In Russian
Contents Türkic languages
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Codex of Inscriptions-Euro Asiatic-Don
Alanian Etymology Notes
Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz

Hasan Mamay
Alans in Pyrenees


Translator's Notes

If you want to see a clever, informed, and mostly balanced article about traces of the Alanian language in the European languages, read on. A large portion of interest in the article is in its linguistic part.

Most studies handle Alans as a monoethnic entity, possibly because the ancient sources used the term Alans as an integral, all-inclusive politonym, without discerning its components. Only in a limited number of cases we are given an insight into the Alan constituents, like the term used by the Armenian historian Moisei Horensky in reference to Alans, when the Ash/As-Tigor name (As-Tochar) of the tribe was written down as Duhsas (< *Duhs+As). A majority of the sources, talking of the Alanian tribes, do not directly allude to Yazygs/Ases, Rhoxolans, etc. as Alans. But from the records of history we can perceive that Alans were a multi-ethnic composition, because at the time of their apogee they covered Sabirs, Turks, Goths, and Herules, and there is no reason to believe that the Alans' westward migrations did not include some of those components that are not directly mentioned in the sources. In their fairly spry movement from the N.Pontic to Aberia, Alans also could pick up some allies from other fractured tribes. A philological study should expect to find not only the vocabulary of a Sogdian-Kipchak mixed-type language of Alans, described by Biruni, but also linguistical admixtures left by other members of the movement.

Spain in general, and Catalania in particular, linguistically is a land isolated from the influence of the the known Türkic peoples. Excluding Germanic, Arabic, and Jewish sources as transmitters of Türkic lexicon to Spain, the only Türkic-related influence could have come from the Alans, who for a time in the 5th century AD settled permanently in Spain, and under the current paradigm of Irano-linguality of Alans any Türkic linguistic admixture in the Iberian peninsula is an absolute impossibility. The only alternative explanation could have come from the Latin language, which in turn would need a proof that in pre-4th century AD the Latin was loaded enough with Turkisms to impart such a heavy fraction of them to the Iberian languages that they would outlive the Arabic and Post-Arabic period to extend into present days. Either through the Alanian, or through the Latin, a paradigm must be found to explain any significant Türkic portion of the Iberian lexicon. The author's contention is that given the alternatives, the only source of Türkic linguistic admixture in the Iberian peninsula could be Alans.

The unfortunate double/triple translation (Catalan => German, German => Russian, Russian => English) may lose some semantical precision, but still would preserve the meaningful essence of the words.

The spelling of the Karachaevo-Balkarian words is transcribed from the Greek-based quasi-Cyrillic, which is used in the original work, to English, with the following conventions:

quasi-Cyrillic “êú“ ( k' - stop-guttural consonant ) with “q“,
quasi-Cyrillic “ãú“ ( g' - stop-guttural consonant ) with “gq“,
Cyrillic “ë“ (yo) “ë“
Other conventions:.
“a“ - as “a“ in arch, “j“ - as “j“ in jealousy, “kh“ - as “h“ in hug, “ü“ - as “u“ in munitions, “y“ - as “Y“ in York or as “i“ in if

Posting notes are highlighted in blue.

Hasan Mamay
Alans in Pyrenees


The present official history is so inconsistent that to talk about it as a science in full sense is obviously impossible. Its main problem is the methodology. The modern history is rested upon three whales: archeology, written sources, comparative linguistics. The stability of this threesome foundation is rather contingent, as each element suffers serious shortcomings. For Russian archeology it is still an absence of reliable dating tool; for written sources it is a possibility of forgery; for comparative linguistics it is an absence of equivalency between a language and an ethnos (for example, Jews talk in any language). Besides, the historical science does not use mathematical apparatus at all, which would align it with the current science (A.Fomenko applied statistical analysis to the chronology and received appalling results). In such circumstances history becomes an assembly of guesses, with infeasible assessments of probabilities. The situation could be changed only by turning to the new research methods. One of such methods could become an “energetic“ method, it is successfully applied in various branches of science, because in general it accurately reflects causes of the phenomena and their reasons. In this method, a cause should be a paramount parameter.


To criticize the rooted concepts seems to be a hopeless occupation, the number “pi“ can be questioned with the same success, but some scientific constructions sometimes are based not on the facts, but only on the names of the eminent scientists.

One of such “axioms“ in modern history science is the Iranism of Alans . On that subject researchers of different countries have written dozens of works, their assertions being quite categorical. For a better visibility, the following are some examples:

- “ I also do not deem necessary to address the question about the proofs of the Alan's belonging to the Aryan race, and specifically to its Iranian branch, considering this question to be finally decided in the works of the linguists, and between them by prof. Vsev. Miller in his “Ossetic etudes“ (Kulakovsky Yu.A., 1855-1919)

- “The attribution of those tribes, which in accordance with the ancient writers carried the name of Sarmatians, to the Iranian branch of the Aryan race in the modern science is elevated to the status of a firmly established fact“ (Kulakovsky Yu.A.).

- “ The works of many scientists firmly established the Iranian-linguality of the Alans and their direct genetic connections with the (linguistically) Iranian Sarmatian tribes“ (Kuznetsov V.A., 1992).

- “ It is possible to say without exaggeration that despite some doubts, the theory of the Alanian origins the Ossetians received citizenship rights, and rightfully determined the path for further research“ (Gagloyti Yu.S. 1964).

- “ The main premises about ethnogenesis of the Ossets stand firmly and unshakably: the presence of the Iranian element in their ethnic culture and their primary cultural and linguistical relation with other peoples of the Indo-European circle, a northern way of their migration to the Caucasus; their successive connection with Scythians, Sarmatians and Alans“ (Abaev V.I., 1949).

- “Also there are enough reasons to think that languages of ancient Scythians and Sarmatians“ were Iranian (Abaev V.I.).

- “ Linguistic evidence did not play a main role in identification of Ossets with Alans. The direct historical testimony was eloquent enough. The cross-comparison of the historical records from the Georgian, Armenian, Byzantian, Latin, Arabic, Rus (annalistic) sources does not leave any doubts that under the names of Os (Osset), As, Yas, Yazyg, Alan hide the same people“ (Abaev V.I.).

This list can be extended, without a particular need, as the idea of the above authors appears quite clear: without sufficient actual material, they try to construct a historical concept based on their firm assurances.

As we see, these researchers are not isolated loners, they represent a whole branch of the historical science, for a number of reasons recast into a replica of a reactionary sect. The benevolence of the authorities and resulting absence of criticism transformed the Soviet Scythology into an alloy of arrogance and naivety. Trained in unscrupulousness, the academic scientists stated and continue to state nonsense with a clever air. The following are few citations from the works of the glorified Iranists-Scythologists-Osetinologists, to allow a reader to see personally the accuracy of our statement.

- “…at the end of the 4th century began the epoch of “Great Movement of Peoples“, which opened a new page in the history of Europe and left in it a deep mark. At the same time ended centuries-old and unlimited rule of the Iranian-lingual nomads - Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans - in the steppes of the Northern Pontic, they were replaced by incoming uncountable Türkic tribes and peoples who emanated from the depths of Asia“ (V.A. Kuznetsov).

This is one of the most harmful myths in the history of Eurasia. If a reader would think that Kuznetsov only generalizes the rich factual material about the replacement of the Iranian-lingual population by the Turkic population, that would be a gross mistake, because the evidence for the event is completely absent. This is a most poor description of such a global process. Is it easy to break the “centuries-old and unlimited rule“? How would the people of many thousands to overcome the way from the Altai to the Carpathian mountains? Why no hint of the Iranian-lingual population's presence remain in the Northern Pontic? The reader certainly can recollect the rivers with ostensibly Iranian names - Danube, Dnieper, Dniester, Don, but during the Scythian times Herodotus does not know these rivers, and their appearance on the map is shrouded in mystery. It is also not known what moved these human masses, in fact the Asian space even now does not suffer from overpopulation (for example, in Mongolia the population density is one person per square kilometer). Having accepted this myth, scientists in every way deny a presence of the Türks in Europe before the 4th century. Kuznetsov is not at a loss to put into question the words of Claudius Ptolemy, who already in the 2nd century places Huns between Aorses and Roxolans (and Turkae in Pomponius Mela ca 50 AD, and Tyrkae in Natural History of Pliny the Elder before 77 AD, all these misleading ill-informed old illiterates).

- “As is known, in the territory of the present Ossetia in the Middle Ages was a state and a capital of Alans. From a multitude of the facts testifying to it, Pototsky considered the most convincing the message of Constantine Porphyrogenesus, who placed Alania “next to the Svans“ (Yu.S.Gagloyti).

A look at the map shows that the Svans live along almost the whole length of the southern slopes of the Caucasian ridge, while Ossetia stretched only a few tens of kilometers along the northern slopes, therefore the words “next to the Svans“ can be perceived as any place to the north from the Caucasian ridge, but turning to archeology and toponymy demonstrates that Alans did not leave any traces in the territory of modern Ossetia (“Svan“ is a Kartvellian rendition of the Türkic ethnonym Suvar/Savar/Subar/Sibir etc.).

- “ … the self-name of Alans in the Northern Caucasus was “Ir“ (modern “Iron“)“ (V.B.Kovalevskaya).

This absolutely unsupported statement of Kovalevskaya may be regarded as falsification squared: first the Osetinologists tried to attach the name “Alan“ to the Ossets, and here now comes a transfer of the self-name of the Ossets, “Iron“, to the medieval Alans.

“The idea about a lion was so alien to the Ossets, that when in the newer times they had to give it a name, they did not find any better than to transfer to it a name … of bison (dombay) (V.I.Abaev).

Note, that this is Balkaro-Karachayan (i.e.Türkic) name for the bison. In addition to the lion, to the Ossets were alien also such concepts as “sea“ and “wolf“ (“tengiz“, “byorü“)  (i.e.Türkic loanwords) which they, most likely picked up from the Yakut (Sakha) language, because according to the same Abaev “the cultural and linguistic influence of the Balkarians on the Ossets by virtue of their numerical ratio was, and should be, completely insignificant“. It is difficult to tell where the Ossetic language was formed, in fact on the Earth there is only one place where there are simultaneously no wolves, lions, and sea, that is in the center of Antarctica.

The people cited above constitute an avant-garde of the modern Osetinology: Ph.D.'s, academicians … But judging by their statements, they are quite far from science, although their official status allows them to publish their works, and thus influence minds of the thousands of people. In a different situation we would not even want to debate with them.

Written sources

Information about Alans in the Pyrenees is quite pitiful, even in the special literature only few lines are given to that subject (B.Bahrah “Alans in the West“, V.B.Kovalevskaya “Alans in the Western Europe“). These authors emphasize a study of France and Italy. This looks somewhat strange, because in the Iberian peninsula Alans settled in significant numbers. Even such star of Alanology (from Alan and “logos“ - knowledge, a typical way of creating new terminology on the fly - Translator's Note) as Yu.A.Kulakovsky limits himself to a simple statement of the fact: “In the 409 the allies (Alans and Vandals - H.M.) crossed to Spain, and in 411 divided this country among themselves, Alans received the center part, Luzitania and Carthagena“ (Kulakovsky Yu.A., in “Selected Works on history of Alans and Sarmatia“, p.113). A similar position is taken by the modern Osetinologists-Skythologists. Their unwillingness to study the history of Spain brings up a mass of questions. Apropos, let us recall one ten years' old event.

In the summer of 1993 a North-Osetian Institute of Humanitarian Research (“Northern Osetia“ is a Russian administrative moniker  for Digoria, the  Digoria in turn is an Adyg version of the Türkic ethnic name “Tuhsi“ = Tokhar = Düger, who in early Middle Age occupied Mangyshlak Basin, a former land of classical Dahae, Duhsas < *Duhs+As of Ibn Ruste. under a name Düger. Digors ruled the Alanian tribe As.) undertook an unprecedented action “Via Alanica“ (“Alanian Road“), which primary goal was “to learn about state of affairs in the studies of ancient Iranian, and in particular of Alanian problems in the Western Europe“ (Bliev M.M., “Alanica III“, Vladikavkaz 1995. p. 410). A group of Ossetian scientists replicated the path of the Alans' suggested route to the West. Stopping in Rostov, Kiev, Budapest and Paris, the travelers safely returned back. During their stops, the scientists attended museums, learning about Scythian heritage, met with researchers, officials and fellow countrymen. The program was fairly saturated, but judging from the dispatches of the expedition participants M.M.Bliev and L.A.Chibirov, the endeavor did not return any appreciable results. It turned out that in Europe, the Iranian problem is not studied properly. Bliev complained about his Rostov colleagues: “The majority of the discoveries of the Rostov's archeologists, including the Alanian ones, were published. A deficiency of these publications, however, is that the Alanian problems, and in particular their ethnogenetical aspects, as a rule, were not examined. Maybe for that reason the Don Cossacks today also, as a museum employee T.A.Skripnik told us, started considering themselves to be Sarmatians by origin“. (Bliev p. 412). Nobody has a right to refuse the Cossacks in their desire, as long as they have enough reasons for that proposition.

Judging from the historical information, Alans have not remained in France, they passed through the Iberian peninsula, and landed in the north of Africa, where together with Vandals they founded a state that subsequently was crushed by the Byzantian general Velisarius. Thus, the Libyan desert should be listed as a final point of the Alan movement to the West. Besides, a significant number of Alans settled in Iberia, where until present is a Catalania province, which preserved in its name the name of the Alanian people. It would be logical to assume that the Ossetic scientists would be eager to go Catalania, but they don't have such a desire, and on the contrary, in the following stage of their plan, said Bliev, “Via Alanica“ will be visiting Italy, Mongolia, China and India.

A little bit more information for our theme gives Hans-Joachim Diesner in his work “Das Vandalenreich. Aufstieg und Untergang“, but he tries to describe the history of Vandals in isolation, therefore we should make some comments. Long before their appearance in Iberia (beginning of the 4th century), the Alans and Vandals were united in an intertribal union. In the subsequent centuries the history of these peoples happen to be closely bound. Until now the reasons of such consolidation are not clear. Disner writes: “Since 418 Hasdings, Silings (divisions of Vandals - H.M.) and Alans were united by a personal ties with the Hasdings' king. The name “Hasdings“, which earlier designated a whole tribe, gradually began to be used only for the name of the dynasty. At last, was introduced a title “Rex Vandalorum et Alanorum“ (“King of Vandals and Alans“) (34). Thus, any mention of Vandals in Spain and in the north of Africa we shall perceive in connection with the Alans.

34 Diesner, Hans-Joachim: Das Vandalenreich. Aufstieg und Untergang, Stuttgart u.a. 1966 He tried to remain reasonably close to the official Soviet position on issues. D.Sinor ignores H-J.Diesner's work.
Courtois, Christian: Les Vandales et l'Afrique, Paris 1955

The major movement stages of Alano-Vandals are the following. At the end of the 4th century, because of the increasing pressure from Huns and Goths, the Vandals, Alans and some divisions of the Gepids and Sarmatians, united in a coalition under a leadership of the Hasdings' King Godigizel. In 401 the (Western Roman, under Emperor Honorius, 395-423 - Translator's Note) empire concludes with the union an accord of federation, by which Alano-Vandals received an area in the territory of the modern Bavaria. However by the 406 they, contrary to the accord, penetrated into the Southern Gallia (present France - Translator's Note). For some time the Roman armies managed to hold the Pyrenees ridge, but in the 407 the migrants broke through to Spain. And already in the 411 empire concludes an accord of federation with the union, by which Hasdings received the eastern, and the Sueves (akin to Switzer and Swab) the western Galicia (northwest Spain), while Silings received Betica (southern Spain), and Alans received Lusitania (approximately corresponds to modern Portugal and parts of Spain) and the area of New Carthagena (eastern Spain). Already in the 425 the Alano-Vandals commandeered Roman ships and plundered Balearic islands, and even the coasts of Mauritania. In the following years the fleet was expanded and staffed with their tribesmen. Even more significant were the successes on the land: by the 428 all Roman cities of Pyrenees were included in the Vandals' sphere of influence, including Gispalis (Seville) and New Carthagena (Cartagena). Thus, the political, military and economic situation of Alano-Vandals by the time of Gunderih death (428) obviously improved in comparison with the first years in Spain. In the 429 Alano-Vandals, avoiding confrontations with Suevs and Vestgoths, crossed to Africa and landed in Tingis (Tangier).

In essence, this is all that is known to us about Alans in the Iberian peninsula, their further existence in that territory is shrouded in mystery, but in any case people cannot completely disappear, even at full assimilation, some original features should survive. Certainly, hoping to find them after fifteen centuries is quite optimistic, but who knows?

Barbarians in Iberia

The advocates of the Iranian-linguality of Alans are reluctant to study the Iberian peninsula, and there is a simple reason for that. Taking any other area of Europe where Alans used to dwell, it appears that there also were the Huns, and Savirs, and Avars, and Kipchaks, and Bolgars, and Barsils, i.e. some Türkic tribes, and therefore it is impossible to precisely distinguish who left the Türkic elements in the toponymy and lexicon. But for Iberia, it appears that there were only three barbarous tribes: Alans, Vandals and Goths. Thus, it is a unique territory where Alans can be isolated. If the Goths and Vandals are German (which is still unproved beyond any doubts), then how to explain a presence in Spain of the Türkic elements, which, as we shall show, are present there in massive quantities.

Now the oddity in the attitude of the Iranists becomes clear: any Turkic element outside of the Iberian peninsula can be explained by the influence of any other Türks, in addition to the Alanian, but the presence of Türkisms in Spain completely discredits the Alano-Iranian theory, and therefore the Osetinologists conscientiously ignore a history of that region.


An impetus for this article was an author's acquaintance with the Catalan dictionary. The fact that Catalania originally was called Goth-Alania, and received its name from the union of the Alans and Vestgoths raised a hope that the Catalan language could preserve Türkic elements brought over by the Alans. A search for the needed dictionary turned out to be a serious problem, as the seven-million European nation did not get the Russian linguists interested in any way, and the Catalano-Russian dictionary was not composed. However, the author was lucky to get a Catalano-German dictionary. The work was complicated by a double translation, but eventually, we have been rewarded for the labors, were encountered about a hundred of transparent Balkaro-Karachayan lexemes. Next followed the Spanish and Portuguese languages, and they brought the same results. A completely new aspect of the Alanian history opened up. Judging by the found words, the Alans were widely spread across the all Iberian peninsula, and imprinted a major influence on the formation of the local population.

This presents an opportunity to see that Türkisms cover almost all spheres of the Pyrenees' languages: pronouns, verbs, life, culture and many other things. It is also interesting that some words are in several languages at once, and because the Catalan, Spanish and Portuguese belong to the Romance group of languages, it could turn out that they are early loans from the Türkic into Latin.


Catalan Karachaevo - Balkar Herodotus' Scythian
1. àlàn-Alan àlàn-Alan  
2. àlå - spirit al - spirit  
3. àrâîñ - water-melon harbuz - water-melon  
4. àrñà - chest cage arkia - back  
5. àmb - together em - and (conjunction)  
6. ans - differently, but ansy - differently  
7. arribar - to go somewhere ary bar - to go there  
8. arca - lasso arkan - lasso  
9. be - very much bek - very much  
10. baba -grandmother baba -grandmother  
11. basar - market basar - market  
12. batan - to felt, rumple batan - spooner  
13. bei - bej (title) baj - bej (title)  
14. babi -grandfather babi - an ancestor Papai
15. bossa - purse bohtsa - purse  
16. bou - horned cattle bau - shelter for cattle  
17. bucle - a curl bükle - to fold, roll  
18. ahir - yesterday ahyr kün - yesterday  
19. basar - to lean on bazynyr - to leanon  
20. cabas - a basket kaba - shell  
21. cafta - caftan (coat) qaftal - a caftan (coat)  
22. cairar - to open qaiyryr - to tear off  
23. cama - shaft, handle qiama - dagger  
24. cas - crucible qashyk - spoon  
25. baula - to tie  baula, bayla - to tie  
26. arid - lean aryk - thin  
27. beat - deseased Bits, bitti - to die  
28. carai! - really!(surprise) kalaj! - really! (surprise)  
29. casc - a head saq - a head  
30. catifa - carpet qatapa - a velvet, velveteen  
31. cert - real kerti - real  
32. coll - ravine, gorge qol - a ravine, gorge  
33. cos - glazok (techn,) kyoz - an eye  
34. Edil - Itil (r. Volga)(geogr) Edil - Itil (r. Volga)(geogr)  
35. git - a throw at- to throw  
36. yac - layer, bed jastyq - a pillow  
37. mal - evil malgqun - villain  
38. mallada - cattle pen mal - cattle  
39. mas - yard baz – yard  
40. moc - snot burun boq - snot  
41. moma - boar moma - forest monster (child)  
42. mur - wall murdor - base, foundation  
43. sa - healthy sau - healthy  
44. taca - land lot tagy - a ledge on a cliff  
45. tala - forest clearing tala - glade  
46. talar - to cut talar - to tear, destroy  
47. cara - sight, face qaram - sight  
48. cuc - worm qurt - a worm  
49. ell - he, she ol - he, she  
50. tac - to hang taq - to hang  
51. gent - people kent - settlement  
52. mirar - to aim mara - to aim  
53. hajar - booty haiyr - profit, aquisition  
54. suau - timid zuash - timid  
55. mora - brown mor - brown  
56. maco - decorative omak - decorative  
57. mel - honey bal - honey  
58. mora - blackberry marako - wild strawberry  
59. onze - eleven on bir - eleven  
60. pa - bread papu - bread (child)  
61. pas - step bas - step on  
62. per - together birge - together  
63. qui? - who? kim? - who?  
64. sabana - steppe saban - field, steppe  
65. sabo - soap sapyn - a soap  
66. capa - layer, shell qap - layer, shell  
67. fet - to do{make} et - to do{make}  
68. paga - payment, price bagqa - the price  
69. bata - apron, skirt bota - apron, skirt, comforter  
70. caganer - child qagqanaq - baby  
71. cagar - to damn qargqar - to damn  
72. caire - edge, end qyiyr - edge, end  
73. capoll - bud (plant) kapol - bud (plant).  
74. cessar - decrease, stop keser - cut off, stop  
75. cistell - basket küshtel - barrel, keg,  
76. ciri - a candle Alan  - Alan chiraq - candle, lamp  



Spanish Karachaevo - Balkar
1. abatanar - to felt, rumple batan - spooner
2. alcala - fortress, fort kala - fortress, city, tower
3. alcatifa - exquisite carpet katapa - velvet, velveteen
4. anda - then, later andan-then, later, then, there
5. andar - to walk, to step atlar - to walk
6. ansa - anyhow ansy - differently
7. ana - wet nurse ana - mother
8. azar - accident azal - fate, misfortune
9. bata - bathrobe al bota - apron
10. bata - child bala - child
11. bazo - brown boz - grey
12. bucle - curl Boucle - to turn off
13. caftan - coat (caftan) qaftal - coat (caftan)
14. caique - vessel qaiyk - boat
15. cari - sienna (brown) qara - black
16. casar - to connect qoshar - to connect
17. cascar - to split keser - to cut apart
18. caula - cunning khyila - cunning
19. cazo - scoop, ladle, spoon qaz - to dig, kashyq - spoon
20. cera - a candle tsiraq - candle, lamp
21. cesar - end, sease keser - cut off, sease
22. comer - bite kemir - gnaw
23. copia - multiplicity, abundance këp - many
24. cortar - to stop qoratyrgqa - to stop
25. ñuma - short machete qama - dagger
26. cura - cure qura - to correct
27. curar - to correct qurar - to correct
28. chagra - peasant, pauper chagar - serf
29. chicha - meat (child) chicha - meat (child)
30. china - porcelain chyn - porcelain
31. chis - to urinate (child) kis - to urinate (child)
32. chocar - to collide chokh - to butt
33. decir - to say, tell detsi - say, tell
34. durar - to preserve, hold turur - to stand, remain
35. el - he ol - he
36. ende - there, in that place anda - there, in that place
37. estacar - to tie tagqar - to tie
38. estar - to be tur - to stand, be
39. hablar - to speak hapar - story
40. hammam - bathhouse hamam - bathhouse
41. hila - thread

khaly - thread

42. hito - firm qaty - firm
43. hozar - to dig, excavate qazar - to dig, excavate
44. hura - burrow uru - burrow
45. jada - mattock chacha - mattock
46. jasar - to cut keser - to cut
47. mamau - scarecrow, monster mamaj - scarecrow, monster
48. mira - aim mara - to aim
49. mirar - to observe mara - to observe
50. meil - honey bal - honey
51. moco - snot burun bok - snot
52. muco - mould (fungus) mukut - mould (fungus)
53. nana - grandmother nyannya, ynna - grandmother
54. talar - to destroy talar - to destroy
55. ulular - to howl ulurga - to howl
56. abuelo - grandfather aba - grandfather
57. acido - sour atsi - sour
58. acopio - to increase këp - much
59. acortar - to shorten qoratyr - to reduce
60. alma - soul al - soul
61. ama - hostess of a house amma - the grandmother
62. kayak - kayak qaiyk - boat
63. cansar - to get tired qan - to be sated
64. capa - a layer, shell kap - a layer, shell
65. cara - face, sight karam - sight
66. cavar - to dig, excavate kazar - to dig, excavate
67. contra - to count canar - to count
68. cortar - to interrupt koratyr - to cease
69. haber - property habyr-chubur - junk
70. habil - handy hybyl - flabby, clumsy
71. hacer - to do, make hazyr - ready
72. huracan - hurricane urgqan jel - hurricane
73. hurra - hurrah ur - strike (imperative v.)
74. tala - clearing tala - glade
75. tentar - to palpate tintir - to test, untangle
76. mal - hateful, evil malgun - villain
77. mas - more mazally - large
78. mirar - to look mara - to aim
79. mugir - to moo müngür - to moo
80. olmo - elm elme - elm
81. paga - payment bagqa - price
82. paso - step bas - to step on, step
83. sabana - steppe saban - field, steppe



Portuguese Karachaevo - Balkarian
1. ainda - too entda - too
2. alma - soul al - soul
3. alta - increase alda - ahead
4. alias - apropos alese - if so, then
5. alugar - to take alyrga - to take
6. ama - nurse amma - grandmother
7. arder - to burn ërten - fire
8. artas - behind artda - behind
9. azar - failure, incident azal - bad fate
10. capa - raincoat, shell qap - shell
11. erguer - to lift ërge - higher
12. gago - stammerer qagqanaq - stammerer
13. gente - people kent - settlement
14. jugo - yoke, oppression jük - cargo, load; jügen - bridle
15. mel - honey bal - honey
16. mira - sight (rifle) mara - to aim
17. mugir - to moo müngür - to moo
18. murchar - to dry mulhar - mulch
19. muro - wall murdor - base, foundation
20. onde - where anda - there
21. onze - eleven on bir - eleven
22. pagar - to pay bagqa - price
23. passo - step, trace bas - step on
24. quem - who? kim - who?
25. suar - to get wet suu - water,
suulanyr - to get wet
26. suave - gentle zuash - gentle, timid
27. tentar - to test tintirge - to test, untangle
28. virar - to overturn burur - to overturn


Passing on to the geographic place names, here are some introductory points.

In places where the Turkic tribes live, the following terms have greatest distribution:

yurt (jurt, gurt, kurt), i.e native land, district, location, village, side;
kala (qala) i.e fortress, city;
jer (zer, yer) - land, district, place;
tau (tag, dag) - mountain;
kol (kul) - lake;
suu (su) - water, river;
el - country, village and some other (land).

The term “kala“ is even borrowed from Turkic language by some Romanian with a meaning “port“, but points with the name “kala“ are also met at a distance from the coast, therefore we show all similar toponyms. In addition to the geographical terms, as a rule in the toponymy are preserved ethnonyms. Also, into account should be taken the lower stability of the place-names, because any new power, aiming to perpetuate itself, starts with renaming villages and cities, and therefore to expect that Alans left strong traces on the map of the Pyrenees is too optimistic.

We investigated some maps, for separate provinces and for the entire Iberian peninsula, at scale 1:1,100,000 (1 cm - 11 kms) and 1:400,000 (1 cm - 4 km). Results:

I. Spain, Portugal, Andorra, the south of France

I. Spain, Portugal, Andorra, the south of France
1. Aibar  
2. Alan droa  
3. Alan ge  
4. Alan is  
5. Cala  
6. Cala ratjada  
7. Calaceite  
8. Calaf  
9. Calafell  
10. Calahonda  
11. Calahorra  
12. Calamocha  
13. Calan da  
14. Calan as  
15. Cala tanazor  
16. Calatayud  
17. CorbAlan  
18. Caracuel - karakël (lake)  
19. Carcabuey  
20. Carcaixent  
21. Carcassone  
22. Carcastillo  
23. Carcedo  
24. Carcelen  
25. Carcelejo  
26. Magaz - Maãàñ (city dweller Alan)  
27. Murat-sur-Vebre  
28. Murtas - burtas (etnonym)  

II. Catalania, Argon, Balearic islands
III. Andaluzia

II. Catalania, Argon, Balearic islands III. Andaluzia
1. Arba - arba (carriage) 1. Alanis
2. Arba de Biel 2. Calabazar
3. Balcarca - Balkar/Bulgar (etnonym) 3. Calabazares
4. Cala de Salionc 4. Carataunas - Karatau (Black/Western mountain)
5. Cala Montjoi 5. Turca
6. Calatorao 6. Urtg - yurt
7. Mara - Mara (village in Karachay)  
8. Ter (river) - Terk (river)  

The major cities of the region, Barcelona (Bars - Alan) and Marseilles (Bars - el - city of bars) (leopard is bars in Türkic. However, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marseille for history of the city. The Greek name Massalia dates from 600 BC (Thucydides Bk1,13), its etymology is unknown, but the resemblance with the Türkic term seems to be accidental - Translator's Note) should be attributed to the same group. The leopard was a totem for Alans, therefore its appearance in the toponyms is not accidental, and, in addition, the presence of the term “bars“ confirms the Türkic linguality of the Alans, as this is a prime Türkic word.

In the work “Alans in the Western Europe“, V.B.Kovalevskaya gives a list of several hundred toponyms which evidence the presence of the Alano-Sarmatians in the Western Europe. The term “court“ has a special significance, as the most widespread: “in respect to the word “court, courtiers“, which Varron identified as a shelter for cattle, it is interesting that it (caert, courtis, court) is Irano-Germano-Italo-Caucasian isogloss, equally clear for the Iranian-lingual Alans, German and Roman (Krt - a yard in Ossetic, Kert with the same meaning is in Nakho-Dagestanian, Kartvelian and Armenian languages). In the toponymy of France, J. Johnson collected 183 toponyms with 'court' “ (p. 55). The nations, certainly, have a right to call their land a catlleyard, especially cattle breeding people, as the Alans. But we in the word “court“ see a common Türkic term “kurt“ (kort, gurd, jurt, Türksürt) in the meaning “native land, motherland, province, side, place, location“, which more corresponds semantically. So all 183 toponyms with the word “court“ we dare to ascribe to the Türks. Something similar happened with the Türkic word “sarai“ - “palace“, in the Russian language it was diminutively transformed into a dwelling for cattle. Now some dumb people think that in the capital of the Golden Horde lived domestic animals.

The Kovalevskaya's list is interesting by that there are two-component words, one part of which is ethnonym (Alan, As, Sarmat), and the other is a transparent Türkic word. Here is the list in the author's order.

31. Alan je (Alan-yer)
32. Alan iers (Alan-yer)
44. Alahan (Alan-khan)
59. Elemcurt (elim-kurt)
74. Allenjoie (Alan-yol)
87. Allonzier (Alan-zer)
90. Ambazac (em-bazyq)
113. Assier (As-yer)
118. Aubazac (em-bazyq)
167. Dangaul (dan-kël)
168. Dangeul
203. Fargniers (fargn-yer)
210. Gohiere (goh-yer)
212. Gouyre (gou-yer)
256. Osselle (os-el)
322. Sermelle (sarm-el)
323. Sermelle (sarm-el)

Something wrong is happening with toponyms in Ossetia: “For France and Northern Italy we mapped more than 70 Alanian ethnotoponyms (out of the list of 90 names), which is a strikingly great number, while, for example, in the Northern Ossetia in the Caucasus, where Alano-Oses live until present, there is only one toponym containing the ethnonym “Alan“ in its root (58). And even that only toponym, Alanboz, has a transparent Türkic ring, but Kovalevskaya does not despair and continues branding Alans an Iranian-lingual.


Today tens of the Türkic nations live in Eurasia, many of which have their own states and, accordingly, their Academies of Sciences, which makes possible a detailed study of the history within their framework. This task is one of essential objective for the Türkic people, because the link between the ancient and present Türkic people in the modern history practically had not been addressed. The situation gets to a ridiculous state: nobody dares to claim the inheritance of the Scythians, Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Huns, Alans, Khazars, Avars, Kipchaks, Besenyos, as though these peoples did not leave any descendants. In these conditions, there certainly are seekers of a glorified history. And then the Scythians become the ancestors of the Slavs, Sarmato-Alans become the ancestors of the Ossetes, Bulgars become the ancestors of the Chuvashes, and the Türkic descendants begin helping the impostors (two Balkar scientists wrote books about Alano-Ossets).

The great scholars tell us that in the whole human history on the Earth only few civilizations existed, they can be counted on fingers, but the Türkic civilization is not listed among them, even though its traces stretch from North Africa to Japan and further on to America, next to it the Greek-Roman civilization looks like a dwarf. Even the most ancient civilizations of the world (in the official version) like Sumer, Ancient Egypt, China, and India during various periods experienced the influence of the northern nomads, is not this the reason why their languages abound with Türkisms (somebody could see that as blasphemy, but the Türkisms are in Latin, and in the Ancient Greek, and in Hebrew, and in Avesta, and in Sanskrit, and in the languages of the American Indians). Such wide spread of the Türkic elements proves the existence of once united Turanian state (does it?), that is also demonstrated by the affinity of the modern Türkic peoples: the Balkars easily understands the Kirgiz, and a Crymchak understands an Altaian, though they are separated by thousands of kilometers.

The modern academic history managed to accomplish what could not have been achieved by the greatest powers of the past: to destroy the Türkic civilization. But, to our luck, there is also a non-official history, where not professionals, but simple loving people are restoring the building of history one brick at a time. That work is not easy. Just remember the book of Oljas Sulemenov “AS and Me“ (“ASIA“ in Russian - Translator's Note), which caused an inflamed indignation of the Soviet academicians when a real Türkic history was only slightly unfolded for them.

In Russian
Contents Türkic languages
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Codex of Inscriptions-Euro Asiatic-Don
Alanian Etymology Notes
Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
©TurkicWorld 5/28/08