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Abaev's Table of Contents Abaev's Scythian language Abaev's Scythian Word List Real Scythian Word List Abaev's Zelenchuk Inscription

Scythian Vocabulary in the Sources

A. Chay Posting Introduction

Not that we did not have a clue about the Scythian language, and Messsers Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev came to an empty land. Quite the opposite, a thousand year-long chain of statements originating with the geographers, historians, interpreters of the state diplomatic corps, traders, and eyewitnesses from every walk of life persistently stated that the new arrivals during Late Antique and Early Middle Age periods, i.e. the Huns, Bulgars, Avars, Khazars, and Türks, and the Badjanaks and  Kumans during the Middle Ages, were Scythians. Herodotus, and few other Classical writers brought to us few genuine words with translations, in due course they were found and analyzed. The Assyrian Cuneiform tablets were deciphered, and in 1870 a listing of the Scythian genuine words from the time of the Assyrian empire was published, a good quarter century before the philological equilibristic of Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev had begun.

The following citation of the 14 Scythian words from the work of A. Chay, who in 2002 republished the A.D. Mordtmann list of the Scythian words found in the Assyrian tablets is mirrored below, with a known English translation, and juxtaposed against readily accessible Turkish translation. The Turkish translation belongs to the Oguz branch of the Türkic language, separated from the Scythian originals by a time of 27 centuries and space of half Eurasia, and still the proximity of the modern Oguz and Classical Scythian is readily apparent. In the Oguz Türkic, only two words out of 14 on the list were replaced with unrelated roots. That apparency should have been known to Messsers Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev before they embarked on rewriting the history, and leave little room for sparing their good faith from questioning. For a scholarly analysis, a comparative philological data base would increase manifold, assembling cognates from both Ogur and Oguz branches, and the ancient forms that may not be in use any more, possibly allowing sufficient resolution to provide meaningful classification for the Scythian lexicon recorded by Assyrians, and expand the known lexical body by the later Near Eastern discoveries. It should also be noted that the nearest to the Assyrians, the Ishguza/Ashguza Scythians  populated Sakasena, called in today's literature “Scythian Kingdom”, the Azeri land in the today's Azerbaijan in the South Caucasia, etymologized as Sak + As + -an, i.e. the land of Saka Ases. That the Azeri land was a cradle of the Azeri language was noted by the Arabic traveler Ibn Hawkal (travelled 943-969, written in 977), who recorded that the Azeri language was a lingua franca in the Caucasus centuries before the Mongol invasion ostensibly brought the Türkic languages to the Caucasus. The modern city myth, composed by Russian colonizers, and embraced by modern Iranian officialdom, does not hold the water, and because it disfigures their own history, is counterproductive to their own objectives.

The Scytho-Türkic comparison of the words with known translations is a child's play, they are immediately and profoundly apparent, but the onomasticon is no less telling, with a caveat that the modern European names taken as the only source would lead the like-minded linguists to a conclusion that initially the whole of the Europe spoke Hebrew. Many names are readily apparent, like the Papai for grandfather, Ani for mother, and Ata for father. The others, interpretation of which is a wild geese chase, in the Scytho-Iranian concoction were assembled with a span of the “IE” lexicon ranging from the Ossetic to Indian to Baltic to Celtic to whatever language happened to carry an IE label, with zero etymological depth and a willful neglect of other factors. In contrast, the suggested Türkic speculations are exclusively from the Türkic lexis, without turning to other “Uralo-Altaic” or Altaic languages like Korean, Fennic, or Japanese, and in numerous cases even that limitation suggests a choice of allophones. Expanding the choice to every imaginable “Uralo-Altaic” or Altaic language would create the same insane situation that took place with the Scytho-Iranian case, when every random word has somewhere a random isogloss. With such loose selection criteria, it would be a miracle not to find matches for any word of the onomasticon.

In his work, G.Dremov came to an extraordinary conclusion that after a hundred and fifty years of quasi-scientific work, no "learned Scythologist"-linguist bothered to compose (or publish) a list of the Scythian words: "As is seen, none of the above dictionaries containing remains of the Scythian language (V.I. Abaev, L. Zgusta, K.T. Vitchak, V.P. Petrov - ed.) does not satisfy the credibility and completeness criteria set forth above. Strange as it seems, the modern science of the Scythian language still has not developed a full and credible, agreed upon list of preserved traces of the Scythian language. As a first approach to solving the problem below is a list of 189 words, the origin of which can be unequivocally associated with the culture of the European Scythians in the Northern Pontic region of the 8th–3rd cc. BC. The bulk of this list is the lexicon drawn from the Scythian records of Herodotus. This list deliberately does not include the Saka, Massagetan, Sarmatian, or the Alan words. However, the list contains a few Cimmerian names, included on the grounds that the Cimmerians in the pre-Scythian age was essentially called the same autochthonous (Sic!-ed.) population of the North Pontic steppes, which later became known under a generalized name of the Scythians. The list includes the names of the Scythian epigraphical monuments of the Northern Pontic region, namely those which, on the one hand, have a transparent "Iranian" etymology confirmed by reputable linguists (i.e. the sampling is contaminated by tendencious selection - ed.), and on the other hand, belong to the Scythian period, i.e. were found on the stones of no later than the mid-3rd c. BC." But despite tendentious and untidy contamination, the G.Dremov's catalog provides the picture that was intentionally ignored by the other "scientists" (http://annales.info/skif/small/onomast.htm).

Since Goths are numerously identified by the Classical writers as Scythians, the list should be complemented by Gothic lexicon with attested translations, yet to be compiled. Ditto the Persian and Indian sources. On a glimpse of Chinese, see Sanping Chen Zhou Theophoric Names.

The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are highlighted in blue font, shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes.

Assyrian Cuneiform Documents
A. Chay
Scythians//The Turks

Ankara, 2002, p. 155, ISBN 975-6782-55-2, 975-6782-56-0, ©
Cuneiform records from the Sus area
Scythian Turkish English Scythian Turkish English Scythian Turkish English
anira tamir repair (v) irchigi choğal increase (v) vita -- opposite (adj)
arta oturush seat (v) kutta kat add (v) vurun vurush beat (v)
daldu doldur fill (v) chagri -- offspring
gik gök sky val yol road

Ref. A.D. Mordtmann, “Über die Keilinschriften zweiter Gattung”, ZDMG XXIV, 1870, p. 50

Authentic Scythian words translated in Greek sources, compared only with the Turkish branch of the Türkic linguistic family

Scythian Translation
to English
Türkic Türkic translation
to English
Comment Source
oior (eor) man er man from compound Oiorpata Herodotus IV 110
pata kill bat beat, kill from compound Oiorpata Herodotus IV 110
arim 1 (of 2) arym half from compound Arimaspoi(eis) Herodotus IV 27
spu eye spu eye from compound Arimaspoi(eis) Herodotus IV 27
enar(e) castrated enar notched, i.e. gelded, emasculated from Grecicized Enareis Herodotus I 105, IV 67
cannabis hemp kenevir hemp   Herodotus IV 74
Api pra-mother api mama   Herodotus IV 59
Arar river aryk stream   Herodotus IV 48
Arax river aryk stream   Herodotus I 202
Asxi fruit juice akhsha dish also transcribed Aschi Herodotus IV 23
Ata father ata father from coin legend Atail(s)  
Il country il country from coin legend Atail(s)  
Iyrk nomad iyrk nomad from Iyrkae "nomadic Scythians" Herodotus IV.22
Herros (sacred) land yer earth, land   Herodotus IV 53, 56, 71
ippa mare (horse) yabu horse ippaka = mare's milk  
Daix river yayıq gushing (river) modern Yaik (Yayik) Ptolemy 6.14
spako dog köpek (kobak) dog from Ishpakai and Shpako  
Kroukas Snow Rockies Kyraukas Snow Rockies   Pliny 6.XIX
krou snow kyrau (kar) snow   Pliny 6.XIX
kas rock, cliff kas rocky mountain, cliff   Pliny 6.XIX, Herodotus 1.104
Kaukas White Rockies Kaukas White Rockies   Herodotus 1.104
kau white kau white   Herodotus 1.104

G.Dremin
SCYTHIAN VOCABULARY

Links

http://kladina.narod.ru/dremin/dremin.htm
george_d/at/bk.ru
Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase, Joseph Vogt Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, ISBN 3-11-007175-4 Page 701

Posting Introduction

Almost all words below are not fakes manipulated to link the Ossetian/Iranian and Scythian, they are real words extracted from the written statements of the Scythian contemporaries. There is little need to prove the obvious, that is precisely what the ancient historians, literati, and politicians were stating for centuries, that the Huns were Scythians, and then that all kinds of other Türks were Scythians. It is only natural that not only ethnological and cultural traits would be visibly traceable to the later kins, but that the linguistic traits would be traceable as easy as the horse tracks are distinct from cloven tracks. As a solid evidence of agglutination, this brief list has at least 12 agglutinated compound words. The situation is a humdinger for everyone who had more then a cursory acquaintance with the controversy, including those defenders of the maverick theory that are busy buttressing it, the donkey ears are sticking from all holes.

One observation is that the languages do not change that fast, in a span of, say, half a millennia turning into absolute dissimilarity. Most of the ancient Greek and Roman vocabulary that was incorporated into various European languages is still with us, undeformed and easily recognizable. All Iranian “cognates”, in contrast, are utterly deformed and totally unrecognizable. In contrast, the Türkic comparisons are apparent without mental strain and philological equilibristic. Unfortunately, this list of 145 words includes about a third that are likely unrelated to the Scythian language, and most importantly, it does not include the words outside the Greek horizon; the Indian sources that have a rich inheritance of literary monuments, and so do the Mesopotamian documents. V.Abaev chose to ignore most of the real Scythian words that inconvenienced him because they clipped his fantasy by having a real translation from the Scythian. They did not qualify for his criteria of selecting only those words that could be matched with any random roots from his selection of multitude hypothetical IE relatives.

 For a statistical assessment of a chance to find V.I.Abaev-type random “cognate” roots see Statistical Linguistics. Random Coincidences. With the semantical field methodologically set to infinity, the chances to find such a “cognate” root for every other root are better than 1 in any language, and finding random 2-3 roots would be, and actually had been in his case, a regular occurrence. That kind of linguistic equilibristic can be compared to a successful fishing in a fishery. Adding Afghan, Armenian, Georgian, German, Hungarian, Kabardin, Lithuanian, Mongolian, and Russian languages to the examined lexical base in his aquarium, Abaev should have had dozens of candidates for each root, a real trick was not to find a match. Not to duplicate Abaev's methods, in this posting the words that do not have any semantical hints are left without comments. For reasons other then philological, Abaev pointedly skipped Türkic and Nakh languages, the last evidently because 50% of the Ossetian is Nakh, and the Nakh people at that time were deported to internment in exile. In a science, however, a spoonful of crap does not spoil a barrel of honey, just the opposite, a spoonful of honey turns crap into gold, and the crap, as it should be, ends on the garbage heap of the history.

A little bit of statistics. Vs.Müller listed 425 names, of which 167 (39%) he proclaimed to be Iranian, and 258 (61%) non-Iranian. L.Zgusta listed 613 names, of which 286 (47%) he proclaimed to be Iranian, 75 (12%) possibly Iranian, 51 (8%) aboriginal, and 129 (21%) unexplainable. V.Abaev's exercise is more successful, since he did not list anything he could not link to Osseto-something. Given that the researchers did not even know if the words were agglunative of flexive, nor their semantical meanings, the results are superbly Scholastic.

Ancient writers and a historian:
App Appian - Roman historian before 170 AD
Ar Arrian - Greek historian before 175 AD
Hel Hellanikos - Greek Historian before 400 BC
Herodot Herodotus - Greek Historian before 425 BC
Hes Hesychius - Greek writer before 450 AD
Hesiod Hesiod - Greek writer 8th c. BC
Homer Homer - Greek writer before 8th c. BC
Kt Ctesias - Greek historian before 380 BC
D.S. Dio Cassius - historian before 229 AD
Ior Jordan - Gothic historian before 551 AD
Luc Lucian - Greek writer before 180 AD
Mal Malal - Greek historian before 578 AD
Ol Olympiodorus of Thebes after 380 AD
Ov Ovid - Roman poet before 18 AD
Per Anonymous Periplus ca. 50 AD
Pl Pliny - Roman. writer before 70 AD
Pol Polien - Greek historian 2nd c. AD
P.C. Procopius Cesarean before 553 AD
Pt Ptolemy - Greek scientist before 168 AD
Steph Stephen the Byzantine 6th c. AD
Str Strabo - Greek Historian before 24 AD
Cer Tsereteli - Soviet linguist

Any comments (in blue italics) below should be taken with a good dosage of salt, in no degree they are scholarly, and the scholars that use diacritics to express a depth of their research usually dismiss similar material as amateurish or folk etymology. Tr. stands for Türkic, Gr. for Greek, etc. The “Ancient” vs. “Modern” applications of the words are not noted, all languages change with time without losing their genera.

G.Dremin
SCYTHIAN VOCABULARY

Scythian lexicon according to written sources

Abaris - a name of Hyperborean (Scythian) sage. The ancient Greek poet Pindar (522-442 BC.) thought that Abaris was a Scythian who lived at the end of 7th - beginning of 6th century BC. The sophist Himerius (315-386 AD) also called Abaris a Scyth. Greek philosopher Heraclides of Pontus (388-310 BC) attributed to Abaris a number of theological works. In scholium to the Plato's “State” is a remark that “Pythagoras, among other things, was listening to Hyperborean Abaris and magician Zarate.” (Tr. Bars = bars, leopard, lion; a popular name that included Bulgarian, Russian, and British royalties, in addition to a plethora of Türkic personalities, most of them were scions of royal lines; the “a” appear to be a prosthetic vowel, but could stand for “ak” = Tr. white, noble, and the like; “a” is also a Tr. form indicating respect, borrowed from or loaned to the Chinese. We also have a Türkic tribe Kubar that joined Magyars in escape, their name may be synonymous with Abar: Kuu-Bar = White Bars; and a state Barsil = Land of Bars))
Latyshev V. Ancient writers about Scythia and Caucasus. VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 319; VDI, 1948, No 3, pp. 248, VDI, 1952, No 2, pp. 267; Kuklina I.V. Anacharsis. VDI, 1971, No 3, p. 113-125.

Avhatai (Αυχαται) - Scythian clan, which ascends to Lipoksai. M.I.Artamonov believed that Avhats is a self-name of the Scythians-tillers. (Tr. Avchu, hunter, a direct correspondence. In modern Balkar-Karachai mythology, Avshat, a patron of wild hunting and animals, which  Avshat tends as his own herd. It is a mythological and linguistic link between N.Pontic Scythians and N.Caucasus Bulgars/Balkars that survived for over 2,500 years. The notion that Bulgars were Scythians linger from first Greek accounts about Bulgars. Herodotus' alphabet did not have a letter for “ch” or “sh”, they were expressed by suitable substitutes. Herodotus' spelling with “υ” should be transcribed Auhatai, but for Türkic it is irrelevant, both dialectal versions exist. Pliny confirms the semantic of the name Avhat, with “v”, “able to throw lasso in circle and catch with loops the fartherest squads”, i.e. cowboy type ensnaring. Trapping has nothing to do with farming and a fate of hard labor; contrary to Artamonov, the yoke that fell from the sky was not a symbol of obeisance and hard work, it was a symbol of dominance, the same idea as a lasso, a bounding implement. V.Abaev conceded that the name Avhat is not Iranian, i.e he could not fancy any random permutation of letters to extract an Iranian resemblance. Turkic voi- and its Slavic form vyya = neck, and the Turkic verb "to subordinate" is expressed idiomatically with voi- = "bend neck, subdue neck", and hence the Slavic "âîèí, âîéíà, âîåâîäà/warrior, war, warlord" etc., and the yoke = collar as symbol of power. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, NY, Liberty, 2002, ISBN 0-9144881-61-4.)
Herodotus IV 6; M.I. Artamonov, History of the Scythians in Soviet science, VDI, 1947, No 3, p. 76. of the neck

Agar - a leader of the Scythians who led the Scythian army during the Battle of the Fat River on the Taman peninsula in 310 BC (Tr. Ak-er, White Man, with the same connotations of that was used by the Europeans in the beginning of the 20th c. and the prior 300 years, “upper race, nobility”. Linguistically and socially, this division into “blue blood” and “black bone” is still with us, we have “Bielorussians” and crowned monarchs).
Diodorus Siculus, XX, 22-24; Yu.A.Vinogradov. There Mithridates stabbed himself to death, p. 92; T. Rice. The Scythians, p. 216.

Αγαροι - Scythian tribe. Connected with the name of the Scythian king Agar (Tr. Ak-er, lit. “White Man” ~ “blue blood”; aga also stands for “senior, respected”; both terms may also be interchangeable, blue blood was respectable, and social esteem made the blood blue. This is not a verdict, dictionary and culture has multiple other possibilities, especially because the tribal name was often used as a title-name of a leader).
Appian, a Greek historian, ca. 100 - ca. 180 AD

Agathyrs - a son of legendary Hercules and snake-legged virgin - a daughter of the river Borysthenes (Dnieper). According to the Scythian legend from him descended Agathyrs (agglutination Agach-eri = Tr. agach + er = tree + man “forest people”, confirmed by Slavic calque for these people “Drevlyane” = “Forest people”. See Borysthenes ~ Dnieper).
Herodotus IV 9, 10.

Agathyrs - a name of the people kindred with the Scythians. “The northern part of Scythia up the Istr borders on Agathyrsi (agglutination Agach-eri = Tr. agach + er = tree + man “forest people”, confirmed by Slavic calque for these people “Drevlyane” = “forest people”, which also confirms at least a partial bi-linguality of the early Slavs. Nearly all “who is who” in philology accept Agach-eri = “forest people”. Agacheries is one of the primordial European Scythian tribes traceable to present time. A study of their dialect would uncover hints of their ancient language, ditto about their genetic make-up. Greek sources link Agacheries with the initial composition of the Khazars).
Herodotus IV 100, 104.

Aelis (Αιλιοσ, Ailios, ΠΞ + ΑΙ) - Kings of Scythia ca 180-150 BC, coins. (There must be a reason for distorting the names, at least one name is clearly visible, Αιλιοσ  Ailios, and pointedly not Aelis; with Greek ending -ios, the name is Ail, where in Tr. A stands for noble, il for country. “A” could be an accepted abbreviation indicating Ak, Ata ~ father, Ail as a summer court, or something along that line. ΠΞ is left unexplained. In monogram TK only T is visible, it coincides with the tamga Fig. 28/159 found in the estuary of Syrdarya, see S.Yatsenko. In case if we see a tamga on the coin, the basic element of the tamga I coincides  with the Kipchak basic tamga)

Ailios ca 180-150 BC - King of Scythia
 
  Obv. Jugate heads of the Dioskouroi in SAcythian bonnet hats
Rev.  Jugate horse heads, 7 monogram ΠΞ & 5 monogram ΑΙ
Rev. Jugate horse heads, TK (?) monogram below

Akinak - a short, iron Scythian sword. Most likely, the word has a Scythian origin. Thus, in Sogdian and Chorezm languages survived a word kynk - sword (Tr. kingirak, with silent ğ > kinirak, close enough, considering 3,000 years separating our languages. Kingirak is a term for a double-edged sword, dagger, knife, in the Middle Asia and South Siberia kinirak first appeared in the graves of the Tagar Culture, 700-100 BC, after Karasuks, 1200-700 BC, mastered iron production and alloys with arsenic and tin. Scythians brought along their kiniraks still during the Karasuk time, as depicted by the march of the kurgans from east to west. It would take a scholarly effort not to notice temporal, spatial, and linguistic evidence. Vaissière supposes that the Ephtilite name Khingila is a name of the sacred sword worshipped by the Eastern Huns, “kenglu” compared with Türkic qïŋïraq “double-blade knife”. This sword was worshipped among the Eastern Huns in the same way as the Scythians and the Huns of Attila worshipped swords. In modern Chinese pinyin, kenglu is phoneticized as Cheng-lu. Vaissière stipulates that Kenglu was also a name of the god of war among Eastern Huns and the Huns of Attila, so Ephthilite Khingila might have been a theophoric name; that, however, conflicts with the concept of Tengriism, which holds Tengri as Almighty, allowing spirits and alps, but not other gods. Vaissière 2003, 129.
F. Hirth calls the word kingirak, "a double-edged knife" among the weapons that King Wu 武 of the Zhou personally used to conquer the Shang, "the oldest Turkish word on record" ["Ancient history of China, to the end of the Chou dynasty", New York, 1908; reprint Freeport, New York, 1969, p. 67].  This claim is consistent with archeological findings that show striking similarity in bronze daggers found in China and west Siberia)
.

Fig. 6 Distribution histogram for all 14C dates for Scythian time monuments of 1st-3rd periods
(Note that the timescale stops at 100 AD, while the kurgans kept on going up until present
and in Europe e.g. Pereschepino kurgan 665 AD)

Akrosa (Akrosas) - Scythian king in Dobrudja. In the 2nd c. BC Akrosa minted coins with his name in the Tom and Odessa cities. (Dobrudja is the historical land of Seklers. Judging from a picture of a replica, the attribution of the coin to the nomadic Scythians or Sarmatians does not fit; there could be any number of alternate arrangements that would bring producers of grain under Scythian or Sarmatian title, but none of them would put them on horses and make them nomads. Though tentative Türkic names could be suggested, they would not be justified ethnologically. Greek, Illirian, Dacian, Thracian etc. would be a better attribution.)

Akrosandros 2 c. B.C.- King of Scythia

T.V.Blavatsky. VDI, 1948, No 1; Harmatta, Studies in the history and language of the Sarmatians, 1970, p. 22.

Alizons - people in Scythia. “They lead a Scythian way of life, but sow and eat corn, onion, garlic, lentils, and millet.” (Here we may have the endonym of the Timber Grave people. When the two flows of Timber Grave culture migrants have met in the 5-4th c. BC in the Chorasmia area, one from the N.Pontic or “Scythia”, and the other from the eastern, more Mongolised, Eurasian steppes, they had no problems establishing symbiosis, and proceeded to establish the Chorasmian civilization that lasted for a millennia, and survived centuries of the Persian assaults and colonization)
Herodotus IV 17, 52.

From Ancient Türkic glosses (Scythian words) in written works of ancient authors / / Proceedings of the 1st scientific and practical conference "Nomadic civilizations of Central and Northern Asian peoples: History, status, problems", Part 1, Kyzyl - Krasnoyarsk, 2008, - pp. 149 - 177

Alazones - according to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus (5th c. BC), so were called the Scythian tribes living near Black Sea west of the Dnieper River. The stem of the tribal names alaz, without Greek formative affixes -on and -es, is adapted, i.e., Hellenized form of the ethnonym Aladj, arising from occurring in various language phonetic substitution of obstruent affricate [dj] with a sibilant [z]. In Turkic languages the phoneme [dj] may sound like [dz], [j], [tş ~ ç] and [z], for example: djigit ~ jigit 'youth, agile', Bahıt-djan ~ Bahıtşän ~ Bahçän -. male proper name, djer ~ jer ~ dzer ~ zer 'earth'.

The word alaç ~ alaş is known among some Türkic peoples. For example, among the Kazakhs, it is an archaic synonym for self-name qazaq; in earlier times it was used by the Kazakhs and Nogais as nationwide battle cry. A preserved in folklore phrase altı alaş, lit. 'Six Alash tribes' is understood either as a community of six Türkic people, or as a union of Kazakh tribes. Various interpretations of this syntagma (there are 13 interpretations of this expression) indicates a great antiquity of its origin. Among the tribes that were part of the Oguz alliance, medieval authors mention Khalajes ~ Holadjes (Haladj ~ Halaç)of Jeti-su (an appearance in front of some words that begin with a vowel of a prosthetic element [h] is a characteristic phenomenon for some Türkic languages and dialects ). The Muslim writer Ibn Khaldun called the country lying north-east of Tashkent a Halij land. Over the centuries, separate groups of this ethnicity moved from Kazakhstan to the west, south and southwest. One of the largest Pashtun tribes - the Ghilzais (Ğildjiy ~ Haldjay) genetically ascends to Khalajes who were pasturing at the Gazni plateau. In 1290, the Khalaj Türks captured the Delhi city and established a new state in the northern India, the Delhi Sultanate. The descendants of a part of that tribe that migrated to the Central Iranian plateau, now constitute the Türkic-speaking ethnicity residing in 46 settlements south-west of Tehran.

The Alat tribe now lives in 6 countries as coherent ethnicities - Khalaj in Iran, Kalat in Khorasan, Pashtun in Afganistan, Ghalzae in India, Alat in Kazakhstan, and Alat and Alachin in Altai in Russia. In Chinese they were called E-lo-chji, and Boma for their "skewbald horses". Given that in Classical time they were known to Herodotus in the west and Chinese in the east, in the Antique time they were as dispersed as they are now. Some 6th c. BC Scythian kurgans in the Dnieper-Buh interfluvial may be attributed to the Alat Scythians. Alat òamgañ in Kazakhstan and China was (Kipchak-based) / (Kipchak-based) / (Kipchak-based) / (Dodurga) / (Kolpos) /   (Chinese records), showing exceptional consistency over 2 millennia.

Amadok (Αμαδοκοι) - Scythian tribe or clan. Amadoks as special Scythian tribe first of all mentioned Hellanicus, who located them between Dnieper and Seversky Donets. Although Herodotus does not mention Amadoks, their name was well known in ancient times. For example, the Hyperborean Amadok hero was honored at Delphi and with another Hyperborean, Hyperoh he was credited with saving the Delphi temple from an invasion of the Gauls (Galatians). In the 5th and 4th cc. BC in Thrace were kings with names Amadok I and Amadok II. Ptolemy in his book mentions an existence of Amadok city, located on the bank of the river Borysthenes (Dnieper), Amadok lake and Amadok mountains. Some researchers have faith that modern Kyiv is located on the site of the ancient city Amadok. Ptolemy placed Amadok mountains west of the Dnieper middle course (From the ethnological references and coins, most researchers suggest that Amadoks were a Thracian sedentary agricultural tribe, subordinated by the Scythians, and other than the grain tribute and like duties, ethnically unrelated to the nomadic Scythians. Possibly, Herodotus mentions Amadoks under a generic name of subjugated people - Budins).
Hellanik recited by Stephen the Byzantine; Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 1, p. 317.

Amurgion (Αμυργιον) - Scythian tribe or clan.
Hellanik recited by Stephen the Byzantine; Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 1, p. 317.

Anaksirida - Scythian-Saka clothing element. Herodotus reported that “the Sakas, or Scythians, also ware on their heads straight bonnet hats, wear anaksirids, have local bows, daggers and sagar axes (anaksirida sounds like a Greek or Persian word).
Herodotus VII 64.

Anacharsis (Αναχαρσις) - Scythian prince, son of Gnur (from a Greek concubine wife, thence his Greek name), a grandson of Lik, great grandson of Spargapith, brother of Savlius, uncle of Idanfirs. Born around 625 BC (614 BC?). He lived for a long time (from ca 20 to ca 50 years old) in Greece. He knew Solon. Greeks believed that Anacharsis was one of the seven sages. On his return to Scythia he was killed by his brother Savlius (for abandoning Scythian nomadic traditions and religion).
Herodotus IV 46, 76. Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 318.

Antakei - huge boneless fish of beluga (sturgeon, Acipenseridae) family. According to Herodotus Antakei were found in Borysthenes (Dnieper) (Tr. Bulgar name for Borysthenes was Buri-chai, undoubtedly of the same root, chai is river in Balkar, among other Türkic languages, like Kara-chai; in the Kipchak Bechen/Badjanak language, Bechens called Borysthenes Baroux (Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, “De Administrando Imperio”). Etymology: Buri/Baro/Böri = wolf, than = body of water, water space, river; than/tan is a borrowing into Persian language, as it does not appear in any other IE languages; Ossetian does not have than/tan, its closest cognate is a Türkic borrowing “tangiz” for lake; also, among present Altaian peoples “barisa” is a sacral location where spirits are worshipped and sacrifices made, which likely also ascends to Böri = wolf. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, NY, Liberty, 2002, ISBN 0-9144881-61-4, p. 192. The word “Antakei” is unlikely Scythian, it is suspiciously too close to the modern Greek expression άνευ κόκαλ = no bones. In classical Greece, the beluga area likely included Mediterranean, and the Greek skilled marines did not need steppe nomadic Scythians to teach them a new word for the marine life).
Herodotus VI 53.

From “De Administrando Imperio”, Bonae Impesis Ed. Weberi, 1860, Chapter 39, p.171:
http://rapidshare.com/index.html

Greek: Οτι ό των Πατζιναχιτών τόπος έν ω τω τοτε κοίρω καιρω κατωkησαν οί Τοϋρκοι, καλείται κατα την έπωνυμίαν των έκεΐοσ οητων ποταμών. οι δε ποταμοί είσιν οzτοι, ποταμός πρώτος ό καλουμενος Βαρουχ, ποταμός δευτερος ό καλουμενος Κουβον, ποταμός τρίτος ό καλουμενος Τρουλλος, ποταμος τέταρτος ό χαλουμενος Βρόυτος, ηοταμος πέμπτος ό καλουμενος Σέρετος.

Latin: Ceterum Patzinacitatum locus, quem tunc inhabitabant Turcae, a fluviis qui illic sunt cognominator; flumina autem isthaec sunt, primus fluvius Baruch appellatur, secundus Cubu, tertius Trullus, quartus Brutus, qnintus denique Seretus nuncupatur.

English: About the Patzinaks' place, which was inhabited by Turks, rivers are given these names, chief river called Baruch (Βαρουχ), the second river is called Cubon (Κουβον), the third river is called Troullos (Τρουλλος), the fourth river is called Brutus, at last the fifth river is called Seretos (Σέρετος).

Antir - Jordan called the Scythian king who fought with Darius. “Darius is a King of the Persians, a son of Hystaspes, he wished to marry the daughter of Antirus, a King of Goths (read Scythians).“
Jordan. Origin and deeds of the Goths.

Api - Goddess of the Scythian pantheon of gods. Herodotus identifies her with the Greek Gaia. Api name is directly associated with the Türkic “apai” - mother, mama (Api is a cognate of Tr. Ebi/Ebe, one giving birth, a precursor of Eve, and a perfect complement to biblical “adam” = Tr. man. A dialectal variation of Api would be Ami, via b/m alternation, which links it with exact match of the Scythian Api, the Tr. Tengrian deity Umai. The Greek analogue Gea is a primowomb, a grandmother of Zeus; so is Scythian Api and Türkic Umai (OTD 611). Umai cognates are “umai” = womb, “um” = stomach, “uma” = mama. Other Tr. cognates are “api/abi/aby/avy/apa/abba/aba/apai” = respectively mama/senior sister/mother's sister/father's senior sister/father's mother/appellation “madam“/husband's sister/woman. Semantically, Api is an apogee of motherhood and womanhood. For Iranian etymology, V.Abaev could not come up with any better than cite Uzbek and Tajik appellation “apa” = mother, senior sister, of all IE languages only the modern Tajiks adopted this ancient Türkic appellation Apa.).
Herodotus IV 59.

Arar - a river in Scythia, flows through the Scythian land, falls into a river Ister (Danube) (Tr. “aryk” - channel, stream. The list should have included the form Arax too, we have 2 major Araxes in the Scythian land, one Caucasian, and the other Uzboi, both flowing into Caspian).
Herodotus IV 48.

Arax - 2 major Arax rivers in the Scythian land, one Caucasian, and the other Amudarya channel Uzboi, both flowing into Caspian (Tr. “aryk” - channel, stream. The presence of two streams, both called Aryk in local Türkic language (Tokhar/Dahae, Masgut/Massaget), confused generations of scholars, even though Herodotus stated unequivocally that one of them in the east has only one channel, and that specifies Uzboi, because the other Arax flowing from the west has a developed delta with numerous channels. The translation of the Arax as “stream”  did not escape the modern scholars, since a third river north of the Masguts/Massagets, the Syrdarya, was also called by generic arax”.
Herodotus I 202 et al.

Arga - a name of a young Hyperborean woman (Scythian), who visited with her girlfriend Opis the temple of Apollo at Delos.
Herodotus IV 35..

Argimpasa - Goddess of the Scythian pantheon of gods. Herodotus identifies her with the Greek Aphrodite Urania. Association with “Arhyppeans” (agglutination of Tr. Arği (hence Eng. augur) = prophesy (OTD 220) + gim/gam = kam = priest + mas/pas/bash = head, i.e a head oracle, an exact match for Greek Aphrodite Urania, as relayed by Herodotus 4.67. The Iranian attempt requires a change of the name to Arti, and suggests no etymology for the remaining part; mythologically, Iranian Arti vs. Aphrodite is a conflicting mismatch, a Greek mythological counterpart of Arti is Tyche, or Roman Fortune; to link Arti with Argimpasa takes a double conjuration. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”).
Herodotus IV 59, 67.

Arhyppei - people akin to the Scythians (Morphologically resembles other Greek monikers Melanchlaen, Hyperborean, “hippo” is horse in Greek; but it could be a Grecicized version for a Scythian word for centaur, as agglutination of Tr. Ar + jaby/yabu/jupax = “man + horse”; the Greek “hippo” horse - is dialectal Türkic “yabu”).
Herodotus IV 23, 24.

Argot(es) - Scythian king. In the Scythian Naples was found an inscription: ”... of the mighty Argot, a ruler Scythia .... Argot in 170-150 BC was a husband of Bosporan Queen Kamassaria (The simplest etymology is from ar = man + got = tribe, but Ar also may be a proper name of the tribe, with the same semantical origin from “man”. Use of tribal names for title-names was a commonplace in Türkic title nomenclature: Sibir-khan, Masgut-khan, Urus-khan, Aiyar (Avar)-khan, and so on).
Yu.A.Vinogradov. There Mithridates stabbed himself to death. p.140.

Ares - god of war in the Scythian pantheon of gods. Only to him the Scythians installed sanctuary in the form of a sword embedded in a pile of firewood (Ar in Tr. is a “soldier, warrior, man”. Extension to a “god of war” from a memorial akin to “eternal flame” would not be too unexpected. But any Türkic etymology is nothing more then V.I.Abaev-type philological fantasy, because Ares is a Greek god, likely of Thracian origin, a son of Zeus, and an inhabitant of Olympus. Herodotus did not cite the Scythian name for the god. In Greek mythology Ares was a god of war, or rather of violence and destruction caused by war. Long before Herodotus, Ares was depicted as wild, unrestrained, and traitorous. All romantic myths about Ares are incongruent with the depiction of the Scythian god of war, using Herodotus' terminology. A better description in Tengriism would be an Alp, or a patron, instead of god, and not of destruction, but of military success, his symbol was a sword. The Scythian ceremonies described by Herodotus are nearly identical to those depicted for the Eastern and Western Huns of the following millennium. For the Western Huns, the name of the god of war was recorded as Kuar, the Chinese rendition was Ching Lu. The parallels described for god Gor in Egyptian mythology, Sumerian Ishkur, Persian Gurchesh, Roman Mars, all point to cultural borrowings, even though the Sumerian Ishkur was recorded as early as 26th c. BC. The Türkic god is reconstructed as Kur, in Chinese transcription Ching Lu; Kur falls into the same phonetical group as Gor, Ishkur, and Gurchesh. It may be too presumptuous to suggest that Türkic Kur was a model for the following gods of war, but in Sumer the word “kur“means “foreign hostile country”, hinting on invaders. The Türkic proper name Kur/Chur indicates a military leader, with slight dialectal variations it was widely spread geographically and temporally, first mentioned for the leaders, and later as a widespread name. Among Türkic names and titles are Gur-Khan, Gur as part of tribal names, Gurchi and Kuarchi for royal bodyguards for Chingizids and Safavids, Charik for Khan's guard regiment, Jenichars for Ottoman swordsmen, Gorgud and Korkut for prophets. The sources elaborate that “pile of firewood” is actually a kurgan, or a natural hill, on top of which is set up a platform, where a sword is mounted and ceremonies held. We have records describing the service ritual for Scythians, Eastern and Western Huns, and Caucasian Türks. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 233 on ).
Herodotus IV 59.

Ariant (Αριαντας) - leader of the Scythians, on his order was made a huge caldron with volume of 600 amphorae. The caldron was cast of bronze arrowheads, ostensibly in order to estimate the number of residents in Scythia (Scythian, Hunnic, Türkic caldrons are a trademark of Türkic nomadic military culture. Counting methods, where the troops supplied for war by subordinate tribes, on review pass one at a time and leave some object for counting, stayed in the nomadic cavalry to the Middle Ages).
Herodotus IV 81.

Ariapeith (Αριαπειθης) - Scythian king, ruled the Scythians of the Dnieper and Bug region from 490 to 470 BC. Possibly was a son or grandson of Idanthyrs. The eldest son of Ariapeith, Skill, was born from an Ister (Danube) wife. Ariapeith fought with Theres I, a king of Thrace, and then married his daughter and had from her a son Oktomasad. His third son Auric was from a Scythian Opia. He was killed at forty years old in 470 BC from the hand of Spargapith, a King of Agathyrs.
Herodotus IV 76, 78.

Arima - means one at Scythians. So Herodotus interprets the name of Arimaspas (Actually, “arym, yarım, yarı” is not one, it is a half of a pair. The semasiology of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages usually names paired parts with nouns in singular form, like “eye” also stands for “eyes”, “leg” also stands for “two legs”, etc. These languages add a definition to express “one of a couple” , hence lit. arym-spu/sepi = half-eye = “one eye”  Arimaspu is not “One Eyed”, but “Half Eyed”, and taken literally in Greek it is expressed as “One Half of Two Eyed” or “One Eyed”. Actually, Arimaspu means “Squinted Eyed”, and has corresponding semantical ridicule in any language in contact with squinted-eyed Mongoloids. The other part in Arimaspa is “spu/sepi”, a Tr. for eye. These three Scythian words, arym, spu, and arimaspu belong to the translated Scythian lexicon cited by Herodotus, they do not have a place in the Iranic family, and belong to the Türkic languages. Ref. M.Zakiev).
Herodotus IV 27; Latyshev, “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 1, p. 307.

Arimaz - Scythian leader, after whom was named Arimaz Fortress (Αριμαςου πετρα) in Sogdiana. Polien reports on the capture of this fortress by Alexander the Great (Strat., IV, 3, 29) and Strabo (Arrian, Anabasis., IV, 28, 4) (Another agglutinated compound with the “arym” - half, in this case “Half of Ases”, i.e. Ases, and a part of Ases' wing. Significantly, the prominence of Ases - Ch. Yuezhies in the Greek source predates their appearance in the Chinese annals by a century, and they already appear as a dynastic tribe. The Ases' dynastic achievements and ambitions survived into the 10th c. AD).
Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 80.

Arimoi - the name of the Cimmerian tribe is mentioned in Homer's epic (Αριμοισι). Strabo localize them in Lydia (Geogr. XII 8, 19). The Assyrian sources of the 13th century BC mentioned Arima, the later Urartian sources mentioned Arme (From the “arym” -  half, a wing of the whole, a superethnic appellative. In the Late Antique time, the appellatives for “wing” were also confused by external observers with ethnicity, take “Tolis” and “Tardush” - “eastern (left) half” and “western (right) half”. “Tolis” was confused with the Tele tribal union, Tardu was taken as proper name in Tardu-kagan, instead of a “Western Kagan”, Kutrigur was taken as an ethnonym instead of “Western Tribes” for a “Western Wing/Western Half”. The “halfs” in the Greek and Assyrian stories are surely different, belonging to different confederations. Significantly, the 13th c. BC division into “halfs” predates the next positively known division of the field army into wings among the Eastern Huns of the 3rd c. BC by a full millennia. Notably, though the three-partite division of the state existed in every Türkic state from gargantuan to miniscule in size, every age and every society came up with their own name for the wings. Like any other appellative on the list without any semantical content, any speculation remains just a speculation).
Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 46.

Arimaspoi (Αριμασποι) - Herodotus Geography placed Arimaspies (“one-eyed” in Herodotus) before Hyperboreans (“Super-Northerners” in Greek). Known from the works of Aristeas of Proconnesus “Arimaspeis.” Elnitsky links Arimaspoi of Herodotus with Arima of Assyrian sources (The significance of the appellation Arimaspoi is that it has a translation from the Scythian, and does not allow wild philological speculations. The word Arimaspoi is prominently absent from the Abaev's list of 358 “Scythian words”, not without a good reason. Arimaspoi is a Türkic compound, semantically and phonetically exactly as stated Herodotus, from the agglutination of “arym” - Tr. half + “spu/sepi” - Tr. eye; Arimaspu is “Half Eyed”, i.e. “Squinted Eyed”. English also has in addition to “squint-eyed”, derisive appellations “cockeyed”, and “cross-eyed”, and “skew-eyed”, and “wall-eyed”, and probably more. The suffix -poi stands for Tr. -bai, a popular suffix in Türkic tribal and personal names. Ref. M.Zakiev).
Herodotus IV 13, 14, 27; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 47.

Aristagoras - Scythian king or a king's messenger. In 495 BC negotiated with the Spartan king Cleomenes I about joint military operations against the Persians (Taken as agglutination Ar(is) + Tagor = Ar(is) + Tag + Or/Ar, this is a straightforward compound of Tr. Warrior + Mountaineer = Warrior + Mountain + Man. Tag in Tr. is “Mountain”, and is present in a number of appellatives: Tochar, Tagar, Taur/Tavr, Sary-Tau, Dagestan, and so on. A synonymous term for the “Mountaineer” is “qayači = qayachi”, with an element “Kai”, the term documented in the Uigur Tarim area. The dialectic division of Tag/Tau/Tav/Dag is well documented, the eastern languages have it as Tag/Dag, the western Türkic languages have it as Tau, and that division ascends to the first linguistic studies. From the spread of the “Taus/Tavs” in the earliest Greek sources, we can conclude that that was a predominant western Türkic ancient form. Significantly, the alternate form for the “Mountain” is “As”, a synonym common to all recorded Türkic languages, which makes Ases and Tochar not only synonymous appellations, but initially exonyms, applied by steppe peoples, like “mountaineer” , and “Pamirian”, and “Iberian”, and “Appalachian” are synonymous in respect to the mountainous location as viewed from the plains. However, H-M.Yiliuf gives an opposite etymology from the same semantical field, “As” = plain, probably from the Kazakh language, and derives Ases as “lowlanders”, apparently as seen from the highlands. Considering the antiquity of the term, first appearing in the 3rd c. BC, and before that in the 8th c. BC as Scythian = As-guzai, the initial etymology may reflect something beyond our vision).
Herodotus VI 84.

Arix (Αριχος) - this name is read on the cast obol and large dolphin coins, issued in Olbia in 460-425 BC. Alekseev Y.A. expressed an opinion on the identity of the names of Arix and Orix (Οριχος). Orix (Auric) was a son of a Scythian king Ariapyth and younger brother of Skil and Oktomasad. He could be a Scythian leader just in time to issue coins with the inscription Αριχος (names ascending to Tr. “Ar” = “Warrior” were and still are popular Türkic, and their neighboring people, names. The neighbors frequently do not suspect that their popular names are slightly distorted Türkic names, like Boris, Gaidar. The definition of Gorgoneion on the obverse of the coin is erroneous, qorqγu is participle “terrifying, inspiring fear”, from the verb qörq- “to fear”, hence the terrifying images of Meduza and Gorgons. The happy face on the reverse can't have anything to do with the fear-inspiring Gorgoneion).

BC460 Arix Obol from Olbia
obv. Gorgoneion
rev. wheel with four spokes; between spokes APIX (Lat. ARIX)

P.O. Karyshkovsky, MASP, No 4, 1962, pp. 222; Yu.G.Vinogradov. Barbarians in Prosopography of 6th-5th cc. BC Olbia / Demographic sutuation ...; Yu.A.Alekseev. Scythian kings and royal kurgans of the 5th-4th cc. BC, VDI, No 3, 1996.

Arpoksai (Αρποξαις) - middle son of Targitai, an ancestor of the Katiar clan and Traspies. According to M.I. Artamonova, Katiars were a part of Skolots (Royal Scythians). Another reading of the name Arpoksay - it Arp, Karp (hence the Carpathians). According to another version of the Scythian genealogical myth Arpoksai was called Agathyr. The clan of Arpoksai-Agathyr invaded Carpathians, where lived Katiars-Akatirs-Agathyrs. Another clan gave the line Traspi-Trucks-Thracians (Taken as agglutination Arpo + ksai = “arpa” is cognate of Tr. “arpalyk” = “possession of land” + aksoi = Ak +Soi = “Noble + Clan”, i.e. “Royal Clan of the Land”, “Dynastic Owner of Land”. Beats the V.Abaev's distorted and nonsensical “Posessor of Deep Waters”, and nearly as much nonsensical transformation of Arpo to apra.  The corroborating pointers indicate a religious content: agglutination of Arpok + sai = “arpok” is cognate of Tr. from Turkish to Uigur “arpağ, arbağ, erbağ” = “divination, incantation, spell, enchantment, witchcraft, sorcery” + Sai = “Clan”, i.e. “Priestly Caste”. The cognates of “arpok” spilled out to Finnic and Mongolian: “arpa” in Finnish is a divination tool, and in Mongolian “arbaqu” is to enchant. Arpoksai was an eponymic ancestor of Katiar farmers and Traspi priest tribes. Respectively, he received from the Sky a plow for Katiars and a chalice for Traspies. The plow-type agricultural tools in Türkic are derivatives from the root “kot, kat”, which is an apparent root for the Katiar tribal appellation. Another Türkic name for a plow is “aral”, which in Slavic transformed to “oral” with derivatives, and the root “ar” is a fitting component of the Katiar eponymic patron Arpoksai. For the Traspies, the range of the Türkic cognates is too wide to make a positive determination. Apparently, the best match has to do with a patron of water, “tur-suv/tur-sub/tur-sup”, whose symbol and tool is a vessel. In the historical period in the Türkic societies, including Huns, the supreme priestly duties were performed by a male head of the dynastic clan, while the internal affairs, including law and justice, belonged to the head of the maternal dynastic clan, who was also responsible for harvest and plentitude. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 210 on, 179 on).
Herodotus, VI 5, 6, M.I. Artamonov, VDI, 1947, No 3.

Arsakom- so is called a Scythian chief in a Lucian dialogue of “Toksarid or friendship”, he led the Scythian army in a battle with Bosporians, Sarmatians and Alans. Lucian also mentions fellows of Arsak, Lohant and Makent. Lucian could use the real names of the Scythian (agglutination Ar + Sak seems to be evident, “Saka Warrior”, identical to a number of Arsaks/Arsacs, all suitable for personal names and titles of the conquerors).
Lucian. Coll. of works in two volumes, Moscow, Leningrad, 1935, vol. 1.

(Assaioi) Ασσαιοι - tribal name. Stephen the Byzantine thought of them as Scythians, and Ptolemy as the Sarmatians. That name resonates with the term Σαιοι - Saioi mentioned in the decree in honor of Protogenes from Olbia (agglutination As + Sai seems to be evident, “As Clan”. Ases persisted in association with Scythians, Huns, Ashina Turks and beyond for millennia on).
Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1948, No 3, p. 312.

Asxi/Aschi - juice from the “Pontic” fruit tree. G.A.Stratanovsky (1972) in comments to the Herodotus “Histories” observes that the modern (Türkic) Bashkirs have a dish “akhsha” (This is not a Bashkir word, it is a common word for a variety of modern Türkic people). The word belongs to the people kindred with the Scythians (i.e. Bashkirs and their Türkic kins. The significance of  asxi/aschi is that it has a translation from the Scythian, and does not allow wild philological speculations. The word asxi/aschi is prominently absent from the Abaev's list of 358 “Scythian words”, not without a good reason. Etymology of asxi/aschi comes from ačï = acidy, fermented, turn sour, -chi is a property-forming suffix, in Russian dialect a soup schi).
Herodotus IV 23.

Ateus (Ατεας, Atheas) - Scythian king, who at the turn of the 4th-5th cc. BC created a strong Scythian kingdom in the lower Bug/Buh and lower Danube area. In 339 BC, at age 90, he was killed in a battle with Philip of Macedon (The name Ateus/Atei (Ατεας, Atheas) is a Greek distortion, manifestant of other distortions that historians and linguists take for academic-level spelling and even try to perfect by using all kinds of convoluted diacritics, like Áţĥėãš, akin to showing millimiter accuracy at a distance eyeballed at about 2 days of travel. We know how Atails - not Atheas - coined his name:

It says ATAILΣ, an obvious agglutination Ata + Il + Σ = Tr. “Father” + “Land, Country, Nation” + Greek affix “Σ”, a compound used over and over through the millennia, in all kinds of combinations that start with Ata or include Il, Ata-Türk and El-Terish Kagan are most familiar).
Plutarch, Strabo, O.N. Trubachev “On Sinds and their language“//Questions of linguistics, No 4, 1976.

Bookolabra (Βοοκολαβρα) - Scythian name explained by Theophylact Simocatta (ca 630) as “magus, the same as priest, clergy”. Türkic Böküler ~ “deep shit” is one of derisions for fortune-tellers
Theophylact Simocatta “The History” [Μ.Whitby 1986, p. 30]

Borysthenes - (addition to G.Dremin's list) a name vaguely assigned to a number of locations, including Hipanis-Buh, Dnieper, an island, an original name for city Olbia, and more. Dnieper is best known as Borysthenes from the later sources. For etymology, see Antakei. Herodotus' name should be read Borusthenes (Βορυσθένης) in the phonetics of the Herodotus' time, instead of modern phonetics.

Borysthenetai - (addition to G.Dremin's list) an original name for city Olbia. The name should be read Borusthenetai (Βορυσθένηται) in original phonetics. The presence of documented native name preceding the name ”Olbia (Ολβία Ποντική)” indicates that the location bore a Türkic name before the foundation of the Greek colony prior to the 5th century BC, when the colony was visited by Herodotus. The Türkic name corroborates archeological finds that demonstrate that the early Greek religion, especially the Orphic Mysteries, was heavily influenced by Central Asian ”shamanistic” practices, as the name ”Borysthen” = ”Worship River” implies in modern Altai languages. A large number of Orphic graffiti unearthed in Olbia testify that the colony was one major point of contact with aboriginal people.

Budin - people, akin to the Scythians. Boudin lived in the forest area of the lower Don region (“Budun” is a Tr. term for undistinguished human mass, akin to “tribes”, “folk”. The word may be a cognate of English “buddy”, short form “bud”, that came into the field of vision of the philologists only in the 16th c, descending from the indigenous Germanic languages.  In English it also connotes a layman fellow, or a mass of  layman fellows. The English word may be of Sarmatian origin).
Herodotus IV 108; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 45.

Butir - a sort of cream or sour cream from the Scythians. Striking similarity of Scythian Butir with German Butter - butter (Latin butyrum, Greek boutyron, lit. Greek “cow-cheese, the Scythian word was not borrowed . Butter was unknown in ancient Greece and Rome, Herodotus described it among the oddities of the Scythians. Apparently, Scythian staple food was not exported, the terms kumiss, airan, meat, sheep, mutton, soup, etc were not borrowed. But the cheese tyrum was named after Tyre nomads, the horse ippos was named from Tr. jaby/yabu/jupax).
Hippocrates, “Diseases” of publishing Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 298.

Caucasus - (addition to G.Dremin's list) mountains popular with Herodotus.  In Türkic kau/ku/kuu is "white", the second part of words Caucas and Kroukas is -kas, it means in Türkic ‘rock, rocky mountain’. This is not even an etymology, it is a modern Türkic daily speech.
Herodotus 1.104 on

Croucasis - (addition to G.Dremin's list) "Scythians... call Mount Caucasus Croucasis, which means 'white with snow'."  - Pliny 6.XIX. In Türkic kyrau is ‘frost, frozen dew, snow’, the second part of words Caucas and Kroukas is -kas, it means in Türkic ‘rock, rocky mountain’. This is not even an etymology, it is a modern Türkic daily speech.
Pliny 6.XIX

Gnur - a king of the Lower Bug and the Lower Dnieper region Scythians. He lived in the second half of the beginning of the 7th-6th centuries BC. He was a father of Anacharsis and Savlius.
Herodotus IV 76; Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 298.

Gelon - a son of the legendary Hercules and snake-legged virgin, a daughter of the river Borysthenes (Dnieper). He was an ancestor of the Gelon tribe (In the preceding short passage all three proper names are Türkic words. The whole sentence resembles a Russian speech, a blend of Türkic and some other. Gelon/Djilan/Jilan/Yilan is a snake, with initial consonant the word belongs to the Ogur branch; Hercules is agglutination of Tr. Ar + Kul + Gr. affix -es = Man/Warrior/Hero + Lake + -es, with initial H standing for aspiration; Kul is an epithet of power and authority, a component of many Türkic titles and names, its other semantical form is Tingiz/Dingez/Chingiz - Sea, so we have Kul-Erkin, and Kul Tegin, and Chingiz-Khan. The part Bory/Borys in Borysthenes is the same root as in the names of the European royalty, Boris, which is Türkic for Bear and Wolf. No wonder that advocates of the Scytho-Iranian hypothesis never even descend to address a Türkic etymology, save for immediate sinking. Like in the Russian language, you do not need to strain yourself too much, it is on the surface, your only tool to escape it is to claim utter linguistic ignorance and listen to the nationalistic propaganda of the state institutions.

Another interesting aspect of the term ”Gelon” links it with the Elamites, the aboriginal people of the Iranian plateau. The phonetic variations of the name ”Elam” are close enough to the phonetic variations of the ”Gelon” = Gelon/Djilan/Jilan/Yilan = snake; the frequency of noting the ”Gelons”, and the proximity of their locations to the Iranian plateau also link them with ”Elam”; the agglutinative  ”Elam” language and agglutinative Türkic languages belong to the same linguistic phyla, and at some remote point may have constituted a single vernacular;  and the Herodotus' reference to the ”Gelons” as half-Greek/half-Scythians only pertains to the name of the city, and should not be expanded to the Greeks or the Scythians proper. The Elam hypothesis obviously conflicts with the popular interpretation of the term  ”Gelon” = snake in Türkic, which can't either be proved nor disproved with the materials at hand, and may lead to a fruitful examination).
Herodotus IV 9, 10.

Gelon - wooden city of the Gelons. Burned by the Persians during the Darius campaign in Scythia. Gelon's remains found near a village Belsk (The city was populated by a good portion of Greeks, who developed a good Greco-Türkic vernacular, reported Herodotus. The remains of Gelon are impressive.

The mobile Scythians must have evacuated, and only poor Greeks were toasted by the noble Persian pedestrian adventurer. Gelons and Gelonias are in abundance in the Antique Era, they are known from their literate neighbors. In Mongolian language Gelonias became Kais, in Ch. they are known as Hi/Si, due to h/s alternation, Kais became a subject of the Eastern Hun state in 200 BC, and traced a long history, in the 7th c. AD they were heading the Kimek Kaganate, and in the 11th c. they became Kumans in Greek and Kuns in Hungarian, they played a major role in the 12th c. N.Pontic Kipchak confederation, in the Rus annals they are known under adjectives “Zmiev” - Snake's and “Cheshuev” - (fish) Scale among others. After a track record of over 1,600 years, their glory vanished after the Mongol conquest.

Historians and archeologists note a feature common to bedouin and nomadic conquerors, they do not jump in and turn into the city dwellers. The centers and villages of the nomadic conquerors remain separate from the aboriginal sedentary population, whatever was the name of the conquerors: Kushans, Türks, Arabs, Mongols, you name it. We can discern in the Belsk Gelon the traditions and life of the indigenous people prior to the Scythian conquest and Greek colonization, and the overlay of the nomadic culture, whose remains are mostly prominent in the surrounding kurgan cemeteries)
Herodotus IV 108; Scythian world, Kiev, 1975, p. 128.

Gelons - people living at the Herodotus time in the Budins' land. Gelons “engaged in farming, gardening and eat bread.” “Gelons were Greeks from long ago, they speak partly in Scythian, and partly in Hellenic.” (This is how we find out the ethnic name of the Budini folks, they were Gelons; and if Herodotus reports on the whole tribe, and not on the Greek peasantry, artisans, and traders who lived in the Gelon city, the Kai tribe in the Eastern Hun confederation originally descended from the Greeks)
Herodotus IV 108, 109, 120; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 45.

Goytosir - a god in the Scythian pantheon. Herodotus names the Scythian Goytosir as Apollo (Tos in Türkic is a generic spirit, like angel spirits in Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition; the Türkic deity Erlik is a tos, his full name in Tuvan is Erlik-tos, he belongs to a triumvirate of teses-spirits called Kyrbusta; semantically Appolo and Tos are identical. Tos-ir would denote a being (Spirit + Man). The noun adjective that defines Tos may carry one of, or a combination of the semantics like: Qoy-Tosir = Sun God, Qoychu-Tosir = Shepperd Deity, Qayit-Osir = Resurrecting Deity (Phoenix-type); Oy-Tosir = Deity of Thought. Since Greek Appolo was a multi-functional deity, the semantical variations of the Türkic etymology may be reflected in the spectrum of the Appolo's heavenly duties. The Iranian etymology suggests Iranian Gaiomart, who is semantical equivalent of Heracles, and not of Appolo, and needs philological analysis to cover the stretch to transit from the Gaiomart to Goytosir. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 277, 318 on).
Herodotus IV 59.

Herr - a river in Scythia. In areas near the river Herr located Scythian royal burial. Herodotus placed this in the Dnieper River, and Ptolemy - in the Sea of Azov (Semantically, Gerra is a heartland, where royal cemetery is located, from it would be derived Herr - river, and Herrs - tribe. (In Türkic, Yer is land, earth; English Earth, German Erde, from the Türkic root ”er,” which produced Germanic noun ”ertho,” and ultimately German ”erde,” Dutch ”aarde,” Danish and Swedish ”jord,” and English ”earth.” Related forms include Greek ”eraze,” meaning ”on the ground,” and Cimmeric-Welsh ”erw,” meaning ”field”, as opposed to the Indo-European Sansr. ”thira”, Lat. ”terra”. The Türko-German equivalent is perfect. The Persian equivalent is Zamin, Baluchi Mitti).
Herodotus IV 47.

Herros - place in Scythia, near present-day Nikopol (47.5°N 34.5°E), where the river Herr flows into the Dnieper (Bazavluk west of Nikopol, Tomak 47.6°N 34.6°E east of Nikopol. From their affixes, both names appear to be Türkic). In Gerros was hidden a main Scythian sanctuary, a royal necropolis (Herr seems to be a Türkic Yer = earth, land, a cognate of English “earth”, semantically suitable for “our land”. The flood of Kakhovka Reservoir on the Dnieper River raised water level by 6 m and may flooded the necropolis. However, Nikopol boasts a wealth of Scythian remains).
Herodotus IV 53, 56, 71, B.A.Rybakov; L.A.Elnitsky, Scythia of the Eurasian steppes, Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 116.

Herrs - a tribe that, according to Herodotus, lived in Scythia in the Gerros area. L.A.Elnitsky after Kissling believes that Herrs is a self-name of the royal Scythians (A tribal or a fraction of a tribe geographical name after its Herr location is semantically reasonable).
Herodotus IV 57, 71; L.A.Elnitsky, p. 116.

Gilea - locality in Scythia, near the estuary of the river Dniester, the modern Polesie (Forest area). Apparently, in Gilea was located one of the Scythian sacred centers. There, Heracles came to intimacy with the snake virgin. Anacharsis was killed there (Sounds like a Greek derivative or reflection of Gilan = Tr. snake. The Slavic mythology retained traces of apparent translations of the Türkic nomenclature connected with snake: Snake Island, Snake Ramparts. The Snake Island is identified with Euripides' White Island at the Danube estuary inside the Euxine Gulf).
Herodotus IV 9, 18, 19, 76.

Hypanis - a river in Scythia, modern Southern Bug river (It would be erroneous to ascribe all toponyms in Scythia to the Scythians. Any organized migration or military action starts with reconnaissance, when geography, topography, names of all pertinent markers and obstructions are defined, supply sources identified, routing options are compared, and location and strength of the opposition evaluated. For this reason, the Scythians knew beforehand the names of all major rivers and other obstructions. Most of the main toponyms preserved their names after occupation, and in most cases after multiple consecutive occupations. This phenomenon allows us to study the etymology of the toponyms, and make judgment on the linguistic affiliation of the long-gone populations. The etymological studies must be systemic, and first of all based on a knowledge of the potential underlying candidates and their languages, otherwise a study is a random wandering).
Herodotus IV 47.

Hipakiris - a river in Scythia, modern river Kolonchak.
Herodotus IV 47.

Hyrcani - (addition to G.Dremin's list) "Lying to the east of the Caspians... are the tribes of the... Hyrcani, from whose shores the Caspian beyond the river Sideris begins to be called the Hyreanian Sea" - Pliny 6.XIX.  In Türkic Iyrk is "nomad", hence the Greek/Persian "Iyrkae/Hyrcani" - "nomadic Scythians", and the area Hyrcania/Gircania.
Pliny 6.XIX

Hyreanian Sea - (addition to G.Dremin's list) "Lying to the east of the Caspians... are the tribes of the... Hyrcani, from whose shores the Caspian beyond the river Sideris begins to be called the Hyreanian Sea" - Pliny 6.XIX.  In Türkic Iyrk is "nomad", hence the Greek/Persian Hyreanian/Girkanian Sea
Pliny 6.XIX

Gorit - Scythian case for the bow and arrows (But unlikely a Scythian word, Greeks used bows long before Scythians, this must be a substrate word. Tr. kobur, kolchan (kolcan, kulcan), ok/yay durumda, taftui, tahtui, sadaq, saγadaq, saadak, sagadak, sagaidak, saidak).

Daix (Δαιχ) - (addition to G.Dremin's list) a name of a river Yaik, also known under a slew of spellings, Dzaik, Daicus, Daix, Diek, Geih, Taich, Jaec, Yayik, Jayiq. Herodotus' Daix indicates that that Türkic name was an accepted name in the 5th c. BC, when in the constructions of Iranists the N.Pontic and Middle Asia were a domain of the Iranian linguistic sphere. Tr. etymology: “yayıq” = “pouring, effusive (river)” < yay/jay “to spread”) The high flow velocity of the river made it way more dangerous and prominent then even larger, but much slower rivers, like Itil and Dnieper. Somehow, Yaik escaped attention of the Iranist linguists.).

Danapr (Δαναπρις) - river Dnieper. Perhaps this is because Scythians called the the river with that name. In ancient Iranian Δανα is a river (It looks that V.Abaev, and not Herodotus, carries the modern name of the river to the Iranian roots. Herodotus calls it with its Scythian name, Borysthenes, and does not give any alternatives with a pre-Scythian local name. Danapr could be a post-Scythian version, probably a Dacian name, since Rumanians, the descendents of the Dacians, have Indo-Iranian elements in their language, like the “ape” - water. Greeks use hydra for water, must be a carryover from their substrate language. I leave Danapr on the list to show Abaev's linguistical manipulations. One of the main objections to the philological exercises of Messsers Vs.Müller, V.Abaev, M.Vasmer, J.Harmatta, L.Zgusta, etc. is that the lists they were using were not Scythian, but predominantly of other ethnicities that populated Bosporan colonies at a later time, they are “” only by unsubstantiated and unprovable presumption, and the name Danapr is a good illustration of that, because it conflicts glaringly with the terminology of the Scythian contemporaries brought to us by numerous sources. Etymologically, a Slavic adaptation of a Tr. “ten” =  “large river” for the Danapr seems to be quite viable, possibly emerging after consequtive cycles of major population replacement with incompatible linguistic separators in between, like Scythians-Sarmatians => Goths => Huns-Bulgars => Slavs => Badjanaks-Oguzes-Kipchaks => Slavs).
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 312.

Δαναστρις - Dniester River. Supposedly comes from Δανα (river) + ιστρ (Istres) (Another Abaev's falsification not connected with Scythians. Herodotus' Dniester was Tyrus, after a Scythian tribe. And once again, ”dan” is not a river in Iranian, the root ”dan” was adopted during a fishing expedition, from obscure reference incompatible with such basic term as ”river”. No river in the Indo-Iranian-speaking area carries a name ”Dan”, while in Türkic “ten” =  “large river” generically. In Ossetic, ”don” is a form of a Türkic word, probably adjusted for the Nakh phonetics, just like ”tengiz” = ”lake, sea”.)
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 312.

Δανουβιος - Danube (Another Abaev's falsification not connected with Scythians. Ascends to the same common Türkic word “ten” =  “large river”. In contrast, the Persian is darya, sudkhane, Baluchi dira, Hindi nedi, Panjabi nedi, derya, Tajik dar, and so on. In respect to the IE Asian form dar/dir/der, in Türkic the root “ar” has derivative etymologies connected with the semantics “water, moisture”. In Türkic, the root “ar” connected with liquid comes in forms of all flavors and incarnations, from a vessel to proper names: ar (water), aran, arak, aral (Aral), arashan, arat etmək, arazi, arbuz, argasun, argaj, arği, arik, arinti, arp, arqu, arsa, artysh (Irtysh), aryk, aryan (airan), arx-arik, arxach, örez, ərimak, and so on. Both terms, the IE “dar” and Türkic “ar”, are confined to the Eurasian steppes and its fringes, and appear to be variations of the same original word, separated by precipitous ar > aq = aqua and ar > ap = ape from other linguistic branches).
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 312.

Ditulas (Διτυλας) - in one of the Aristophanes comedies under that name is shown a Scythian policeman (σκυθαι τοξοται).
Aristophanes (ca. 446 – ca. 386 BC), Ran., 608.

Dugdamme (Dugdamme, Tugdamme) - leader of the Cimmerians who led them in the Asia Minor conquest campaigns, a father of Sandaksart. Mentioned in Assyrian sources as the king of the Saka-Ugutum tribe (Quti/Kiti ? Oguzes? Utes/Udes/Uses? Pliny calls the Caucasian Udes “Scythians”, implying nomadic lifestyle, horse husbandry, and life in yurts and wagons). Elnitsky L.A. finds a Cimmerian kinship with the Caspian Sakas. The name is Cimmerian, however, a connection with the Scythians is not excluded (While the Scythians per Herodotus came from the depths of Asia, the Cimmerians appear to be of the N.Pontic provenance. Considering that both the Cimmerians and Scythians belonged to the Kurgan Culture, and that the Scythian kurgans were proved to originate in the Altai area, see A.Alekseev et al ”14C”, the Cimmerians belonged to the Timber Grave Kurgan people of the N.Pontic. Later, the 8th c. BC encounter of the Scythians with Cimmerians was repeated in the 5-4th c. BC around the Aral Sea, when the two branches of the Timber Grave Kurgan people rejoined to establish the Horezm civilization, see L.T. Yablonsky ”Ancient Chorasmia”. Unlike the events of the  8th c. BC, the Aral encounter ended in co-habitation and symbiosis. In both cases, the N.Pontic descendents of Timber Grave people encountered the Timber Grave descendents from the eastern Middle Asia or western Central Asia steppes. In the 8th c. BC, their cultures were practically identical, archeologically undistinguishable, see A.Ivanchik (2001) ”Cimmerians and Scythians”. In the 5-4th c. BC their versions of the Kurgan culture still appear to be clearly related, save for differing imports, but the eastern branch genetically carried along a heritage of the eastern Mongoloidness admixture, which could be imperceptible to both sides at the time, but is clearly distinguished by the modern physical anthropologists, and reflected in the art of Bosporus monuments and in the art trophies of the Solokha kurgan. The IE theory of Gimbutas, or any modifications of that theory can withstand, or explain away, the evidence presented by the facts on the ground).
Strab., Geogr., I, 3, 12; Elnitsky L.A., Ibid, p. 26.

Evtimahos (Ευτιμαχος) - the name of an archer on a black-figure François crater, produced in 570 BC by an Attic master Ergotim and painted by Clyties.
M.V.Skrzhinskaya. Heroes of Cimmerian and Scythian legends, VDI, 1986, No 4, p. 84.

Zarina (Ζαρινα) - queen of the Scythians, Sakas (ca 400 BC) (Scythians, like the Huns, Usuns, Türks, Arabs, Mongols, etc. married local nobility to establish kinship relations. Zarina sounds like a Baltic name, the Balts are historically attested to occupy forest belt of N.Pontic and Balkans. Zarina is akin to Lithuanian jariya, pl. jaryyos “hot coals”, etc.; Prussian sari “heat”; Lithuanian jara “dawn”, jereti, jeriu “flash, shine”, jeruoti “smolder, glow”, jirstu, jirti “sparking” rajaras “gleam of dawn - Vasmer. Zarina was one of the queens, but surely not the queen, which could only come from a Scythian conjugal dynastic line).
Ctesias (ca 400 BC).

Igdampayis (Ιγδαμπαιης) - a name on a black-figure kilik 480's BC from Olbia. Yu.G.Vinogradov draws attention to the closeness of this name with the Scythian toponym Ezampaios (Εξαμπαιος) (Herodotus, IV, 59).
V.P.Yaylenko, KSIA, 159, 1979, pp. 57; Yu.G.Vinogradov. Barbarians in Prosopography of 6th-5th cc. BC Olbia / Demographic situation ...

Idantemis (Ιδανθεμις) - the name from the inscription on a flask of the first half of 6th c. BC from Berezan. The entire inscription reads: “To Idantemis debaucher this cannikin as a gift.“
Yu.G.Vinogradov. Barbarians in Prosopography of 6th-5th cc. BC Olbia / / The demographic situation in the Black Sea during the Great Greek colonization. Tbilisi, 1981.

Idanthirsos (Ιδανθιρσος) - Scythian king who led fight in 514 BC against the Persians. With Skopasis and Toksakis he led a joined army of the Scythians, Sauromatians, Boudins and Gelons. A grandson of the king Gnur, a son of Savlius, a nephew of Anacharsis.
Herodotus IV 76, 120, 126, 127, Justin (Junianus Justinus, 2nd century AD), Epitome of Pompey Trogus works (1st century BC), II, 4, 8 VDI publication, 1954, No 2.

Ishpakai (Išpakai) - leader of the Scythians in their campaigns in Asia. Known from the Assyrian sources. According to Elnitsky a sister of Ishpakai, Shpako, became a wife of the Cimmerian king Teushpa (Teispa). The names of Ishpakai and Shpako come from the Scythian. špaka - dog (Tr. Ishpakai = Ish/Ash + pak + ai = As (tribe) + prince (bek) + personal suffix of respect -ai. The names of Ishpakai and Shpako are homophonous with špaka = dog. In Tr. dog = kopek, somewhat close, especially considering the h/s alternation. s > h > k, which apparently preceded the 7th c. BC), but Vasmer deduces it from the Avestan “aspa” - horse (There are 3 problems with Vasmer manipulation, if a change of a letter is OK, then Shpako = špaka = dog = kopek is OK too; the part Ish stands for Ases, as in Ish-guza, so s and p clearly belong to different roots, Ishpakai is a head of Ishguzai, this mistake is symptomatic for the philologists who blindly apply IE flexive structure to the words belonging to non-IE agglutinative languages; and if the use of animals in the names is ethnologically very Türkic, and patently not a Persian custom, why look for it in the Persian lexicon and not in Türkic lexicon. In Iranian etymologies, aspa = horse serves as a magic wand, when nothing helps, wave the wand. Vasmer is gambling off his credibility).
Herodotus I 110; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, pp. 25, with reference to Konig F.W. Alteste Geschichte der Meder und Perser .- der Alter Orient, Leipzig, 1934, Bd. 33, H. 314, S. 31.

Kanita, Kanites (Κανιτα) (Kani, Ape)- Scythian king whose lands were in Dobrudja, beyond the Danube. At the end of the 3rd - beginning of the 2nd c. BC minted coins with his name in the Tom and Odessus (Dobrudja is a historical land of Seklers. Türkic roots with ”khan/kan/kağan/kagan/qan” abound in royal titles, and foreign distortions magnify their prominence: Shanuy, Chanuy, Kanishka are the most obvious.  The insignia of Thracian principality with non-Scythian secular, religious and agricultural symbology points to autonomous sedentary Thracian mints striking in the name of suzerain).

Kanites” BASI KANI, APH(?) ca 100 BC King of Scythia
   
  Hermes right in petasos /  in ex, caduceus & palm.  

B.N.Grakov, Materials ..., No 17; T.V.Blavatsky, Greeks and Scythians in the west Black Sea, VDI, 1948, No 1; Harmatta. Studies ..., 1970, p. 22.

Cannabis (Κανναβις) - the name of cannabis (hemp) among Scythians (Tr. kenevir - hemp, a nearly perfect match).
Herodotus IV 74.

(Kararves) Καραρυες - home in Scythian (agglutination Tr. kara = black, usual (fig.), west + ev = home, i.e secondary home, coch, coach, as opposed to permanent dwelling or location; in the 6th c. AD the Greeks called Scythians Bulgars and Türks, this could be a direct citation from the Bulgars or Türks. The European classical sources, and likewise the Chinese classical sources  accentuate the most striking, in the eyes of the sedentary agriculturists, feature of the horse husbandry life, the wagons and yurts, and glide over their permanent kishlak villages and homes, though both mention the harvests and settled land tillers. Some types of permanent dwellings were identified for the Eastern Huns, but the same type dwellings found in the Eastern Europe are routinely ascribed to non-Scythian population, based on the sources-inspired belief that Scythians did not have permanent dwellings at all. That resembles the situation with the naive ”surprizes” expressed by numerous geneticists when they run into Türkic-connected genetic results among the samples firmly presumed to be ”European” and ”Indo-Iranian”, even though they are educated that the nomadic horse husbandry developed from the semi-nomadic husbandry, which in turn developed from the Neolithic sedentary hunting and subsistence agriculture economy, which featured permanent dwellings).
Hesychius (Hσύχιος, 6th c. AD, from Miletus)

Kargaluk - Scythian name for Azov Sea, Roman/Greek lake or a bog Meotida, and also "Scythian or Sarmatian ponds" (Türk. Karga = "old", luk = suffix, to see who the word Kargaluk belongs to, Google it).

Carthasis - brother of a Scythian king during Alexander Macedon era.
Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, reference to Curtius Rufus.

Katiars - a Scythian clan, ascending to Arpoksai, a middle son of the legendary Targitai. Katiars, along with Avhats, Traspians and Paralats belonged to the tribe of the royal Scythians - Skolots (Arpoksai, a patron of Katiar tribe, he received a plow as a heavenly gift; the plow in Tr. is kot-an, ket-men, from ”qat” = layer, stratum. The word ketmen, adopted by the Slavs, transitioned into the Russian language as word for a hoe. The word ar/yar in the second part of Katiar in Tr. means split (v.) and man (n.). The original meaning of the contraption is a tool that splits a layer. This direct etymology fits perfectly the Herodotus' story, the origin of the name for the plow, and the origin for the name of the tribe in direct appellation for their role in the society. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 172 on).
Herodotus IV 6; M.I. Artamonov, History of the Scythians in Soviet science, VDI, 1947, No 3, p. 76.

Kobos (Κωβος) - leader of the Cimmerian (Scythian) Trer tribe
Strab., Geogr., I, 3, 12.

Kolandak (Κολανδακης) - the name on a black-glazed kilik from the beginning of 4th c. BC from Olbia. Undoubtedly a link of κολανδακης with the Scythian Skolot tribe (Tr. kolan = girth, cinch, kolanda = in girth, that coincidence does not mean anything, just a random case. How the suggested link became ”undoubted” is anybody's guess).
I. Tolstoy, Graffiti of ancient Greek cities of the Northern Black Sea coast. Leningrad, 1953, pp. 11; Yu.G.Vinogradov. Barbarians in Prosopography of 6th-5th cc. BC Olbia / Demographic situation ...

Koloksai (Κολαξαις) - a younger son of Targitai, the Scythians clan Paralat ascends their origin from him. G.A.Stratanovsky in his comments for the translation of Herodotus gives a following Iranian transcription of the name - Skolahshayya. M.I. Artamonov suggests parallels: Koloksai -Kol - Skol - Skolot (Coffe grounds are as much useful for random guessing. In Tr. “kola” stands for bronze and indirectly for sword (of bronze); the word “khalyg” for sky is also close semantically and phonetically, since it was Koloksai who was able to retrieve the heavenly gifts. After Targitai, Koloksai became a head of the Skolot dynastic tribal union, in line with the Türkic tradition that the youngest, as opposed to the eldest son in Indo-European traditions, inherited the parental domain.  Mythologically, Koloksai received sword as a heavenly gift, which Herodotus correlates with the Greek god of war Ares with its cult of sword, and Ares in turn is the Egyptian Hor, Roman Mars, Sumerian Ish-Kur. The Ish-Kur, a foreign god borrowed at least in the 26th c. BC, is at least 2 millennia older then the Herodotus' Scythian “Ares”, 3 millennia older then the Hunnic Kuar, and is a Sumerian “God of Ferocity”. The Türkic patron Kuar (in the Greek lingo of the time Herodotus used the word “god”) parallels the Greek Ares, and the Türkic cult of sword parallels the Ares cult of sword. In the historical period, Western and Eastern Huns, and the Caucasian Huns, Avars, Albans, and Bulgars were recorded as revering their swords. The last known sword swearing ritual was described for Suleiman the Great Osmanli in the Late Middle Age. Priskus directly identified Western Huns with Scythians, and described how Attila regained a long-lost sacred sword of his ancestors, using it to buttress his position and heavenly blessing. The semantical and phonetical cognates keep lingering among various Türkic peoples with profoundly different histories: the word “Chor/Chur/Gur”, with -r/-l alternation, and expressed as “Chu” in early Chinese, for a millennia stood for “Anointed Prince”, best known from the titles like Kara Chur and Gurkhan; the ubiquitous Kerogly myth endows Kerogly with a heavenly sword; Mars in Türkic is Kürüd; Tuvians have Kogol for Patron of  War, Buryats have Gal-Dulen and Gal-Nurman for Fiery Beast, and Gal Tengri for Host of Thunder; Uzbeks have Momo-Guldurak for Host of Thunder; Chuvashes have Khur-as Antarakan for Host of Power; Azeris of the 9th c. pronounced Kuar  “Khurram”. Koloksai, the youngest son of Targitai, holds a prime position in the Herodotus' narrative as a pra-royal wielding a cleaving sword, and his numerous mythological remnants play the same role in the Türkic mythology. While the Indo-European mythology gives preference to the eldest son, the Türkic mythology gives preference to the youngest son, extensively reflected in the Slavic legends that retransmit the Türkic storylines. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 216-255, 296).
Herodotus IV: 5, 7, M.I. Artamonov, History of the Scythians in Soviet science, VDI, 1947, No 3.

Kolos (Κολος) - four-legged animal in Scythia. This animal could stay without water for a long time. In size was between deer and sheep. Color white and faster than the above animals (Being a local animal, we should expect a pre-Scythian name. Cougar, puma, llama, iguana, opossum, maize, etc. are good examples for preserving aboriginal names. Look for Baltic, Finnic, Ugrian as best bets, Kurdish also has significant topographical presence in the N.Pontic; Iranian to check the Gambitus theory).
Strabo. Geography, VII, 4, 8 in Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 4, p. 207.

Lik - a river in Scythia, flows through the land of Thissagetes, drains into Meotida. Present river Manych (It is accepted that Thissagetes is a misspelling of Massagetes, which is Greek for Masguts. In the Herodotus time Manych was a flowing river, and this record tells us that Masguts were located in the N.Caucasian steppes, in addition to the Aral area. Unless, of course, Thissagetes is a compound with something that we do not know).
Herodotus IV 123.

Lik (Λυκος) - Scythian king, son of Spargapith, father of Gnur, grandfather of Anacharsis and Savlius.
Herodotus IV 76.

Lipoksai (Λιποξαις) - eldest son of Targitai, a progenitor of the Scythian clan Avhat. M.I.Artamonov pointed to the matching of the names Lipoksai - Lip - according to another legend, Gelon (On phonetical grounds, Lip renders Türkic Alp = Spirit, Patron, Host, Angel, Saint. This revision ascends to O.J.Maenchen-Helfen and W.B.Henning, who noted a loss of "a" from "al-", resulting in initial "la/li/”. Lipoksai received a yoke as a heavenly gift, he is a trapper. The hunting tribe Avhat descended form Lipoksai. The yoke is a symbol of entrapment and control. The Herodotus' story about Lipoksai being only one able to string a heavenly bow is duplicated in the ubiquitous Türkic legend about Alpamysh, confirming the mythological identity of Lip- and Alp-. In mythological applications, Alp is a powerful miraculous patron. In secular usage, Alp denotes a noble descend, and in that capacity had a widespread propagation. No Iranian etymology has been offered for Lipoksai in either mythological, epical, genitor, or secular aspects, even though as Alp Ar Tongi, Lipoksai is prominent in the Iranian mythology as Athrosiab and a son of Tur, closely paralleling the Herodotus' descent of Lipoksai from Targitai. The Türkic legends continue the epic line of the Herodotus' myths, affording Lipoksai and Arpoksai a position of the Alps, while the youngest Koloksai is given a deified position. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 204-209, 272).
Herodotus IV 5, 6, M.I. Artamonov, History of the Scythians in Soviet science, VDI, 1947, No 3.

Lohant - a character in the Lucian dialogue “Toksarid or friendship”, a comrade of f Arsakom, a leader of the Scythians during their battle with Bosporians, Sarmatians and Alans. Possibly, Lohant is a genuine Scythian name.
Lucian (of Samosata, 125-180 AD) Dialogue “Toksarid or friendship.”

Madius (Μαδυης or Μαδυς) - son of Partatua (Madies - son of Prototies). Madius came to power after a death of Partatua in 653 BC, his reign is usually associated with “28 years of Scythian domination over Asia.“
Herodotus I 103; F.H.Gutnov. Scythian portraits / / Journal “DTV”, No 3, 1999.

Makent - a character in the Lucian dialogue “Toksarid or friendship”, comrade of Arsakom, a leader of the Scythians during their battle with Bosporians, Sarmatians and Alans. Possibly, Makent is a genuine Scythian name.
Lucian Dialogue “Toksarid or friendship.”

Marsaget - a brother of the Scythian king (possibly brother of Idanthrs). According to Ctesias Cnidus, Marsaget was captured by the Persians, together with other Scythians, before the Darius Scythian campaign (Tr. popular Bars = Leopard + get = guz = tribe, in the “m” dialect of the “m/b” alternation, fairly widespread at present, but likely confined to distinct tribes in the past. A good example is Malkar for Balkar in Balkarian).
Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 299.

Matas (Ματασυς) - this is a name in a letter written in 630-610 BC by a resident of Berezan Ahillodor. Yu.G.Vinogradov hods an opinion that the name is of a Scythian origin. From the letter follows that Matas was an owner of buildings and slaves.
Yu.G.Vinogradov, VDI, 1971, No 4, Yu.G.Vinogradov. Barbarians in Prosopography of 6th-5th cc. BC Olbia / Demographic situation ...

Myrgetai (Μυργεται) - a Scythian people, reported only by Hecateus, and nobody else of the ancient authors. Latyshev assumed that Hecataeus mistakenly called Mirgetai the same people who were called Tiragetes by Pliny, Tirangetes by Ptolemy, and Tirrgetes by Strabo (Myrgetai has a transparent Türkic etymology: Mir =  ruler + get = guz = tribe. Tiragetes were the people that gave cheese to the Greeks).
Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 1, p. 299.

Naparis - river in Scythia, a tributary of Ister (Danube).
Herodotus IV 48.

Napit - a name of a fortress in the Crimea, Scythians built it in the 2nd c. BC.
Andreev, History of Crimea, M., 2002.

Oap (Οαρος) - river in Scythia. Modern river Sal (47.5°N 40.8°E). Ptolemy applied this name to the Volga.
Herodotus IV 123, 124; L.A.Elnitsky, p. 109.

Oiorpata (Οιορπατα)- Scythians called the Amazons (in the transmission of Herodotus) Oiorpata (Er/ir/eir in Tr. means “man”, and pata in Tr. means “'breaks, beats, kills”. The author fails to note not only “that the Scythian eor is remarkably similar to the Türkic oyor, eyr, er - man”, but that the Scythian pata is remarkably similar to the Türkic pata - breaks, beats, kills. A chance coincidence of the compound words is next to impossible. These “Iranians” were more then remarkable, they spoke Türkic as a native language, using compound words). See Eorpata.
Herodotus IV 110.

Oium (Oyum) - land in Scythia in Gothic (called Scythian by Jordanes) language, Jordanes uses it as a name for ethnic territory. The Türkic Tatar has the form of ömə “community, commune”, from “aid, communal help, volunteer help”, Khakas (originally Enisei Kirgiz) - öme or ime,  from “joint effort, together, leagued”, with affix -ty/ly it serves as a tribal marker. With -b/m alternation, the word becomes öbə/öbe/ibe and is rendered oba, like in Toks-oba or Kara-Oba or Kos-Oba or Kul Oba or a myriad other Türkic toponymic examples, Obaly = people living in oba; thus oba is a cognate of English habitat, i.e. “place to live, native place, homeland”, and obaly is homefolk, kins. The Gothic Oium is identified with the shores of the Azov Sea, which in Bulgarian happened to be called Altyn Oba = Golden Homeland [H.Wolfram, Th.J.Dunlap, 1990, “History of the Goths”, p.42, n. 42], populated by Sarmatian Spali or Spalei of ten-tribe Onogur confederation
Jordanes 60,15 and 61, 1, “The origin and deeds of the Goths”

Olkavas (Ολκαβας) - Scythian name.
Appian, Frontinus.

Oktomasad - a son of the Scythian king Ariapith from a daughter of the Thracian king Teres I (525-448 BC). Oktomasad was a leader of the conspirators who rebelled against the king Skil. By an order of Oktomasad in 450 BC, Skill was killed (“Shad” in Tr. is Crown Prince).
Herodotus IV 80.

Opiya (Opoiya) - a wife of a Scythian king Ariapith, a Scythian. She bore the king a son Orik. After a death of Ariapith in 470 BC she was a co-ruler with the eldest son of Ariapith, Skill, to his adulthood. The name Opiya is sonorous with Opis, a Hyperborean young woman who visited the temple of Apollo at Delos (“Apa” in Tr. is a female counterpart of male “Aga”. “Apa” is “senior, elder, senior sister, respectable woman”. A senior wife would be called “Apa” by all other wives and her husband. In a familiar appellation, like for an aunt or sister, “Apa” would be added to the name, Arga-apa, Shpako-apa, etc.

A separate ethnological marker is the institute of regents. Unlike all their neighbors, and especially in contrast with the mentality of the Indo-European people, the Türkic people held their women in high regard and a large degree of equality. Women participated in decisions of the state affairs, in the diplomatic receptions, in the state celebrations, in the selection of husbands, had full inheritance rights. Upon a death of a husband, and before an election of a successor, a widow was a default regent, and remained so until a maturity of an elected successor. She could defer the executive duties of a regent to her brother, usually a maternal uncle of the young king, who belonged to a maternal clan or tribe, and therefore himself was not eligible for succession. History left us a number of names of the reigning widow regents, some of them even headed an army in a time of a war. A head of the maternal clan Ermi was a regent, called “Gostun” in Nominalia, for the young Khan Kurbat. In particular, the presence of the institute of the widow-regent serves as a best ethnological argument against Persian/Iranian/Indo-Iranian linguality of the Scythians. Persian/Iranian/Indo-Iranian traditions are incompatible with a concept of female primacy. The Türkic institute of female regency is a direct consequence of a dualistic maternal-paternal martial union between two conjugal dynastic tribes, where the land, the country, the people belong to the maternal half, but are ruled by a selected candidate from a paternal half).
Herodotus IV 78.

Opis - the name of a young Hyperborean (Scythian) woman who visited Temple of Apollo at Delos with her female friend Arga (“Apa” in Tr. is a female counterpart of male “Aga”. “Apa” is “senior, elder, senior sister, respectable woman”).
Herodotus IV 35.

Ordess - river in Scythia, a tributary of Ister (Danube) (Maybe after a location of a ruler's camp, “horde”, from “orta” = center).
Herodotus IV 48.

Orik (Ορικος) - a younger son of a Scythian king Ariapith. His mother was a Scythian Opiya (Opiya - Tr. “Apa”).
Herodotus IV 78.

Palak (Palakos, Παλακος) - Scythian king, a son of the king Skilur. Ruled over the Crimean Scythia, with a capital in Scythian Neapolis. He fought with Chersones in 107 BC, was killed in battle with a Mithridates VI military commander Diophantus (Palak could be a part of a title connected with location, in this case a fort Palak, from Tr. “balyk/balik” - a settlement, city, fort; a less likely royal name etymology ascending to homophonic “balyk/balik” = fish, like in English beluga whale, or in Russian loanword for sturgeon).
S.A.Jebelev, The last Perisad and the Scythian rebellion in the Bosporus, VDI, 1938, No 3; O.N.Trubachev, The linguistic periphery of the ancient Slavs. Indo-Aryans on the Northern Black Sea coast/Problems of Linguistics, No 6, 1977, p. 17.

Palakion (Παλακιον) - name of the fortress built by the Scythians in the Crimea in the 2nd c. BC. Undoubtedly the name of this fortress is linked with the name of the Scythian king Palak (Tr. “balyk/balik” is a settlement, city, fort; both names ascend to the same word, but in spite of Andreev, direct connection is unlikely).
Andreev, History of Crimea, MM-2002.

Palos (Παλος) - a Scythian clan. M.I.Artamonov linked the Pals with Herodotus Paralat. He believed that Pals-Paralats came from Asia, while Scolots were autochthonous inhabitants of the Black Sea area (Herodotus directly states that Skolot is a general name for a tribal union of Avhats, Katiars, Traspies and Paralats; the name Skolot is recognized in modern Seklers who continued to live in Dobrudja, an ancient Scythian land, and in Eskels, who continued to live in N.Pontic, and in the Early Middle Age were a prominent tribe in the Bulgarian confederation; both splinters of the “Scolots” are unquestionably recognized to be Türkic-lingual; Seklers preserved their version of the runiform script to the 17th c.; now Hungarian-speaking, they still have heavy traces of the substrate Türkic language; a philological study of the preserved materials on the Sekler language would help to illuminate the language of the “Scolots”. Both generic terms for the Scythians, the Greek Scyth, and Persian Saka, had been etymologically linked to the generic term for the Skolot tribal union, or the Skolot tribes, from the root “S'kl”. The etymology of the Palos is anybody's guess. Ref. M.Zakiev).
Diodorus Siculus, Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 4, p. 250; M.I.Artamonov, History of the Scythians in Soviet science, VDI, 1947, No 3.

Panasagor - a son of the Scythian king Sagilla. He was sent by his father with a large army to the aid of Amazons, when they fought with the Greeks (Sagill appears to ve a transparent Saka + il = land, country, where Saka is a foreign derivative from the root “S'k”, a la Atails, Atilla, etc. The same root “S'k” word may be present in the “sagor” part of the son's name, denoting the common genuine endonym for Scythians and Saka. The suffix “-l” in the  “S'kl” is a reflection of the Türkic suffix “ly/lar“: Scythian > Scythians, Saka > Sakas. ).
Justin (Junianus Justinus, 2nd century AD), Epitome of Pompey Trogus works (1st century BC), II, 4, VDI publication, 1954, No 2.

Panticapeum (Panticapeum, Παντικαπης) - a river in Scythia, compare Panticapeum Strait (Black Sea is Tr. punty/pünte “rich with food”, from the root bün/bun “soup, pottage” with a Türkic possessive affix -tè/-t'/-dè/-d'/-lè/-ly. Tr. kapag/kapa is “gate”. Toponym Pontikapei historically ascends to the Tr. pontykapy “Pont Gate”. This city was later renamed to Kerch, which is an antonym of word Pontikapy, Tr. Keresh is “entrance” - M.Zakiev, 2002. The river may be called by the name of the town).
Herodotus IV 47.

Papai (Papei) - a god of the Scythian pantheon. Herodotus compared him with the Greek Zeus (Tr. Papai/Babai is “grandfather, ancestor, progenitor, primogenitor”. The Slavic grandmother “baba, babushka” ascends to the Tr. word Babai, with voiceless “p/b”, Papai. Of the extant 13 main Türkic languages, 8 have a voiced form “babai”, 3 have a voiceless form “papai“: Alataic, Chuvash, and Khakassian. There is no need for gerrymandering, Papai is a straightforward Türkic word, still alive and kicking with the same meaning).
Herodotus IV 59.

Paralates - Scythian clan, descended from Koloksai, a younger son of Targitai. M.I.Artamonov linked Paralat with Pals, reported by Diodorus Siculus. M.I.Artamonov believed that Pals-Paralates came from Asia, while Scolots were autochthonous inhabitants of the Black Sea (Tr. parala = hack, from par = piece; Tr. paralt = shine, to shine, make shining (rendered in English “Sublime”); because of their homophony, the name Paralat could have meant both meanings at the same time. Additional flavor could have come from a derivative bala = younger, son, reflecting the Koloksai's mythological origin of a younger son. The combination of suggested individual and collective etymologies fits perfectly with the mythological destiny. On top of it, a Tr. balta (voiced) = palta (voiceless) = axe/sword/halberds lurkes along, standing for the heavenly axe/sword that fell to the Koloksai's destiny. The division of the Scythians into two categories, professional, or full-time warriors, and the rest, who are militia, per Diodorus Siculus, and contrary to M.I.Artamonov, is an economico-social division, and has nothing to do with migrations).
M.I.Artamonov, History of the Scythians in Soviet science, VDI, 1947, No 3; L.A.Elnitskiy, Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. - Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 114.

Pardokas (Παρδοκας) - under that name in the Aristophanes comedy (Ran., 608) is presented a policeman (σκυθαι τοξοται) Scythian. It is possible that the name was invented by Aristophanes, however, the historian Bledyz noticed that this name should read as Σπαρδοκας or Σπαρδακος. This name is identical with the Latin Spartacus.
Aristophanes, Ran., 608.

Partatua - leader of the Scythians, known from Assyrian sources. He came to power after a death of Ishpakai in 673 BC. In 663 he joined an alliance with Assyria, and took Assyrian princess as a wife. He was a father of Madius (Madies) who after the death of Partatua in 653 became a Scythian king. (On Parthi see Parthians)
Herodotus I 103; F.H.Gutnov. Scythian portraits / / Journal “DTV”, No 3, 1999.

Parthians (Παρθυατοι) - a tribe of Dahae Scythians. Jordanes states ”...[They]  left the fighting forces of the tribe, and on their own settled in different regions of Asia... Pompeus Trogus tells that from the name and root of deserters (from the Gothic King Tanauzis' army) came the Parthians. That is why to this day in Scythian they are called fugitives, i.e., the Parthians”. Aelius Herodian in his essay "On the general prosody" gives this ethnonym in the form Παρθυατοι (“Parthiat” or “Parthyat”). In Türkic this etnoterm is par-tu-at-y < par = bar, the root of verb baryrga “go, ride”+ tu/ti = verbal noun affix ty + tu + “name, moniker” +  y = appended foreign ending. The original form of the ethnonym Parthian was 'bartyat' or 'partyat' with semantics 'diverted tribe'. Jordanes gives a close semantics “escapees, deserters”. M.Zakiev equates Parthian with much later known Türkic ethnonym Pardy/Bardy. Yu. Zuev traced Dahae as a form of Tokhars, later known in forms Tuhsi and Digors, a Masgut/Massaget tribe
Jordanes, “The origin and deeds of the Goths”, Moscow, 1960, p. 70.

Pata - Scythian word for “kill” from the word eorpata - those who are killing their husbands. Compare from the Avesta pada - heritage, offspring (The Türkic and Scythian pata is “to kill”, and the Avestan pada = “heritage, offspring” is unsuitable, but the Germanic “bat” as a verb and a striking tool is very applicable).
Herodotus IV 110.

Pelamida - fish, genus tuna in the Meotida.
Strabo. Geography, VII, 6,2 publ. Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 4, p. 207.

Plin - a young man from the Scythian royal lineage. After expulsion from the Scythia, he settled, with Skolopit, in the Cappadocia country on the banks of the river Termodont. There, they established a tribe of female Amazons.
Justin (Junianus Justinus, 2nd century AD), Epitome of Pompey Trogus works (1st century BC), II, 4, 1 VDI publication, 1954, No 2.

Pontik - a tree whose fruit eat Argippeis. The word belongs to the people closely associated with the Scythians (Tr. punty/pünte “rich with food”, nutritious, nourishing”).
Herodotus IV 23.

Porata (Πορατα) - a river in Scythia, a tributary of Ister (Danube), modern river Prut.
Herodotus IV 47.

Portmei - a Cimmerian city. Herodotus wrote that the border between Europe and Asia goes through Tanais, Meotida, and Cimmerian City Portmei.
Herodotus IV 45.

Psevdartaki (Ψευδαρτακη, Psefdartaki) - a sacred place in Scythia. Another form is Ψενδαρτακη, Psendartaki.
Stephen the Byzantian. VDI, 1948, No 3, pp. 312.

Roxanaki (Ρωξανακη) - a main city of the Scythians-Sakas (In the 4th c. BC Massagets/Masguts occupied deltas around the Aral Sea, were semi-sedentary, lived commingled with previous ethnically different population, and their archeological traces were fairly well investigated. “Uraksy” in Tr. is “farmer”)
Ctesias. J. Gilmore. Ctesias. The fragments of the Persika, 1888.

Savlius - a Scythian king, reigned in the first half of 6th c. BC. He succeded after the death of his father Gnur. He killed his older brother Anacharsis when that returned from Greece. Savlius was succeded by Idanthirs, a Scythian king who fought with Darius.
Herodotus IV 76; Diogenes Laertius (ca 412-323BC), Biographies and teachings of famed in philosophy, M, 1979.

Savmakos (Σαυμακος) - a Scythian who in 109 BC took the throne of the Bosporus kingdom after assassination of the king Perisad V. The Savmakos reign lasted for two years, after which he was captured and taken to the capital of the Pontus kingdom by Mithridates VI commander Diophantus.
S.A.Jebelev. Last Perisad and Scythian rebellion in the Bosporus. VDI, 1938, No 3.

Sagaris (σαγαρις) - a type of Saka (Scythian) ax or battle-ax. Herodotus, describing the Sakas with straight hats, said that “Sakas, or Scythians, had straight pointed hats on their heads, they wore anaksirids had local bows, daggers and sagaris battle-axes.
Herodotus VII 64; L. Zgusta, Personennamen ...

Sagill - a name of the Scythian king, to whom, according to a legend, turned the Amazons for help during their war with the Greeks. To help the Amazons, Sagill sent a large army headed by his son Panasagor.
Justin, Epitome of Pompey Trogus works, II, 4, VDI publication, 1954, No 2.

Sai (Σαιοι, Saioi) - B.N.Grakov believed that Sai was a self-name of the royal Scythians, deducing their name from the Avestan xsaya, to shine, to dominate. About Saies tells a text of an Olbia decree honoring Protogenes: ”... and during that priest, when Saies came in multitude to receive gifts, but people could not give them ...” (In Tr. sai = clan, genealogical line, that is the reason this affix show up in so many Türkic names and titles. Like the Scythian word for the dog, shpako, this notable affix survived and is widely used in Afganistan and its eastern fringes. The etymology of the sai mirrors that of the name Hun, which is a generic Hun = kün = kin, i.e kindred tribes, and that for the Türk, which generically means belonging to a law or to an organized state, and a number of other Türkic ethnonyms that designate a generic belonging to a social group. Sai may be connected with Ch. Se, the original tribe of the Ashina Türks, and with the Serica of the Greek sources).
IOSPE I2 No 32. Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. - Novosibirsk, 1977, pp. 114 and 152; J. Harmatta, Studies in the history and language of the Sarmatians. - Szeged, Hungary, 1970.

Saitafern (Σαιταφαρνης, Saitafarnis) - a king of Scythians or Saies. This name is known from a decree engraved by Olbia residents on a marble stele in honor of Protogen. ”... When the king Saitafern arrived to Konkit and demanded gifts on the occasion of his arrival, Protogen at the request of the people gave 400 gold ...” (The first part may be agglutination of Sai = tribe, clan + -ta/-ty = place case affix, i.e. "of the Sais").
IOSPE I2 No 32.

Sakaia (Σακαια) - a name of a Scythian holiday (Resembles the structure of the Türkic Sabantui, a harvest celebration named after the tribe Saban, which is a colloquial name for the tribe of Suvars/Savars/Sibirs; Sakaia in that case would be a celebration of Sais, adopted as a common festivity. Anyway, there is no indication that Saka is a religious figure, a second possibility for the origin of the holyday).
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 301 referring to the work of Hesychius.

Sakesfaris (Σακεσφαρης) - a Saka Scythian king, beyond the river Bactr (Historiographically, this is a famous etymology that on very logical grounds, and not by a random fishing, linked Scythian and Osserian and Iranian. Abaev converts “faris” to “farn”, a “son” in Ossetian and a cognate of Iranian “son”, and etymologizes the word as a composite “Saka's Son”, a logical name for a Saka king. The rest is easy, by a random fishing we can reconstruct all other words of formerly unknown language. Viva the supreme Soviet science guided by a wisest Party led by a supra-wisest genius Secretary).
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 301, with reference to the work of Polien.

Saka (Σακαι, Sakai) - The Persians called both the Asian and European Scythians “Sakas”. Acad. N.Ya. Marr believed that the word “sak” means posterity, clan, tribe (There is no “Iranian” etymology, all attempts failed.

The cognate list should include, in addition to Saka, Scyth, and Ishkuz, the Arabic forms Sakaliba (pl.) and Saklab (sin.), with its Türkic derivatives Saksin (city) and Saksin (province), also spelled with “q”, and translated as White Saka, Ibn Fadlan applied As-Sakalib to the Bulgars, the Persianised Skunka and Grecized Skillur. In the Arabic sources, Sakaliba stands for Kipchaks, as a calque of their name “Kuu Chak/Sak” =  White Sak. directly linking Scythians, Saka, and Kipchaks and Bulgars. In the Khazar state, ca 660-1050 AD, the Saksin province extended form Itil to Don, and Saksin city, also known as Saksin-Bulgar and Sarai Batu (48°N 46°E), was located on the Itil river, encompassing the Scythia of the Classical Period. The Arabic sources directly link the Persian Saka, Greek Scythians, Arabic Saklab/Sakaliba with the Türkic Kipchaks/Bulgars.

 In Turkological studies, both Saka and Scyth, and possibly the Ishkuz are derived from the root s'k ( ' - stop-guttural consonant, analogous to “o” in Bolgar and to “u” in Bulgar, in Bulgar Cyrillic it is rendered with voiceless stop-guttural “ú”), with attributive (possession) affix -ly/-dy(thy)/-lyê/-tyê (in the Türko-Sogdian coins it has the form -dk (-dek) or -lk (-lek); -dy(thy) is reflected in the Greek and Assyrian forms rendered as -th and -z respectively.

The s'k could stand for Tr. ski/eske/eshke/yshky = knife ( M.Zakiev), or something of which we may never learn, because our dictionaries of Old Türkic start from the Islamic period, and most terms associated with the ancient Tengrian religion were already purged from the literary lexicon, or were omitted as sacrilegious “heathen” words. It is accepted that “Saka” is a form of “Sogd”, in Tr. sogdy is an adjective “strong, potent, healthy”, and is a popular name. With the  s'k as the root accepted by most Turkologists, the name Skolot also belongs to the list of cognates, its Tr. morphology is S'k + l + t = S'k + -ly + -ty,  -l/ly is a possessive affix, -t/ta is plural affix, akin to Angelinos from Angeles (Los Angeles), i.e. Skolot is not a royal status term, but a straightforward ethnic term;  Skolots were Saka and Scythians, the others were not, and in the sources the others were called not with ethnic, but with a generalized names as “generic Saka, Scythians”.

Numerous Türkic dialects in the Altai area have a native term usually rendered “seok” in Cyrillic transcription, literally meaning “bone”, but used as an appellation applied as “ethnic group, clan, tribe, posterity line, sub-tribe”. In the context of the Türkic milieu in the Altai area, which served as a refuge area for many splinter groups,“seok” depicts a distinct group within an administrative politonym: “Kipchak seok of South Altaians”, “Kumandy (Kuman) seok of Northern Altaians”, and the like. Semantically, “seok” is synonymous with the appellation “ok” literally meaning “bone” and  used as an appellation also applied as “ethnic group, clan, tribe, posterity line, sub-tribe”, and usually translated  “tribe”. A third synonym is “guz” (Oguz branch) with dialectal forms “gur/gar” (Ogur branch) and “uz/gut/goth/get” and the like. The prosthetic consonant in anlaut indicates the Ogur linguistic branch. And the fourth near-synonym is the term “Hun”, literally meaning “kin, kindred” and applied with ethnic determinant: in the written sources all or nearly all ancient Türkic tribes (Türks, Kirkuns, Agach-eri, On-ok, Tabgach, Comans, Yomuts, Tuhses, Kuyan, Sybuk, Lan, Kut, Goklan, Orpan, Ushin and others) carried the name "Huns". Indisputably, the word “seok” with the root “s'k” is the best match for the root  s'k found in the ancient Saka, Scyth, Ishkuz, and in the later Eskel, Esegel, Eseg, Ezgil, Askal, Iskil, Izgil, Yskyly, Sekel, Sekler, Szekler, Szekely, Szekely-eks, Sakha, and more. The widespread distribution of the ethnonym “S'k” corroborates that the form “seok” is a reflex of the form “S'k”, it was a universal generic term for a division within a community).
Herodotus I 153; N.Ya.Marr, Selected Works, Vol 5, essay “The term “Scyth”, M., 1935; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 93.

Sakyndaki (Σακυνδακη) - a type of Scythian clothing (Hesychius' borrowing from Middle Eastern languages is a possibility, given the Middle Eastern appealtion for the Scythins).
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 305 with reference to the work of Hesychius.

Sandaksatra (Shadakshatra) - son of the Cimmerian leader Dugdamme (Ligdamis). His name is mentioned in the Assyrian cuneiform documents in connection with the events in Asia Minor.
Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. - Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 27; L. L. Zgusta. Die Personennamen griechischer Stadte der nordlischer Swarzmeerkunste. Praha, 1955.

Sanerg (Σανεργες) - a name given in IOSPE, IV, p. 290. Elnitsky L.A. believes that this is a Scythian name (Resembles the name of the Masgut king Sanesan, who was also a king of the Huns and Albans, ca 400 AD. Masguts, who were antecedent and maybe ancestral to Alans, were characterized as Scythians. Sanesan is etymologyzed as Tr. “storming”, from Sen-esen ).
Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977.

Sanevn - according to the 5th c. BC writer Hellanik of Mitilen, Sanevn was a Scythian king, and in his time was produced a first iron weapon. Many ancient writers linked the production of the first iron objects with Chalybes, which were incorrectly considered to be Scythians (Resembles the name of the Masgut king Sanesan. The earliest instrumental dating of iron weapon is a dagger in Arjan-2 kurgan, with  kurgan latest date of 810 BC (895 BC mean date), so it took 4 centuries for the iron weapons to trickle to the Middle East. As to Chalybes, we know the Koban Culture with symbiosis of local Northern Caucasians and Scythians, who could be simultaneously termed Scythians and non-Scythians. It is well known that innovations are disseminated, not re-invented).
Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 1, p. 315.

Saperdis (Σαπερδης) - a name for (a type of?) fish in Scythia.
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 293 with reference to the work of Hesychius.

Saravara, Sarabara (Σαραβαρα) - so a comedy writer of the first half of the 4th c. BC Antifan called the Scythian pants. In his comedy “The Scythians” he pointed out that “everybody is dressed in trousers and tunics. Because the Greeks did not know pants, we can assume that Antifan used a Scythian word to describe such clothing (Saravar/sharovar is a staple of Middle Asian clothing, both among Sarts/Tadjuks and Türks. The migrants like Russians, Ukrainians etc. have not adopted these pants as customary clothing. The word is habitually attributed to the Persians, who did not wear pants at all before they adopted Scythian innovations).
Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 319.

Sari (Sariakos) - a Scythian king south of Danube. In the 2nd c. BC he minted coins with his name in Greek cities Tom and Odess (Sary is a popular Türkic ethnonym, “pale yellow”, and is used in numerous ethnonyms like Sary Uigurs, Sary Kipchaks, etc. There was also a perennial Türkic tradition of including the name of the clan or tribe as a part of the title-name. like Sibir-Khan, Oguz-Khan etc. The multiple insignia of different Thracian principalities with non-Scythian religious and agricultural symbology points to autonomous sedentary Thracian mints striking in the name of suzerain).

Sariakos [BA]SI SARI ca 250 BC King of Scythia
bow and bow-case bonnet helmet with horse-tail crest/six-pointed star grain ear and club

T. Blavatsky. Greeks and Scythians in the West Black Sea region. VDI, 1948, No 1.

Satrakis (Σατρακης) - Scythian king, who lived North of Sogdiana.
Abaev V.I., Scythian-Sarmatian dialects / Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Vol.1, Moscow, 1979, p. 309 with reference to the work of Arrian (of Nicomedia, ca 92-ca 175 AD)

Silis - Scythian name for the Syr Darya - Yaksart. Pliny the Elder wrote: ”...this region, bounded as it is by the river Jaxartes, by the Scythians known as the Silis, and by Alexander and his officers supposed to have been the Tanais” (Pliny 6.18 (16), àêà Pliny 6.49.3)
Pliny 6.18 (16); Solinus [mid-third century CE] 49.5

Sh. Kamoliddin in his work "Ancient Türkic Toponyms Of The Middle Asia":

...lower watercourse in the Aral area, in antiquity it had the name Sir, which subsequently was transferred to the whole river [Murzaev, 1957, p. 253]. For the first time the name Sir is mentioned in the 4th century BC ancient Roman sources in the form Silis [Gorbunova, 1976, p. 27; Klyashtorny, 1964, p. 75-76]. The Chinese sources mentioned this name in the form Shi-er-he, i. e. the river Sir. The name Sir is a derivative from the Saka word sir, which means ‘‘plentiful’‘, ‘‘inundating river’‘ [Murzaev, 1957, p. 253; Milheev, 1961, p. 80; Klyastorny, 1961, p. 26], or from Türkic ‘‘bend of the river”. The word sir can be formed from the (Türkic) verb sir ‘‘wash out‘‘, ‘‘to make a trace’‘, connected with the root ir or irim. (Murzaev, 1984, p. 235). The name Sir could also be connected with the Türkic ethnonym Sir, recorded in the Tonyukuk monument [Malov, 1951, p. 65, 70; Musaev, 1984, p. 192] and in the pre-Islamic Khoresmian coins [Muhammadi, 2000, p. 94]. The tribes Sir and Tardush were a part of the Tele confederation, which formed after disintegration of the Hunnish empire, and in the 6th century they were one of the most powerful tribes in the East Turkestan [Hodjaev, 2004, p. 7. 19, 20; Hujaev, 2001, 23-6.]. The language of the Sir tribe belonged to the ‘‘northern‘‘ ancient Türkic language, where in the Sir dialect are written more than 200 monuments of the ancient Türkic runiform writing’ [Klyashtorny, 2004, p. 45-46]. The origin of the name Sir/Sil is also linked with the ancient Türkic word sel/selem, which was preserved in the Chuvash language with a meaning ‘‘pearl(s)” [CHRS, p. 357; Shoniyozov, 1990, 22-23] (Chuvash  sel/selem allows to suggest that Saka Scythian was an Ogur word).

Sirgis (Hirgis) - a river in Scythia, a tributary of Don.
Herodotus IV 57, 123

Skevlyas, Skeblyas (Σκεβλυας) - under that name in one of the Aristophanes comedies is shown a Scythian policeman (σκυθαι τοξοται). This name could be invented by Aristophanes, but the name of another Scythian policeman Παρδοκας is a distortion of the Thracian name Σπαρδοκος (Spartok).
Aristophanes, Ran., 608.

Skulis (Σκυλης, Gr. dog) - a son and heir of the Scythian king Ariapith. In 470 BC after the death of Ariapith Skulis became a king of Scythia. Skill spent Hellenophil policy. he was killed in 450 BC by conspirators led by his brother Oktomasad.
Herodotus IV 80, Yu.G.Vinogradov. Signet ring of king Skil. Political and dynastic history of the Scythians in the first half of V. BC / / SA, 1980, No 3.

Skileia - a name of the Amazons shown on a skyphos of a master Clytie (570 BC). Skileia is a female form of the name Skil. Two other Amazons depicted on this vase have names Telepileya and Ifito.
M.V.Skrjinskaya. Heroes of Cimmerian and Scythian legends, VDI, 1986, No 4, p. 84.

Skilur (Skiluros, Σκιλουρος) - a king of Scythia Minor. In 108 BC he founded in the Crimea a Scythian Neapolis. According to a legend, he sired 80 children. He handed over power to his eldest son Palak.
Strabo, Geogr., VII, 4, 3.

Scythics - a type of shoes, this word was preserved in the works of Licius, an Attic orator of the 5th-4th cc. BC and in the poetry of Alcaeus: ”... and having tied Scythics ....“
Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 301.

Skithins (Σκυθινος, Skythinos) - the people who lived in the south-eastern corner of the Black Sea, adjacent to Chalybes. About them reported Xenophon in the book Anab., IV, 7, 18.
Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 308.

Nomadic Scythians (Σκυθαι νομαδες) - otherwise the European Scythians, who at the Herodotus time lived in the steppes between the Don and Dnieper. Scythian nomads had dominion over all other Scythians. Vs.F. Miller was a first to point out a genetic relationship between the terms “Scythians” and “Sakas”. The (discredited long ago) acad. N.Ya.Marr has shown that in Japhetic languages the base “sak” naturally turns inot a base “sku“: sak sak-u-ta σακ-υ-θα σκυ-θα σκυθαι. Scythians In Herodotus times the Greeks called both European and Asian nomads Scythians.
Herodotus IV 1-7; N.Ya.Marr, Selected Works, Vol 5, in the essay “The term “Scyth”, Moscow, 1935.

Scythians-Rus (Σκυθας τους Ρως) - this ethnonym is referred to in a scholium compiled by the Byzantine writer Themisties for the Aristotle (384-322 BC) composition “On the sky.” “We place the middle space between the Arctic zone, close to the North Pole, and the tropical summer zone, with the Scythians-Ros and other Hyperborean peoples living closer to the frigid zone ...”. Latyshev quotes this passage in the collected works of Aristotle, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1836
Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 332.

Skolopit (Scolopitus) - Scythian youth of royal lineage. Legend relates that princes Skolopit and Plin were expelled from their homeland, after which together with Scythians following them they settled near the river Termodont in Asia Minor. There they became ancestors of the tribe of Amazons. The name Skolopit undoubtedly is linked to the tribal name of the Scythians - Skolots.
Justin, Epitome of Pompey Trogus works, II, 4, 1 VDI publication, 1954, No 2.

Skolot - Herodotus reports that the tribes of Avhats, Katiars, Traspi and Paralat are collectively called Skolots.
M.I.Artamonov, History of the Scythians in Soviet science, VDI, 1947, No 3; N.Ya.Marr, Selected Works, Vol 5, in the essay “The term “Scyth”, M., 1935.

Skopasis - a leader of one of the military units of the Scythians, who fought with Darius I. The Skopasis army included Sauromates. He conducted negotiations with the Ionian Greeks from the bridge over Ister.
Herodotus IV 120, 128.

Skunh (Skunxa) - leader of the Sakas or Massagetae (Masguts). Was taken a prisoner by the Persian king Darius I. Behsutun inscription says: “I routed one part of the Scythians, and captured another part. Their leader by the name Skunha was captured and brought to me ....“
Behistun inscription of King Darius I.

Spargapis (Σπαργαπισης) - a son of Massagetae (Masgut) Queen Tomiris (Queen Tomiris is one of the female heads of state or regents unheard of in the Iranian and Indo-European world). Committed suicide after being taken prisoner by the Persian king Cyrus the Great.
Herodotus I 211, 213.

Spargapith (Σπαργαπειθης) - a founder of the dynasty of the Scythian kings, great-grandfather of Anacharsis. About him reported Herodotus (IV 76). There was another Spargapith, a king of (Türkic) Agathyrs, from whose hands in 470 BC was killed a Scythian king Ariapith.
Herodotus IV 76, 78.

Spu - in Scythian means “eye. So Herodotus explains the name of the tribe Arimaspi as one-eyed (From “arym” - Tr. half, “spu” - Tr. eye, Arimaspu is “Half-Eyed”, i.e. “Squinted-Eyed”. Eanglish also has in addition to “squint-eyed”, derisive “cockeyed”, and “cross-eyed”, and “skew-eyed”, and “wall-eyed”, and probably more. It is a clear reference to Mongoloid people. This is a component of the two known Scythian compound words that directly testify about the Scythian language, bypassing any guesswork constructions of the linguistic scholars).
Herodotus IV 27; Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 1, p. 307.

Tabiti - Goddess of the Scythian pantheon. Herodotus compares her with the Greek goddess Hestia (Possibly a distortion of the Türkic Ebi/Ebe, one giving birth, a precursor of Eve, and a perfect complement to Tr. biblical “adam” - man).
Herodotus IV 59.

Tagi - Scythian word for “thread”; coincides with the same Türkic word. The Türkic cognate “telu”  “bowstring, to stretch”, from Proto-Altaic *telu “bowstring, to stretch”, German “Draht” ~ “wire”. The Proto-Altaic, which happened to be exactly the same as Türkic, is so far the only language where the word can be etymologized, which excludes all branches of Indo-European and Tungustic families. The Eurasiatic spread of the word is amazing: : English “thread”, German “Draht”, Mongolian “tele”, Hotan “ttila”, New Persian “tel”, Kurdish “tel”, Ossetian “tel”, Khalka “tele”, Buryat “telür”, Kalmyk “tel-”, Evenk “telbe-”, Japanese “turu/tsurú”, etc. (Dybo A.V., Chronology of Türkic languages and linguistic contacts of early Türks, Moscow, 2007, p. 806; Miziyev I.M. History of Karachai-Balkar people from ancient times to annexation by Russia//Mingi-Tau (Elbrus), 1994, no. 1 (Jan–Feb), Nalchik, Mingi-Tau Publishing, 1994, pp. 7–104, 206–213)

Taksakis (Ταξακις) - a leader of one of the three Scythian tribes that participated in the war with Darius (Reminiscent of Tukhsi and Toks-oba, two of many similar appellatives for the Tochars, including ''Ossetian” Digor, that are spread over Erasia and over 2 millennia).
Herodotus IV 120.

Tanais (Ταναις) - a river in Scythia, at the present time the Don River (In Tr. “cold, icy” river, like “don-durma” = ice-cream, and icy Tanais. A direct word is Türkic “ten” =  “large river”. Both etymologies are viable, but it should be noted that Herodotus called Tanais “icy river”, probably he knew something the modern Iranists don't; the Iranian “don”  =  “river”, cited in Scytho-Iranian etymologies, is an oddball in the Iranian languages, and suggests a loanword from Türkic, where it is a common word).
Herodotus IV 47.

Tanai - a leader of the Scythians during their expedition to Egypt in 633 BC. According to Pompey Trogus, the Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetich I, apprised about the expedition of the Scythians, met them in Syria with gifts, and persuaded them to abandon their campaign (The suffix “-ai” in the name Tanai may serve as an example for parsing other Scythian names that end on “-ai”, but allow other possible parsings. The Tr. suffix “-ai” is a formant for personal appellation denoting respect, analogous to formants “-aga/-aba/-aby”, and later “-bei/-bek/-khan” etc., and the Japanese “-san”.  Examples of the “-ai”  words are atai from ata = father, babai and Papai from baba and papa for grandfather/ancestor, and a slew of proper names. Etymologically, at least one of meanings of the name Tanai may ascend to the Tr. tan = “large river”).
Justin, Epitome of Pompey Trogus works, I, for the VDI publication, 1954, No 2, p. 181; Herodotus I, 105.

Tanus (Tanusas) - a Scythian king. In 2nd c. BC he minted coins in the Dobrudja (Dobrudja was a land of Seklers, whose location and name points to their descent from the Skolot Scythians. That is corroborated by the Seklers' stand-alone mentality, they survived for 2 millennia as a coherent self-contained ethnical unit, analogous to many other dynastic tribes: Ases, Eastern Huns, Uigurs, Dulo Huns, Ashina Türks, Avars, Kayis, Kangars, Kirgizes, Djalairs, Chingizids. The self-esteem, folkloric knowledge of their former exclusivity, and ingrained knowledge of their blue-blood descent helped the dynastic tribes to survive intact longer throughout the Türkic history then the less prominent Türkic tribes. Apparently, their survival was helped by the other Türkic tribes, which were respecting Sekler pedigree, and deferred to their dynastic rights, a trait that parallels situation with every other dynastic line. Of all the European Türkic tribes, Seklers were the only tribe that carried their distinct literacy into the Modern Age. Another factor in the Sekler exclusive longevity may have been the Türkic rigid rule of exogamy, which made the union of Seklers and their martial partners biologically and culturally self-contained. The tradition of strict exogamy was noted by ancient geographers and historians as a trait of some exclusive Türkic tribes, who did not mix with the surrounding population, preserving their biological and cultural distinction. The name Tanus may reflect the location of the Tanus Scythians along the Danube, ascending to the Tr. tan = “large river”).
T.V.Blavatsky, Greeks and Scythians in the West Black Sea, VDI, 1948, No 1; Harmatta, Studies in the history and language of the Sarmatians, 1970, p. 22.

Tarandos (Ταρανδος, Gr. reindeer) - a creature like a deer from the skins of which the Scythians sewed clothes, reported by Hesychius and Philo Judea (The Chinese accounts give the same news about the early Asian Huns).
Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 4, p. 270.

Targitai (Ταργιταος) - a mythical founder of the Scythian tribes. According to the legend, described by Herodotus, Targitai was a Hercules' son from a snake-legged goddess, a daughter of the river Borysthenes. The Scythians contemporary with Herodotus believed that Targitai lived exactly one thousand years before the Darius invasion (Unlike the Iranian “etymologies” that search for distant phonetic resemblances among dozens IE languages, and announce a victory irrespective of semantical meaning, the Türkic correspondences many times are obvious. We have two (2 ) Türkic prominent evidences called Targitai, both from the historical period. The first is Targutai of the “Sacred Legend”, a head of the Torgut tribe of the Keraits during Chingizkhan time, the other is a toponym Targitui in the Baikal area. Both are connected with the Türkic people. There is nothing mysterious about the mythical founder of the Scythian tribes, the Türkic folklore preserved dozens of cases when an origin of a tribe is attributed to a legendary pra-father, the best known of which is Oguz-Khan, modeled after the Eastern Hunnic leader Mode. The Targutai story not only neatly falls among other Türkic progenitor myths, but leads us further up and down the ladder.  The Torgut tribe is associated with the Türkuts of the First Türkic Kaganate, and its etymology is straightforward Türk in plural: Türks. The suffix “-ai” is a formant of respect, used for personal names, the tribal name is Türkut, its leader is called Türkutai. The presence of the Türks in the N.Pontic was documented during the Classical Period: Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder; the presence of the “T'r” ethnonyms and toponyms in the Mediterranean area in the pre-Classical Period in particular, and of the Türkic words in general is ubiquitous. This also applies to the etymology of the name Targitai: more then one suggestion has been proposed, without independent corroboration they all are purely speculative, individual judgments which ones are more likely are entirely subjective and a specter of reasonable possibilities is quite wide. The best alternative seems to be Tr. “targi” with semantics of “creator, primogenitor”. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 82, 198-206.
Since Targitai was a Scythian, we should expect his parents to be Scythians too. The Herodotus' second origin myth makes Targitai a son of Heracles who was searching for his horses. We have two versions of the name Heracles, the Greek Heracles, and the Etruscan Hercle. In Tr. kerəklə means search, and ker means to string (a bow), which Heracles did before giving the bow to Targitai. The amazing phonetical and semantical coincidence confirms that Heracles was originally a Türkic hero, common for Etruscans and Scythians, and adopted by Egyptians and Greeks.  Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 280, and M.Zakiev)
.
Herodotus IV 5, 7.

Teftamos (Τευταμος, Teutamos) - a Scythian name that appears in Ctesias.

Tevtar - a name of a Scythian who, according to the Greek myth, taught Heracles to shoot from a Scythian bow.
Latyshev, with reference to Herodor Heracleian. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 293.

Teushpa (Teuspa) - Cimmerian king. Teushpa in 668 founded the Achaemenid dynasty in Persia. He was married to a daughter of a Scythian king Ishpakai - Shpako; of their marriage was born the future king of the Persians, Cyrus I. He was defeated by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon with a help of the Scythian mercenaries led by Partatua.
Herodotus I 110, VII 11; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, pp. 27; E. Molev. Greeks and barbarians, M., 2003, p. 30.

Tiarant - a river in Scythia, a tributary of Ister (Danube), now the river Alt. According to Herodotus, Tiarant runs through the Scythian land.
Herodotus IV 48.

Timn (Τυμνης) - a representative of the Scythian king in Olbia. he met with Herodotus during his travels in Scythia in the 449-446 BC. It was precisely Timn who could give Herodotus many details about the Scythians, their war with the Persians, and their customs. It is possible that Timn of Herodotus was a Kallipid or Alizon.
Herodotus IV 76, V 37; E. Molev. Greeks and barbarians, M., 2003, p. 82; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 138.

Tiragets - a Scythian tribes that lived on the shores of Ister (Danube). About Tiragets wrote Pliny (IV, 12, 24). Ptolemy (III, 10) called them Tirangets, Strabo (VII, 471) - Tirregets. Hecataeus mentions Mirgets. Latyshev considered the name Tiragets to be erroneous (But it is Tiraspol that is left to us, not Tiranspol, Tirrespol, or Mirspol, and the river was Tiras, not Tirans, Tirres, or Mirs. The name of the river, and then of the Greeks who lived on that river, likely ascend to the name of the Tira tribe; a firm association of the locality and the name of the tribe may point to its pre-Scythian descendency, associated with the pre-Scythian Cimmerians; that is corroborated by the fact that Tiragetes did not belong to the core of the Scythian tribes. Etymologically, Tiraget = Tira (tribe) + get = guz =  tribe. The name Tira undoubtedly can be speculatively etymologized from many languages, there is no constructive use to suggest any specific speculative etymology. In the literature, Turas were linked with other “Tr's” in the vicinity, including Tyrrhenian Sea and Etruscans In the literature on Etruscans, the  “Tr's” root of the endonym is linked with “Tr” in Türks, with no consensus about the origin).
Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1947, No 1, p. 299.

Tiras (Τυρας) - a river in Scythia, at the present time the river Dniester (the river Tiras, which was likely named after the  Tira tribe).
Herodotus IV 47.

Tirits - mixed Hellenes, who lived in Scythia near the mouth of the river Tiras (Dniester) (Greek colonists in the vicinity of the river Tiras, which was likely named after the  Tira tribe).
Herodotus IV 51.

Toksakis (Τοκσακισ) - Scythian commander who along with Skopasis under king Idanthirsos led a fight in 514 BC against the Persians. Toksakis and Skopasis led a joined army of the Scythians, Sauromatians, Boudins and Gelons (Toksak appears as a tribe-derived name, like those thyat were popular in the Hunnic and Türkic titles: Tohsi/Tuhsi + Saka, i.e. Tochar of Saka. After their defeat by the Hun's Mode in ca. 170 BC, Tuhsi/Tochar retreated to Kangar, and after a generation retreated further to the Aral area of Horezmia, from where after another generation they assaulted and took control of Bactriana. A part of the Tuhsi that stayed in the Horezm were recorded as staying in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea for another millennia, they are known from the Slav Rus annals as Toksoba, around Mangushlak as Dügers, in the N.Caucasus as Digors, and are a modern clan among Turkmen, all around the Caspian Sea. From the overall migrations, it appears that the Tuhsi's ancestral lands were in the northern ranges of the Caspian area, where they were members of the N.Pontic Scythians. In the 4th-3rd cc. BC they subjugated the eastern Huns).
Herodotus IV 76, 120, 126, 127, Justin (Junianus Justinus, 2nd century AD), Epitome of Pompey Trogus works (1st century BC), II, 4, 8 VDI publication, 1954, No 2.

Toksamis (Τοξαμις) - this name, along with the name Kimerios (κιμεριος) was impressed on a 570 BC ceramic vase (crater François). M.V.Skrjinskaya believed that the artist portrayed personages of the Scythian myths, well known to the Greeks in the 6th c. BC (The name Toksam is much reminiscent of Tukhsi and Toks-oba, two of many similar appellatives for the Tochars, including ''Ossetian” Digor, that are spread over Eurasia and over 2 millennia).
B.N.Grakov, Materials ..., No 104; M.V.Skrjinskaya. Heroes of Cimmerian and Scythian legends, VDI, 1986, No 4, p. 84.

Toksarid - a name of a Scythian in the Lucian dialogue of “Toksarid or friendship” (Name reminiscent of a prominent Türkic tribe Tukhsi and their land Toks-oba, aka Tochars).
Lucian. Coll. of works in two volumes, Moscow, Leningrad, 1935, vol. 1.

Toksaris - a Scythian who lived in Greece for long time. He became famous there as the great healer and sage. During a plague, Toksaris advised the Athenians flush the street with sour wine, which saved Athenians from the epidemic. For that, the Greeks bestowed on him a title of hero, and after his death installed an obelisk on his grave (Kinda implies that he was not buried in accordance with Scythian rituals, equipped for a travel and under kurgan. In respect to the deceased, this is a crime way worse then a Christian dying without Christian rites to go to hell because of that, for the deceased will linger in this world and harass the living. The name Toksaris appear to be the same word ascending to the prominent Türkic tribe Tukhsi and their land Toks-oba, aka Tochars).
V.Latyshev. “Proceedings of ...”, VDI, 1948, No 1, p. 299; Lucian. Coll. of works in two volumes, Moscow, Leningrad, 1935, vol. 1, dialogues “Scyth or guest”,“Scyth or friend in a foreign land”.

Trers, Trars (Τρηρες, Τραρες) - a Cimmerian tribe. Strabo informs about a Trer leader Kobos (κωβος). L.A.Elnitskiy suggests a genetic relationship of Trers, Scythians, and Traspi-Thracians (The same observation noted M.Zakiev, that there is a suspicious likeness and unsettled sonority in the cluster Thrac, Trer, Tyr, Tra, all containing “Tr”. To that number should be added ETruskans, Tyrrhenians and the collection of Indian names for the ancient s).
Strab., Geogr., I, 3, 12; Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. - Novosibirsk, 1977, p. 47-48; E. Molev. Greeks and barbarians, M., 2003, p. 34.

Fagimasad (Thagimasad, Zagimasad)- a god of royal Scythians. Herodotus correlates him with the Greek Poseidon (W.Radloff demonstrated a full analogy of the Greek Poseidon racing on the seas in a chariot pulled by long-mane horses with a Türkic god of seas and rivers patrolling his possessions on white and grey horses. Etymologically, the name Tagimasad gives two Türkic homophonous semantics:
1. Tagimasad = Tagi + mas/bash + ad = herd + heading + horse = heading a herd of horses, or  = mount + heading + horse = heading riding horses
2. Tagimasad = Tagi + mas/bash + ad = multitude + heading + river
The word Tagimasad could simultaneously carry both meanings, and still some more. From a raster of  modern Türkic equivalents one of the closest is Sartakpai in the Altai, whose etymology is very close: (S)ar + tak + pai = water-moisture + herd/mount/multitude + Lord (bai). The root “tag” is the same in both Scythian and Altai forms, functionally Sartakpai is a patron of rivers, he scores their course, joins them, breaks through the mountains, and creates dams for the lakes. The magic attributes are identical between the Türkic legends and Greek mythology, they are horses and trident. Though the question of who borrowed from whom may remain open, the connection between the Scythian Tagimasad, Greek Poseidon, and Türkic Sartakpai with variations is obvious. In the Middle Asia, the Tagimasad/Poseidon is called Dikan-baba and Dikan-ata, where Dik = Tagi in Tagimasad, with semantics “to plant, to sow”; -an = is either suffix or a contraction of khan in dik + khan; and baba = Scythian Papai = god, primogenitor, the functionally synonymous ata is father. The Dikan = sower, farmer is suspiciously close to the landed aristocracy of the Middle Asia, the dikhans, a term habitually attributed to the Persian origin, but it is derived from the Türkic root “dik/tik” = to plant, to sow. In the Rome, Poseidon transformed into Neptune, who retained Poseidon's attributes, and was a patron of mounted elite. In the sense “mount, riding horse”, the word “tagi” was used in the Sherjere (Nominalia) of the Bukgarian Khans to designate the Year of Horse, which for some time puzzled a number of researchers. In that, we can discern the Scythian lexicon in the Bulgarian. The etymological bottom line is that Tagimasad is ruling land and water, herds of cattle, is a father of horses, he sows seeds and harvests grains. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, pp. 339-346)

Herodotus IV, 59.

Harasp (Charaspes) - a Scythian king in Dobrudja, beyond the Danube. Harasp in the 2nd c. BC minted coins in the Greek cities Tom and Odess (Dobrudja is the historical land of Seklers).
T.V.Blavatsky, Greeks and Scythians in the West Black Sea, VDI, 1948, No 1.

Chorsari (Khorsari) - a Scythian name for Persians (That is a most marvelous notation in the Scytho-Iranian scheme of things, akin for an Italian name for Italians, German name for Germans, and British name for Brits. Is there an exonym for Brits in Britain? If not, how come? The Iranian-speaking Scythians were so much more advanced compared with the today's Brits that they have something the Brits could not come up with, a foreign name for themselves?).
Pliny.

Shpako - a sister of Ishpakai. Both names come from a Scythian word shpako - a dog (In Tr. dog = kopek, close enough, particularly considering the h/s alternation s > h > k. Apparently, the s > h > k split happened before the 7th c. BC. In the Parthian, dog is sabah, close enough, which also points to the Ogur Daha/Tochar origin of the Scythian word for dog. In Oguz pronunciation dog = kopek, and the Ogur would have dog = sopek ~ shopek. In Ossetic the dog is kuydz, Persian, Tajik sag, Kashmiri hunu, Armenian shun, Afghan, Hindi kutta, Bulgarian kuche, Waziri spai (close enough), Eastern Slavic sobaka (close enough). Trubachev excluded the Iranian origin of the Eastern Slavic “sobaka”, and stated a Türkic borrowing, since all other Slavs have the name “pes” [Trubachev, Slavic names for domesticated animals, Moscow, 1969, p. 29 on]. The etymology of the word dog should consider the aggregate body of evidence, which unequivocally points to a dialect belonging to the Türkic linguistic family, but should not exclude borrowing or limited local use. The presence in the Scythian realm of many different languages is a fact certified by the contemporary writers, and ethnically different admixtures and constituents undoubtedly accumulated within the Western and Eastern Tumber Grave cultures during centuries of their separation (Herodotus 4.24, Strabo 1.2.27, Pomponius Mela 2.9). In the following centuries, in the Scythian territory transpired areas populated by Türkic, Ugro-Finnic, German, Balto-Slavic, Caucasus, Celtic, and Iranian linguistic groups, but the only group documented to carry the Kurgan Culture burial tradition into historically modern world were the Türkic people, and the Germanic nobility.
The Scythians from Asia belonged to the  Eastern Timber Grave Culture, and comprised of the tribes listed as Arpoksai's descendents: Katiars, Avhats, Traspians, and the Paralats the descendents of Koloksai, all under a group ethnonym Skolots, and with a distinct language which Herodotus called “Scythian”.
The Scythians from Europe belonged to the  Western Timber Grave Culture, and comprised the tribes listed as Scythians, but with distinctions that made them special Scythians: Cimmerians, Agathyrs, Budins, Iyrks (Tr. generic “nomad”), Taurs (Tr. generic “mounaineer”), Traspi-Trucks-Thracians, Tyras, Daha/Tochars (Strabo 2.8.2), Neures, Melanhlens-Melanchlaeni (Gr. Black Mantle, ethnological Scythians), Sauromats, Allizones. A separate subcategory of that group encompassed a mix of the Western and Eastern Timber Grave cultures in the area immediately east of the Caspian: Massagetes-Masguts, Alans, Aorsi (Awars/Avars), Siraci (Seres, Serica, Ch. Se, ancestors of Ashina Türks), Chorasmians, Khalibs of Kolkheti (in Apollonius of Rhodes “Argonautica”).
A third category are the tribes that are pointedly not Scythians: Hellenes, Gelons, Kallipides, Isters, Androphags-Anthropophagi (Gr. Man Eaters), Argippaeans,, Melanhlens-Melanchlaeni (Gr. Black Mantle, ethnological non-Scythians)
With all the gold dug up in the Scythian cemeteries, the paucity of the osteological studies is remarkable. Apparently, the archeological gold diggers just discarded the worthless bones, and they lay reburied under rubble of the destroyed kurgan. A few precious artifacts that survived in the 3rd and 4th c. BC monuments of Bosporus, and in the images on a gorit from the Solokha kurgan, demonstrate the physiognomic composition of the Scythians with a notable degree of Mongoloidness. Ironically, the Mongoloidness of the dead is used as an argument for the authenticity of the Scythian contents of the Greek inscriptions, for the Iranian-lingual etymology of the names (Vs.Müller, V.Abaev, M.Vasmer, J.Harmatta, L.Zgusta), and of the evidence for a strong influence of the Mongolic or Turanian blood among the Scythians. In matinee circus shows, they herald such tricks as hocus-pocus no 2. For our purposes, the presence of the Mongoloid and Caucasoid remains indicates a complex composition of the remains, and points to a possibility that a part of the indigenous Scythian lexicon may be a borrowing from their ethnically diverse constituents)
.
Shpako was a wife of the Cimmerian king Teushpa, from their marriage was born the next king of the Persians, Cyrus I (Papa  Teushpa is Scythian, mama Shpako is Scythian, only poor me is a full-blooded Persian, or at least a king of the Persians. The kingship apparently did not extend to the improvement of the Persian language, which retained sag for the dog, instead of spako).
Elnitsky L.A., Scythia of the Eurasian steppes. Novosibirsk, 1977, footnote on page 27.

Habei - name of the fortress built by the Scythians in the Crimea in the 2nd c. BC
A. Andreev. History of Crimea, MS-2002

Eorpata (Οιορπατα) - the Scythians called the Amazons “Eorpata”. “Scythians called the Amazons “eorpata”, which in Hellenic means man-killers, “eor” in fact means a man, and “pata” means to kill” (Er/ireir in fact means in Tr. “man”, and pata in Tr. means “'breaks, beats, kills”. The author fails to note not only “that the Scythian eor is remarkably similar to the Türkic oyor, eyr, er - man”, but that the Scythian pata is identical to the Türkic pata - breaks, beats, kills. A chance coincidence of the compound words is statistically next to impossible. These “Iranians” were more then remarkable, they spoke Türkic as their native language, with composite words).
Herodotus IV 110.

Eor - man, husband in Scythian from the word eorpata - those who are killing their husbands.. The experts note that the Scythian eor is remarkably similar to the Türkic oyor, eyr, er - man.
Herodotus IV 110.

Hippaka (ippaka) - a name of cheese manufactured by the Scythians from mare's milk (Connection with mare is via hippa/hippos, Gr. for horse, from Tr. jaby/yabu, jupax, is evident).
Hippocrates, “Diseases” in Latyshev. “Proceedings...”, VDI, 1947, No 2, p. 298.

Eksampey (Εξαμπαιος) - an area in Scythia between the rivers Borysthenes (Dnieper) and Hypanis (Southern Bug). There was a source of bitter water. The name of the source in the Scythian is Eksampei, and in the Hellenic language - Sacred Paths.
Herodotus IV 52, 81.

Enareis (εναρεες) - Scythian diviners, effeminate men. They were divining using willow offshoots and linden sponge. Herodotus speculated that enareis were descendants of those Scythians who committed blasphemy, plundering the Aphrodite Urania sanctuary in Syria. The Goddess punish them for ever, inflicting a female ailment (Tr. ene (enə) = “mark, score, make a notch” + r, a suffix on non-transitive verb, enar = notched, i.e. gelded, emasculated. A perfect match. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians”, p. 347-348).
Herodotus I 105, IV 67.

Eminak (Εμινακος) - this name is read on Olbian silver coins dated by 440 BC.
P.O. Karyshkovsky, IMTA, No 4, 1962; E. Molev. Greeks and barbarians, M. 2003, p. 83.

Eliy - this name is on the coins minted by Scythian kings in Scythia south of Danube, in the 2nd c. BC Dobrudja (Tr. El/Il = “land, country, possession”, thus “possessor”; Dobrudja is the historical land of Seklers).
T.V.Blavatsky, Greeks and Scythians in the west Black Sea, VDI, 1948, No 1

Yyn - in Scythian and Turk means “wool” (Miziyev I.M. History of Karachai-Balkar people from ancient times to annexation by Russia//Mingi-Tau (Elbrus), 1994, no. 1 (Jan–Feb), Nalchik, Mingi-Tau Publishing, 1994, pp. 7–104, 206–213)

Ysh, Ish - Scythian verb “freeze”. The word with the same meaning is in Karachai-Balkar and other Turk languages: Ysh (Miziyev I.M. History of Karachai-Balkar people from ancient times to annexation by Russia//Mingi-Tau (Elbrus), 1994, no. 1 (Jan–Feb), Nalchik, Mingi-Tau Publishing, 1994, pp. 7–104, 206–213).

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