In English

Türkic languages
Classification of Türkic languages
Türkic in English
Türkic in Slavic
Türkic, Slavic and Iranian
Türkic and European Genetic distance

Windows 1251 for Cyrillic

Alan Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Sabir Dateline






Translator's Notes

Phonetic conventions:

y - after consonant in the middle and in the end of the word, like 'i' in 'sit', with a longer sound, corresponds to Russian : 'Bulymer ' for 'Boo-liih-mer', 'Ryshtauly' for 'Riish-tah-oo-liih'.

y - substitutes for 'i' in diphthongs, to indicate sound like Y in New York: 'biysu' for 'Bee-y-soo', instead of 'biisu', yorty for 'Yor-tii'.

j - like 'z' in 'azure'


In last third of the 3rd millennium BC, kurgans started penetrating from the Northern to the Southern Caucasus, through the Derbent pass (Dagestan) and the west of the Black Sea routes. This paths of expansion can be visibly traced by the kurgans near Novotitarevka stan and aul (village - Translator's Note) Utamysh in Dagestan. S. Caucasian archeologists are unanimous that the Kurgan culture appears suddenly there, as a completely alien phenomenon for the local tribes. These monuments are known in many areas of the S. Caucasia, but the earliest are kurgans located near the village Bedeni in Georgia, and the Uch-tepe the kurgans in the Azerbaijan, etc.

From here, further to the south, the Kurgan culture reaches the banks of the lake Urmia in the Middle East.

The ancient Kurgan culture of the horse, cattle and sheep breeders meet the settled agricultural tribes, for the first time, in the territory of the S. Caucasia, Near East and Asia Minor. A natural symbiosis of two cultures has developed, and occur a mixing of different ethno-cultural communities. As a result of this symbiosis, evolved a new settled agricultural and cattle breeding ethnic community, which combined both types of the economic production.

This symbiosis in the territory of the ancient Mesopotamia, (modern Iraq) gives a huge push to the establishment of the world-renowned civilization of Sumer (Somar, Suvar). Between the carriers of the Maykop cultures of the Northern Caucasus and the ancient Sumers (Suvars, Somars) develop closest cultural and economic relations, displayed by repeated finds, in the Sumerian cities and Maykop kurgans, of the similar unparalleled objects of arms, ornaments, etc. It is important to note that these objects are found in the Sumerian cities and in the North Caucasian Maykop kurgans, but in the monuments in the territory between them are almost never found, neither in the S. Caucasia, nor in the other areas of the Northern Caucasus. The mutual contacts between the Maykopians and Sumerians are like the relations between long separated parts of the ancient pra-Türkic tribes with their ancestral home in the Northern Caucasus and adjoining  Eurasian steppes. The impression is that these connections had transitive character, probably, explained by the closeness of their traditions and cultures.

There is plenty of evidence that the ancient Sumerians were a long separated part from the main pra-Türkic tribes. Therefore, in their language are this many Türkic words, of which wrote many scientists of the last century and of today.


The analysis of the ancient Sumerian cuneiform texts performed by many scientists testifies that the majority of the Sumerian words are literally duplicates of the common  Türkic words, including the Karachaevo-Balkarian words, and sometimes of the whole phrases. For example, in a song about Gilgamesh (Bilgamesh) is a Balkarian phrase "Soüm eteyik", i.e. "We will make a sacrifice, we shall sacrifice". Or in the monument of the 24 c. BC, the inscription devoted to the God Gudey, contains a Karachaevo-Balkarian expression "zanymdagynnan", i.e. "From a close one". There are many of such distinctive coincidences.

Such conjunctions are multiple, there are more than 4 hundred of them. But the shown conjunctions are enough to affirm the kihship of the Sumerian and Karachaevo-Balkarian languages.

The scientific data tells that the spread of the ancient pra-Türkic of the Kurgan culture was a result of a split of the ancient Turkic community, originally represented by the Kurgan-Afanasian ethno-cultural community. This dissolution chronologically coincided with the disintegration of the ancient Indo-European community. The mutual impingements resulting of these processes are reflected in the observed mass of the mutually penetrating linguistic convergences between the Türkic and Indo-European languages.

The name of the God Gudey is amazingly close to the word Kuday, "God" in the Kazakh and Kirgiz languages. The word Khuday, also spelled Khudai, is a prominent Türkic theonym, meaning "God", "Almighty", "Supreme" etc. In the Bashkort, Khuday means "spirit", in the Tatar it means  "God", the White Hun's history as early as 2 c. AD notes a royal name Haphtar Hudai, it is a popular name with the meaning of "God" in Pakhtu. The Internet search for "Khudai" returned me 6,000 entries. Looks like 4,000 years ago Sumerians were experts in propagating their religious concepts.

Let's review several Sumerian-Karachaevo-Balkarian lexical convergencies:


Sumerian words

Karachaevo - Balkarian words

Abame elder Appa grandfather, grandmother
Alty six Alty six
Az little, few Az little, few
Aur weight Auur weight
Baba ancestor Baba ancestor
Buz to break Buz to break
Char circle Charkh wheel
Chibin fly (n) Chibin fly (n)
Cholpan star Cholpan star (Venus)
Daim continously Dayim continously
Ed come out E pass (v)
Egech sister Egech sister
El death El to die
Er warrior Er man
Eshik door Eshik door
Ez self Ez self
Gaba breast Gabara breastwarmer, bra
Gag to thrust K'ak to thrust
Guruvash servant Karauash servant, slave girl
Jau enemy Jau enemy
Jer place, ground Jer place, ground
Ikki two Eki two
Irik valuh (?) Irik valuh (?)
Kadau lock (n) K'adau lock (n)
Kal to remain K'al to remain
Kan blood Kan blood
Koru to guard K'oruu to guard
Kush bird K'ush bird
Kur to create Kur to build
Küre to row Küre to row
Kyz girl K'yz girl
Me I, me Men I, me
Mu he Bu he
Ne what Ne what
Or to press Or harvest (v.and n.)
Ru to hammer Ur to hammer
San number San number
    Sana to count
Sen you Sen you
Sig kick Sok to beat
Süz to filter Süz to filter
Ush three Uch three
Ud fire Ot fire
Uzuk long Uzun long
Tu to give birth Tuu to give birth
Tud to be born Tuudu to be born
Tush to sit down, to go down Tüsh to descend
Uat to break Uat to break
Üz to tear Üz to tear
Ul clan Ul son, descendant
Yaryk light (adj) Yaryk light (adj)
Yarym half Yarym half
Yaz to write Yaz to write
Yol road Yol road
Yün wool Yün wool
Yyr song Yyr song



In English

Türkic languages
Classification of Türkic languages
Türkic in English
Türkic in Slavic
Türkic, Slavic and Iranian
Türkic and European Genetic distance

Alan Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Sabir Dateline