu:rtım ‘I made the men climb on foot leading their horses and holding on to the trees’ T 25: vııı ff. čıntan ığač üze: olu:ru:pan ‘sitting on a sandal-wood tree’ IrkB 4; o.o. meaning ‘tree’ do. 14, 5e: Man. beš törlüg ot ığač 'the five kinds of vegetables and trees’ Chuas. 59, 317; 1 ığač M III 14, 12  (ı): Uyğ. Man.-A (just as fire) ıgačda ünüp ığačağ örteyür ‘arises from wood and bums wood’ M I 7, 2; 1 ığač do. 8, 19; 13, 8: Man. i ığač M II 12, 5: Bud. 1 ığač Smu. 621, 5; ığač 'drum-stick’ Suv. 375, 7; uzun sıruk ığač bašında 'on the top of a long pole’ USp. 104, 12-13; o.o. TT VI 323; PfahL 8, 10: Civ. küzki ığač yatjkusi ‘the rustle of trees in autumn' TT I 134; ığač 'wood’ as one of the five elements, and metaph. for the planet Jupiter TT VII 1, 32, and 79 (spelt yığač); 10, 6; kara kač ığač kasıkın ‘the bark of a black kač tree’ H I 2e: Xak. xı yığač al-xašab ‘wood’; yığač dakaru'l-racul ‘a man’s penis’; yığač ul-farsax mina'l-arf 'a parasang of ground’; hence one says bi:r yığač ye:r ‘one parasang of ground’; yığač al-šacar ‘a tree’; hence one says üzüm yığačı: šacaru’J--inab ‘a vine’ and yağa:k yığa:čı: šacaru'l-catcz ‘a nut tree’; yiga:č with -a:- is the better spelling (acwad) Kaš. III 8; yığa:č alternative form (luğa) of yığač III 28; and nearly 120o.o.: KB (green covers) kunmıš yıgačlar ‘the dry trees’ 70; yemišsi yığač ‘a tree without fruit’ 2455: xııı (?) At. yemišsiz yığač 323, 324; Tef. ağač/yağač/yığač (1) ‘tree’; (2) ‘beam’; (3) ‘parasang’ 37,132, 133: xıv Muh. (?) naccar ‘parasangığa:č (unvocalized) yoncı: Rif. 158 (only); al-asd ‘a stick, staffığa:č 173; al-farsax ığa:č 178: Čağ. xv ff. yığač if a man stands at a particular place and two men stand one on each side of him so that they can hear him when he shouts, they call three times this distance (üč martaba bu miqddrtn) yığač (quotns.); and also banne aršün... kart ma'nesvıa ‘a builder’s cubit’ (about 30 inches) (quotn.) Vel. 413 (the latter is an error, the verse describes 12,000 kari as a yığač); yığač  (1) čubwood’; (2) farsangparasang’ San. 350V. 3 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı yığač ‘tree’ Ali 49: xııı (?) ığač (once spelt yığač) 'tree' \\\ is common Oğ.: xıv agač/yığač ‘tree, parasang’ Qutb 4, 90; Nahc. 24, 2; 186, 13: Kom. xıv ağač ‘tree; wood, beam, column, (saddle)-tree’ CCI, CCG; Gr. 28 (quotns.): Kip.xııı al-šacara ıva'l~xašab tva’l-'aše ağa:č Hou. 7, 10: xıv ağač a!-'aša tca'l-šacar; one says alma: ağačı: 'apple tree’ İd. 17: xv al-'aše ağaš Kav. 31, 7; 39, 8: al-šacar ağaš: as in alma: ağa:šı:, and ağa:š al-xašab do. 59, 3; carid ‘a defoliated palm-branch’ ağaš Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 11b. 10; xašab ditto 14b. 1; 'aša ditto 25b. 3: Osm. xıv ff. ağačtree; stick, blow from a stick’ and twice (xiv and xvi) ‘parasang’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 5 ; 11 y ; III 4-5; IV 5.

D okčı: (archer, arrow-maker) N.Ag. fr. 1 okk (arrow); ‘arrow-maker; archer’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. Xak. xı okčı: al-nabbdl ‘arrow-maker’ Kaš. II 199, 3 (köndger-); n.m.e.: KB yadağ okčı tušrup sen ögdün yügür ‘concentrate your infantry bowmen, and ride out in front yourself’ 2370 (or read tüšrüp ‘make your bowmen dismount’); (in a list of craftsmen) okčı: ‘arrow-maker’ 4458: xıv Muh. (>) našešibi ‘arrow-maker’ o:kčı: Rif. 157 (only): Xwar. xıv okčı ‘archer’ Qutb 117: Kom. xıv arrow-maker’ oxčı CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-naššebi okčı:; and also al-remi bi'1-nuššeb ‘archer’ Hou. 24, 7.

Tris. AĞC

D ağı:čı: (treasurer) N.Ag. fr. ağı: (treasure, silk brocade); an official title the exact significance of which is discussed by Caferoğlu in TM IV 20; ‘treasurer’ or the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ağıčı uluğı ‘the chief treasurer’ PP 7, 7; agıčı do. 9, 7 and 8; 10, 8: Civ. tsagčı ağıčılar almazun ‘let the granary-keepers and treasurers not take’ USp. 88, 40; Kočo balık ağıčı ‘the town treasurer of Kočo’ do. 115, 19: Xak.xi aği:čı: xazintt l-dibec ‘the keeper of the silk brocades’ Kaš. I 136; (after ağı:) hence al-xezitı is called ağı:čı: because he keeps it (li-hifzihi iyydhu) I 8y, 20: KB (in a list of officials) ağıčı 2494; bitig bilse sakıš ağıčı bolur ‘if (a young man) can read and keep accounts, he becomes a treasurer’ 4048.

D ığaččı: (carpenter, woodworker) N.Ag. fr. ığač (ığa:č) (tree, shrubs, wood, pole, stick, staff, beam, column, (saddle)-tree, vine, branch, farsah, 30-inch length, strike by a stick, penis); ‘carpenter, woodworker’, etc. Survives in NE Tuv. ıyaščı NC Kır. jığačči; Kzx. ağaššı. Uyğ. xııı ff. Dud. Sanskrit vardhakinah ‘carpenters’ ığač-cila:r (sic) TT VIII A.ız; ığaččı Pfahl. 24, 3 and 4: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. yağacčı/yığaččı ‘carpenter’ 132, 156.

D okı:čı: (priest, preacher) N.Ag. fr. oki:- (oki:- summon, read) S.i.s.m.l. usually as okučı. Xak. xı KB okıčı ol erdi bayattın saga 'he was a preacher (sent) from God to you’ 3e: Kip. xv (in grammatical examples) okučı/okuču not translated but alternating with yazučı so presumably ‘reader’ Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 80a. 6 and 7; b. 4.

D *ığačlık A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. ığač (ığa:č) (tree, shrubs, wood, pole, stick, staff, beam, column, (saddle)-tree, vine, branch, farsah, 30-inch length, strike by a stick, penis). S.i.s.m.l. as ağačlık. Xak. xı yığačlık al-mašcara ‘copse, plantation’; also deru'l--xašab ‘a wood-store’ Kaš. III 51.

D ağujluğ Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. ağuj/ağuz. Xak. xı ağujluğ ‘ (a man) who owns biestings’ (liba) Kaš. I 146.

Tris. V. AĞC-

D *ığačlnn- Reli. Den. V. fr. ığač (ığa:č) (tree, shrubs, wood, pole, stick, staff, beam, column, (saddle)-tree, vine, branch, farsah, 30-inch length, strike by a stick, penis). S.i.s.m.l., usually as ağačlan-; the basic form *ığačla:-also survives with a rather wider range of meanings. Xak. xı ye:r yığačlandı: ašcarati'l--ard ‘the ground was covered with trees’, that is there were many trees on it Kaš. III 113 (yığačlanu:r, yığačlanma:k): Osm. xv ağačlan- ‘to be beaten with a stick’ TTS II 7.

Dis. AĞD

uğut (yeast)yeast’. Survives in NE Šor R I 1619: SE Türki Shaw 24; NC Kır.; and, with a slightly different meaning, in SW xx Anat. uğut, uhut, uğunt SDD 1415. Xak. xı uğut a word for ‘yeast’ (xamtŋ used in making beer (al-mizz). It is various vegetable drugs (adzviya) which are collected and mixed with (specially) grown barley; the whole is then kneaded, cut into pieces the size of a nut and dried. Then wheat and barley are boiled, and the yeast is broken up, and an amount the size of a nut is sprinkled on each (lot of) wheat. The boiled wheat is then folded over and put on a clean thing (šay’) to ferment for three days. Then it is picked up and put in a jar and left to ferment in it for (another) ten days. Then water is put on it and later strained. This is ‘wheat wine’ (šardbu’l-hinta) Kaš. I 50.

D ağduk (fault, defect; useless, bad; excessively heavy, stranger, foreigner) prob., as Kaš. suggests, N./A. S. fr. 2 a:ğ- (change), although there is little semantic connection. Survives only (P) in SW xx Anat. ağdık ‘fault, defect; useless, bad; excessively heavy’ SDD 73, unless NE Šor adik ‘weak-minded, confused’ is also a survival. The original meaning seems to have been ‘stranger, foreigner’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A maga ağduk karı bĞtkcči ‘to me, the foreign old scribe’ M I 28, 19; same phr. (damaged) do. \\ 21, title; men ağduk bet[keči] M III 43, 12-13 (v. le Coq, perhaps rightly, took this to be a Proper Name): Xak. xı ağduk kiši: al-racuhi l-daxilu'lladi Id yuraf man huwa ‘a stranger whose identity is unknown’; adğuk alternative metathesized form Kaš. I 99; aduk ne:ŋ al-šay'u'1-machftl ‘an unknown thing’; its origin is ağduk meaning mutağayyir mutanakkir ‘altered, changed’, derived from the expression anu) megzi: ağdı: tağayyara lawnuhu ‘his colour changed’, with the -ğ-eliminated as an abbreviation I 65: Osm. xıv to xvı ağduk ‘changed; damaged, imperfect; inopportune’ in several texts TTS 16; II 8; III 5; IV 6.

D oktam Hap. leg.; N.S.A. fr. okta:-. Cf. atım. Xak. xı bir oktam ye:r qadar ramya mina'l-ard ‘a space the length of a bowshot’ Kaš. I 1 oy.

Dis. V. AĞD-

D ağıt- (rise, climb, ascend) Caus. f. of 1 ağ- (rise, climb, ascend). N.o.a.b. Cf. ağtur-. Türkü vııı (the Türkü people were in \\ a bad way) oza: kelmiš süsi:n Kül Tdgin ağıttp 'Kül Tegin roused (that part of) their army which had escaped’ I N y; parallel passage II E 30-1; (his horse fell) yana: ağıtıp 'making it get up again’ Ix. 19 (sic on stone, not ağilip as in, printed text): vııı ff. Man. billglmizni köyülümüznl bu tört törlüg teorilerde ağıtdımız erser ‘if we have exalted our knowledge and minds above these four kinds of gods’ Chuas. 184-7: Xak. xı ol anı: ta:ğka: ağıttı: 'he made him climb (aš'adahu) the mountain (etc.)’; and one says teŋri: bulıt ağıttı: ‘God made a cloud rise’ (anša’a... saheba) Kaš. 7 212 (ağıtur, ağıtma:k); bu: keyik ol ’ ıtığ tarğka: ağltğa:n ‘this wild game is constantly making the dog climb (yusa"id) the mountain’ / 155: KB (Why do you grieve ? Why these lamentations ? God’s summons has come.) sığıtnı ağıt ‘Away with lamentations’ 1233 (an inappropriate use of the word, but perhaps the only rhyme for sığıt (weeping, lamentation)).

D akıt- (liquefy, pour, bleed, raid) Caus, f. of ak- (to flow, float, move, raid); ‘to make (liquid, etc.) flow; to send out (a party, etc.) to raid’. S.i.a.m.l.g., except SC, as akıt-/ağıt- in both meanings. Cf. aktur-. Türkü vııı Kül Tegln beg bašlayu: akıt(t)ımız 'we sent out a raiding party under the command of Kül Ttfgin and the begs’ IN 8 (hitherto misread); tün akıtdımız ‘we sent but a raiding party by night’ T 35: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. buyanlığ taluy ögüz akıtıp 'causing an ocean of virtues to flow ’ TT III 163: Bud. kan ögüz akıtar (ji’c) 'they cause rivers of blood to flow’ PP 3, 4; a.o. TT VI136 (ak-). Xak. xı teŋri: akın akıttı: ‘God made the stream flow’ (asela'1-sayl); and one says ol su:v akıttı: ‘he poured out (acrd) the water’; and one says beg akınčı: akıttı: ‘the beg sent a raiding party (baata... sariya) against the enemy’ Kaš. I 212 (akitur, akitma:k); bu: ta;ğ ol tavra:k akın akıtğa:n translated ‘this mountain is quick at making the rain run (move) away’ (sari'u'1-isela li’l-matar) I 15e: KB akıtsa suvuğ yerde ‘if you pour water on the ground’ 973; (we must open a vein and) akıtğu kanı ‘bleed him’ 1058; a.o. 1160 (akin): xıı (?) KB VP xazîna tolulap akıtğu kerek ‘you must fill (your) treasury and pour it out’ 51: xııı (?) Tef. akıt- ‘to pour out’ 47: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 10; Nahc. 68, 17.

PU?S oğat- n.o.a.b.; in Syriac script, so the -ğ- is certain. In Museon XXXVIII, p. 45 Bang equated this word with SE Tar. oxat-‘to awaken’ R 11004, but that is unlikely since the original form öf the latter, *odğat-, could hardly have lost the -d- so early. It is more likely that it is a Sec. f. of okit or ukıt-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. oğatıp kelmiš blznl teg tınlığ-larka evangelyon nom ertinig nomlap kottuguz ‘having come to make people like us recite (or ‘understand’) it (?) you have exhaustively taught the precious doctrine of the gospel' TT III 62-3: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (you will certainly be reborn) oğatmatın fseš?]metln ‘without invoking (?) or...’ (the Buddhas) Suv. 24, 20.

D okit- Caus. f. of oki:-; ‘to make (someone Acc. or Dat.) recite or read (something Acc.)\ S.i.a.m.l.g. usually as okut- and meaning ‘to teach’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kim kayu tmlığ bu nom bitigig... okisar okitsar ‘whoever recites this scripture or has it recited’ TT VI 51-2; o.o. do. 68 (TT VIII 0.9); TT VII 12, 10; 28, 3; Suv. 478, 19: Xak. xı ol maga: bitig okitti; ‘he made me read (aqra'anŋ the hook (etc.)' Kaš. I 212 (okitur, okıtma:k); bu bitig ol kiši:ni; okitga:n ‘this book, because of its length, makes a man read a lot’ (katira (tı) me yuqri') I 15e: KB (whoever was intelligent) okıttı am ‘he had him summoned’ 416; (if a servant makes a mistake) okıtğu kerek ‘you must have him summoned’ 641: Čağ. xvff okut- Caus. f.; xivdnandan ‘to cause to read, or recite’ San. yyv. 7: Kom. xıv ‘to teach’ oğut- CCI; Gr.: Kip. xv aqra'a okuČ- Kav. 69, 10; 75, 13; istaqra'a okut- Tuh, 54b. 8.

D ukit- Caus. f. of uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus). N.o.a.b. Cf. uktur-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. öz tözlerin ukıttıp ‘explaining their nature and origin’ TT III 30: Bud. ukitur ‘he explains’ TT VIII A. 16 and 17; 0.0, do. A.2o, H.i and 2; these are the only texts in which okit- and ukit- are distinguished; it may have been misread elsewhere.

D okta:- Den. V. fr 1 ok (arrow). Survives only in NE Khak., Tuv. and NC Kır., Kzx., usually ‘to load (a weapon); to cock (a rifle)’. The normal modern form is okla-. Xak. xı keyik kellgi: bolsa: okta: ide kena tvaqt hutfüri'l--ıvahš fa'rmihi ‘when the wild game comes, shoot it’ Kaš. I 26, le: a.o. II 97, 16 (utnıš-); n.m.e. .

D oktat- Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of okta:-. Xak. xı beg am: oktatti: ‘the beg ordered him to shoot an arrow’ (armdhu bi’l-nabl) Kaš. I 260 (oktatur, oktatma:k).

S ağtıl- See ağtarıl-.

D ağtın- (rise, climb, ascend) Refl. f. of ağıt- (rise, climb, ascend). N.o.a.b. Uyg. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit yenam eruhya ‘having mounted a chariot’ kölökke: ağtınıp TT VIII A.27’, (in order that the flames of hell may not rise to meet me) Örtlüg ydrlerde takı ağtınmazkan ‘and in order that I may not be made to climb into fiery places’ UII 78, 42-3; a.o. Suv. 601, 23.

ağtar-/axtar- (turn or roll over, knock over, lay low something, examine, search, overthrow, translate ) apparently both Intrans. ‘to turn, or roll, over’ (rare) and Trans, ‘to turn, or roll, (something Acc.) over’, with some extended meanings like ‘to translate (a book etc. Acc.) from (one language Abl.) into (another -ča/-če)’; more or less syn. with evir- (turn, overturn, skirt, alternate), esp. in the last meaning. The second syllable, always -tar-, excludes the possibility that this is a Caus. f. Also partly syn. with ağna:- (1 ağna:- (roll)) , but unlikely to be connected with it etymologically. As regards the velar, Kaš. is prob. right in saying that ağtar- was the original form, though he habitually uses axtar-, see his remarks on sıgıt; the Uyğ. \82\ script is too ambiguous to make the Uyğ. form certain. S.i.a.m.l.g., sometimes much distorted, e.g. NE agdar-/agnar-/agar-; NC, NW awdar- as well as more regular forms, aktar-/axtar- in the same groups. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. axtaru togdaru tegzinürler 'they revolve rolling about (Hend.)’ U II 4, 10 ff.; (Kitsi Sarntso translated (evirmiš) this work from Indian into Chinese, and then Siqku Sfllt Tutuq) tavğač tılıntın Jkileyu türk tılınčn axtarmıš ‘in the second place translated it from Chinese (Tabgach Türkic) into Turkish’ U I 14, 5-7; similar phr. USp. 94, 8-9; Suv. 33, ig: Xak. xı er ta:šığ axtardi: ‘the man turned over (qallaba) the stone’; and one says tüpİ: yığa:čığ axtardi: ‘the gale knocked over (asqata) the tree’; also used of anything that turns over (qnlaba) anything; the -x- is nltered from -ğ- as in Arabic xattdrf ğadder and ximdrfftimdr; and one says ol ye:r axtardi: 'azaqa’l-ard tva karabahd, ‘he dug the ground and turned it over’ Kaš. I 219 (axtarur, axtarma:k); bastı: Ölüm axtaru: šara'ahu'l-maıvt ‘death laid him low' \\ I 516, 4: same quotn. but ağtaru: II 74, 14:xiv Muh. ûl-mayl 'to Jean over’ axtamak (unvocalized, perhaps error for axtarmak) Mel. 37, 2; Rif. 122 (mala is translated emit-): Čağ. xv ff. axtar- tafahlmš kardan ‘to examine, search (something)’ San. 32V. 8 (quotns.): Kip. xıv aktar- qalaba Id. 17; qafabajqallaba axtur- (nc) Bul. 73V.: xv qalaba aktar- Kav, 74, 17; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 29b. 13: Osm. xıv ff. aktar-/axtar-/akdar- (the last two rare) ‘to turn over, overthrow’ c.i.a.p. TTS I 15; II 21; III 11; IV 13.

Dis.V. AĞD-

D ağtur- (rise, climb, ascend) Caus. f. of 1 a:ğ- (rise, climb, ascend). Survives only (?) in SW Osm. ağdır-; Tkm. a:gdir- with rather different meanings. Cf. ağıt- (rise, climb, ascend). Türkü vııı T 25 (ığač): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A xormuzda teŋrig tamudan yokaru ağturdı üntürdi ‘he raised (Hend.) the God Hormuzd from hell’ M I 13, 18-20; tagda erte uluğ yaylıkka ağturmıšın 'that he made (his disciples) go up to the summer room (i.e. lecture hall) early in the morning’ Hüen-ts. 1966-7: Xak. xııı (?) Tef. ağdur- ‘to raise’ 37: Osm. xıv ff. ağdur- (later ağdır-) ‘to lift, raise’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 6; II 8; III 5; IV 5. (OTD p. 16, 23, 48, 49 aɣtur- (aɣturdi) aqtur- (aqturdi))

D aktur- (pour out, flow) Caus. f. of ak-; ‘to pour out, cause to flow’. S.i.s.m.l., but rarer than akıt-. Uyğ. vtıı ff. Civ. [gap] aktursar ‘if one pours out . . (on a Horse Day, it is unlucky) TT VII 39, 7: Xak. xı ol su:v akturdi: amara bi--tasyili'l-md’ tva isdlatihi 'he ordered that the water should be poured out’; (verse) akturur körzÜm yula:k tusil *ayni 'uyttna'l-miydh ‘my eye pour out fountains of water’ Kaš. I 222 (akturur, akturma:k); same verse III 17, 9: xııı (?) Tef. akdur- ‘to pour out’ 47: Čağ. xv ff. aktur- (-dug)/akiz- (-dŋ aktt- Vel 25 (quotn.); akiz-/aktur- (spelt) Caus. f.; ratoen kardan ‘to pour out’ San. 44V. 25 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv aktur- ditto Qutb to; Nahc. 242, 14. (OTD p. 48, 49 aqtur- (aqturdi))

D uktur- (understand, explain) Caus. f. of uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus); ‘to make (someone Dat.) understand (something Acc.); to explain (it to him)’. Survives in SE Türki: NC Kır. Cf. ukit-. Uyğ. vııı ff Bud. adınağuka biltürmedin ukturmadln 'without letting others know or understand’ TT VI 355 (v.l.); a.o. do. 147-8 (ötgür-): Xak. xı olmaga:amg so.'zin ukturdi: ‘he explained to me (afha-manŋ his words (etc.)’ Kaš. I 223 (ukturur, ukturma:k): KB yayığ dunyö kilkin saga ukturur ‘it explains the character of this fickle world to you’ 398; o.o. 510, 796, etc.: xııı (?) Tef. uktur- ‘to explain’ 325: xıv Muh. (?) a lama tva 'arrafa ‘to communicate, moke known’ uktu:r- Rif. 103; 'arrafa ğayrahu u:ktur- 112 (only): Xwar. xıv uktur- ‘to explain’ Qutb 117 (oktur-): Ktp. xıv ukfur-fahhama Id. 17.

D oktaš- (jerk, jolt, yank, spook) Recip. f. of okta:-. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. oktos- ‘to make a sudden movement, e.g. of a horse, to shy'. Xak. xı ol amg birle: oktaštı: translated ramehu bVl-sahm ‘he shot an arrow at him’ (error for remehu ‘he competed in shooting’); also used for qdra*ahu ‘he drew lots with him’ Kaš. I 231 (oktašur, oktašma:k).

Tris. AĞD

D okıtčı: Hap. leg.; possibly a scribal error for okı:čı, q.v.; if not, an abbreviation, nietri gratia, of *okıdačı: N./A. fr. oki:-. Xak. xı KB meni ıdtı ^l (l)ig okıtčı saga ‘the king sent me to you to summon you’ 3488.

Tris. V. AĞD-

D ağtanl-/axtanl- Pass. f. of ağtar-/axtar-survives in most of the same languages with the same phonetic changes. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. keml axtanlur ‘the ship is overturned’ PP 18, 3; axtarilu togdanlu ‘rolling over and over (Hend.)' Suv. 133, 21; 601, 11-12: Civ. (the cold water which rises in the well) axtarilu yanturu yorıdı ‘has been turned over and goes back’ TT I 105: Xak. xı er ağtıldı: ‘the man was knocked down’ (fwriVŋ; its original form was ağtarıldt: Kaš. I 246 (ağtılur, ağtılma:k): xıv Muh. inqalaba ‘to be overturned’ axtanl- Mel. 20, 10; Rif. 104: Čağ. xv ff. axtanl- tafahkuš šudan ‘to be searched’ San. 32V. 2e: Osm. xiv, xv axtanl-/aktanl-/akdarii- ‘to be overturned, turned away' in several texts TTS I 15; II 19; III 11; IV 13.

D okitsa:- Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of okit-. Xak. xı ol bitig okitsa:di: ‘he wished to have the book read’ (yuqri'a’l-kitdb); also used of wishing to summon (yaj'tŋ someone Kaš. I 302 (okitsa:r, okitsa:ma:k).

Dis. AĞĞ

D akığ (flow, flowing; liquid, ravine worn by a stream, serum, restlessness, impermnnence) Dev. N./A.Ac. fr. ak- (to flow, float, move, raid); ‘flow, flowing; liquid’. Survives as ağığ in NE Leb., Šor R I 154 and ağu: in NE Alt., Tel.; NC Kzx.; NW Kaz. R I 172. Similar forms with final -k in some languages seem rather to represent \\ Ar. ‘aqiq ‘a ravine worn by a stream’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in a list of demons who are foul feeders, between those that eat yiriŋ) ‘pus’ and those that eat söl ‘moisture, juice’, yar ‘spittle’, and lešlp ‘mucus’) akığ ašliğlar ‘eaters of serum’ (?) U II 65, 19; 66, 42; in technical Buddhist terminology akığ (more particularly in its der. f.s akığlığ, akığsız) translates Sanskrit srava (Chinese lou, Giles 7.360) lit. ‘flowing’, metaph. ‘restlessness, impermnnence’ TT VI, note 157*61; (mortals) alku akığiarın alkip ‘suppressing all their restlessnesses’ Suv. 185, 20-1; az ulati nızvanılanğ akıglarığ ‘the passions and restlessnesses, lust and so on’ U III 88, 4-5: Civ. [gap] a:kağ yolla:rda: ‘in the (internal) vessels (that carry) liquids’ TT VIII 1.7 (prob. the gullet, intestines, etc., not the veins).

Dis. AĞL

VU?F oxa:k Hap. leg.; prob. an Iranian (?) l.-w. Xak. xı oxa:k *ušdra faliqi'l-mišmiš yušrab ‘the juice of split apricots’, used as a beverage Kaš. I 122.

D okığ (questionnaire) Dev. N. fr. oki:-. Survives, usually as oku: and the like in NC Kir,, Kzx., and some NW and SW languages. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. emdi bu künde ken bu korčularka okığlar ayıtlar ıdmazun USp. 45, 8-9; this document is confused and largely unintelligible; korču here is prob. a Mong. l.-w., lit. ‘bowman’, a kind of minor official (Ilaenisch 67) (Kor/Chor “prince”, i.e. “prince's staffers”); ayıtlar Hap. leg. if correctly read, should mean ‘questionnaire’; ‘now from this day onwards he must not send summonses and questionnaires to these korčus’.

uğuk (stocking, gaiters, leggings, boots (type)) some form of leg-wear, prob. ‘felt gaiters or leggings’. The contracted form noted by San. survives as ukfelt stocking’ in all NE dialects. There is another Sec. f. uyuk in NC Kzx: NW Kaz. R I 1318 (only): SW xx Anat. (refugees) SDD 1424. The entry in Uyğ. xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. wa ‘felt stockings’ (Giles 12,434) učuk R I 1735; Ligeti 273 can hardly be an error for this work. Xak. xı uğuk al-curmtiq ‘gaiters, leggings’ Kaš. I 67: Čağ. xv ff. uğ... (2) muza ki az piist-i pašmder ba-dûzand 'boots made of leather with the wool on it’ San. 76V. 18.

D ukuğ (seeing, understanding) N.Ac. fr. uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus); ‘understanding’. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. uğu: Cf. ukuš, which is the normal word in KB. Xak. xı KB agar berdi erdem biliğ ög ukuğ ‘ (God) gave him (i.e. man) manly virtues, knowledge, intelligence, and understanding’ 148.

Dis. V. AĞĞ-

D ağuk- (poisoned) Pass. Den. V. fr. ağu: (poison). Survives only (?) in NE Khak. o:x-; Tuv. o:k- ‘to be poisoned’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. az mzvamka ağukup ‘being poisoned by the passion of lust’ TT III 28: Bud. yelvlklp ağukup öltürgell sakinsar ‘if he plans to kill him by sorcery or poison’ Kuan. 184; ödsüz ölüm yelvlkmek ağukmak ‘to die prematurely by sorcery or poison’ Suv. 47a, 15; o.o. (without yelvlk-) Suv. 593, 17; USp. 102a. 7: Xak. xı er ağuktı: ‘the man was poisoned’ (summa); this is Pass. (lezim) Kaš. I 191 (ağuka:r, ağukma:k): Čağ. xv ff. ağuk-masmüm šudan ‘to be poisoned’ San. 43V. 10.

Tris. AĞĞ

D akığlığ P.N./A. fr. akığ in its technical Bud. sense; translates Sanskrit sdsrava ‘impermanent, restless’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI, note 157-61, several examples; Suv. 354, 5 (oxšatığsız).

D akığsız Priv. N./A. fr. akığ in its technical Bud. sense; translates Sanskrit andsrava ‘stable, permanent, not restless’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI, note 157-61, several examples.

Dis. AĞL

ağıl (corral) originally ‘an enclosure for livestock; cattle-pen, sheep-fold’; thence ‘a settlement or group of tents’ associated with such an enclosure. An early, ?First Period, l.-w. in Mong. as ayil (Haenisch 11, Kow. 3), and in Russian (fr. a NW language) as aul. Survives as ağıl in SE Türki, Shaw 11; SC Uzb. (oğıl) and SW Az. Osm., Tkm. (a:ğıl) and as awl in some NC and NW languages. The form ayıl in some NE and NC languages is a reborrowing fr. Mong. See Doerfer II 503. Türkü vııı ff. ağılıgta: yilki:ŋ boIzu:n ‘may you get livestock in yourpens’ IrkB 47: Uyğ. ıx (I was a rich man) ağılım on yılkım sansız erti: ‘I had ten pens and innumerable livestock’ Suci 5: Xak. xı ağıl marbadu'l-ğanam ‘sheepfold’; and in Oğuz rawtu}Uğanam ‘sheep’s dung’, because the two are closely connected, just as in Ar. both ‘rain’ and ‘clouds’ are called sama Kaš. I 73: ağı:lda: (sic) oğla:k tuğsa: ‘if a kid is bom in the fold’ I 65, 21: xııı (?) Tef. ağıl ‘sheep-fold’ 37: xıv Muh. (?) marbadul-ğanam ağıl Rif. 179 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ağıl (1) hdla-i meh ‘a halo round the moon’; (2) muhawwata 'enclosure’, which they make for cattle to sleep in; also used in Pe. San. 44r. 19; awul (spelt) ‘a place in which nomadic tribes (Hat) collect and settle down’; a corruption of Ar. hawtli ‘a small enclosure, yard’ San. 53V. 7 (no doubt an xvııı, not a Čağ. word, the etymology is absurd): Oğuz xı see Xak.: Kip. xıv ağıl al-haztra ‘enclosure’; haztratu'l-ğanam ko:yun ağlı: (sic) Id. le: Osm. xıv ff. ağıl/ağul ‘sheep-fold’ in xıv TTS 16, 13; ‘halo’ in all periods in ay ağılı / 55; II 72; III 5, 49; IV 6, 51, 373 (gün ağılı).

oğul (son, boy, offspring, child, youth, servant, foster child, bodyguard, young man) (clan)offspring, child’, originally of either sex, but with a strong implication of ‘male child'; by itself it can mean ‘son’, but not ‘daughter’; in the Plur. it might mean ‘sons and daughters’, but oğul kız would be the more normal expression. One of the very few Turkish words forming a Plur. in -n. Thus oğla:n was originally the Plur. and understood as such, but this fact was later forgotten and oğul came to mean ‘son’, and oğla:nboy’ and \84\ Inter ‘servant’ or ‘bodyguard’ (the origin of German Uhlan (and English clan)); the timing of these changes has not yet been worked out. Both words s.i.a.m.l. with various phonetic changes. See Doerfer II 498, 502. Türkü vııı various suffixed forms oğlım, oğlı:, etc. are common in I, II, T, etc.; oğlanım, clearly Plur,, IS 1, \\ iV 1 ; / N 11; oğlanımızda: Plur. I SE; a.o. \\ I E II E 5 (at*:); vııı ff. oğlı: IrkB 15, etc.; (a gainbler sfnkrd) oğlanım kisi:si:n 'his sons (or children) and his wife’ do. 29; oğlanım ınča: billigler ‘my sons, know this’ do. Postscript: Yen. oğlı: Mal. 30, 2 etc.; sü tegi: yeti: big oğlan erti: do. 26, 8 must mean ‘the strength of the army was 7,000 young men' (sic, not ‘sons’); on ay eltdi: ögüm oğlan tuğdım ‘I was born a boy (not Plur.) whom his mother had carried for ten months’ do. 29, 5: Man. Xormuzta teŋri oğlanı beš teŋri ‘the five gods, the sons (Plur.) of the god Hormuzd’ Chuas. I 8; a,o. do. 33: Uyğ. vııı eki: oğlıma: 'to my two sons’ Šu. E 7: ıx oğlanım ‘oh my sons Suci 9 (oğltmın in do. 6 is a misreading of bağladım) vııı ff. Man.-A kaltı oğul oğlan ergüsinte erürče ‘just as a child comes to maturity (2 er-) in the womb' (lit. ‘place for children') M I 14, 12-14; (and the magicians) oğul kız berü umağaylar ‘will not be able to give him sons and daughters’ do. 15, 10: Man. alku tınlığ oğlanımı) ‘of all the children of men’ TT III 19: Chr. amrak oğlanlarım (sic) ‘my dear sons’ U I 5, 4: teŋri oğlı ‘the son of God’ do. 7, ı; oğlan kızlar ‘boys and girls’ (below the age of two) do. 10, 2: Bud. oğul, oğlı, etc. ‘boy, son’ are common TT VII, VIII; PP 11, 6 etc.; tınlığ oğlanıga TT VII 40, 142; in TT V 12, 127 (*’ fairly late text) teŋridem kız azu teŋri oğlanı teg körkle oğlan ‘a child as beautiful as a divine girl or a son of God’ oğlan is clearly Sing,: Civ. oğlug kisig ülügltig ol ‘your children and wives are fortunate’ TT I 154-5; kiši oğlı ög(k)e kelmez ‘children do not come to their mother’ do. 216; kičiğ oğlan 'a small boy (Sing.)’ do. 161; TT VII 27, 8; kenč oğlan ‘a young boy’ TT VII 23, z; H II 12, 87: xıv Uyğ-Chin. Dict. ‘son, boy’ oğul Ligeti 18e: O. Kir, ıx ff. oğlım, oğlı are common; oğlanım Mal. i, 1 etc. is clearly Plur. but oğlan atım do. 45, 1 seems to mean ‘my name as a boy’: Xak. xı oğul al-ibn ‘son’; and ğayru'1-ibn mina'1-šibyen ‘boys who are not (a man’s) sons’ are called oğul; hence one says bu oğul ne: te:r ‘what does this boy (al-sabŋ say?’; iva yucma'... 'ale ğayri’l^iyes and it forms the irregular Plur. ogla:n but oğulla:r is also permissible as Plur.; this is like the word eren for al-riedl ‘men; wa qad yuwahhad kilehume, and both of them are used in the Sing, Kaš. I 74; about 70 o.o. of oğul and 50 of oğla:n: KB oğul normally ‘son’ is common, no, 186, 187, etc.; kičig oğlanığ ‘a small boy’ 293, 1097, etc.; atın tutti mindl bir oğlan bile ‘he took his horse and rode off with one page’ 4970: xııı (?) At. Mahmfld oğlı 496; Tef. oğulson’, Plur. oğullar; oğlanchild, boy’; also? Collective Plur. 231:xiv Muh. al-nasl ica'l-dttriya ‘offspring’ o:ğul Rif. 143; al-šabi oğlam 85: Čağ. xv ff. oğul farzand ‘son’ San. 77r. 6; oğlan (spelt) pisar tea farzand ‘boy, son’; and metaph. ‘beardless boy’; and they call the sons of the Mongol Xans oğlan just as Persian princes are called mirza (Cf. Tatar murza) and Rumî princes sulten; oğlan ašı cundbidastar 'castoreum', beaver’s glands, called in Turkish kunduz do. 76V. 24: Arğu xı oğla: (sic) al-fnta ‘youth’ Kaš. I 129: Xwar. xıı (?) oğul ‘son’; Plur, oğullar common in Oğ.: xıv oğlanboy’ Qutb 114; oğulson’ MN 15: Kom. xıv ‘sonoğul CCI; oğul/ovul Plur. oğlanlar CC (S\ (Sr. 173 (many suffixed forms): Kip. xııı al~sabi owla:n also called oğla:n; al-tifl ‘child’ kenč oğla:n; al-radi ‘foster child' ağuz oğlarn I lou. 24, 20; al-ualad ‘son’ oğul do. 32, 2: xıv oğul al-ibn, in Kıpčak (sic) owul Id. 16; oğla:n al-ğulem ‘boy, page’ do. 16; al-ibn oğlan/oğul Bul. 9. 2: xv oğlum ibni Kav. 15, 20; oğlı: do. 44, 12; 59, 12; tvalad owul, in Tkm. oğul Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 38a. 8; al-šabi olan and (Tkm.) oğlan do. 78b. e: Osm. xıv ff. oğulson’, mainly in phr. TTS I 536; III 535; IV 601; oğlanson; child (male or female)’ by itself and in phr. II 717 ff.; III 533 ff.; IV 599 ff; xvııı oğul otı in Rumi, bedranebüya ‘mountain balm’ San. yyx. 6.

Dis. AĞL

VU uğlı: (parsnip) Hap. leg. Xak. xı uğlı: al~hinzeb ‘parsnip’; it is a white sweet-flavoured root-vegetable (cazar) grown in the city of Kashgar and eaten Kaš. I 129.

D ağla:k N./A.S. fr. 1 ağla:- (deserted, abandoned), q.v.; almost always of places ‘uninhabited, remote, lonely’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with phonetic variations. It seems prob. that SW Osm. aylak, which cannot otherwise be explained, is a See. f. of this word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ağlak yerte ‘in a lonely place’ U III 63, 10: Xak. xı ağla:k ye:r al-matudi'u'lladi Id anis bihi ‘a place where one has no companions' Kaš. I 119; y^rri: takı: ağla:k wa ma' delika arduhum qafr ‘and in addition their land is desert’ / 468, 8; a.o. II 365, 19 (ağlat-): xıv Muh. al-neqiš ‘deficient, lacking’ agla:k Mel. 82, 15; Rif. 188: Xwar. xıv ağlak ‘deserted, solitary; bashful’ Qutb 4: Kom. xıv ‘desert’ avlak CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv oğlak (sic; one MS. ağlak) al-xeli ‘uninhabited’ Id. 17: aylak maccen ay bile šay ‘free, that is without (paying) anything’ do. 27 (prob. Tkm.): xv xaltua ‘solitude, a remote place' yawlak (sic) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 14b. 7; 90b. 9 (and see 1 oğ): Osm. xv ff. aylak (1) ‘out of work, unemployed’; (2) ‘free, gratis’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 60; II 81; 111 54; IV 60: xvııı aylak in Rumi muft ‘free, gratis’, in Pe. also raygdn, in Ar. maccen Sajt. 57V. 1 (in SW xx Anat. ağlak ‘lonely, ininbahited’ SDD 76; aylak ‘alone, only; free, gratis; idle, unemployed; one who works for his keep without wages’ do. 139).

D oğla:k (kid, young goat) Dim. f. of oğul; ‘kid, young goat’ without any connotation of a particular age, contrast Čeplš; in some modern languages metaph. for ‘boy’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with various \\ phonetic changes, see Shcherbak, p. 119. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in a list of animals) oğlak USp. 55, 10: Xak. xı oğla:k al-cady ‘kid’ Kaš. I 119 (prov.); oğla:k ay ‘kid month’, the first month of spring; uluğ oğla:k ay ‘the following month, because the kid then grows bigger’ I 347, 26 ff.; eight o.o.: KB oğlak ‘the constellation Capricorn’ 141: xıv Rbğ. ditto (copied from KB) R I 1022; Muh. (}) al-cady oğ1a:k Rif. 172 (only): Čağ. xv ff. oğlağ/ oğlak ‘a kid (buzğaln) four months old’; also the name of ‘Capricorn’ (burc-i-cady) Sort. 7ev. 24: Xwar. xıv oğlak 'kid' Qutb 114: Kom. xıv ‘kid’ ogıılak CCI; (Sr.; ulax CCG; Gr.: Kom, xııı al-cauy oğalak (*«?) Hou. 15, 9: xıv oğlak af-'artaq ‘kid’ Id. 16; o:lak (sic, under alif lem but? owlak intended) waladu'l-ğazel ‘young gazelle’ do. 21; (under yavla:k) and in the Kiteb Beylik al-cady is yowlak, it has already been said that it is oğlak do. 99; al-cady oğlak Bul. 7, 13: XV sax/a ‘kid’ awlak (in margin in ?SW hand oğlak) 7'uh. 19b. 2.

Dis. V. AĞL-

D okluğ (arrow) P.N./A. fr. 1 ok (arrow); lit. ‘possessing arrows’. Survives in NE Khak. uxtiğ; Tuv. oktuğ (of a gun) ‘cocked’; NW Kaz. uklipossessing arrows’; SW Osm., Tkm. oklu ditto., but normally used only in the phr. oklu kirpi 'porcupine'. Xak. xı (after kirpi:, q.v.) and al-duldul ‘the porcupine’ is called okluğ kirpi: Kaš. I 415: Kip. xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 29a. 7 (see kirpi:).

D okluk (quiver (arrows)) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 ok (arrow); ‘quiver’. Survives in NC Kır. and SW Osm. Xak. xı okluk al-kinena ‘quiver’ Kaš. I 100.

D oğla:n See oğul (son, boy, offspring, child, youth, servant, foster child, bodyguard, young man).

Dis. V. AĞL-

D okıl- Pass. f. of oki:-; normally only ‘to be read'. S.i.s.m.l.; others use okin- in this sense. Xak. xı bitig okıldı: 'the book was read’ (quri'a) Kaš. I 197 (okılur, okılma:k): Čağ. xv ff. okul- (-dı) okun- Vel. 108; okul- Pass. f.; xwanda šudan ‘to be read, recited’ San. 77V. 5 (quotns.).

D ukul- (saw, understood) Pass. f. of uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus); ‘to be understood’. Survives as uğul- in some NE languages and NC Kır. Xak. xı bu söz ukuldi: ‘this remark was understood’ (’urifa) Kaš. I 197 (ukulur, ukulma:k): KB ukuldı bu söz 1017; o.o. 2251, 5987.

D 1 ağla:- (deserted, abandoned) Hap. leg., but see ağla:k, ağlat-; 'to be deserted, abandoned’, and the like. Morphologically a Den. V, connected not with 1, 2 a:ğ, but with medieval 1 oğ; there are traces of a connection between ağla:k, q.v., and that word, but there is no good evidence that this verb and its der. f.s ever started with o-. Xak. xı ağlayu: Kaš. III 258, 16 (yurt); n.m.e.

S 2 ağla:- See ığla:-.

DF akla:- (hate) Den. V. fr. 2 ak (hateful), q.v. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. -vııı ff. Dud. (my father and mother \\ loved (sever) my elder brother the prince and) meni aklayur erti ‘hated me’ PP 29, 1: Civ. (his mouth gets dry; when he drinks water he is not satisfied) a:šağ a:kla:r ‘he hates (the sight of) food’ TT VIII 1.2.

D ığla:- (weep) Den. V. fr. *ığ; ‘to weep'. The phonetic history of this verb is very similar to that of ığač (ığa:č) (tree, shrubs, wood, pole, stick, staff, beam, column, (saddle)-tree, vine, branch, farsah, 30-inch length, strike by a stick, penis), q.v.; the original form was certainly ığla:-, but a form with prosthetic y- evolved in Uyğ. and was an alternative form in Xak. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually as ığla-, yığla- or a Sec. or metathesized form of one of them, but in NE there are some forms with initial a- or rounded vowels and the SW form ağla:- (Tkm. a:ğla-) prohably emerged as early as xiv. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ot suv kutı ığlayur ‘the majesty of fire and water weeps’ M II 12, 4: Bud. ığladım PP 5, 6; ığlayu 4, 1 and 7; 5, 2; 10, 6; yığlayu (sic?) 10, 5; yašı tökülü ığlayuweeping with streaming tears’ USp. 106, 47; yığlayu sixftayuj 'weeping and sobbing’ U III 17, 3; bağrın yatıp yığlayu yalvara 'lying on their bellies weeping and pleading’ TT IV 4, 13; yašlığ közin yığlayuweeping with tear-filled eyes’ TT X 297: Xak.xi oğla:n ığla:dı: ‘the boy wept’ (baka); alternative form (luğa) of yiğla:dı: Kaš. I 286 (ığla:r, ığla:ma:k); oğlam yığla:dı: same translation III 309 (yığla:r, yığla:ma:k; verse); five o.o. of yığla:-: KB üküš yığladı 1121, 1149; a.o.o.: xıv Rbğ. ığla- (}sic, unvocalized) R I 177; Muh. (}) baka ığla:- (? «e, unvocalized) Rif. 105 (only); al-bake' ığlamak (ditto) 121: Čağ. yığla- girya kardan ‘to weep’ San. 35or. 8 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı ağla- ditto *AH 29, etc.; yığla- do. 40, 49: xııı (?) ığlasa . 61: xıv yığla- Qutb 90; ığla- do. 205; yığladıŋız Nahc. 103, 8: Kom. 'to weep’ ığla- CCI; ığla-/ıla- CCG; Gr. 272: Kıp. xııı baka ığla:- (unvocalized) Hou. 36, 10: xıv ığla- baka wa futiha'l-hamza turkmeni Tkm. ağla- Id. le: xv baka yığla- Kav. 17, 14; 61, 14; ağla- do. 38, 6; baka yığla- (in margin yıla-) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 8b. 1; neha tea bake ‘to weep and wail ’ zar zar yıla-, in Tkm. yığla- do. 37b. 3.

VUD ıhla:- Hap. leg.; the alif is unvocalized, but it seems reasonable to suppose that this is a Den. V. fr. *ih, an alternative form of ik, q.v., same meaning. Xak. xı (in a note on exclamations ending in ‘quiescent’ ha‘) radical (al-ašlŋ he’ is not found in the pure (šamim) Turkish language except in the expression er ihla:di: axada'l-racula'l-rabtv ‘the man was seized with hiccoughs’, in which this (ıh) is an onomatopoeic for the sound which rises from the chest (and also in the word ühi: ‘owl’, q.v.) Kaš. III 118, 21; n.m.e.

D ağlat- Caus. f. of 1 ağla:-. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol kišimi: ağlattı: ‘he sent away (ab'ada) the people from himself, li-yaxluwa l-mared lahu, so that the grazing land might be empty for him’ Kaš. I 265 (ağlatur, aglatmatk); (in a grammatical para.) ol ye:riğ ağlattı: axld'l-makan ‘he emptied the area’; its origin \\ s ağla:k ye:r maken xali 'an empty, uninhabited arca' II 365, 13.

Dis. V. AĞL-

D ığlat- (weep) Caus. f. of ığla:-; ‘to make (someone Arc.) weep’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with the same phonetic changes. Xak. xı ol ani: yığfattı: abke/tu ‘he made him weep’ Kaj. II 355 (yığlatu:r, yığlatnıa:k): KB, 3595, 4096 (kültür-): Čağ. xv ff. yığlat- Caus. f. giryenidan 'to cause to weep’ San. 3501-. 22: Kip. xıv ığlaf- obkd Id. 16.

VU ?S uglit- Hap. leg.; the spelling is certain, since it lies between ağlat- and avlat-, but the meaning is identical with that of ükllt-, q.v., and this must be either a dialect form or one of Knš.'s. rare mistakes’. Xak. xı ol tawa:-rin (sic) uğlıtti: kattara melahu wa tammara ‘he increased (Hend.) his property’ Kaš. I 265 (uglitur, uğlıtma:k).

D aklıš- Co-op. f. of akıl- (see ak- Čağ.) Pass. f. of ak- but without any Pass. connotation. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı teğme: yıga:ktm bo:dun akltšti: izdahama 'l-nds min kull awb ‘the people crowded together from every direction’; wa kačielika' l-miyeh ide taseyalat min kull facc also used of waters when they flow together from every ravine Kaš. I 241 (aklıšu:r, aklıšma:k); a.o. I 88, 1 (on:).

D ığlaš- Co-op. f. of ığla:-; ‘to weep together’. S.i.s.m.l.g. with the same phonetic variations. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the two brothers) ığlaštı ötrü sığtaštılar ‘wept and sobbed together' PP 53, 1: Xak. xı oğla:n ığlaštı: bakati’l--sibyen ‘the boys wept (together)’; alternative form (luğa) of yığlaš- Kaš. I 240 (ığlašur, ığlašma:k); (in a grammatical para.) kiši: barča: yığlašdı: ‘the people all wept (together)’ HI 322, 2; n.m.e. of yığlaš-: Čağ. xv ff. yığlaš- Co-op. f.; be yak-digar girya kardan ‘to weep together’ San. 3501. 23.

Tris. AĞL

?F ıkı:la:č Hap. leg.; prob., like the few other words ending in -la:č, a l.-w. Xak. xı ıki:la:č al-faraštı l-re'i'u'}-cawed ‘a spirited swift horse’ Kaš. I 139 (prove, and verse).

D oğulčuk Dim. f. of oğul; ‘womb’. N.o.a.b. Similar words meaning ‘womb; fish’s roe’ but with different suffixes appeared in the medieval period, and still survive; oğulduk first noted in Kom. xıv (ovuldux)andKip. xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 7b. 1 and oğulduruk first noted in Osm. xvi. Xak. xı oğulčuk rahimu’l-mar’a ’the womb’ Kaš. I 149: xıı (?) Tef. ditto 232.

D ağı:lık (treasury) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. ağı: (treasure, silk brocade); ‘treasury’. In Buddhist technical termir ;logy translates Chinese ts'ang (see tsag) which itself translates Sanskrit garbha ‘treasure’ and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 11, 3  (ii) (banmlik): Man. yeti ağılık nomlanğ nomlat (t)ıgız 'you have preached the doctrine of the seven treasuries’ (or ‘seven precious doctrines’ assuming ağılık is a mis-spelling of ağılığ) TT III 73-4: Bud. y€r ağılıkı...kök kalık [ağılıkı] names of two Bodhisattvas 'Ksitigarbha, Akeiagarbha' V I 18, 4-5; ağılıktakı ağı barım 'treasures and property in the treasury’ PP 7, 5-6; ağtlıkım (sačım ‘my treasury and granary’ U I 29, 2; o.o. U III 47, 17; Suv. 270, 4; TT VI common; TT VII41, 28; Civ. USp. 78, 14-15 (İčğcru:).

D akı:lık A.N. fr. akı:; ‘generosity’. Survives only (?) in NE Bar. ağıı:luk, same meaning R I 173 nnd SW Osm. axilik now 'a community of axis’ (see aki:). Xak. xı kodğıl maga: akı:lık bolsun maga: ayağ-a: translated da'ni hatte actld fa-yaktln laqabi cawad ‘permit me to be generous and may my title be ‘'generous” ’ Kaš. III 172, 11; n.m.e.: KB akilik ‘generosity’ (and other virtues are manifest in the good man) 934: xıı (?) At. akilik (axjhk in the Arabic script MSS.) ‘generosity’ 230, 232, 233 (eft-)» etc.: Osm.xvi Ar. al-samaha ‘to be generous’ cömcrdllk ve axilik etmek TTS II17 (this entry proves that Osm. axi is aki: and not derived fr. Ar. ax ‘brother’).

D ağu:luğ (poisonous) P.N./A. fr. ağu:(poison); ‘poisonous’. S.i.s.m.l.g. w. various phonetic changes. Türkü vııı ff. agu:lu:ğ kurt kogu:z adartu: uma:z ‘poisonous worms and insects cannot endanger you’ Toy. 28-9 (ETY II 59): Man. eki ağulıığ yol ‘the two poisonous roads’ Chuas. 125: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (they were saved...) akuluğ (j*e) yılkıta ‘from a poisonous animal (reincarnation)’ TT III 2e: Bud. ağuluğ yılan ‘a poisonous snake’ PP 38,3; V IV 8, r2 (etin-); o.o. PP 39, 6; VII 31, 53: Civ. ağuluğ ‘poisonous’ If II 8, 50: Čağ. xv ff. ağuluk sihrnek ‘f>oisonous’ San. 44r. 10.

D oğulluğ P.N./A. fr. oğul; ‘having a son, or child’. S.i.s.m.l.g. Xak. xı KB oğulluğ ata bolsa ‘if a father has children’ 1221: xııı (?) Tef. oğulluk (jic) ditto 232.

D oğulluk A.N, (and Conc. N.) fr. oğul; ‘adoption; an adopted son’. Survives in some NW and all SW languages. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. Turmıš atlığ oğlumnı Sutpakka... oğulluk birdim ‘I have given my son named Turmıš to Sutpak as an adopted son’ USp. 98, 2-4.

D oğla:ğu: (pampered, gently nurtured, delicate, изнеженый, нежный)gently nurtured, delicate’ and the like; presumably Dev. N./A. fr. *oğla:- Den. V. fr. oğul. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (she walks with a gliding motion) yumšak oğlağu adakin on her soft, delicate feet’ U II 24, 2; men yeme oğlağun ögrenmiš kenč klčig 'and I am a young girl gently brought up’ U III 82, 16; oğlağu ünln ütıdeyü ‘speaking with a gentle voice’ UIV 14, 142; o.o. XJ III 7, 21; 17, 14; 44, 3; Xak. xı oğla:ğu: at~muna,fam wa’I-murabbd fi ni'ma 'pampered, brought up in luxury’; hence ‘great ladies’ (al-xatvatin) are called oğla:ğu: ka:tu:n Kaš, I 138: KB (the raven’s call is like) oğlağu kız ünî ‘a delicate girl’s voice’ 77; kimig oğlağu bolsa oğlı \87\ kızı ‘the man whose children are pampered’ (will regret it) 1223.


VUD oğulmuk (lug) Hap, leg.; apparently Den. N. fr. oğul but w. no obvious semantic connection. Xak. xı oğulmuk kull xa^aba mustawiya fi qiwdmi’l-'arida ‘any straight timber in the supports of a rafter’ (lug) Kaš. I 149.

D oğlanlığ Hap. leg.? ; P.N./A. fr. oğla:n (oğul). The A.N. oğlanlık ‘boyhood’, 'the time of youth’ is noted in SW Osm. fr. xıv onwards TTS I 536, etc, and in xv meaning 'infantile convulsions’ II 719. Uyg. vııı ff. Civ. un oğlanlığ evči ‘a waman who has (borne) a male child’ H II 18, 65.

D oğlatnsığ Hap. leg.; N./A. fr. oğla:n (oğul). Xak. (in a note on the Suff. -sığ) bu karı: ol oğlamsığ hede fayx yušbih xuluquhu xuluqa’l-sibyan ‘the habits of this old man are like the habits of a child’ Kaš. III 128, 21; n.m.e.

Tris. V. AĞL-

D aki:la:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. aki:, Xak. xı ol meni: aki:la:di: nasabani ile'1-cüd ‘he attributed generosity to me’ Ka\. I 310 (aki:la:r, aki:la:ma:k).

D ağu:la:- (poison) Den. V. fr. ağu: (poison); ‘to poison (someone or something Acc.)\ Survives only (?) in SW Osm. ağıla-. Xak. xı ol ašın ağu:la:dı: ‘he poisoned (samma) his food (etc.)’ Kaš. I 310 (ağu:la:r, ağu:la:ma:k).

Dis. AĞM

D ağım (rise, climb, ascend, ascent; instep) N.S.A. fr. 1 a:ğ- (rise, climb, ascend); lit. ‘a single act of rising or climbing’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. for ‘ascent; instep’. Xak. xı bi:r ağım ye:r ša'ûd mina'l-ard qadr me yuš'ad daf4ata (n) 'alayhd ‘a rise in the ground of a size which can be climbed all at once’ Kaš. I 75.

D akım (flowing, stream, current) N.S.A. fr. ak- (to flow, float, move, raid); lit. ‘a single act of flowing’. S.i.s.m.l.g. usually for ‘stream, current’. Xak. xı bi:r akım su:v me’ qadr me yasil marrata (n) ‘the amount of water that flows once’ Kaš. I 75: Kom. xıv aximstream’ CCG; Gr.

Dis. AĞN

1 ağan Hap. leg.; the para, concerned is most obscure; Thomsen translated the word *pennnce’ as a pure guess, suggesting a connection with ağan- in U II 87, 62; this is a simple misreading of ağna:-, which could be a Den. V. fr. this word; if so, it might mean ‘prostration’ or the like; Orkun’s translation ‘seclusion’, based on a supposed connection with 1 ağla:- is morphologically improbable. Türkü vııı ff. ak at karšısi:n üč bolu:ğta: talu:la:pan ağanka: Ötü:gke ıdmi:s ‘a white horse choosing his adversary in the three states of existence (?) sent him to prostration (?) and prayer (?)’ IrkB 19.

E 2 ağan (stammering, lame, dumb) Hap. leg.; there is no doubt that Kaš. was misled by the resemblance to the Ar. word and that this is a mis-spelling and mistranslation of ağın which is not listed in Kaš. Xak. xı ağan er (nasal man) al-raculu ’l-ağanrt ‘a man who speaks through his nose’; tea hddihi wafaqatVl-arabiya lafza (n) ten ma'nain) ‘this agrees with Ar. in sound and meaning’ Kaš. I 77 (see 2 ağna:-), ağındumb’. Survives only (?) in NE xix Küer. ağınstammering’ R I 155. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. (blind) ağındumb’ (lame, one armed, etc.) M III 49, 3: Xak. xı KB (if a man goes to a strange country) kelin teg bolur er ağın teg till ‘he becomes as (shy as) a bride, and his tongue as if dumb (lame)’ 494; (why do you say nothing) ağın teğ bolup ‘as if you had become dumb (lame)?’ 775; o.o. 1016, 1027, 6118, 6452: xıv Rbğ. ağındumb’ R 1 155; Muh. (?) al~abkam ‘dumbağın Rif. 150 (only).

D akın (stream, current, raid, night raid detachment, invasion, налет) Conc. N. fr. ak- (to flow, float, move, raid); basically ‘stream, current’, metaph. a marauding raid’. S.i.a.m.l.g. in one or both meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit rasa (N.) ‘fluid, liquidakın TT VIII e>.35: Xak. xı akin al-sayl ‘stream’; and al-atty ‘a sudden rush of water’ is called munduz akin; and this word is used metaph. (yusta'eŋ for al-katibatu’l--muğira layla (n) 'a detachment which raids by night’; so one says akınčı: keldi: ‘the raiding party has come’, sd'ila ka’l-sayli’l-atiy ‘pouring in like a sudden rush of water’ Kaš. I 77; KB közde akıttı akin Met loose a flood of tears’ 1160: Kip. xııı aUiğara ‘a raid’ akin Hou. 14, 9; ğur mina'l-iğera akin et do. 42, 15: xıv akin al-cary li l-iğera ‘rushing out for a raid’ id. 18: xv tayyar ‘strong current, waveakin Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 8b. 10; sayl (akmak and) akin do. 19,a 7: Osm. xıv akinraid’ in various phr. TTS I 14; II 20; IV 12: xvııı akin in Rumi, ğerat wa taxt ‘raid, invasion’ San. 45V. 8.

D uğa:n ‘God’, etc. See u:-.

Dis. V. AĞN

-E ağan- See ağna:- Uyğ. (roll)

D okin- Refl. f, of oki:-. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually in a Pass. sense. Xak. xı bitığ okındı: ‘the book was read’ (qurVa); and one says ol bitig okındı: ‘he pretended to read the book without actually reading it’; the -n- was changed from -ı- Kaš. I 202 (okinur, okinma:k): Osm. xıv ff. okun- (once xv oxun-) ‘to be called, summoned’ in several texts TTS I 537; II 723; III 538; IV 603.

S uğun- See uvun-.

D ukun- (seeing, recognizing (realizing)) Refl. f. of uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bilinip ukunup ‘recognizing (Hend., his sins)’ Suv. 140, 1 and u.

?D 1 ağna:- (roll) perhaps Den. V. fr. 1 ağan; ‘to roll on one’s back’, esp. of a horse or other animal. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. some phonetic changes Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (he wept and sobbed) balıkča ağnayurolling about (on the ground) like a fish’ PP 58, 7; öz arığsızında \\ ağnayu ‘rolling in his own filth’ U III 35, 20; o.o. U II 87, 62 (mistranscribed ağan-)\ U III 42, 27; Suv. 6or, 12; USp. 97, 5-6; 101, 8: Xak. xı at ağna:dı: tamarrağa'l-faras JVl--tureb 'the horse rolled in the dust (etc.)’ Kaš. I 289 (ağna:r, agna:ma:k): KB sığun muyğak ağnar 'the maral deer and doc roll on their hacks’ 79; (you are an ignorant (metaph.) maral deer) ağınap yor-a ‘go and roll on your hack’ 6613: Čağ. xv fr. ağna- bar aok ğaltidan ‘to roll on the ground’, in Ar. mareğa San, 43r. 22: Xwar. xıv ağna- ‘to roll on one’s back’ Qutb 4; Nahc. 315, 16-17: Kip. xııı tamarrağa'l-faras at ağrındı: (mis-vocalized ığnadt:); used of horses, mules, and donkeys Ilou. 13, 2: xıv ağna- tamarrağa İd. le: xv ditto awna- (in margin Tkm. ağna-) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 9a e: Osm, xıv ff. ağna- ditto; c.i.a.p. TTS I 12; II 14; HI 8; IV 9.

D 2 ağna:- (tongue-tied, stammer) Den. V. fr. ağın; ‘to be tongue-tied, dumb'. Survives only (?) in NE Küer. ağınna- ‘to stammer’ R I 156. Xak. xı and one says er ağna:di: ta’ta'a'l-lisenul-racul wa'naqada 'alayhi 'the man was tongue-tied (Hend.)’; wa ašhıhu minal-ğunna ‘its origin is from speaking through the nose’ Kaš. I 289 (ağna:r, ağna:ma:k; see 2 ağan).

D 1 ağnat- Caus. f, of 1 ağna:- (roll); 'to make (a horse, etc.) roll on its back’. S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol atın topra:kka: ağnattı: matrağa farasahu fi'1-tureb ‘he made his horse roll on its hack in the dust (etc.)’ Kaš. I 267 (2 ağnat-follows): Čağ. xv ff. ağnat- Caus. f.; bar xakğaltenidan 'to cause to roll on the ground’; Ar. tamriğ San. 43V. 9: Osm. XyVi ff. ağnat - ditto, in two texts TTS I 12; II 14.

D 2 ağnat- Hap. leg,; Caus. f. of 2 ağna:- (tongue-tied, stammer). Xak. xı (after 1 ağnat-) yağa:k anıg tılın ağnattı: aklul-catcz takala lisenahu hatte šera ka'annahu aratta 'eating the nut impeded his tongue so that it was as if he stammered’ Kaš. I 267 (ağnatur, ağnatma:k).

Tris. AĞN

D akınčı: (raider, lightly armed irregular troops, налетчик) N.Ag. fr. akın; ‘a raider, raiding party.’ Survives on1v (?) in SW Osm., where it was used as late as the 1914-18 War for 'lightly armed irregular troops’. Xak. xı akınču: (sic, in error under influence of preceding word avınču:) al-sarfya 'a raiding party which goes by night and attacks the enemy’ Kaš. I 134; akınčı: I 77 (akın); I 212 (akıt-): Osm. xvııı akınčı (in Rumi, see akın) ğeratkar iva tdxt kunauda ‘raider, marauder’ San. 45V. 8.

D uğanča See u:-.

D ağınčsız (indomitable, unshakeable) pec. to Uyğ. As pointed out in U /, p. 55 this word is used to translate the Chinese phr. pu t'ui (Giles 9,456 12,183) which translates Sanskrit avirtivartaniya ‘indomitable, unshakenble’. It seems therefore to be a Priv. N/A. fr. *ağmč Dev. N. fr. the Refl. f. of 2 a:ğ- (change) in its medieval meaning (see a:ğ- Preliminary note). It could be transcribed \\ as akınčsiz and taken as more or less syn. with akığsız, but this is less probable. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ağınčsız köŋül ‘an unshakcablc mind’ TT III 18: Bud. Suv. 488, 13; Pfahl. 6, 4 (evrilinčsiz).

D akındı: Intrans. Dev. N./A. fr. Refl. f. of ak- ; ‘flowing, running’ (water, etc.); ‘a stream’. S.i.s.m.l.g. Xak. xı akındı: su:v al-ma'u'l--m'H 'running water’ Kaš. I i-jo: Čağ. xv ff. akındı syn. with akıš (not prc-Čağ.) meaning ciryen-t eb ‘a flow of water’ San. 45V. 8.

D ağmğač See šatu: (stair).

Dis. AĞR

ağır (heavy) basically ‘heavy’ in the physical sense; hence metaph. in two contrary meanings: — (1) laudatory (a) ‘important, distinguished and (b) (‘of full weight’ hence) ‘valuable, sincere’; (2) pejorative ‘burdensome, grievous; painful’. C-i.a.m.Lg. w. phonetic changes. Türkü vııı bunča: ağır törö:g ‘such important tribal laws’ IIE 2; (gap) ağır tašiğ ‘heavy stone’ (or ‘important memorial stone’?) II S 15: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (this work was begun with great joy and finished) ağır sevinčîn ‘with overwhelming happiness’ M I 25, 5; similar phr. but ağır küsüšün ‘with overwhelming desire' do. 28, 22; ağır ağruš körür ‘he suffers grievous pain’ M III 31, 5 (iii): Man. ağır ağruš TT II 17, 5e: Chr. bu taš ertigü ağır turur ‘this stone is exceedingly heavy’ U I 8, 4-5: Bud. ağır aya:ğığ ‘profound respect’ TT VIII E.5; ağar (sic) ayağın U IV 12, 100; erligüağar ağar («V) U III 37, 34; ağar («V) tsuy irinčüleri ‘grievous sins (Hend.)’ TT IV 4, o; o.o. Suv. 4, 17 (iğle:-); 96, 22; 132, 12; USp. 97, 21; 101, 21; TT VII (common): Civ. ağır igke‘a serious illness’ USp. 78, 2; ağır kıınka tegzün: ‘let him be subjected to severe punishment’ do. 115, 20; similar phr. do. 116, t7; a.o. TT VIH 1.12 (čıvša:ğu:): Xak. xı ağır al-taqit ‘heavy’ of anything; and a man who is honored (rmikram) by the people or the chief is called ağırlı:ğ kiši:; and one says teŋri: meni: ağırla:di: 'God made me honored’ (akra-manŋ; and when part of the night (hudiV mina'l-layl) has passed, one says ağı:r (sic) ada:k amruldi: ‘the heavy (al~taqila) foot has come to rest’ (sakana), meaning that it has reached its destination after a slow journey; aği:r (sic) ne:g al-šay’u'1-ğeli fi'I-taman ‘a highly-priced thing’ Kaš. I 52; o.o. I 99, 26 (ağruk); III 247, 26 (u:): KB (by speech man) ağır kıldı öz ‘has made himself respected’ 210; učuz tutmasunı ağır tutsuni ‘let them not hold you worthless, let them hold you in respect’ 540; o.o. ‘respected’ 900, 1028; ‘valuable’ 902; ‘important’ 900, 903: xıı (?) Tef, ağırheavy, important, respected’ 37: xıv Muh. al-taqil ‘heavy’ (opp. to ‘light’ ytigül) ağır Mel. 54, 9; Rif. 151; taqilu'l-sam' ‘hard of hearing’ ağı:r ku:la:klığ 139 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ağır sangin wa taqil ‘heavy’ (Hend.) San. 44r. 10 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ağırınča ‘according to their weight’ 'Ali 22: \89\ xıv ağırheavy’ MN 149; ‘massive' (army) Nahc. 27, 12 etc.: Kom. ‘heavy; weight; honorağır CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-taqil (opp. to ‘light’ yüıjül, ye:ynl) ağır Hou. 27, le: xıv ağır al~taqil Id. le: ağı:r (sic, vertical kasra) al-samin ‘corpulent’ do. 17: xv al-taqil ağır Kav. 64i 17; ditto awur; Tkm. ağır Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 1 ia. 1: Osm. xıv ff. ağır in several meanings; c.i.a.p. TTS I 7, 8; II 9, 10; III 6; IV 6, 7.

F akur (stable)stable’; early l.-w. fr. Pe. axwur. S.i.s.m.l. in various forms, sometimes recognized as a l.-w. and sometimes not; in modern times usually means ‘manger’ rather than ‘stable’. See sip. Xak. xı (in the introductory Chap.) akur al-ištabl ‘stable’ Kaš. I 7, 7; n.m.e.: KB akur ‘stable’ 5369, 5370: xıv Muh. al-mi'laf ‘manger’ a:xur/a:xu:r Mel. 76, 8; axur Rif. 179.

?F ığar (strong) n.o.a.b. v. G. ATG, p. 309 suggests that this is Sogdian yy*r and prob. means ‘strong’. Türkü vııı ığar elllgde: ığar xağanitğda: yeg kıltım ‘I made them better than those who had a strong (?) realm and a strong (?) xağan’ I E 29, IIE 24; ığar oğlanımızda: ‘among your strong (?) sons’ I SE.

VU PF oğar (horse with a white blaze on its forehead) pec. to Kaš. In spite of the difference in vocalization it seems likely that this is an Ar. l.-w., perhaps received through Pe. where it is also a l.-w. Xak. xı oğar at al-farasu'1-ağarr 'a horse with a white blaze on its forehead’; this word agrees with the Ar. in sound and meaning except that in Ar. the alif carries a fatha and in Turkish a damma Kaš. I 53; a.o. İ 335 (bol).

VU oğur (uğur) (exchange) Hap. leg. Although this is described as Oğuz, the A.N. oğurluk, q.v., appears in a Xak. verse. It is entered between the Xak. and Oğuz translations of uğur and is possibly a special meaning of that word, but there is no obvious semantic connection. Oğuz xı oğur al-iwed ‘exchange’, one says atka: oğur aldım ‘I received (something) in exchange for the horse’ Kaš. I 53.

uğur (time, at point, at moment, cause, occasion, reign, good fortune, blessedness and happiness, possibility, opportunity, direction, so, because) (A.-Sax. gyrn “fate, misfortune”) semantically rather indefinite; seems to connote both ‘time’ and ‘cause’; in some contexts it is hard to say which is uppermost. ‘Time’ seems to have evolved into ‘the right time, an auspicious time’, and thence into ‘good fortune’ the meaning uppermost today in the word and its der. f.s. Very common in the early period, but survives only (?) in SW Az., Osm., Tkm. (and Krım R I 1010). Has been fairly consistently transcribed oğur, but TT VIII has uğur and this is the modern pronunciation. See Doerfer II 604. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. ol uğurka ‘for that reason’ (the Magi still worship fire) U I 9, 3: Man.-A (after a list of names) el(l)entük erksintük uğurınta ‘at the time (at point, at moment) when (the persons named) were ruling and exercising authority’ M I 27, 10: Man. az nizvani uğrınta ‘because of (caused by) the passion of lust’ TT II 16, 20: Bud. Sanskrit ekada ‘once upon a time’ \\ bire:r uğurda: TT VIII C.16; alku uğurla:r üze: ‘on all occasions’ do. G.8: el(l)enü erksJnü yarlıkayur uğurda Pfahl. 22, 3; o.o. meaning ‘time, occasion’ V II 4, 4; 5, 11; TT IV 12, 48; V 8, 71 and 76; 26, 107; nizvanilar uğrıntabecause of (or under the influence of) passions’ TT IV 4, 11; nizvanilar küčinte mıdık uğrınta 'by the compulsion of passions and because we are laymen’ do. 5, 21; yana bu nom erteni uğrınta yaıjırtı k^rtgünč tuğar ‘and because of this precious doctrine faith is born anew TT V 22, 29-30: Civ. Ig ağriğ uğrıntain times of illness (Hend.)’ TT I 16; uğrınta is common, and uğriga occurs once (20, 12) in H II meaning either ‘in times of’ or ‘because of: O. Kır. ıx ff. elim uğrıntafor the sake of (?) my realm’ Mal. to, 8 (a chaotic inscription, but these words seem clear): Xak. xı uğur al-waqt ‘time’; one says ne: uğurda: keldi:ŋ ‘at what time did you come?’; uğur al-dazcla (here) ‘reign’; hence one says beg uğrımda: meniŋ i:šım e:tildi: salaha amri fi daıvlati'1-amir ‘my affairs were kept in good order in the reign of the beg'; uğur al-imken tua'l-furša fil-šay’ ‘possibility, opportunity for something’; hence one says bu: i:š uğurluğ boldi: šera hede'l--amr fi imkenihi wa furšatihi “this affair became possible and opportune’ Kaf. I 53 (paras, on oğur and uğur in Oğuz follow); and about 20 o.o. meaning ‘time, occasion, the right time’ (waqt or zamdn): KB (a prudent man) Iš uğrın bllür ‘knows the right time to work’ 2192: xın (?) Tef. ol uğurdaat that time; at that very moment’ 232 (oğuŋ: Čağ. xv ff. uğur (1) samt tea maqsadi ki ba-en taraf tatvaccuh wa n1 kunartd ‘a direction towards which one turns and goes’; (2) barakat tva sa'adat ‘blessedness and happiness’ San. 76V. 27: Oğuz xı uğur al-xayr wa'l-baraka ‘good fortune, blessedness’; hence one says to a traveller yo:l uğur bolsu:n ‘may your journey be fortunate and blessed’; this word is used only in regard to a journey (fi helVl-safar) Kaš. I 53: Osm. xıv ff. uğurdirection; objective; journey’ noted in several texts TTS I 716-17; \\ 921; III 722; IV 778, but in some quotations this is not the meaning, e.g. (/) kadırga tamem bir yıl uğura gitti, denizden me'ade nesne görmediler ‘the galley went out for a period of a whole year, but they saw nothing except the sea*.

akru: (gently, quietly)gently, quietly’, and the like; often doubled. From the earliest period a longer form akuru: occurs and fr. xı forms with -n attached. None of the morphological analyses of this word which have been suggested, e.g. in Brockelmann, para. 104, are plausible, and it seems to be a basic word, the form with attached -n being perhaps an Instr. S.i.m.m.l.g. usually with attached -n and sometimes meta-thesized as in SW. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. akuru akuru magin yoriyur ‘she walks at a quiet pace’ U II 24, 2; a.o. U III 72, 17: Civ. ot akuru akuru [gap] ‘let the fire [bum] gently’. HII18, 5e: Xak. xı akru: Indeclinable (harf) \\ meaning ‘gentle, slow’ (rutvayd); one says akru: (gently, quietly) akru: taraffaq ruwayda (n) ‘he gentle' Kaš. I 114; (if you love property which you have acquired, love it) akrun (Wc) 'in moderation' III 361, 2: KB (Ay toldŋ olturdi akru silig ‘sat down quietly and modestly' 956; turup čıktı akru ‘he got up and went out quietly' 1604; o.o. 3,957; 6,617: xııı (?) Tef. akru ‘quiet, quietly’ 48: xıv Muh. 'ale mahl ‘slowly, gently’ nkru:n/axru:n Me/. 8, 8; akru:/axru: Rif. 80: Xwar. xıv akruquietly, peacefully’ Qutb 9; akrun do. 10; arkun do. 11; (I have a loud voice) hič akru sözleyü bilmezmen lI cannot speak quietly' Nahc. 371, 14; akrun ‘quietly’ do. 383, 7: Kom. xıv 'slowly, quietly’ akrin/arkun CCI; Gr.: Ktp. xrv arkun rifqa (n) ‘gently’; one says arkun arkun kelür ‘he comes gently’ Id. 11: xv ta'anni ‘slowly’ akrin/arkun Kav. 77, 8; mahla (n) aknn Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 90b. 7: Osm. xıv ff. arkin/arkun/arxun ’gently, slowly’; sometimes doubled; c.i.a.p. TTS I 40; II 55; III 38; IV 39-40.

oğrı: (thief)thief’; the Instr. case oğrın meaning ‘furtively’ also occurs, esp. in SW, and has sometimes been regarded (falsely) as a separate word. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some phonetic variations. See Doerfer II 497. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 16 (utru:); Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ol üč oğrılar ‘those three thieves’ TT II 16, 18: Bud. oğrı kelip ‘a thief coming’ PP 58, 5: Civ. oğrı bolur ‘he will become a thief’ TT VII 37, 7; USp. 42, e: xıv Chin.-Uyğ, Dict. ‘thief’ oğrı Ligeti 185: Xak. xı oğrı: al-lišš ‘thief’; and one says bu: ne:o anıg oğrı: ol ‘this thing is inferior (dûna) to that’; originally oğırı: but abbreviated like Ar. ibilfibl and udunjudn Kaš. I 126; oğrı: tuza:k *a trap buried in the ground’ I 380, 15; II 234, 3; 13 o.o. meaning ‘thief’: KB oğrı ‘thief’ 313, 1737, 2861: xııı (?) Tef. ditto 231: xıv Muh. (İ) sarraq ‘thief’ o:ğrı: Rif. 156 (only): Čağ. xv ff. oğrı duzd ‘thief' San. 76V. 24: Xwar. xıv oğrı ‘thief’ Qutb 114; Nahc. 409, 15: Kom. xıv ‘thief’ oğrı CCI; oğur CCG; ‘furtively’ ovrun CCG; Gr.: Kip xru al-Hšš oğrı: Hou. 25, 8: xıv ditto Id. le: xv al-sdriq oğrı Kav. 74, 18; harami ‘thief’ owru; Tkm. oğru Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 12b. 9: Osm. xıv ff. oğru ‘thief’ and oğrun ‘furtively’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 714-15; II 919; 920; III 699, 70T; IV 775-7 (spelt uğru, uğrun).

1) ağrığ (pain, painful) N./A.S. fr. ağrı:-/ağrıı:-; ‘pain, painful’; hence ‘a painful disease’, esp. in the Hend. ig ağrığ. S.i.a.m.l.g., in some difficult to distinguish fr. ağruk (heavy). Üyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ağrığ usually ‘pain; suffering pain', less often ‘illness’ and İğ ağrığ ‘illness’ are fairly common; ağruğ bolti ‘he became ill' PP 68, 3; o.o. of ağrığ Suv. 585, 16; USp. 60, lb. 13; ig ağrığ TT VII 40, 56, etc.; VIII K. 12; Suv. 587, 2: Civ. both ağrığ and ig ağrığ are fairly common: Xak. xı ağrığ al-waca' fi'l-cumla ‘pain’ in general'; then pain in any organ (or limb, *u(lio) is described by it Kaš. I 98: KB baš ağrığ ‘headache’ 421, 1883: xıı (?) Tef. ağrığ ‘pain’ (esp. birth pangs) 38: \\\ xıv Muh. (?) al-tvaca' ağruğ Rif. 163 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ağrığ dard u ranc ‘pain’; also used for ranciš 'indignation’; ağrı abbreviation of ağrığ San, 43V. 27: Xwar. xıv ağrığ ‘pain; illness’ Qutb 5; baš ağriğı Nahc. 167, 2: Kom. xıv ‘ill, illness’ ağrık/ağrıx/ağınx CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-zcaca' ağrı: Hou. 32, 20: xıv ditto a:r (? a:rŋ and ağrımak Bul. to, 1: xv darham (Persian l.-w.) ‘suffering, afflicted’ awn; Tkm. ağrı (and yarmak, akča, which are translations of dirham) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 15b. 9: Osm. xıv ff. ağrı ‘pain, sorrow’ in two texts and ağrık ‘painful’ in one TTS I 12; II 14; IV 9.

D ağruk (heavy) Intrans. Conc. N. fr. agrı:-/ağru:-; ‘a heavy object, heavy baggage’, and the like. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. ağrık/avruk SDD 77» T30, 1603. See Doerfer II 496. Xak. xı ağruk al-taqal wa'l-mata ‘heavy baggage and household goods’; hence one saya ağır ağruk kayu:da: kaldı: ayna turika'l--himl wa’l-taqal ‘where have the loads and heavy baggage beeti left V Kaš. I ŋg: Čağ. xv ff. ağruk ahmel wa atqal San. 43V. 27: Kip. xıv ağruk al-taqal Id. 17: xv awruk (untranslated) is the root of awur- (ağrı:-) Tuk. 84a. 6.

D uğra:ğ (halt, stop, stay) Den. V. fr. uğra:-. Survives only (?) in Osm. Red. 256; SDD 1084, 1413 oğrak, uğrak ‘a halting point on a journey’. Xak. xı uğra:ğ al-qasd wa’l-'azima ‘aim, purpose, intention’ Kaš. I118; uğrağım kendü: yırark ‘my goal (ša’tvŋ is distant’ III 29, 4; yandı: erinč uğrağı: la’allahu raca'a min 'azmihi ‘he has perhaps turned back from his intention’ III 65, 12; anıp uğra:ğı: kör ‘see his purpose’ (qasdahu) III 317, 4.

D oğruğ (collar-bone, broken (огрызок)) Conc. N. fr. oğur- (to disjoint). Survives only (?) in NE Tuv. o:ruğ ‘a cliff at the mouth of a river’; o:ruk (1) ‘collar-bone’; (2) ‘broken’ (e.g. branch) Pal, 309. Xak. xı oğruğ (mis-spelt ağruğ) süŋü:kı: nl-fahqa ‘the first vertebra in the neck’; oğruğ (.nc) ciz'u'l-wadi ‘a bend in a valley’; one says ta:ğ ogruği: munqata'u'l-cabal ‘a vertical end of a mountain’ Kaš. I 98; ovrujğ mafšil kull 'azmi (n) (‘a joint in any limb’) wa ciz' kull cabal tva munqata’ uhu; alternative form (luğa) of oğru:ğ; ovru:ğ al-fahqa; in all three cases oğru:ğ is more correct (aštoab) I 118; o:zi: kuyi: oğruÖi: (mis-spelt oğrağı:) translated to<7 fi batni'1-tcedi ‘and (he himself is) in the bottom of the valley’ III 65, 14, ukruk ‘a lasso on the end of a pole’. Survives in NE Bar. ukruk translated by Russian ukruchina R 11613; SE Tar. okuruk RI 997; NC Kır. ukuruk; an early l.-w. in Mong. as uğurka (Haenisch 160, Kow. 366). See Doerfer II 507. Xak. xı ukruk al-tvahaq ‘lasso’ Kaš. I 100 (prov.); similar prov. III 215, 17: Kip. ‘the Jasso (aUrabqa) used to catch horses out at pasture’ ukruk Hou. 13, 11: xıv ukruk ‘the rope (al-habt) used to catch a running horse’ id. 17: Osm. xv ukruk ‘lasso’ TTS II 722; ukruğ III 537; xvı ukruk I 538 (all mis-spelt okruh).

D akrun See akru: (gently, quietly).

D oğrın See oğrı: (thief).

D ağruš (pain) (aggravate) N./A.S. fr. ağrı:-/ağru:- (heavy, pain, painful, отяжелеть) 'pain’ and the like. Survives only (?) in SE Türki ağrıš von Le Coq, Sprichrvörter und Liede von Turfan, Leipzig/Berlin 1910, p. 81. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 31,5 (iii) (ağıŋ: Man. TT II 17, 56 (ağıŋ: Bud. ağruš scrlnmckig ‘your endurance of pain’ U III 21, 4 (ı); ağruš törösln ‘the law of pain’ TT X 500.

Dis. V. AĞR-

oğur- (to disjoint) Hap. leg., but cf. ruğ, which fixes the initial o-, oğrul-, and oğruš-. Xak. xı er süŋük oğurdı: fabbaqa'l-raculu'l-'azm tva fašalahu ‘the man detached and disjointed the bone’. Kaš. I 178 (oğurur, oğurma:k).

D ağrı:-/ağru:- (heavy, pain, painful, отяжелеть) Den. V. fr. ağır; lit. 'to be, or become, heavy’ but usually ‘to be in pain or painful’; in Kaš. and Muh. the two meanings seem to be allocated to the two forms, but after that ağru:- disappeared, except, under the influence of the -w-, in awru*. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. some phonetic changes. For the semantic differences between ačı:- (acid, ache), ağrı:- and siz- (sizla:-) see ačı:- (acid, ache). Türkü vııı uluğ oğlım ağrıp yok bolča: ‘when my eldest son fell ill and died’ 11 S 9: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. a:ğrıyur ‘is (or becomes) ill’ TT VIII G.11; bašım ertigü ağrıp ‘my head aches violently’ U III 37. 2: Civ. yanı adaki ağrıyur ‘his sides and legs ache’ TT VII 25, 2; boğuz tamak ar ağrımakığ ‘pains in the throat and palate’ HI 12 (ar is prob. only a false start for ağrımakığ); ağrı:- 'to be painful’ is common in H Ii: Xak. xı ağru:dı: ne:g ‘the thing was heavy’ (takula); and one says İğlik ağru:dı: takula’l-marid wa danifa ‘the illness was severe and critical’ (ağru:r, ağru:ma:k); a nig bašı: ağrı:dı: šuddıa ra'suhu ‘he had a splitting headache’; also used of pain (waca') in any wound or organ, and also of other pains (al-atvce‘) Kaš. I 273 (agrı:r, ağrı:ma:k; prov.): KB İgi ağrudı 'his illness became serious’ 1115; yüküm ağrudı ‘my burden has become heavy’ 5692: xıv Muh. (?) tataqala ‘to be heavy’ ağru:- Rif. 106 (only; mis-spelt ağru:r-)\ ta'allama ‘to be painful’ agri- do. 105; tazoacca'a ditto ağrı:- do. 10e: Čağ. xv ff. ağrı- (spelt) (1) ba-dard amadan 'to be in pain’; (2) rancidan ‘to be vexed, angry’ San. 42v. 9 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ağrı- ‘to ache, be painful’ Qutb 5; Nahc. 139, 2: Kom. xıv ‘to be painful’ ağrı-/ağır- CCI\ Gr.; Kip. xıv ağrı- ta'allama Id. 16; al-waea’ (a:r and) ağrımak Bul. 10, t: xv taqula awur-; Tkm. ağır- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) na. 6.

uğra:- (intend) Den. V. fr. uğur, and like it semantically rather indefinite. In Uyğ. it is nearly always constructed with a Ger. in ğalı:/geli:, and means ‘to to (do something)’, occasionally with the Dat. with the same meaning; the Ger. uğra:yu however seems to mean 'especially, particularly' \\\ (see discussion and further examples in TT V, p. 33, note B86). In Xak. it usually takes the Dat. and means ‘to go purposefully (to someone or to do something)’. In Rbğ., as well as the earlier usages, the meaning ‘to meet (someone Dat.)’ first appears; this is the normal modern meaning. Survives in SE Türki Shaw 11; NE Kar. Knm R I 1018 and SW Osm., Tkm. The Osm. spelling oğra- in R, Red., and Sami is irregular, Tkm. and Rep. Turkish have uğra-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bašın bıčğalı u[ğra]dı ‘he intended to cut off his head’ (UI 43, 13-14); U IV 10, 4^-50; negü İš Jšlegeli uğrasar 'whatever work he intends to do’ U II 23, 26; similar phr. U III ri, 15 (ii); 48, 20; Suv. 475, 16; 600, 16; — [gap] a:zkıya: uğra:yu:r biz 'we plan... only a little’ TT VIII A. 17 — uğrayu tüz 'particularly correct’ TT V 26, 8e: Civ. Ögüz ertgell uğradıŋ ' (if) you intend to cross a river’ TT I 35 — uğramıš İš bütmez ‘yoür plans fail' do. 75, 176; negü iške uğrasa büter ‘whatever he plans to do succeeds’ TT VII 28, 28: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. chuan ‘especially, particularly’ (Giles 2,702) uğrayu TT V, p. 33, note B8e: Xak. xı beg agar uğra:di: gašadahu’l-amir ‘the beg moved towards (or against) him’; also used of any intention (qašd) Kaš. I 274 (uğra:r, uğra:ma:k; verse); öpkem kelip uğradım ‘becoming angry I advanced on him’ (čašadtu ile'l- adutuw) I 125, 12; many o.o., used as Conjugational examples translated čašada: KB saga keldim uğrap ‘I came to you intentionally’ 591; takı bolmaz erse yağı uğrasa ‘but if nevertheless the enemy advances on you’ (and wishes to fight) 2364 — kali itseler aš saga uğrayu ‘if they prepare food especially for you’ 4583: xııı (?) Tef. uğra-, with -ğalı or Dat'. 'to intend, determine’ 231 (oğra-): xıv Rbğ. (see Schinkewitz, Rabghuzis Syntax, para. 147; refces. to facsimile of B.M. MS. in K. Granbech, Rabghuzi, Narrationes de Prophetis) uğra- (a) with -ğalı/-gell, Cibre’il kelip toprak alğalu uğradı ‘Gabriel came and intended to take some earth’ 5V. 14-15; Šelİhni öltürgell uğradılar erse ‘when they intended (or decided) to kill Šelih’ 3er. 8; (b) with Dat. of Dev. N. yankuğa uğradı 'he intended to return’ 23er. 21; (c) with Dat. of Common N. Mekkege uğradılar ‘they set out for Mecca’ 224r. r3; kačan Adam Hawwağa (Eve, Hawwa) uğradı erse ‘when Adam met Eve’ 7V. 19: Xwar. xıv uğra- (0) with Dat. of Infin. ‘to intend, try’ Qutb 114 (oğra-); (b) ‘to arrive’ 195 (îiğra-): Kip. xv Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 22b. 7 has šadafa ušradı wa uğradı; this is clearly corrupt and should read sadafa 'to turn away from’ ašur- (not an old word); sadafa ‘to meet (by chance)’ uğra-: Osm. xıv ff. uğra- (1) ‘to meet, come upon (someone or something Dat.)'; (2) *to avoid meeting (someone, etc. Abl.y\ (3) 'to attack (someone Dat.)'; c.i.a.p. TTS I 712; II 918; III 697; IV 774: xvııı uğra- (and uğraš-) in Rûmî, dučar šudan ‘to meet’, in Ar. mušedafa) (quotn.); and in muhervaret-i atrek-i Rum ‘Rumi colloquial’ 'ubitr ‘to pass \\ by’ as in the phr. fulen köynig üzerinden uğradım ‘I passed by that village’ San. yev. 12.

okra:- (whinny) (of a horse) ‘to whinny’, particularly when asking for food; contrast kišne:- ‘to neigh’. S.i.s m.I.g. Xak. xı at okra:di: hamhama'l-faras 'inda'l-isti' lef ‘the horse whinnied asking for food’ Kaš. I 275 (okra:r, okra:ma:k): Čağ. xv ff. okra- ehasta ehasta šada kardan asb dar talab-i 'alaf ‘of a horse to make a gentle sound asking for forage’, in Ar. tahamhum San. yyv. 13: Osm. xiv-xvi okra- ‘to whinny’ in several texts TTS I 537; II 722; III 537; IV 602.

D ağrıt- (aggravate) Caus. f. of ağrı:-/ağru:- (heavy, pain, painful, отяжелеть); ‘to cause pain (usually physical, less often mental) to (someone Acc.)’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Türkü vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 56-7; 89-90 (ačıt-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bašın ağrıtur ‘it makes his head ache’ TT VII 24, 21; o.o. do. 24, 23; 25, 2 and 3: Xak. xı ol anı: ağrıttı: awcaahu ‘he inflicted pain on him’ Kaš. I 26ı (ağrıtur, ağrıtma:k): xııı (?) Tef. baš ağrıt- 39: Čağ. xv ff. ağrıt- Caus. f. (i) ba-dard dwardan ‘to cause pain’; (2) ranednidan ‘to vex or anger’ San. 43r. 3: Xwar. xıv baš ağrıt- Qutb 5: Kip. xıv (after ağrı-) in the Caus. f., ağrıftur-later abbreviated to ağrıf- Id. 16.

D uğrat- (meet) Caus. f. of uğra:- (intend). Survives only (?) in NW Krim; SW Osm., Tkm. ‘to cause to meet’. Xak. xı ol meni: ı:ška: uğratti: aqsadani ild amr ‘he made me intend an affair’ Kaš. I 2el(uğratur, ugratma:k).

D uğral- (intend) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of uğra:- (intend) used Impersonally (unusual). Xak. xı ol ye:rke: uğraldı: qušidat tilku l-diydr ‘it was intended to (go to) that place’ Kaš. I 247 (uğralur, uğralma:k).

D oğrul- (disjointed) Pass. f. of oğur- (to disjoint). Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı sügü:k oğruldı: fušila'l-'ašm tva tubbiqa ‘the bone was disjointed and detached’; in a verse erkekleri: oğrulu:r yanfašd ašebi'nhn min šiddati’I-bard ‘his fingers are split by the intensity of the cold’ Kaš. I 247 (oğrulur, oğrulma:k).

D ağrın- Refl. f. of ağrı:-/ağru:- (heavy, pain, painful, отяжелеть); ‘to suffer pain’ and the like. Survives onlv (?) in NC Kır. o:run- and SW xx Anat. ağrın- (‘to be offended’) SDD 77. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. agirinmak (sic) mügremek ınčıklamak ‘complaining of pain, shouting and groaning’ (are heard) Suv. 12, 21-2. Xak. xı ba:lığ ağrındı: tawacca'a'l-carih ‘the wounded man (etc.) suffered pain from his wounds’ Kaš. I 252 (ağrınur, ağrınma:k).

D ağrıš- Co-op. f. of ağrı:-, ağrı:-/ağru:- (heavy, pain, painful, отяжелеть). Survives only (?) in NE Sag. ağraš- R I 173. Xak. xı ola:r bu: ı:ška: ağrıštı:la:r taıvacca'û li-hede'I-amr ‘they suffered together because of this affair’ Kaš. I 235 (ağrıšu:r, ağrıšma:k).

D uğraš- (intend) Recip. f. of uğra:- (intend). Survives only (?) in NW Kar. Krim, and SW Osm., usually meaning ‘to fight one another’. Xak. xı ikki:

yağı: uğrašdı: ‘the two enemies advanced on (qasada) one another’; also used of others Kaš. / 234 (uğrašur, uğrašma:k); (in a verse about summer and winter) utğa:lımat uğrašu:r ‘each of them wishes to conquer (yağlib) the other and overcome him in the dispute’ (yaqvtuŋ I 170, 20: Osm. xiv-xvi uğraš- (1) ‘to meet'; (2) ‘to fight one another’ in several texts TTS I 713; II 918; III 698; IV 775; xvııı see uğra:-.

D okraš- (whinny) Co-op. f. of okra:- (whinny). Survives only (?) in SE Türki Shaw 19. Xak. xı yund kamuğ okrašdı: tahamhamati 'l-xayl li'l-'alaf ‘the horses whinnied together for forage (etc.)’ Kaš. I 235 (okrašu:r, okrašma:k; verse).

D oğruš- (to disjoint) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of oğur- (to disjoint) Xak. xı ol maga: sUgU:k oğruštı: ‘he helped me to detach the bone and disjoint it ' (fi tatbiqi'I-'azm wa fašlihŋ; also used for competing Kaš. I 235 (oğrušu:r, oğrušma:k).

Tris. AĞR

S akuru See akru: (gently, quietly).

D ağırčak (spindle whorl)spindle whorl’; Inter used for other objects of similar shape like ‘millstone’, ‘the knob on the top of a tent’, and the like. In spite of the great variety of spellings, there can be little doubt that this is a Conc. N. fr. ağır; although the alternation č/š is well established for the Suff. -čın/-šın it is otherwise unknown for -čak; this is more prob. than the alternative possibility that it is a Dim. f., although that form is rather more common. S.i.a.m.l.g. in a wide variety of forms, usually určık/určuk and the like, and perhaps even NE Tuv. e:rgı:š Pal. 592. Türkü (?) kadırık ağırčak graffito on a spindle whorl found on Olohon Island, Lake Baikal; date quite uncertain, the area is that of the Üč Kurikan tribe; kadırık is prob. a Proper Name ETY II 158: Xak. xı ağıršuk (the ğayn carries both kasra and damına) fifkatu'l-miğzal ‘spindle whorl’ Kaš. I 149: xıv Muh. (}) (among spinner’s implements) (VU) al-taqdla ‘weight’, i.e. ‘whorl’ ağırčuk Rif. 162 (only): Kom. xıv vurčık ‘spindle’ (sir?) CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı a!-taqdfatu'lfati U'1-miğzal ‘spindle whorl’ ağıršak (šbı unvocalized) Hou. 17, 7: xıv ağurčuk al-šatranc wa'I-nard ‘chess and draughts (men)’; ağuršak taqelatu'l-miğzal\ and anything that resembles it is called ağuršak Id. le: xv taqdla awurčuk; in margin Tkm. ağırčak Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 11a. 1: Osm.xvi ff. ağıršak ‘spindle whorl’ in two texts TTS II11; III y.

PUD oğurğa: (spine)backbone’. Almost the only stable elements about this word in modern languages are the meaning, the initial o- and the -r-. The last syllable varies between -ğa and -ka (in the Uyğ. text it might be either) but -ğa: is more probable. If so, it might be a Dev. N. fr. oğur- (to disjoint), bearing the same relation morphologically to oğruğ as, say, bilge: to bilig. This is the likeliest explanation; but \93\ the only early occurrence of the word is in a late Bud. Tantric text, possibly xııı or xiv, and it might be a Turkish l.-w. in Mong. (oğurğa would be the form assumed by oğruğ in Mong., cf. uğurka for ukruk) reborrowed in the Mong. form; there does not, however, appear to be any trace of such a Mong. word. S.i.a.m.l.g. in a wide variety of forms; in some -m-, -n-, -g-, or zero take the place of the first -ğ- and in others a -t- is inserted after the -r-, producing such forms as NC Kır. omurtka, Kzx. omirtka, and SW Az. onurğa, Osm. omurga, Tkm. ogurğa. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud_ (in a passage about the association of certain mystical letters with parts of the body; 'if they have an internal position the channels through which they emit light outwards are as follows: if it starts from the earth-wheel’) süsgün oğurğasıntm liner ‘it emerges from the backbone of the (?)\ TT VII 41, 26-7: Xwar. xıv menim ogurkam sınar 'my backbone is broken’ Nahc. 275, 9: Kip. silsilatu'l-zahr 'backbone, spine’ oğunfaka: (so speit, Perror for oğur (ka) Kav. 60, 17; silsilatu'l-zahr orufka; Tkm. orutğa Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 18b. 12; 'acûz harima ‘old woman’ (MS. here omits the Turkish translation and the next Arabic word 'acz ‘back, buttocks’) orutka do. 24b, 5: Osm. xıv ff. ogurğa (with sağır nun) ‘backbone’; C.i.a.p. TTS I 547; II 733; III 546; IV 610: xvııı (in the alif madmüm-kef Chapteŋ ogurğa (spelt, with kdf-i 'acami, i.e. -g-) muhrahd-yi pušt ‘backbone’ San. 8or. 1 (obviously a Rumi word with sağır nün misunderstood).

Tris. V. AĞR-

D ağrığlığ (pain, painful) P.N./A. fr. ağrığ (pain, painful); ‘suffering from pain or illness’, esp. chronic illness. S.i.s.m.l.g. often much distorted, e.g. NE Khak. fre:lig; NC Kır. orrulu:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. neče igliğ kemlig ağrığlığ tikiglig agar yakın kelserler ‘however many sick (Hend.) and suffering (Hend.) people approach him’ Suv. 585, 13-15: Civ. iglig öıjedti ağrığlığ katındı ‘the sick man has recovered, and the man in pain regained his strength’ TT VII 30, 14-15: Kip. xv mawcu ‘in pain’ awrukli (in margin, in SW (?) hand ağrılı/ağrıklı) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 33a. 11.

D agrığsız (painless) Priv. N./A. fr. ağrığ (pain, painful); ‘free from pain’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Suv. 191, 23 (igsiz).

D ağırlığ (weighty) P.N./A. fr. ağır; lit. ‘having weight’; usually metaph, for ‘enjoying honor and respect’, sometimes ‘pregnant’ or, more vaguely ‘valuable’. Survives only (?) in NE Kač., Koib., Sag. R I 305; Khak. Bas. 12 arrlığ ‘heavy; expensive; precious; distinguished, respected’; NW Kaz. awrli/avirli ‘heavy, pregnant’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. [gap; ?the branches] bokuklanur ağırlığ bolur ‘form buds and become heavy (with blossom)’ Wind. 249, 10: Bud. (if he brings the jewel) ağırlığ bolğay ‘he will become respected’ PP 29, 3: Xak. xı ağırlığ er ‘a man who is honored (mukram) among the people’ Kaš. I 146; tu:tği:l konu:k ağı:rlı:ğ akrimi’l-dayf \\ ‘honor the guest’ I 45, 21; a.o. I 52, 29 (ağıŋ: xıı (?) KB VP (he adorned it) ağır-lığ biligler bile ‘with wise saws deserving respect’ 10.

D ağırlık (honor, respect, weight; difficulty; heavy baggage, wedding gifts) A.N. (and Conc. N.) fr. ağır; in the early period usually metaph., ‘honor, respect’; in modern languages with a wide range of meanings, ‘weight; difficulty; heavy baggage’, and in Osm. ‘wedding gifts from the bridegroom to the bride’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SE (?), often much distorted. Xak. xı kılğıl agar ağırlık akrimhum ‘honor them’ Kaš. I \ 14, 17; n.m.e.: KB (God gave him) ağırlık üküš ‘much honor’ 44; o.o. 147, 763, 845, 6039, etc.: xııı (?) Tef. ağırlık ‘honor, respect’ 38: Xwar. xıv ağırlık ‘furniture’ Nahc. 433, 1 (sinuk): Osm. xıv ff. ağırlık occurs with a wide range of meanings TTS I 8; II 10; III 6; IV 7.

D uğurluğ (auspicious, fortunate, feasible, opportune) P.N./A. fr. uğur; originally ‘feasible, opportune’, now ‘auspicious, fortunate’. Survives only in NW Krim R I 1013 and SW. Xak. xı uğurluğ ı:š al-amru'lladî ivaqa'a fi imkenihi ‘a matter which is feasible’ Kaš. I 146; a.o. / 53 (uğuŋ: KB tapın öz uğurluğ bağırsaklıkın ‘serve me with timely sympathy’ 595; (in the spurious, later, verse after 476 uğurluğ safar seems to mean ‘an auspicious journey’): Čağ. xv ff. uğurluk šehib-i maymanat ‘fortunate, prosperous’ San. 7ev. 29: Kip. xıv uğurlu: düyumn ‘fortunate’ Id. 17.

VUD 1 oğurluk (exchange) Hap. leg.; A.N. fr. 1 oğur, oğur (uğur) (exchange) Although that word is described as Oğuz this one occurs in a Xak. verse. Xak. xı ertüt alıp anutğıl (MS. in error anunğıl) edgü: tavar oğurluk ‘if you receive gift’, fa-a'idd lahd 'iwad hasan ‘then prepare a good return gift’ Kaš. I 114, 19; n.m.e.

S 2 oğurluk See oğrı:lık.

D oğrı:lık (robbery, thievishness) A.N. fr. oğrı: (thief); ‘robbery, thievishness’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE (?), often in the metathesized form oğurluk Xak. xı Kaš. II 208 (cıkrıš-); n.m.e: KB oğrılık ‘thievishness’ 5768: Čağ. xv ff. oğurluk duzdi ‘thievishness’ San. yev. 29 (quotn.): Osm. xıv ff. oğruluk/oğurluk ‘robbery, thievishness’, in several texts; in some it is impossible to determine which form is intended TTS I 705; III 7°i; IV 777 (all mis-spelt ug-).

S ağıršak/ağıršuk See ağırčak (spindle whorl).

D uğraryu: See uğra:- (intend).

Tris. V. AĞR-

D uğraklat- Hap. leg.; Caus. Den. V. fr. *uğrak (cf. uğra:ğ (halt, stop, stay)); presumably ‘to choose an opportune moment’, or possibly ‘to appoint a rendezvous’. Hitherto read, unconvincingly, as two words. Türkü vııı (I said, ‘if we go by that road, it will be possible’. I thought and made a representation to my xağan. I set the \94\ army in motion. I said, ‘make the men mount their horses’. I crossed the Ak Temiel and) uğraklatdım ‘chose a favourable moment’ (and making them go on horseback beat down the snow) T 24-5.

Tris. V. AĞR-

D ağruklan- (heavy) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. ağruk (heavy). Xak. xı ol bu: ı:šığ ağruklandı: istatqala hddd’l-atnr ‘he considered this business burdensome’; also used of a burden (al-himl) when one considers it heavy ('addahu taqil) Kaš. I 313 (ağruklanur, ağruklanma:k).

D ağrıkan- (pain) Refl. f. of *ağrıka:- which seems to be an abbreviated Den. V. fr. ağrığ (pain, painful) cf. yarlika:- (for *yarlığka:-). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (babbling and) ağrıkanıp ‘complaining of pain’ Suv. 17, 23: Xak. xı er ağrıkandı: šahal-racul ivac'ahu ‘the man complained of his pain’ Kaš. I 312 (ağrıkanur, ağrıkanma:k).

D ağırla:- (honor, respect, reverence) Den. V. fr. ağır; originally ‘to honor, respect, reverence’, in Uyğ. usually in the Hend. aya:- ağırla:-; with some other meanings in modern languages. Survives in several NE languages as a:rla-; Tuv. a:rta-; NC Kır. o:rdo-, Kzx. awirla-; SW Az. ağırla- (ağırra- R I 159), Osm. ağırla-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. ağırlaŋ ayag tapig ‘honor (Hend.) and serve’ TT II10, 79: Uyğ. vinfT. Bud. sever taplayur ayayur ağırla-yurlar ‘they love him, are pleased with him, and honor (Hend.) him’ TT V 10, 112; o.o. of Hend. U II 40, 104-5 (udun-); USp. 106, 10; TT VI 112, 132, 144; not in Hend. do. 35: Xak. xı teŋri: meni: ağırla:dı: ‘God made me honored’ (ahramanŋ; also used of anyone who honors (or makes honored, akrama) someone else Kaš. I 300 (ağırla:r, ağır-la:ma:k); I 53 (ağıŋ; and four o.o.: KB kišig til ağırlar ‘the tongue makes a man respected’ 163; o.o. 389, 577, etc.: xıı (?) KB VP ağırla- ‘to honor’ 61, 63: xııı (?) Tef. ditto 38: xıv Rbğ. ditto R I 159; Muh. (}) akrama ağırla:- Rif. 104 (only); al-ikrdm ağırlamak 123: Čağ. xv ff. ağırla- sangin deštan ‘to consider heavy’; and metaph. ta'-zim kardan ‘to honor’ San. 43r. 4 (quotns.) Xwar. xııı ağırla- ‘to honor’ 'Ali 39: xıv ditto Qutb 5; Nahc. 8, 11, etc.: Kom. xıv ditto CCI, CCG; avurla- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı ihtarama mina'l-ihtirem li-ğayrik ‘to respect, reverence someone’ ağırla:- IIou. 37, 14:xiv ağırla- istatqala bi-ma’na ihtarama wa akrama Id. le: xv haraba (error for qarraba to reverence’) ağırla- Kav. 17, 8; akrama avurla- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 5a. 10.

D oğurla:-/oğrı:la:- (steal) Den. V. fr. oğrı: (thief); ‘to steal’. Oddly enough, while oğur is a rare Sec. f. of oğrı: oğurla:- seems to be the oldest form of this verb, so much so that Kaš. was inclined to confuse it with uğurla:-. S.i.a.m.l.g. in a wide variety of forms. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. adnağunug tavarın oğurladı-miz erser ‘if wre have stolen other people’s property’ U II 85, 21-2; TT IV 8, 69: Xak.xi ol ne:g oğrı:la:dı: 'he stole (saraqa) the thing’; and the common people pronounce it bi-taskini'l-rd' (i.e. as oğurla:-), wa hutva'l--xafa’, but this is a mistake (oğurla:r, oğurla:ma:k, sic) Kaš. I 316; (after uğurla:-) hence one says er ta\va:r oğurla:di: ‘the man stole (saraqa) the goods’, because lie waited for an opportunity nnd a (convenient) time; there is another way of looking ut it (wach) nnd that is to suppose that oğrı: ‘thief’ is the nominal base (ism matedu), that this word is compounded from it, and that the -ı- was elided (turihat... taxfifa (n)), and this is more probable [a cab), but both theories are acceptable (hasan) I 300 (verse with occurrences of oğurla:- and uğurla:- rhyming): xıv Rbğ. oğu:rla- ‘to steal’ R I 1012; Muh. (?) saraqa oğurla:- (? , unvocalized) Rif. no (only); al-saraqa oğurlamak (ditto) 123: Čağ. xv oğurla- duzdidan ‘to steal’ San. yer. 9 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 114; Nahc. 301, 12: Kip.xııı saraqa oğurla:- Hou. 35, e: xıv ditto Id. 16; Bui. 48V.: xv ditto Kav. 74, 18: Osm. xıv ff. oğurla-/oğrula- ‘to steal’; c.i.a.p.; it is often impossible to decide which is intended TTS I 714; II 919; III 700; IV 776 (mis-spelt tığ-).

D uğurla:- (see off, провожать) Den. V. fr. uğur. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. uğurla- ‘to see (a guest) off’. Xak. xı er ı:šın uğurla:dı: irtaqaba’l-raculu l-amr tva fa'alahu fi waqtihi wa vnkdnihi ‘the man put off the business and did it when it was timely and feasible’ Kaš. I 300 (uğurla:r, uğurla:ma:k; followed by oğurla:-, q.v.).

D oğrı:la:- See oğurla:-, oğurla:-/oğrı:la:- (steal)

D ağırlal- (honored, respected, reverenced) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of ağırla:- (honor, respect, reverence). In III 344 Kaš., discussing the Pass. f. of verbs ending in -la:-, gives as an example er ağırlaldı: ‘the man was honored’ (ukrima), and goes on to say that ağırlan- is also permissible (caza) but that the former is commoner (aktaru'l-istimdl). Experience, however, shows that the contrary is the case.

D ağırlan- (honor, respect, reverence) Refl. f. of ağırla:- (honor, respect, reverence). S.i.s.m.l.g. w. some phonetic changes, usunlly for ‘to be heavy; to feel ill or depressed’, and in SW Osm. ‘to be discreet, dignified’. Xak. xı er ağırlandı: ‘the man was honored’ (ukrima), the -n- being substituted (mubdala) for -1-; and one says ol bu: atnı: ağırlandı: ‘he reckoned that this horse was valuable’ (ğelŋ\ also used for ‘to reckon something to be heavy’ (taqil) Kaš. I291 (ağırlanur, ağırlanmak); a.o. III 344 (ağırlal-): xııı (?) Tef. ağırlanmiš ‘honored, respected’ 38.

VUD oğurlan- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. oğur. Oğuz xı (in the same para, as uğurlan-) and one says at oğurlandı: ‘uwwida’l--farasül-mawhub ‘the horse which was given was given in exchange’ Kaš. I. 292 (oğurlanur, oğurlanma:k).

D uğurlan- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of uğurla:-. Xak. xı uğurlandı: ne:g hdna waqtu'l-šay' \95\ ‘the (favourable) moment for the thing has arrived’; and one says yo:l uğurlandı: ‘the journey was fortunate’ (muberak) Kaš. I 292 (uğurlanur, uğurlanma:k; followed by oğurlan-, the remark ‘in Oğuz’ may also apply to the second sentence above).

Tris. V. AĞS-

D uğram8in- Hap. leg.; given in Kaš. III 322, 11 a9 nn example of the RcH. Simulative Suff. -msin-; ol saga: uğramsmdı: 'he pretended to advance on you (yaqšiduha) but did not actually do so’; n.m.e.

Dis. AĞS

D axsa:k (lame) N./A.S. fr. axsa:- (limp, lame); ‘lame’. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as aksak but askak in some NE and SE languages. Sami 44 says that in Osm. aksak, the older word, has the general meaning ‘lame’ and topal (not an old word) ‘with one leg injured or shorter than the other’. See Doerfer II 511. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. (in that man’s house there shall be no-one blind, dumb) axsak čolok (sic}) ‘lame, one-armed’ (bald or diseased) M III 49, 4: Xak. xı axsa:k al-a'rac ‘lame’ Kaš. I 119; (after boxsuk) and al-a'rac wa'l-a'sam ‘lame and paralysed’ is called axsa:k (VU) boxsak 'aid fariqi'l-itba' ‘as a jingle’ Kaš. I 465, 28: xııı (?) Tef. ağsak ‘lame’ 39: xıv Rbğ. axsak ‘lame’ R I 138; Muh. (?) al-a'rac axsa:k Rif. 142 (only): Čağ. xv ff. aksağ/aksak langlame’ San. 45r. 28 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv aksak ‘lame’ Qutb 10: Kom. xıv ‘lame’ ağsax (?) CC7; Gr. 39: Kip. xıv akšak al-a'rac Id. 17: xv ditto. Kav. 60, 9; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 4a. II.

axsum (drunk, stubborn, bad-tempered, wild, fiery, sprightly)drunk’, and more specifically ‘fighting drunk’. A l.-w. in Mong. as aksum (Kow. 135), ağsum (Haltod 9) ‘stubborn, bad-tempered’. Yakut axsim (of a horse) ‘wild, fiery, sprightly’ Pek. 209 is more likely to be a Mong. l.-w. than a Turkish survival. Otherwise n.o.a.b., but see Doerfer II 510. Xak. xı axsug er al-raculu'l-mu arbid fi sukrihi ‘a man who is quarrelsome in his cups’; alternative form (luğa) of axsum Kaš. I 116; (n.m.e. of axsum, it should have been entered between ötrüm and axšam in I 106-7, but the MS. is clearly corrupt at this point, endik being entered between aštal and ötrüm): Čağ. xv ff. axsum badmast ‘drunk’ Vel. n (quotn.); aksum pišiman ‘repentant’ do. 25 (quotn. in which it actually means ‘drunk’); axsum badmast also pronounced aksum San. jjr. 19 (quotn.); aksum badmast also pronounced axsum (same quotn. as Vel.)\ the Rumi authors (i.e. Vel.) and Teli'-i Haratvi (mis)translated aksum ‘repentant’ do. 45V. 2.

D oksız Priv. N./A. fr. 1 ok (arrow). S.i.s.m.l.g. The passage below has been much discussed and mistranslated, 2 Idi: having been taken to be 1 idi (master, owner, Lord’ (God)); it seems clear that in it 1 ok (arrow) has the metaph. meaning ‘sub-tribe’. The identity of the following word can only be conjectured; the best guess perhaps is that it is 1 kök (root, origin) ‘origin, lineage’, but no solution is likely to receive general acceptance. Türkü vııı eki:n ara: idi: oksız kök türkü anča: oluru:r ermiš ‘between the two (extreme geographical points) the Türkü, whose lineage (?) is completely without division into sub-tribes (?) dwelt thus’ IE 2-3, II E 4.

Dis. V. AGS-

D ağsa:- (rise, climb, ascend) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of 1 a:ğ- (rise, climb, ascend, faint), Xak. xı ol ta:ğka: ağsa:dı: ‘he wished to climb (fu'üd) the mountain’ Kaš. I 277 (ağsa:r, ağsa:ma:k).

axsa:- (limp, lame) ‘to limp, be lame’. S.i.a.m.l.g. usually as aksa- in some NE and SE languages aska-. Xak. xı at axsa:di: ‘the horse (etc.) was lame’ ('arica)Kaš. /27Ö (axsa:r, axsa:ma:k): xıv Muh. (?) 'arica akša:- Rif. 112 (only); al-'arac axšamak 122: Kıp. xıv akša-zala'a ‘to limp’ Id. 16; zala'a wa 'arica akša-Bul. 6or.: Osm. xv ff. axsa- ‘to be lame’, once in xv, ağsa- in several texts fr. xvı onwards TTS II 15; 777 9; IV 10. (OTD AXSA- хромать p. 71)

D uksa:- (see, understand) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus). Xak. xı er sö:züg uksa:di: ‘the man wished to understand (yaftin) what was said’ Kaš. I 277 (uksa:r, uksa:ma:k).

D axsat- (lame) Caus. f. of axsa:- (limp, lame); ‘to lame (someone Acc.). Survives in the same way as axsa:-. Xak. xı ol am: axsatti: 'arracahu ‘he lamed him’ Kaš. I 262 (axsatur, axsatma:k).

VU (D) oxsin- (ouch, ой) (ouch, ой) Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. *ox an unrecorded Exclamation. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı ol kılmıš ı:šıga: oxsindi: ‘he regretted (nadima) what he had done’ Kaš. 7 253 (oxsınu:r, oxsınma:k); üküš sevinč bolsa: katığ oxsunu:r (sic) ‘if a man takes pleasure in something, yaštadd hammuhu fi ddhka he is extremely anxious for fear of (losing) it’ III 373, 19.

D axsur- See asur-.

Tris. AĞS

E aksirak in a damaged passage, Uyğ. vııı Šu. E 8 Ramstedt read anda: aksirak ordu: örgin anda: etitdim and translated it ‘I set up my distinguished (?) court and palace there’. In his note thereon he suggests the alternative reading kasar kurıdın; this is no doubt right, the meaning is ‘I had my throne set up there to the west of Kasar*.

D ağu:suz (poison-free) Priv. N./A. fr. ağu: (poison); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. o:gre:nte:ki yu:Ita:ki yu:lakta:kı su:vla:r a:ğusuz a:rığ [gap] ‘waters in brooks, springs and small springs free from poison and pure’ TT VIII /.15.

Tris. V. AĞS-

D axsumla:- Den. V. fr. axsum; ‘to become intoxicated, get (fighting) drunk’. N.o.a.b. San. also records Caus., Refl. and Co-op. f.s. Xak. xı KB ye esrük tutuš kılge axsumla’ ğay ‘or he will start a drunken quarrel and \\ get intoxicated’ 4586; uluğlukka esrüp kirn axsumlasa ‘whoever gets drunk for power’ 6140: Čağ. xv ff. axsumla- badmasti kardan ‘to be intoxicated’; also pronounced aksumla-San. 32V. 27.

Tris. V. AĞS-

Dis. AĞŠ

D ağıš (ascent, rise) N.Ac. fr. 1 a:ğ- (rise, climb, ascend); ‘ascent, rise’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ağıš al-ša'ûd ‘rise, ascent’ Kaš. I 61: KB ağıška eniš ol 'a fall (follows) a rise’ 1087; o.o. 903, 905, 6039: Kıp. XV the translation of sa'iid in Tuft. 22a. 1, nağaš eneš, is corrupt; in the margin in a SW (?) hand are yokuš and al-hadara eniš; the text prob. originally had ša'fıd ağıš tua dadduhu (‘and its opposite is’) eniš.

uğuš (clan, extended family, family, generation, relative, junior member, grandchild) in the early period a population unit smaller than a tribe, or a clan (1 bo:d) but larger than a single unitary family, ‘extended family’, or, less precisely, ‘family’; from this it came to mean ‘a generation’ or ‘degree of relationship’ (one clear case in TT VD, and later ‘a junior member of the family, grandchild’ (properly atı:). The initial u- is fixed by spellings in TT VIII. Survives as oğuš ‘grandchild’ in SW Osm. Red. 258 (only) and xx Anat. SDD 1085. Türkü vııı (listen to me, all you my younger brothers, sons) biriki: uğušım bodumm ‘my united family and my people’ I S 1, II N 1; (if one man offended, they destroyed) uğušı: boduni: bešükige: tegi: ‘his family and people right down to (infants in) the cradle’ I S 6, II N 4; (we surrounded and killed at Toŋa; Tegin’s funeral) Togra: bir uğuš alpağu: on erig ‘one family of Toqra: ten fighting men’ IN 7; (ditto) Togra: yılpağu.tı: (sic) bir uğušığ ‘one family of Toqra: fighting men’ II E 31; Basmıİ Iduk (k)ut uğušım bodumm erti: ‘the Basmil (and theiŋ Idukkut were my family and people’ II E 25: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kamığ tınlığ uğušı ‘all the families of mankind’ TT III 35 and 114: Bud. Sanskrit svavarjaho bhavati ‘he becomes one who abandons his family’ uğuš (very faint, apparently ııkuz) togta:rğu:luk bolur TT VIII A.5; Sanskrit ktda ‘family’ töz u:ğu:š (spelt tös u:hu:š) do. D.27; in U II 34-6 it occurs several times, translating (1) Chinese shen ‘body’ (Giles 9,813) in asun uğušınta ‘the (corporate) body of Asuras’ 34, 18; (2) Chinese chia ‘family’ (Giles 1,139) in bayağutlar uğušınta ‘in a family of rich men’ 36, 37; (3) Chinese hsing ‘extended family, clan’ (Giles 4,599) in the phr. töz U6U§ 35» 29 ar>d 3°‘> a o- °f this phr. PP 67, 1 (belgürt-); (I am a heretic) uğušımdin tarığimdın berü ‘by heredity’ Hüen-ts. 291; (all will be well) y^ttlnč uğuška tegi ‘up to the seventh generation’ (or ‘degree of relationship’) TT VI 300-1; o.o. U II 44, 27; 68, 4 (ı): Xak. xı uğuš al-ašira Kaš. I 61; o.o., same translation, / 81, 1; 114, 16; II 83, 21; 103, 25; the contexts make it clear that the meaning is ‘extended family’ or ‘clan’: xııı (?) Tef. uğuš ‘tribe’ (in the context of the twelve tribes of Israel) 233 (oğuš): xıv Rbğ. uğuš ‘grandson’ R 1 1620 (quotn.): Čağ. xv tf. uğuš nahira tea ahfed ‘grandson’ San. jyr. 6.

D ukuš (understanding) N.Ac. fr. uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus); ‘understanding’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ukuš al-fittia ‘understanding’ Kaš. I 62: KB ukuš ‘understanding’ is common, and often associated with bilig ‘knowledge’ arid ög ‘intelligeıırc’ (cf. ukuğ) 151, 161, 904, r4r7, 1542, etc.: x 11 (?) KB VP ukuš 55, 61, 73: xııı (?) At. ukuš huš ‘understanding’ (Hend.) 22, 47; Tef. ukuš idiieri ‘those who have understanding’ 325.

D oxša:ğ N./A.S. fr. 1 oxša:-; ‘resembling, resemblance’. Less common than oxša:š (not noted before xiv) but survives in NC Kır. okšo:; NW Kar. L. uxša; Kaz. oxšaw; SWxx Anat. okšak SDD 1087, all meaning ‘resemblance’. Xak. xı oxša:ğ al-šabih ‘resembling’; hence one says anıg oxša:ğı: šabihuhu ‘his double’ Kaš. I 118: KB 16 (megzeg).

?F axšam (evening) ‘evening’. Prob. a l.-w. from Sogdian (Persian šattı), cf. Sogdian 'yip ‘night’, (Persian šah.) S.i.a.m.l.g., but rare in NE where igir ‘dusk’, q.v., is usually used in this sense. Xak. xı axšam icaqtti’l-magrib ‘sunset time, evening’ Kaš. I 107: xıv Muh. (?) al-'iša ‘nightfall’ axšam Rif. 184 (only): Čağ. xv ff. akšam šem ‘evening’ San. 45V. 6 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv akšam ditto MN 20; Kip. xııı al-mağrib akšarm Hou. 28, le: xıv ditto axšam Bul. 13, 13; xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 35a. 10; Osm. xıv ff. axšam c.i.a.p. TTS I 13; II 18; III 10; IV 11.

Dis. V. AČŠ-

D ağıš- Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of 1 a:g-. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: ta:ğka: ağıšdı: ‘he competed with me in climbing (fi šu'tld) the mountain’; and one says ol meniŋ birle: bir altu:nda: ağıšdı: ğeleni fi’l-si'r bi-dinar ‘he tried to make me raise the price by a dinar'; and one says begle:r bi:r ikindi: birle: ağıšdı: ‘the begs dashed (tadaffa'at) at one another’ Kaš. I 185 (ağıšu:r, ağıšma:k).

D akıš- Co-op. f. of ak-; ‘to flow together, or into one another’. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. Krim and SW. Xak. xı suvla.T akıšdı: ‘the waters flowed together (tasdyalat) from every direction’ Kaš. I 186 (verse, Aor. and Infin. omitted): Kip. xıv akıš- tacere ile ciha ‘to flow together in one direction’ Id. 17: Osm. xıv akıš- (of people) ‘to assemble’ TTS I 14.

D okıš- Recip./Co-op. f. of oki:-; ‘to call to one another; to read, or recite, together’, and the like. S.i.m.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 9, 10-11 (ičin): Bud. bir Ikintike okišıp ‘calling to one another’ Hüen-ts. 192-3: Xak. xı ola:r bi.r ikindi: birle: okıštı:la:r ‘they called (da'tl) one another’; and one says ol meniŋ birle: bitig okıšdı: ‘he competed with me in reading the book’; also used for ‘helping’ Kaš. I186 (okıšu:r, okıšma:k); o.o. okıš- da'e I 359, 15; okuš- da'ejtade'el 183, 5; II 103, 25: Čağ. xv ff. okuš- Co-op. f.; \\ be yak-digar xwandan ‘to read, or recite, together’ San. 77V. 4: Osm. xv ff. kardaš okuš’ ‘to adopt one another as brothers’ in several xv and one xvı text 7'TS / 539; II 724; III 412, 538.

Tris. AĞŠ

D ukuš- (see, understand) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of uk- (see, understand, know, find out, hear) (ocular, oculus). Xak. xı ola:r bu: ı:šığ ukušti:la:r ‘they (all) understood (fatiml) this business’ Kaš. I 186 (ukušu:rla:r, ukušma:k).

D oxša:- Preliminary note. There are two phonetically indistinguishable verbs of this form, meaning respectively 'to resemble' and ‘to caress'. Kaš. adds a third meaning, ‘ (of & horse) to sleep'. This was used only in certain dialects and may be a much distorted der. f. of udi:-; if so, it had an initial u-.

1 oxša:- (resemble) ‘to resemble (someone or something Dat.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. several phonetic changes including metatheses as in NE oško-, Cf. begze:- and yagza:-. Türkü virr ff. Man. M III 18, 6 (ii) (yöle:š-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A agar oxšayur erti ‘they were like that’ M I 14, 15: Man. agar oxšayır Wind. 250, 50: Xak. xı (after 2 oxša:-) and one says bi:r ne:g birrke: oxša:dt: ‘one thing resembled (šebaha) another’ Kaš. I 282 (oxša:r, oxša:ma:k): KB agar oxšadı 74e: xııı (?) Tef. oxsa-/oğša- ‘to resemble’ 233, 240: xıv Rbğ. 0xša- ditto R I 1005 (quotn.); Muh. (l) ašbaha ‘to resemble’ oxša:- Rif. 103 (only); al-šibh oxšamak 122: Čağ. xv ff. oxša- (-ŋ benze- Vel. 97 (quotn.); oxša- (1) šabih wa menand šudan ‘to resemble’ San. 6er. 7 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 195 (uxša-); MN 121, etc.: Kom. ‘to resemble; to get accustomed to (something)’ okša-/oška-/ o:ša- (?) CCI; ovša- CCG; Gr. 278 (quotns.): Ktp. xv in a para, on equivalents for Ar. ka- ‘like’, okša- and begze- are quoted as equivalent Turkish verbs Kav. 28, 9 ff.; in a parallel passage in Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 44b.-45a. the forms are okša-/oša- and menze-: Osm. xv ff. oxša-‘to resemble’ in four texts 7'TS I 537; II 721.

2 oxša:- (fondle, caress, soothe) ‘to fondle, caress (someone Acc.); to soothe (a child)’. Survives only (?) in some NE languages (w. phonetic changes) and SW Osm. Xak. xı men anı: oxša:dım letaftuhu wa le'abtuhu wa htnua nahw me tuneğVl-mar a bi-waladiha ‘I fondled and caressed him’, that is as a woman soothes her child Kaš. I 282 (oxša:r, oxša:ma:k; prov., verse; followed by 1 oxša:-): Čağ. xv ff. oxša:- (2) kasi-rd birdyi dilcu'i tawšif kardan wa sitûdan ‘to commend and praise someone in order to comfort him’ San. 6er. 7 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ‘to fondle’ uvša- CCG; Gr. 268: Kıp.xıvokša-neğe'l-walad wa dallalahu ‘to soothe and quieten a child’ Id. 17: Osm. xıv ff. oxša-‘to cherish, caress’; fairly common TTS 1536; II 721; III 536; IV 602.

VU uxša:- Hap. leg. Yeme:k, Yaba:ku: and most of the nomadic tribes (aktar ahli'l-wabar) xı (after 1 oxša:-) and they say at uxša:di: \\ nama'l-xayl ‘the horse slept’; this word is peculiar (hessa) to horses, and is not used of anything else Kaš. I 282.

D oxšat- Caus. f. of 1 oxša:-; ‘to compare (someone Acc.) to (someone Dat.)'. S.i.s.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol mem: ata:ma: oxšattı: ‘he compared me (šabbahanŋ to my father’ Kaš. I 262 (oxšatur, oxšatma:k): Čağ. xv ff. oxšat- Caus. f.; tašbih wa menand kardan ‘to compare’ San. 6er. 9 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv oxšat- ditto Qutb 196 (uxšat-): Kom. xıv ‘to accustom (someone to something)’ okšat- CGI; Gr. 178 (quotn.).

Tris. AĞŠ

D oxša:tı: Dev. N./A. (?) fr. oxšat-; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. uluğ šal sögütke oxšatı ‘like a great sela tree’ ( Vatica robusta, Sanskrit l.-w.) U II 35, 31-3; o.o. Suv. 354, 1, etc.; TT VIII I.ib.

D oxšatğuluksuz (incomparable) Priv. N./A. fr. Gerundive of oxšat-; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. oxšatğuluksuz yöleštürgülüksüz arığ süzük ög ‘an incomparable (Hend.) pure (Hend.) colour’ Suv. 45, 3-4.

D oxšatığsız (uncaring, unloving) Hap. leg.; apparently Priv. N./A. fr. a Dev. N. of *oxšat- Caus. f. of 2 oxša:- (fondle, caress, soothe); ‘free from the compulsion to caress’; the Chinese original means merely ‘I wish to cross the sea of sdsrava suffering’ (see akığlığ). Uyğ. vıı/ ff. Bud. oxšatığsızbolayınakığlığ emgeklig taluydın kut kolurmen kečeyin ‘let me not be compelled to caress (?) the impermanent painful sea; I beg that I may cross’ Suv. 354, 5-6.

D oxša:ğu: Flap, leg.; Conc. N. fr. 2 oxša:- (fondle, caress, soothe). Xak. xı oxša:ğu: al-luba ‘plaything, pet; used as a nickname (yulaqqab) for a woman Kaš. I 138.

D uğušluğ (family, clan) P.N./A. fr. uğuš. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Bodısavt uğušluğ ‘belonging to the family of the Bodhisattvas’ Radloff, Kuan-ši-im Pusar, St. Petersburg, 1911; 72, 38; (the king is) tegrldem uğušluğ ‘of divine lineage’ TT X 494; a.o. USp. 102, 28-9: Xak. xı uğušluğ er al-raculu'lladi lahu 'ašîra ‘a man who belongs to a (well-known) family, or clan’ Kaš. I 146.

D ukušluğ P.N./A. fr. ukuš. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı ukušluğ er al-raculu'l-fatin ‘a man with understanding’ Kaš. I 147: KB ukušluğ is common, usually in association with biliglig and in antithesis to ukušsuz and biligsiz 155, 199, 904, 1946, 2189, etc.: xıı (?) KBVP 12: xıv Muh. (?) al-'dqil ‘understanding, intelligent’ uku:šluğ Rif. 152 (only): Xwar. xıv ukušluğ ditto Qutb 199.

D oxšančığ Hap. leg.; Dev. N./A. fr. Refl. f. of 2 oxša:- (fondle, caress, soothe). Xak. xı (in a prov., ‘a nestling before it is fledged, looks repulsive) it bala:si: oxšančığ ‘a puppy looks like a toy’ (bi--manzila lu'ba fi ru'yatihr) Kaš. III 232, 15 n.m.e.

Tris. AĞŠ

D ukušsuz (uncognisant) Priv. N./A. fr. ukuš; ‘without understanding’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB ukušsuz is common, usually in association with biligsiz; see ukušluğ 199, 297 (adut) etc.: xıı (?) KBVP 20: xııı (?) At. 458.

Tris. V. AĞŠ-

D uğušlan- Hap. leg.; Rett. Den. V. fr. uğuš. Xak. xı er uğušlandı: tahazzaba’l--racul tca sdra dd ahl tea 'ašıra ‘the man joined up and acquired (membership of) a people and clan’ Kaš. I 293 (uğušlanur, uğušlanma:k).

Dis. AĞZ

ağız (mouth, aperture, mouthing, estuary) ‘the mouth’ in an anatomical sense; hence ‘the mouth (of a river)’ or any sort of aperture; and in some modern languages ‘what the mouth says, a claim or representation’. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. phonetic changes; used in many phr. and idioms, see, e.g., R 1179-82. Türkü vııı ff. semi:z at ağzı: katığ boltı: ‘the fat horse’s mouth became hard’ IrkB 65; а.o. 27 (emsi:-): Man. üč ağzın ‘three (commandments must be obeyed) with the mouth’ Chuas. 193: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A neteg yeme elig ağazka sevük erür ‘and just as the hand is dear to the mouth’ M123, e: Man. ağızınta sizni öge alkayu ‘praising (Hend.) you with their mouths’ TT III 97; (keep the commandment) ağız arığın ermek ‘that the mouth should be pure’ do. 140: Bud. ağız ‘mouth’ (anatomical) is common PP 70, 1; 71, 1; U III 36, 21; 37, 30; U IV 22, 296, etc.: Civ. ağız (TT VIII I. 2 a:ğız and 3 a:ğız) (anatomical) is common in II I and Ii: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. kuan k’o ‘the mouth of a pass’ (Giles 6,368; б,174) tağnıŋ ağızı RI167; Ligeti 12e: Xak. xı ağız ‘the mouth’ (fiiha) of a river, the mouth (fam) of a wineskin, jar, or. well; eğız ‘the mouth’ (fanŋ of a man or any animal Kaš. I 55 (prov.); 14 o.o.: KB kızıl ağzı (the partridge’s) ‘red bill’ 76; (bow your neck to fate but) köni tut ağız ‘keep your mouth upright’ 1431; a.o. 2687: xııı (?) At. 155, 162; Tef. 37: xıv al-fam ağız Mel. 47, 1; Rif. 140: Čağ. xv ff. ağz dahan ‘mouth’ San. 44r. 2; ağız do. le: Xwar. xıv ağız ‘mouth’ MN 116, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘mouth’ ağız/ağz CCI; ağız/ avuz CCG; Gr. 30: Kip./Tkm. xıv ağız al-fam; in Kıp. a’ız (stc) Id. 17: xv al-fam ağız Kav. 60, 13; awz Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 27b. 4: Osm. xıv ff. ağız ‘mouth’, and in various idioms; c.i.a.p. TTS I 9-10; II 11-12; III 7, 9; IV 7. IO-II.

ağuj/ağuz (biestings, colostrum) ‘biestings, colostrum, the first milk produced after parturition’; Kaš.’s preference for ağuj, not noted elsewhere, is inexplicable. S.i.a.m.l.g., often much distorted. See Doerfer II 501. Xak. xı ağuj with - j al-liba' ‘biestings’; it may also be pronounced with -z Kaš. I 55: xııı (?) Tef. oğuz (sic) iği ‘mastitis’ 231: xıv Muh. al-liba’ ağuz Mel. 66, 7; Rif. 165: Čağ. xv ff. ağuz (spelt) šir-i galizi ‘the thick milk which is yielded for three or four days after parturition’, called fala or farša in Pe. and liba’ in Ar. San. 44r. 9: Xwar. xıı (?) (drinking) oğuznı (sic) ‘the biestings’ (from his mother’s breast) Oğ. 9: Kıp. xııı Hou. 24, 21 (oğul): xıv (Tkm.) ağuz al-liba’; and in Kip. with -w- for -ğ- Id. 17; awuz (mis-vocalized ) al-liba’ do. 25; al-liba’ awuz Bui. 8, 3; al-infaha ‘rennet’ awuz do. 8, 17: xv laban ‘milk’ (inter alia) awuz Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 31b. 13: Osm. xıv ff. ağuz ‘biestings’ in several texts TTS I 13; II 16; IV 10.

Dis. V. AĞZ-

D ağzan- (utter) Refl. Den. V. fr. ağız (mouth, aperture, mouthing, estuary); ‘to utter’ and the like. Survives in NE Khak. axsan-: NC Kır. o:zan-, Cf. ağızlan-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bu yetigen sutur ertinig ağzanıp ‘reciting this precious sutra of the Great Bear’ TT VII 40, 120: Civ. ağzanmıš savig edikti ‘the words which you uttered have succeeded’ TT I 147.

Tris. AĞZ

D ağızlığ P.N./A. fr. ağız; ‘having, or belonging to, the mouth’. S.i.s.m.l.g. with phonetic variations. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ağızlığ yolındın akmıš ‘it has flowed out by wray of the mouth’ USp. 102a. 31-2.

Tris. V. AĞZ-

D ağızla:- Den. V. fr. ağız; with various meanings. Survives in NE Khak. a:sta- Bas. 12; Tel. u:sta- R I 1750; SW Osm. ağızla-. Xak. xı ol arıknı: ağızla:dı: ittaxada li'l-nahr fiiha ‘he constructed a mouth for the canal’; and one says ol kulın ağızla:dı: ‘he hit his slave in the mouth’ ('aid fam) Kaš. I 302 (ağizla:r, ağızla:ma:k).

D ağızlan- Rett. f. of ağızla:-; with various meanings. Survives in NE Khak. a:stan-/ u:stan- ‘to curse’ Bas. 12, 252; NC Kır. o:zdan- ‘to have a mouth like (something)’. Cf. ağzan-, Uyğ.vııı ff. Man.-A ağazlanmıš boltı ulug ögrünčün ‘it was recited with great joy’ M I 25, 3.

Mon. EG

S *ek/*ik (effort, strain) See erken (indefiniteness, being, while, while being) like erki: (perhaps, uncertain, doubt, suppose, likely, if ever, interrogative, suggestion) (q.v.) and 1 erinč (presumably, supposedly, apparently, perhaps) an archaic Dev. form fr. 1 er- (are, were, was)

1 i:g (illness, disease) ‘illness, disease’. Common in the early period, in Uyğ. usually in various Hends., but survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. ig SDD 781, iy 802 (both rare). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit ebedhet vyutthita ‘having recovered from an illness’ i:gindin öŋe:tti TT VIII A.22; bu igniŋ tözin yıltızın ‘the root cause (Hend.) of this illness’ U III 41, 7 (i) — ig ağrığ see ağrığ — ig toğa see toğa — ig kegen see kĞgcn — ig kem see kem; (all kinds of) ig a:da: ‘illness and danger’ (will disappear) TT VIII K.9: Civ. ig (by itself) TT I 220, 221; VIII M.23; USp. 78, 2; H I 164; H II common — ig ağrığ TT I 11, etc. — ig kem TT VII 28, 5: Xak. xı i:g al-tnarad 'illness’ Kaš. I 48; III 224, 28 (toğa:); I 438, 11 (tal-); 5 o.o.: KB ig ‘illness’ is common 156, 157, 749, 1054 ff., etc. — ig kem 1057: xııı (?) At. 163, 253, 310; Tef. ig ‘illness; pain’ 121, 231 (ağuz): Čağ. xv ff. ig (spelt) (2) marad-i nd \99\ xtvuf ‘an unpleasant disease’ San. 108r. 29 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ig ‘illness’ Qutb 57; Nahc. 87, 3 — -ig 'Mat do. 333, 13: Kip. al-'illa ‘an illness’ yig Hou. 32, 20; bağada ‘to be hateful’ (sic?) yig kör- do. 36, 7: xıv ig (‘with -g’) al-dd’ ‘illness’ Id. 19.

S? 2 ig See i:k. (spindle, distaff) (axle)

S *ik/*ek (effort, strain) See erken (indefiniteness, being, while, while being) like erki: (perhaps, uncertain, doubt, suppose, likely, if ever, interrogative, suggestion) (q.v.) and 1 erinč (presumably, supposedly, apparently, perhaps) an archaic Dev. form fr. 1 er- (are, were, was)

i:k (spindle, distaff) (axle) ‘spindle, distaff’, later it came, like 1 ok (arrow), to be used for similar objects like ‘pivot (of a mill), axle’ and the like. Survives in several NE languages as i:k R I 1415; SE Turki iyik Shaw 40 (only): NC Kir, iyik: SC Uzb. ik: SW Az. iy; Osm. ig/iy; Tkm. i:k. Xak. xı i:k al-miğzal ‘spindle’; alternative form (luğa) of yi:k 7 48; the same entry is repeated in 7 85, 19 between öyük and oyun, presumably inserted by a scribe who thought ti was iyik; (after yi:g) yi:k bi’l-kdfi'l-šulba ‘with -k’, ‘spindle’; alternative form of i:k; this alternation is like that in Ar. alma'ilyalma'i and alandüdjyalandûd III 144: xıv Muh. al-miğzal yi:g Mel. 64, 1; (VU) iyi:k Rif. 162 (the only vowel marked is kasra on the alif): Čağ. xv ff. ig (‘with -g’) (1) ‘an instrument (dlati) with which they spin thread’, in Pe. duk, in Ar. miğzal San. io8r. 29: Xwar. xıv ik ‘spindle’ Qutb 57: Kip. xııı al-miğzal yik Hou. 17, 7:xiv ig (‘with -g’) al-miğzal id. 19: xv ditto Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 34a. 9.

1 ö:g (mother)mother’; the oldest Turkish word with this sense. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. öge/ök SDD 1102, 1106, and in der. f.s like 1 ögsüz (ö:gsüz) (motherless, orphan, helpless, destitute, widow). Otherwise n.o.a.b.; replaced by ana: (mother) (Ana - mother goddess of Hitittes,  19th c–1178 BC). See 3 ö:g (adult animal) and 1 ka:g. Türkü vııı ögüm filbilge: xatunig ‘my mother filbilge: Xatun’ I E 11, II E 10; ögum xatun ulayu: öglerim ekelerim (etc.) ‘my mother the Xatun and my (step)mothers, elder sisters’ (etc.) I N 9; o.o. I E 25, II E 20; I E 31: vııı ff. ögi: kagi: ‘his mother and father’ IrkB 35; do. 58 (2 öt); a.o.o.; Yen. ögüm Mal. 28, 7; 29, 5: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ögi kagi MI 15, 1; ög teŋri: ‘the mother goddess’ M I 13, 17; a.o. M III 15, 15 (ı): Bud. amg ög karında ‘in his mother’s womb’ U II 44, 28; ög kag is common TT VIII D.7, 19; O.7; PP 11,4 and 5, etc.; TT VI 278 (učuz); a.o.o.: Civ. kiši ogiı ög (k)e kelmez ‘the children of men do not come (back) to their mother’ TT I 216.

D 2 ö:g (thought, mind, memory, meditation, reflection, intelligence, expectation) (awe) N.Ac. fr. ö:- (think, meditate, remember) (awe); ‘thought, meditation, reflection’, and, by extension, the organ of thought, ‘the mind’, and the ability to think wisely, ‘intelligence’; practically syn. with ukuš and in KB often associated with it; in the early period sometimes in Herid. with köŋül for ‘the mind’. Survives only (?) in SW xx Anat. ökmind, intellect’ SDD 1106. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (because evil demons) ögümüzni sakmčımıznı azğurdukın üčün ‘have led our thoughts (Hend.) astray’ Chuas. I 18-19: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ögin köŋülin azıtıp ‘leading his mind (Hend.) astray’ TT ///34: Bud. Sanskrit smfti ‘thought, memoryög TT VIII A34; E.34; F.9; a.o. same meaning \99\  TT V 22, 16; ög köŋül Suv. 485, 3: Civ. ögügin köŋülügin bulğayur ‘it disturbs your mind (Hend.)’ TT 7.63; ögügce ‘as you expect’ do. 120: Xak. xı ö:g al-’aql wa'l-fifna ‘intelligence, mind’; hence öge: Kaš. 7 48; 7 96 (2 ögsüz); a.o. 7 243, 19: KB ög is common either by itself 25, 216, 217, 1995 (öge:), etc., or in association with ukuğ 148 or ukuš 151, etc.: xıv Muh. al-fahm wa'l-aql ‘intelligence’ ö:g (-g marked) Mel. 51, 15; Rif. 147; al-fahm (Rif. adds wa’l-xdtir ‘thought’) ö:g 83, 7; 188 (mis-spelt ö:l): Xwar. xıv ög ‘mind’ Qutb 121; Nahc. 431, 15-le: Kip. xııı al-xdfir ö:g, with a kaf pronounced like a voiced (ma'qUda) qaf Hou. 21, 15: xıv ög (‘with -g’) al-bdl ‘mind’; ögin ČuČğul ‘make up your mind’ (balak) Id. 19: Osm. xıv ff. ögthought, mind’ common until xvı TTS I 558-9; 77 742-5; 777 619, 620; IV 544-6.

?S 3 o:g (adult animal) ‘an animal which has reached maturity’; Kaš., who does not list 1 ö:g (mother), includes this meaning in the same para, as 2 ö:g (thought, meditation, reflection) (awe) in language which suggests that he thought that it was an extended meaning of that word, but it seems rather to be a special meaning of 1 ö:g. Xak. xı ö:g... also means ‘any animal which has reached maturity and grown up’ (intašafa sinnuhu wa kabura); hence a horse which has passed the age of four is called 0:g at Kaš. I 48: Kip. xııı (in a list of words used for sheep of various ages) ibn arba'a ‘four-year old’ ö:g and those past this age are called öge: (sic, ?ö:g) in Tkm. Hou. 15, 3.

S ök See 2 ok. (emphasis particle: no other, exactly, very)

Dis. V. EG-

eg- (bend, bow, fold, twist) ‘to bend (something Acc.)'; occasionally, with ‘head’ or ‘neck’ understood, ‘to bow’. C.i.a.m.l.g. A syn. word eŋ-, included here, occurs so sporadically that it is not clear whether it is a Sec. f. of eg- or an independent word, but, the Caus. f. eŋit-, so spelt in TT VIII, makes it clear that the occurrences in Uyğ. are intended to represent eŋ- and not, as might otherwise have been supposed eeg-. Eŋ- survives in NE Alt., Tel. eŋ- 7? 7 710 Bar. iŋ- R I 431: NC Kır. eŋ-. Cf. egil- (bent, bowed, bend, stoop, crawl), eğin. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. iki suk eŋreklemi egipbending the two index fingers’ U II 46, 71-2; iki yanar erŋek eŋip ditto TT V8, 57; üč erŋek ayada eŋ(g)il... yanar erŋek egdü teg eŋe tutğıl ‘fold three fingers in the palm of the hand... bend the index finger in the shape of a curved knife’ do. 12, 119-21: Xak. xı ol butak egdi: ‘he bent ('atafa) the bough’ Kas. I 168 (ege:r, egme:k); ta:ğığ ukrukin egme:s ‘you cannot bend (yuhartm) a mountain with a lasso’ I 100, 18: KB yağı boynı egdi ‘he bent the enemy’s necks’ 101; (the enemy heard and) boyun eğdilerbowed their necks’ 450; a.o.o.: xııı (?) At. eğilmez köŋülni akilik eger ‘generosity bends the unbending mind’ 233: xıv Muh. (?) tawa taqayn ‘to fold in two’ eg- Rif. 112 (only): Čağ. xv ff. eygen dür (sic, under a-y, but ?read eg(g)en dür) mayi wa muhabbat \100\ eyledi ‘he bowed and showed love’ Vel. 41 (quotn.); eg- (‘with -g-’) xam kardan ‘to bend’ San. 106v. 29 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv eg- ‘to bend’ Qutb 57: Kom. xıv ‘to boweŋ- (sic) CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı 'awivaca ‘to bendeg- Hou. 42, 10: xıv eg- (‘with -g-’) ditto Id. 18:xv fatala ‘to twistey- Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 28b. 6.

ek- (eg-) (sow, scatter) (ek) ‘to sow (seed Acc.) in (the ground Dat.)-, to sow (a field Acc.). S.i.m.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol tarığ ekdi: badara'l-zar' ‘he sowed the seed’; also used for ‘to scatter’ (darra) powder or drugs on something Kaš. I 168 (eke:r, ekme:k); I 64, 1 (uruğ): KB negü ekse yerke yana ol ünür ‘whatever a man sows in the ground later comes up’ 1394: xıv Rbğ. ek- ‘to sow’ R I 675 (quotn.); Muh. zara'a ‘to sow’ ek- Mel. 26, 6; Rtf. no; al-zar' ekmek 34, 15; 120; Čağ. xv ff. ek- (-ti, etc., ‘with -k-’) ekin ek- Vel. 65 (quotns.); ek- (‘with -k-’) kaštan ‘to sow’ San. ioev. 29 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı ek- ‘to sow’ 'Ali 2e: xıv ditto. Qutb 49: Kip. xııı zara a ek- Hou. 33, 20: xıv ditto Id. 18; Bui. 47r.: xv ditto Kav. 74, 3; Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) z8b. z. (ЕГИШ (АГИШ) (ЕГИС, ÄГÄШ; АГАШ, АГАЧ, ЫГАЧ (западнотюркск. ареал), в сложных словах - ГАШ, ГАЧ, ГАИ; ЫЙАШ, ИЫШ, ИЫС лес (сибирский ареал), ЧЫШ, ЧИС лес (алтайский))

1 ö:g- (praise, sing, recite) ‘to praise, sing, recite’. Survives only (?) in SW Az. öy-; Osm. ög- and perhaps NE Tob. üy- ‘to sing, recite’ R11800. Türkü vııı ff. yultu:zu:ğ ögü:gli: er ‘a man who praises the stars’ Toy. 2v. 7-8 (ETY II 179): Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. ögmek alkıš ötündiler ‘they offered praises (Hend.)’ U 16, 15: Man. tag teŋrig ögelirn ‘let us praise the Dawn God’ M II 9, 4; sizni öge alkayu ‘praising (Hend.) you’ TT III 97; öge yükünmiš buyanımız tüšinte ‘in return for the merit of our praise and worship’ do. 169: Bud. öge: ya:rlıka:dı ‘he deigned to praise’ TT VIII II.9; o.o. U II 73, 5 (ı); USp. 89, i — ögdüm alkadim ‘I praised (Hend.)’ Suv. 135, 4-5; o.o. do. 517, 18; USp. 1 o 1, 15 — U III 46, 13; TT X 146-7 (yiv-): Xak. xı ol meni: ö:gdi: madahani ‘he praised me’ Kaš. I 174 (ö:ge:r, ö:gme:k); in a para, on the difference between the Infin. Suff. -ma:k and -me:k, as an example of a verb containing al-kdfu'l-rakika, -g-, ol meni: öŋdi: (customs) (sic) II 38, 14; o.o. I 472, 11; II 243, 7: KB ög- ‘to praise’ is common, 184, 242, 272, 930, etc.; ögümez (crasis of ögü umaz) ‘cannot praise’ 33: xııı (?) At. ög- ‘to praise’ is common; Tef. ditto 241:xiv Rbğ. ditto R I 1178 (quotn.); Muh. madaha ö:g- Mel. 31, 6; Rif. 115 (mis-spelt Ö.T-): Čağ. xv ff. ög- (-er, -ti ‘with -ğ*’) ög-, madh et- Vel. 109, no (quotn.); ög- (‘with -g-’) madh u sitayiš kardan ‘to praise’ San. ySr. 2 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı ditto. 'Ali 36; xıv Qutb 121: Kom. xıv ‘to praiseög-/öy- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv ög- (‘with -g-’) madaha td. 18.

S 2 ög- See ögi:- (grind, , pulverize).

ük- (heap up, accumulate) ‘to heap up, accumulate (something Acc.):’ This verb and its derivatives, üküš etc., have often been spelt with initial e-, but the scriptions in TT VIII and modern forms make ü- certain. Survives in NE Alt., Tel. \\ ü:- R I 1798; Koib. Sag., Khak. üg- R I 1807, Bas. 253; NC Kır., Kzx. üy-; SC Uzb. uy-; NW Kaz. üy- Ii / 1335; SW xx Anat. üy-SDD 1441. An irregular form with prosthetic y- occurs once in Xak., and more often in Uyğ. (see ükmek). Cf. yığ- (assemble). Türkü vııı (long gap) üktim II S 8 (uncertain, might be the end of a longer word): Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. occurs only in the Infin. ükmek, q.v.: O. Kır. ıx ff. (in a badly preserved inscription) uyur kadašım üčün ükdim ‘1 heaped up (wealth) for my capable (?) kinsmen’ Mal. 17, 2 (rather dubious): Xak. xı ol yarma:k ükdi: kawwama'l-dirdhim ‘he piled up money’ (etc.) Kaš. I 168 (üke:r, ükme:k); biligni: yükermen (sic) acma'ul-fadl bi-karamihi 'I accumulate excellence (sic?) by His grace’ II 243, 8: xıı (?) At. aya hükmin ajun tapa ükgüči ‘oh man who concentrates his judgements on this world’ 449: Čağ. xv ff. ük- (-er, etc., ‘with -k-’) cam' et-, yığ- (assemble) ‘to collect, assemble’ Vel. 109 (quotns.); ük- (sic?, in the same para, as 1 ö:g- (praise, sing, recite) without differentiated spelling) (2) cam' kardan San. 78r. 2 (quotns.)

Dis. EGE

eke: (elder sister, (paternal) aunt) originally ‘a close female relative older than oneself and younger than one’s father’, that is both ‘junior (paternal) aunt’ and ‘elder sister’, later only ‘elder sister’. Cf. eče:, küküy, and baldız. Survives only (?) in Nlv Alt., Šor, Tel. eye R I 720; SW xx Anat. eye, iyye SDD 563, 803. In the medieval period displaced by the syn. Mong. l.-w. egečl noted in Čağ. Vel. 25, 70; San. io8v. 9; Kom. CCI, Gr. and Kip. Hon. 32, 1 and s.i.s.m.l. A homophonous word eke, meaning ‘father, uncle, elder brother’ occurs in several modern languages. San. may be right in describing it as a corruption of the Mong. l.-w. aka/ağa ‘elder brother’; in any event it is not an old Turkish word. See Doerfer II 512. Türkü vııı I N 9 (see 1 ö:g (mother)): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. eci ini ka kadaš eke baldız birgerü ‘elder and younger brothers, family, kinsmen, elder and younger sisters together’ Suv. 554, 15: Civ. ekeg yengeg sevinčlig ol ‘your elder sisters and sisters-in-law are joyful’ TT I 155: Xak. xı eke: al-uxtu’ l-kubrd ‘elder sister’ Kaš. I 90; I 86, 26 (eče:); III 7 (yurč): xııı (?) Tef. (Zikriya’s wife and Maryam’s mother were) eke baldız 72: xıv Muh. (?) (in a rather corrupt list of terms of relationship) al-'amnia ‘paternal nunt’ ana: ege: (-g- marked) Rif. 144 (only): Čağ. (?) xv eke (‘with -k-’) corruption of ağa ‘elder brother’; among the özbeg of Turan used idiomatically (muštalih) for 'amma-i buzurg ‘senior paternal aunt’ (quotn. fr. Babur in latter sense) San. 45V. 14: Oğuz xı after eke: ‘and in Oğuz eze:’ Kaš. I 90 (perhaps a corruption of eče:): Kip. xıv ege: (‘with -g-’) al-amma td. 18; eze: ditto do. 13: xv 'anıma eke (or ege?) Tuh. (Tuhsi, Tohar) 25b. 10.

S eki/eki See ekki:. (two, second)

ekki: (two, second)two’. (Norse 1st pers. dual pronoun "we" okkar, okkr, 2nd pers. dual pronoun "you two" ykkar ykkŋ There is no doubt that the -k- was originally doubled, see Clauson, ‘The \101\ Turkish Numerals’, JRAS, 1959, p. 20; and the variations in spelling make it almost certain that the initial vowel was e--, but the early alphabets are so imperfect that it is impossible to follow the evolutions of sound. C.i.a.m.l.; -kk- is noted, usually as an alternative pronunciation, in some NE languages R I 682, 1421; SE Türki I3Š 588, Jarring 139; and some SC spellings; initial e- (or e-) occurs in some NE languages, NC Kır., Kzx., some SC, and most NW languages, the rest have i-. Türkü v 111 eki: always in I, II, T: vııı ff. eki: IrkB 2, 24; eki: Tun. IV 10; Yen. eki Mal. 31, 5; Man. eki five times and eki once in Chuas.: Uyğ. vııı eki aKvays in Šu. and IIi: vııı ff. Man.-A eki MI 12, 115; III 16, 3 (in: Man. eki (or iki?) TT III 159: Bud. TT VIII has iki, not eki in various der. f.s, and accordingly spellings in Uyğ. script, which are quite uniform, should be transcribed iki: Civ. TT VIII has iki, not eki, four times; other texts always iki: O. Kır. ıx ff. eki: Mal. 16, 1; 42, 5: Xak. xı the main entry, under the heading fa’ld, which implies -kk-, is ikki: (or ekki:?) al-itnan fVl-'adad ‘two’ Kaš. I 131; about 70 o.o. of ikki: and half a dozen each of iki: and i:ki:: xııı (?) At. iki 3 times; Tej. iki 123; xıv Muh. i:ki: Mel. 82, 4; Rif. 186, 187; ikki: 8r, 7: Čağ. xy ff. iki: San. io8v. 15, but in 20V. 10 it is stated that iki/ikki is one of four numerals which may be spelt with either a single or double consonant: Xwar. xıv iki MN 2 etc., Nahc. passim: Kip. xııı yeki: (? error for i:ki:) Hou. 22, 3: xıv iki: Id. 18; ikki: Iiul. 12, ro: xv ikki about a dozen times in Tuh.

Contents Türkic languages

Classification of Türkic languages
N. Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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