Contents Türkic languages

Classification of Türkic languages
N. Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
 Türkic languages

Sir Gerard Clauson (1891–1974)
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
Oxford аt the Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Ely House, Glasgow, New York, Toronto, 1972

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Sir Gerard Clauson An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
Preface Abbreviations Suffixes A - EGE EGE - ARD ARD - BDD BDĞ - CCĞ CD - DLM DLS - ĞDĞ ĞDL - GCY GDE - SDĞ SDM - YĞĞ YĞL - ZR Full
Pp i - xxxi Pp xxxiii - xxxviii Pp xl - xlviii Pp 1-100 Pp 101-200 Pp 201-300 Pp 301-400 Pp 401-500 Pp 501-600 Pp 601-700 Pp 701-800 Pp 801-900 Pp 901-988 Pp 1-988
1 M 1 M 1M 7M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 8M 7M
PREFACE Pp i - xxxi  v
ABBREVIATIONS, SHORT TITLES, ETC. Pp xxxiii - xxxviii xxxii
SUFFIXES Pp xl - xlviii xl
Mon. A Ä E I O Ö U Ü Pp 1-100; 101-200; 201-300 1
INITIAL LABIAL PLOSIVES B P V F W 201-300; 301-400 291
INITIAL DENTAL PLOSIVES D T 401-500; 501-600 433
INITIAL VELAR PLOSIVE Ğ K X 501-600; 601-700 578
L 701-800 763
M 701-800 765
N Ŋ Ñ 701-800 774
R 701-800 780
S 701-800; 801-900 781
Š Ș 801-900 866
Y 801-900; 901-988 869
Z 901-988 982
Sir Gerard Clauson
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
ASCII text pages 301 - 400


2 ket- (g-) (go, leave, depart, disappear) ‘to go’, usually specifically ‘to go away’; more or less syn. w. bar- (to go’, to go away). Survives in SE Tar., Türki ket-; NC ket-; NVV Kk., Nog. ket-; Kaz. kit-; Kumyk get-; SVV Az. ket-; Osm., Tkm. git- (Aor. gider). In some modern languages used as an Aux. V. following a Ger. in -p but this seems to be a recent usage. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. [gap] ketipengoing away’ TT IX 74: Bud. (all kinds of diseases and dangers) ketke:ywill depart’ TT VIII K.9; ketme:se:r do. 10-12; o.o. TT X 233-4, etc. (tarik-); U II 49. 28; U III 48, 12 etc.: Civ. ig ağrığ ketti ‘disease and pain have gone away’ TT 111; o.o. do. 123; VII23, 5; ket- of disease, pain, etc. ‘to go away, disappear’ is very common in Hi: O. Kır. ıx ff. sîzime: ket(t)im ‘I have departed from you’ (my family) Mai. 15, 1-2: Xak. xı er yerindin ketti: ‘the man went away (zela) from his place and withdraw himself’ (tanahhe) Kaš. I1 296 (the Aor. and Infin. are spelt kede:r, kedme:k owing to a scribal error, since most V.s in the same section end in -d-); yıpar ketse: ida dahaba’l--tnisk ‘if the musk leaves (the bladder)’ III 48, 22: KB körümegli közlerde ketti usı ‘sleep has left the eyes (of those) that cannot see him’ 102; (in old age) ukuš ketti ‘understanding has gone’ 294; kete bardı 247: xıv Muh. ba’uda ‘to go awayge:t- Mel. 24, 1; ke:t- Rif. 105: dahaba ket- 109 (only): Čağ. xv ff. ket- (-güm, etc.) git- Vel. 355 (quotn.); ketraftan ‘to go’ San. 31 iv. 2 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ‘to go away, withdrawket- CCI; Gr. 141 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı get- (ged-) ‘to go’ ’Ali 32: xııı (?) ket- (? get-) is common in Oğ. both for ‘to go away’, and more neutrally for ‘to go’ e.g. avka kettiwent hunting’ 70: xıv ditto Qtitb 97; MN 95, etc.: Kip. xıı raha ‘to go, go away’ (bar-/) ket- Hon. 40, 12: xıv ket- raha wa dahaba td. 78; a.o. Bul. 47V. (köč-): xv raha ket- Kav. 9, 3; ket- do. 11, 12; dahaba ket- Tuh. 16b. 3, and many o.o. illustrating conjugational forms.

3 ket- (g-) (OTD p. 303 КЕТ- II одеваться: er tonïn кetti мужчина надел свою одежду (МК II 296): don, put on (dress) )

kü:d- (küd-) (g-) (wait, endure, tend, cherish, respect, pasture, posses, track down, watch, protect, покуда, ждать,ожидать, обслуживать) (покуда) (1) ‘to wait’ (ждать) (Intrans.); (2) ‘to wait for (someone Acc.) (ожидать)'; (3) ‘to wait on, attend to (guests, sheep, etc.) (обслуживать)’. S.i.a.m.l.g., but quite exceptionally in two forms, the regular form küy- (which is also the modern form of kün-) and küt- (küd-), a rare case of the evolution -d- > -d- > -t-; in some languages both forms survive with the same or different meanings. The modem forms are NE Alt., Kumd., Leb., Tel. küt- ‘to tend, or pasture, (animals)’ R II1480: SE Türki küt-‘to wait (for)’ BŠ 55e: NC Kır. küt- (1) ‘to wait (for); (2) ‘to tend, wait on (animals or guests)’; (3) ‘to possess’; küy- (1) only; Kzx. küt- ‘to wait on’; SC Uzb. kut- ‘to wait (for); to wait on (guests, etc.)’; NVV Kk. küt- ditto; küy- ‘to wait on, look after (someone)’; Kaz. köt- ‘to wait (for)’; Nog. küt- ditto: SW Az. küd- ‘to lie in wait for (someone)’; to track down, watch; to wait on, protect (someone)’; Osm. güt- (Aor. güdeŋ ‘to wait on, watch over, cherish, pasture (animals)’. Uyğ. vııı eki: ay küt(t)im kel- medi: ‘I waited for two months but they did not come’ Šu. E 5 (printed text kûtdim but facsimile quite clearly k ii t m): vııı ff. Man. küdügli ertlgiz ‘you have been waiting’ MII 6, 10; a.o. (?) Wind. 32-3 (ačın-): Bud. negU küdersizler ‘what are you waiting for?’ (Stab him quickly) U IV 10, 42: Xak. xı ol meni: kütdti: intazarani ‘he waited for me’ Kaš. III 441 (followed by Oğuz meaning); meni: küdti: (sic) intazaram II87, 14; kizlep nelük ktiter-sen (sic) ‘why are you hiding and waiting?’ (not translated in the Ar.; this could be the meaning, but the form is so odd for Xak. that this is prob. an error for k^tersen) II 264, 1; yakın yağuk körmedip ne:gni: küdü:r ‘he shows no respect to his neighbours and kinsmen but concentrates his attention on property’ (yard himmatahu fi'l-mal) III 23, 1; a.o. / 321 (2 köč): KB ne kim išler erse tükelin küder ‘whatever business there is he waits for its completion’ 1050; (in 2347, ‘he should not send his men far (from the camp) but restrain (tidsa) and concentrate them’, the v.l. küdse in the Vienna MS. is clearly an error): xııı (?) At. (if misfortune comes endure it) farahka küdüp, farahka küdüp tur ‘waiting for happiness (to follow); go on waiting for happiness’ 349-50 (v.ll. kütüp, küyüp); Tef. küz- ‘to wait, wait on (someone Dat.)’ 187: Čağ. xv ff. küt- čarenîdan ‘to lead (animals) out to pasture’ San. 302V. 13 (quotns.): Oğuz xı ol ko:y kü:dti: ‘he tended (ra'a) the sheep’ (etc.) Kaš. III 441 (kü:der, kü:dme:k): Xwar. xııı (?) yılkılar küde-ye turur erdi ‘he was constantly tending the livestock’ Oğ. 15-16 (the -ye is merely a line filleŋ: xıv küy- ‘to await an event (Acc.)’ Qutb 100 (köy-); küt- ‘to tend (sheep)’ MN 14: Kom. xıv ‘to tend (sheep)’ küt- CCG; Gr. 160 (quotn.); ‘to wait (for)’ küy- CCI, CCG; Gr. J57 (quotn.): Kip. xııı talabbata ‘to wait’, küy- Hou. 38, 19: xıv šabara ‘to endure patiently’ küy- Bul. 53r.: xv ra'e mina'l-ra'y güt- (‘with g-’) Kav. 76, 10; ra'e (kütle-; in margin in second hand) küt- Tuh. 17b. 8: Osm. xıv ff. güt- (Aor. güdeŋ ‘to respect, pay attention to’ (advice, etc.) in several texts up to xvıı TTS I 341; II 480; III 328; güdüp gözle- ‘to take care of’ (someone) IV 370; güy- (TTS, in error küy-) ‘to wait (for);’ very common until xvi, occasionally later I 506; II 677; III 495; IV 561: xvııı güd- (spelt) in Ritmi, čarenîdan, Čağ. küt- San. 303V. 21.

Dis. GDE

?D ketü: (crippled) Hap. leg. ; perhaps a Dev. N./A. fr. 1 ket- (ged-) (notch, chip, gash); being Kip. it might represent an early *ketig. Kip. xı ketü: al-ašall ‘crippled, with a disabled hand’ Kaš. III 219.

VU köti: (bad, nightmare) unvocalized in the MS., but perhaps an earlier occurrence of SW Osm. köti/kötü ‘bad’, which is otherwise not noted in any early text. Xak. xı (bürt ‘nightmare’) also called köti: bürt Kaš. I 341 (bürt).

VU kötü: (roof) ‘the roof of a house’; pec. to Xak.? There is no widely distributed Turkish word for ‘roof’. Xak. xı kötü: al-safh ‘the roof of a house’ Kaš. III 219; v.o. I 269 (oyul-); 278 (ense:-).

Dis. V. GDE-

E kedi- in Uyğ.vııı ff. Bud. 1 ığaeda törümiš tüš yemišler kediyur ‘the fruits (Hend.) which have formed on bushes and trees grow bigger’ Suv. 517, 9-10 (and U I 27, 4, the same text) is no doubt a mis-spelling of bedü:- (grow), q.v.

E 1 küde-, read tentatively in Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U IV 8, 36, is an error for bödu:-; the line reads oyun oynayu (play, dally) bödiyu yırlayu ayaların yapınıp ‘playing games, dancing, singing, and clapping their hands’.

2 *küde:- See küde:gü:, küde:n.

E köti- it is suggested in Hüen-ts., p. 25, note 146 that this is a V. of which kötür- (lift up, raise, carry) is the Caus. f.; prima facie it is improbable that the basic f. of a V. as common as kötür- (lift up, raise, carry) should be Hap. leg., but the only suggested occurrence of this V. is in Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (even since Buddhism was brought from India, everyone respects the doctrine of the Maheyena; its method of meditation is sweet) čaxšapatlığ yıparları bura kötlyü [turur, uncertain] Hüen-ts. 146, there translated ‘the odours of its commandments rise fragrantly’. It is prob. a misreading of köpürü, ‘the fragrances of its commandments constantly steam and froth’. This is more probable than bödiyü ‘dance’.

Dis. GDC

SF küdeč See küzeč.

D kötič (g-) (ass, задница) Hap. leg., but vulgar words like this are usually omitted fr. dicts.; Dim. f. fr. köt (backside, buttocks). Xak. xı when a boy is abused he is called kötič ‘you who stink like the buttocks’ (ye munlin ka'l-šameray)\ his ancestry is traced back to the backside (yttnsab ile'l-dubuŋ Kaš. I 360.

Dis. GDD

D kedüt (g-) Active Dev. N. fr. ked-; lit. ‘something which you wear, wearing apparel’. Pec. to Xak.; other languages use other Dev. N.s fr. ked-, esp. kedim. Xak. xı kedüt ‘any kind of wearing apparel’ (kull me yulbas mina’l-atwab), but used particularly in connection with a wedding (jVl-nrs)\ that is the female relatives (qarabat) of the bridegroom and bride put on (special) clothes in their honor (ikrema (n) lahum); hence one says kedüt berdi: ‘he gave him ceremonial clothing’ (libesa’l-karema) Kaš. I 357: (under ‘words formed with suffixed te’) ‘a suit of clothes (al-kisiva) is called kedüt, taken from their word kedti: labisa’l-tawb 112, 4.

D ketüt (g-) (wrinkle, frowning, churlish) Hap. leg.; Active Dev. N./A. fr. 1 ket- (ged-) (notch, chip, gash) in the sense of 'causing wrinkles to form’. Xak. xı ketüt kiši: al-racttlu’l--muUiqabbafa'l-ulfnf ‘a frowning, churlish man’ Kaš. II284.


Dis. GDG

D kedük (g-) (felt cap, head-covering of feathers, don on) Pass. Dev. N. fr. ked-; lit. ‘something put on’, in practice ‘a felt cap’, but see kedüklüg; pec. to Kak. Xak. xı kedük (MS. kediih) al-lubbeda ‘a felt cap’: kedük (ditto) ‘a head-covering of feathers’ (ğifera mina’l-rîš;? ‘a bird’s crest’) because it is like it Kaš. I 390; a.o. III 38, 21 (opra:k): keyUk al-lubbeda in the language of those (tribes) who change -d- to -y- III 168: KB körli barsa barča urur bu kedük ukušluğ biliglig kör ašlı ked ög 'if you look carefully, everyone puts on this cap; the basis of the man of understanding and knowledge is a very good intellect^ ?) 299.

D ketük (gedük) (notch, chip; notched, chipped) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. 1 ket- (ged-) (notch, chip, gash); ‘notch, chip; notched, chipped’, and the like. Not noted before xııı (?); syn. w. kertük. Survives in NC Kır. ketik ‘gap, gappy’, etc.; Kzx. ketik ‘toothless’ R II 1130; Bar. kedik ditto 1137: SW Osm., Tkm. gedik ‘crack, breach, gap; gappy (teeth)’, and the like. (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. kedük stnuk translates lihe mitt furüc ‘cracked, gappy’ 169: Kip. xıv ketik al-afram ‘with gappy teeth’; ketük al-talm ‘gap, notch’ Id. 78; kedük al-talma (and the V. fr. it is ked-) do. 79: xv mutlam ‘dented, notchedketik Tuh. 33a. 12; 35a. 13; 48b. 11; (ketil- is der. fr. ketik do. 84a. 2).

D küdük (tended, cherished, protected) presumably Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. küd- (wait, endure, tend, cherish, respect, pasture, posses, track down, watch, protect, покуда, ждать,ожидать, обслуживать) (покуда); lit. ‘something waited for, looked after’, but used only in the phr. iš küdük meaning, rather vaguely, ‘affairs, undertakings’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. lške küdügke (sic) tıltanıp ‘being involved in (worldly) affairs’ Chuas. 267: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (if there are) išler küdüklcr ‘affairs’ (or ‘tasks’, which give pain to mankind) TT II 16, 44-5: Bud. the phr. is rather common U I 34, 17-18 (tegme:); TT V 20, 9; 24, 50-1, etc. VI 79 (etiglig): Civ. iš küdük is common TT I 51, 72-3, etc.: Xak. xı al-šuğl iva’l-'amal ‘business, undertaking, task’, and the like, is called ı:š küdük (MS. kil dük)] küdük is not used alone (le yufrad) but only in the Hend. Kaš. I391: KB ukuš birle išle kamuğ iš küdük ‘carry out all your undertakings with understanding’ 161; (Aytoldi enquired into) kamuğ iš küdük ‘everything that was going on’ 1038; a.o. 2220.

PU ?D ketki: (Pketgi:) (notched-back horse) Hap. leg.; perhaps der. fr. 1 ket- (ged-) (notch, chip, gash), but -ki:/-gi: is not a normal Dev. Suff. Xak. xı ketki: at al-a'qaf mina'l-xayl ‘a horse with a hollow back and high hindquarters’ Kaš. I 430.

D kedgü: (g-) (clothing, кеды) Conc. N. fr. ked-; ‘clothing’ in a broad sense. N.o.a.b., cf. kedim. Uyğ. \\ vııı ff. Bud. (they provide people with useful things) kedgü tonağu ulati ‘clothing (Hend.) etc.’ TT VI 392: Xak. xı kedgü: ‘clothing (al-malbus) of any kind whatever’ Kaš. I 430: KB 1264 (mugadtur-); a.o. 4773.

PU kötki: ‘hillock’ or the like; n.o.a.b.; perhaps a l.-w., there is no obvious Turkish \\\ etymology (buttock fr. köt (backside, buttocks)). Uyğ. vııı ff. (if a man [gets lost] in the mountains, forests, snowy deserts, sanddunes, or) kötkide ‘low hills’ TT VI, P- 74» I- 13: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘high ground; plateau’ kötki Ligeti 176; R II 1281: Xak. xı kötki: al-tall mina’l-tureb ‘an earth hill’ Kaš. I 430: KB 21 (opri:).

Dis. V. GDG-

PU kedgir- n.o.a.b.; morphology and origin obscure; largely unvocalized in the MS. of Kaš. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the deer, pursued by hunters) yügürü kedgirerler ‘run away in confusion' U IV 32, 13 (damaged); (the rich man running away from robbers in the dark, ran into a dead tree and) yıltızıga kedgirlp ‘stumbling over its roots’ (put one eye out on a branch) TT III, p. 28, note 71, 3: Xak. xı at kedgirdi: ‘the horse ran away’ (or was uncontrollable’, camaha) Kaš. II 196 (kedgire:r, kedgirme:k).

S kötgür- See körtgür-.

Tris. GDG

(D) küde:gü: (g-) (son-in-law, younger sister’s husband (свояк)) morphologically Dev. N. fr. *kude:-, cf. küdern; properly ‘son-in-law’ in the sense of ‘daughter’s husband’, in some NW languages ‘younger sister’s husband’, but sometimes used, more indefinitely for ‘bridegroom’. A very old word; an early l.-w. in Mong. as gürege(n) (Haenisch 52, fr. an intermediate f. *küzegü (cousin)); s.i.a.m.l.g. with many phonetic changes, NE Kč., Koib., Sag., Šor küze: R II 1505; Alt. küyü; Tuv. küde:: SE Türki küy: NC Kır. küyö:; Kzx. küyeu: SC Uzb kuyov; NW Kk. küyew; Kaz. kiyaw; Kumyk giyev; Nog. kiyev: SW Az. küreken (sic; Mong. f.); Osm. güvey; Tkm. giyev, körreken; Čuv. kerü ‘the husband of my daughter, younger sister, or any younger female relative’ Ash. VII 284. Cf. yezne:, and see Doerfer I 340. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the marriage ceremony will be performed) kızlı küdegülike ‘for your daughter and son-in-law’ TT VI 344; (in a list of names) küdegümiz ‘our sons-in-law’ (followed by several names) Pfahl. 23, 13: Civ. küdegüm USp. 61, 12: O. Kır. ıx ff. Mai. 3, 6 (l ki:z): Xak. xı küde:gü: xatan ‘son-in-law’ Kaš. III 12 (yövüšlüg); III 166 (taya:k); n.m.e.: KB iki kadın erdi küdegü iki ‘two (of the Prophet’s Companions) were his fathers-in-law, two his sons-in-law’ 50: xııı (?) Tef. küdegü/ küzegü ‘son-in-law’ 187: xıv Muh. al-sihr ‘son-in-law’ gü:ye:gü: Mel. 49, xo; Rif. 144: Čağ. xv ff. küyew (‘with k-’) güyegü Vel. 376 (quotn.): küyew (spelt) damad ‘son-in-law’ San. 31 xr. 8 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv küdegü ‘bridegroom’ Qutb 105: Kom. xıv ‘son-in-law’ küyegü CCI; küyöv (also ‘bridegroom’) CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-šihr tva’l'arts (‘bridegroom’) kü:ye:gü (/yezne:) Hou. 32, 3; Tkm. al-za’tar ‘thyme’ kü:ye:gü o:ti: that is ‘the bridegroom’s herb’, because of its heating qualities and potency as an aphrodisiac on the wedding night do. 9, \\\ xıv küyewü: (one MS. adds ‘also küyegü:’) al-'aris Id. 84 (misplaced, under kef-lem): xv hamü tva hutva l-šihr (hamü is properly ‘father-, or brother-, in-law’) küyew; in margin in second hand, ‘also küyegi’ Tuh. 12b. 4; sihr küyew; Tkm. küyegü do. 22a. 5; 'aris küyew do. 24b. 10: Osm. xıv ff. güyegü ‘son-in-law; bridegroom’, and güyegü oti, in Rumi, sa'tar ‘thyme’, a mountain plant with narrow leaves and a sweet smell San. 311 r. 9.

D kedüklüg P.N./A. fr. kedük; pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı (after kedüklük) ‘and its owner with -g’ Kaš. I 508; kedüklüg öli:me:s ‘the owner of a lubbada who protects himself with it does not get wet’ III 256, 4 (the implication of this prov. is that al-lubbeda means rather ‘felt waterproof clothing’ than, more narrowly, ‘a felt cap’).

D kedüklük Hap. leg.; A.N. (conc. N.) fr. kedük. Xak. xı kedüklük kidiz ‘felt used for making waterproof clothing’ (al-mimfar) Kaš. I 508 (MS. kedüklük).

D küdüklüg Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. küdük. Xak. xı ıršlığ küdüklüg er ‘a man who is \\ engaged in business’ (dü šuğl via 'amal); küdüklüg is not used by itself (mufrada (n)) Kaš. I 509.

D kedgülük Hap. leg. (?) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. kedgü:. Xak. xı KB yarm bolğa eŋgü yegü kedgülük ‘to-morrow you will have good food and clothing’ 232.

Dis. GDL

D kötlük (g-) (saddlepad, попона) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. köt; survives in SW Osm. götlük ‘saddlepad’. Xak. xı kötlük a term of abuse (sabb) meaning ‘you effeminate creature’ (ye muxannat); but it really means ‘one on whom sodomy is committed’ Kaš. I 478.

Dis. V. GDL-

D kedil- (g-) Pass. f. of ke:d-; s.i.m.m.l. w. the same phonetic changes. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A MI 21, 3-5 (üze:) Man. buzağu kim arslanka kedilip ‘a calf which is reincarnated as a lion’ MI 18, 3 (2); waxšegler kim agar kedilmiš ‘the spirits (Sogdian l.-w.) which were reincarnated in him’ Man.-uig. Frag. 400, 1: Civ. ton üze ton kedilti saga ‘one garment after another was put on you’ TT I 149: Xak. xı to:n kedildi: ‘the garment (etc.) was put on’ (lubisa) Kaš. II 136 (kedilür, kedilme:k): Čağ. xv ff. keyil-pûštda šudan ‘to be put on, worn’ San. 302r. 1.

D kedle:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. ked. Xak. xı er kedlerdi: ictahada'l-racul tva fa'ala fi'la'l-aqiciya ‘the man exerted himself and did what strong men do’ Kaš. III 299 (kedle:r, kedle:me:k).

D kötle:- (g-) (sodomize) Den. V. fr. köt; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı <ol> oğla:nığ kötle:di: neka’l-ğuîem ‘he \\ committed sodomy with the boy’ (etc.) Kaš. III 299 (kötle:r, kötle:me:k); Kip. xıv kötle- is ta' mala l-dııbur ‘to commit sodomy’ Id. 79: XV xanita ‘to be effeminate’ (or pathic?) (tökle-; Hap. leg., Pmetathesis of)/kötle- Tuh. 15a. 9 (also taxannata töklen-/kötlen-9b. 10).

Dis. V. GDL-

D kötlet- (g-) (sodomize, break or burst) Caus. f. of kötle:- (sodomize); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol oğla:rnğ kotletti: aneka'l-ğulem ‘he made the boy (etc.) submit to sodomy’ Kaš. II 348 (kötletü:r, kötletme:k): Kıp. xıv kötleddi: (sı'c) faqqa'a ‘to break or burst’ (Trans.) Id. 79 (seems to belong here; faqqa'a may have some unrecorded sexual meaning).

Dis. GDM

D kedim (g-) (dress, garment) N.S.A. fr. ke:d-; lit. ‘a single act of putting on’, in practice ‘a garment’; syn. w. to:n. S.i.m.m.l. as keyim/kiyim/ ki:m; SW Osm. geyim/giyim ;Tkm. geyim. Cf. kedüt, kedük, kedgü:. Türkü vııı (his favourite charger was a grey horse,) kedim [gap] Ix. 4: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. arığ ton kedimlerig kedip ‘putting on clean clothes (Hend.)’ U II 42, 32-3; a.o. TT VIII D.38 (to:n): Xak. xı KB yetürse ičürse kedürse kedim (a general) ‘should provide food, drink, and clothing’ 2280; eginke kedim ‘clothes for one’s back’ 3664; a.o. 4773: xııı (P) At. 167-8 (torn); Tef. kedim ‘clothing’ 169, 308 (to:n): Xwar. xıv kedim tonlar Qutb 93.

D ketme:n (g-) (mattock) Dev. N. (N.I.). fr. 1 ket- (ged-) (notch, chip, gash); ‘a mattock’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some phonetic changes and extended meanings; in SW Osm. gedmen ‘a stone-mnson’s pick’ Sami 1152, Red. 1531. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in a list of farm property; one horse, one bull, one cow) bir ketmen ‘one mattock’ USp. 55, 10: Xak. xı ketme:n ‘a mattock’ (al-mi'zaq) with which the ground is dug up (yu'zaq) Kaš. I 444: Čağ. xv ff. ketmen ‘a spade (or mattock, bil) with which they dig lip the ground’ San. 3i2r. 13.

Tris. V. GDM

D kedimlig (g-) P.N./A. fr. kedim; s.i.s.m.l. with the same phonetic changes. In VIII it prob. meant ‘wearing protective clothing’, linen armour, and the like. Türkü vııı (thirdly, Kül Tegin mounted) Yegensilig begig kedimlig torığ at ‘Yegensilig Beg’s armoured bay horse’ IE 33: Uyğ. vııı bĞš yüz kedimlig yadağ ‘500 lightly-armoured (?) infantry’ Šu. S 9.

Dis. GDN

VU?D keten (chipped, cracked) Hap. leg.; so vocalized in the MS, but if it is a Dev. N. fr. 1 ket- (ged-) (notch, chip, gash) in the sense of ‘being chipped, cracked’, which seems a possible etymology of the word, ketin might have been expected. Syn. w. kük. Xak. xı keten al-mihna 'hardship, distress’; hence one says of a destitute man (al-mumtahan) keten kördi: kere:ku: yüdti: ‘he was so badly off that he had to carry his tent framework on his own back for lack of a baggage animal’ (min qilla melikŋ Kaš. I 404.

D ke:din (g-) (back, behind, afterwards) Den. Adj./Adv. fr. *ke: (back, behind); ‘behind’, usually of place, less often of time, ‘afterwards’; when used to describe one of the cardinal points in the early period ‘westwards, to the west’ in the array based on the rising sun (cf. öŋdün), and ‘northwards, to the north’ in the array based on the midday sun (cf. kündün). In the geographical usage sometimes treated as a N. and given Suffs. In the medieval period sometimes spelt ke:din, this was etymologically an error, but may have been a popular pronunciation which led to the evolution ke:din > keyin > keyn; the final form may have been no more than a mis-spelling or mispronunciation of ke:n (behind (place), after (time), later, thereafter, onwards, in future, finally), q.v. The NE forms, Küer., Šor kezin; Kč., Koib., Sag. ktfzin; Alt., I,ch., Tel. kı:n ‘behind; hinder part; back (wards)’ R II 1176, 1344 and NC Kır. kiyin ‘after, afterwards’; Kzx. keyin ‘backwards; behind; after’ suggest that this evolution did take place. Uyğ. vııı Šu. E 9 (iduk): vııı ff. Man.-A kedin in M I 21, 2 (iŋ seems to mean ‘afterwards’: Chr. M III 48, 1 (v) (batsik; ‘westwards’): Bud. occasionally ‘behind’, e.g. (letting his long hair loose) kedin arkasinta ‘down his back’ U II 25, 15 — usually in a directional sense kedin; (1) ‘westwards’ TT VI 83-5, 291; Suv. 466, 5-10; PP 13, 7 (ögdün); (2) ‘northwards’ TT VI 94-5 (ogdun); ucayan balık kedininte ‘to the west of the city of Ujjayini’ U IV 8, 1-2: Civ. kedin ‘westwards’ TT I 6, 142-3; USp. 109, 8-10; a.o.0. in TT VIi: Xak. xı ke:diıı telim ökündi: ‘then (tumma) he was very repentant’ I 200, 18; a.o. / 225, 17 (odğar-) — ke:din ‘behind’ (xalfa (n)) II 25 (kal-) — i:š ke:diŋe: ‘the consequences of the action’ II 142 (bakın-); n.m.e.: /CB (Thou art before all others) sen ögdün kedin ‘Thou art in front and behind’ 8; a.o. 18 — (the Prophet was in front of all leaders and) kedin boldi tamğa kamuğ savčıka ‘was after, and became the seal of all the prophets’ 45; kedin keldečike ‘to those that come after’ 192; menigde kedin ‘after I have died’ 1217 (the Fergana MS. consistently has k<5din, the Cairo MS. kedin): xııı (?) At. ökünmez kedin ‘and is not sorry afterwards’ 114; six o.o. — (first he gives you honey to taste) k^dinrek ‘and later’ (poison) 208 (the Ar. script MSS. habitually have kedin/kĞdin); Tef. kedin (sic) ‘behind; after, afterwards’ 169: xıv Rbğ. kedin ‘after’ (with Abl.) R II 1138 (quotns.): Čağ. xv ff. keyn (‘with k-’) ard... pas ma'nesina ‘behind, thereafter (?)’; keyin ardından Vel. 354 (quotns.); keyn/keyin (both spelt) 'aqab ‘hinder part, behind’ San. 302r. e: Xwar. xıv kedin/R^din (sic) ‘after, afterwards’ Qutb 93-6; Nahc. 29, 17.

D küde:n Dev. N. in -n fr. *küde:-; cf. küde:gü:; (1) ‘entertainment, feast’, originally perhaps specifically ‘wedding feast’; (2) ‘a guest’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. küden ‘guest’ PP 69, 3 (1 üŋ; Hüen-ts. 2060-2 (terištür-): Civ. (if you sneeze in the evening) \\ kilden kelir 'a guest is coming’ TT VII 35, 13: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. ‘guest’ küden Ligeti 177: R II i48e:'Xak. xı küden (MS. küden) al-tvalima ‘feast, entertainment’ Kaš. I 404: KB kelin kız sevinčl küden tünleri ‘the bride’s delight is in the nights of the wedding feast’ 2380; (there are various kinds of meals for guests) olarda birisi küdenke aš ol ‘one is the meal for a wedding’ (another for a circumcision or the birth of a son) 4575 : xıv Muh. (?) da'walu'l- urs ‘a wedding invitation’ kü:ye:n (MS. kü:be:n) konu:klu:ki: Rif. 164 (only).

Tris. GDN

D kedindi: (g-) (old, worn (garment)) Hap. leg.; Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. the Refl. f. of ke:d-. Xak. xı kedindi: to:n ‘a garment which has been worn a good deal’ (al-malbıls katîra (n)) Kaš. I 449.

D ke:dinki: (g-) (behind, subsequent) N./A.S. fr. ke:din; ‘situated behind (of place); subsequent (of time)’. N.o.a.b. Cf. k^nki: Xak. xı Kaš. III 14 (yalığ): xııı (?) Tef. tva me xalfahum ‘what was subsequent to (or followed (?)) them’ anlarda kezinki (sic) 169.

D küdenlik (salon, guestroom) Hap. leg.; A.N. (conc. N.) fr. küde:n, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. in the instructions for building a house küdenlik ‘a place for housing, or entertaining, guests’ is mentioned between the kitchen and the great and small doors TT VI 86.

Dis. GDR

D kötrüg (raise, lift) Hap. leg.; N.Ac. fr. kötür- (lift up, raise, carry), abbreviated ; mentioned only as an example of this type of N.Ac. Xak. xı anij) yük kötrügi: kör ‘observe how he lifts the load’ (rafahu’l--hamŋ Kaš. II 166, iz.

D kedrim (cut-skinned meat) Hap. leg.; N.S.A. fr. kedir-; abbreviated. Xak. xı kedrim (MS. -d-) et al-Iahnvt'l-masltlx ‘meat which has been skinned’ Kaš. I 485.

D küdrüm (honored, dignified, respected) noted only in association with üdrüm and perhaps invented merely as a jingle with that word, etymologically N.S.A., abbreviated, fr. *küdür-, Caus. f. of küd- (wait, endure, tend, cherish, respect, pasture, posses, track down, watch, protect, покуда, ждать,ожидать, обслуживать) (покуда); ‘commanding attention or respect’. Xak. xı KB (next among the Prophet’s four Companions was Faruq) kiši üdrümi tili kögli bir teg kiši küdrümi ‘choicest of men; his tongue and mind were as one, the most respected of men’ 53; ne üdrüm ne küdrüm ne ersig eren ‘what a choice, respected and gallant man’ 279; bodun küdrümi (rhyming with üdrümŋ ‘respected by the people’ 417, 1689.

D kötrüm (raised, elevation) Hap. leg.; N.S.A. fr. kötür- (lift up, raise, carry), abbreviated; in the sense of something which is raised above the ground. Xak. xı kötrüm al-dukkenu'Uadi yuclas 'alayhi ‘a bench on which one sits’ Kaš. I 485.

Dis. V. GDR-

kedir- (cut a strip) Hap. leg.; but see kedrim (cut-skinned meat), kedril- (cut a strip), kedriš- (cut a strip), Xak. xı ol ko:yuğ kedirdi: calafa’l-šet iva qaddndahn ‘he skinned the sheep and cut (the meat) into strips’ Kaš. II 76 (kedire:r, kedirme:k).

D kedür- (g-) (to dress) Caus. f. of ke:d- (to dress); ‘to dress (someone Dat.) in (something Acc.)'. Survives in several NE languages, R II 1177, and Khak. as kezir-; Tuv. kedir-; in other languages, in which ke:d- has become key- or the like, the Caus. Suff. -dür-, or the like, is normally used. Türkü vııı fF. Man. [gap] sinindan amranmak biligig üntürüp tintura [teŋri] üze kedürür ‘from his... organ he produces the disposition to love, and clothes the God of the Zephyr with it’ M III 16, 1-3 (ı); o.o. do. 6-11 (ı): Xak. xı ol maga: to:n kedürdi: ‘he dressed me (albasanŋ in a garment’ (etc.) Kaš. II 76 (kedürür, kedürme:k): xııı (?) Tef. keyür- ditto 179: Xwar. xıv kedür-/kedür-/keddür-/keydür- ditto Qutb 93-6; kĞyür- MİV 48: Osm. xıv ff. geyür-/giyür- ditto was the normal Caus. f. until xvı and is noted once in xvııı TTS I 313; II 430; 111 300; IV 344.

D ke:ter- (g-) (go, leave, depart, disappear) Caus. f. of 2 ke:t-; ‘to send awav, take away, remove’, and the like; -er- is a very unusual Caus. Suff., and was perhaps due to a conscious effort to avoid confusion with ketür-, a Sec. f. of keltür-, which has exactly the opposite meaning, but this word seems to be a good deal older than that Sec. f. Survives in SE Türki keter- Shaw 175 (only) NC Kır. ketir-: NW Kk., Nog. ketir-; Kaz. kiter-: SW Osm. gider-; other languages use other Caus. f.s, e.g. ketkür-. In some languages there is a confusing convergence of meaning with kötür- (lift up, raise, carry), Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. [Sanskrit lost] ögi u:ğul (sic) ketetrip erse:r yeme: ‘even if one has removed the child’ TT VIII F.3; Sanskrit apahara ‘take away’ ögi kete:rgil do. G. 17; (the Buddha) alku korkmčlarığ keterdeči ‘who drives away all fears’ TT X 122; o.o. do. 182, 279; U III 48, iq; IV 30, 39 TT VII 40, 93; etc.: Civ. (wrap various ingredients in paper, heat them) kegdesin keterip ‘remove the paper and’ HI 152; a.o.o.: Xak. xı ol ta:šığ yo:ldin (MS. yaldan) ke:terdi: ‘he removed (nahhe) the stone from the road’; also used when one removes (ft izela) anything from its place Kaš. III 187 (ke:terür, ke:terme:k): biligsizlik kete:r (jic) ‘drive (adfa') ignorance out of your mind’ I 440, 20; a.o. III 164, 4 (nahhe): KB šarl'at yüzindin k^terdi ešük ‘he removed the veil from the face of the religious law’ 54; keterse tuman ‘he must disperse the fog’ 285; ketürür tatığ ‘it takes away the taste’ (of a meal) 4113; o.o. 285 (ajunčı:), 385 (2 azuk), 6075 (osa:nuk): xııı (?) At. (God makes the night dark) künüg keterip ‘taking away your day (or sun)’; tünüg keterip ‘dispelling your night’ (he makes the dawn bright) 15-16; Tef. keter- ‘to take away, remove’ 17e: xıv Muh. (?) ab'ada ‘to send away’ ke:ter- Rif. 102 (only); ba"ada ‘to drive away’ k&ter- 105 (MS. ke.tür-); šarafa tva 'azala ‘to dismiss, remove’ (esp. from an office) ke:ter- (unvocalized) 111: Čağ. xv ff. köter- (-gey) gider- Vel. 355: \706\ keter- burdan ‘to carry off, remove’ San. 311 v. 15 (quotns.; there is much confusion in San. between k^ter- and kötür- (lift up, raise, carry), due perhaps to the fact that burdan also means ‘to carry’; San. adds here ‘in Rumi göter-’): Xwar. xıv ketir- ‘to remove’ Qutb 97; MN 150: Kom. xıv ‘to remove’ ketir- CCG; Gr. 142 (quotn.; perhaps to be assigned to ketür-); Kip. xııı zeha ‘to remove’ ketür- (sic) Hou. 40, 14; nahhe rnin izelati’l-šay' min makenihi ketür- (sic) do. 44, 4: xv keter- adhaba'1-šay', muta'addi'to remove something’, Caus. Kav. 9, 18; 76, 4: Osm. xıv ff. gider- ‘to remove, destroy, dismiss’; common TTS I 311; II436; III 397; IV 341.

S ketür- See keltür-.

kötür- (kötör- ; g-) (lift up, raise, carry) ‘to lift up, raise’, with various extended meanings; prima facie a Caus. f., but no convincing etymology based on this hypothesis has yet been suggested. S.i.a.m.l.g., often in such forms as köter-, which point to an original kötör- (the form in NC Kır.); NW Kumyk göter-: SW Osm. götür-; Tkm. göter-. See ke:ter- (go, leave, depart, disappear). Türkü vııı (Heaven) yügerü: kötürrmiš erinč ‘must have raised up’ (my father and mother) IE 11, II E 10; similar phr. do. 25, 21: vııı ff. Man. basin (sic) yokaru kötürüp ‘raising his head’ MI 6, 2: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A [gap] emgek kötürmeyin ‘let me not (have to) bear the painof (?)’M 116,14 (in: Man. arkuluğtağığ kötürüp ‘raising the mountain surrounded by valleys’ TT IX 77: Chr. kötürü umadilar ‘they could not lift’ (the stone) U I 8, 2: Bud. kötürü alıp ‘lifting and taking’ (the demon’s daughter to his bosom) U II 25, 17; (the wind) kötürü eltip ‘lifting and carrying off’ TT V 10, 85; tamudaki emgekin tükel kötürür ‘he endures all the pains of hell’ TT VI 446; o.o. do. 451; VII 40, 141; X 125; USp. 105b. \\ 4 etc.: Xak. xı er yük kötürdi: ‘the man carried the load’ (hamala'l-himl); also used of a woman when she is pregnant (hamilat) Kaš. II 75 (kötürür, kötürme:k; prov.); a.o.o.; KB (he subdued the enemy and) kötürdi özün ‘raised himself up’ 101; (keep those who love him safe and) yağısın kötür ‘remove his enemies’ 117; körüšmez yağılar kötürdi öčln ‘enemies who do not see one another get rid of mutual malice’ 145; bu küčgey küčini bodun kötrümez ‘the people cannot endure the violence of the violent man’, 2030; a.o.o. (common in all these shades of meaning): xııı (?) At. nlqab kötrür ajun ‘this world wears a veil’ (and from time to time uncovers its face) 221; kötrür idl ‘God raises’ (the humble) 281; o.o. 242 (uzal-), 332, 447; Tef. kötür-; ‘to lift, to carry’ 187: xıv Mith. al-ihtimel ‘to carrygötürmek Mel. 13, 12 (and 35, 14 v.l.); Rif. 89; hamala tva rafa'a (‘to lift’) görtür-, 25, 11; 108; šela ‘to lift’ ditto 27, 9; no; al-raf' götürmek 36, 5; 122: Čağ. xv ff. köter- (-güg, -dŋ götür- Vel. 363; köter- (spelt) bar deštan ‘to raise, pick up, carry off’, etc. San. 302V. 27 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı köter- ‘to raise, remove, carry off' 'AH 7, 24: xıv köter-/kötür- ditto Qutb 104; \\\ Nahc. 106, 8 ff.: Kom. xıv ‘to raise; to take away; to be pregnant with’ köter-/kötir-/ kötür- CCI, CCG; Gr. 156 (quotns.): Kip. xııı rafa'a kötür- Hou. 36, 7; šela kötür-do. 41, e: xıv kötür’ hamala Id. 78: xv kötür- hamala tva našafa (‘to absorb’) Kav. 9, 18; 74, 8; Tuh. 13b. 6; šela tva hamala kötür- do. 2 ib. 1 : Osm. xıv ff. götür- ‘to move, remove, carry, lift’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 327; II 457; III 313; IV 358.

D kü:ttür- (g-) Hap. leg. ?; Caus. f. of kü:d-; Xak., but in a meaning described by Koš. as Oğuz xı ol ayar ko:y kü:ttürdı: ‘he made him tend (ar'dhu) the sheep’ (etc.) Kaš. III 187 (kü:ttürür, kü:ttürnıe:k).

D kedril- (cut a strip) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of kedir- (cut a strip); unvocalized throughout. Xak. xı ko:y kedrildi: quddati'l-šet tnina’l-qadid ‘the sheep (’s flesh) was cut into strips’ Kaš. II 237 (kedrllü:r, kedrilme:k).

D kedrül- Hap. leg.?; Pass. f. of kedür-. Xak. xı to:n kedrüldi: ‘the garment (etc.) was put on’ (lubisa) Kaš. II 237 (kedrülü:r, kedrülme:k).

D kötrül- (g-) Pass. f. of kötür- (lift up, raise, carry); s.i.s.m.l. but usually as a Tris.; SW Osm. götürül-;. Tkm. göterll- Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. [Sanskrit lost] a:tı: (spelt a:dhŋ kötrölmiš ‘whose name is exalted’ (a common epithet of the Buddha) TT VIII A.22; X 107; USp. 60 II a 10 etc.: Civ. atıg küg kötrülgey (MS. by inadvertance köt-lürgey) ‘your name and fame will be exalted’ TT I 43: (Xak.) xııı (?) At. kedin künde xayr iš me kötrülgüluk ‘in the Last Day good deeds shall be exalted’ 390; Tef. kötü-rül- ‘to be raised; to be removed’ (fromsomewhere Abl.) 187: Xwar. xıv kötrül- ‘to be raised’ Qutb 104: Kom. xıv ‘suspended, hung up’ kötürülmiš CCI; Gr.: Osm. xıv to xvı götrül-/götürül- ‘to be removed, put aside’; in several texts TTS II 457; III 312; IV 358.

D kedriš- (cut a strip) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of kedir-; fully vocalized. Xak. xı ol maya: et kedrlšdi: ‘he helped me to cut the skinned meat into strips’ (bi-taqdidi'l-mashlx) Kaš. II 222 (kedrišü:r, kedrišme:k).

D kedrüš- (g-) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of kedür-, Xak. xı ola:r ikki: to:n kedrušdi: ‘they two dressed one another’ (albasa... tatvb) Kaš. II 222 (kedrüšü:r, kedrušme:k).’

D kötruš- (g-) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of kötür- (lift up, raise, carry), Xak. xı ol maga: yük kötrüšdi: ‘he helped me to lift (/’ rafa') the load’ (etc.) Kaš. II 222 (kötrüšü:r, kötrüšme:k).

Tris. GDR

D ketirti: (g-) (behind, rear) Hap. leg.; Adv. fr. *ke: (back, behind); ‘behind, in the rear’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT I 122 (tepre:-).

D kötürgü: (g-) Hap. leg.; Conc. N. fr. kotür-, Xak. xı kötürgü al-mitıqala ‘a means of transport’ Kaš. I 490.

Tris. V. GDR-

D kedürse:- (g-) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of kedür-, Xak. xı ol mapa: to:n kedürse:di: ‘he wished to dress me’ (yaksilml-tawb) Kaš. III 332 (kedürse:r, kedürse:me:k).

D kötürse:- (g-) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of kötür- (lift up, raise, carry); quoted only as a grammatical example. Xak. xı er yük kötürse:di: ‘the man wished to carry the load’ (yahmilu l-himl) Kaš. I 280, 19; n.m.e.

Dis. V. GDŠ-

D kötiš- (g-) Recip. f. of 1 ke:t-; s.i.s.m.l.; SW Osm., Tkm. gidiš-; but this V. in Osm. in the sense of ‘to itch’ is a Sec. f. of the Co-op. f. of klči:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (you should quickly become associated with the well-disposed and) terk öpkeči ketišgüči ‘and separate yourself from the quick tempered’ TT VII 17, 23 (the grammar is very ruŋged; translated fr. Chinese): Xak. xı olar bi:r ekindi:di:n ketišdi: ‘they parted (tafarraqa) from one another’ Kaš. I1 89 (ketišü:r, ketišme:k; so vocalized).

D küdüš- Hap. leg.?; Recip. f. of kü:d-. Xak. xı oIa:r bi:r bi:rig küdüšdi: ‘they waited (intazara) for one another’ Kaš. II 94 (küdüšü:r, küdüšme:k; MS. everywhere -d-). ‘

Dis. GDZ

kidiz (felt)felt’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW (where the Oğuz word 1 keče:, q.v., is used) in a wide variety of forms ranging fr. NE Tuv. kidis to NW Kk. ki:z with kiyiz as the commonest form. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 33 (ur-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in a contract; ‘as I required’) kidiz ‘a felt’ USp. 63, 2; a.o. do. 79, 11-12 (uyukluk): Xak. xı kidiz al-libd ‘felt’ Kaš. I 366; six o.o.: KB 4442 (azaŋ: xıv Muh. al-lubbed ‘felt’ gbyiz Mel. 67, 15; khyiz Rif. 168: Čağ. xv ff. kiz (‘with k-’) keče ‘felt’ Vel. 357 (quotn.); kiz ‘felt’ (namad), in Ar. libd San. 3i4r. 7 (same quotn.): Xwar. xıv kiyiz ‘felt’ Qutb 98; Nahc. 31, 7: Kom. xıv ‘felt’ kiyiz CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-lubbed kiyiz (or ki:z?) Hou. 17,4: xıv (under kef zdl) ki:z ditto td. 82; a.o. do. 79 (1 keče:): xv ditto kiz Tuh. 31b. 10.

Dis. V. GDZ-

S ködez- (watch over, protect) ‘to watch over’ and the like; n.o.a.b. Unquestionably a metathesis of közed-, q.v.; the semantic similarity with küd- (wait, endure, tend, cherish, respect, pasture, posses, track down, watch, protect, покуда, ждать,ожидать, обслуживать) (покуда) is purely coincidental, since morphologically the two words could not be connected. Xak. xı ol maga: ködezdi: ‘he looked after (the thing) for my sake’ (hafaza'1-šay’ li-aclŋ; and one says ol meni: ködezdi: intazaranl ‘he waited for me’ (or ‘looked for me’); this V. is constructed from (tubne 'an) both (concepts) al-hifs and al-intizer; its origin is kö:z attı: ‘he cast his eyes’ on something to look after it; this is also in the V. közetti: Kaš. II 86 (köderzür (sic), ködezme:k); teŋri: meni: ködezdi: hafazaniîleh II 162, 6; yavlak ködez tılıgnı: \\ ‘keep a firm guard (ihfa?... hifz šadid) on your tongue’ III 43, 20; arslarn karı:sa: sičğa:n ütln köde:zü:r ‘when a lion grows old it watches (yartašid) the mouse's hole’ III 263, 5: KB ködez- is fairly common in two senses; (1) ‘to watch over, protect’, e.g. ilehı ködezgil meniŋ köglümi ‘O God, protect my mind’ 47; o.o. 384, 1271; (2) ‘to keep under control’ 167 (1 tı:š), 600 (2 yaz-), 967, 234e: xııı (?) At. til ködezmek 130, 157; ködez aye düst uluğlar haqqin ‘my friend, respect the rights of mighty ones’ 345.

Tris. GDZ

D kidizge:k Hap. leg.; Den. N./A. fr. kidiz (felt), ‘felt-like; of the consistency of felt’. Xak. xı kidizge:k ka:ğu:n ‘a melon that has lost its freshness (tarawa) and become just like felt’ (ka'l-libd matala (n)) Kaš. II 290.

D kidizlig Hap. leg. ?; P.N./A. fr. kidiz (felt). Xak. xı (after kidizlik) and with -g (i.e. kidizlig) ‘one who owns (felt)’ Kaš. I 507.

D kidizlik Hap. leg.; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. kidiz (felt). Xak. xı kidizlik yuŋ ‘wool destined to be made into felt’ (al-libd) Kaš. I 507.

D ködezlig Hap. leg.; abbreviated N./A.S. fr. ködezil-; such N./A.S.s fr. Tris. V.s are very rare, and the precise form of this one was prob. devised to suit the metre. Xak. xı KB sevükrek atın er kišenlig tutar kereklig atın kör ködezlig tutar ‘a man keeps his favourite horse hobbled, but his ordinary working horse he (merely) keeps under observation’ 315.

Tris. V. GDZ-

D ködezil- Pass. f. of ködez-; n.o.a.b.; cf. ködezlig. Xak. xı KB (keep your tongue under control and) ködezildi baš ‘your head is protected’ 176; a.o. 1271: xııı (?) At. ködezilse bu til ködezlür özüg ‘if your tongue is kept under control, you yourself are protected’ 158.

Mon. G(Q)G

kek (malice, spite, secret hatred, revenge, desire for revenge) practically syn. w. 1 o:č and in the early period generally used in Hend. w. it; originally prob. ‘malice, spite, secret hatred’; thence ‘a desire for revenge’, and finally ‘revenge’ and other extended meanings. Survives as kek in NC Kır., Kzx.: SC Uzb. and several NW languages. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT II 17, 84-5 (1 öč): Bud. U II 23, 13-14 (1 ö:č): Xak. xı kek al-hiqd ‘malice’; hence one says öčlüg keklig kiši: šehibu l-hiqdwa'l-ta'r ‘a malicious, revengeful man’ Kaš. II 283 (the following word vocalized w. a fatha is kük); I 43 and 230, 4 (1 ö:č): KB 2313 (1 ö:č): Kom. xıv ‘hatred’ kek CCG; Gr.

PU ke:h Hap. leg.; an Exclamation. At the end of the section containing this and similar Mon.s Kaš. says that they are pronounced... keh ... in rapid speech, but not in writing and that the -h is (silent) like the he’u'1-istireha // in Ar. of which examples are quoted; the word should therefore perhaps he transcribed ke: Xak. xı ke:h ke:h ‘an Exclamation (harf) used in calling a dog’ Kaš. III 118.

kök, etc. Preliminary note. There is great difficulty in determining how many early Turkish words of this general form there were and what were the qualities of their vowels and final consonants. Naud’i had the same difficulty, see the quotn. fr. the Muhekimatu’l-luğatayn in Vel., P■ 37° (top) where five alternative meanings are given: — ‘sky, melody, seam, cauterization (see 4 kök (4 kö:k) (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey)) and vegetation'. After the correction mentioned under kek has been made Kaš. lists three words with a short vowel and ten (some alternative meanings of the same word) with a long one. The first three mean 'pain, suffering' (kük or küg?); 'root' (kök) and 'thong' (kök) respectively. There is also another apparently early word meaning ’seam’ or the like (kök). If this really is the word in Uyğ. it can hardly be a l.-w. fr. Pe. kük 'basting', and in that event the Pe. word may be a Turkish l.-w., but the status of the word is a little uncertain. Of the second ten the first (and so presumably the next six) are described as ending in -g, and the eighth (and so presumably the other two) as ending in -k. The first two 'metre' and ‘melody’ are alternative translations of the same word kü:g and the third 'a popular joke’ is prob. an extended meaning of it. The fourth and fifth relating to animals were also certainly kü:g. The sixth and seventh, 'rust' and ‘freckles', must be alternative translations of the same word which does not seem to be traceable elsewhere, but was perhaps kü:g. The eighth and ninth 'sky’ and 'sky coloured’ are alternative translations of kö:k. The last entry is a phr. meaning ‘a village headman’ otherwise traced only in KB; it is possible that the first element is the same word as the preceding.

1 kök (root, origin) 'root, origin’, lit. and metaph.; described by Kaš. as Oğuz/Kıp. but occurs in KB; survives in NE Tuv.: SW Az., Osm., Tkm. Cf. tü:b, tö:z, yıltız. Türkü vııı I E 3, II E 4 (? ; oksiz): Xak. xı KB bular erdi dîn ham šarî’at köki ‘these were the root of the faith and religious law’ 59; iki neg turur ašh yıldız kökl ‘two things are its origin and root (Hend.) 2132; yemi ot köki ‘his food was the roots of plants’ 6155; o.o. 338 (kaz-), 821, 2015, 2183, 5907: xııı (?) At. köki körklüg ernig xüyı körklüg ol ‘a man of fine family has a fine disposition’ 317; Tef. kök ‘lineage, origin, root’ 182: xıv Mult, (under ‘terms of relationship’) ašlu’l-nasab ‘lineage’ gö:g (sic, in error?) Mel. 49, 2; kö:k Rif. 143: Čağ. xv ff. kök riša-i diraxt ‘the root of a tree’ San. 307V. 18: Kıp./Oğuz xı kök al-ašl; hence one says kökürj kim mimman ašluk wa ile man tantami mina'l-qabayil Svho is your ancestor, and to what tribe do you trace your origin ?’ Kaš. II 284: Kom. xıv ‘origin, lineage’ kök <7 (7/; Gr. r50 (quotn.): Kip. xııı (‘sky’) kök; it is also ‘family, origin, human semen’ (al-cins wa'l-ašl wa'I-nutfa) Hou. 5, 1 : xıv kök al-cins; one says kö:küg ne: dür ‘what is your family?’ Id. 83; al-cins kök (/farnıŋ Bul. 5, e: xv (‘sky’) kö:k also al-cins in the sense of the races of mankind like Türk, Rûm, and Habaša Kav. 58, 2; cins kök Tuh. 11b. 12.

2 kök (latch, thong) (cock) ‘thong’ and the like. Survives in NC Kır.; NW Kk. kök ‘a leather thong used to hold together the framework of a yurt; a narrow thong used by cobblers’. Xak. xı kök rabtu l-sarc ’the thong fastening a saddle’; prov. er sö:zi: bi:r eder köki: ü:č ‘it is a sign of manliness to have one word and not to go back on it, just as there are three thongs on a saddle-bow’ (rabt hatmi'l-sarc); if there were one more the saddle-bow (al-qarbfis) would break because of the excessive number of holes in it, and if there were less, the two thongs would not take the weight of a man Kaš. II 283.

3 kök (seam) ‘seam’ or the like. Survives in NE Alt., Tel. kök ‘seam’ R II 1221; (Tuv. kökte- ‘to sew (together), to file (papers)’ and the like): SC Uzb. kük ‘basting, oversewing’. Uyğ. vııı fî. Civ. (if a mouse) yoğurkanığ öz kökün ısırsar ‘bites a blanket or its own (?) seams’ TT VII 36, 10-n; (in a document about the issue of cloth) Semiške tonka köküge (? so read) bir böz bertim ‘I gave Semiš one (roll of) cloth for a garment and its seams’ (?) USp. 38, 8-9: Čağ. xv ff. kök (1) bixha-i buzurg ki bar cema tva amtel-i en zadattd ‘large seams which they make in a garment and the like’ San. 307V. 14 (bix normally means 'root’, but must here mean ‘seam’ or perhaps ‘basting’); yana kök tikerde köklemek dür ‘again there is the verb ‘to make seams’ (or ‘to baste’ ?) for sewing seams’ Vel. 370, 4-5 (quotn. fr. Nawa’i).

4 kö:k (g-) (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey) basically ‘the sky’; hence ‘sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey’, etc.; for a similar range of colours cf. yašil. S.i.a.m.l.g. in both meanings except NE, where it has only the second (various Sec. f.s of teŋri: reborrowed fr. Mong. being used in the first) (teŋri: is an allophone of Sumerian dengir, which excludes the Mong. origin); in SW Osm. gök (before vowels gög...); Tkm. gö:k (gö:g - . •); these forms and Az. köy suggest that, in spite of Kaš.’s categorical statement that the final was -k, the original form may have been gö:g. See Doerfer III 1677. Türkü vııı üze: kök teŋri: asra: yağiz yer kılıntukda: ‘when the blue sky above and the brown earth below were created’ IE r, IIE 2; kök teyigin ‘their grey squirrel skins’ II N 12, 5 12; kök (VU) ög name of a river T 15; (I E 3, IIE 4?, see oksız): vııı ff. kök yürüŋ taš ‘a blue white stone’ Toy. 5 (ETY II 57); o.o. do. 21; IrkB 64 (buymulj: Man. üze’ on kat kök asra segiz (sic) kat yer ‘the ten-fold skies above and the eight-fold earth below’ Chuas. 42-4: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kög (î/c) kalığ (sic) yüzinte ‘on the surface of the sky’ TT III 129; (the demons who fell) köklerden... yergerü ‘from the heavens to earth’ M II 7, \709\ 17: Chr. U 7 8, 13 (tegk): Bud. (my younger brother) kök teŋrike yoklağay ’will (metaphorically) rise as high as heaven’ PP 57, 2; a.o. do. 61, 4; üstün kökdeki ‘situated above in the sky’ TT VII 40, 11 — 12; o.o. U II 37, 53-4 etc. (kalık) — kök Hnxwa ‘a blue lotus’ PP \\ 38, 1-2; Suv. 347, -8; (he drew mortals) sansarlığ kök titigdin ‘out of the grey mud of the cycle of rebirths’ (Sanskrit samsera) TT V 26, 85-8; a.o.o. mainly for ’blue’ and the like: Civ. TT I 23 (uč-): xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. R II 240 (kalık): O. Kır. ıx ff. (I have parted from) kök teŋri:de: kün a:y ‘the sun and moon in the blue sky’ Mai. 10, 3; 45, 5: Xak. xı kö:k (‘with -k’) al-same’ ‘the sky’ (prov.); kö:k to:n ‘a dark grey (akhab) garment’; also any colour (lawn) like the colour of the sky; and one says kend körkJ: ‘the suburbs (sawad) of a town, referring to the greenness (xudra) of the trees Kaš. III 132; the Turks say köp kö:k for ağbaru’I--mušba'u’l-lazon ‘dark dust-coloured’, and the Oğuz say köm kö:k; kö:k is al-akhab I 328, 19-20; ko:k temür ‘blue (al-azraq) iron’ I 361, 26; a.o. do. 362, 9; III 162 (čüwit); a.o.o. for ‘sky’: KB yašıl kök ‘the blue sky’ 3, 1002 — (the dry trees clothe themselves in green (yašıl), crimson, scarlet, yellow), kök ‘blue’ (and red) 67; a.o.0. in both senses: xııı (?) Tef. kök ‘heaven’ (and earth) 182: xıv Muh. azraqu’l-qamis ‘in a blue shirt’ kö:k to:nli: Mel. 11, 1; Rif. 84; al-azraq kö:k; šadidu’l-zurqa gö:m gö:g (sic) 68, 4-8; 168 (kÖ:m kö:k); al-same’ gö:g (sic); al-macarra ‘the Milky Way’ gö:g yo:lı:; qatvs quzah ‘rainbow’ gö:g ya:yı: 78, 16; 183: (Čağ. see Osm.): Oğuz xı köm an Intensifying Partide (harf mubeliğa) for al-latvnu’ l-ağbar, one says kö:m kö:k ‘dark dust-coloured’ 1 338; a.o. 1 328 (Xak.): Xwar. xıv kök ‘green’ Qutb roo; ‘heaven’ MN 78, etc.; Kom. xıv kök ‘sky’ CCG; ‘blue’ CCI; Gr. 150 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-same’ kök wa hmva'l-azraq Hou. 5,1; al-azraq kök do. 31, 3; tawkid wasfi'l-azraq köz kö:k (sic) do. 31, 7: xıv kök al-azraq wa yutlaq 'ale’l-same’ Id. 83: kö:k yolu: al-macarra do. 83; köm kök al-šadîdu l-zurqa; its origin wa köp kök do. 84; al-same’ kök Bul. 2, 11: xv they say köm kök fi ta’kidi’l--zurqa Kav. 5, 7; al-same’ kö:k... rva’l-azraq mina’l-alwan do. 58, 2; azraq kök Tuh. 4a. 2; 83b. 6; sama’ kök do. 18b. 7; lazward ‘lapis lazuli’ kök berez do. 38b. 13: Osm. xıv ff. gök ‘blue’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 316; II 444; III 304; IV 348: xvııı gög (so spelt) in Rumi (ŋ sabza tva ülang ‘vegetation, meadow’; (2) rang-i kabxid ‘blue’ (quotn.), for ‘intensely blue’ gög gömek; (3) asmen ‘sky’ (quotns.); (4) metaph. as an expression for ‘cauterization’ (siizendan değ) for which they burn blue paper San. 307V. 19 (the quotns. are in Čağ., the ‘Rumi’ may refer to the spelling gög, not to the word itself); göm gög (so spelt) ‘intensely blue’, also called gög gömek 309V. 10 (not described as Rumi, but the spelling suggests it), VU 5 kö:k in the phr. kö:k ayu:k; pec. to Xak. Ayu:k is otherwise unknown, and its \\\ meaning obscure; it is not therefore possible to say whether kö:k in this phr. has one of its normal meanings. Xak. xı kö:k ayu:k (spelt as one word, but immediately follows 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey)) ‘the title given to the headmen of villages and Türkmen (tribes)’ (akebiratul-rasetiq tva’l--turkmen) Kaš. III 133: KB (hear the words of) bilir kök ayuk ‘the wise headman’ 2644; (in a passage about the appointments open to persons at the royal court; some become öge:) kayu kök ayukluk üze at alur ‘some receive the title of ‘headman’ 4067 (some inanč beğ, čağrı beg, kül erkin (?) or čavlı beg).

VUF 1 kü:g (song, melody) ‘song, melody’, and the like; l.-w. fr. Chinese ch’ü, Middle Chinese k’jok, ‘song’ (Giles 3,062). Survives in most NE languages; NC Kır., Kzx.; SC Uzb. as kü, küg, küy; l.-w. in Pe. as kük in such phr. as kük kardan ‘to tune (an instrument)’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. tükedi Afrin Čor Tegin kügi ‘here ends Afrin Čor T^gin’s hymn’ M 11 8, 19; a.o. (?) do. 7, 1-2 (takšut): Xak. xı kü:g (‘with -g’) 'arııdu’I-ši'r ‘the metre of a poem’; one says bu: yi:r ne: kü:g üze: ol ‘what is the metre of this poem V (ğazal): kü:ğ ‘the tune of a song’ (al-lahn ft l-ğine); hence one says er kü:glendi: ğane’l-racul bi-lahn lahu ‘the man sang a song in its (right) tune’; (in a verse, misplaced after 3 kü:g (care, pasturing, cared)) kü:gler kamuğ tüzüldi: waqa'ati’l-muwefaqa bayn alheni’l--ğine’ ‘harmony has been established between the tunes of the songs’ Kaš. III 131: Čağ. xv ff. kük ('with k- -k’) sez čalmak ‘playing a musical instrument, or a tune’ Vel. 369 (quotns.); kük (between 3 kök and 1 kök) (2) ehang-i sez ‘the tuning of a musical instrument' San. 307V. 14 (quotns.; the para, ends by saying that in Pe. the wTord means (1) ‘lettuce’; (2) ‘cough’; (3) ‘dome’).

VU 2 kü:g (joke) immediately follows the two entries of 1 kü:g (song, melody), and is prob. merely an extended meaning of that word, since there is a similar combination of meanings in Khak. Xak. xı kü:g the word for any ‘joke’ (adhuka) which circulates among the people of any town during some year and is passed from mouth to mouth; hence one says bu: yıl kü:g keldi: ‘this year’s joke has arrived’ Kaš. III 131.

?D 3 kü:g (care, pasturing, cared) no doubt Dev. N./A. fr. kü:- (protect, cover); survives only (?) in NC Kzx. küy ‘the tending of livestock’; this word also means ‘the condition of livestock’, which may belong here, or be an attenuated meaning of 4 kü:g (küy) (horny (sex), sexy) (хуй, cock). Xak. xı kü:g yılkı: al-debbatu’l-masrüha ačma' ‘cattle driven out to pasture in a herd’ Kaš. III 131 (followed by a verse illustrating 1 kü:g (song, melody)).

4 kü:g (küy) (horny (sex), sexy) (хуй, cock) survives in the NC Kır. phr. kü:gö kel- (of sheep and other female animals) ‘to be on heat, ready to be mated’; Kzx. küy (хуй) (see 3 kü:g (care, pasturing, cared)) seems to have the same meaning, cf. küylö- (of cattle, sheep and dogs) ‘to mate' R II 1420. Xak. xı kü:g sifedtt’l-kabš tva’l--wuxt'tf fi aıvenihi }etiya (n), ‘the mating of \710\ rams and wild animals in the mating season in winter’; hence one says ko:y kü:gi: boldi: ‘the mating season for sheep (etc.) has arrived’ Kaš. III 132.

PU 5 kü:g (rust, freckle) Hap. leg. in both senses; for ‘rust’ the ordinary words are bas and 2 tat; there is no generally accepted Turkish word for ‘freckle’; SW Osm. uses či:l, but most languages use words derived, with some phonetic changes, fr. Mong. sebgül. Xak. xı kü:g ‘the rust’ (al-[ib'; MS. tab') which forms on the surface of a mirror; hence one says közgüke: kü:g tüšti: ‘greeness (al-xudra) and rust have formed on the surface of the mirror’: kü:g 'freckles’ (al-kalafa) which appear on the faces of women (etc.) Kaš. III 132.

PU kük (or 6 küg ?) (suffering, distress) ‘suffering, distress’; prob. n.o.a.b.; R II 1417 notes a NC Kzx. (?) phr. kily kör- ‘to suffer pain, or distress’, but there is no other trace of it and there are in NC several words with a similar meaning which go back to kün-. See kükmek. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. közüŋ ičinde kük yok kögülüŋ ičinde kadğu: yok ‘there is no pain in your eyes or anxiety in your mind’ TT I 144-5: Xak. xı kük (misvocalized kek) al-tnihna ‘distress, suffering’; hence one says kük (ditto) kördi: er ‘the man suffered pain’ (imtahana) Kaš. II 283; kük (so vocalized) kördi: kere:kü: yüdti: ‘he was so badly off (ra'a'l--mihtta) that he had to carry his tent framework on his own back’ I 448, 1 (cf. keten).

Mon. V. GG-

PU kik- (parry, punch, сталкивать) (kick) Hap. leg., but see kikšür- (collide, clash, сталкивать) (kick); as this word appears among the Bilitterals with two of the same consonants the final is likely to be -k- although the Pcrf. Suff. is given as -di:; (not) syn. w. bile:- (sharpen) (i.e. sharpen by colliding, clashing), etc. Xak. xı (er) biče:k kikdi: ‘the man sharpened (asamta) the knife and whetted (amarra) one (knife) against another’ Kaš. II 293 (kike:r, kikme:k).

Dis. GGE

Y’US kükü: See küküy.

Dis. GGC

D kö:kči:n (bluish, grayish) Den. N/A. (indicating an attenuated colour) fr. 4 kö:k (sky, sky-colored, blue, blue-grey); ‘bluish, greyish’. The alternative f. kö:kši:n is prob. Secondary. Survives only (?) in NE Tel. kökšün ‘greybeard’ R II 1231. See Doerfer III 1679. Xak. xı kökši:n ne:ŋ ‘anything the colour of the sky’ (ka-Iawni'l-sama ) Kaš. I 437; I 186, 12 (egriš-): KB bašında kečüırniš bu kökčin sakal 'this experienced greybeard’ 1798; a.o. 376 (odun-); (not to be confused with kögsin see kögöz).

Dis. V. GGC

S kikčür- See kikšür-. (parry, punch, сталкивать) (kick)

Dis. GGD

F kegde (? kagda:) (paper)paper’; l.-w. fr. some Iranian language (? Sogdian) and cognate to \\\ Pe. keğadj keğid 'paper’. Survives in NE Koib. kegde ‘thick paper’ R II 1065. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (write the dherani on birch bark, (palm leaves) kegdede ‘paper’ (linen or a wooden tablet) IJ II 70, 4 (ii); o.o. TT VI 202; Suv. 6, 8-9 (2 *ko:n): Civ. HI 150 (1 taš), 152; TT VII 25, 12 (kegedc).

Dis. V. GGD-

S kökded- See köklet-. (tie, buckle)

D kekteš- Recip. f. of kekte:- (which survives in NC Kır.), Den. V. fr. kek. Survives in NC Kzx. Xak. xı ola:r Ikki: kektešdi: tahdqndd ‘those two secretly hated one another’ Kaš. I1 222 (kektešü:r, kektešme:k).

S kökteš- See 1 kökleš-. (establish)

Tris. V. GGD-

D kökedtür- (praise) ‘to exalt, praise to the skies’; Caus. f. of *köke:d- Intrans. Den. V, fr. 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey), which would presumably have meant ‘to go up to the sky’ or the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. nom ermezig nom ol tep kökedtürdüm erser ‘if I have praised false doctrine to the skies saying that it is the true doctrine’ Suv. 137, 2-3; a.o. do. 135, 11 (kodikartur-).

Dis. GGG

kekük some kind of bird of prey; the identity of the zumrnac is uncertain, Havas ‘a reddish falcon’; Steingass ‘a species of eagle’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 23 (bul-): Xak. xı kekük al-zuvmiac, a bird the bones of which are used in conjurations and sorcery (fi'J-nayrinciyet ua'l-cuyyat u'a ruquyatuha, sic) Kaš. II 287.

Tris. GGG

D köke:gü:n kokü:n (horse-fly)horse-fly’ and the like; presumably Dev. N. fr. *köke:-, Den. V. fr. 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey), in the sense of ‘something which is sky-coloured, blue’. S.i.s.m.l. in NE, NC, NW, usually as kökü:n/kügü:n ‘horse-fly, gad-fly’. Xak. xı köke:gü:n al- antara, wahwa dubeh azraq ‘a blue fly’ Kaš. II 287 (prov.); a.o. I 188 (ortu:, same prov.): Čağ. xv ff. gögeyln (spelt) ‘a large fly (tr:agas) which draws blood when it bites cattle’ Son. 307V. 26; göpewün (spelt) xar-magas ‘gad-fly’ 3ior. 20: Kip. xıv köke\vün ‘a flying creature (tnyŋ like a large fly, which settles on horses, cattle, etc. and bites them’; when they feel it they run away from it td. 83; al-zaitbtir ‘hornet’ kökün Bul. 11,2.

Dis. GGL

D keklig (spiteful, revengeful) P.N./A. fr. kek; ‘spiteful, revengeful’; practically syn. w. öčlüg, and in the early period usually used in Hend. w. it. Survives only (?) in NC Kır. kektü:; Kzx. kekti. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VIII N:S (öčlüg): Xak. xı Kaš. II 283 (kek).

(D) keklik ‘partridge’; prob. A.N. (Conc N.) fr. *kek as an onomatopoeic for the partridge’s call. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE, There is \\ another word for ‘partridge’ not noted before the medieval period, see či:l. Acc. to Red. in Osm. keklik is ‘partridge’ in general and ‘the red-legged partridge’ in particular and čil is ‘the common grey partridge’ and ‘the fran-colin’. See Doerfer III 1639. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kekelik (sic) ötin ‘the bile of a partridge’ H I 50-2: Xak. xı keklik al-qabc ‘partridge’ Kaš. I 479 (misread as al-qayh in printed text): KB ünin ötti keklik ‘the partridge sings his note’ 7e: Čağ. xv (f. keklik kakg ‘partridge’ San. 300V. 23 (and two phr.) : Kip. xıv keklik al-hacal ‘partridge’ Id. 83; ditto (čİl/)kek-lik (misvocalized) Bui. 11, 12: xv ditto keklik Tuh. 13a. 9; dacec ‘fowl’ (tawuk/) keklik do. 15b. 4.

Dis. V. GGL-

D kökle-:, etc. Preliminary note. Kaš. lists Den. V.s fr. 3 kök (seam) and 1 kü:g(song, melody) and 3 kü:g (care, pasturing, cared) and Refl. Den. V.s fr 1 kök (root, origin) and 5 kü:g (rust, freckle); the basic form of the first survives in NE. There is in KB a Den. V. fr. 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey). There is in Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 29, 10 (iii) a word kökleyür of which the meaning is entirely obscure. These seem to be the only early words of this form. San. 3oyr. 26 lists a Den. V. fr. 2 kök (latch, thong) (cock) which s.i.s.m.l.

D 1 kökle:- (tie, buckle) Den. V. fr. 3 kök; ‘to fasten with thongs’. Survives in NC Kır. köktö- and perhaps some other languages unless these are Den. V.s fr. 2 kök. Xak. xı ol eder kökle:di: šadda rabfa'l-sarc ‘he tightened the thong of the saddle’ Kaš. III 300 (kökle:r, kökle:me:k).

D 2 kökle:- (g-) (graze (on green), blue, grey, green, etc.) Den. ,V. fr. 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey); ‘to be blue, grey, green, etc.’ Survives in NC Kır. köktö-: SC Uzb. kukla- and perhaps elsewhere, bııt kö:ker-, q.v., is commoner in this sense. Xak. xı KB (hear the words of) karı köklemiš ‘the old greyheaded man’ 1492.

D 1 kügle:- (sing) Den. V. fr. 1 kü:g (song, melody); ‘to sing’ and the like. Survives in NC Kır. kü:lö:-/küylö-‘to tune’ (a musical instrument): SW Osm. kökle- ditto (unless the latter is a Den. V. fr. Pe. kük). Xak. xı er küglerdi: tağanne'l--racul bi-iğnîya wa axraca lahn fil-ğine ‘the man sang a song and brought out the melody in singing it’ Kaš. III 301 (kügle:r, kügle:me:k): Čağ. xv ff. kükle- (‘with k- k-’) sez čal- (knock down, play (string music), strike, strike down, strike off, play, rub on (ointment), mix) ‘to play (or tune?) a musical instrument’ Vel. 369 (quotns.); kükle- sez-ra kük kardan ‘to tune a musical instrument’ San. 307r. 26 (quotns.).

D 2 kügle:- (graze) Den. V. fr. 3 kü:g (care, pasturing, cared); ‘to graze’. As pasture is green there was an obvious temptation to regard this V. as identical with

2 kökle- (graze); this seems to be at the back of the entry kökle- ‘to graze, put cattle out to graze’ in Vam. 330, reproduced in R II1227 as ‘Čağ., Bokhara’; but the Refl f. küylen- (of cattle) ‘to be well-nourished’ in NC Kzx. preserves the earlier form. Xak. xı yılkı: kügle:di: ibtaqalati'l-dawabb wa akalati'1-rabV ‘the cattle grazed and eat the spring pasture’ Kaš. III 300 (kügle:r, kügle:me:k).

D köklet- (tie, buckle) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 1 kökle:- (tie, buckle); this V. is listed under the cross-heading -D- (for the third consonant) which suggests that the original entry had kökdet-; the alternative form is morphologically inexplicable. The -d-suggests that the original form of 3 kök was kög but the modern NC forms do not support this. See sığtat-. Xak. xı ol eder yalığın kökletti: ‘he ordered that the straps of his saddle-bow should be tightened’ (bi-šadd); kökdedti: (sic) alternative form (luğa) Kaš. II 327 (kökletibr, kökletme:k).

D 1 köklen- (established) Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 kök (root, origin); survives in SW Osm. köklen- ‘to take root, be firmly established’. The basic form survives in NE Alt., Tel. köktö- ‘to be related to (someone)’ R II 1228. Xak. xı er köklendi: ta'atialal-racul ‘the man was well rooted’ (i.e. of good family); also used for ‘to stay in one place’ (ğaniya) Kaš. II 253 (köklenu:r, köklenme:k).

D 2 köklen- (tighten) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of 1 kökle:- (tie, buckle). Xak. xı eder köklendi: ‘the thongs of the saddle were tightened’ (šuddat) Kaš. II 253 (no Aor. or Infiun.; followed by 1 köklen-).

D 1 küglen- (kü:glen-) (sing) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of 1 kügle:- (sing). Xak. xı er küglendi: ‘the man sang’ (ğanne); originally kü:glendi: Kaš. II 253 (küglenü:r, küglenme:k); o.o. II 255, 9;///131 (1 kü:g (song, melody)).

VUD 2 küglen- (kü:glen-) (rust, freckle) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. 5 kü:g (rust, freckle) Xak. xı yü:zi: anıp küglendi: 'freckles (al-kulfa) appeared on his face’; originally kü:glendi: Kaš. II 253 (no Aor. or Infin.; followed by 1 küglen-).

D 1 kökleš- (establish) Recip. Den. V. fr. 1 kök (root, origin); cf. 1 köklen- (established). Survives in SW Osm., where it is syn. w. köklen-. Xak. xı ol anıg birle: köklešdi: tašabbata bihi tva tašabbaka ‘he clung to him and wrapped himself round him'; there is a dialect form köktešdı: (2 kökleš-follows here): Bulğar xı ol anıŋ birle: köklešdi: ta'aqqada ma'ahu 'aqda'l- ašıra ‘he made a tribal union with him’ Kaš. II 224 (köklešü:r, köklesme:k; one of the four Bulğar words in Kaš.).

D 2 kökleš- (tie, buckle) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of 1 kökle:- (tie, buckle). Xak. xı ol agar eder köklešdi: ‘he helped him to tighten (ft šadd) the thongs of the saddle-bow’ Kaš. II 224 (no Aor. or Infin.; see 1 kökleš-).

Dis. GGM

VU kökmek (deer type) quite clearly legible in the photograph; according to Mai. (note op. cit.) it survives in SE Sang Yuğur as kegmek; Keri kökmek ‘a kind of deer’; in Malov, Yazyk zheltykh uigurov, Alma Ata, 1957, p. 65 it appears as kegmik ‘A kind of stag (Chinese chi men) the size of a female donkey’. O. Kır. ıx ff. (I killed seven wolves, but) barsiğ kökmekig ölürmedim ‘did not kill leopards or stags’ Mai. j r, io. '

PUD kükmek/kükme:n (? kügmek/kügme:n) (hardened, закаленный) Hap. leg.; Den. N./A.s fr. kük (6 küg (suffering, distress)); the latter in this entry is unvocalized, and misvocalized in the main entry; these words seem to be vocalized with fatha but there is no doubt that the vowel was rounded. The second form seems to be the name, customarily transcribed kögmen of the Tannu Tuva mountains mentioned in Türkü vı 11 I E 17, etc., T 23, 28; if so the second consonant is -g-. Xak. \i kükmek er ‘a man who has been tested (harasathu) by circumstances and endured sufferings (al-mihan) and become hardened (ištadda) by them’; its origin is klik al-mihna; this Adj. (šifet, sic) is irregular (caat šedd)\ the regular form (al-qiyas) is kükme:n Kaš. I 479.

Dis. GGN

PU kegen (illness, disease) one of several words for ‘illness, disease’, or the like; pec. to Uyğ. and usually used in Hend. w. I i:g; the spelling in Suv., if correctly transcribed, points to -e- rather than -i-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the dhnrani will be effective) alku kögeninte yılkı kara kege-ninte ig kem ‘in all cases of disease, the diseases of cattle and common people (? ), illnesses (Hend.)’ (discomfort, danger, pain) U II 73, 1 (iii)fF.; (demons) kezik ig kegen kıiğučı ‘who cause epidemic (?) diseases’ TT V 8, 83; ač kin igkegen (sic, spelt as one word) adasın amırtğurdačı ‘reducing the danger of hunger, pain and disease (Hend.)’ Suv. 399, 18.

VUD köge:n (noose, rope, rainbow, plum, peach) the -ö- is shown in Kom. but this may be a dialect form since the word seems to be a Dev. N. fr. kü:- (protect, cover), the -ü- in which is fixed by 3 kü:g (care, pasturing, cared), 2 kügle:- (graze). This word has nothing to do with Kip. (PU) kö:kenplum, peach’ in Hon., Id., Tuh. which is a l.-w. connected with Ar. xawx, which is said to be an Aramaic l.-w. (see Hou., p. 100), perhaps through some Iranian intermediary. Xak. xı köge:n ribaqul-bahm tva ribdqu l-haleyib 'inda'l-halb ‘a noose to control calves, colts, etc., and milch cows, etc. at milking time’: yel köge:n gaws quzah ‘rainbow’ (lit. ‘a noose on the wind’) Kaš. I 415: Kom. xıv kögen ‘a rope for tying lambs and kids’ CCG; Gr.

köken (kökän) (Cockney) “motherland, native place, ancestral land” fr. 1 kök (root, origin)

S kokü:n See köke:gü:n. (horse-fly)

PUD kikinč (reply) A Dev. N., but w. no obvious connection w. kik- (collide, clash, сталкивать) (kick); ‘reply’, nearly always in the phr. kikinč be:r- (bear, give) (bear) ‘to give a reply’. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. dindarlar ınča kikinč berdiler ‘the Elect gave the following reply’ TT II 6, 2: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (if anyone asks how he killed the demon) ınča kikinč bergil M I 19, 11-12; a.o. do. 37, 19: Bud. (then his father the king hearing this petition) neŋ kikinč (Pellist transcribes keginč) berü umadi ‘could not give any reply’ PP 15, 8 (see note thereon); (after a question, the Buddha) šlok takšutın ınča tep kikinč yarlıkadı ‘deigned to give the following reply /// in verse’ Kuan. 175; o.o. USp. 97, 1; 102b. 14; Suv. 589, 3.

Dis. V. GGN-

PU (D) kikne:- (flurry, derange) (OTD p. kegnä-, keknä-, kiknä-, раздражаться, приходить в ярость) Hap. leg.?; morphologically could be Den. V. in -e:- fr. kegen; the meaning can only be conjectured, but is clearly pejorative. Xak. xı KB (if you make a request, state it clearly; if you are asked a question, tell the truth. Do not make pointless remarks or harry (soŋdama) people) ušak söz ederme yeme kikneme ‘do not (derange) follow up scandal or’ 4301 (‘be spiteful’ would suit, if it could be connected with kek).

Dis. GGR

kekre: (plant (acrid, bitter)) ‘an acrid, or bitter, plant’, usually one eaten by livestock. Survives in SIC Türki kekre ‘ergot’ BŠ 525: SW Osm., Tkm. kekre ‘a bitter plant; acrid, bitter’. No obvious etymology, perhaps a l.-w. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kekre ‘a bitter medicinal herb’ H II 8, 47: Xak. xı kekre: ‘a bitter plant (nabt rnurŋ eaten by camels’ Kaš. I 422.

D kökrek (thunder) Dev. N. fr. kökre:- (thunder, noise); ‘thunder’. N.o.a.b. There is no connection between this word and kökrek ‘the chest, the upper part of the body’ noted in Čağ. San. 307V. 28; Kip. Hou. 21, 22 and some modern NC, SC and NW languages; the origin of this word is obscure; it is apparently neither Mong. nor Iranian, and it is hard to see how it could be connected with kögüz, same meaning, through some L/R Turkish language, but the Čuv. form of that word is kftker, Ash. VII 107. Xak. xı Koš. III 282 (kork-): Kip. xv ra'd ‘thunder’ kökrek Tuh. 16b. 5.

Dis. V. GGR-

kekir- (g-; ?-g-) (belch) ‘to belch’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; SW Az. keyir-; Osm., Tkm. gegir-. Xak. xı er kekirdi: ‘the man (etc.) belched’ (tacašša'a) Kaš. 7/84 (kekire:r, kekirme:k). xıv Muh. (?) tacašša'a ke:kir- Rif. 106 (only); fahiga ‘to overflow’ kekir- (MS. kelir-) 113; al-caše' ke:kirmek (MS. -niak) 164: Čağ. xv ff. gegir- (so spelt) erüğ zadan ‘to belch’, in Ar. tacaššu San. 31 .sr. 22 (quotn.): Kom. xıv ‘to belch’ kekir- CCG\ Gr.

D kigür- (bring, introduce, put) abbreviated Caus. f. of kir- (enter); ‘to bring in, introduce’, and the like. N.o.a.b.; modern Caus. f.s of kir- (enter) are kirgiz-, girdir-, and the like. SE Türki kigür- in R II 1341 should be transcribed keygür- and is a Caus. f. of ke:d-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 229 (e:t-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. U I 7, 4-5 (ur-): Bud. köni yolka kigürürbrings them into the right way’ TT VI 255-6; o.o. do. 394 (v.l.); PP 18, 1; 25, 2-3 (tapa:); TT VIII D.6 (üzlünčülüg): Xak. xı KB čerigde bir anča busuğka kigürput some of your troops in an ambush’ 2370: xıı (?) KB VP ne törlüg bü sözler öŋin tildeki klgürmiš mugar kör kamuğ eldeki ‘see what (different) kinds of names have been given to this poem in different languages in various \\ countries’ 31 (grammar chaotic): x 111 (?) KBPP 25 (üsk); Tef. kivür- ‘to bring to (or into)’ 177: xıv Rbğ. učmak lčre kigürüp 'taking him to paradise’; a.o.o. R II 1341 (quotns.): Čağ’ xv ff. giwür- (spelt) daxil kardan ‘to cause to enter’ San. 316V. 23 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv kevür-, kigür-, klvür-‘to bring in’ Qutb 95-9; klglir- Nahc. 254, 13; 255, 3; 280, 11: Kom. xıv ‘to bring into’ küvür- CCG; Gr. 160 (quotns.): Osm. xıv ff. givür-, occasionally giyür- ‘to bring into, let in, admit’ (esp. to paradise); common till xvi, occurs in xvıı TTS I 313; 7/439; III 299; IV 343.

Tris. GGR

D kö:ker- (g- -g-) (blue-grey) Intrans. Den. V. fr. 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey); ‘to be, or become, sky-coloured, blue, grey’, etc. S.i.a.m.I.g.; in most modern languages the second consonant is -g-/- v-/-y-; SW Az. köyer-; Osm. göger-/göver-; Tkm. gö:ger- (this last also means ‘to take root’, as a similar Den. V. fr. 1 kök (root, origin)). Xak.xi kö:kerdi: ne:g ‘the thing was dusty’ (ağbara), that is was the colour of the sky Kaš. II 84 (kö:kerür, kö:kerme:k): xıv Muh. (?) izraqqa ‘to be blue’ (köli:- (shady, shaded) (?); in margin) körker- Rif. 103: Čağ. xv ff. köger- (-günče, ‘with k-g-g-’) göger-Vel. 370; göger- («V?; not spelt) (1) sabz šudan wa rüyidan ‘to become green; to sprout’; (2) kabûd šudan ‘to become blue’ San. 307^5 (quotn.): Kip. xv (among Den. V.s) and from kök, köker- Tuh. 83b. e: Osm. xıv ff göger-‘to be blue, green’, etc.; fairly common TTS I 346; II 443; IV 348.

PU kögür- (brought, presented) n.o.a.b.; the Türkü text is not very clear, and the Uyğ. ones open to some doubt; the meaning of kigür- (bring, introduce, put) would suit all the passages; these may in fact be misreadings of word or in some cases mistranscriptions of kötür- (lift up, raise, carry). Türkü vııı ff. yolta: at kögütrmiš erke: 1 yarık yarlığ boltı: ‘one breastplate was issued to the man who brought in (?) the horse from the road’ Miran B r. 6 (ETY II 66): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. arvıšlar iliğin uluğ törlüg ağır ayağ üze kögürserler (‘or kegürserler?) ‘if they bring (or, reading kögürserler, ‘publish’; or, reading kötürserler,‘raise’) the chief of the dheranis with great respect’ UII73, 3-4 (iii): Civ. men borlukka özge kiši kögürmezmen (queried) ‘I will not admit (?) other people into the vineyard’ USp. 32, 10; in 115 in a list of penalties for challenging the validity of a contract, the heaviest penalties are to be ‘presented’ (ün-türüp, 1. 18) to the central government and the tegitler, the next heaviest to be ‘brought’ (kögürüp?, 1. 19) to the Iduk kut, and the lowest to be ‘given’ (berip, 1. 20) to the treasurer of the town of Kočo.

D kökre:- (g-) (shout, thunder, noise, roar, bellow) Den. V. fr. 4 kö:k (sky, sky-colored, blue, blue-grey); etymologically the basic meaning must be 'to thunder’; also used for ‘to make a loud noise’, in various contexts. Survives for ‘to thunder’ in NE Alt. küküro- R II 1424: NW Kar. T. kökre- do. 1224; Kaz. kükre- do. 1424; Kumyk köküre-, SW Osm. kükre- ‘to foam at the mouth, be sexually excited’ seems to be // a different word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. arslan xani kökremiš teg ‘as if the king of the lions had roared’ Suv. 646, 3: Xak. xı arsla:n kökre:di: ‘the lion roared’ (za'ara); and one says buğra: kökre:di: ‘the camel stallion bellowed’ (hadara); and one says built kökre:di: ‘the cloud thundered’ (ra'ada); also used metaph. for the shouts of warriors on the battlefield Kaš. III 282 (kökre:r, kökre:me:k prov. see kork- (qorq) (fear, be afraid) (Meduza Gorgona)); o.o. 7 125, 13 etc. (ars-lanla:-); 7 354, 23: KB 86 (bulıt): Čağ. xv ff. kökre-/kökreš- ‘to thunder, or roar’, of thunder, lions, etc. San. 307r. 7 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı ditto 'Ali 39: xıv ditto Qutb ror, MN 75: Kom. xıv ditto CC7; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-ra'd kökremek Id. 5, 10 (MS. dökremek): xiv ditto Bui. 3, 2; ditto and the V. fr. it is kökre- Id. 83: xv ba'ba'a ‘to bellow’ (bozla-/) kökre- Tuh. 8b. 7.

D kigrül- (bring, introduce, put) Hap. leg.?; Pass. f. of kigür- (bring, introduce, put), Xak. xı tava:r evke: kigrüidi: ‘the property was brought into (udxila) the house’ (etc.) Kaš. II 237 (kigrülü:r, kigrülme:k).

D kekreš- Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of kekre:-, Den. V. fr. kek, which seems to be noted only in SW Osm. where it means ‘to be, or become, sour or acid’. Cf. kekre:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (they quarrel with one another and exchange abuse) bu karğantukın alkantukin kek-restükin (VU) yöntüstükin (sic, with -s- for -Š-) ‘because of this cursing and abuse, and because they hate and quarrel with one another’ MI 9, 16-18.

D kökreš- (thunder, noise) Co-op. f. of kökre:- (thunder, noise); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı buhtla:r kamuğ kökrešdi: ‘the clouds all thundered (ra'adat) together’; and one says buğra:la:r kökrešdi: ‘the camel stallions bellowed (tahaddarat) together’, also used metaph. for the shouts of warriors on the field of battle, one says alpla:r kökrešdi: ‘the warriors shouted (tahaddarat) together’ Kaš. II 222 (kökrešü:r, kökrešme:k; verse); a.o. III 147, 16 (same verse): Čağ. xv ff. San. 307r. 7 (kökre:-).

Tris. GGR

(D) kögürčgü:n (? gö:-) (pigeon, dove)pigeon, dove’; morphologically obscure, but prob. connected with 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey) in the sense of ‘a grey bird’. S.i.s.m.l. in NC, NW, SW with phonetic changes; SW Az. köyerčin; Osm. güvercin; Tkm. gö:gerčin. NE languages use quite different words or phr. and SE, SC forms of Pe. kabütar. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kögürčgen Suv. 299, 6 (aŋit); 620, 20; Civ. kögürčgen HI 40 (čokrat-): Xak. xı kögürčgü:n al-hamem ‘pigeon, dove’ Kaš. III 419: Čağ. xv ff. kögerčin kabütar ‘pigeon, dove’ San. 3o8r. 1: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 101: Kom. xıv ‘dove’ kügerčin CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-hamem kowercin Hou. 10, e: xıv kögerčin ditto Id. 83; Bui. 12, 4: xv ditto Kav. 39, 5; hamam ögercin (corrected below tokö:-) Tuh. 13a. 10,

Tris. V. GGR-

D kögürčgü:nleš- (gamble a pigeon, dove) Hap. leg. and prob. used only in the Ger. in -ü:; Recip. Den. V. fr. kögürčgü:n; mentioned only as a grammatical example. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: oyna:di: kögürčgü:nlešü: ‘he gambled with me with a pigeon as the stake’ Kaš. II 226, 13 ; n.m.e.

Dis. GGS

S kögüs See kögüz. (ğögöz) (chest, breast; mind, thought)

Dis. GGŠ

?F ke:küš Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w. Xak. xı ke:küš daıca yutje bi'l-rcnrnm wahwa'l-kundus ‘a medicinal plant applied to swellings; hellebore’ (Brockelmann, Saponaria or Veratrum album) Kaš. I 407.

D kökiš (blue-grey) Den. N./A. fr. 4 kö:k (blue-grey). Survives in SE Türki kökiš: NC Kır. kögüš. Xak. xı KB kökiš turna ‘the blue-grey crane’ 74.

S kö:kši:n See kö:kči:n (bluish, grayish).

Dis. V. GGŠ-

D kikšür- (kiŋšür-) (parry, punch, сталкивать) (kick) Caus. Refl. f. of kik- (parry, punch, сталкивать) (kick); n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı I E 6 (// E 6) (I eči:): vııı ff. Man. yeme sav elitip sav kelürüp kišig kikšürü sözledimiz erser ‘if we have carried remarks to and fro and incited people to mutual enmity Chuas. 104-7: (Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. this word is perhaps the right reading in PP 18, 1 where Pelliot says the scribe first wrote ekekšlür and then corrected it to ekekšlüryür; (among the dangers of the sea) törtünč uhığ tegzinč k[emijke kigürür suv kikšürür (?) sokušur ‘fourth, the waters which bring great waves to the ship, quarrel (parry) (?) and strike one another’): Xak. xı er biče:k kikčürdi: ‘the man whetted (aninrrn) the knives one against the other’; and one says ol ikki: er kikčürdi: ‘he incited (ağra) one of the two men against the other (to parry)’ Kaš. II 195 (kikčürür, klkčürme:k).

Dis. GGY

VU küküy (maternal aunt, mother’s sister) Hap. leg.; ‘maternal aunt’ (mother’s sister), the feminine counterpart of tağa:y. The word was lost at an early date, and in the lists of terms of relationship is replaced in Muh. by ‘mother’s sister’ and in the Kip. vocabularies by that or phr. incorporating tağa:y, q.v. Xak. xı kükü: al-xela ‘maternal aunt’; also, and more correctly (al-asahh), kükü:y; one says kükü:yüm keldi: ‘my aunt has come’ Kaš. III 232.

Dis. GGZ

kögüz (ğögöz) (chest, breast; mind, thought) ‘chest, breast’; a neutral word used both for men and women. A very old word which survives in Čuv. as keker, Aslı. VII 107, and also in NE most languages kögüs R II 1213; Khak. kögis: SE Türki köküs: SW Az. köks; Osm. gögüs; Tkm. gövüs. Other languages mostly use tö:š or kökrek (q.v.). The word came to have also a metaph. meaning ‘mind, or thought’ fairly early. The final was certainly originally -z but forms with -s occur fairly early. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kögüzi kara ‘with black breasts’ M I 18, 5 (ı): Bud. usually in a physical sense, e.g. keŋ körtle kögüz ‘a broad, beautiful breast’ TT X 444; o.o. U IV 30, 54 (emig); TT V 4, 7-11 (egin) — sometimes represents Sanskrit mati ‘mind’ and the like Kuan. 69, 199 (and see kögüzlüg); spelt gögös in Tibetan transcription (Studies, p. 99): Civ. bars künde kögüzde bolur ‘on the Leopard Day it gets in the chest’ TT VII 19, 4; (for a pain) ič kögıizke ‘within the chest’ III »86 — kögülüŋ kögüzüŋ ökünnıckl üküš ‘there is abundant repentance in your mind and thoughts’ TT I 81-2: Xak. xı kögüz al-šadr ‘breast’ Kaš. I 366; (fire blazes) kögsl ara: ‘in their breasts’ I 230, e: KB (when a man finds himself in this fleeting world for a couple of days) nelük kerdi kögsin kaya teg bolup ‘why does he throw out his chest and behave like a rock?’ 1535; o.o. of kögsin (or kögüz) ker- 133 (mistranscribed), 5211, 5326; a.o. 4845: xııı (?) At. kerip xalqka kögsüŋ ‘if you throw out your chest at people’ 278; Tef. (his mother’s) kögsi 183: xıv Muh. (?) al-šadr köküz Rif. 141 (only): Čağ. xv ff. kögsük (so spelt, see San.) gögüs... sin a ‘breast’ Vel. 368 (quotn.); kögs slna San. 3o8r. 2 (same quotn. but correcting Vel.’s word to kögsüm ‘my breast’); ltögüs slna 3o8r. 14 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) anasınıŋ kögüzündün (or g- • . . -S- ?) ‘from his mother’s breast’ Og. 8-9; a.o. 13-14: xıv kögüs ‘breast’ Qutb 100: Kom. xıv ‘chest’ (and ‘womb’) kögüs/kövüs/ köks- CCG; Gr. (CCI tö:š): Kip. ( xııı ‘foster-brother’ kö:güzde:š Hou. 32, 7): xv al-šadr kögüs Kav. 60, 18; šadrıı'l-inserı kögüs Tuh. 22a. 3: Osm. xıv to xvı ‘chest’ gögüz (fr. xv gögüs), before vowels gögs- in several texts TTS 1316; II444; III 304; IV 348; gögüs ger- in III and 1V.

Tris. GGZ

D kögüzlüg (g-) (intelligent, understanding) I\N./A. fr. kögüz (chest, breast; mind, thought); survives in several NE languages as kögüstüg/ kögüstü: ‘’ R II 1234. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (addressed to a deity) kögüzlügüm bilgem ‘my thoughtful and wise one’ M II 8, 14-15: Bud. alkmčsiz kögüzlüg Bodisatv translating Sanskrit Akšayamati Bodhisattva ‘the Bodhisattva with the inexhaustible mind’ is common in Kuan.; (if anyone is wicked and) kararığ billgsiz kögüzlüg ‘has a dark andfignorant mind’ do. 66; a.o. USp. 102a. 31: (xiv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. kögüzlük ‘breastplate’ Ligeti 174; RII1234): Xak. xı KB neče kür kögüzlüg küvenür erig ‘how many bold, courageous, proud men’ (has death destroyed) 4845.

D kökü:zme:k (breastplate) Hap. leg.; Den. N. fr. kögüz (chest, breast; mind, thought): no doubt ‘breastplate’. Türkü vııı Tay 0[ge:ke:] bir kökü:zme:k yari:[k yarlığ] bolti: ‘one piece of breast armour was issued to'lav Oge: (?)’ Miran C 6 (ETYII68).

Mon. G(Q)L

kö:l (g-) (kül) (lake, body of water) any large body of water, natural or artificial, normally ‘pool’ or ‘lake’. Except in Kaš., and there prob. only in one phr., never used for ‘sea’, or for ‘river’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; SW Az. köl; Osm. göl; Tkm. kö:l. See Doerfer III 1682-3. Türkü vııı in geog. names, (VU) Türgi: Yarğu:n Köl I E 34; Kara: Köl IN 2: vııı ff. IrkB 22 (ıčğın-): Uyğ. vııı in geog. names, (VU) Čığıltır Köl Šu. E 6; Kazluk Köl (‘Goose lake’) do. S 2; (PU) Tayğan Köl S 3; Yula: Köl S 6: vııı ff. Bud. (you must imagine that) yürüŋ köl boltı ‘it has become a white lake’ TT V 6, 47; a.o. do. 12, 126; bir uluğ köl ‘a large lake’ Suv. 600, 5: Civ. (the swan has flown away and) kölige konmaz ‘does not settle on its lake’ TT 1215216; uluğ köl üze ‘on the big lake’ USp. 55, 20: Xak. xı kö:l al-hawd ‘a pool’: kö:l al-ğadir ‘pond’: a list of five ‘lakes’ (buhayra) with their locations follows:- Isig Kö:l; (VU) Kürüŋ [kö:l]; Sidiŋ kö:l; Yulduz kö:l; A:y kö:l; ‘the dimensions of each of these lakes is thirty or forty farsangs; there are many such lakes in the country of the Turks, but I have mentioned only the larger ones in the Moslem country’: kö:l al-bahr nafsuhu ‘the actual sea’; hence ‘sea foam’ (zabadu l-bahr) is called kö:l köpüki: and not tegiz köpüki: Kaš. III 135; seven o.o. translated al-hawd or al-ğadir: xııı (?) At. wafe köli suğlup ‘the lake of good faith has sunk into the ground’ 387: xıv Muh. al-hawd gö:l (sic) Mel. 77, 9; Rif. 181: Čağ. xv ff. köl (‘with -ö-’) ‘a place in which water collects’ San. 308V. 19 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) bir köl arasında ‘in the middle of a lake’ Oğ. 71: xıv köllake’ Qutb 101: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-gadir (bu:la:k also called) kö:l Hou. 6, 19: xv birka ‘poolköl Tuh. 7a. 13. (köl and kül (and g-) are interchangeable, dialectal, covering 2 kül in titles; Isig Kö:l = Issyk Kül)

1 kül (ashes, cinders) ‘ashes, cinders’ (coal); s.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. külashes’, sometimes spelt kkül occurs several times in HI and II and TT VII 26, 12: Xak. xı kül al-ramed ‘ashes’ Kaš. I337 (prov., see 1 ür- (blow (gas))); o.o. I 129, 4 (örte:-); III 237, 10 (tegi:): xıv Muh. al-ramed gü:l Mel. 68, 16; Rif. 169 (gü:k): Čağ. xv ff. kül (‘with -ü-) xakistar ‘ashes’ San. 308V. 19: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 10e: Kip. xııı al-ramed kül Hou. 17, 15: xıv ditto Bul. 4, II; ditto (‘with k-’) Id. 83: xv ditto Tuh. 16b. 6.

VU 2 kül (kö:l) (g-) (lake, body of water) either a P.N., or more probably a title, very common in the early period; the vowel is uncertain but as the Chinese character used to transcribe it was k'üe, Middle Chinese (Pulleyblank) k'iwat (Giles 3,252) -ü- is perhaps likelier than -ö-; Kaš.'s etymology is obviously preposterous. The relationship between this word and Küli Čor, the name of the persons commemorated in Ix. is obscure; but the possibility that the word was originally küli, with short -i, cannot be excluded (see Studies, p. 88). Türkü vııı the best known name is Kül Tegin commemorated in I; Kül Čor (perhaps identical with the Küli Čor of Ix.) II S 13; Kül Todun Ix. A. (ETYII121); \\\ (PU) Sevig Kül İrkin II S 14; vııı ff. Kül Cigši: Miran A 17 (ETY II 65): Uyğ. vııı Kül [Bil]g[e:] Šu. N 5: vııı ff. Bud. Kül Bilge Tegri Elig Pfahl. 6, 3: O. Kır. ıx ff. Küč Kül Totok Mal. 25, 2: Xak. xı Kaš. I 108 (1 irkin) ; / 428, 19 (bilge:).

Mon. V. GL-

kel- (g-) (come, next) ‘to come’, sometimes with the implication of ‘to come back’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; SW Az. kel-; Osm., Tkm. gel-. Türkü vııı kei-‘to come’, very common in I, II, T, etc.: vııı ff. ditto in IrkB: Man. [gap] tarxan kelginče ‘until... Tarxan comes’ TT II 6, 19; a.o.o.: Uyğ. vııı kel- is common in Šu.: vııı ff. Man.-A terkleyü keltilercame quickly’ M I 13, 18; a.o. 15, 7: Man. [gap] kilu keltigiz ‘you have come to make...’ TT III 106; utru keltilercame to meet’ IX 86; a.o.o.: Bud. kel- ‘to come’ is very common: Civ. ditto: Xak. xı er evke: keldi: 'the man came (ate) to the house’ (etc.) Kaš. II 25 (keli:r kelme:k; prov.); very many o.o.; KB tapuğka kelipcoming to take service’ 100; idi köčki söz ol mafalda kelir ‘a very old saying comes in the proverb’ no; many o.o. 259, 273, etc.: xııı (?) At. kel- is common; Tef. ditto 170: xıv Muh. ce'a ‘to comegel- Mel. 24, 15; Rif 107; many o.o. more often spelt gel- than kel- : Čağ. xv ff. kel- (-gen, etc.) gel- Vel. 358-9; kel- amadan ‘to come’ San. 315V. 8 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı kel- ‘to come’ 'Ali 25 : xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 11, etc., usually spelt kel-; xıv kel-/kel- Qutb 93-6; kel- MN 47, etc.; Nahc. 314, 15 etc. (common): Kom. xıv ‘to come’ kel- CCI, CCG; Gr. 136 (quotns.): Kip. xııı ce’a kel- Hou. 51, 11; a.o.o.; ‘next’ (year, month) kelge:n do. 28, 8; ‘next but one’ (year, etc.) kelde:či: do. 28, 8: xıv kel- ce’a; İteldeči yıl ‘the coming year’ id. 83; ditto gelen yıl Bul. 13, 12 (so spelt):xv ce'a kel- Kav. 9, 21 a.o.o.; Tuh. 12a. 4 a.o.o.

köl- (g-) (harness, tie, bind, запрячь, запрягать) (колея, колка, одноколка) ‘to harness’ (an animal to a plough, etc.) (колея, колка, одноколка) and the like. Survives only (?) in NE Koib., Sag. R II 1268; Khak. See költür-, kölük, kölün-. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 25 (bokursı:); Kıp. xıv köl- (‘to laugh’ and) rabafa qaue’ima'l-šet li'l-dablı ‘to fasten (tie, bind) the legs of a sheep for slaughter’ Id. 83.

kül- (g-) (laugh; laugh at, smile) properly ‘to laugh; to laugh at (someone Dat.)’, but in some contexts, esp. in KB, more like ‘to smile’ (properly külümsin-). S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW Az. kül-; Osm., Tkm. gül-, Xak. xı er küldi: ‘the man laughed’ (dahika) Kaš. II 26 (küle:r, külme:k; verse külse: translated ‘if (a man) smiles at you’ (yatabassam lak)); about a dozen o.o. (translated dahika) : KB külesmiling’ 70, 601, 657, 941, etc.; küler yüz ‘a smiling face’ 2072, 2479, etc.; saga külmesüni kedin kelgüči ‘so that those who come after may not laugh at you’ 1227; o.o. 76 (katğur-), 707 (basit-): xııı (?) At. saga külmesün 172; Tef. kül- ‘to laugh at’ 188: xıv tabassama gül- Mel. 24, 3 (Rif. 105 biskar- Hap. leg.?); \\\ dahika gül- 28, 3; in (gü:l-); al-dahak külmek 34, 16; 120; a.o.o.: Čağ. xv ff. külxandidan ‘to laugh’ San. 3o8r. 17 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı kül- ‘to laugh’ 'Ali 25 : xııı (?) kül- ‘to smile’ Oğ. 60 a.o.o.: xıv kül- ‘to laugh, smile’ Qutb 106; MN 109, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to laughkül- CCI; Gr.: Kip. dahika kül- II011. 36, 10: xıv ditto Id. 83; Bui. 56V.: xv ditto Kav. 75, 14 (and 61, 14); Tub. 23a. 10 a.o.o.

Dis. GLE

VU?F 1 küli: (apricots) Hap. leg. ; prob. a Chinese phr., the second syllable li ‘plum’ (Giles 6,884). Xak. xıv küli: me yucafjaf mina’l-xaioxi7--mišmiš ma'a nau'etihe tea le yuflaq ‘ dried with the stones inside, not split’ Kaš. III 234

2 küli See 2 kül. (kö:l) (g-) (lake, body of water)

Dis. V. GLE-

D küle:- (praise) Den. V. fr. kü: (rumour; fame, reputation) (gossip); ‘to praise’, and the like. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. öger küleyür erdim ‘I was praising (Hend.)’ Hüen-ts. 1957; edgüti yurjlap ačıg külerj koni nomuğ ‘expound and praise the true doctrine, making great efforts (?)’ do. 2113-14; a.o.o.

köli:- (g-) (shady, shaded) the basic meaning seems to be ‘to be shady, or shaded’ (Intrans.) and also perhaps ‘to shade, give shade to’ (Trans.); in the latter sense it survives in NE Tel. kölö- R II 1270, and Khak. köle- ; it is the origin of kölit-, kölik, köli:ge: (shadow, shade) (the parallel series köši:- (conceal, hide, shade), köšik, köši:ge: seems to be an example of an l/š relationship in Standard Turkish). The meanings of köli:-, kölit- in Xak. perhaps represent its use as a euphemism for köm- ‘to bury’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit (sutava ‘like a child’ oğol te:g); par ipelit o’ pi ‘and protected, guarded’ kölöp (sic) yeme: TT VIII D.38 (a metaph. usage?): Xak. xı ölüg köli:di: ‘he buried (dafatta) the dead man' (etc.) Kaš. III 272 (köli:r, köli:me:k).

Mon. G(Q)LB

PU külf (or -v?) (loud sound (type)) Hap. leg.; onomatopoeic. Xak. xı ta:m külf yıkıldı: (collapse, fall down) ‘the wall collapsed suddenly with a loud noise’ (bi-sawt wa sur'a) Kaš. I 348.

Dis. GLB

F keleb (or -p) Hap. leg.; no doubt a l.-w.; no native Turkish Dis. ends in -b/-p (Studies, P- 173); not connected w. SW Osm. kelep ‘a ball (of twine)’ TTS II 611; IV 492 which is Ar. kalb. Xak. xı keleb ‘a tender plant (nabt ne'im) which grows in the Turks’ summer pastures and fattens livestock quickly’ Kaš. I 353-

Tris. GLB

S kelebek See kebe:li:.

Tris. V. GLB-

DF keleblen- (? -p-) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. keleb, Xak. xı ta:ğ keleblendi; ‘the \\ mountain was covered with the plant called keleb' Kaš. II 269 (no Aor. or Infin.).

Dis. V. GLC-

13 külčir- (g-) (smile) ‘to smile’: Inchoative f. of kül-, külsir-, q.v., is perhaps a mis-spelling of this word. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. külčire yüzin ‘with smiling face; smiling’, qualifying the Subject of a sentence, is common U 111 r4, 12; 21, 9; 23, 12; 50, 9; TTX 322, 489: Xak. xı KB (his face turned red and then pale); yana külčirip sakındı ‘then smiling he thought’ 3845; a.o. 5680: xııı (?) At. ajun külčirer bez alın kaš čatar ‘the world smiles and then wrinkles its brows (Hend.) again’ 205: Xwar. xıv hamıša külčiresün gül čırayıŋ ‘may your rosy (Pe. l.-w.) face (Mong.) always (Pe.) smile’ Qutb 107.

Tris. GLG

?F kele:čü: (g-?) (talk, conversation) ‘talk, conversation’; prob. one of the corrupt foreign words in Oğuz (see ören) but definitely not connected with Mong. kele- ‘to speak’, since -čü is neither a Turkish nor a Mong. Dev. Suff. after a vowel and the word antedates the first Oğuz contacts with Mongols (?). Not current in literary Osm. after xvıı but survives in xx Anat. as geleci SDD 604; the g- is further evidence against a Mong. origin. Oğuz xı kele:čü: al-hadlt wa'l-kalem ‘talk, conversation’ Kaš. I 445: xııı (?) Tef. keleči ditto 170 (see other refces.): Xwar. xııı kele:či ‘report, information’ 'Ali 53: xıv ditto Qutb 94: Kip. xııı haddata ‘to tell, relate’ kele:či: eyt- Hou. 39, le: Osm. xıv ff. keleči, spelt geleči in texts which distinguish k- and g-, and söz geleči ‘talk, conversation’; very common until xv, rare in xvi, once in xvıı TTS I 441-2; II 611; III 430; IV 491.

Dis. GLD

D külüt (g-) (laugh) Hap. leg.; Caus. Dev. N. fr. kül-, Xak. xı külüt al-duhka baytta'l-qawm ‘a laughing-stock among the people’ Kaš. I 357S kültgü: See külgü:.

Dis. V. GLD-

D kölit- (g-) (shady, shaded) Caus. f. of köli:- (shady, shaded); survives in NE Bar., Kızıl kölöt- R II 1272; Khak. kölet- ‘to shade (something), to cover (something with something)’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kolitti turdı ‘stood shading him’ PP 65, 6 (irjle:-): Xak. xı ol ölügııi: kolitti: ‘he had the corpse buried’ (adjana) Kaš. II 311 (kölitü:r, kölitme:k).

D keltür- (g-) (to come) Caus. f. of kel- (to come), replaced the earlier form kelür-, q.v., in about xi; normally ‘to bring (something)’ rather than ‘to make (someone) come’. The Sec. f. ketür-, and the like, appeared in the medieval period. S.i.a.m.l.g.; normally keltir- but SW A7. ketir-; Osm. getir-; Tkm. g^tir-. Xak. xı see Oğuz; eight occurrences of keldür- translated ate ‘to bring’, ahdara ‘to summon, bring’ and once (/ 251, 9) malada ‘to give birth to’: KB (the king said) keldür ‘bring (him) here’ 570: xııı (?) At. (this is a wise and choice book) talulap ketürdüm ‘I have chosen and brought it’ 478 (sic all MSS. except one which has kültürdüm); Tef. keltür-/ketür- ‘to offer, present (something, Acc., to someone, Dat.) 171-6; xıv Muh. ahdara getür- Mel. 13, 8; Rif. 88 (keltür-); keldür- 41, 4; keltür- 130, 131: Čağ. xv ff. keltür- (-gelŋ getür- Vel. 359; kültür- ezvardan ‘to bring’ San. 315V. 29 (quotns.): Oğuz xı ol maga: at keltürdi: ‘he brought (ate) me a horse’; this form with -t- is Oğuz; the Turks have -d- (other examples of alternation in both directions follow) Kaš. II 195 (keltürür, keltürme:k): Xwar. xııı keltür-/ketür- ditto 'Ali 7, 12: xııı (?) köldürgil ‘summon’ Oğ. 220 a.o.o.: xıv keltür-/ketür- ‘to bring’ Qutb 94-5; MN 21, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to bring’ keltür- CCI; keltir- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı ceba ‘to bring’ keltür- Hou. 39, 10; ate ditto 44, e: XIV keltür- ace'a ‘to order to come’ Id. 83: xv ate keltir- Kav. 78, 13; ceba keltir-/ ketir- Tuh. 12a. 8: Osm. xıv to xvı getür-‘to bring; to insert (in a book)’; in a few texts TTS I 306; IV 337.

D költür- (g-) (inspan, harness, tie, bind, запрячь, запрягать) Caus. f. of köl- (inspan, harness, tie, bind, запрячь, запрягать) (колея, колка, одноколка); survives in NE khak. köldir- ‘to have (a horse, etc.) harnessed (to a cart, etc.)’. Xak. xı ol at ada:kın költürdi: ‘he ordered that the horse’s legs should be fastened (bi-šadd) and that it should be thrown down’ (bi-bathihr) Kaš. II 195 (no Aor. or Infin.; follows kültür-).

D kültür- (g-) (laugh) Caus. f. of kül- (laugh); ‘to make (someone) laugh’. S.i.m.m.l.; SW Osm., Tkm. güldür-. Xak. xı ol meni: kültürdi: ‘he made me laugh’ (adhakanŋ Kaš. II 195 (kültürur, kültürme:k): KB (my body causes me pain) ara küldürür kör ara yığlatur ‘sometimes it makes me laugh and sometimes cry’ 3595, 4096; a.o. 586e: xn (?) Tef. küldür- ditto 188: Xwar. xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 375 : xıv ditto Qutb 107: Kip. xıv küldür-adhaka Id. 83.

D kültür- (g-) (Clauson költür- (g-)) “bind, fetter” (OTD p. 326)

VU (D) küldre:- (sound) Hap. leg.; vocalized küldüre:- but in a section for Dis. V.s; prob. a pure onomatopoeic; cf. külf, külre:-. Xak. xı ta:š kuduğ ičre: küldre:di: šazuzvata'l--hacra fiî-bi'r tea axbara bi-bud qar'iha ‘the stone made a noise in the well and indicated the distance to the bottom’ Kaš. III 448 (küldre:r, küldre:me:k).

Dis. GLG

D kelig (g-) (coming, rebirth) N.Ac. fr. kel- (to come); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kelig, usually in the phr. kü kelig. is used as a Buddhist technical term for ‘coming’ in the sense of ‘rebirth’; teŋri teŋrisi burxannig kü kelig edremlig küči üze ‘by the meritorious power of the divine Buddha (to bring about) distinguished rebirths’ Hüen-ts. 156 (and see note thereon); similar phr. Suv. 69, 14; 189, 1-2; ÖT)i ögi adruk adruk kü keligler üze ‘by various (Hend.) distinguished rebirths’ do. 64, 5; ImxwaniQ özenlntin ök bögün keligin tuğmakı bolur ‘birth takes place from the very centre of the lotus by magic and rebirth’ U II 44, 32-3: Xak. xı ta:z keligi: börkčı:ke: ‘the bald man’s (first) visit (al-hudüŋ is to the hatter’ I 26, 20; II 41, 15; 52, 18 (with al-macV, same meaning); kü:z keligi: yarzin belgü:re:r ‘the approach (macV) of autumn becomes apparent in the summer’ II 172, 4; o.o. I 26, 16 (okta:-); II 58, 17, etc. n.m.e.

D kö:lik (g-) (shadow, shade) Dev. N. fr. köli:- (shady, shaded); practically syn. w. köli:ge: (shadow, shade), q.v., but much rarer; for survivals see that word. Cf. köšik, čoğay. Xak. xı kö:lik (so spelt, under fail) al-zill ‘shade, shadow’ Kaš. I 409: KB (by wise talk men have risen to be king, malık) üküš söz bašığ yörde kıldı kölik ‘too much talk has made men’s heads something buried in the ground’ 173 (see Kaš.’s translation of köli:- (shady, shaded)).

D kölük (gölök) (inspan, tackle, запряженный, упряжка) Pass. Conc. N. fr. köl- (inspan, harness, tie, bind, запрячь, запрягать) (колея, колка, одноколка); lit. ‘something harnessed’, normally ‘a baggage animal’, more in the sense of one to which baggage is tied than one harnessed to a vehicle. Survives in NC Kır., Kzx. kölük; NW Kk., Nog. kölik; SW Osm. gölük (common in this and extended meanings in xx Anat., SDD 657). Türkü vııı T 15 (ingek): Uyğ. vııı ff. (Man.-A (just as a wicked man's) bağı kölüki bukağusı ‘bonds, fastenings, and fetters’ (are either heavy or light) M III 12, 18 (ı); apparently the same word, but might be the Dev. N. in -g, kölüg which would fit the sense betteŋ: Bud. Sanskrit idfg yenam bhaved yasya ‘if anyone has a vehicle like this’ monda:ğ osoğloğ kölöki bolsa:r kimniŋ TT VIII A.37 (here ‘a harnessed vehicle’ not animal); (he prepared everything that the prince and his companions needed) ašı suvı kölüki ‘their food, water and baggage animals’ PP 28, 3: Xak. xı kölük ne:g al-šay’u’l--musta'er ‘something borrowed (or hired?)'; (there is no other trace of this meaning, but it might have come from (hired) ‘transport animals’): kölük al-zahr, that is ‘any animal (debba) fit to be loaded with baggage’ (yuhmal 'alayhe) Kaš. I392: KB (such a man does good to all people and) yana minnat urmaz kišike kölük ‘does not make his favour a restriction (?) on other people’ 857; (the products of the cattle breeder include...) yüdürgü kölük ‘animals which can be loaded’ 4441: Čağ. xv ff. kölük ‘baggage (tay-kaš) camels, horses, and oxen’ San. 3ogr. 3: Xwar. xıv kölük ‘baggage animal’ Qutb 107 (külük); Nahc. 240, 17; 273, 15; 409, 4: Tkm. xııı cam'u’l-hamir ‘a collective term for donkeys’ kölü:k Hou. 12, le: (xiv (between ‘dog’ and ‘bitch’) al-carw ‘puppy’ kölük (sic, no doubt an error for küčük, see kičig (small)) Bul. 10, 12): Osm. xıv ff. gölük ‘riding, or baggage, animal’; common till xvıı TTS I 318; H 446; III 306.

D kü:lüg (famous) P.N./A. fr. kü:(rumour; fame, reputation) (gossip);famous’. N.o.a.b., but see Doerfer III 1686. Türkü vııı antağ külüg xağan ermiš ‘he was such a famous \\ Ixagan I E 4, II E 5: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (addressed to a deity in a hymn) külügüm M II 8, 17 (ı): Bud. Külüg occurs as a component in P.N.s Pfahl. 10, 15-16; 12, 20: O. Kır. ıx ff. külüg kadašım ‘my famous kinsmen’ Mai. 3, 6; Külüg as a component in P.N.s do. 3, 3; 6, 2, etc. (eight occurrences): Xak. m Kaš. III 212 (küt): KB külüg is fairly common; occasionally with its full meaning, e.g. (whoever receives the favour of God) tllekke tegir boidt atlığ külüg 'has his wishes fulfilled and becomes famous (Mend.)’ 1797; a.o. 4525 (čavlığ); but more often used as a convenient rhyme without serious emphasis on its meaning, e.g. (listen) ay bilge külüg 1457; ay külüg 5283.

Dis. GLG

D külgü: (g-) N.Ac. fr. kül- (laugh); ‘laughter’, with some extended meanings. S.i.a.m.l.g. with minor phonetic changes; SVV Tkm. gülkl/ gülkü, not used in Az., Osm. There is no other trace of Kaš.'s second meaning. Xak. xı külgü: al-dahika ‘laughter’; and ‘apoplexy’ (al-sakta) is called külgü:, one says er külgü: (VU) berdi: (unvocalized) ‘the man had an apoplectic stroke’; also called kültgü: Kaš. I 430: (xin (?) Tef. külütgü ‘amusing, futile’; perhaps Kaš.'s Sec. f. mis-spelt 188): xi\ Muh. al-dahika gülgü: (sic) Mel. 85, 3; Rif. 191: Čağ. xv ff. külgü (spelt) gülmek Vel. 372; gülgü (spelt) (1) xanda ‘a laugh’ (quotn.); (2) xandan ‘laughing’ (quotn.) San. 309r. 1.

D kelgin Dev. N./A. fr. kel- (to come); apparently ‘the incoming (i.e. rising) tide’. Survives in SE Türki kelkün Jarring 170. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit udakaveham ‘a flood of water’ su:vlu:g kelkinig (sic; ?-g- intended) TT VIII A.32: Xak. xı kelgin al-madd tvahtoa bi-manziİati'1-sayl ‘a flood’ (the second word has this meaning and the first is described as being used instead of it) Kaš. I 443.

Dis. V. GLG-

D kelgir- Hap. leg.; Inchoative f. of kel- (to come): Xak. xı ol maija: kelgirdi: tanıanne tea keda art ya'ti ilayya ‘he wished (to come) and was on the point of coming to me’ Kaš. II 196 (kelgire:r, kelgirme:k).

Tris. GLG

kele:gü: (g-) (field mouse, Micromys minutus) an old animal name ending in -gü:. Survives onIy (?) in SW xx Anat. gelengi/gelengü/gelenki/geleni ‘field mouse, Micromys minutus' SDD 605, which, rather than ‘gerboa’ is prob. the meaning of al-yarbu here. Xak. xı kele:gü: al-yarbu Kaš. I 448: xıv Muh. (?) al-yarbu kelerjü: (unvocalized) Rif. 177 (only).

D köli:ge: (g-) (shadow, shade) Dev. N. fr. koli:-; ‘shadow, shade’; cf. kö:lik, q.v. S.i.a.m.l.g. in a wide range of forms of which one or two may represent kölik; the modern words include NE Koib., Sag., Šor köletki R II 1270; Khak. kölak; Tuv. xölege: SE Türki köleoge: NC Kır. kölökö/kölögkö; Kzx.

kölökö: SC Uzb. kulanka: NW Kk. kölegke; Kumyk gölentki; Nog. köletki: SW Az. kölke; Osm. gölge; Tknı. kölege. Cf. köši:ge:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kölige belgürer ‘a shadow appears’ Suv. 52, 20; a.o. U II 39, 87-90 (agmin): Civ. köligede kurıtıp ‘drying it in the shade’ \\ I 7e: Xak. xı köli:ge: al-zillul-zaltl ‘deep shade’ Kaš. I 448; III 174 (both main entries): KB (if you see this world) kölige sanı ‘it is like n shadow’ 3536; (this world) kölige turur 4758: xııı (?) Tef. köle:ge:/kölge: ‘shade’ 183: Čağ. xv ff. kölege (spelt) gölge... seya ma'nasinu ‘shadow’ Vel. 371 (verse); kölege (spelt) seya, in Ar. zill tva fay' San. 308V. 25: Xwar. xıv kölige (kö:li:ge )/köletke (kö:le:tge:) ‘shadow’ Qutb 101; kölige ‘shade’ Nahc. 408, 15: Kom. xıv ‘shade’ kölege CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı ‘the shade (zill) of a tree, etc. köle:k: Tkm. kölge:y Hou. 7, 14: xıv kölge:y al-šill tva'l-xayel ‘shade, shadow’ Id. 84; Bui. 4, 5:xv al-zill kölge:y Kav. 58, 8; zill köletke (MS. töletke)/kölege (in margin gölge) Tuh. 24a. 10; zallala köletke eyle- do. 24b. 2: Osm. xıv to xvı gölge in various phr. meaning ‘to shade, protect’; in several texts TTS II 446; 111 306; IV 350.

D köliklig (g-) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. kö:lik. Xak. xı ff. köliklig ye:r ‘a shady (muzallal) place’ Kaš. 7510.

D kölüklüg (g-) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. kölük. Xak. xı kölüklüg er ‘a man who owns baggage animals’ (hamüla tva zahŋ Kaš. I 510.

D külgü:süz (g-) Hap. leg; Priv. N./A. fr. külgü:; ‘without laughing, in all seriousness’ Xak. xı tığla: sö:züm külgü:süz ‘listen to my words without laughing’ (mitt ğayr dahka) Kaš. I 96, 11; n.m.e.

D köli:ge:siz Hap. leg. (?); Priv. N./A. fr. köli:ge: (shadow, shade); ‘casting no shadow’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 99 (bodsuz).

Tris. V. GLG-

D kelginle:- (rush, come) Hap. leg.; prob. used only in the Ger. in -Ü: Xak. xı kelginleyü: (MS. kchigisleyu , no doubt in error) aktimiz ‘we rushed on them like a flood’ Kaš. I 343, 24; n.m.e.

D keligse:- Desid. Den. V. fr. kelig; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol maga: keligse:di: ‘he wished to come to me’ (ya'tiyant) Kaš. III 335 (keligse:r, keligse:me:k); a.o. III 285 (kelse:-): xıv Muh. (t) (in a note on the Desid. f.) areda'1-macV ‘he wished to come’ kelig-se:di: Rif. 134 (only).

Dis. GLM

külmiz (fem. roe-deer) ‘the female of the roe-deer’, the counterpart of the male, 1 elik (male roe-deer). Survives only (?) in NE Alt. külmüš; Khak. külbüs; Tuv. xülbüs; see Shcherbak, p. 121. Xak.xi KB 79 (1 elik).

Tris. V. GLM-

D kelimsin- (g-) (entry, coming, arrival) Hap. leg.; Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. *kelim (entry, coming, arrival), N.S.A. fr. kel- (to come). Xak. xı ol berü: kelimsindi: ‘he pretended to come in our direction’ ((ya’tŋ nahwana) Kaš. II 259 (kelimsinü:r (MS. kelimsindi:), kelimsinme:k).

D külümsin- (g-) (chuckle) Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. *külüm (chuckle), N.S.A. fr. kül- (laugh); ‘to smile’. S.i.s.m.l., with some phonetic changes, e.g. SE Türki külümsiri-: NC Kır. külumsürö-: NVV Kk. küllmsiri-; Kumyk, Nog. külemsire-: SW Az külümse-/külümsün-; Osm. gülümse- Tkm. gülümcire-/gülümsire-, Xak. xı er külümsindi: ‘the man (ete.) smiled' (,dehaka) Kaš. II 259 (külümsinü:r, külümsinme:k): Osm. xıv to xvı gülümsün- ‘to smile’; in several texts TTS 11 474; ill 324.

Dis. GLN

D kelin (g-) (newcomer (family), bride, daughter-in-law) etymologically Dev. N. fr. kel- (to come), in the sense of ‘one who comes in (to the family’; properly a term of relationship meaning ‘the wife of one’s younger brother or son’ used only by the father or elder brother of the husband, but more usually rather generally for ‘bride’; indeed it seems to be the only native Turkish word with that meaning. S.i.a.m.l.g., normally as kelin, but NW Kumyk: SW Osm., Tkm. gelin. See Doerfer III 1700. (Türkü vııı see keligü:n): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 311 (ičger-): Civ. TT VII 28, 51 (tapmdur-): O. Kır. ıx ff. Mai. 3, 6 (1 ki:z): Xak. xı kelin al-arüs ‘a bride’ Kaš. I 404; o.o. III 12 (yövüšlig); 242 (kizlenčü:): KB 494 (ağın), 2380 (küdern), 3567 (bezen-):xiv Muh. al-arüs ğeli:n Mel. 49, 10; Rif. 144 (adding roa'l-kanna also ‘daughter-in-law’): Čağ. xv ff. kelin 'arüs San. 3ier. i9 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv kelin ‘bride’ Qutb 94: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr.: Kıp. xnı al-'arüs ke:Ii:n Hou. 32, 3: xıv kelin al-kanna toa'l-'arûs Id. 84: xv 'arüsa kelin Tuh. 24b. 10.

D kölüŋ (g-) Den. N. (perhaps Dim. f.) fr. kö:l; n.o.a.b. (Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A külüg in MI 10, 8 is prob. an error for külünč ‘smiling’; see erin): Xak. xı kölüg al-ciyya, that is ‘a pool of stagnant water (mustanqa’u’l--me') on which birds settle’ Kaš. III 372; kö:lü:g (sic) al-ğadir ‘a pond’ I 73, 11.

D külünč (g-) Dev. N./A. fr. *külün- Refl. f. of kül- (laugh); survives in SW Az. külünč; Osm. gülünč ‘amusing, ridiculous; laughing-stock; mockery’. (Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A. see kölüg): Xak. xı külünč al-dihk ‘laughter’, etc. Kaš. III 374: KB külünč 'laughing stock’ 2442 (urunč): Osm. xv gülünč ‘a laughing stock’; in one text TTS III 324; (gülenč ‘smiling’ in I 336 is prob. an error for güleč, not an old word).

Dis. V. GLN-

D kölün- (g-) (overloaded, weary) Refl. f. of köl- (inspan, harness, tie, bind, запрячь, запрягать) (колея, колка, одноколка); n.o.a.b.; apparently used only metaph. for ‘to be weary, as if overloaded’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in a series of disagreeable happenings) kün teŋri kölündi čerigig üze ay teŋri battı kutug üze ‘the sun has come to a standstill (and is pouring its heat) over your army; the moon has set on your favour from heaven’ TT I 39-40: Xak. xı er eliği: ada:kı: kölündi: ‘the man’s arms and legs became limp (fatarat) from overwork or from continuous travelling or walking as if he was tied to a weight’ (muqayyad mirta'l-tikl) Kaš. II 158 (kölünü:r, kölünme:k): KB (I have become a prisoner of the years and months) kišensiz kölündi magumaz adak ‘my legs are disabled (tied, bound), even though not hobbled, and cannot walk’ 374.

Tris. GLN

D kölüŋü: (? kölüngü; g-) Conc. N. fr. kölün-; lit. ‘something harnessed’; used in Bud. texts to translate yena ‘vehicle’ in such words as Maheyena; n.o.a.b. Cf. kagli:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (you have explained) uluğ kičig kölügülerig ‘the Great and Small Vehicles’ (Maheyena and Hinayana) Hüen-ts. 1772-3; ÜČ kölügü ‘the Three Vehicles’ do. 1922; taysıg savsıg kölügüler ‘the T’ay-hsing (Maheyena) and Hsiao-hsing (Hinayana) vehicles’ Suv. 276, 11-12.

D keliŋü:n (g-) Hap. leg.; Collective f. of kelin. Türkü vııı (my mother the xatun, my step-mothers, my junior aunts/elder sisters) keligü:nim ‘my younger brothers’/sons’ wives’ (and my consorts) IN 9.

Tris. V. GLN-

D kelinle:- (g-) Hap. leg. ?; Den. V. fr. kelin. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (in an adoption contract, the adopter agrees to put the adopted son on an equal footing with his natural sons and) kelinlep ‘provide him with a wife’ USp. 98, 26.

E kelŋizle:- See kelginle:-.

Tris. GLR

keler (lizard) ‘lizard’; survives as keler in SE Tar. R II 1113; SW Osm. (which, with Az., also has kertenkeler, same meaning). There is no widely distributed word for ‘lizard’ in the modern languages, see keslinčü. Xak.xi keler al-dabb ‘lizard’ Kaš. I 364: Kip. xili al-tcaran ‘lizard’ kele:r Hou. ir, 19 (sic; altered by Hou. to kele-.z): xıv al-dabb (PU "wan, Hap. leg.)/keler; al-tvaran keler Bul. 10, 12-13: Osm. xıv ff. keler ‘lizard’; in several texts TTS I 443; II 611; III 431; 492: xvııı keler, in Rumi, sûsmer ‘lizard’ San. 300V. 28.

Dis. V. GLR-

D kelür- (g-) (came, brought, gave birth) the earliest Caus. f. of kel- (to come); n.o.a.b.; later displaced by keltür-, q.v. Türkü vııı evi:n barkr.n kalısız kelü:rti: ‘they brought all their tents and movable possessions’ IN 1; I S 11 (bedizči:) a.o.o.: vııı ff. buza:ğu: kelü:rmi:š ‘it gave birth to a calf’ IrkB 41: Man. beš teŋri yarukm bizigerü kelürdi erser ‘when they had brought us the light of the Five Cods’ Chuas. 226-7; 0 °- do. 104-7 (kikšür-); M 111 23, 10-11 (in: Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. (the gifts) kim kelürmiš ertiler ‘which they had brought’ U 16, 13: lîud. terkin maga kelürüglerbring me quickly’ U III 12, 14; teginig esen tükel kelürzünler 'let them bring back the prince safe and sound’ PP 22, 6-7; o.o. do. 2Č, 6; 29, 2-3; Kuan. 76 (‘to give birth to’); TT VI 62 (VIII 0.6); X 366, etc.: Civ. kelürüp berürmen 'I will bring and hand over’ (certain goods) USp. 62, 9-11; a.o. (‘to give birth to’) Tr VII 26, 18 (1 uri:).

Dis. V. GLR-

D 1 köler- (g-) (fill, static, stabilized, gather, collect) Intrans. Den. V. fr. kö:l; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı kölerdi: su:v ‘the water became stationary and stagnated (istareda... tva'stanqa'a) and formed a pond’ (al-ğadiŋ Kaš. II 84 (kölerür, kölerme:k); kakla:r kamuğ kölerdi: ‘the dry watercourses filled with water’ I 179, 19; II 283, 2. (OTD p. 314 KÖLAR- собираться, скапливаться (о воде) ~ gather, collect (of water))

VUD 2 köler- (dilation, expansion, swelling) n.o.a.b.; prob. merely a metaphor, usage of 1 köler-, Xak. xı at kölerdi: ‘the horse swelled (inbataha) owing to dilation (intifax) of the stomach’ and the like Kaš. II 84 (kölerür, kölermerk; prov.); a.o. I 523, 1.

VU (D) külre:- (sound) Hap. leg.; syn. w. küldre:- (sound), q.v., and perhaps an abbreviation of it. Xak. xı ta:š kuduğda: külre:di: 'the stone made a noise of this sort (šaunuata... bi-hedihi’l-sifa) in the well’ Kaš. III 282 (külre:r, külre:me:k).

D kelürt- (g-) (came, brought, gave birth) Hap. leg.?; Caus. of kelür- (came, brought, gave birth), Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the king ordered his ministers to bring goods to present as alms) Ötrü kamağ buyruklar... bušılığ ertinller kelürtip ‘then all the ministers had precious objects brought for (presentation as) alms’ U III 12, 14-16.

Dis. V. GLS-

D kelse:- (g-) (to come) Hap. leg.; Desid. f. of kel- (to come) and syn. w. keligse:-; the entry is in a section for Dis. V.s but is a complete muddle. Xak. xı men saga: keligse:dim ‘I wished to come to you ’ (atiyak); alternative form (kığa) kelse:dim Kaš. III 285 (kelse:rmen, kelse:me:k; MS. kelise:- everywhere).

D külsir- (g-) (smile) pec. to Kaš., and more or less syn. w. külčir-, q.v., which is not mentioned by Kaš.; Simulative f. in -sir- (not noted elsewhere) of kül-; 'to smile’. Xak. xı er külsirdi: ‘the man pretended to smile’ (yatabassam) also used when he (actually) smiled (ide tabassama) Kaš. II 196 (kül-sire:r, ktilsirme:k); (in a grammatical Section) külsirgem er al-raculu’l-mibsam 'a man who (constantly) smiles’ II 256, 17.

Dis. GLŠ

D keliš (g-) (to come) Dev. N. (with some element of reciprocity) fr. kel- (to come); in the early period nearly always used in association w. barıš, q.v., for ‘coming and going’. S.i.s.m.I.g. for ‘coming, arrival’; SW Az. keliš; Osm. geliš. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Hüen-ts. 293, 2089 (barıš): Xak. xı Kaš. I 370 (barıš): KB 4421 (barıš): Čağ. xv IT. keliš (İmadan 'coming’ San. 3ier. 18 (quotn.).

Dis. V. GLŠ-

D keliš- (g-) (to come) Recip. f. of kel- (to come); properly ‘to come together’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with a rather wide range of meanings of which the commonest is ‘to come to an agreement’. Xak. xı ol maga: kellšdi: barıšdı: ‘he came to visit me (ixtalafa ilayya) and I went to visit him’ Kaš. II no (kelišu:r, kelišme:k): KB (if I associate with other people) barıšğu kelišgü kerek men küle ‘I shall have to exchange visits with them with a smile’ 4569.

D köliš- (g-) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of köli:-. Xak. xı ol maga: ölüg kölišdi: ‘he helped me to bury (// dafn) the corpse’ Kaš. II no (kölišü:r, kölišme:k).

D külüš- (g-) (laugh) Co-op./Recip. f. of kül- (laugh); ‘to laugh together; to laugh at one another’. S.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı bodurn kamuğ külüšdi: ‘the people all laughed together’ (tadehaka) Kaš. I1 no (külüšü:r, külüšme:k): xııı (?) Tef. külüš- ditto 188: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 107.

Tris. GLŠ

D külüšüg (g-) Hap. leg.; N.Ac. fr. külüš- (laugh), Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. köz! karam birle külüšügin külüšügin («c) oluralım Met us sit and laugh with my black-eyed (beauty)’ M II 9, 19-20.

D kelišlig Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. keliš. Xak. xı (after keliš) hence a hostelry (or guest house, baytu’l-difen) is called kelišlig barıšlığ ev, that is ‘a house of coming and going’ Kaš. I 370.

Mon. G(Q)M

1 kem (illness) ‘illness’; like kegen normally used in Hend. w. 1 i:g; acc. to Kaš. kemlen- was used specifically of horses, but this cannot apply to kem in Uyğ. Survives only (?) in SW Anat. (one group of refugees) kem ‘a chronic, painful, cardiac disease’ SDD 873; not to be confused with SW Osm. kem l.-w. fr. Pe. kam ‘deficient, bad’, etc.. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Ig kem ‘illness’ (Hend.) U II 42, 7; 43, 19: Civ. TT VII 28, 5 (1 i:g): Xak. xı kem al-de' ‘illness’; hence one says at kemlendi: ‘the horse (etc.) was ill’ (de'a) Kaš. I 338; a.o. II 363, 20: KB (the physicians) ol Ig kem ne ermiš ayu berdiler ‘declared what the illness (Hend.) was’ 1057.

2 kem See kim. (who)

kim (who) properly only the Interrogative Pron. ‘who?’, parallel to ne: ‘what?’, but, unlike ne:, never used as an Interrog. Adj. The concept of Relative Prons. was entirely foreign to Turkish, in which Participles and the like are used where Indo-Europenn languages use Relative Prons., \721\ but when the Turks became acquainted with such languages, and religious works in them began to be translated into Turkish, usually by persons whose native language was not Turkish, kim came to be used as a Relative Pron., and, hastened by the phonetic resemblance, in all the meanings of Pe. ki and other cognate Iranian words, including the Conjuction ‘that’. Granbech’s Komanisches Worterbuch devotes five pages to the various meanings of kim in Kom. xiv. No attempt has been made here to list all the medieval non-Turkish uses of the word. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in NE Alt., Kiier., Leb., Tel. (R II 1202), and Khak. kem; Tuv. kim (sic). everywhere else kim. The NE form, together with the Türkü spelling k m, suggest that the word may originally have been kem. Türkü vııı kemke: 6Ug kazğanur-men ‘for whom am I gaining a realm V I E 9; ellt)in törötgin kem artat(t)i: ‘who destroyed your realm and customary law?’ I E 22, II E 19: vııı ff. (if the tint of the stone is green) kem özirnte: tutsar ‘whoever carries it on his person’ (cannot be endangered by poisonous insects) Toyok 27 (ETY II 59; a translation fr. Sogdian; in parallel passages tutsar is used without the kem): Man. yerig teŋrig kim yaratmıš tĞpen biltlmiz ‘we know who created earth and heaven’ Chuas. 167-8; in do. 127 kim seems to be ‘who’ but the text is corrupt; (thereafter the holy king’s thoughts weakened a little) oi tıltağın kim ınča ešldtl ‘for the reason that he heard the following’ TT II 6, 31: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ot kim ığačda ünüp ‘the fire which arises from wood’ M I 7, 2; o.o. of Relative kim do. 8, 11; 15, 3; 16, 5; 17, 8 etc.: Man. kim Relative, ‘who, which’ Wind. 23, 33, etc.; Conjunction ‘that’ do. 18, 4e: Bud. kim is rather rare as an Interrog. but common as a Relative Pron. and Conjunction: Civ. kim is not common; in HI it is only Relative, elsewhere usually Relative, esp. in the phr. ne kim, negü kim ‘whatever’ TT VII 28, 3752: Xak. xı kim Interrogative Pron. (harf istifham) meaning ‘who?’ (man); one says bu: kim ‘who is this?’ U9ed both for the Sing, and the Plur. The Oğuz say bo:y ki:m (sic) mani’l-qabila, ‘who are your tribe?’, it is a collective noun (ism cam') Kaš. I 338: about 20 o.o. equally divided between kim and ki:m; as a Nom. nearly always Interrog., but always Relative as an Acc. or Gen.: KB kim is common, usually Relative, less often Interrog.: xııı (?) At. kim is common in both uses; Tef. kim ‘who?; who; that’; kayu kim ‘whoever’; kačan kim ‘when’, etc.; kimse ‘anyone’ 179-80: xıv Muh. manu' l-istifhem ‘who?’ ki:m; it also means alladi ‘who’ Mel. 16, 16; Rif. 94; a.o.o.: Čağ. xv ff. kim (1) a word which takes the place of hi as a Conjunction (dar raivabit), i.e. ‘that’ (quotn.); (2) harf-i istifham, that is či kas/ki ‘who?’ San. 3ier. 20: Oğuz xı Kaš. I 338 (see Xak.): Xwar. xııı kim ‘who?’; kimerse/kimse/kimesne ‘someone’; kimi... kimi ‘the one... the other’ 'Ali 17: xııı (?) kim is common in Oğ.; usually in such phr. as dedi kim, kördi kim ‘he said, or saw, that’, occasionally as Relative: xıv kim ‘who; that’; kimi... kimi Qutb 98; ditto and kimse MN passim: Kom. xıv kim in a wide range of meanings CCI, CCG; Gr. 143-7 (many quotns.): Kip. xııı kim is the Turkish word for manu l-istifhem ‘who?’ Hou. 51, 9 ff. (examples given): xıv kim ‘who?’; kimse ‘someone’, also kimersej/kimersene: Id. 84; man kim; kim also occurs in the meanings of anna ‘that’; hatte' (in ordeŋ that’, alladı ‘who’ and ka'anna ‘as if’ Bui. 15, 8: xv man kim Kav. 16, 8-16 etc.; anna ki/kim do. 28, 19; harfül-masdar kim; this kim is also a Conditional Conjunction, an Interrogative and harf mašdari meaning anr.a do. 72, 6; kim is common in the grammatical part of Tuh. 43a. 9 ff. as Interrogative, Relative, Conjunction, etc.

köm Intensifying Prefix, see 4 kö:k (sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey).

Mon. V. GM-

*kem- See kemür-. (gnaw, grind)

köm- (g-) (dig, bury, cultivate) ‘to bury’, both specifically for ‘to bury’ (the dead) and more generally for burying something in the ground, ashes, etc.; sometimes even more generally for ‘to dig, cultivate’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in NW Kumyk; SW Osm., Tkm. göm-. See köli:-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. isig külke kömüp ‘bury them in hot ashes’ H I 151; o.o. do. 35 (1 o:t); USp. 13, 4 (eŋ; 32, e: Xak. xı ol ölügni: kömdi: ‘he buried (dafana) the corpse’ (etc.); and one says <ol> kö:zme:n kömdi: ittaxada'l-xubz fVl-malla ‘he put the loaf in the hot ashes’ Kaš. II 27 (köme:r, kömme:k): KB 5212 (ešü:-): xııı (?) At. (the wise man says what has to be said and) kereksiz sözini kömüp kizleyür ‘buries and hides unnecessary remarks’ 118: Tef. köm- ‘to bury’ 183: xıv Rbğ. ditto R II 1319 (quotns.); Muh. dafana göm- Mel. 26, 3; gö:m- Rif. 109: Čağ. xv ff. göm- (‘with g-’) ba-zamln pinhön kardan ‘to hide in the ground’, and sometimes ‘to put on one side and hide, but not in the ground’ San. 309r. 4 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv köm- ‘to bury’ Qutb 101: Kom. xıv ditto CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı dafana köm- Hou. 33, 18: xıv ditto Id. 84; tamma ua qabara ‘to cover up; to bury (the dead)’ köm- Bul. 59r.: xv dafana köm- Kav. 76, 1; Tuh. 16a. 1.

Dis. GM

kuma (kuma:, quma ) “concubine” (concubine) ~ kon-kumine (See F xa:tun (Queen, lady)) p. 602

Dis. GME

kemi: (g-) (ship, boat)ship, or boat’; s.i.a.m.l.g. usually as keme, but SE Türki keme; NW Kumyİt geme; SW Az. kemi; Osm., Tkm. gemi. The balance of evidence is for -e- as the first vowel, but it was certainly -e- in Xak. and this occurs sporadically in Uyğ. In most modern languages this word means ‘ship’, other words like uča:n and kayğuk (kayuk, kayak, canoe, small boat), q.v., being used for smaller vessels. See Doerfer III 1703. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if he goes to sea) kara yel kelip kemisin tokıp ‘a black wind comes and strikes his ship’ Kuan. 20; kimisi (sic) batmıš ‘its ship has sunk’ Hilen-is. 18911892; o.o. PP 17, 1-3 (udik), etc. (in PP spelt \\ kmŋ: Xak. xı kemi: (bi-kasri'l- kef among the Turks) al-safina ‘ship’ Kaš. III 235 (verse): xıı (?) Tef. keml ‘ship’ 171: xıv Muh. al-safina ual-morkab (‘ship’) gem!:; al-safinatıi l-sağıra giči: gemi: Mel. 62; Rif. lel(and see kayğuk): Čağ. xv ff. keme (‘with k-’) gemi Vet. 360 (quotn.); keme (spelt) safîmi tea zauraq (‘boat’) San. 3ier. 26 (quotn.); a.o. do. by. 24 (uča:n): Oğuz/Kıp. xı kemi: (bi-fatki’l-kef) al-safina Kaš. III 235: Xwar. xıv kemi ‘ship’ Qutb 94: Kom. xıv ‘ship’ keme CCG; Gr.: Kıp. xııı al-safina kemi:; also kereb which is Rumi (Greek karabos) Hou. 7, e: xıv (Tkm.) kemi: al-safîna\ keme: al-markab in Kıp. Id. 84; al-markab kemi:; (al-safina kerreb (ire)) Bul. 4, 13: xv safına keme (in margin kemi; tval-šağira učan) Tuh. 19a. 7; markab keme do. 33*>- 5.

Dis. GMC

D kömeč (gömmeč) (ash-baked) (comida) abbreviated Dev. N. in -meč (for kinds of food) fr. köm- (dig, bury, cultivate); lit. (‘food) buried (in the ashes to cook it)’. Survives meaning ‘bread baked in the ashes’, or the like, in SE Türki kömeč/kö:meč: NC Kır. kömöč: SC Uzb. kümač: NW Kk. kömeš; Kaz. kümeč; but in SW Osm. gümec (ji'c) now means only ‘honeycomb’ (metaph., owing toits shape). See Doerfer 111 1643, 1687. Xak. xı kömeč ‘a round loaf (al-qurš) which is buried (yudfan) in the hot ashes’: kömeč (mim unvocalized) al-kanz ‘a buried treasure’; one says ol kömeč (MS. kömüč) buldi: ‘he found a buried treasure’ Kaš. I 360; (as an example of -Č as a Suff.) kömeč al-qurs derived fr. kömdi: dafana fî'1-ramöd (‘ashes’) I 12, 8: Čağ. xv ff. San. 27V. 15 (ebe:): Osm. xıv ff. gömeč usually ‘honeycomb’; less often ‘loaf baked in the ashes’; fairly common TTS I 318; II 447; IV 350; and see ebe:.

D kömčü: (buried) Hap. leg.; inexplicable morphologically except as a crasis of *kömünčü:, Den. V. in -čü: fr. kömün-, since this Suff. is attached only to Refl. V.s. The old Arab tribe of 'Ad has the same kind of legendary character in Classical Arabic as tavğač (Tabgach Türkic), q.v., in Xak. Xak. xı kömčü: al-kanz ‘a buried treasure’; one says tavğa:č kömčü:si: kanz 'Adi ‘a hidden treasure of (the tribe of) 'Ad’ (i.e. old and rare) Kaš. I 418.

Tris. GMC

D kemi:či: (g-) (sailor, mariner, boatman, shipbuilder) N.Ag. fr. kemi:; properly ‘mariner, boatman’; later sometimes ‘shipbuilder’. S.i.s.m.l.; SW Osm., Tkm. gemici. See Doerfer III 1704. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kim yerčİ suvčı kemiči erser ‘whoever is a guide, pilot, or mariner’ PP 22, 4-5: (Xak.) xıv J\lull, šeîni'ul-sufun ‘ship-builder’ gemhčİ: Mel. 58, 1; Rif. 156; mallak ‘mariner, sailor’ gemlči: 58, n; 157: Kip. xııı al-nûti ‘sailor’ kemi:ci: Hou. 24, 5.

kömi:če: (gnat) (gnus, гнус) (listed under ‘fa'ele, with various vowels’) ‘gnat’; n.o.a.b.; of an unusual form, nl-hnnn ‘n annf Kaš. I 445; a.o. III 358 (sig; mis-spelt köminče:).

Dis. GMD

D kemdük (denuded, stripped) Hap. leg.; Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. kemdi:- (denude, strip) Xak. xı kemdük sügük al-'ureq mina’l-'izöm ‘a bone which has been stripped of meat’ Kaš. I 480.

Dis. V. GMD

kemdi:- (denude, strip) Hap. leg.?; cf. kemdük. Xak. xı KB (do not draw a knife at table and) sügük kemdüne ‘do not strip a bone of meat’ 4131.

D kömtür- (g-) (dig, bury, cultivate) Caus. f. of köm- (dig, bury, cultivate) ; s.i.m.m.l.; SW Osm., Tkm. gömdür-. Xak. xı ol ye:rde: ne:g kömtürdi: ‘he had the thing buried (adfana) in the ground’ Kaš. II 196 (kömtürür, kömtürme.k) Čağ. xv ff. gömdür- Caus. f.; ba-zamin pinken farmüdan ‘to have (something) hidden in the ground’ San. 3°9r. 17-

Dis. GMG

PU?F kemek (fabric type) Hap. leg.; prob., like many other names of fabrics, a l.-w.; the word has one fatka which might be over either of the first two consonants. Xak. xı kemek nasic min qutn munaqqaš viufatvzvaf ‘a woven cotton material, embroidered, with white stripes’, used to make outer garments (al-dutüŋ; the Kıpčak make rain-coats (al-mametiŋ from it Kaš. I 392.

Dis. GML

D kemlig (ill) Hap. leg.?; P.N./A. fr. 1 kem (illness); ‘ill’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Suv. 585, 13 (ağrığlığ). '

Dis. V. GML-

D kömül- (g-) (buried) Pass. f. of köm- (dig, bury, cultivate); s.i.m.m.l.; SW Osm., Tkm. gömül-, Xak. xı KB kamuğ öz yazukka kömüldi bütün ‘I am completely buried in all my sins’ 5710: Kom. xıv ‘to be buried’ kömül- CCG; Gr.

D kemle:- (ill) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. 1 kem (illness). Xak. xı at kemle:di: ‘the horse was ill’ (daiviya), alternative word (luğa) for kemle:ndi: (sic) Kaš. III 301 (kemle:r, kemle:me:k).

D kemlet- (ill) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of kemle:- (ill). Xak. xı bu ot atığ kemletti: ‘this plant made the horse ill’ (add) Kaš. II 348 (kemletu:r, kemletme:k); a.o. 363, 15.

D kemlen- (ill) Refl. f. of kemle:- (ill); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı at kemlendi: ‘the horse (etc.) was ill’ (de’a); tva ašluhu fVl-faras, originally (only) of horses Kaš. II 253 (kemlenü:r, kemlenmek); o.o. I 338 (1 kem (illness)); III 301 (kemle:-).

Tris. GML

D kömüldürük (g-) (breast-strap) N.I. fr. *kömül, a corruption of kögül (cf. some modern forms of köglek); ‘the breast-strap’ of a saddle. An early l.-w. in Mong. as köınüldürge (Haenisch 103, Kow. 2612), and reborrowed in that form jlL_Nj^_Tei:__/?_/7_ 1322; otherwise survives \\ only (?) in NC Kır. kömöldürük; SW Osm. gömüldürük. Xak. xı kömüldürük al-labab fi'l-sarc ‘the breast-strap of a saddle’ Kaš. I 530; ditto, quoted as a word with six consonants I 17, 5: Kom. xıv ‘breast-strap’ kömüldrük CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-labab kömüldürük Hou. 14, 2: xıv ditto Id. 84:xv labab yömüldürük (sic, in error?) Tuh. 31b. 10: Osm. xv ff. gömüldürük ‘breast-strap’; common in Ar. and Pe. dicts. TTS I 319; 7/448; III 306; IV 351: xvııı gömüldürük (spelt) in Rumi ‘the breast strap’ (sina--band) of a horse or camcl; in Ar. mašder wa labab San. 309V. 16.

Dis. GMN

PU kümen (trickery) Hap. leg.; the general meaning ‘trickery’, or the like, is certain, but other occurrences of yelvi: do not provide any close parallel; possibly mistranscribed. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. neg yelvl kömen tegmegey ‘no sorcery or trickery shall come near them’ U II 71, 2-3 (iŋ.

Dis. V. GMN-

D kömün- (g-) (dig, bury, cultivate) Refl. f. of köm- (dig, bury, cultivate); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı er tavatrin kömüııdi: ‘the man pretended to bury (yadfun) his property’ Kaš. II 158 (kömünür, kömünme:k).

Tris. GMN

E köminče: See kömiıče:.

D kömündi: (g-) (dig, bury, cultivate) Hap. leg.; Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. kömün-, Xak. xı kömündi: ne:g 'anything buried’ (madfün) Kaš. I 450.

Dis. GMR

kömür (charcoal, coal) (coal)charcoal’; in some modern languages also used for ‘(mineral) coal’. S.i.a.m.l.g., invariably with initial k-; this fact, and the fact that it has only in recent times come to mean ‘coal’ excludes any possibility of deriving it fr. köm- (dig, bury, cultivate). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kömür bolupan ‘becoming charcoal’ M III 28, 6 (iii) (text fragmentary, but preceded by a reference to burning wood): Xak. xı KB 3837 (türt-); 395' (öčük-): xıv Muh. al-fahm ‘charcoalgömür (sic) Mel. 61, 10; kö:mür Rif. 160: Čağ. xv ff. kemür (‘with k-’) kömür Vel. 360 (quotn.); kömür (spelt) sağal ‘charcoal’; also called kimür San. 309V. 12 (quotn.); reverse entry 3ier. 25 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv kömürcharcoal’ Qutb 101: Kom. xıv ‘coal, or charcoal’ (?) kömür CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-fahm kemür Hou. 23, 20: xıv ditto Bui. 4, 11; kömür al-fahm Id. 84: xv ditto Tuh. 28a. 3.

D kemrük (g-) (gnaw, grind) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. kemür- (gnaw, grind); ‘crack, gap; cracked, gappy’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı Kaš. I 478 (kerttik): Kip. xıv kemrik al-afram ‘with gappy, or missing, teeth’ İd. 84.

Dis. V. GMR-

(D) kemür- (g-) (gnaw, grind) ‘to gnaw’ and the like; morphologically Caus. f. of *kem- (gnaw), but hard to connect semantically w. kemiš- q.v.; semantically more connected w. kemdi:-. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in NVV Kumyk; SW Osm. gemir-; Tkm. gemir-. Xak. xı ol sügü:k kemürdi: ‘he sucked the marrow (tamaššaša) out of the bone’ Kaš. II 85 (kemürür, kemürme:k): Čağ. xv ff. kömür- (-di; ‘with k-) kemük ve ğayri nesne gemür- ‘to gnaw bones or other things’ Vel. 372; gömür- (so spelt) ceyidan ‘to chew, gnaw’ San. 3ogr. 18 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ‘to gnaw’ kemir- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv kemür- mašmaša’l-ašm İd. 84 (mašmaša means ‘to macerate,’ but seems here to be a vulgarism for mašša ‘to suck the marrow’): xv mašmaša tva marmaša (a post-Classical word) kemlr- Tuh. 35b. 9; a.o. 84b. 11.

D kemrüš- (g-) (gnaw, grind) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of kemür- (gnaw, grind), Xak. xı ola:r ikki: sügü:k kem-rüšdi: ‘they sucked the marrow (tamaššaša) out of bones and competed in doing so’ Kaš. I1 224 (kemrüšü:r, kemrüšme:k).

Tris. GMR

3 kömürge:n See kövürge:n (onion (wild)).

D kömürlüg (charcoal, coal) (coal) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. kömür (charcoal, coal) (coal). Xak. xı (after kömürlük) ‘and the owner of (charcoal) with -g’ Kaš. I 506.

D kömürlük (charcoal, coal) (coal) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. kömür (charcoal, coal) (coal); survives in SWr Osm. kömürlük ‘a place for storing charcoal’. Xak. xı kömürlük šaca-ru'l-fahm wa mawdi'u'l-fahm' a tree for making charcoal, and a place for storing it’ Kaš. I 506.

Dis. GMS

F kimsen (gold thread) a Chinese phr., apparently chin hsien ‘gold thread’ (Giles 2,032 4,532; Middle Chinese kim sen); the meaning does not match exactly, but alternative phr. with nearer meanings do not match phonetically. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı kimsem ‘thin gold leaves’ (ruqaqatu'l--dahab) which are used on hats (al-qalanis), etc. Kaš. I 437: Čağ. xv ff. kimsen (‘with k-’) kimzen, that is ‘gilded (or gold-coloured?) leather which mirror-makers put on mirrors’ (quotn.); kimsend ditto (quotn.) Vel. 359; kimsen (spelt) püstl ki eme muasfar-i sarrin sezand ‘gilded (or gold-coloured) leather’ San. 3ier. 23 (quotn.): Kom. xıv kemsen ‘gold leaf’ or the like CCG; Gr.

D kemsiz Hap. leg.; Priv. N./A. fr. 1 kem (illness); ‘free from illness’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Suv. 20, 19 (igsiz).

Dis. GMŠ

kümüš (g-) (silver)silver’; s.i.a.m.l.g.; NW Kk. gümis; Kumyk gümüš; SW Osm. gümüš, but Tkm. kümüš. Türkü vııı / S 5, II N 3, etc. (altu:n): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit rajalasya ‘of silver’ kümüšnüg TT VIII E 47; o.o. PP 36, 7; 42, 2-3 (egir-); Kuan. 18: Civ. kümüš is common in commercial documents in USp.; when unqualified it means ‘coin’ (actually coppeŋ as opposed to notes, rather than physical silver, e.g. maga \\ Dulmıška asığka kümüš kergek bolup ‘since I, Bulmeš, required (a loan of) cash at interest’ Usp. 18, 2-3; the amount of the loan was altı sıtır kümüš ‘six sıtır in coin’ 18, 3-4 and the monthly rate of interest was birer yarım bakır kümüš ‘One and a half copper cash a month’ (i.e. 30 per cent per annum); this is the rate on some loans in Fain. Arch, where the phr. tartma kümüš ‘weighed (or minted) coin’ also occurs: O. Kır. tx ff. Mai. 11,9 (altu:n); (in Mai. 44 and 45 kümüš is an error for the tribal name Kümül): Xak. xı kümüš al-fidda ‘silver’ (verse): kümüš ‘a dirham because it is made of silver: kümüš one of the P.N.s used for slave girls Kaš. I 370; a.o. /413 (tegin): KB kümüš kalsa altun menigdin saga ‘if you inherit silver and gold from me’ 188; o.o. 479, 948, etc.: xııı (?) Tef. altun kümüš 188: xıv Muh. al-fidda gümiš (sic) Mel. 12, 13; 75, 6; Rif. 87, 178 (k-, unvocalized): Xwar. xııı (?) altun kümüš Oğ. 181-2; a.o.o. xıv kümüš ‘silver’ Qutb 107: Kom. xıv ‘silver’ kümüš/kümiš CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. XIII al-fidda kümüš Hou. 31, 12; kümİš P.N. of a slave girl do. 30, 11: xıv kümüš al-fidda Id. 84; Bui. 4, 8: xv ditto Kav. 58, 13; Tuh. 28a. 1.

Dis V. GMŠ-

(? D) kemiš- ‘to throw away, abandon’, and the like, lit. and metaph.; morphologically Co-op. f. of *kem-, but not connected semantically with kemür- (gnaw, grind), and with no obviously Recip. meaning; in Kaš. II 115, 4 cited as a V. which has none of the shades of meaning normally associated with the Suff. -Š-. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. Knm, L., T. R II 1210; Kotv. 215; in Rbğ. where the early MSS. have kemiš- later ones have sal-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. MI 7, 7 (tašğaru:); 7, 17-21 (toš): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M I 35, 16-17 (kovğa:): Chr. (they picked up the stone and) ol kuduğ ičinde kemišdiler ‘threw it into that well’ UI 8, 10; a.o. do. 9, 2: Bud. kapığların ačuk kemišeyin ‘1 will throw open the doors’ (of inv seven treasures) U III 47, 17-18; o.o. U II 77, 28 (kurğak) ; TT VI 454 (2 uruğ); Suv. 602, 10 (2 to:ğ); TT IV 10, 9-10, etc.: Civ. TT I no (egri:): Xak. xı ol ne:g kemišdi: ‘he threw away (taraha) the thing’ Kaš. II 112 (kemišu:r, kemišme:k; prov.); ntığ kcmšlp ‘giving his horse its head’ (i.e. letting it gallop; hamala bi-farasiliŋ I 309, 15; o.o. (same phr.) 441, 8; 472, 12: KB kemišti kiteb ‘he let the book drop’ 1572; yağı at kemišse 2285, 2386; oğul kız kemišti ata hurmatı ‘boys and girls have given up respecting their parents’ 6491; a.o. 5649: XIII (?) At. (God) kemšür kodi ‘casts down’ (the proud man) 282; a.o. 478; Tef. kemiš- ‘to throw down, throw up’, etc. (several lit. and metaph. shades of meaning) 171: XIV Muh. (?) alqa tva taraka 'to throw away, abandon’ kemiš- Rif. 104 (only); hadafa ‘to cut off, throw away’ kemi:š- 107 (only): Xwar. xıv kemiš- ‘to cast (into hell); to lay down (a prayer mat)’ Nahc. 238, 14; 268, 12-13; 250, 15: Kom. xıv ‘to throw away’ kemiš- CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı hadafa ke:miš- Hou. 34, 10: xıv kemiš- bataha ‘to cast down’ Id. 84: xv rame ‘to throw’ (bırak-/) kemiš- (/šal-/yık-) Tuh. 17a. 13; laqqaha ‘to throw’ (šal-/bırak-/) kemiš- do. 32a. 10: Osm. xıv and xv kemiš-‘to throw away; to put (something on something else)’; in several texts TTS I 443; III 432; IV 493.

D kömüš- (g-) (dig, bury, cultivate) Co-op. f. of köm- (dig, bury, cultivate); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol maga: ne:g kömüšdi: ‘he helped me to bury (fi dafn) the thing below ground’ Kaš. II m (kömišü:r, kömišme:k; sic): xıv ı\fıı/ı (?) (faxara ‘to store (some (hrng)’ kömüš- Rif. 109 (only).

Tris. GMŠ

D kemišge: Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. kemiš-; lit. ‘something laid down on the ground’ or the like. Xak. xı kemišge: (MS. kemišge:) libd munaqqaš Köšğari ‘an embroidered Kešğar felt (rug?)’ Kaš. I 490.

D kümüšlüg (g-) P.N./A. fr. kümüš; s.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Ilud. kümüšlüg otruğka tağka tegdi ‘he reached the island and mountain of silver’ PP 35, 5-6.

Tris. V. GMŠ-

D kemišil- Pass. f. of kemiš-; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit apaviddha ‘cut off’ kemišilmiš TT VIII 1).25: Kom. xıv kemišil- ‘to be thrown out of, excluded from (somewhere)’ CCG; Gr. 137 (quotn.).

Mon. G(Q)N

S 1 ken See kend. (town)

D 2 ke:n (g-) (behind (place), after (time), later, thereafter, onwards, in future, finally) Instr. f. of *ke: (back, behind); (2 ke:n (g-) is ) a very old word normally used as an Adv., or Postposition, meaning ‘behind (of place), after (of time)’, but sometimes declined as a N., its origin having been forgotten. More or less syn. w. kedin (back, behind, afterwards), q.v.; it is more prob. that modern words like NE kı:n are survivals of that word than of this. Türkü vııı ff. (at first there is a little pain in this omen) ken yana: edgü: bolu:r ‘later it becomes good again’ IrkB 57: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (the 512th year) bardukinda kenafter (Mani) went (to heaven)’ M I 12, 15: Man. mende kenafter me’ M I 29, 16; andada kenafter that’ M II 7, 15; a.o. TT III 66 — kenintethereafter’ III 149; IX 47, 1le: Bud. Sanskrit paiced ‘thereafterken (so spelt) TT VIII G. 16; a.o. UII 5, 12; anda ken PP 68, 2; sakin-mıšta kenafter thinking’ TT V 6, 16; ken keligme ödlerde ‘in future’ Suv. 138, 14; 139, 7 etc. — Sanskrit amte ‘finallykenende TT VII D.zs; kaninde IV 12, 54: Civ. ken is common in USp. in such phr. as bükünde ken ‘from now onwards’ 45, 8; tiši kiši ken ağrığlığ bolsar ‘if a woman becomes ill after that’ (i.e. after using certain remedies) H I 121-2.

keŋ (ke:ŋ) (g-) (broad, wide, duration) ‘wide, broad’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; NW fr. Kumyk geŋ: SW Osm. gen; Tkm. gi:ŋ. \725\ Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 30, 5-6 (i) (alkığ): Bud. keŋ yetiz ‘broad, wide’ U III 72, 27; TT X 214; U IV 30, 49: keŋin kısğasın ‘the duration (of life)’ Hüetı-ts. 2129; keŋ (by itself) U II 60, 2 (ı); TT V 22, 21; X 444, etc.; o.o. TT VIII C.i, etc. (alkığ): Civ. USp. 45, 12 (uzkiya): Xak. xr ‘anything wide’ (wasi’) is called keŋ ne:ŋ Kaš. III 358 (prov.): KB bu keŋ dünye ‘this wide world’ 3649; o.o. 43, etc. (akı:); 1328 (etmek); 2317: xııı (?) At. 315 (bitil-); Tef. keŋ ditto 172: xıv Muh, al-tvesi' (opposite to ‘narrow’ ta:r) geŋ Mel. 55, 3! Rif 1Š2: Čağ. xv ff. geŋ (‘with g-’) get)... tvesi' manesına Vel. 3el(quotn.); keŋ/keŋiš farex (‘wide) tva tvasi' San. 316V. 21 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv keŋ ‘broad, wide’ Qutb 96, 98 (kiŋ); Nahc. 24, 4; 250, 15: Kom. ditto keŋ CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-tvesi' (opposite to ‘narrow’ keŋ Hou. 27, 15: xıv ken ditto Id. 85: xv ditto Kav. 24, 11; 7vesi’ keŋ Tuh. 38a. 13.

kin (musk) ‘musk’, the secretion of such animals as the musk-deer and musk-rat; survives as kin in one or two NE languages R II 1344; Tuv. xin; other languages use some form of the syn. word yipa:r, q.v. or the Ar. l.-w. misk. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kin yıpar yıdlığım ‘my musk-scented (darling)’ M118, 14-15 (iŋ : Bud. (in a list of 32 perfumes, mainly l.-w.s) kin yipar Suv. 475, 22: (O. Kır. ıx ff. error for ekin, q.v.): Xak. xı kin yıpa:r nefica misk ‘muse sack’ Kaš. I 340; a.o. I 327 (kiz): KB 71 (bu:r-); 98 (bürkür-): Xwar. xıv kin ‘musk’ Qutb 99; a.o. 91 (yıpa:ŋ: Kip. xıv kin al-tttisk Id. 84.

kö:n (g-) (hide, tanned leather, lit. straightened (mashed) hide) originally ‘raw hide for tanning’; s.i.a.m.l.g. for ‘tanned leather’; NC Kumyk: SW Osm. gön; Tkm. gö:n. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kön išlesersen tavar kor bolur ‘if you work raw hide, the goods produced are useless’ TT VII 28, 4: Xak. xı kö:n ‘the hide (did) of a horse’ in particular (xešša (n)), one says of it at kö:ni:; and the word is used for 'the skin (did) of a man,’ so that one says anig kö:ni: ku:ndi: ‘his skin has dried’ that is ‘he has died’; and one says tevey kö:ni: ‘camel hide’ by extension (musta'era (n)); this word is used only before tanning (al-dabğ); after that it is called koğuš Kaš. III 140; o.o. III 335 (kadıšla:-); 353 (sağrnla:-); 425 (türt-): Muh. (under ‘cobblers’ materials’) al-na'l 'sole’ gö:n Mel. 59, 14; Rif. 158: Čağ. xv ff. gön (‘with -Ğ-) ‘a kind of tanned leather’ (pfıst-i madbiiğ), in Pe. čarm San. 3ior. 7: Xwar. xıv bu ineknig köni ‘this cow’s hide’ Nahc. 341, 3: Kip. xıv kön al-dld (one MS. adds bi'1-ša'r ‘with the hair on’) Id. 85: xv did (tan/ter/) kön Tuh. 11 a. 11: Osm.xvi ff. gön noted both for ‘raw hide’ and ‘leather’ in several texts TTS I 319; II 448; m 3°5; iv 351.

1 kün (g-) (sun, day) originally ‘the sun’; hence, by extension, ‘day’. C.i.a.p.a.I.; in most modern languages it is used only for ‘day’, other words like kuyarš, küneš being used for ‘sun’; in NW Kumyk: SW Osm., Tkm. gün. See Doerfer III 1688. Türkü vııı kün by itself normally means ‘day’ as a measure of time, e.g. y^girmi: kün ‘for twenty days’ I SE; with tün it means ‘day’ as opposed to night, e.g. tünü: künli: yeti: ödüške: ‘day and night for seven periods of 24 hours’ 77 SE; it means ‘sun’ only in the phr. kün batsik ‘sun-set, west’ I S 1, II N 2, etc.; kün tuğsık 'sunrise, east’ I S 2, etc.; kün ortusi: ‘when the sun is in the middle, south’ I S 2: vııı ff. kün ortu: ‘at midday’ IrkB 24; kün tuğdı: do. 26; a.o. do. 52; bir kün ‘one day’ Tun. IV 9 (ETY II 96): Man. el(l)ig kün ‘fifty days’ Chuas. 245; kün tuğdı M I 6, 20; kün künige ‘day by day’ M III 20, 5 (ı): Uyğ. vııı kün tuğuru: ‘at sunrise’ Šu. E 1; on kün ‘ten days’ do. S 7: ıx (my fame reached) kün tuğsık (k)a: batsık (k)a: ‘the far east and west’ Sud 4: vııı ff. Man.-A kün teŋri ‘the sun god’ (this phr. often means no more than ‘the sun’) Ml 21,4 (ii); 24,25: Man. kün teŋri TT III 49; kün künige do. 132: Bud. kün is common for both ‘day’ and ‘sun’; kün ortu ödün kün ortu yiŋak yüzlenip ‘facing south at midday’ TT V 10, 88-9: Civ. kün is common for ‘day’ and sometimes means ‘sun’: \\ O. Kır. ıx ff. in funerary inscriptions there is a stock phr. ‘I could not remain with, or was parted from, the sun (and moon)’, teŋri:deki: künke: ‘the sun in the heavens’ Mai. 7, 3; kün ay do. 10, 3; ix, 1 etc.: Xak. xı kün al-šams ‘the sun’; one says kün tuğdı: ‘the sun has risen’ (tala'at); (prov.): kün al-yawm ‘day’; one says bu kün barğıl ‘go today’; the day is called kün only because its lightness is due to the sun Kaš. I 340; I 463 (batsik, tuğsık) and many o.o. often mis-spelt kü:n: KB kün is common in all meanings, e.g. (God created) kün ay birle tün ‘sun, moon, and night’ 3; bu kün ‘today’ 191; tünün ham künün ‘by night and day’ 78: xııı (?) At. bu kün 29, etc., a.o.o.; Tef. kün ‘sun; day’ 189: xıv Muh. al-mašriq ‘the east’ gün duğmıš ye:r Mel. 79,1; Rif. 183 (gü:n duğdı:); al-mağrib ‘the west’ gün batğı: yer — gü:n batğumı: do.; al-yawm gün 80, 1; güm 184; o.o. Rif 74 (küneš), 163 (only): Čağ. xv ff. gün (spelt) \\  (1) afteb ‘the sun’; (2) rtlz ‘day’; also used as a title San. 3ior. 4 (followed by several phr.): Xwar. xııı (?) kün ‘day’ is common in Oğ.; kün ‘sun’ occurs only as the name of one of Oğuz Xağan’s sons: xıv kün ‘day; sun’ Qutb 107; MN 4, etc.: Kom. xıv ditto CCI, CCG; Gr. 158 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-šams kün tva huwa l-yawm Hou. 5, 2; 28, 10 (followed by phr.): xıv kün al-šams tva'l-yawm, the latter metaph. Id. 85; al-šams kün Btd. 2, ir: xv šams (küneš/) kün Tuh. 20a. 13; yatvm kün do. 39a. 8; a.o.o.: Osm. xıv ff. gün normally ‘day’ was often used until xvı for ‘sun; daytime; a lucky day’ TTS 1337; 77475; III 325; IV 373-

E 2 kün (door (to the women’s apartments)?) has been read in various passages, almost certainly wrongly. In O. Kır. ıx ff. the word read kün in Mai. 3, 1 etc. is in fact spelt kin and seems to be ekin, q.v. The phr., or word, transcribed el kün in KB and several \\ later authorities seems to be in fact elgün, i.e. 1 e:l (country, land), q.v., with the Collective Suff. -gün. It is possible that the word transcribed küydekf and listed under 1 kuy, q.v., should in fact be transcribed kündeki, which was F\ W. K. Müller’s reading. If so, this kün seems to be a l.-w. fr. Chinese k'urt ‘the door to the women’s apartments’ (Giles 6,550). See Doerfer III 1689, which is partly based on unreliable authorities.

küŋ ((female) slave) (хуна) (Goth. qina-kunds “familiar vagina”) ‘female slave’, the feminine counterpart of kul; survives only (?) in NC Kır., Kzx.; NVV Kk.; other languages use kara:baš or l.-w.s. Türkü vııı silik kız oğlın küŋ kıltı: ‘they made their pure (virgin) daughters slave girls’ II E 7 (I E 7 bolti in error for kıltı:); o.o. I E 20, II E 17; I E 24; / N 9 (tirig): Uyğ. vııı kulım küŋim ‘my male and female slaves’ Šu. E 1; 5 9: vııı ff. Dud. küŋ kul bir ikintike karıšur 'female and male slaves quarrel with one another’ TT VI 64 (VIII O.7); kul küŋ išlettimiz erser ‘if we have put them to work as slaves’ TT IV 8, 10; o.o. do. 10, 16; U II 87, 51: Civ. küŋ ‘female slave’ is mentioned in USp. 56, 6 (as having been sold); 73, 14 (as having married without leave, also called ebči karabaš); no, 3 (taš küŋ, the name of a kız karabaš): (O. Kır. ıx ff. küŋ yutuz ‘female slave and wife’ Mai. 42, 1; very dubious text): Xak. xı küŋ al-ama ‘female slave’ Kaš. III 358; III 428 (eglrt-) and three o.o. translated al-ama or al-ceriya (same meaning): xııı (?) Tef. küg ditto 190: xıv Muh. (?) al-ceriya kü:g Rif. 147 (only); Rbğ. (Sarah said, ‘I am a poor) küŋ “slave” (of God’) R II 142S: Xwar. xıv küŋ ditto Qutb 108: Kom. ditto CCI; Gr.

Mon. V. GN-

kön- (kün-) (g-) (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge) with an embarrassingly wide range of meanings; the basic one was perhaps ‘to be, or become (physically) straight’, with various metaph. extensions. Survives in SE Türki: NC Kır., Kzx.: SC Uzb. (kün-): NW Kk., Nog., usually meaning ‘to agree (with someone, to something); to become reconciled (ditto); to become accustomed to, or put up with (something)’. Türkü vııı ff. otka: könmi:š kılıč özi:ke: yarlığ boltı: ‘a sword straightened by heat (?) was issued to Özi:’ Mir. A 6-7 (ETY II 64; morphologically üzi: must be a P.N.): Xak. xı yığa:č köndi: ‘the piece of wood (etc.) was straight’ (istaqama); and one says oğrı: köndi: ‘the thief admitted (aqarra) (acknowledged) his theft’; also used of anyone who surrenders property (cehid bi-ttml) after admitting (acknowledging) (that it is not his); and one says er yo:lka: köndi: ‘the man went to the road and set out along it’ (šaxaša... ilal-tariq via rakiba'l-tariq); (kün- (küñ-) follows here); and one says tosu:n at köndi: ‘the unruly horse was broken in and behaved properly (righted, straightened)’ (irteda tva istaqama); also used of any thing (al-ami) ide istaqama Kaš. II 29 (köne:r, könme:k); a.o. II 199, 1: KB (if what I say is so) tilin (tale, speech) kön sözüm (speech, argument) tut (grasp)admit (acknowledge) it in words, and accept my statement’ 3993; özüg yolka \\\ köngey (right) ‘you yourself will take to the (right) [road’ 4810; isİzlerke berge urup könmese | ‘if. when you flog the wicked, they do not reform (right)’ 5281; a.o. 153e: xııı (?) Tef. kön-to go along the (right) road’ 183: Kom. xıv kün- (sic) ‘to admit, acknowledge’ CCG; Gr. 159  (quotn.).

küñ- (g-) (burn, ignite, ripen) ‘to catch fire, to burn (Intrans.)’, (both lit. and metaph., ‘to burn (with anger, and the like)’. S.i.a.m.l.g., -ñ- following the usual course (cf. ko:ñ); küy- in NE Alt., Leb., Tel.: NC Kır., Kzx.: SC Uzb. (kuy-); NW Kk., Nog.; köy- in NE Kač., Koib., Sag., Khak.: SE Türki; SW Tkm.; güy- in NW , Kumyk: göyün- in SW Osm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Š. künke küyüpburnt by (the heat of) the sun’ Suv. 603, io-n;o.o. U II8, 27 (tamıd-); Suv. 141, 9 (tamdul-); TM IV 254, 102: Civ. küy- ditto 77 II 30, 154: Xak. xı otug küydi: ‘the firewood (etc.) burnt’ (ihtaraqa) Kaš. III 246 (küye:r, küyme:k); (if you say ‘fire’) ağız küyme:s ‘your mouth does not catch fire’ I 43, 12; kögli: küyüp ‘with a burning heart’ II 188, n: KB küyer erdim otka ‘İ should have burnt in the fire’ (if he had not protected me) 384; (begs are) küyer ot; (if a man’s words are crooked) küyer ol küčün ‘he burns violently’ 1024; a.o.o.: Arğu: otuŋ kündi: ‘the firewood burnt’; with the sound change -y- > -n- normal in Argu: Kaš. II 29 (see kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge)): xııı (?) Tef. küy- ‘to be burnt’ 188: xıv Muh. ihtaraqa gü:yin- Mel. 21, 16; kü:yün- Rif 102; al-hariq gü:ymeg (sic) 37, 10; kü:yünmek 123: Čağ. xv ff. küy- (-di, etc.; ‘with k-’) yan- ‘to burn’  (Intrans.) Vel. 375-6; küy- süxtan ditto San. 310V. 1 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı küy- ditto 'Ali ‘ 30: xıv küy-/küyne- (sic!) ditto Qutb 106; küy- MN 227: Kip. xıv küyün- ihtaraqa Id. 86; ditto küyin- Bul. 32V.: xv huriqa ‘to be burntküy- (/ačı-) Tuh. 13b. 8: Osm. xıv ff. I göyün-/göyn- (1) ‘to burn’; (2) metaph. of fruit ‘to ripen’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 329; II ‘459; III 316; IV 361.

Dis. GNE

?F köne: (mercury) occurs only in the phr. köne: su:v ‘mercury, quicksilver’; it is unlikely that the Turks had their own word for this exotic product, and this is prob. a l.-w., but it must be an old one since the phr. became a l.-w. in Hungarian ketıesö. Survives only (?) in NW Kaz. küne sıvı; Nog. köne suv.; other languages use Pe., Russian, or Mong. l.-w.s (the Mong. word means ‘silver water’). Uyğ- vııı ff. Civ. köne suvi is an ingredient in a remedy for difficult parturition 77 7 108: (Xak.) xıv Muh. al-zi’baq ‘mercury’ kö:ne: su: Mel. 75, 8; Rif. 178: Kom. xıv ‘mercury’ köne suvi CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al- -zi'baq kö:ne:y šu: (also ciwa:, Pe. l.-w.) Hou. 31, 14.

D köni: (g-) (straight; upright, true, truthful, honestly, loyal, faithful, righteous, lawful) Dev. N./A. fr. kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge); ‘straight; upright’, lit. and metaph. Survives only (?) in NE Khak. köni; Tuv. xönü. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A köni kertü ‘upright and true’ M I \727\ 26, 14: Man. köni buryuk (sic) ‘an upright minister’ M II 12, 6; köni nomuğ ‘the true doctrine’ TT III 51: Bud. edgü köni yolčı yerči ‘a good, trustworthy guide (Hend.)’ PP 40, 8; köni savlığ üčün ‘because he was truthful’ do. 55, 2; köni kertü nomuğ Suv. 134, 11; o.o. do. 192, s'; UII 39, ior; TT VI 192, etc.; X 369, etc.: Civ. köni berürmen ‘I will honestly repay’ is a standard formula in contracts USp. 1, 5, etc.: O. Kır. ıx ff. Köni: Tirig P.N. Mai. 6, 1: Xak. xı köni: ne:g al-šay'u'1-mustatvi ‘a thing which is straight’; and al-amtn 'a loyal, faithful (man)’ is called köni: er Kaš. III 237; köni: banr keyik ‘a gazelle that runs straight’ (mustaqima (n)) III 151, 18: KB köni ‘honest, upright’ is very common 52, 424, 455, etc.; köni törü ‘righteous laws’ 355; köni din ‘the true faith’ 54; köni yol ‘the straight road’ (to paradise) 36; a.o. 1055 (egil-): xııı (?) At. köni söz ‘the truth’ 155, etc.; köni düst ‘a loyal friend’ 384; a.o.o.; Tef. köni 'straight, truthful’, etc. 184: xıv Muh. (?) al-mustaqim ‘ (morally) straightköni: Rif. 147 (only); al-muhiqq 'truthful’ (opposite to ‘crooked’ egri:) köni: kiši: 153; al-muqaiowam ‘straight’ (opposite to ‘crooked’ egri:) köni: 154 (Mel. 56, 5 doğrı:): Xwar. xıv könistraight (arrow); honest’ Qutb 101: Kom. xıv köniupright; lawful’, and the like CCI, CCG; Gr. 151 (quotns).

KÖNI I (measure) мера емкости, мера объема: bir köni one measure

Dis. GNC

küni: (g-) (jealousy; jealous, co-wife) ‘jealousy; jealous; (hence? metaph.) a co-wife’. Survives only (?) in NE Tel. kü:nii ‘jealousy’ R II 1441: SE Türki küne ditto BŠ 555: SW Osm. göni/gönü ditto; Tkm. güni ‘co-wife’. Türkü vııı II E 30 (1 ö:t): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the passions of lust, anger, ignorance) küni ‘jealousy’ (pride and scepticism) U II 86, 32; (if we have aroused) küni sakınč 'jealous thoughts’ TT IV 8, 73; a.o. Suv. 102, 3 (kıvırğak): Xak. xı küni: al-darra ‘co-wife’, one of more than one wives of the same man Kaš. III 237 (prov., see tegi:): Xwar. xıv küni ‘envy’ Qutb 107; (this world and the next are like) iki küni 'awrat ‘two co-wives’ (if the husband prefers one of them the other will be displeased with him) Nahc. 397, 11: Kom. xıv ‘concubine’ küni; ‘bastard’ küniden tovğan CC7; Gr.: Kip. xıv küni al-ğayra ‘jealousy’ Id. 8e: Osm. xv ff. günü (so transcribed) ‘jealousy’; in several texts TTS I 339; II 478; III 327; IV 375: xvııı güni (‘with g-’) in Rumi, ‘jealousy’ (rašk tea hasad); and two women who have the same husband address one another as güni, in Pe. wasni San. 3ior. 25.

Dis. V. GNE-

ke:ŋe:- (settle affairs, visit one another) n.o.a.b., but ke:ŋeš and ke:ŋeš-, q.v., are commoner. Xak. xı ol mača: ke:ŋe:di: dabbara amrahu ma'l ‘he settled his affairs with me’ Kaš. III 396 (ke:ŋe:r, ke:ŋe:me:k): KB (let me now go to my kinsman and) keŋeyin agar men bu iš ‘settle this affair with him’ 5654: Kip. xıv tazawara ‘to visit one another’ keŋe- Bui. 4zr.

D ke:ŋü- (ke:ŋü:-) (g-) (broaden, widen, enlarge, extend) Intrans. Den. V. fr. ke:ŋ (broad, wide, duration); ’to be, or become, broad or wide’. The following \\ modern forms seem rather to be survivals of *ke:ged-; SE Türki keŋey- BŠ 528: NC Kır., Kzx. keŋi-/keŋey-: SC Uzb. keŋay-NW Kk., Nog. keŋey-: SW Tkm. gi:ŋe-/ gi:ŋel-. Xak. xı ye:r ke:gü:di: ‘the place (etc.) was broad’ (latoassa'a) Kaš. III 396 (ke:gü:r, ke:gü:me:k): KB elig arta barğay k^gügey y^rig ‘your realm will increase and your territory become wider’ 5915: Osm. xv g^gi- ‘to become broad’; in one text TTS IV 331.

Dis. GNB

PUF kenbe: (plant (vegetation)) Hap. leg.; completely unvocalized; prob. Iranian. Gancak xı kenbe: ‘a plant’ (nabt) Kaš. I 416.

Mon. G(Q)NC

ke:nč (g-) (young (fauna), new, child, baby) ‘the young’, of human beings or animals. As such survives only (?) in SW Osm. gene, same meaning. It became a l.-w. in Mong. as kencesmall, feeble’ (Kozv. 2446, Haltod 182), and the Čağ. form below and SC Uzb. kenja, ‘the youngest child (boy or girl) in a family’, are reborrowings fr. Mong. The phr. ke:nč liyü: ((mud)? read li:w) in Kaš. prob. has no connection with this word; it seems rather to be a compound of Pe. ganc ‘treasury’ and li:v or liyü: (mud), q.v. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kenč un kenč kızlar ‘young boys and girls’ Kuan. 139, 141 (U II 20, 20); (I am a delicately brought up) kenč kičig ‘young (woman)’ U III 82, 17; Kenč Tegrim, Kenč Turmıš Tarxan P.N.s Pfahl. 10, 13-15; o.o. UII 60, o — 1 (kun-); TT VI 250 (var. lec.): Civ. kenč oğlan TT VII 23, 2; kenč occurs several times in H I usually for ‘unborn child’: Xak. xı ke:nč ‘a child’ (al-tifl), also ‘the young’ (šağîr) of any animal; (PU) ke:nč liyü: (mud) meyida yutaxxad fVl-ayed tva vcaleyi-mi'l-mulük li’l-nahb ka’l-manera qadr taletın dire' šu'da (n) fi'l-same' ‘a stand for the booty erected at the feasts and banquets of kings; it is like a minaret (or candlestick?) rising about 30 cubits towards the sky’ Kaš. III 438; I 169 (em-) and five o.o. of kenč (sic) ‘infant in arms’: KB ajunčı bögü beg nelük ganc urur, er at kayda bolsa anuk kenč alur ‘why does the wise ruler of the world heap up treasures (Pe. l.-w.)? Wherever there are troops he has young men at hand’ 205e: xııı (?) Tef. kenč/kenc ‘child’ 180 (kinč/kinc, erroneously described as Turco-Persian): Čağ. xv ff. kence ‘a child (tifli) born to elderly parents’ San. 30ir. 24: Kip. xııı Hou. 24, 20 (oğul): Osm. xıv ff. gene ay ‘new moon’ TTS I 299: xvııı... and in Rumi ‘a child’ (tifl wa bačča) is called gene San. 301 r. 24.

Dis. GNC

F künčit (sesame (seed))sesame (seed)’; l.-w. fr. Tokharian A (Agnean) kuncit (see TT VIII, p. 92). S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE with variations in the second vowel; an early l.-w. in Russian as kunzhut no doubt borrowed fr. some Turkish language, but perhaps reborrowed later by others; in SW only Tkm. künci. Uyğ. vııı ff. (Bud.)/Civ. künčit \\ occurs fairly often, (a) as a foodstuff offered in religious ceremonies TT VII 16, 15 — 16; (b) as an ingredient in medicines künčit ya:ğı: ‘sesame oil’ TT VIII M. 28; H 192, 100, etc.; (c) as an economic crop USp. 7, 2; 20, 5; 27, 6 (patır): (Xak.) xıv Muh. al-širac ‘sesame oil’ küncüd ya:ğ Mel. 66, 7; Rif. 165 (künci:d); al-sinisim ‘sesameküncüd 78, 3; künci: 181 : Kıp. xıv al-simsitn künci: Bul. 7, 3: xv ditto Tuh. 19a. 5.

?D könčük (trousers, underwear, opening (shirt's front), bosom (garment), pocket, lit. of straightened (mashed) hide) al-cayb originally meant ‘the opening in the front of a shirt’ (a meaning retained by the only obvious survival, NW Kaz. künčik R 11 1446), hence more broadly ‘the bosom of a garment’ and finally ‘a pocket’; it is difficult to see any semantic connection with kö:n (hide, tanned leather, lit. straightened (mashed) hide) to justify the suggestion that it is a Dim. f. of that word, but it can hardly be a basic word. Xak. xı könčük al-cayb; in Oğuz the cim has a fatha, and it is pronounced könček Kaš. I 480: xııı (?) Tef. könčük ‘the bosom of a garment’ 189 (ki'mčük): xıv Muh. (l) al-cayb könčütk (-e-) Rif. 166 (only): Oğuz xı see Xak.: Xwar. xıv könčükbreast pocket’ Qutb 101: Kom. xıv ‘trouserskönček CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-sarmcil ‘drawerskö:nče:k (-0; also called i:m (üm) and ičton) Hon. 18, 12; al-cayb kö:nčü:k^ (nıis-spelt kö:ncihk) do. 19, 1: xıv könček (-C-) al-sarmcil td. 85; könčük (-c-) al-cayb do. 8e:xv libes ‘garmentkönček (-0, also ičton) Tuh. 31b. 11.

Tris. V. GNC-

D könčüklen- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. könčük (trousers, underwear, opening (shirt's front), bosom (garment), pocket, lit. of straightened (mashed) hide). Xak. xı to:n köııčüklendi: ‘the garment had an opening in the front’ (cayb) Kaš. II277 (könčüklenü:r, könčüklenme:k).

Mon. G(Q)ND

F kend (town) ‘town’; l.-w. fr. Sogdian knd. S.i.m.m.l.g. usually as kent ‘village, small settlement’, but generally now obsolete except as a component in geographical names like Tashkent. Cf. 2 balık. See Doerfer III 1705. Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. šravast kendke ‘to the city of Srevasti’ U III 34, 6 (ii); a.o. TT X 51-2 (bodun): Xak. xı kend al-balad ‘a town'; hence Kešğar is called Ordu: kend ‘the city of the (royal) residence’ (al-iqama) because Afresiyeh resided there owing to its excellent climate; it is in Lower China (a!--Šinu'1-sufle); (verse); kend al-qarya ‘village’ among the Oğuz and those who live in the (open) country; most of the Turks use it for al-kûra ‘a provincial town’, hence the name Ö:zkend for the chief city (al-qa$aba) of Fergana, that is ‘the town of our souls’ (or selves, balad anfusine); and Semizkend ‘the fat (satnina) city’, because of its great size, the Persians call it Samarqand Kaš. I 343; ken any ‘town’ in the eastern provinces, an abbreviation of kend / 339; several o.o. of kend: KB kend is fairly common 216, 488 (tüšün), 1043 (uluš), 4316 (ditto): xıı (?) KB VP 26 (uluš): xııı (?) Tef. kend/kent ‘town’ 173: xıv Muh. al-qarya wa'l-balad kend Mrl. 75, 15; kent Rif. 179: Čağ. xv ff. kent/kend (spelt) dih tea qarya ‘village’ Sati. 3iev. 16 (quotn.): Oğuz xı see Xak.: Kom. xıv ‘city’ kent CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-qarya kent; (Tkm. kö:y Pe. l.-w.) Hou. 6, 13:xiv kent al-qarya İd. 85; Bul. 4, 3: xv al-balad wa'I-qarya kent Kav. 35, 1; balad kent Tuh. 8a. 5: Osm. xv ff. kend/kent ‘town’; in several texts TTS I 447; II 616; IV 494.

Dis. GND

kentü: (kendü:) (self, own) Reflexive Pron. ‘self’, as an Adj. ‘own’, see i\ G. ATG, para. 201; spelt with -nt-in Türkü, -nd- in Xak.; the Uyğ. form is uncertain and perhaps varied, but TT VIII has -nd-. Often used in Hend. w. 1 ö:z. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. kendi; except in NE, where I bo:d is used in this sense, ‘self’ in all other languages is 1 ö:z. Türkü vııı edgü: eliğe: kentü: yagıltığ ‘you yourselves have offended against your good realm’ I E 23, II E 19; Tok (k)u:z Oğuz bodun kentü: bodunim erti: ‘the Tokkuz Oğuz people were my own people’ / N 4 (in II E 29, the parallel text, meniŋ bodunim): vııı ff. (all precious stones) ke:ntü: kerntü: (sic) erde:mi: belgü:si: bar ‘have their own virtues and distinguishing characteristics’ Toy. 12-14; a.o. IrkB Postscript (alku:): Man. kentü özümüzni emğetürblz ‘we torture ourselves’ Chuas. 299; a.o. MI 6, 5; kendünüg (sic) kögül sınından ‘from his own member of mind’ M III 16, 3-4 (ı); o.o. do. 6-9: Uyğ. vııı kentü: bodunim Šu. E 2: vııı ff. Man.-A kentü ‘ (he) himself’ M IS, 11; a.o.o.; kentü kentii süsin ‘their own armies’ do. 22, 5 (ı); kentü sevigin ‘self-love’ do. 34, 19; a.o. do. 8, 7 (u:d): Man. kentünüŋ [gap] ‘own’ Wind. 27: Hud. Sanskrit svayant ‘he himself’ ke:ndü özi (sic) TT VIII A18; kendü ‘lie himself’ PP 10, 1; o.o. do. 2, 5-6 (išle:-); 20, 6-7 (ötle:-), etc.: Civ. öz ken-tiürjin bek tutğıl ‘keep a firm hold on yourself’ TT I 40; kendü köŋülüŋiıı ‘your own mind’ ditto; men kendü özüm ‘I myself’ USp. 104, 3-4: Xak. xı kendü: al-det wa l-nafs ‘self’; one says ol kendü: aydı: ‘he himself said’ Kaš. I 419; (the snake does not know) kendü: egri:si:n 'ituac nafsihe ‘its own crookedness’ I 127, 8; a.o. III 29, 4 (uğra:ğ): KB (if you praise a bad (soldieŋ, he becomes very good) kedig ögse kendü kačan ken kalur ‘if you praise a good one, how can he lag behind ?’ 2400; (a man’s conduct shows his ancestry) isiz ašlığa kendü kılkı tanuk ‘his own character is evidence of the evil man’s ancestry’ 58u; a.o. 970: xııı (?) At. kendü ‘ (him)self’ 55, 406, etc.; Tef. kendü ‘own’; kendü öz/öz kendü ‘(my, him, etc.) self’ 172: Xwar. xııı kendözüm ‘I myself’ 'Ali 54 (but öz özüm is commoneŋ: xıv kendü ‘self’ Qutb 94 (öz seems commoneŋ: Kom. xıv kendim ‘I myself’ CCI; kensl ‘self’ (common) CCG; Gr. 138 (quotns.): Kip. xıv kendü: ta’kid li'l-nafs ‘an emphatic word for ‘self’; one says kendü: öz bardı: or kendözi bardı: dahaba haqiqata (n) nafsuhu ‘he really \\ went himself’; and one says özüm (sic, ?read özi:) bilsün ‘know for yourself’ (sic); when you entrust a task to him you say this or, in the same meaning, kendü: özi: bilsün ‘let him know for himself’ Id. 85; (I, thou, you, wc) huwa ‘he’ kendözi; (‘they’ bular) Bul. 16, e:xv miıdıu ‘from him’ (andan/)kensiden;... ‘with him’ (özi: bile:/anin bile:/) kensi: bile:; ... 'in him’ kenshde: Kav. 45, 7 — 15; ‘the third Personal Pron. is kensi/kendi/özi Tuh. 39b. 13 ; a.o.o.: Osm. xıv ff. kendii ‘self, own’; c.i.a.p.; kendii özi/kendözi (also kendözüm, etc.) common fr. xıv to xvı TTS I 444-7; II 613-16; III 432-7; IV 494-500: xvııı gendii (so spelt here only) in Rümi, xivtid wa xwištan ‘self’ San. 301 r. 25 (quotn.).

Dis. GND

VU?D köndi: (vile, ignoble) Hap. leg.; morphologically Dev. N./A. in -di: fr. kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge), but this should have exactly the opposite meaning. Oğuz \l köndi: al-radl ‘vile, ignoble’; one says ol köndi: kiši: ol ‘he is a vile person’. And this Particle (harf) is also used as a Conjunction (fila) when you cannot think of the right word, it is used until the right word comes to mind Kaš. 7419 (cf. the similar use of šey in Osm.).

F kendük (amphora, jar, jug) one of the Gancak words which is unquestionably Iranian; al-kandüc is also a similar l.-w., cf. Pe. kandü (Middle Pe. kandüg), ‘a large clay vessel for storing grain’. Gancak xı kendük al-kandüc, that is a thing constructed (yubna) in the shape of a large jar (al-dann) used for storing flour and the like Kaš. I 480; a.o. 77 129 (tıkıl-): (Xak.?) xıv Muh. al-ibriq ‘jugkendü:g (sic) Mel. 69, 5; Rif. 170 (kündüg): Čağ. xv ff. kündük efteba wa ibriq ‘water bottle;’; and in Pe. 'a large jar for storing foodstuffs’ San. 310r. 14.

kindik (navel, muse sac, or bladder) ‘the navel’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW which uses köbek, q.v. In Xwar. xıv Qutb 98 kindik seems to mean ‘the muse sac, or bladder, of a musk deer’. As such it is an A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. kin, but this cannot be the etymology of the word in its ordinary meaning. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kindik üstün meg bolsar ‘if there is a mole above the navel’ TT VII 37, 6; kindik altın ‘below the navel’ do. 7-8: Čağ. xv ff. kindik (spelt) nef ‘navel’ San. 316V. 18 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv (in their common grave, the head of Abu Bakir payğambar... nug muberak kindiki tııšinda boldl 'was on a level with the blessed navel of the Prophet’ Nahc. 104, 12; a.o. 118, 13: Kom. xıv ‘navelkindik CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-surra ‘navelkindik (MS. kündik: Tkm. kö:bek) Hou. 21, 2: xıv kindik al-surra td. 85: xv ditto Kav. 61, 6 (MS. kindek); Tuh. 18b. 11.

D kündem (g-) Hap. leg.; Den. N./A., connoting resemblance, fr. 1 kün (sun, day). Türkü vııı ff. Man. kündem dindarlar ‘the sun-like Elect’ M III 17, 21.

D kündün (g-) Den. Adj./Adv. fr. 1 kün (sun, day); lit. ‘in the direction of the sun’, but in practice used only for a point of the compass, ‘south’, i.e. in the direction of the midday sun. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 83, etc. (ögdün; kedin): Civ. TTI 6, etc. (ögdün); kündüni (so read) ‘its south’ USp. 13, 7.

?F kendir (hemp, Cannabis, flax) 'hemp, Cannabis'. S.i.a.m.l.g.; unlikely to have been an indigenous plant in the area originally occupied by the Turks and prob. an Indo-European (? Tokharian) l.-w.; v. G. in Hüen-ts., note 1948, suggests a remote etymological connection with German Hanf (and accordingly English hemp). Perhaps originally kentir. See Doerfer III 1647. Uyğ. vııı ff. (some people spin 1 čağay (? ‘wild hemp’), wool or) kendirhemp’ PP 2, 4; kendir as an economic crop do. 13, 3; a.o. Hüen-ts. 1948 (kamğak): Civ. kendir uruğı ‘hemp seed’ TT VII 14, 49; o.o. 77 7 122; H II 14, 122: Kom. xıv ‘hemp’ kendir CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı el-katten 'flax' kendir Hou. 19, 9: xıv kendir al-qunnab (‘hemp’) rva'l--katten Id. 85: xv qunnab kendir (/kam (?)) Tuh. 29a. 11: Osm. xvııı kendir (spelt) in Rümi, ‘a plant from which they spin cords’, called in Ar. ivaraqu’l-hibal and in Pe. bang; and some say that it is a cord (rismen) made of bark (püst, i.e. vegetable fibre) and spun, called in Ar. qunnab and in Pe. kanab San. 301 r. 26.

?C küntüz (g-) (daytime, time) ‘daytime’, as opposed to tün ‘night’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW Osm. gündüz; Tkm. gündi:z. There is no other trace of a Den. Suff. -tüz and it is prob. a very early Compound of 1 kün (sun, day) and tüz. Türkü vııı 7 E 27, II E 22 (udi:-); T 12 (olursik), 22, 51-2: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit dive ca retrau ca ‘by day and night’ tünle yeme: kündüz yeme: TT VIII Zs.38; ditto but küntüz do. E.32; o.o. Kuan. 15, 73 (U II 14, 2); Hüen-ts. 1939; küntüz yinčürü töpün yükünü teginürmen ‘I venture to bend my head and bow (to you) every day’ Hüen-ts. 2030: Civ. kündüz iki yerme ödle:rte:ki: onunc ödünde: bir ya:gı bolor ‘there is a new moon in the 10th hour of the twelve daylight hours’ TT VIII L. 1 (so transcribe and translate; MS. -11s ö:d (time) fit); a.o. II II 8, 32: Xak. xı kündüz dawul-naluir ‘daylight’ Kaš. I 458; tünle: yorıp kündüz sevnür ‘a man who travels by night is happy during the day’ (nahera (n)) III 87, 25; ajıin tüni: kündü:zi: (sic) yölgin keče:r ‘the nights and days of this world pass by like a traveler’ III 288, 14: KB (Thou didst create) kara tün... yaruk kündüzün ‘the dark night... and the light day’ 22; (he lay on his bed at night and) kündüz örü ‘stood by day’ 952; a.o. 127: xııı (?) At. (God created) tünüg kündüzüg ‘your night and day’ 13; Tef. kündüzdaytime)’ 189: xıv Rbğ. (he prayed) tün kündüzün R II 144e: Čağ. xv ff. künduz rûz ‘day’ San. 3ior. 14: Xwar. xıv kündüz 'by day’ Qutb 107: Kip. xıv kündü:z al-naher İd. 85; (al-layl dünle:); al-naher kündüz Bul. 13, 12; tülu'l-naher ‘all dayküntüzün (sic; tülu'l-layl dündülbi:) do. 14, 9: xv al-naher kündüz Kav. 36, 13; Tuh. 36a. 4.

Dis. V. GND-

D ke:ŋüt- (g-) (broaden, widen, enlarge, extend) Caus. f. of ke:ŋü:- (broaden, widen, enlarge, extend); s.i.s.m.l. as keŋet-, keŋit-, keŋeyt-; cf. ke:ŋür- (widen, broaden), Xak. xı er evin keŋütti: (MS. keŋütti:) ‘the man enlarged (atvsa'a) his house’ (or something else) Kaš. II 326 (keŋütü:r, keŋütme:k); er evin ke:ŋütti: same translation III 396 (ke:ŋütü:r, ke:ŋütme:k, vocalized keŋit- everywhere): xııı (?) Tef. keŋüt- ‘to broaden’ (metaph. of the mind) 173: Osm. xv and xvı ge:ŋit- ‘to broaden, widen’; in several texts TTS / 301; 7/426; IV 331.

D könit- (g-) (straighten, upright) Caus. f. of kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge) ; pec. to Xak. ?; cf. köndger- (straighten), köndür-, Xak. xı er yığa:č könitti: 'the man straightened (qawivama) the piece of wood’ (etc.) Kaš. II 313 (könitü:r, könitme:k): KB sen öz kılkıg etgil kilinčıg könit ‘put your own character in order and make your conduct upright’ 5204; (admonition is advantageous if a man...) könitse özüg ‘makes himself uprightt’ 5434.

D küŋed- (maid servant) Hap. leg.; Intrans. Den. V. fr. küŋ; ‘to become a maid servant’. Türkü vııı 7 E 13 (kulad-).

D köndger- (g-) (straighten, guide, to lead in (the right way), see off (a guest), direct, send, erect) ‘to straighten’ and the like; morphologically this seems to be a Trans. Den. V. fr. *könt Dev. N/A. fr. kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge); semantically in the early period it was syn. w. könit- (straighten, upright) and köndür- (straighten), but it later developed extended meanings. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. könder- ‘to guide, lead out, drive’ R II 1247; Kojv. 221 and SW Az. könder-; Osm., Tkm. gönder- which hardly means more than 'to send, send off’. These forms must be carefully distinguished fr. modern forms of köndür-. Kaš.’s Sec. f. könger- (sic, in a Chap. for quadrilitterals (quadrilaterals), not koqer-) is otherwise known only in Tef. Xak. xı ol yığa:č köndgerdi: ‘he straightened (qawwama) the piece of wood’ (etc.); and one says oğrı:ni: köndgerdi: ‘he fought with (merasa ma) the thief until he made him confess (acknowledge)’ (aqarra) \ and one says ol anı: yolka: köndgerdi: (anı: is altered either to or from meni: in the MS.) ‘he guided me (hadertt, sic) to the (right) road’, (etc.) Kaš. III 423 (köndgerür, köndgerme:k, both spelt -gür- in the MS.): ol ok köngerdi: ‘he straightened (qau'wama) the arrow’ (etc.); and one says ol yo:l köngerdi: 'he guided to (hade ile) the road’; and one says beg oğrı:nı: köngerdi: 'the beg compelled (alzama) the thief to confess (acknowledge)’ II 196 (köngerür, köngerme:k): xııı f?) Tef. könger- 'to erect’ (a wall, house, and the like) 184: Kom. xıv ‘to straightenkönder- CCI, CCG-, ‘to lead in (the right way)könder- CCG; Gr. 151 (quotns.): Kip. xıv könder- šayya'a 'to see off (a guest)’ td. 85; tvadda'a ditto (uzat-, q.v./) könder- Bul. 87V.: xv tvadda'a (uzat-) Tkm. könder- Tuh. 38b. 8: Osm. xıv ff. both gönder- in xv to xvıı and göndür- in xıv to xix are noted for ‘to see off, to direct, to send (someone somewhere)’ TTS I 320; 77 449; III 307; IV 352.

D köndgert- (g-) (straighten) Hap. leg.; mentioned only as an example of the Caus. f. of words of the form of köndger- (straighten), Xak. xı ol yığa:č köndgertti: 'he ordered that the piece of wood (etc.) should be straightened’ (bi--taqıvimi'l-xašab) Kaš. III 424, 5; n.m.e.

D köntül- (g-) (straightened) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of könit-; ‘to be straightened’ and the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. IJud. Hüen-ts. 1949 (kamğnk).

D köndür- (g-) (straighten) Caus. f. of kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge) ; ‘to straighten’, with some extended meanings. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NIC, SW with minor phonetic changes. Not to be confused with könder- (köndger-) (straighten); cf. könit- (straighten, upright), Xak. xı KB köndüreyin tapuğka yolum 'I will direct my course (guide) towards (royal) service’ 474; köndrü bilmez yonk ‘he does not know how to reform (straighten) his conduct’ 2077; (do not be a slave to passion) köndür köŋül ‘reform your mind’ 3994: xııı (?) Tef. köndür- ‘to direct (someone Acc., to the right road Dat.); to show (the right road Acc., to someone Dat.)' 183: Xwar. köndür- ‘to correct; direct, guide’ Qutb 101; Nahc. 6,7; 282,15: Osm. xıv ff. see köndger- (straighten, guide, to lead in (the right way), see off (a guest), direct, send, erect).

D *kündür- (g-) (burn) Caus. f. of kün- (burn); 'to burn (Trans.)’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g.; NE köydir-/küydir-; SE köydür-; NC Kır. küydür-; Kzx. küydir-; SC Uzb. kuydir-; NW Kaz. köyder-; Kk., Nog. küydir-; Kumyk güydür- ; SW Osm. göyündür-, Cf. örte:-, künur-, 3 yak- (ignite, burn). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A MI 18, 1-2 (örte:-): Civ. it tišin küydürüp ‘burn a dog’s tooth, and...’ TT VII 23, 3: Xak. xı ol anıg to:nın küytürdi ‘he ordered the burning (bi-ihraq) of his garment’ (etc.); ‘an incorrect word’ (luğa gayr faslha) Kaš. III 193 (küytürür, küytürmek; Kaš. perhaps regarded küyür- as the correct one): xnı (?) Tef. küydur- ‘to burn’ 188: Čağ. xv ff. küydür- susandan ditto San. 31 ov. 17 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv kündür- (sic) ditto Qutb 107; küydür- ditto do. io (>;Nahc. 389, 9: Kom. xıv ‘to burn’ (köydür-, later corrected to) küydür- CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı haraqa ‘to burn’ küyündür- (/örte:-) Hou. 35, 4: xıv küy ündür- harraqa td. 18e: Osm. xıv göydür- in one text; xıv ff. göyündür-c.i.a.p. TTS I 329; 77 429; 777 316; IV 360.

Tris. GND

PU köndegü: (necklace) the Sanskrit original shows that this means ‘necklace’; prob. an old word ending in -gü:; there is no semantic connection between this word and kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge), köndger- (straighten, guide, to lead in (the right way), see off (a guest), direct, send, erect), etc. There is no widely distributed word for ‘necklace’ in Turkish; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kendünüg tükel törlüg satığsız ertinilig köndegüsin ‘his own necklace of nil (cheap) kinds of priceless (very expensive ? inexpensive ?) jewels’ Kuan. 156-7; a.o. do. 167.

D kindiklig P.N./A. fr. kindik; s.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (Sanskrit lost) birle: kindikligle:r ‘those who have one (?) navel’ TT VIII G.57.

D küntemek (daily) ‘daily’; Dev. N./A. or Adv. fr. *kunte:- Den. V. fr. 1 kün (sun, day). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 96 (üčün); Bud. TT /, p. z6, note 160, 5 (ašan-).

Dis. GNG

?D könek (? g-) (pail, bucket, leather container, Aquarius)pail, bucket’; prob. Dim. f. of kö:n (hide, tanned leather, lit. straightened (mashed) hide), and so lit. ‘a small leather object’. Survives in NE könek/könök: NC Kır. könök; Kzx. könek: SC Uzb. künak, usually in the specialized meaning of ‘a milking pail’. Türkü vııı ff. Irkl7 57 (kanığ): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT I 11 (bašğar-): Xak. xı könek al-rakwa ‘a container made of leather’ Kaš. I 392: KB in the list of signs of the Zodiac, 141, könek translates Ar. al-dalw ‘Aquarius’ (lit. ‘a bucket’): xıv Muh. (?) al-dalw ‘Aquarius’ kö:ne:k Rif. 183 (only).

D *küfiük (g-) ‘burnt’; Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. küfl-. S.i.a.m.l.g. in forms comparable to those of küridür-; NW Kumyk güyük; SW Osm. göynük; Tkm. köyük. Xak. xı küyük ne:g ‘a burnt’ (al-muhtaraq) thing’ Kaš. III 168: Čağ. xv ff. küyük (‘with k--k’) yortmuš ‘burnt’ Vel. 376; küyük (1) sûziš ‘burning’ (N.; quotn.); (2) silxta ‘burnt’ (quotn.) San. 31 ir. 13: Xwar. xıv küyük/ küynük ‘fire; ardour; passion’ Qutb 10e: Kip. xıv küynük al-muhtaraq Id. 8e: xv mahriiq ‘burnt’ (küyülmiš; between the lines) küyük Tuh. 34b. 12; ditto küyük do. 48b. 10: Osm. xıv ff. göynük occasionally ‘burning, burnt’, more usually ‘pain, distress’; c.i.a.p. TTS / 328; \\ 458; III 316; / F 359.

D kenki: (g-) (subsequent, last) N./A.S. fr. 2 ke:n (behind (place), after (time), later, thereafter, onwards, in future, finally); ‘subsequent, last’. Cf. k^dinki:; SE Türki k^yinki ‘subsequent’ BŠ 521 is prob. a survival of the latter and not this word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (of ten definitions; ašnukı sekizi ‘the first eight’...) kinki ek (k)isl ‘the last two’ TT V 28, 127; o.o. Suv. 134, 1-2 (ortunki:); TT VIII A.48 (eltin-).

Dis. V. GNG-

VUD kenik- (g-) (lag, dawdle, fall behind) in a note on V.s ending in -k- Kaš. says that these fall into two classcs; (a) basic V.s like ašuk- and čülük-; (b) V.s in which the Suff. indicates that the Subject of the V. is unable to achieve his desires, like basık- der. fr. bas- (push, press, ambush), usuk- der. fr. us-, kirik- and this V. The first two are Emphatic/ Pass. forms, but kirik- is a Den. V. fr. ki:r, and it is likely that this V. too, which has a davıma over the kef is a Den. V., since there is obviously no semantic connection with kön- (straight (physically), right (metaph.), agree, reconcile, accustomed, put up, admit, acknowledge), and the obvious explanation is that it is a Den. V. fr. 2 ken (behind (place), after (time), later, thereafter, onwards, in future, finally). The only other known occurrence is in KB 4389 where the Fergana MS. has kinilse, the Cairo MS. ki[gap]se and the Vienna MS. has a word which might be kenikse but looks more like konikse Xak. xı er kinikti: (MS. koniktŋ ğalaba 'ale'l-raculi’l--čla'f hatte ta'axxara 'an ašhebihi ‘the man was overcome (fell behind) by weakness, so that he fell behind his companions’ Kaš. II 165, 15: KB (in all \\\ tasks knowledge is most beneficial) kinikse bilig iške yetmez elig ‘if knowledge falls behind the hand cannot achieve the task’ 4389

S könger- See köndger-. (straighten, guide, to lead in (the right way), see off (a guest), direct, send, erect)

Dis. GNL

köŋül (g-) (könül) (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit) originally an abstract word with rather varying connotations, ‘the mind’, as a thinking organization; ‘thought’ as the product of the mind, and the like. Later, when the heart was taken to be the thinking organization it was also used in a physical sense for ‘the heart’, in addition to, or substitution for, yürek, S.i.a.m.l.g. with a wide range of shades of meaning (the entry in R II 1236-7 covers a column and a half); in SW Az. könül; Osm., Tkm. göŋül. Türkü vııı (if tears come to your eyes and) tilda: (so read) köŋülte: sığıt kelser ‘lamentation to your tongue and mind’ I N 11; köŋülteki: savımın ‘the words in my mind’ IS 12; o.o. T 15 (uduz-), 32: vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 107-8 (artat-); 177-8 (tamğa:la:-), etc.; TT II 6, 32; 8, 41, etc.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 2 (ayančag), etc. (common): Chr. (search) ked köŋül tegürüp ‘applying your minds firmly (to the task)’ U I 6, 1: Bud. köŋül is very common; e.g’ köŋülče berdi ‘he gave as he thought fit’ PP 7, 1; a.o. do. 8, 5 (bert-); yavlak sakınč köŋülinde yašuru ‘hiding evil thoughts in his mind’ U II 23, 12-13; o.o. Hüen-ts. 1806 (ayančag), etc.: Civ. köŋül is common; e.g. köŋlügde negü iš kılaym tĞser ‘whatever you say in your mind that you will do’ TT VII \\ 28, 3; iki kiši köŋüli bir ol ‘the two men’s minds are as one’ do. 30, 11: Xak. xı köŋül al-qalb wa'l-fuad wa'l-fitna ‘the heart, the mind, intelligence’; hence ‘an intelligent (al-fatin) man’ is called köŋüllüg er Kaš. III 366 (prov.); over 30 o.o., occasionally spelt kö:ŋül with similar translations: KB köŋül is common; e.g. közümde yirak sen köŋlümke yakın ‘Thou art far from my eyes but near to my mind’ 11 ; kiši köŋli ‘a man’s mind’ (is like a bottomless sea) 211; (read this Turkish proverb and) köŋül öŋke al ‘take it to your mind and understanding’ 319: xııı (?) At. köŋül is common; e.g. anig wuddi birle köŋüller tolup ‘filling all minds with love of him’ 73; nelük melka munča köŋül bamakig ‘why have you set your mind so much on wealth?’ 183; Tef. köŋül ‘mind, thought’, etc. 184: xıv Muh. al-qalb göŋül Mel. 47, 16 (Rif. 141 yü:re:k q.v.): Cağ. xv ff. köŋül dil ‘heart’ San. 2^r. 13; köŋül kalıš dil mendagi wa giriftagî-yi xatir ‘weariness of heart, anxiety’ 3ior. 22: Xwar. xııı köŋül ‘heart’ 'Ali 35: xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 163, 333: xıv ditto Qutb 102; MN 19, etc.: Kom. xıv köŋül is common, meaning ‘heart, mind, disposition’, etc. CCI, CCG.; Gr. 152 (many quotns.): Kip. xııı al-qalb ğayru'l-mahsiis wa'l-fu'ad 'the intangible heart, the mindkö:ŋü:l Hou. 21, 14 (cf. yürek): xıv köŋül (-ŋ- marked) al-qalb; and in the Kitab Beylik (??) könül al-nafs ‘the spirit’ Id. 85.

D keŋlik (g-) (breadth, extent) A.N. fr. ke:ŋ (broad, wide, duration); 'breadth, extent’, and the like S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE (?), w. minor phonetic changes; in NW Kumyk geŋlik; SW Osm. geŋlik; Tkm. gi:ŋlik. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (hang bells) kač keŋlik (so read) yemiš sögüt üze ‘over the full extent of the fruit trees’ PP 79, 4-5: (Xak.) xıı (?) Tef. keŋlikabundance’ (of good things) 173: xıv Rbğ. dünye geŋliki Sxirat tarlığı turur ‘broadness in this world is narrowness in the next’ (and vice versa) R II 1072: Xwar. xııı keŋlik ‘abundance, well-being’ 'Ali 53: Kom. xıv ‘breadthkeŋlik CCI; Gr.: Osm. xıv to xvıı geŋlik/geŋlik ‘ (physical) breadth; (psychological) breadth, i.e. peace of mind’; common TTS I 301 ; II 426; III 287; IV 332.

D kinlig (musky) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. kin; ‘scented with musk’. Hitherto read E ekinlig, q.v., and mistranslated. Türkü vııı kinlig eš-güti:si:n ‘their musk-scented brocade’ II N 11-12.

D köŋlek (g-) (shirt) Dev. N. fr. köŋle:- (ponder, meditate, contemplate, brood, wonder), but the semantic connection is directly with köŋül (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit) in its physical sense; ‘shirt’, i.e. the garment over the heart. S.i.a.m.l.g. in a wide range of forms including NE Khak. kögenek; Tuv. xoyleg: SE Türki köŋlek: NC Kır. köynök; Kzx. köylek: SC Uzb. küylak/kııynak: NW-Kk., Nog. köylek; Kumyk gölek: SW Az., Tkm. köynek; Osm. gömlek. Cf. kömüldürük. See Doerfer III 1652. Xak. xı köŋlek al-qamfs ‘shirt’ Kaš. III 383; a.o. III 350 (boğmakla:-): xıv Muh. al-qamiš köŋleg Mel. 66, 15; kömlek Rif. 16e: Čağ. xv ff. köŋlek (spelt) pirahan ‘shirt’ San. 3ior. 21: Xwar. xııı ditto 'Ali 37: xıv ditto Qutb 104; Nahc. 132, le: Kom. xıv ‘shirt’ kowlek (ji'c) CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-qamh kö:nle:k Hou. 18, 12: xıv könlek ditto Id. 85: xv ditto kömlek Kav. 63, 17; Tuh. 29b. 1 (in margin, alternative form köŋlek): Osm. xıv ff. göŋlek ‘shirt’ was the standard form until xvı and is noted once in xvıı; date of emergence of gömlek unknown TTS I 321; II 450; III 308; IV 353

D künlük (g-) A.N. fr. 1 kün (sun, day); ‘a period of a day’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l.; in SW Osm., Tkm. günlük. Uyğ. vııı (I put up my memorial there to last for) big yıllık tümen künlük ‘a thousand years and ten thousand days’ Šu. E 9: vııı ff. Civ. üč künlük ‘a period of three days’ USp. 55, 21; 118, 14; bir yarım künİük ‘one and a half days’ do. 55, 22: Xak. xı künlük al-mu xııı vama ‘daily business' (?); künlük yem al-rizq (several meanings; here?) ‘soldiers’ daily rations’, but the phr. is seldom used Kaš. I 480: KB kim erse bu künlük tilese sevinč ‘whoever desires the pleasures of the day’ 913: Kip. xıv künlük nazar tva azunnuhu heše luben translation unvocalized, other vocalizations possible; Caf. omits the word in his index; it might mean ‘. . . and I think it means “grains of incense” ’ Id. 85 (cf. Osm.): Osm. xıv ff. günlük is noted in several texts as meaning ‘sunshade, parasol’, and in one xvıı text \\ ‘a day’s pay’ TTS I 338; II 477; III 326; IV 375: xvııı günlük (spelt) in Rûmî, (1) kun-dur ‘frankincense’, in Ar. šamğu'1-buttn; (2) wazifa tea yaumiya 'soldier’s pay; daily pay’ San. 3ior. 24 (there is no obvious reason for the meaning ‘incense’ which is still current).

D küŋlig Hap. leg.; P.N./A fr. küŋ. Türkü vııı ol ödte kul kullığ küŋ küŋlig bolmıš erti: ‘at that time the slaves had become slaveowners and the maid servants owners of maidservants’ II E 18 (in I E 2i kürj küŋlig is omitted).

Dis. V. GNL-

E kinil- See kenik-. (lag, dawdle, fall behind)

DF kinle- ‘to crush, mince’, or the like; Den. V. fr. *kin, not the one listed above, but no doubt a Chinese l.-w., cf. simle:- writh which it is used in Hend. in TT I 157 (čüwit). N.o.a.b. Uyğ. xııı ff. Civ. suvta kinlep ‘crush (castoreum) in water’ II I 125; 143 (bağıŋ; 157 (čüwit); yumšak kinlep ‘crush until it is soft’ 179.

D köŋle:- (g-) (ponder, meditate, contemplate, brood, wonder) Den. V. fr. köŋül (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit). Survives only (?) in NC Kzx. köŋülö- ‘to be sunk in thought’ R II 1238 (not in MM). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bu šavka köŋleme ‘do not brood on (?) this statement’ TT I 151: (Kıp. XItl 'aciha mina'l-'acab ‘to wonder at (something)’ kö:nle:n- IIou. 37, 15; may be the Refl. f. of this word; there is no other obvious explanation).

D kinlen- Hap. leg.; possibly Refl. f. of kinle:-; ‘to be crushed’, but the whole passage is obscure. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT II 17, 77-9 (öpül-).

Tris. GNL

D köŋüldeš (g-) (like-minded, intimate, friend, sympathetic) N./A. of Association fr. köŋül (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit); ‘like-minded, intimate’, and the like. Survives only in NC Kır. köŋüldöš; Kzx köŋildesfriend, intimate, sympathetic’. Must be carefully distinguished fr. Čag. xv ff. kükeltešfoster-brother’ San. 309^ 9 which is a N./A. of Association from the Mong. l.-w. (properly küŋül, Koto. 2632) ‘foster mother’. The two are confused in R II 1238. Xak. xı köŋüldeš tmtsahibu'l-qalb ‘like-minded’ Kaš. I 407, le: Xwar. xıv köŋüldešsympathetic’ Qutb 102.

D könilik (g-) A.N. fr. köni: (straight; upright, true, truthful, honestly, loyal, faithful, righteous, lawful); ‘straightness, uprightness’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB könilik is very common as one of the standard virtues of rulers, officials, etc.; e.g. könilik yağılma yolin ‘do not miss the road of uprightness’ 360; kılınčım könilik ‘my conduct is upright’ 590, etc. — könilik küni ‘the day of judgement’ 30, 808: xııı (?) At. 167 (to:n); a.o.o.: Xwar. xıv cumlasınıg išlerini könilik üze kılğıl 'make all their actions upright’ Nahc. 316, 10: Kom. xıv 'justice, equity’, and the like könülük CCI, CCG; Gr. '

D köŋüllüg (g-) (mindful, well-disposed, willing, kindly, cheerful) P.N./A. fr. köŋül (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit); normally qualified by a preceding Adj. 'having a... mind’, but s.i.m.m.l.p. meaning ‘well-disposed, willing, kindly, cheerful’, and the like; SW Osm. göŋüllü. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 71, 89 (karar-): Bud. yarlıkančučı köŋüllüg ‘with a merciful mind’ TTX 275-6; k^rtgünč köŋüllüg ‘with a believing mind’ Suv. 137, 16; a.o.o..: xııı (?) Tef. köŋüllüg/ köŋüllü ‘having a... mind’ 185: Xwar. xıv köŋüllüg ditto Qutb 102.

Dis. V. GNR-

D köŋülsüz (g-) (thoughtless, heartless, unwilling, unhappy, modest, , cruel) Priv. N./A. fr. köŋül (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit); originally ‘without the ability to think’. S.i.s.m.l. as the opposite to köŋüllüg meaning ‘unwilling, unhappy, modest’, and the like. Türkü vııı ff. Man. Chuas. I 13-14 (2 öŋsüz): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 30 (ditto): (Xwar. xıv köŋülsüzlükhardness of heart, cruelty’ Qutb 102).

Tris. V GNL-

D künile:- (g-) (jealous, envy) Den. V. fr. küni: (jealousy; jealous, co-wife); ‘to be jealous’, hence also ‘to envy’. S.i.m.m.l.g. w. phonetic changes; NE künne-; Tuv. xünne-: SE Türki künle-: NC Kır. künülö-; Kzx. künde-: NW Kk., Nog. künle-; Kumyk gülle- : SW Osm. günile-/günüle- (obsolete). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. özümde yöglerig körüp küniledim erser ‘if I have been envious when I have seen people better than myself’ Suv. 136, 12-13; a.o. do. 220, 4 (2 a:zlan-): Xwar. xıv künile- ‘to be jealous, to envy’ Qutb 108; Nahc. 65, 6; 288, 13: Kom. xıv ‘envykünilemek CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı ğera mina'l-ğayra ‘to be jealouskünle:- (sic) Hou. 42, 15: xıv künile- hasada ‘to envy’; and, in the Kiteb Beylik, ğera Id. 8e: xv ğayra künilemek Tuh. 26b. 10; ğera mina’l-ğayra künile- 27a. 7: Osm. xıv ff. günüle- ‘to be jealous, to envy’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 339; II 478; III 327; IV 376.

D köŋülger- (g-) (reflect, think deeply) Den. V. fr. köŋül (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit); ‘to reflect, think deeply’. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. in a repetitive passage ögeli (see ö:- (think, meditate, remember) (awe)) köŋülgeripthinking deeply’, U II 8, 22, alternates with ögeli köŋülde sakınıp do. 9, 1-2; ögeli bögüš urup do. 9, 11-12; (ali good doctrines . ..) köŋülgermektin tuğdačı ‘arise from deep reflection’ TT V 24, 65 — 6; o.o. do. 70 (odğur-); Suv. 596, 23 ff. (edgü:ti:) 615, 9; Tiš. 50b. 2 etc.

D köŋleklen- (g-) (“shirted” (dressed)) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. köŋlek (shirt). Xak. xı er köŋleklendi: ‘the man (etc.) wore a shirt’ (taqammasa) Kaš. III 411 (köŋleklenü:r, köŋleklenme:k).

D köŋüllen- (g-) (thinking, knowledgeable, decided) Refl. Den. V. fr. köŋül (mind, thought, reflection, heart, intelligence, disposition, spirit); survives only (?) in NE Bar. R II 1238, but the basic and Caus. f.s survive in other modern languages. Xak. xı er ı:ška: köŋüllendi: ‘the man set his mind ('azama) on doing something’; also used of a boy ‘to be intelligent (thinking, knowledgeable)’ ('aqila wa fatina) Kaš. III 408 (köŋüllenü:r, köŋüllenme:k).

Dis. V. GNR-

D ke:ŋür- (g-) (widen, broaden) Caus. f. of ke:ŋü:-; ‘to widen, broaden’, with some extended meanings. N.o.a.b. Cf. ke:ŋüt-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. keŋür-, with ‘doctrine, scripture’, and the like as Object, means ‘to publicize, make widely known’; it is usually in the Ger. in -Ü: followed by another V.; e.g. Višikluan šastırda keŋürü sözlemiške ‘because they are made known and published in the Wei--shih-lun’ TT V 22, 22; similar phr. USp. 102b. 11 — 13 (enčsire:-); (I have come with a desire to find scriptures and) tınlığlarka k^gürü asığ tusu kılgalı sakmčın ‘the idea of making them known to people and so benefitting them’ Hüen-ts. 204-6; o.o. do. 2008; Suv. 2, 4-5 (ula:l-); 3, 12; U II 73, 3-4 (iii) (? , see köŋür-) — (be pleased to declare) k^gürüsinče ‘publicly’ U II 41, 22: Xak. xı er evin ke:gürdi: ‘the man enlarged (arcsa'a) his house’ (etc.) Kaš. III 392 (ke:gürür, ke:gürme:k): KB (in the chapter on igdišciler ‘cattle-breeders’; they are a good and guileless class of people, but) bularda tileme törü ya bilig yorıkları keŋrü bolur ay silig ‘do not ask them about the customary law or intellectual matters, their movements are far-ranging (or their character is unconventional?), oh pure man’ 444e: xııı (?) At. 412 (yolsuz): (Kıp. xv see ke:gürt-).

D künür- (g-) (burn) Caus. f. of kün-; ‘to burn (Trans.)’. N.o.a.b.; cf. *kündür- (burn). Türkü vııı ff. Man. künürügli (sic) isig yel yeltir-mez ‘the burning hot wind does not blow’ M 111 45, 6 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 18, 2 (örte:-): Man. Wind. 35-7 (ur-); M III 28, 5 (iii): Bud. tütsük küyürüp ‘burning incense’ TT V 8, 72; o.o. do. 12, 130; U III 37, 4-5 (örte:-); USp. 102b. 21; Suv. 595, 22 etc.: Civ. otka küyürüp ‘burn it with fire’ H I 2627; o.o. TT I 70 (adırtla:-); VII26, 12 etc.: Xak. xı er otug küyürdi: (MS., in error, küytürdi:) ‘the man burnt (ahraqa) firewood’ Kaš. III 187 (küyrür (sic), küyürme:k); a.o. II 133. 15: KB (do not go near a fire, if you do) küyürmek anuk ‘it is ready to bum you’ 653; a.o. 249 (ütül-): Xwar. xıv küyür- ‘to burn’ Qutb 106; MN 151, etc.

D ke:ŋürt- (g-) (widen, broaden) Caus. f. of ke:ŋür- (widen, broaden); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in an account of the history of the biography of Hsüan-tsang, it is said that Huei-li composed it and that Yen-tsung fa-shih) keŋürtmiš ‘had it published’ Hüen-ts. 2153: (Kip. xv in a list of Caus. f.s ending in -rt-, wassa'a ‘to broaden, widen’ kogirt- Tuh. 54b. 12).

VU keŋren- (grumble, mutter) ‘to grumble, mutter’; prob. a quasi-onomatopoeic; the first vowel is uncertain and perhaps varied. Survives only (?) in NE Šor kiŋiren- R II 1342; Tuv. ximiren-; NC küŋkül ‘grumble, mutter’, and its Den. V.s Kır. küŋküldo-; Kzx. küŋkilde seem to be distantly related. Cf. čıgra:-, yagra:-. Türkü vııı ff. (a woman dropped her mirror into a lake; in the morning it jingles) keče: keŋre:nü:r ‘and in the evening it makes a grumbling sound’ IrkB 22: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (he recovered for a month and then fell ill again) keŋrenü aš berür \734\ boldılar ‘they grumbled but gave (or began to give?) him food’ PP 68, 3: Xak. xı er ı:ška: (VI!) küŋrendi: haruna'l-insen li'l--iqdem 'alal-amr tea takallama ma' nafsihi bi-kalem xaji ‘the man was reluctant to begin the task and muttered to himself under his breath’ Kay III 399 (küŋrenü:r, küŋrenme:k): Čağ. xv ff. (VU) küŋren- (spelt) xivud ba-xrvud az ğayz harf zadan tva lund lund hardan ‘to talk angrily to oneself and grumble’ San. 309V. 19 (quotn.).

D ke:ŋrün- (g-) (widen, broaden) Hap. leg. (?); Refl. f. of ke:ŋür- (widen, broaden), Xak. xı ol ke:ŋrüııdi: tatvassa'a’l--racul zaman fi ni'ma ‘the man spent his time in great comfort’ Kaš. III 400 (ke:ŋrenü:r, ke:ŋrenme:k).

Tris. V. GNR-

D keŋirsi:- (burnt) Hap. leg.; morphologically a Simulative Den. V. fr. *keŋir, but there is no trace of such a N. Xak. xı ešič keŋirsi:di: ihtaraqa'l-šay’ fi asfal nahtvi’l-qidr hatte irta-fa'a rihuhu ‘something burnt at the bottom, for example, of a cooking pot, so that a smell rose from it’ Kaš. III 409 (keŋirsi:r, keŋirsi:me:k).

Dis. GNS

?D keŋes (keŋez) (shallow, easy task, easy, convenient) the spelling iri'^vajV is deliberate, the word following the crossheading -S and preceding the cross-heading -Š, but it is prob. a Sec. f. of keŋez, cf. the habitual spelling of the Negative Verbal Suff. -ma:z/-me:z as -ma:s/-me:s in Kaš.; If so irregular Dev. N. fr. ke:gü:-. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı keŋes su:v ‘shallow (al-dakdeh) water’; also ‘an easy task’ (anır sahŋ Kaš. 7/7 364: Xwar. xııı keŋes/keŋezeasy, convenient’ 'Ali 58: Kip. xııı al-hayyin ‘easy’ (opposite to ‘difficult’ šarp) keŋe:z (spelt ke*c:z) IIou. 25, 10: xv hayyin (yavaš/)keŋez Tuh. 37b. 9; hena keŋez bol- 38a. 4.

Dis. GNŠ

D keŋeš (advice) Dev. N. fr. ke:ŋe:- (settle affairs, visit one another); ‘advice’ and the like; s.i.m.m.I.g. See Doerfer III 1651. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (if one sneezes at midday) keŋeš bulur ‘one gets advice’ (or, reading bolur ‘advice comes to one’ ) TT VII 35, 5-e: Xak. xı keŋeš al-maštvara tva'l-tadbir fi'l-umür ‘advice; the settlement of affairs’ Kaš. III 365: KB keŋeš ber ‘give me your advice’ 3482-3; o.o. 3484, 3493, 5650 ff.: Čağ. xv ff. k^geš (‘with k-) maštvarat Vel. 3el(quotn.); g^geš (so spelt) ditto San. 316V. 19 (quotn.): Kip. xıv keŋeške: (sic) al-maštvara, also called kengeš (keŋeš)/kengeč (keŋeč) İd. 85 (the -ke: must be an error; a small del is written under all the others kefs, which seems to indicate g- and -ng- (-g-)).

D küneš (g-) (sunshine, sunny, sun, hot day) Den. N. fr. 1 kün (sun, day); originally ‘sunshine’. Survives in NE Tel. küneš ‘the sunny side of a mountain’, R II 1440, and SW Az. küneš; Osm. güneš, both the ordinary word for ‘sun’, and Tkm. günešsunshine; a sunny place’. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 57 (olur-): \\\  (Xak.) xııı (?) r!Vf. küııeš ‘sunshine; a sunny place’ 189: xıv Muh. al-šams ‘the sun’ güne:š Mcl. 4, 17 (Rif. 74 gün); ğebali'l-šams ‘the sun set’ güne:š batlı: 29, 7 (113, but gün): Čağ. xv ff. künes (sic) günešsun’; also ‘a very hot day’ (quotns.), with a note saying the final -s is required by the rhyme Vel. 374; künes/ küns (spelt) efteb ‘sun’; note on spelling (quotns.); also metaph. efteb-rû ‘sunny-faced’ (quotn.); also called küneš San. 3ior. 15: Xwar. xııı küneš ‘sun’ 'Alt 5e: Tkm. xııı al-šu'e ‘sunshine’ küne:s (sic: Kıp . kuya:š) Hon. 5, 2: xıv küneš metaph. al-šams, but properly al-šııe (which in Kip. is kuya:š also used metaph. for ‘sun') td. 85: xv (? Kip.) al-šams küne:š Kur. 21, 17; 58, 8; Tuh. 23a. 13 (also kün).

Dis. V. GNŠ-

D ke:ŋeš- (counsel, consult, confer, discuss) Receip. f. of ke:ŋe:- (settle affairs, visit one another); in the Sing, ‘to consult (someone Dat.); to discuss’ (with someone birle:); in the Plur. ‘to take counsel with one another, have a discussion’. S.i.m.m.I.g. Uyğ. vııı ff. dır. U I 8, 4 (anın): Civ. bodun keŋešip ‘the people taking counsel together’ USp. 77, 8; a.o. do. 88, 28 (2 art-): Xak. xı ol maga: ke:ŋešdi: šeıvara ma'i ‘he took counsel with me’ Kaš. III 394 (ke:ŋe:šü:r, ke:ŋe:šme:k, sic); meniŋ birle: (MS. bile:) ke:ŋešdi: šatvaretıi ‘he consulted me’ III 393, 13: KB negü teg keŋešürsen emdi maga ‘what advice (counsel) do you give me ?’ 3488; eg ašnu bu iške keŋešgü kerek ‘we must first discuss this matter’ 5649; o.o. 3688-9, 5650-2, 5657, etc.: xııı (?) Tef. keŋeš- ‘to take counsel together’ 173:xiv Rbğ. ditto R II 1069 (quotn.): Čağ. xv ff. keŋeš- (-ti) ‘to consult’ Vel. 361 (quotn.); ğeŋeš- (spelt, ‘with -ŋ-’) maštvarat kardan ‘to consult’ San. 3ier. 28 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv keŋeš- ‘to take counsel together’ Qutb. 94; keŋeš- ditto do. 9e: Kip. xıv keneš- tašetvara İd. 85: xv šeıvara (tanıš-/) keŋiš- (sic, in margin in second hand keŋeš-) Tuh. 21 a. 13.

E kiŋšür- See  kikšür-. (collide, clash, сталкивать) (kick)

Tris. GNŠ

D keŋešči: (adviser) N. Ag. fr. keŋeš (advice); pec. to KB? Xak. xı KB keŋešči bular erdi ‘these (Companions) were (the Prophet’s) advisers’ 49; o.o. 2256, 5209 (yolči:).

D keŋešlig (advising, advisement) P.N./A. fr. keŋeš (advice); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı keŋe:šlig bili:g üdrešü:r keŋe:šsiz bili:g oprašu:r ‘experience (al-tadbiŋ when it is fertilized by advice (mulaqqah bi’l-šüra) gains in goodness day by day; but if it is without advice (ğayru'1-šüra) it deteriorates day by day’ Kaš. İ 232, 3; a.o. III 358, 15; n.m.e.

D keŋešsiz (without advice) Hap. leg.; Priv. N./A. fr. keŋeš (advice); ‘without advice’. Xak. xı Kaš. I 232, 3 (keŋešlig).

Dis. GNZ

keŋez See keŋes. (shallow, easy task, easy, convenient)

(? D) köŋüz (dung heap) Hap. leg. ?; ‘a dung heap’. Perhaps connected with köŋdung’, which exists in NC Kır., Kzx: Sc Uzb. (göng): NW Kk. Xak. xı köŋüz nl-dimn wa'l-kirs fVl-atlal wa hiya ab'er wa abwel talnbbada ba'duhe 'ale ba'd ‘a dung heap’ (Hend.) in a ruined building, that is an accumulated mass of dung and urine Kaš. III 363.

F kenzi: (thin silk, silk handkerchief) Hap. leg.; no doubt a Chinese l.-w. Prof. Simon suggests that the origin is chiian-tzü (Middle Chinese kjwcn-tsj; Giles 3,139 12,317) ‘thin silk’, and more specifically ‘a silk handkerchief’. Xak. xı kenzi: ‘a Chinese woven fabric (nasic) of mixed colours (fi alwan šatta), red, yellow, and green’ Kaš. I422.

Mon. G(Q)R

?F ker ‘a moment’; see note on passage quoted below. Perhaps survives in NE Alt., Tel. kere ‘a period of time, a moment in time’, R II 1085. The suggestion there that this is a Chinese l.-w. may well be correct, but it can hardly be chieh (Giles 1,477) since this was tset in Middle Chinese, not kiet as there stated. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit miihurtam apt ‘and only for a moment’ bir ker yeme: TT VIII D. 14-15-

ki:r (dirt, filth, defilement) ‘dirt, filth, defilement’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. For some unknown reason often spelt kkir as well as kir in Uyğ.; a l.-w. in Mong. in both spellings (Kow. 2545, Haltod 197). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kir normally means not physical ‘dirt’ but ‘the defilement or stain caused by sin’, Sanskrit kleia; Sanskrit cetaso upaklesa ‘a small stain on the mind’ köŋ-lömnöŋ kiri TT VIII C.13; malam ‘impurity’ nızvanılığ kirig ‘the impurity of the passions’ do. E.47: a.o. Hüen-ts. 103-4: Civ. H I 66-7 (an:-): Xak. xı Kaš. II 211 (toğ-raš-); do. 230 (toğral-); n.m.e.: KB 876 (an:-): xııı (?) At. akılık kamuğ *ayb kirini yuyur ‘generosity washes away all the defilement of vice’230; Tef. kir (physical) ‘dirt’ 180: Čağ. xv ff. kir čirk wa rim ‘dirt, filth’ San. 313V. 1 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 99: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-wasax ‘dirt’ (opposite to ‘clean’ an:) kir Hou. 27, 17: xıv ditto Id. 83 (under kilikče: (for kirlikče:) ‘pillow case’): xv ditto Kav. 64, 17; Tuh. 38a. 12.

1 kür (? g-) (courageous, manly, self-willed, uncontrollable, swift, thick, dense, abundant, luxuriant, title Kur/Chur/Gur) (courageous) (great) originally ‘stout-hearted, courageous, bold’, and the like; this meaning only as noted below, but it seems to survive in NE kür, Bar. ‘self-willed’; Koib. ‘swiftly flowing’ (water); Tel. ‘fat, stout’ R II 1447; Khak. ‘bold, uncontrollable’; Tuv. (xür) ‘well-fed; (of winter) starting with ample supplies of food’: SW Az. kür ‘an uncontrollable, fidgety (child)’; Osm., Tkm. gür thick, dense, abundant’. See Doerfer III 1672. Xak. xı kür er al-raculu'l-rebitu'l-ca' ši'l-qawiyu'l-qalbi' l-šemix bi'l-anf ‘a man with a courageous soul, a stout heart, and his nose in the air’ (prov., verse kürmet anıŋ yüre:ki:' (the tribe’s) heart is strong (qawi) for me)’ Kaš. I 324: KB kür is \\\ common; e.g. ('Ali was the last of the Companions) kür ersig yüreklig ‘courageous, manly, stout-hearted’ 57; o.o. 409 (küvez), 2298, 2337, 4845 (kögüzluğ): Xwar. xıv kürstout-hearted’ Qutb 108: Osm. xıv ff. gür once (xiv) ‘courageous’; in several xıv to xvı texts (of a tree) ‘luxuriant’ and the like TTS I 340; II 479; III 328 ; IV 376.

On the Eurasian scene, the kür/gür as a title Kur “brave” occupied a salient place for over 3 millennia. The title Kur is first attested in Mesopotamia in ca 2400 BC Akkadian cuneiform inscriptions as a title or name of the horse nomadic Gutian king’s Kurum, with the Akkadian ending -(i)um, long before the arrival of the IE vernaculars to the Near East. Later, in few allophonic forms (Kir, Chur, Chor, Gur), it figures as a popular name (Persian, Cf. Cyrus), it was ubiquitous in the Türkic names and titles (cf. Kurbat, Gurkhan), recorded in the Germanic milieu as “courage”, and adopted in the Romance vernaculars meaning “brave”.


VU 2 kür (trick, device) noted only in the Hend. tev kür ‘trick, device’; n.o.a.b.; not to be confused w. küri:, q.v. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 9, 11 12 (ii) (2 a:r-): Man. M II 5, 8-10 (antağ): Hud. U II 23, 12 (tev).

Mon. V. GR-

ker- (g-) (stretch, spread out) ‘to stretch, spread out (something Acc.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g., esp. in the phr. kögüz (or synonym) ker- ‘to throw out one’s chest; be proud, confident’; in SW Osm. ger-; Tkm. ger-. Xak. xı er yip kerdi: ‘the man stretched (madda) the cord’ (etc.); and one says beg yo:l kerdi: ‘the beg stretched out (madda) the road’, that is he posted (yuclis) men in military posts (al-marešid) so that those whom he did not know could not pass; this is done in fear of the enemy Kaš. II 8 (kere:r, kerme:k); a.o. III 39, 13: KB 133, 1535, etc. (kögüz): xııı (?) At. kerip xalqka kögsüŋ ‘throwing out your chest towards the (common) people’ 278; Tef. boyun ker- ‘to be stiff-necked’ 173: Karluk xı it kerdi: ‘the dog barked’ (nabaha) Kaš. II 8: Xwar. xııı ker- ‘to raise (the eyebrows)’ 'Ali 49: Kom. xıv ker- ‘to crucify’ CCG; Gr. 139 (quotns.): Kip. xııı šalaba ‘to crucify’ kere: koy-/ker- (MS. kör-) Hou. 34, le: Xiv ker- zayyara (a rare word meaning ‘to hold a horse’s lip in a twitch’; ?read zayyada ‘to increase, expand’ (Trans.)); warima ‘to be swollen’ (šiš-; and also) ker- Bui. 88r.: xv šalaba (and in the margin madda) ker- Tuh. 22b. 8: Osm. xvııı ger- (following geme-, an error for gerin- which is described as Rümŋ Trans, f., agüš kušüdan ‘to throw out one’s chest’ San. 300r. 21: xıv to xvı see kögüz.

kir- (g-) ‘to enter’; with some extended meanings. C.i.a.p.a.i.; NW Kumyk; SW Osm. gir-; Tkm. gi:r-. Türkü vııı yana: kirip ‘entering (the battle) again’ I E 38; Oğuz tezip tavğačka: kirti: ‘the Oğuz fled and entered China (Tabgach Türkic)’ II E 38; a.o. II N 14: vııı ff. (above it reaches heaven) asra: yerke: kirü:r ‘below it enters the earth’ IrkB 20; a.o. do. 63: Suğču: balıkda: kirmi:š ya-n:kda: ‘out of the breastplates which arrived from the city of Suchou’ Mir. A 14 (ETYII 65): Man. ičgerü: kirip ‘going in’ M I 5, 3: Yen. Mai. 25, 1 (yağız): Uyğ. vııı (the Karluk) On Ok (k)a: kirti: ‘entered the country of the On Ok (western Türkü)’ Šu. N 11: vııı ff. Man.-A etözke kirür ‘enters the body’ MI 16, 7: Man. kireyin teser ‘if (D say "let me come in” ’ M II 8, 13 (in: Chr. yakm banp kirdiler ‘they approached and entered’ U I 6, 11: Bud. kir- is very common; e.g. balikka kirdf ‘he entered the city’ PP 4, 1; \\ o.o. do. 39, 8 (ičgerü:); U II 26, 3 (kısıl): Civ. kir- is common, e.g. ikf otuzka aram ay küni klrür ‘on the 22nd day (of the schematic month) the (first) day of the first (calendar) month comes in’ TT VII 6, 4; (if you sneeze at midday) tavar kirür ‘wealth comes into (your possession)’ do. 35, 23 ; a.o. USp. 77, 14 (u:d-): Xak. xı ol evke: kirdi: ‘he entered (daxala) the house’ Kaš. II8 (kirür, kirme:k); nearly 30 o.o., same translation: KB kir- is very common, usually physically ‘to go in, enter’; but sometimes in an abstract sense, e.g. 26 (neteglfk); in some contexts it is an Inchoative Aux. V., e.g. okıp kirdi ‘lie decided to summon’ 620; aytu kirdi ‘he began to question’ 626; (the full moon) irlü kirdi ‘began to wane’ 1052: xııı (?) At. (when a man dies) toprak ičige kirip ‘and enters the ground’ 308; Tef. kir- ‘to enter; to penetrate; to begin’ 180: xıv Muh. daxala gi:r- Mel. 26, 3; Rif. 108; al-duxid gi:rmeg 34, 12; 54,9; 119 (only): Čağ. xv ff. kir- (‘with k-’; -geli, etc.) gir- Vel. 356-7; kir- daxil šudan ‘to enter’ San. 312V. 17 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı kir- ‘to enter’ 'Ali 30: xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 139: xıv ditto Qutb 98; MN 7e: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr. 148 (quotns.) Kip. xııı daxala kir- (MS. kör-) Hou. 33, 15 (and 27, 18); ceza mina'l--uhilr tva'l-duxııı ‘to cross; to enter’ kir- 39, 8:xiv kir- (enter) daxala td. 80; al-šahrıi l-daxil ‘the coming month’ ki:re:n ay BuL 13, 11: xv daxala kir- (enter) Kav. 9, 18; 74, 17; Tuh. 16a. 4; a.o.o.

Mon. V. GR-

kör- (g-) (see, look, obey, experience) basically ‘to see (something Acc.)' with several extended meanings like ‘to experience (something Acc.); to look to, i.e. obey (someone Dat.); to see to it that (you do something, Ger. in -u:/-ü:)’. C.i.a.p.a.i.; NW Kumyk: SW Osm., Tl.:n. gör-. There is obviously a very old etymological connection with 1 kö:z (gaze, eye) ‘eye’, cf. semiz and semri:-. Türkü vııı körü:r közim körınez teg... boltı: ‘my seeing eye became sightless’ I N 10 — I E 19, II E 16 (1 emgek) — kop maga: körti: ‘everyone looked to, i.e. obeyed, me’ I E 30, II E 24 (and see körgü:) — (the Xağan said) yelü: kör ‘see to it that you ride fast’ T 26 — several o.o.: vııı ff. tağ üze: yul suv körü:pen yıš üze: yaš ot körü:pen ‘seeing springs and water on the mountains and fresh vegetation in the mountain forests' IrkB 17; eši:dmi:šte: körü: körmi:š yeg ‘it is better to see with your own eyes than to hear’ Tun. III a. 3-4 (ETY II 94): Man. körti (mistranscribed kirtŋ ‘saw’ M I 6, 2; közin körüp Ch/ms. 312 — (if I have accepted the advice of evil companions and) kögülin körüp ‘looked to, i.e. followed, their thoughts’ do. 199; a.o.o.: Uyğ. vııı kör tedim *1 said “see” (or ‘obey me’ ?)’ Šu. E 11; a.o. 6” 3; Stici 8 (atı:): vııı ff. Man.-A körelim ‘let us see’ (your perfect being) M I 11, 17; o.o. do. 9, 6; 9, 7: Man. TT IX 14, etc. (tuğıl); a.o.o.: Bud. kör-‘to see’ is very common, e.g. körür erdi ‘he saw’ (the fanners outside the city) PP 1,3: Civ. kör- occurs for ‘to see’, e.g. kayu kiši köče edgü körmeser ‘if a man cannot see well at night’ II I 33, but in the omen texts normally means ‘to consult the omens’; there are various idioms; ig ağrığ uğrunda körsersen ‘if you consult the omens about an illness’ TT I 16; ig tapa körsersen same meaning do. 77; yağmur yağıtğuka körser ‘if a man consults the omens about (the possibility of) making it rain’ TT VII 29, 1; tavar tegere (? read tegre) körser ‘ifa man consults the omens about property’ do. le: Xak. xı ol meni: kördi: ra'fun ‘he saw me’; in a prov. yüzkc: körme: ‘do not look at (la tanzuŋ a man’s face’ Kaš. II 8 (köre:r, körme:k); about 60 o.o.; two occurrences of Aor. körür; occasional spellings of kö:r- esp. in the Imperat.; translated ra'e, basura (‘to see’), nazara — as an Aux. V. kura: kördüm wattartu ‘I strung’ (my strong bow) III 219, le: KB kör- ‘to see’ is common 248, etc.; the Imperat. kör is constantly used, almost mcaninglessly, to supply a syllable in a verse which would otherwise lack one 38, etc. — as an Aux. V. özügke baka kör ‘look at yourself’ 239 a.o.o.: xııı (?) At. ditto; Tef. kör- ‘to see’; ayru turmakğa šaweb körmedi ‘he did not think it correct to stand apart’ 185: XIV Muh. basura gö:r- Mel. 5, 5; Rif. 75; abšara ‘to see’ gö:r- 21, 13; 102; al-nazar gö:rmeg 13, 13; 35, 9î 89, 121: Čağ. xv ff. kör- (‘with k-’, -gen, etc.) gör- Vel. 364-6; kör- dîdan ‘to see’ San. 303v. 22 (quotns.): Xwar. xn ditto 'Ali 28, 30: xııı (?) kör- ‘to see’ is common in Oğ. esp. in the (non-Turkish) phr. kördi kim ‘he saw that’ 32, 36, 41, etc. — (Oğuz Xagan) yaxšı kördi ‘approved of’ (the young man’s statement) 19S; a.o. 329: xıv kör- ‘to see’ (common) Qutb 102; MN 41, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to see (common); to experience’ kör- CCI, CCG; Gr. 153 (quotns.): Kip. xııı basura kör- Hou. 33, 14: xıv kör- abšara td. 80; kören al-mubšir, originally körgen do. 79; abšara tea ar'e (? read ra'e) kör- Bul. 2$r.: xv nazara ıva ra'e kör- Kav. 9, 19; Tuh. 43b. 1, etc. (not translated).

Dis. GRE

D ke:rü (ğ-) (backwards, behind) Adv. fr. *ke: (back, behind); ‘backwards, behind’, and the like; an early l.-w. in Mong. as gerü (Haenisch 50); s.i.s.m.l. in NC, NW, SW Az. keri; Osm. geri. Türkü vııı körü: ‘westwards’ (as far as the Iron (late) I E 2; anta: kerü: barip ‘going back from there’ Ix. 16; kerü: barığma: bardı: ‘those who wished to go back went’ Ongin 11: Uyğ. ıx kerü: kün batsik (k)a: ‘westwards towards the sunset’ III B.9 (ETY II 38): vııı ff. Man.-A M I 26, 26-7 (ilgerü:): Bud. tinin kerü: kaytı tartap ‘drawing back (Hend.) his reins’ USp. 97, 20-1 (kayti uncertain, but see 2 kadit-): Civ. kerü barir ‘goes back’ TT I 174: Xak. xı kö:k temür kerü: (kef unvocalized) turma:s ‘blue iron does not rest (yastaqirŋ without work’ Kaš. I 361, 26 (Kaš. explains this as meaning that when a sword is used, it is not left in the wound but withdrawn for further use); (the man who enters the grave) körü: yanma:» ‘does not come back’ III 65, 2; ke:rü: körüp ‘looking behind you’ (ha If alt) \737\ III 245, 16; a.o. do. 246, 1; n.m.e.: xıv Muh. halfa ge:rü: Mel. 14, 11; Rif. 90 (misspelt gi:rteŋ; tanahhe ‘to cease, be stopped, be removed’ k^rü: er- (?) 24, 11 (vocalized kereıvar-); ıo6 (unvocalİ7.ed, ki:rü: er-): Xwar. xııı k^rii ‘then, again’ 'Ali 55: xıv ditto Qutb 99: Kom. xıv keri (of space) ‘backwards’; (of time) ‘before’ CCI; Gr. 139 (quotns.): Kip. xııı halfa (opposite to ‘in front’ llgerü) kerü: Hou. 26, 19: xıv tumnia ‘then’ ke:rli: Bui. 15, 12: Osm. xıv ff. gerii, sometimes spelt ge:ru: ‘afterwards; back’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 305-6; II 429-30; III 290-1; IV 336.

?F küri ‘a measure of capacity, or weight, for dry goods like grain’. Chinese ton (Giles 11,427) is usually translated ‘peck’ (2^ bushels) and contains ten sheng (Giles 9,879) or ‘pints’. Survives in SE Türki küre ‘a weight of 22 4 kilograms’, Menges, Volkskundliche Texte aus Ost.-Turkistan, SPAW, 1933, XXXII, p. iii. No doubt a l.-w., but not Chinese, perhaps Tokharian (Agnean ?). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if I have committed fraud with scales, inch and foot measures) šerjln kavın kürin kürilikin ‘pints, tenth-pints, pecks, and peck measures (?)’ U 7/ 77, 2e:86, 43; TTIV 10, 5; Suv. 135, 9: Civ. küri (sometimes mistranscribed könŋ is common in USp. as a measure of grain, millet, etc. 7, 20, 37, 69, 70, etc.: xıv Chin.-Uyg. Dict. ton ‘peck’ kür! R II 1454; Ligeti 178.

Dis. V. GRE-

küre:-/küri:- Preliminary note. Kaš. distinguishes between an Intrans. V. 'to run away, desert’, VU küre:-, and a Trans. V. 'to dig up, shovel’, and the like, küri:-. Only the latter survives, and the modern forms of it are fairly consistently küre-; similarly even in Xak. its der. f.s have -e-, not -İ-; its final vowel is therefore open to some question.

VU küre:- (flee, desert) ‘to run away, desert’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (the chief of the demons) tezdi küredi ‘fled and ran away’ Man.-uig. Frag. 400, 3: Xak. xı kul küre:di: ‘the slave (etc.) ran away’ (abaqa) Kaš. III 263 (küre:r, küre:me:k): KB küremiš küreg erdi oš bu özüm ‘I myself was a runaway fugitive’ 1118; a.o. 316.

küri:- (shovel, dig) ‘to dig up (the ground); to shovel (snow)’, and the like. Küre- (sic) usually ‘to shovel (snow)’ survives in NE Koib., Sag., Tel. RII1448; Khak.: SE Türki: NC Kır. (kürö-); Kzx.: SC Uzb. (kura-): NW Kaz. (köre-), Kumyk, Nog.: SW Az., Osm. (Tkm. kürekle-). Xak. xı at küri:di: ‘the horse pawed (or dug up, hafara) the ground with its hooves’; and one says ol ka:rığ küri:di: kasiha’l-tale wa carafahu ‘he swept up the snow and shovelled it away’ Kaš. III263 (küri:r, küri:me:k); a.o. III 256 (küvečlig): Osm. xv kürü- ‘to dig up (the ground)’: xvı küre- (of a mare) ‘to be on heat’; each in one text TTS II 676. \\\

Dis. GRB

kirpi: ‘hedgehog’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in some languages ‘porcupine’ is okluğ (or the like) klrpi. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Suv. 299, 6 (agit): Civ. kirpi terisin ‘the skin of a hedgehog’ H I 129: Xak. xı klrpi: al-qunfud ‘hedgehog’; and al-duldul ‘porcupine’ is called okluğ kirpi: Kaš. I 415: xıv A/m/i. (?) al-qunfud kirpi: Rif. 177 (only): Čağ. xv ff. klpri (sic, spelt) xarpuft ‘hedgehog’, in Ar. qunfud... klpri tiken ‘a kind of large hedgehog’, in Ar. duldul San. 31 ir. 29: Kom. xıv ‘hedgehog’ kirpi CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv kirpi: (‘with -p-’) al-qunfud Id. 80; Bui. 10, 9: xv ditto Tuh. 29a. 7.

körpe: (late (crop)) basically (of an animal or crop) ‘produced late in the season’. It retains this meaning of lambs in NC Kır., Kzx., see Shcherbak, p. 114, and SW Tkm. and of crops like luceme in NW Kaz. (kurpŋ; Kk. SW Az., Osm. körpe ‘very young, fresh, tender’ retains this meaning in a more generalized form. From this it came to mean ‘the skin of a (very young) lamb’ in NC Kır.; NW Nog., Kumyk and from this more generally ‘quilt, coverlet, soft mattress’, and the like in several SE, NC, SC, NW languages and SW Tkm. See Doerfer III 1673. Xak. xı körpe: o:t al-xalfa mina'l-nabt ‘a late (or second) crop’; similarly one says körpe: ye:miš ‘late (or second) fruit’, that is fruit which appears after the first crop; similarly ‘a child born in the summer’ (al-waladu’l-šayfŋ is called körpe: oğul; similarly lambs, camel colts, and calves born after the usual season (awaniha) are called körpe: Kaš. I 415: Čağ. xv ff. körpe (spelt) (1) lihSf ‘quilt’; (2) yünca-i nim-ras ‘half-grown luceme’ San. 305r. 23: Kom. xıv ‘lamb skin’ körpe CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv körpe: (‘with -p-’) al- -xarw/M’/-rö (/r‘a sucking lamb, calf’, etc. td. 81.

?F kerpič (brick) ‘brick’, esp. ‘sun-dried brick’. S.i.m.m.l. in the same form, but does not exist in SE, SC which use Persian xišt; l.-w. in Russian as kirpich. It is prob. that both bricks and the word for them were borrowed by the Turks fr. some other people. Xak. xı kerpič al-labin ‘sun-dried brick’; and a baked brick (al-ecurŋ is called bıšığ kerpič / 455; o.o. I 372 (bıšığ); III 119 (ki:b): xııı (?) Tef. kerpič (sic}) ‘brick’ 180: xıv Muh. al-ecurr kerpi:č; al-labin gayr mufaxxar (‘unbaked’) yi:g kerpi:č Mel. 59, 7 (31.7in error); Rif. 158: Čağ. xv ff. kerpič (‘with -p-’) xišt ‘brick’ San. 313V. 4 (quotn.): Kom. xıv ‘baked brick’ bišmiš kerpič CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-tub ‘baked brick’ kürpüč (sic ?; -b-c) Hou. 24, 13: xıv kerpüč (sic; -b-c) al-acurra; and in Kip. used for al-bunyen ‘building, wall’ Id. 80; al-bunyen kirpič (-b-c) Bid. 4, 3: xv tûb kirpič (-b-; later revocalized kerpüč) Tuh. 23b. 11.

D kirpik (eyelash) ‘eyelash’; Dim. f. of kirpi:. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. a few phonetic changes, e.g. SC Uzb. kiprik. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kašı kirpiki kök arjawrt öglüg ‘his eyebrows and eyelashes the colour of blue lapis lazuli’ \738\ (Sogdian l.-w.) U IV 30, 49: Civ. fi II 21, 32: Xak. xı kirpik al-hudb fi cafni'l-'ayn ‘the lashes on the eyelids’ Kaš. I 478: Čağ. xv ff. kirpik (spelt) mujagen ‘eyelashes' San. 313V. 5 (quotn.); a.o. 351-. 24 (artıl-): Xwar. xıv ditto MN 27e: Kom. xıv ditto CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-cafn kerfik (sic?; MS. kcrktki:)) al-hudb kerpik (MS. keri.k) Hou. 20, 3: xıv kirpik (-e-) al-hudb Id. 80: xv al-cafn kirfik (sic) Kav. 6o, 13; ša'r ‘hair’ (šaš/) kirpik/ (yun) Tuh. 20b. 5.

Dis. V. GRB-

VUD körple:- Hap. leg.; in a section for Dis. V.s containing three consecutive consonants; the third consonant in the word, ya in the MS., must be ba, since it precedes the cross-heading -T- (followed by sartla:-). Perhaps an abbreviated Den. V. fr. körpe: in the sense of ‘young animal’. Xak. xı ol kuzı: körple:di: hanada'l-hamal wa šawehu fi haddi'l-ard ‘he roasted (Hend.) a lamb in a hole in the ground’ Kaš. III 444 (körple:r, körple:me:k; MS. köride:-).

Tris. V. GRB-

D kirpikten- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. kirpik. Xak. xı amg kö:zi: kirpiktendi: nabata'l-ša'ru'l-nexis fi 'aynihi ‘pointed hairs grew round his eyes’ Kaš. II 277 (kirpik-lenü:r, kirpiklenme:k; MS. kirpüklen-).

D körpe:le:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. körpe:. Xak. xı at körpe:le:di: ‘the horse ate the late crop of grass’ (al-xalfa mina'l-tiabt) Kaš. III 351 (körpe:Ie:r, körpe:Ie:me:k).

D kirpiden- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. kirpi:. Xak. xı kiši: kirpidendi: ‘the man looked disagreeable (ta'abbasa) and bristled (kalaha) like a hedgehog show ing its prickles’ (fi xušünatihŋ Kaš. III 200 (kirpi:lenü:r, kirpi:lenme:k).

D körpe:len- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of körpede:-. Xak. xı ot körpedendi: ‘the vegetation produced a late (or second) crop’ (xilfa) Kaš. III 200 (körpe:lenü:r, körpe:lenme:k).

Dis. GRG

F ke:rjü: Hap. leg.; no doubt a l.-w., ?Iranian. Xak. xı ke:rjü: ( ‘with -j-’) al-culCihiq ‘a sling-stone’ Kaš. III 441.

Mon. G(Q)RD

VU 1 kürt (tree (kind)) a of tree; Red. 2070 translates nab' in Osm. as ‘the mountain birch, Betula alba; or whitebeam tree, Pyrus aria; or mountain ash, Pyrus aucuparia’; Havas translates it Chadara tenax\ it may have been applied to more than one species, but the Ar. dicts, agree that it was used for making bows. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı kürt al-nab', that is one of the mountain trees used for making bows, whips, and walking sticks Kaš. J 343: Kip. xıv kürt in Kıp. al-safareal ka'annahu qala tuffehu'l--akrfid ‘the quince’ as they call ‘the Kurdish apple’; and in Tkm. aywa: td. 81 (sic, clumsily expressed).

2 kürt onomatopoeic; survives in NC Kır. kürt kürt, the onomatopoeic of a horse crunching straw. Xak. xı at arpamı: kürt kürt ye:di: ‘the horse ate the barley with a crunching sound’ (bi-xadd); also used of anyone wrho eats something like a cucumber and crunches it Kaš. I 343.

Mon. V. GRD-

kert- (notch, gash, carve) (carve) ‘to gash, cut a notch in (something Acc.)'. S.i.a.m.l.g. in this and some extended meanings. See 1 ket- (ged-) (notch, chip, gash). Xak. xı ol yığa:č kertti: ‘he notched (hazza) the piece of wood’ (etc.); and one says ol kulın (nc) boym: kertti: ‘he notched his slave’s neck’; this is an idiomatic expression for ‘humiliating’ (kineya 'ani’l-idlel) Kaš. III427 (kerte:r, kertme:k):xiv Muh. (?) nahata ‘to hew’ kert- Rif. 115 (only): Kom. xıv ‘to notch’ kert- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı sahaba ‘to penetrate’ (in copulation) kert- (MS. kört-) wa huwa'l-hazz Hou. 34, 9; hazza kert- (unvocalized) wa huwa l-sahb fi'1-cime' do. 39, 12: xıv kert- hazza td. 81:xv ditto Tuh. 14a. 1.

Dis. GRD

F kirit (kilit) (key) Hap. leg.; ‘a key’; l.-w. fr. Indo-European, the immediate source prob. Sogdian (-r- < -1-), cognate to Greek kleis (Gen. kleidos), which is the origin of the Ar. word. The more ordinary form in Turkish is kilit (Caus. f. of kel- (to come) with -i-, Cf. Ru. kalitka “small gate”) noted in Tef. 171; Muh. Mel. 76, 7 (margin); Qutb 99, etc. Xak. xı kirit al-mifteh ‘key’. This word is near (qariba) to the Ar. because (‘key’) is iqlid in Ar. and the -q- was changed to -k-, the -l- to -r-, and the -d to -t after the i- had been elided Kaš. I 357.

VU?F körüd (for practical purposes) Hap. leg.; the word used for ‘the planet Mars’ in Xak. xı KB 133 and, like some other names of planets used in this passage, otherwise noted only in a passage in Rbğ. directly copied fr. KB. Unlike sevit ‘Venus’, q.v., which has a possible Turkish etymology, but was prob. invented by the author, this word with its final -d looks un-Turkish and may be a l.-w.

kertü: (? kertö:) (true; truthful; loyal; truth)true; truthful; loyal; truth’, and the like. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. kertitrue; truth’ R II 1103; Kow. 216. Türkü vııı ff. Man. kertü teŋri ‘the true God’ Chuas. 18; a.o.o.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 26, 14 (aglağ): Man. kertü teŋri M II 5, 15: Bud. kertü is commonest in the phr. čın kertü TT VIII A. 16 (kertö) etc. (čın); köni kertü nom ‘the upright true doctrine’ TT X 369, 557; maga kertü sakınıp ‘thinking me reliable’ U III 68, 27; a.o.o.: Xak. xı kertü: al-yamîn ‘an oath’; kertü: mawtfi'u’l--sidq ‘the place of truth’; hence one says of a dead man ol k^rtü: ye:rde: ol ‘he is in the place of truth where it is not permissible to lie’; hence one says ol tegrhke: kerttindi: (sic) ‘he believed in (amana) God, and held his \\ Prophet to be truthful’ (faddaqa rasülahu) Kaš. I4le: KB kereklig kereksizni kirtü sorup ‘asking for the truth about what is necessary and unnecessary’ 368: xıı (?) At. kerekmii kereksizmU kirtü bilip 368; Tef. kertü ‘true; certain’ 174: Xwar. xııı kertü ‘true; honest’ 'Ali 53: xıv kirtü/kirti ‘true, truthful’ Qutb 9e: Kom. xıv ‘true’ kerti/kirti CCI, CCG; Gr. 140 (quotns.): Kip. al-fidq ‘truth’ (opposite to ‘lie’ ötrü:k/yala:n) kirti: Hou. 27, 4; fadaqa ‘to speak the truthkirti: ayit- rfo. 36, 5; a.o. do. 18, 3 (egllk): xıv kirtu: ffidiq; no V. is formed from this; if you wish to say šadaqa you say kirtü: sözle -Id. 80; kirtu söz šediq do. 81: xv šidq kerti (sic; and other words) Tuh. 22a. 12; šadaqa kerti ayıt- 22b. e: Osm. xıv to xvı kirtti ‘true, loyal’; in several texts TTS I 472; II 645; 7^525.

Dis. V. GRD-

kirtüč (envious)envious’ and the like; pec. to Xak. Xak. xı kirtüč kiši: ‘a man who is envious and ill-natured’ (hasiid šarisıi l-xulq) Kaš. I 455: KB kiši kılkı kirtüč ‘man’s character is (naturally) envious’ 194.

D kertük (notch, notched) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. kert- (notch, gash, carve) (carve); ‘notch, notched’, and the like; often used for the notch in a tally. S.i.a.m.l.g. See ketük. Xak. xı kertük ‘a notch (al-hazz) in wood’; one says kertük kemrük ‘notches and furrows’ (huzüz wa axadid); kertük (MS. kertik) ‘the notch’ which is cut in a wooden (tally) for counting loaves of bread and the like Kaš. I 478: Kip. xıv kertük ‘the position of a notch’ (mawdi'u'l--hazz) td. 81 : xv muhazzaz ‘notched’ kertik Tuh. 34b. it; 48b. 11.

VU kürtük ‘snowdrift, deep snow’, and the like. First vowel uncertain; survives as NE Tel. körtük R II 1265; Khak. körtik; Tuv. xörtük; but NC Kır. kürtük/kürtkü: NW Nog. kürtik. There seems alsb to be a shorter form kürt in NE Küer., Šor: SE Tar.: NW Kaz. R II 1461 and Kumyk. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. only in the phr. 00 kürtük U III 29, 35 etc. (3 00).

D kirtgünč Dev. N./A. fr. kirtgün-; ‘belief, faith; believing’. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (we worship you) yüz yüzegütin berü kirtgünčln ‘with faith in all our limbs’ TT III 5: Bud. kirtgünč on törlüg yörüglüg bolur ‘there are ten interpretations of faith’ TT V 20, 1; o.o. do. 22, 30 (uğuŋ; 26, 105-6 (1 teg); kirtgünč kirtgünser ‘if he believes’ (in false rules) TT VI 56-7 (and VIII 0.2) — kirtgünč kögülin ‘with a believing mind’ TT VII 40, 28; o.o. do. 40, 8 and 117; U I 31, 16; Suv. 137, 16 (kögüllüg); Kuan. 51.

?S kortle: ‘beautiful’; perhaps a Sec. f. of the syn. word körkle:, q.v. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A körtle körk ‘beautiful form’, sometimes with additional epithets M I 10, 6; 11, 4; 24, 4; körtle tatığlığ nomi 'his beautiful sweet doctrine’ Man.-uig. Frag. 400, title: Man. körtle tüzün teŋrim ‘my beautiful, good God’ M II 8, 16-17 (ı); a.o. \\ do. 8, 7 (1 ka:š): Bud. körtle ög körk ‘beautiful colours and forms’ TT VI 151; körtle un ’a beautiful boy’ Usp. 97, 11-12; o.o. TT X 550 (2 tag) etc.; a component in feminine P.N.s Pfahl. 10, 12, etc.: O. Kır. ıx ff. Mai. 10, 5 (urugu:).

VUD kirdeš (cohabitant) Hap. leg.; N. of Assn. fr. *kir or *kir which can hardly be ki:r above. The resemblance to Mong. ger ‘house’ (Haenisch 49) is prob. a mere coincidence. Xak. xı kirdeš ‘a neighbour (car) who lives with you in the same house’ (fi der wShida) Kaš. I 461.

Dis. V. GRD-

D kerit- (g-) (dog bark) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of ker- in its peculiar Karluk meaning. Karluk xı ol ltin keritti: anbaha kalbahu ‘he made his dog bark’ Kaš. II 305 (keritü:r, keritme:k).

D küret- Caus. f. of küre:-; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol amg kulın küretti: ‘he incited his (someone else’s) slave to run away’ ('aid’l-ibaq) Kaš. II 305 (küretü:r, küretme:k): KB 6536 (1 arkun; this verse occurs only in the Cairo MS., where the -e- is quite clear, but the Object of the V. is a horse, and this might belong to kürit-).

VUD kürit- Caus. f. of küri:-; survives as küret- in most of the same languages as küri:-; the MS. of Kaš. has küret- everywhere, which raises a doubt about the original form. Xak. xı ol agar ka:r küritti: ‘he urged him to shovel ('aid kash) snow’ (etc.) Kaš. II 305 (küritü:r, küritme:k, see above): KB 6536 (? , see küret-).

D kirtgün- (believe) ‘to believe (something Acc.); to believe in (something Dat.)\ Morphologically obscure; clearly cognate to kirtu:. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. kirtü erklig küčlüg teŋri tipen kirtkünmedimiz erser ‘if we have not believed that he is a true, powerful, strong God' Chuas. 18-20; kirtkün-medin ‘through unbelief’ do. 134; (of the four ‘seals’) ekinti kirtkünmek ‘the second is faith’ do. 180; o.o. do. 71; TT II10, 85: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. üč ertinike čaxšapatka kirtgünür ‘he believes in the three jewels and the commandments’ TT V 22, 37-8; kirtgünzün bu savağ ‘let him believe these words’ TT X 467; o.o. do. 478; VI 57 (kirtgünč); USp. 102b. 27 (man-); Kuan. 80: Xak. xı kul teŋri:ke: kirtgündi: ‘the servant acknowledged (qarra) the oneness of God and held His prophets to be truthful’ (jaddaqa ruslahu); also used when he acknowledged what he had said or done (qarra bi-ma qala aw fa'aid) Kaš. III 423 (kirtgünü:r, kertgünme:k); teg-ri:ke: kirtgün ‘believe (emin) in God’ do. 423, 24; a.o. / 416 (kirtü:; kertündi: here is prob. a later alteration and not the author’s original text): xııı (?) Tef. kir tün- ‘to believe; to believe in (w. Dat.)’ 174 (the text also contains kirti:kn-, perhaps a muddle of kirtgin-, and once kirtil-, prob. an error for kirtün-): Xwar. xııı kertün- ‘to believe’ 'Ali53: Osm. \\ xıv and xv kertin- ‘to believe, rely on’ in four texts TTS I 471; III 460; IV 524.

D körtgür- (g-) (show) ‘to show’; Caus. f. of kör- (see, look, obey, experience) w. euphonic -t- inserted. It and the shortened form körgür- are n.o.a.b. A new word körgüz-, which can be regarded as a Sec. f. of this word, appeared in the medieval period; the early occurrences are listed below. Another new word görset-, which is morphologically, but hardly semantically, a Caus. f. of körse:-, is first noted in Osm. xıv and xv, three texts TTS II 456; III 312; IV 357. The other early Caus. f.s of kör- (see, look, obey, experience) are körttir- and körgit-, q.v. There is a remarkable variety of modern forms, some languages having two or three. Usually these are completely syn., but, for example, in SE Türki körgüz- means ‘to help to see’ (e.g. with the help of glasses) and körset- ‘to show’, and in SW Az. kördür-means ‘to order (someone) to see to, i.e. do (something)’ and koster- (a metathesis of körset- ?) ‘to show, demonstrate’. The modern forms, nearly all meaning ‘to show’, are as follows: NE Alt., Leb., Sag., Šor, Tel. körgüs-; Küer. körkös- R II 1262; Kač., Koib., Sag. körtüs-; Šor körtös- 1265; Khak. kördür-/körgis-; Tuv. körgüz-: SE Tar. körket- 1260; körgüz- 1262; körset- 1265; Türki körgüz-/körset-: NC Kır. kördür-/körgöz-/körsöt-; Kzx. körgiz-/ korset-: SC Uzb. kürgaz-/kürsat-: NW Kar. T. körgüz- R II 1262; Kaz. kürset-; Kk., Nog. körset-; Kumyk görset-: SW Az. kördür-/köster-; Osm. görgüz- (Red.; obsolete)/göster-; Tknı. gördür-/görkez-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M III 26, n (i) (odğur-ati:); 39. 1-3 (») (adınčığ): Bud. körtgür- occurs nearly 50 times in Kuan. esp. in such phr. as (Kuan-ši-im Pusar) burxanlar körkin körtgürür ‘shows the forms of the Buddhas’ (to those mortals) 103-4; *nur places it is mis-spelt kötgür- and in UII19, 11 (which is Kuan. 128) körgür-; a.o. TT VI 237: (Xak.?) xıv Muh. (?) areni'1-šay ‘he showed me the thing’ gö:rgüzdi: Rif. 103 (only): Xwar. xııı (?) men saga bašlap yolm körgürürmen ‘I will lead you and show you the wav' Oğ. 221-2: xıv körgez-/körgüz- ‘to show’ Qutb 101; AIN 429: Kom. xıv ‘to show’ körgüz- CCI, CCG; Gr. 154 (quotns.): Kip. xıv körgüz- are ğayrahu ‘to show someone (something)’; one also says kördür-, this is the original form (al-asl); one also says köster-meaning are Id. 81; are koster- Bul. 27V.:xv are körset-/körgez- (in margin körgüz-) Tuh. 6b. 2.

D kertil- (notched, gashed, carved) Pass. f. of kert- (notch, gash, carve) (carve); ‘to be notched, gashed’, etc. S.i.m.m.I.g. Xak. xı yığa:č kertildi: ‘the piece of wood (etc.) was notched’ (huzza); and one says kul boynı: kertildi: ‘the slave was humiliated’ (dullila); derived fr. al-hazz but an expression for al-tadlll Kaš. II 236 (kertilü:r, kertilme:k); a.o. / 160, e: (Kip. xv inqasafa 'to be broken, split’ kertin- (sic) Tuh. 6a. 8).

S kertün- See kertgün-.\\\

D kertür- (g-) Caus. f. of ker-; n.o.a.b.? Xak. xı ol amŋ to:nın künke: kertürdi: ‘he ordered that his (someone else’s) garment should be spread out (bi-madd) in the sun’; similarly one says ol yı:p kertürdi: ‘he had the cord stretched out’ (amadda) Kaš. II 194 (kertürür, kertürme:k): Kom. xıv Jesus Christus bitik tilinčc tatarča kutkardačı ol kertirer barča elni kutkardačı ‘ “Jesus Christ” in the language of the scriptures is “saviour” in Tatar; it means (or comprises, or covers ?) “the saviour of all people” ’ CCG; Gr. (presumably the same word ; there is no obvious alternative).

D kirtür- (g-) Caus. f. of kir- (enter); survives in SW Az. kirdir-; Osm. girdir-; Tkm. gi:rdür- (and gi:riz-). Some other languages have kirgiz-/kirgüz- R II 1361, etc. Xak. xı ol anı: evke: kirtürdi: ‘he ordered that he should be admitted (or brought in, bi-idxelihi) to the house’ (etc.) Kaš. II 195 (kirtürür, kirtürme:k): (xııı (?) Tef. kirgüz- ‘to be brought in’ 180).

D körtür- (g-) Caus. f. of kör- (see, look, obey, experience); see körtgür- (g-) (show). Xak. xı ol agar ne:t) körtürdi: ‘he \\ urged him to see ('ale ru'ya) the thing’ Kaš. II 194 (körtürür, körtürme:k): xııı (?) Tef. körter- (sic, perhaps a mistranscription) ‘to show’ 186 (a second körter- ‘to erect’ (ya'nt hine kıl-) is either an error or mistranscription of kötür- (}kö:tür-) which also occurs in Tef.): Kip. xıv Id. 81 (körtgür-).

D kertiš- (notch, gash, carve) (carve) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of kert- (notch, gash, carve) (carve), Xak. xı ol mača: yığa:č kertlšdi: ‘he helped me to notch (/? hazz) the piece of wood’ (etc.); also used for competing Kaš. II 222 (kertišü:r, kertišme:k).

Tris. GRD

D kertgünčlüg P.N./A. fr. kirtgünč; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. iki yaruk orduka k^rtgünčlüg "believing in the two palaces of light’ M I 29, 9-11; a.o. do. 30, 2-3 (bek): Bud. Sanskrit sraddhe ‘bv faith’ kirtgönčlög (sic) TT VIII A.33; k^rtgünčlüg elig ‘the hand of faith’ V 24, 53; o.o. do. 55-7.

D kirtgünčsüz Priv. N./A. fr. kirtgünč; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kirtgünčsüz töz üze bulğanmıš ‘troubled by the root of unbelief’ TT V 26, ror.

DF kiritlig (locked) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. kirit. Xak. xı kiritlig kapuğ ‘a locked (muglaq) door’ Kaš. I 506.

DF kiritlik A.N. (Coııc. N.) fr. kirit; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı kiritlik al-ğalaq ‘a lock’ Kaš. I 506; o.o. I 72 (enük); I 306 (ösügle:-).

Tris. V. GRD-

D ke:rtgünse:- Hap. leg. in a para, on the Desid. f.; Desid. f. of kkrtgün-, Xak. xı ol teıjrhke: ke:rtgünse:di: (misvocalized -gin-) ‘he resolved to acknowledge (qasada an yuqirŋ the oneness of God’ Kaš. I 280, 25; n.m.e.

Dis. GRG

DF kiritle:- Den. V. fr. kirit; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol kapuğ kiritle:di: 'he locked (aglaqa) the door’ Kaš. III 330 (kirltle:r, klritle:me:k); o.o. 345, 1; 348, 22 (grammatical examples).

D kertü:le:- Den. V. fr. kertü: (true; truthful; loyal; truth); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol anı: kertü:le:di: šaddaqahu ft me qala ‘he believed what he said’ Kaš. III 352 (kertü:le:r, kertü:Ie:me:k): Kom. xıv ‘truly, sincerely’ kertilep CCI; kertlep CCG; Gr. 140 (quotn.): Kip. xıv (after kertu: q.v. where it says that no V. comes from it, and that ‘to speak the truth’ is kirtü sözle-) tva'l-muštaq minhu kirtüledi: ay cadda fi'l-amr ?‘theV. compounded fr. it is kirtüle- meaning “to be serious (or truthful ?) about matters” ’ Jd. 80.

Mon. G(Q)RG

D körk (g-) (appearance, visible; shape, form, beauty, loveliness, notable) Dev. N. fr. kör- (see, look, obey, experience); basically ‘something visible; shape, form’, and the like; but by xı ‘something worth seeing’, hence ‘beauty’ in an abstract sense. Survives only (?) in NE Tel. körkö R II 1261: SC Uzb. kürk; NW Kk. körik; Nog. körk; SW Tkm. görk. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A körk, generally qualified by ‘lovely, light’, etc. is used for ‘the form, shape’ of God which the worshipper longs to see MI 10, 7; 11, 5; 24, 24; a.o. do. 25, 29-30 (berjiz): Man. TT III 81 (kanınčsız); a.o.o.: Bud. körk is common, esp. in Kuan., and usually represents Sanskrit rüpa ‘form’, e.g. Sanskrit rüpa körk megiz TT VIII D.27; vapuše ‘by beautykörk megiz üze: do. 37; o.o. Kuan. 103-4 (körtgür-); ög körk has much the same meaning TT VI 151 (körtle:); Suv. 164, 20 (2 ög): Xak. xı körk al-husn wa’l-camel ‘beauty, loveliness’ Kaš. I 353; ya:y körkige: inanma: ‘do not rely on the beauty (al-zahra) of spring’ III 161, 1: KB körk, specifically ‘the beauty’ of a person or thing, is fairly common; kačan körki kelgey begi tirgisi ‘how will his master’s table look nice?’ 2861; körk megiz 97, 733, 1116; o.o. 64 (i:t-), 91, 272, etc.: xııı (?) At. eren körki 'aql ol ‘intellect is the beauty of man’ 91: xıv Rbğ. učmakdakı hurlar körkin ‘the beauty of the houris in paradise’ R II 1259; Muh. al-husn ıva'l-camel gö:rg (so spelt) Mel. 46, 9; Rif. 140: Čağ. xv ff. görg (‘with g- -g’) husn Vel. 366; görk (spelt) husn tva carnal wa numttd ('appearance’) Satt. 30$r. 28 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv körkbeauty’ Qutb 103: MN 56, etc.; Nahc. 319, 8: Kom. xıv ditto CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı (and) körk al-hušn ıva'l-camel Hou. 19, 12 (after kürk): xıv körk al-ltusn Id. 80.

kürk (fur) ‘fur’; survives only (?) in SW Osm. kürk. See Doerfer III 1628. Xak. xı kürk al-farzv ‘fur’ Kaš. I 353: xıv Muh.(?) al-farzva (İčmek; in the margin of one MS.) kü:rk Mel. 67, 5: Čağ. xv ff. kürk (spelt) (1) ‘the warm wool (pašm-i natmŋ which grows at the base of long hair’; also called teftik; (2) piistin ‘a fur coat’ San. 305^ 2e: Kip. xııı al-farwa kürk Hou. 19, 12: xıv kürk (VU) al-kiböšiya ‘ram’s skin’ (?); kürk al-farw Id. 80: xv farzva kibešiya kürk Tuh. 27b. 12.

Dis. GRG

S kerek See kergek.

D kerük (g-) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. ker-; lit. ‘stretched out’, hence ‘broad, long’. Survives only in NC xix Kzx. kirik (of journey) ‘long’ R II 1096 (not in the xx dicts.). In Kaš. the word, although vocalized ke:rik, rhymes with sevük, nelük, be:dük and must originally have been kerük which is morphologically correct. Xak. xı in a verse containing several corruptions translated ‘my friend, how did you get to us and cross the long deserts (al-mafewiza'l-madida) and’ ya:zı: kerük (MS. balzi: ke:rik) ‘high mountains', Kaš. I 94, 3; n.m.e.

D küreg (fugitive, runaway) Hap. leg.; Dev. N./A. fr. küre:-; ‘fugitive, runaway (slave, etc.)’. Xak. xı KB 1118 (küre:-).

S kürek See kürgek.

D körüg (g-) (observer, spy) Dev. N. fr. kör- (see, look, obey, experience); ‘observer, spy’. Pec. to Türkü?. Türkü vııı Oğuzdan-tan körüg kelti: ‘a spy came from the Oğuz’ T 8; o.o. T 9, 29, 33; in each case a phr. like ‘their report (sav) was so- and-so’ follows.

?D körük (bellows) ‘bellows’; this might be a Dev. N. (N.I.), but the only authority for körü- ‘to blow with the bellows’ is Red. 1589 and this may be merely a back-formation. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SC; SW Tkm. kö:rük (prob. a false long vowel). The only meaning of körük in Vel. and the second meaning in San. is ‘a hen which has stopped laying’; this meaning survives in SW Tkm. kürk; in San. 305r. 26 it is said that the word, prob. kürk/kürük, is described as Persian in the Burhen-i Qati'; this is prob. correct; it does not seem to be Turkish. Xak. xı körük al-himlüc wa min-faxu’l-haddad ‘a blacksmith’s bellows’ (Hend.) Kaš. I 391: xııı (?) Tef. ditto 18e: xıv Muh. tninfax gö:rük Mel. 61, 10; kö:rük Rif. 160: Čağ. xv ff. körük (spelt) (1) dam-i haddedi ‘a blacksmith’s bellows’ San. 305V. 21: Kom. xıv ‘bellows’ körük CCI; Gr.

kerki: (adze, axe, hatchet, mattock, кирка) ‘an adze’. Survives with this meaning in SE Türki: NC Kır.; al-qaddüm has other meanings (‘axe, hatchet’), but the word prob. always meant ‘adze’. No obvious Turkish etymology, perhaps a l.-w. Xak. xı kerki: al-qaddüm Kaš. I 430: xıv Muh. (under ‘carpenters’ tools’) al-fds ‘adzekerki: Mel. 62, 2; Rif. 160: Kom. xıv ‘adzekerki CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı (after ‘carpenter’) al-qedûm (sic) kerki: Hou. 23, 15: xıv kerki: al-qaddtlm Id. 80: Osm. xvııı kerki, in Rumî, ‘a mattock (tîša) with which builders break up tiles and do other work’ Satt. 300V. 7 (Sami 1158 ‘a large axe’; not in Red.).

PU ?F körge: (cup, dish, decanter, jug, drink table) almost the only Gancak word which is not Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w., but not, like kendük, demonstrably Iranian. Survives^) in NW Krım körege ‘cup’ RII1251. Gancak xı körge: ‘a dish (al-tabaq) made of \\ wood’ Kaš. I 430: Čağ. xv ff. körge (? or körege; 'with b and -g-’) 'a table (šandalŋ on which decanters, jugs, and cups are put at a feast’; also ‘a wine decanter or jug’ (fareh zarft... belbele manesına) Vel. 367 (quotns.); körege (spelt) ‘a table (kursŋ on which jugs and wine decanters are placed’ (same quotns.); the Rümi author made a mistake in translating it ‘jug, decanter’ San. 305V. 4.

Dis. GRG

D körgü: (g-) Dev. N. fr. kör- (see, look, obey, experience) ; lit. ‘the act of seeing’ or the like. A rare word which seems to surv ive only in SW Osm. görgü ‘experience, breeding, good manners’ (fr. kör- in the sense of ‘to experience something’); Tkm. görgi/ görgü ‘pain, suffering’ (cf. the Türkü phr. 1 emge:k kör- ‘to experience suffering’). Türkü vııı (you yourselves have offended against your wise xagan...) körgü:gin üčü:n igidmiš ‘who nourished you because you looked to (i.e. obeyed) him’ I E 23, IIE 19: Xak. xı KB (I have ornamented my shop well) kiši körgüsi ‘for people to look at’ 5108: xııj (?) Tef. (he gave the greatest of them) Tše yalawačnıg körgüni ‘the appearance of the prophet Jesus’ 185.

D körkdeš Hap. leg.?; N. of Assocn. fr. körk (appearance, visible; shape, form, beauty, loveliness, notable); ‘of the same shape, a replica’. In a note on this passage, Hüen-ts., p. 25, note 156, v.G. suggests that the word actually means nir-menakaya, the first of the Buddha’s three bodies, the ‘shadow body’ which he can assume for certain purposes; this seems to be a mistake; the replicas were no doubt nirmena-keyas, but the Turkish for that word was belgürtme (q.v.) etöz. Uyğ. virr ff. Bud. (just as the Buddhas, when they have entered nirvana, by exercising their authority to ask for divine favour, in accordance with the wishes of mankind, by various distinguished rebirths) yarukluğ körkdešlerfn orun orun sayu kodu yarhkap ‘deign to place their shining replicas in all places, Suv. 64, 6 ff.

D kergek (kerge:k; g-) N./A.S. in -k fr. kerge:-; ‘necessity, necessary’. Became kerek by elision of the -g- at an unusually early date. C.i.a.p.a.i.; NW Kumyk; SW Osm., Tkm. gerek. Apart fr. its ordinary meanings, it is used in various idioms including (1) as a sort of Aux. V. meaning ‘must’ after (a) the Infin.; (b) Participles in -mıš/-miš and -ğu:/-gü:, and later (c) the Conditional; (2) kerek... kerek ‘either... or’, in which the original meaning has completely evaporated; (3) for ‘stint’, cf. kerge:-, kergeksiz. Türkü vııı occurs only in the phr. kergek bul- ‘to meet one’s fate, die’ IE4, 30; IN 10; Ix. 23 (uvul-): vııı ff. Alan, tutmak kergek erti ‘it was necessary to keep’ (the commandments) Chuas. 195; a.o.o. — (if we have committed various sins and not prayed properly) neče egsüg kergek bolti erser ‘if various deficiencies and stintings have arisen’ do. 289-90: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A turmıš kergek erür ‘we must stand’ M124, 3: Man. muni bilmiš kergek ‘one must know this’ TT II 16, 24-5: Bud. İnče: bilmiš ke:rge:k (sic) TT VIII O.9 ( VI 66, in Uyğ. script usually spelt krgek); common in this usage and such usages as küč kergek ‘strength is necessary’ TT V 22, 26; ne kergekin barča birgeybiz ‘we will give everything that is necessary’ PP 22, 3-4: Civ. yimiš ke:re:k ‘one must eat’ TT VIII 1.19, a.o.o. with kere:k/ke:re:k; -mıš/-miš kergek is common in TT VII and kerek occurs once; in LJSp. kergek is common, usually in such phr. as maga... bor kergek bolup ‘since I needed wine’ r, 2: Xak. xı kerek a Particle (.harf) meaning ‘it is necessary’ (yanbağŋ; it is the answer to anyone who says kerekmü: ‘is it necessary?’; one says kerek ‘yes’ (balŋ Kaš. I 391; ta:šığ isru:masa: öpmiš kere:k (sic) 'if a man cannot bite a stone he must kiss it’ (fal-yuqabbilulm) I 163, 19; a.o.o. in both spellings: KB kerek sözni sözler kiši ‘a man who says what is necessary’ 185; ajun tutğuka er ukušluğ kerek ‘a man who controls the world needs intelligent men (to serve him)’ 217; a.o.o. — kerek erdl sen me muni uksa sen ‘you too had to understand this’ 658 — kerek... kerek ‘either... or’ 212, 235, etc.; kerek ... ye ditto 3609: xııı (?) At. kerek ‘is necessary’ is common — kerek... kerek 474; Tef. nerse kereklni ‘everything necessary’; bergü kerek ‘one must give’ 173: Čağ. xv ff. kirek beyad ‘it is necessary’ San. 313V. 3: Xwar. xııı kerek-mez ‘it is not necessary’ 'AH 27: xııı (?) bolsam kerek turur ‘I must become’ Oğ. 108; balukm (sic) katağlağu (sic?) kerek turur ‘you must hold the town firmly’ do. 177: xıv kerek common; kerekmez kim ‘it is not necessary that’ Qutb 94: MN 118, 220; kerekmez iš ‘something you should not do’ Nahc. 16, 2: Kom. xıv ‘necessary’ kerek CCI, CCG; Gr. 139 (quotns.): Kip. xıv kerek ‘need’ (al-heca) or the like; one says ne kerek ‘what is your need that is ‘what do you want?’, it is equivalent to me de turid td. 80:xv heca kerek Tuh. 13b. 2; muhtec ‘needed’ kerek do. 90b. 3: Osm. xıv ff. gerek ‘must’, with Future or Conditional; gerek ‘necessary’; gerek... gerek ‘either...or’; gerekmez ‘must not’ (entered under a V. gerekmek, but this is an error, the word is a crasis of gerek imez) TT S I 304; II 428; 111 289; IV 334.

D kergük (g-) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. ker-; lit. ‘something stretched out’. Xak. xı kergük šay fi kirši’l-šet ma'a'l-faht ka'I-faht 'a thing like the paunch in the belly of a sheep beside the paunch’ Kaš. II 289.

D kürge:k abbreviated Dev. N. (N.I.) fr. küri:-. S.i.a.m.l.g. as kürek or the like for ‘spade, shovel’; the second meaning ‘oar’ survives only in SW Az., Osm., Tkm. In other languages ‘oar’ is (2) ešgek or, occasionally, kalak, neither of them old words. Xak. xı kürge:k micraftil-sufun tva mishet kull šay’ ‘a boat oar; a shovel of any sort’ Kaš. II 289:xiv Rbğ. (God created Adam) yağız yer kürekidin ‘from a shovelful of brown earth’ R II 1449: Čağ. xv ff. kUrek (spelt) (1) pürü \\ ‘shovel; oar’; (2) ustuxwen-i šetta ‘shoulder-blade’; (3) güza-i panba ‘a cotton pod’ San. 305r. 25: Kom. xıv ‘shovel’ kürek CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı (after ‘boat’) al-micdef ‘oar’ kürek (unvocalized) Hou. 7, 7; al-latvhu'Uadi yudar-ru'1-ğalla ‘the scoop with which seed is scattered’ kürek (ditto) do. 9, 12: xıv kürek al-micrafa td. 80: xv lawh kürek (etc.) Tuh. 31b. 8; miqdaf ‘scoop’ (išgik; in margin) kürek do. 33b. 6.

Dis. V. GRG-

?D körkle: (beautiful) ‘beautiful’; prima facie a Den. N./A. fr. körk (appearance, visible; shape, form, beauty, loveliness, notable), but there is no other trace of a Den. Suff. -le:, and the existence of a syn. word körtle: suggests that both may be representations of some foreign word and the semantic connection w. körk a coincidence. Pec. to Uyg. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 81 (kanınčsız): Bud. tört körkle kırkın ‘four beautiful maidens’ PP 42, 2; a.o. do. 8 (2 tag); o.o. TT V 12, 123 (of a place); do. 127 (of a boy); Kuan. 76, 77; Suv. 92, 19; 349, 2; 646, 2 (of a sound).

D körklüg (g-) (beautiful) P.N./A. fr. körk (appearance, visible; shape, form, beauty, loveliness, notable); basically ‘having the shape of’, a meaning still current in Uyğ., but normally ‘having a beautiful shape, beautiful’. Survives in this sense in NE Tel. körkölö R II 126 u NW Kar. L. körklü do.; Kk. körikli: SW Tkm. görkll/ görklü. Distinct fr. körüklüg. Uyğ.vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 410-11 (itiglig); U III 57, 6 (i) (osuğluğ): Civ. bir körklüg megizlig un oğul kelürgey ‘she will bear a beautiful handsome boy’ TT VII 26, 17-18: Xak. xı kö:rklü:g tonu:ğ ‘a beautiful (hasan) garment’ Kaš. I 45, 19; körklü:g kiši:ke: (? read kİ8İ:ke:) ile’l-šabihati'l-maliha ‘for a handsome beautiful woman’ I 319, 18; (after körk) hence one says körklüg al-camil ‘beautiful

I 353, 20; o.o. I 461, 1 (hasan); III 43, 19 (talq ‘an open’ (face)); n.m.e.: KB yüzi körklüg erdi ‘his face was beautiful’ 464; o.o. 675, 1079 (of a day), 2468 (kuba:): xııı (?) At. körmekke körklüg tašı ‘ (the world’s) exterior is beautiful to see’ 217; o.o. 317-18; Tef. körklüg/körklü ‘beautiful’ 18e: xıv Muh. al-camîl gö:rglüg Mel. 46, 9; Rif. 140; al-malih (opposite to ‘ugly’ görksi:z) görüklüg 54, 41 153; al-hasan görglüg 151; Rbğ. körklüg saraylar ‘the beautiful palaces’ RII1261: Čağ. xv ff. körklüg husnder ‘beautiful’ Vel. 366 (quotn.); görklüg (spelt) camii tva sehib-i husn San. 305v. 11 (same quotn.): Xwar. xııı körklürek ‘the most beautiful’ 'Ali 19; körklü do. 35: xııı (?) yaxšı körüklüg bir kız ‘a very beautiful girl’ Oğ. 56-7; o.o. do. 60, 77: xıv körklüg/körklü/körkli Qutb 102; körklüg MN 51, etc.; Nahc. 439, 10: Kom. xıv ‘beautiful’ körklü CCI; körkli CCG; Gr. : Kip. xıv körklü: dü husn td. 80:xv körükli (sic) ahsan Tuh. 59b. 13; hasan do. 79a. 8; 84b. 12: Osm. xıv to xvı görklü ‘beautiful’; common TTS I $26; II 455; III 311; IV 357. !

F kürküm ‘saffron’, supposedly e corruption of Sanskrit kunkuma, but found also in Pe. and Ar., and perhaps the Ionian form of that word. \\ In SW Osm. prob. a direct borrowing fr. Pe. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kürküm in several prescriptions H I 67, 94; II 6, 15: Xak. xı kürküm al-za'farön ‘saffron’; this word agrees with Ar. because the Arabs, too, call it kurkum Kaš. I 486.

D kirgin (g-) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. fr. kir- (enter). Xak. xı kirgin qatmu l-fahl ‘the rutting of a stallion’; and one says buğra: kirgini: kirdi: daxala qatmu'l-fahl ‘the rutting (season) of camel stallions came in’ Kaš. I 443.

D körksüz (g-) Priv. N./A. fr. körk (appearance, visible; shape, form, beauty, loveliness, notable); ‘ugly’. Survives in SC Uzb. körksiz: NW Kk. köriksiz: SW Tkm. görksüz. Uyğ.vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 443 (anığ); 460 (belgü:süz); U III 43, 25 (‘ugliness’): Xak. xı KB körksüz sögüš ‘ugly curses’ 260; kerek erse körklüg ye körksüz ‘whether she is pretty or ugly’ 3609: xııı (?) At. buxul körksüzü ‘meanness is an ugliness’ (of characteŋ 250; Tef. körksüz ‘ugly’ (deed) 18e: xıv Muh. al-ıvahš ‘savage’ (opposite to ‘pretty’ gö:rglüg) gö:rksi:z Mel. 46, 11; Rif. 140, 153; al-qabih ‘ugly’ (ditto) görksi:z 54, 5; 151: Kom. xıv ‘ugly, ugliness’ körksüz/körküsüz CCI, Gr.

Dis. V. GRG-

D kirik- Intrans. Den. V. fr. ki:r. Survives only (?) in NC Kzx. R II 1357. Xak. xı to:n kirikti: ‘the garment (etc.) was soiled’ (darina) Kaš. II 117 (kirike:r, kirikme:k); o.o. do. ii9. 5! 165, 12.

kerge:- the base of kergek, which is so common, but n.o.a.b, There is no trace of a Sec. f. kere:-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (if we have committed various sins... and) neče egsütümüz kergetimiz erser ‘if we have been deficient or stinted (?)’ Chuas. 202-3; 332-3 (it is possible that this should be read kerget (t)lmiz): Xak. xı (whoever accumulates wealth) beglik agar kergeyü:r fa-hutva atvla bi'1-intera min ğayrihi ‘he is more worthy of the chieftainship than the others’ Kaš. I 362, 24; n.m.e.

D körke:d- (g-) (beautiful) Intrans. Den. V. fr. körk (appearance, visible; shape, form, beauty, loveliness, notable); ‘to be beautiful’. N.o.a.b.; not to be confused with körgit-, Xak. xı kı:z körketti: ‘the girl had a pretty face and complexion’ (hasuna tvachul--ceriya tva lawnuha); originally körke:dti: but assimilated (fa-udğima) Kaš. II 340 (körketü:r, körketme:k; here mis-spelt korkut-, but an error for körke:dü:r, körke:dme:k): Čağ. xv ff. görke- (-di, ‘with g- -k-’)/ görket- (-ip)/görkey- (-ip) güzel ol- ve güzel eyle- ‘to be, or make, beautiful’ Vel. 366 (quotn.); körkey- (spelt) camii tva šehib-i husn šudan ‘to be beautiful’ San. 305^ 2 (quotns., pointing out that Vel.'s spelling görket- is an error): Xwar. xıv körket- (spelt ko:rke:t-) meaning rather obscure; Zaj. translates ‘to make beautiful’, but it might belong to körgit- Qutb 103.

D körgit- (-g-) ‘to show’; Caus. f. of kör- (see, look, obey, experience), but there does not seem to be any other example of a Caus. Suff. -git-. The sporadic \\ spellings -güt- in Xak. prob. represent a See. f. N.o.a.b., see körtgür- (g-) (show), Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 56 (köprüg), 58 (1 a:ğ-; both spelt körkit-, ? in error): Bud. bu darnını körgit-deči 'displayine this dherani' U II 38, 69; körüm körgitmek ‘to demonstrate (the meaning of) omens’ Hüen-ts. 7; o.o. Suv. 136, 5 (1 erig); Pfahl. 23, 25; USp. 59, 11; one MS. of Kıtan, consistently reads körgit-where the others read körtgür-: Xak. xı ol maga: ne:ı> körgütti: ‘he showed me (arenŋ the thing’ Kaš. II 340 (körgütü:r, körgüt-inerk): KB körgit olarnıŋ yüzin ‘show their faces’ 32; o.o. 48, 659, 661-3, 7i6, 3540, 3567 (the MS. spellings vary between körgüt- and körgit-): x 111 (?) Tef. körgüt- (once körget- ?) ‘to show’ 185.

Dis. V. GRG-

D körkle:- (g-) (beautiful) Hap. leg. ?; Den. V. fr. körk (appearance, visible; shape, form, beauty, loveliness, notable). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. yağız yer yüzi yašardı körkledi ‘the surface of the brown earth became green and beautiful’ TT I 4.

S körgür- See körtgür- (g-) (show).

S körgüz- See körtgür-.

Tris. GRG

kererkü: (dome, bender) ‘the lattice-work wooden frame’, which supports the felt covering of a yurt. Survives as kerege in NE Alt., Tel. RII1290: NC Kır., Kzx.: NW Kk. See Doerfer III 1629. Türkü vııı ff. kererkü: iči: ne:teg ‘how is the inside of the tent framework?’ IrkB 18: Uyğ. vııı ff. Mnn. (a man who sweeps out, cleans, arranges, and puts in ordeŋ evig barkığ kereküg ‘a dwelling, the furniture, and the tent framework’ Wind. 34: Xak. xı kere:kü: ‘a tent’ (.viba) among the Türkmen; it is the winter residence of the town dwellers (ahhil--madar) Kaš. I 447 (prov., see kük); similar prov. I 404 (keten).

D kergeklig (g-) P.N./A. fr. kergek; ‘necessary’. S.i.m.m.I.g. usually as kereklig or the like; NW Kumyk; SW Osm., Tkm. gerekli. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ertirjü kergeklig ötüg ötündüg ‘you have tendered very necessary advice’ UI 28, 3; kergeklig nom ‘a necessary doctrine’ TT VI 240: Xak. xı bu: ne:t) ol bizke: kereklig ‘this thing is necessary (mitnme yanbağı) to us’ Kaš. I 509: KB kerekligni sözler kiši kizlemez ‘when a man says what is necessary he does not hide it’ 977; o.o. 315 (ködezlig), 328 (kertü:), 1060, 1445 (tı:d-), 4400 (1 bu:t): xııı (?) At. biliglig kereklig sözüg sözleyür ‘the wise man says what is necessary’ 117: Čağ. xv ff. kereklig beyistenî ‘necessary’ San. 313V. 3: Xwar. xıv kereklig ‘necessary’ Qutb 94: Kom. xıv ‘necessary’ kerekli CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv muhtac ‘necessary’ kerekli Tuh. 32b. 12: Osm. xıv ff. gerekli/gereklü ‘necessary’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 304; II 429; IV 334.

D kergeksiz Priv. N./A. fr. kergek; normally ‘unnecessary’, but in some contexts ‘that ought not to be, improper’. S.i.s.m.l. but in some languages replaced by other phr., e.g. SW Osm. gerekmez; Tkm. gerrk del (for tegül). Türkü vııı (the Chinese envoy brought treasures, gold and silver) kergeksiz ‘without stint’ I N J2; a.o. II S 11: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M 7 9, 12 (isi:z): Bud. knmağ kišlnig emgenip kolunmaki kergeksiz ‘all men’s sufferings and prayers are unnecessary’ Hüen-ts. 231-2; a.o. TT VI 229 (ölüg): Civ. kerge:ksiz 'without stint’ (?) TT VIII L. 18: Xak. xı KB 368 (körtü:), 1445 (tıd- (? tı:d-) (obstruct, restrain)), 3767: xııı (?) At. 118 (köm- (dig, bury, cultivate)), 368 (kirtü:).

D körüklüg (g-) (seen) I’.N./A. fr. (2) *körük Dev. N. fr. kör- (see, look, obey, experience); n.o.a.b.; to be distinguished fr. körklüg. Türkü vııı ff. (among questions about parts of the tent, ‘what is the window like?’) körüklü:g ol ‘it can be seen through’ IrkB 18; (I am a falcon) körüklü:g kaya:ka: konu:pan közleyü:rmen ‘I sit on a rock with a wide view (or ‘conspicuous’ ?) and look around’ do. 64: Xwar. xıv (bring to completion) bu körüklüg iške ‘this conspicuous^) task’ (which you have begun); but körügli in such phr. as körügü köz ‘a sharp eye’ is more likely to be a Dev. N./A. in -gli: than a Sec. f. of this word Qutb 102.

D körklüglük (g-) (beauty, appearance) Hap. leg.?; A.N. fr. körklüg. Xak. xııı (?) KBPP körklüglükindin ‘because of its beauty’ 17.

D körksüzlük (g-) Hap. leg.?; A.N. fr. körksüz. Xak. xı KB bu kašım tügüki bu körksüzlüküm ‘this frown of mine and my ugly looks’ 816.

Tris. V. GRG-

D kergekle:- (g-) Den. V. fr. kergek; n.o.a.b.? Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kergeklemiš tom ašı ‘the clothing and food which he needed’ U I 26, 9: Xak. xı ol am: kerek-le:di: tafaqqadahu iva talabahu ‘he missed (i.e. felt the need for) him and looked for him’ Kaš. III 341 (kerkle:r (sic?), kerekle:me:k): KB kišig kim okisa kereklep tilep ‘one who summons a man, missing him and longing for him’ 961.

D körükle:- Den. V. fr. körük; s.i.s.m.l., including SW Osm. Xak. xı ol o:tuğ körüklenü: ‘he blew cm (nafaxa) the fire with bellows’  (bi'l-minfax) Kaš. III 341 (körükle:r, körük-le:me:k); a.o. do. 348, 21.

D kere:kü:len- Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. kere:kü:; quoted only as a grammatical example. Xak. xı and like the phr. er kere:-külendi: ‘the man put up a tent (ittaxada... xiba) for himself and entered it’ Kaš. III 205, 20; n.m.e.

D kirigse:- (g-) Desid. Den. V. fr. *kirig N.Ac. fr. kir- (enter); n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. taluyka kirigseyürmen ‘I wish to go to sea’ PP 21, 6-7: Xak. xı ol evkc: kirigse:di: ‘he wished to enter (yadxul) his dwelling’ (etc.) Kaš. III 334 (kirigse:r, kirigse:me:k).

D körügse:- Desid. Den. V. fr. körüg; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A körügseyürbiz \\ ‘we long to see’ (your lovely face) M I 10, 10: Bud. körügsep ‘wishing to see’ (the place where their son had died) Suv. 625, 4: Xak. xı ol meni: körügse:di: ‘he wished to meet me’ (yalqanŋ Kaš. III 334 (körügse:r, körügse:me:k); o.o. I 281, 8; III 285 (körse:-): Kom. xıv körüvse- ‘to wish to see’ CCG; Gr. 155 (quotn.).

Dis. GRL

D kirlig P.N./A. fr. ki:r, ‘dirty, soiled’. S.i.s.m.l. in NE, NC, SW; others tend to use ki:r itself in this sense. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. kirlig ayığ ktltnč ‘dirty sins’ TT III 13e: Bud. TT VIII E.48 (ant-); Suv. 135, 13 (arta:k).

VUD kürlig P.N./A. fr. 2 kür, ‘deceitful, tricky’; used only in the Hend. tevlig kürlig. Türkü vııı IE 6, II E e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U III 85, 16 etc.: Civ. TT I 63-4, 182 (see tevlig).

Dis. V. GRL-

D keril- (g-) (stretched) Pass. f. of ker-; ‘to be stretched’, etc. S.i.m.m.I.g.; NW Kumyk; SW Osm. geril-; Tkm. giril-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. H II 8, 39 etc. (ürül-): Xak. xı er kerildi: ‘the man yawned and stretched himself’ (tataaba (MS. tatewaba) wa imtadda); similarly one says uruk kerildi: ‘the cord (and other things like skin and hide) was stretched out’ (imtadda) Kaš. II 136 (kerilür, kerilme:k); (of brocade) kerildi: ‘was spread out’ (busifa) I 119, 5; a.o. I 523, 11: xıv Muh. (?) (in a list of illnesses, after ‘fever’) al-ra'da ‘ague, shivering fits’ kirilme:k Rif. 163 (only): Kom. xıv keril- ‘to stretch oneself; to be crucified’ CCG; Gr. 139 (quotn.): Kip. xv al-tamattut ‘to stretch oneself’ kirilmek Kav. 61, 15.

D kiril- (g-) Hap. leg.?; Pass. f. of kir- (enter); used only impersonally. Xak. xı evke: kirildi: ‘the house (etc.) was entered’ (duxila ife) Kaš. II 136 (kirilür, kirilme:k).

D körül- (g-) Pass. f. of kör- (see, look, obey, experience); ‘to be seen’, etc. S.i.m.m.l.; SW Osm., Tkm. görül-, Uyğ. vııı ff. dj-što ‘seen, looked after’ körölöp TT VIII D.20: Xak. xı körüldi: ne:g ‘the thing was seen’ (ntızira ile) Kaš. II 136 (körülür, körülme:k).

VUD kürle:- Hap. leg.?; Den. V. fr. 2 kür; ‘to be deceitful, tricky’. Türkü vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 111 (tevle:-).

D kirlen- Refl. Den. V. fr. ki:r; ‘to be dirty’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı to:n kirlendi: ‘the garment (etc.) was dirty’ (or soiled, darana); and one says kö:z kirlendi: ‘the eye was bleary’ (ğamadat) Kaš. II 252 (kirlenü:r, kirlenme:k).

D kürlen- (g-) Refl. f. of kürle:-, which survives in NE kürle- Koib. ‘to splutter’; Tob. ‘to babble’ R II 1460 (Khak. kürlen- ‘to shout at, abuse-’): SW Osm., Tkm. gürle-‘to chatter; (of lions, etc.) to roar’; (with gök) \\ 'to thunder’. Some languages use kürülde-/ gürülde- in the same sense. The w-ord seems originally to have meant simply ‘to make a loud noise’, and may be a Den. V. fr. 1 kür (courageous) in the sense of ‘to shout like a warrior in battle’. Xak. xı kö:k kürlendi: axadati'l-sama' calab ‘it thundered’ Kaš. II 252 (no Aor. or Infin.).

Tris. GRL

DF kürilik Hap. leg.; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. küri: ‘a peck measure’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U II 77, 26 etc. (küri:).

Tris. V. GRL-

E kürile:- in Atalay’s Index to Kaš. is an error for körple:-.

Dis. GRM

F kerem (culvert, underground channel) Hap. leg. (Xak.) xı al-sarab ‘an underground water channel’ in ‘the language of Upper and Lower China’ (China proper and Chinese Turkistan) Kaš. I 398; no doubt foreign, perhaps Tokharian (Agnean ?).

D kerim (g-) Hap. leg. ?; N.S.A. fr. ker-; lit. ‘a single act of spreading out’. Cf. yadım. Xak. xı kerim al-qirem (glossed munaqqaš in a second hand) ‘an embroidered curtain’; hence one says ta:m kerimi: sitru'l-cider ‘a wall covering’ Kaš. I 398.

D körüm (g-) (vision, omen) N.S.A. fr. kör- (see, look, obey, experience); lit. ‘a single act of seeing’; in the early period apparently ‘examining the omens’, or simply ‘omen’. Survives in NE Sag. körüm R II 1258; Khak. körim ‘a view (e.g. a sea view); an opinion’: NW Kar. L., T. körüm ‘a vision’ (in the night) R II 1258: SW görüm Osm. ‘a look, sight’; Tkm. ‘appearance; experience, education’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. körüm körü yar-likazun ‘let him deign to examine the omens’ Hüen-ts. 32; a.o. do. 7 (körgit-); ters körüm ‘false omens’ U II 76, 8-9 etc. (ters); TT IV 8, 74 etc. (tetrü): Civ. körüm körser ‘if one examines the omens’ TT VII 39, 1.

Tris. GRM

D körümči: (g-) (visionary) N.Ag. fr. körüm (vision, omen); ‘soothsayer’. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bu nigranti [gap] körümči ol ‘this Nirgrantha is a [?truthful] soothsayer’ Hüen-ts. 18-19; körümči yultuzčı ‘soothsayers and astrologers’ TT VI 133; o.o. do. 264 (bitkečŋ; 331 (törüči:).

D körümlüg (observed, seen (omen)) P.N./A. fr. körüm (vision, omen); n.o.a.b. In the second quotn. below it means simply ‘belonging to omens’; in the first the meaning seems to be ‘obedient, subject’, or the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (I have ventured to treat, and free from their grievous afflictions all) sizige körümlüg bodunuguzni karagizm (in your realm and country) Suv, 603, 2, prob. ‘your people and common people subject to you'; a.o. Hüen-ts. 1911-12 (čal-).

Tris. V. GRM-

D kirimsin- (g-) Hap. leg.; Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. *kirim N.S.A. fr. kir- (enter); quoted only as a grammatical example. Xak. xı ol evke: kirimsindi: ‘he pretended to enter the house’ Kaš. II 260, 29.

Dis. GRN

VU kürin (basket) Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w. Xak. xı kürin ‘a basket’ (al-šarîca) in which watermelons, cucumbers, etc. are transported Kaš. I 404.

D körünč (g-) Dev. N. fr. körün-; n.o.a.b. Etymologically it should mean ‘appearance’ or the like, but in Xak. seems to have a more active meaning. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (when I, the monk Prajnedeva, had composed a poem about the divine Buddha’s) ritlvid körünč kıiu yarlıkamıšın ‘deigning to bring about the appearance (or revelation ?) of the Rgveda’ Hüen-ts. 1831-2: Xak. xı körünč al-qawmiCl--nazšera ile šay' ‘a crowd of spectators at something’ Kaš. III 373 (MS. közünč, but the entry follows the cross-heading -R- and precedes -Z-); a.o. I 167 (a:v-).

Dis. V. GRN-

D kirin- (g-) Refl. f. of kir- (enter) ; n.o.a.b. jeak. xı er suvda: (sic) kirindi: ‘the man waded (xeda) in the water and washed himself in it’; and one says er evke: kirindi: ‘the man pretended to enter (yadxul) the house’ Kaš. II 156 (kiri-nü:r, kirinme:k); suvka: (sic) kirin ‘wash yourself’ II 160, 9.

D körün- (g-) Refl. f. of kör- (see, look, obey, experience); ‘to be visible, to appear, to let oneself be seen’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; NW Kumyk, SW Osm., Tkm. görün-, Cf. közün- (visible, appear), Xak. xı ol begke: köründi: ‘he met (laqiya) the beg and saw him’ (ra'ahu); and one says ta:ğ köründi: ‘the mountain (etc.) appeared and became visible’ (bada tea zahara); also used for anything which appears in the dark from a distance Kaš. II 157 (körünü:r, körünme:k); four o.o.: KB (I will tell the king) kayu kün körüngü 'on what date he will appear’ 510: xııı (?) At. körünmez bodi ‘his shape is not visible’ 418; Tef. körin-/körün- ‘to appear’ 185-e: xıv Muh. ~ahara gö:rün- Mel. 28, 13 (Rif. 112 belgür-): Čağ. xv ff. körün- (spelt) mar'i wa namiider šudan ‘to be seen, appear’ San. 304V. II (quotns.): Xwar. xıv körün- ‘to be visible, to appear’ Qutb 103; MN 20, etc.: Kom. xıv ditto CCI, CCG\ Gr. 155 (quotns.): Kip. xıv körün- tabayyana ‘to appear’ Id. 80; Bul. 37V.; leha ıva bena wa raıve ditto körün- do. 79V. (and see közün- (visible, appear)).

Tris. GRN

D körünčlük (g-) (pageant, зрелище (state chariot)) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. körünč. Hap. leg.; the passage is discussed in TT I, p. 23, note 124 and the conclusion reached that the word means ‘an instrument for making appearances’, that is ‘a state chariot’ or the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Br[ahma]dati illgnip körünčlüki kayu erki ‘which do you suppose is King Brahmadatta’s state chariot?’ U II 22, 3-4; and see ona:.

E kerinčsiz See tüzgerinčsiz.

Tris. V. GRN-

D körünčle:- (g-) Den. V. fr. körünč; ‘to display, make a show of (something)’; cf. körünčlük. N.o.a.b. Uyğ- vııı ff. Bud. (the princely suitors) öz öz körünčlegülük [gap] ‘in order to display themselves’ U II 22, 25: Civ. olurup körünčlegil inčge yügürük atlarığ ‘sit down and display the slim swift horses’ TT I 124-5.

D köründür- (g-) Caus. f. of körün-; ‘to cause to appear’. Survives in NE Tel. R II 1256. Xak. xı KB (po and summon him to me) tapuğka köründür ‘make him appear for service (to me)' 573.

Mon. V. GRS-

VU kürs- Hap. leg.; listed as a Mon. V. ending in two consonants. The reference to sa:- is incomprehensible unless it is intended to be to the Desid. V. Suff. -sa:-/-se:-, with the implication that the word is der. fr. 1 kür (courageous). This is of course impossible; the mis-spelling of the Infin. may be consequential from it. Xak. xı yigit ka.-pn: (? error for ka:nka:) kürsdi: ‘the young man was full (imtala'a) of blood and fat’, so that he radiated gaiety (abde tnin ıtafsihi'1-tnııcüıı). The origin is that a vessel is filled with something, then after a short time (the contents) expand (intafaxa) until they exceed the limit of fullness (zeda 'an haddi’l--imtile')\ for example dough, when it is mixed with a lot of yeast and put in a dish and almost fills it, and is then left for a short time, expands till it overflows the rim of the dish (kürse:r, kürsme:k — MS. kürse:me:k). The origin is their remark of (or to?) a gay, cheerful (al-batîru'1-ašîŋ man sa:di:; we have explained (bayyanne) the meaning of it Kaš. HI 420 (kürse:r, kürsme:k — MS. kürse:me:k, repeated).

Dis. GRS

D kirsiz (stainless, undefiled) Priv. N./A. fr. kir; ‘stainless, undefiled’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit virajasatravacane ‘in the doctrine of stainless virtue’ kirsizniŋ nomopta: TT VIII A.20; kirsiz (spelt kkirsiz) arığ kök kalık ‘the undefiled pure sky’ U II 37, 53; o.o. do. 37, 60-3 (tapčasız); TT V 8, 52.

Dis. V. GRS-

D körse:- (g-) Desid. f. of kör- (see, look, obey, experience) ; n.o.a.b. Cf. körügse:-. Xak. xı men anı: körse:dim ‘I wished to meet him’ (liqa'ahu); originally körügse:dim; this is the rule in the case of the lateral letters (huriifu'l-dallaqa) that for the Desid. f. you add -gse:- to the root of the V. Kaš. III 285 (körse:r, körse:me:k): Kıp. xıv körse- talaba šahtvata'l-cime' ‘to seek the pleasure of sexual intercourse’ Id. 81 (it is possible that this is a mis-spelling of kürs-).

Dis. V. GRŠ-

Dis. GRŠ

D keriš (g-) (pulling, quarrel, withers, холка) Dev. N. (connoting mutual action) fr. ker-; lit. ‘pulling one another’. Survives, meaning ‘quarrel’ as keriš in NE Tel. It II logb; NC Kır., and keris in NC Kzx.; NW Kk. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U II 58, 5 (i) (tütüš): Civ. TTI48, etc. (tiitüš): Xak. xı keriš kehilu' l-faras ‘the withers (холка) of a horse’ (prov.): keriš al-muqewama fi'l-mucedala ‘resistance in a quarrel’: (körüš and kiriš follow here): keriš al-mucedala; one says ne:ltik kerištig ‘why did you quarrel ?’ Kaš. I 370 (the last entry, misplaced and with an irrelevant quotn., looks like a later addition to the text): KB (few people love a man who does not love many) keriš! telimrek ereji az ol ‘a man who has many quarrels has little happiness’ 2150: Oğuz xı keriš ra's hull cabal yuš'ad 'alayhi ‘the summit of any mountain that is climbed’ Kaš. I 370: Kom. xıv ‘quarrel’ keriš CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv keriš al-rebiya ‘a hill’ Id. 81.

kiriš Preliminary note. There is a clear phonetic and semantic difference between the two words of this form; 1 kiriš ‘entry' is giriš in SIV Osm., Tkm.; 2 kiriš 'bowstring' is kiriš in those languages.

D 1 kiriš (g-) Dev. N. fr. kir- (enter); ‘entry, way in; incomings, revenue’. Contrast čıkıš ‘expenditure’. S.i.m.m.I.g. Xak. xı kiriš al-daxl ‘entry’; and it is ‘what comes in (daxala) from a man’s property’ (or trade, daya) Kaš. I 370: KB kiriške körii sen čıkıš kıl negin 'regulate your expenditure by looking at your revenue’ 1325; (it is the account books that regulate all the affairs of the realm) bitiğin tutar 61 kirišin tetik ‘the shrewd man controls the revenue of the realm by the books' 2707; a.o. 5913 (čıkıš): xıv Muh. al-daxl ki:ri:š Rif. 151 (only): Čağ. xv ff. giriš (spelt; ‘with g-’) madxal ‘entrance, way in’ (quotn.); duxııı ‘the act of entering’ (quotn.) San. 313V. 10.

2 kiriš ‘bowstring’; with some extended meanings like ‘cord; the joist (of a roof)’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; Čuv. xirlü Ash. XVI 133. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ya kirišlerin ‘their bowstrings’ TT IX 79: Civ. kiriške bir bakır b^rtim ‘I gave one copper coin for a bowstring’ USp. 50, 3: Xak. xı kiriš wataru'l-qaws ‘bowstring’ Kaš. I 370; three o.o.: xıv Muh. al-watar kiriš Mel. 71, 6; Rif. 173 (MS. kiri:šti:)\ Čağ. xv ff. kiriš (spelt) ‘a piece of gut (rüda) which they dry and spin like a cord’; and, metaph., ‘bowstring’ (filla-i kament) San. 313V. 9 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv kiriš ‘bowstring’ Qutb 98: Kip. xııı al-watar kiriš Hou. 13, le: xıv kiriš al-watar; and kiriš is also a member of a person’s team (fiizb) in a competition for shooting, racing, polo, or the like; one says bu kirišim dur ‘this is my partner’ (raftqŋld. 81 (in the second sense this looks more like a metaph. use of 1 kiriš).

D körüš (g-) Dev. N. fr. kör- (see, look, obey, experience), S.i.m.m.I.g. with a rather wide range of meanings, ‘look, glance; sight, eyesight; appearance; someone one often sees’; SW Osm. görüš. Xak. xı körüš al-mune?ara bi'l-ilhe7 le bi'l-alfe7 ‘a meeting face to face, but not a conversation’ Kaš. I 370: Xwar. xııı körüš ‘look, glance’ 'Ali 18, 56.

VU kürše:k Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w. Xak. xı kürše:k the name of a foodstuff (ta’am) made as follows: millet flour (lubebu' l-duxn) is boiled in water or milk, then butter (al-samn) is put on it and it is eaten Kaš. I 478.

kİršern ‘white lead’ used as a cosmetic; syn. w. opo:; survives only (?) in NW Kaz. kiršen. Xak. xı kirše:n al-isfîdec ‘white lead’ Kaš. I 437; a.o. II 353 (yalrat-): xıv Muh. (under ‘perfumery’) isfîdec kirše:n Mel. 63, 15; Rif. 162: Čağ. xv ff. kiršen ‘liquid white’ (saftd eb) which women smear on their faces San. 313V. 7: Kip. xııı (under ‘women’s adornments’) al-isfîdec which they put on their faces before the rouge kerše:n (we) Hou. 18, 5: xv isfîdec kiršen (/opa) Tuh. 4b. 13.

Dis. V. GRŠ-

D keriš- (g-) (pull, quarrel, spread, растелить) Recip. f. of ker-; usually ‘to pull one another; to quarrel’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SE; SW Tkm. geriš- ‘to help to spread out’ (e.g. a carpet). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U III 81, 1 (tutuš-/tütüš-); Xak. xı ol maga: yip kerišdi: ‘he helped me to stretch (fi madd) the cord’ (etc.); also used for competing (kerišü:r, kerišme:k); and one says ol amg birle: kerišdi: neza'ahu fi šay’ ‘he contended with him about something’; and one says ol amg birle: kerišdi: šecarahu wa neza'ahu ‘he quarrelled and contended with him’ Kaš. II 98 (kerišü:r, kerišme:k); o.o. I 370 (keriš); II 115, 5: Kıp. xıv keriš- 'enadahu fa-ta'enadahu ‘to thwart (someone); to contend stubbornly with one another’ Id. 81.

D kiriš- (g-) Co-op. f. of kir- (enter); s.i.m.m.I.g. with meanings like ‘to penetrate; to intervene; to meddle, interfere; to undertake, set about (a task)’ which have very little Co-op. connotation; SW Osm. giriš-; Tkm. gi:riš-. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle ı:ška: kirišdi: ‘he competed with me in going into the matter’ (fi'l-duxul fi'l-amr, etc.) Kaš. II 99 (kirİšü:r, kirišme:k): Čağ. xv ff. giriš- (-di, ‘with g-’, etc.) bir birine giriš-, berhem ol- ‘to be mixed together’; but it is usually used with a preceding V., e.g. kıla giriš- eylemeye bašla- ‘to begin to do’, meaning ibtide ‘to begin’ Vei: 357 (in a second entry w. quotn. it is given the second meaning and spelt ‘with k-’); kiriš-daxil šudan ‘to enter’; and, metaph., in combination w. a V. eğez kardan ‘to begin’ San. 3i3r. 9 (quotns.): Kip. xıv kiriš- daxala ‘to enter upon’ Id. 81.

D küreš- (wrestle, shovel) (Крещатик, Грек) Co-op. f. of küri:- (sic, q.v.); ‘to shovel together’. In this sense, noted only in Kaš., it must, like küri:-, always have had an initial k-. But in the sense of ‘to wrestle’, in which it s.i.a.m.l.g., there are NW and SW \\ forms with initial g-, NW Kk. güreš-: SW Osm. güreš-; Tkm. göreš-, In this sense, therefore, it seems to be the Recip. f. of (2) *küre:- (g-). Xak. xı ol mağa: ka:r kürešdi: ‘he helped me to shovel (fi carf) the snow’ (etc.); also used for ‘to compete’ Kaš. //g9 (kürešü:r, kürešme:k); o.o., kı:z birle: kürešme: ‘do not wrestle with a virgin’ (la tušeri'i'1-adre; she will be stronger than you and will beat you) I 474, 6; čerig tutup kürešti: hayyacn kull tvehid minhume harb tea fagetıi/e 'they both stirred up war and fought one another’ II 97, 15 : KB (if you rebel against fortune) kadğun küreš ‘ (prepare to) wrestle with adversity’ 681; o.o. 2249, 2360: Čağ. xv ff. güreš- (spelt, ‘with g-’) kušti giriftarı ‘to wrestle’ San. 304V. 20: Xwar. xıv küreš- ditto Qutb 108: Kip. xııı šera'a küreš- Hou. 41, 13: xv ditto Id. 80; Bui. 55V.: xv ditto Tuh. 22b. 12.

Dis. V. GRŠ--

D körüš- (g-) Recip. f. of kör- (see, look, obey, experience); ‘to see one another; to meet’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g.; NW Kumyk: SW Osm., Tkm. görüš-. Türkü vııı ff. kop esen tüke:l körü:šmiš ‘they all met one another (again) safe and sound’ IrkB 15: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kačan Kumarı elig xan birle körüšsersiz ‘when you meet King Kumara’ Hüen-ts. 78-g; a.o. PP 76, 3 (ekki:le:-): Civ. künli aylı körüšdi ‘the sun and moon met’ (or looked at one another) TT I 93; mit) banča ırak barmıš kišiler birle körüšgeysiz ‘you will meet people who have gone enormous distances’ VII 30, 7-8: Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: körüšdi: nezarani bi’l-'avn ‘he met me face to face’; also used of any things when they see one another (tara ö) Kaš. II 99 (körüšü:r, körüšme:k); KB körüšmez yağılar ‘enemies that do not see one another’ 145: xıv Muh. (?) al-alqa' ‘to meet’ körüšmek Rif. 121 (only, MS. köšmek, unvocalized): Čağ. xv ff. körüš- (spelt) ‘to see (didan) one another; to meet’ (mulaqat kardan) San. 304V. 16 (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ditto MN 19: Kip. xıv körüš-šefahahu ‘to shake hands with someone’; the -š- forms a Recip., and the word was taken to mean ‘to shake hands with’ instead of ‘to see one another’ (nezarahtı; MS. in error nešarahu) Id. 81.

Tris. GRŠ

D keršegü: Hap. leg.; Dev. N./A. fr. *kerše:-, Den. V. fr. keriš (pulling, quarrel, withers, холка), q.v., in the sense of ‘a horse’s withers’. Xak. xı keršegü: at ‘ahorse which has a sore on its withers’ (dabar bi--minsacihŋ Kaš. I 491.

Tris. V. GRŠ-

D kiršenlen- Refl. Den. V. fr. kirše:n; survives in NW Kaz. kĞršenlen-. Xak. xı ura:ğut kiršenlendi: ‘the woman anointed (talat) her face with white lead’ (al-isfidec) Kaš. II 278 (kiršenlenü:r, kiršenlenme:k).

Dis. GRY

?F kere:y ‘razor’; prob. an Indo-European l.-w., cf. Greek keirö ‘to shave’. N.o.a.b.; cf. yüli:gü:. All modern languages seem to use l.-w.s for ‘razor’. Oğuz xı (after yüli:gu:, q.v.) the Oğuz do not know this word and call ‘razor’ (al-mûse) kere:y Kaš. HI 174; n.m.e.: xıv Muh. (?) al-mûse gere:y (g- marked) Rif. 160 (only): Xwar. xıv kerey ‘razor’ Nahc. 383, 1-7: Tkm. xv mûse kerey (Kıp. yülü-wüč) Tuh. 34a. 12.

Mon. G(Q)S

kes (piece, part, slice) pec. to Kay, homophonous w. kes- (cut), q.v. Cf. kesek (piece, part, slice). Xak. xı kes 'a piece’ (al-qit'a) of anything; one says bi:r kes etme:k ‘a piece of bread’: kes al-nubia, that is ‘a small stone (al-madara) with which one cleans oneself’ (i.e. after passing water) Kaš. I 329.

kis (wife) Hap. leg.; see kisi:. Xak. xı kiswife’ (al-zawca); hence one says anıŋ kisi: (MS. kissi:) ‘his wife’; and some of them use it ma'a’l-idefa (i.e. kisi:); one says ol kisi:  (? MS. kissi:) aldı: ‘he married (xataba) a wife’ Kaš. I 329.

Mon. V. GS-

kes- (cut) ‘to cut, cut off’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g.; NW Kumyk alone has ges-. The resemblance to Tokharian B (Kuchaean) has- ‘to cut’ is a coincidence? Cf. kes (piece, part, slice). Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 8 (kılıč): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kılıč üze kesermen ‘I cut with a sword' U II 61, 17; o.o. do. 76, 1 (tel-); Hüen-ts. 3le: Civ. edgü kišiler yohn kese katığlanur ‘they strive to cut the good men’s road’ TT I 28; in TT VII 36 about omens to be drawn from mice ‘biting’ various things the word normally used is ısır- (bite, eat), but in lines 2 and 12 kes-; in USp. 22, a long petition, the phr. kalan kes- ‘to collect (or deduct?) (cut) a particular kind of tax’ constantly occurs; a.o. H I 122 (öt)i:): Xak. xı ol yığa:č kesdi: ‘he cut (qata'a) the piece of wood’ (etc.) Kaš. II 11 (kese:r, kesme:k; prov.); four o.o.: KB bašım kesmesüni keseyin tılım ‘I will cut off my tongue, so that they may not cut off my head’ 166; o.o. 144 (čo:ğ), 363, 810 (bič-), 442e: xııı (?) Al. amŋ cawabin kesecutting short his answer’ 290; a.o. 324 (örte:-); Tef. kes- ‘to cut, cut off’, etc. 174 (common): xıv Muh. qata’a kes- Mel. 9, 4-8; 30, 5; Rif. 81, 114; a.o.o.: Čağ. xv ff. kes- (etc.) kes- Vel. 358; kes- buridan ‘to cut’ San. 3i4r. 24 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı kes- ‘to cut, cut off’ 'Ali 31: xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 40, etc.: xıv ditto Qutb 95; kes- MN 343: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı qata'a kes- Hou. 35, 14:xiv ditto Id. 82; qata'a wa sabara (‘to prune’) kes- Bui. 72r.: xv qata'a kes- Kav. 9, 6; 74, 10; (and üz-) Tuh. 30a. 10; cabba ‘to cut off’ do. 12a. 12.

*kös- (angry, offended, sulk) See kösgük, kösül-, kösün, kösür-, küs- ‘to be angry, offended; to sulk’, and the like. Survives only (?) in SW Az., Osm. küs-, Oğuz xı ol andın küsdi: 'ataba 'alayhi tva a'rada 'anim ‘he was angry with him and avoided him’ Kaš. II 12 (küse:r, kusme:k): (KB küsermen yigitlikke 363 might mean \\ ‘I am angry with youth’ ( now that I am getting old), but, as this V. is Oğuz, it is more likely to mean ‘I long for youth’ (i.e. to be young again), see küse:-): xıv Muh. gadaba ‘to be angry’ (with someone) küs- Mel. 9, 8; 29, 9; Rif. 81, (112 öpkele-); al-ğadab küsmek 120 (only): Čağ. xv ff. klis- qahr kardan ‘to conquer' San. 306V. 12 (this translation seems to be no more than a guess at the meaning of the V. in a verse by Sultan Ilusayn Mirza): Kip. XIII harida ‘to be angry (with someone)’ küs-Hou. 35, 14: xıv ditto Id. 82: xv iğ tasa ditto küs- Kav. 9, 6; ğadaba küs- do. 76, 12; harida küs- Tuh. 13b. 5.

Dis. GSG

Dis. GSE

kisi: ‘wife’; cf. kis; kisi: is the older and prob. the original form. Owing to the ambiguity of the Runic and Uyğ. scripts and the nearness of meaning of the two words kiši: has frequently been transcribed (being much the commoner word) where kisi: was really intended. The latter should almost certainly be written at any rate in the passages below. There is strong evidence that later the word actually became kiši:; see that word. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı Ix. 5 (bulun), 22: vııı ff. (a gambler) oğlanım kisi:si:n tutu:ğ urupan ‘putting up his children and wife as a stake’ IrkB 29: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ol yeme Seni erniŋ Ragagayını atlığ kisisi ‘that man Sana’s wife called Regageyini’ U III 81, 2-3; kisi oğul ‘wife and child’ Suv. 554, 14; a.o. TT X 499 (terjlig): Civ. oğlug kish) ‘your children and wives’ TT I 154; a word consistently read kiši is very common in USp., in most eases this is correct, but in the following passages kisi is likelier, Kutluğ atlığ xatin kisi ‘a lady wife named Kutluğ’ 16, 4; (if I die before I repay the debt) kisim ‘my wife’ (will repay it) 18, 7; a.o. 78, 4 (bitig): O. Kır. ıx ff. kuyda: kisime: (instead of the usual kunču:yıma:) ‘to my wife in the women’s apartments’ Mai. 18, 3 : Xak. xı Kaš. I 329 (kis); 332 (3 tok); n.m.e.: KB Chap. 72 (4475 ff-) gives advice on choosing ‘a wife’, evlig in the title and 4475, kisi in 4479 ff.

Dis. V. GSE-

küse:- (wish, desire, long for) ‘to wish, desire, long for’, and the like, Dev. V. fr. kü:- (protect, cover). Survives in NC Kır. küsö-: SC Uzb. kusa-: NW Kk., Nog. küse-; the usual transcription köse- is clearly erroneous. Cf. tile:- (seek, desire, ask for, wish, request). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A küseyürbiz ‘we long for’ M I 10, 10: Man. küseserler TT III 151; a.o. do. 96 (üčün): Bud. Sanskrit prerthayeno ‘wishing’ küse:yü TT VIII A. 1; yathaivec-chet ‘as he wishes’ ne:teg ök küse:se:r do. E.45; kut kolurmen küsüš küseyürmen ‘I request and long for divine favour’ U I 31, 4-5; bolğalı küseser ‘if they wish to become’ TT VII 40, 52; o.o. Hüen-ts. 309-10, 1972 (anıt-), etc.: Civ. urı oğul küseser ‘if he wishes for a son’ TT I 10; VII 26, 3; 30,13: Xak. xı olanı: körme:kin küse:di: ‘he wished (tamanne) to meet him’; also used for anything that you wish for Kaš. III 265 (küse:r, küse:me:k): KB iki öz körüšmek tllese küsep ‘if we two wish to see one another’ 3698; o.o. 363 (ökün- ; küs-), 838, 6301; Küsemiš P.N. 502: xııı (?) At. eren xayri šarrı küsep kečmez ol ‘a man’s good and bad qualities do not pass away because he wishes them to’ 373: Xwar. xıv küse- ‘to wish’ Qutb 108: Kom. xıv ‘a wishküsemek CCI\ Gr.: Kip. xııı išteqa mina’l--šaıvq ‘to long for' kü:se:- Hou. 37, 20: xıv küse- arada mumetilatalıu fi fi'li'l-xayr ‘to wish to resemble someone in doing good’ Id. 82: Osm. xv küse- ‘to desire (something Dat.)' in one text TTS II 660.

Dis. GSB

*kesbe: See E čatı:ba:.

Dis. GSD

?F kestem (night) (< göster ?) Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w., cf. Tokharian B (Kuchaean) kastwer ‘night’. Cf. šanbu:y. Xak. xı kestem ‘an entertainment with drinks (diyefa... li-šurb) which a man gives to visitors at night (layla (n)) other than a formal banquet’ (minğayr ma daba) Kaš. I485.

F kester (earthenware) Hap. leg.; no doubt a l.-w., Iranian or Tokharian (Agnean ?) ? Uč (the language of) xı kester al-xazaf ‘earthenware’ Kaš. I 457.

Dis. V. GSD-

D kestür- (cut) Caus. f. of kes- (cut); s.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı ol agar yığa:č kestürdi: ‘he gave him the task of cutting (kallafahu 'aid qaf) the piece of wood’ Kaš. II 195 (kestürür, kestürme:k): Čağ. xv ff. köstür- Caus. f.; buramdan (MS., in error, buridenîdan) ‘to order to cut’ San. 314V. 9.

Dis. GSG

D kesek (kese:k) (piece, part, slice) Dev. N. fr. kes- (cut); ‘a piece (cut off from something)’; s.i.a.m.l.g., usually for ‘a lump; a clod of earth’, and even ‘mud brick’. To be distinguished fr. kesük Pass. Dev. N./A. ‘cut, cut off’, and the like, not noted in the earliest period, but see kesüksüz; for convenience early occurrences of this word are also noted below. See Doerfer III 1634. Cf. kes. Xak. xı kesek al-qit'a ‘a piece’ of something; one says bir kesek ötme:k ‘a piece of bread’ Kaš. I 391; (as an example of suffixed -k) the word for al-qit'a mina'1-šay’ kese:k ne:ŋ taken fr. kesdi: qata'a I 14, 15: xııı (?) Tef. kesek ‘a piece’ 175 — abtar ‘bob-tailed’ kuyrukı kesük 17e: xıv Muh. (?) al-madar ‘clod’ kese:k Rif. 178 (only) — bile walad ‘childless’ kesü:k (either ‘eunuch’, or an abbreviation of kuyrukı kesük (Tef.) which had this metaph. meaning) 143 (only): Čağ. xv ff. kesek (‘with k- -k’) kirpič ‘mud brick’ Vel. 358; kesek kuliix ‘clod, mud brick’ San. 314V. 23 (quotn.) — kesük burtda ‘cut, cut off’ 314V. 29 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv kesek ‘a clod’ Qutb 95: Kom. xıv ‘a piece (of bread)’ kese CCG; Gr. (perhaps belongs to kes): Kip. xııı al-qit'a mina’l-lahm ‘a piece of meat’ kesek et Hou. 15, 16 — xıv kesük al-xedimu’l-muhašše \\ ‘a castrated servant, eunuch’ id. 82: Osm. xıv ff. kesek (1) xıv and xv ‘a piece’; (2) •a clod’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 448; II 618; III 438; IV 501 — xvıı kesik para ‘clipped money’ \\ 618.

küskü: (rat, mouse)rat; mouse’. Survives in NE Kač., Koib., Küer., Sag. küske; Tob., Tölös küskü R II 1501; Khak., Tuv. küske; R translates it ‘rat’, but in the last two languages it means ‘mouse’ and ‘rat’ is uluğ küske. See Doerfer III 1636. Cf. sıčğaın (rat, mouse). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. küskü is the first name in the 12-year animal cycle in USp. and TT VII, but sıčğan is used in one or two texts in TT VII and VIII and almost all later authorities.

D kesgük (choker collar) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. (N.I.); lit. ‘a cutting object’; as a dog-collar, prob. one fitted with spikes. Xak. xı kesgük al-secür ‘an iron dog-collar’ Kaš. II 289.

VU (D) kösgük prima facie a Dev. N. in -gük; not connected semantically w. küs- or küse:- but perhaps w. *kös-; al-xayel means both ‘mirage’ and ‘scarecrow’. Cf. oyuk. Xak. xı kösgük ‘a scarecrow’ (al-xayal) which is set up in vegetable gardens and vineyards to guard against the evil eye; also in the prov. (you can catch a lion by a trick) kü:čü:n kösgük tutma:s ‘but you cannot catch a mirage (al-xayal) by force’ Kaš. II 289.

Tris. GSG

D küse:gči: Hap. leg.; N.Ag. fr. *küse:g N./A.S. fr. küse:-. Xak. xı emiglig ura:ğut küse:gči: bolu:r ‘a nursing mother comes to long for food (mtıštahîya li'1-ta'em) and they give her what suits her’ Kaš. I 153, 14; n.m.e.

D kesüksüz Priv. N./A. fr. kesük (see kesek); ‘uninterrupted’and the like. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB 31 (ula:m): Xwar. xıv kesiksiz ulašu ‘uninterrupted and continuous’ Qutb 95.

Dis. V. GSL-

D kesil- (cut) Pass. f. of kes- (cut); ‘to be cut, cut off, severed’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. Uyğ.vııı ff. Bud. (all the nerves of the elephant’s tusks were) üzülüp kesilip ‘tom apart and severed’ U III 60, 5; same Hend. Suv. 61, 10 and 1718: Xak. xı kesildi: ne:ŋ ‘the thing was cut’ (inqata'a) Kaš. II 136 (kesilür, kesilme:k); a.o. 7 339 (ti:n), 523.KB kesildi sözüm ‘my speech has been cut off’ (i.e. is ended) 33; o.o. 227, 404, etc.; xııı (?) Tef. kesil-/kesül- ‘to be cut off’etc. 175: xıv Muh. inqata'a kesi:l-Mel. 23, 9; Rif. 104: Čağ. xv ff. kesil- (spelt) bıırida šudan ‘to be cut’ San. 314V. 7 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv kesil- ‘to be cut (off)’ Qutb 95: Kip. xıv inqafa'a kesil- Bul. 33V.: xv ditto Kav. 77, s; Tuh. 60a. 3: Osm. xv ff. kesil-‘to be cut off, separated’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 449; \\ 618; ///438; IV 502.

(D) kösül- Pass. f. of *kös-; although the word is treated as a Trans. V. in Xak., Xwar., and Kom., it seems likely that it was originally \\ a Pass., meaning ‘ (of the legs) to be stretched out’. NC Kzx. kösöl-/kösül- R II 1294-5; kösil-, MM 227, is an Intrans. meaning ‘to stretch oneself out’ (hence, R , ‘to die’). Cf. kösür-. Xak. xı er adak kösüldi: ‘the man stretched out (basafa) his legs’ Kaš. II 137 (kösülür, kösülme:k; prov., yoğurkanda: artuk adak kösülse: üšiyü:r ‘if the legs are stretched (1muddat) beyond the blanket, they get cold’): Xwar. xıv küimüŋge köre kösül ayaknı ‘stretch your legs as far as your blanket allows’ Qutb 103: Kom. xıv ayak kösülgil CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv and xv kösül- ‘to stretch oneself, be stretched out’; in several texts TTS I 492; II 661; III 483 (a Caus. f. kösült- ‘to stretch out’ is also noted).

D kesle:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. kes. Xak. xı ol ıtığ kesle:di: laqa'a'l-kalb bi-madara ‘he pelted the dog with clods of earth’ Kaš. III 300 (kesle:r, kesle:me:k).

D keslin- Refl. f. of kesil- and syn. w. it. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı keslindi: ne:g ‘the thing was cut’ (inqata'a) Kaš. II 253 (keslinü:r, keslinme:k); a.o. I 352, 13: xııı (?) Tef. kesilin- ‘to be cut off’ 176.

D kesliš- Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of kesil- with a specialized connotation. Xak. xı keslišdi: ne:Q inqata'a erebu'l-šay' tva'nfa šala aczahuu ‘the thing was cut into pieces and the parts of it were separated’ Kaš. II 224 (kesllšü:r, keslišme:k).

Tris. GSL

?F keslinčü: (lizard) ‘lizard’; cf. keler. Although this word is morphologically a Dev. N. in -čü: fr. kešlin-, it is fairly certain that this is illusory and that the word is an attempt to give a Turkish form to some foreign word. Apart fr. the medieval words listed below, the following modern words for ‘lizard’ seem to be other forms of such a foreign word: NE Alt., Leb., Šor kelešken; Koib., Sag. kelešken; Tel. keleski R II 1114; Khak. klleskl/kilesken; Tuv. xeleske: SE Türki keslenčik/keslen-čük: NC Kır. keskeldlrlk; Kzx. kesertki: SC Uzb. kaltakesek: NW Kk. kesirtke/ keskeldek; Kumyk gesertkl; Nog. kesertki. Xak. xı keslinčü: al-tvazağa ‘a large lizard; gecko’ Kaš. III 242: Xwar. xıv keslen ditto Qutb 95: Kip. xııı al-hirdatvn tva'l--sihliya ‘lizard’ (Hend.?) kelte: Hou. 11, 18:xiv keseltki: al-sihliya tva'1-ıvazağ Id. 82; Bui. 11, 4: xv sihliya keseltüki Tuh. 19b. 1 (there seems to be a good deal of confusion about the Ar. terminology of these animals and different dicts, translate the same word by different words including ‘chameleon, salamander, Stellion’).

Dis. GSM

D kesme: (cut) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. kes- (cut); originally ‘cut, cut up, cut off’; with various extended meanings. Survives in SW Osm. as a normal N.Ac., also ‘shears; Turkish delight; a broad \\ arrow-head’. See Doerfer III 1637. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kesme aš ‘a dish of cut up (meat)’ U III 65, 1 (in: Xak. xı kesme: al-mišqaš mina'l-nišel 'a broad iron arrow-head’; kesme: al-nefiya ‘forelock’ Kaš. 7434 (verse); o.o. III, 24; 233 (otruš-): KB (the firmament) kodı ıdtı kesme ‘let down its forclock’ (over its face’) 5824: Čağ. xv ff. kesme (1) ‘a horse of which either the 9İre or the dam is well-bred’; (2) ‘a small round loaf’ (nen-i gulipa); (3) ‘a lock of hair which they cut, curl, and let fall on the cheek’ (verse); ... (5) ‘a kind of large broad saddle-cloth (digdigt) which reaches from a horse’s back to the ground’ San. 300V. 18; kesme (1) as 2 above; (2) as 3 above (verse); also spelt kesme 314V. 2e: Osm. xv ff. kesme ‘a broad arrow-head’, with other meanings later; in several texts TTS I 450; \\ 615; HI 438; IV 502: xvııı kesme ... (4) in Rümi ‘a kind of large arrow-head’ (payken) Satt. 300V. 21.

Tris. GSM

D kesmelig P.N./A. fr. kesme:; survives in SW Osm. with various meanings derived fr. those of kesme:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kesmelig et ‘meat for cutting up’ U III 65, 10 (ŋ.

Tris. V. GSM-

D kesmeleri- (curls, bangs, кудри, челка) Hap. leg.?; Refl. Den. V. fr. kesme:. Xak. xı ki:z kesmelendi: ‘the girl provided herself with a forelock and side curls’ Kaš. III 203 (kesmelenü:r, kesmelenme:k).

Dis. GSN

VU kösün used only in the Hend. küč kösün and so presumably more or less syn. w. kü:č, ‘strength, power’, or the like. Not connected semantically w. küs- or küse:-, but possibly an Intrans. Dev. N. fr. *kös-with some such meaning as ‘stretching or exerting oneself’. Pec. to Uyğ., where it is fairly common. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bu dara-mmg küči köstini üze ‘by the power (Hend.) of this dherani' UII 36, 39-40; (who gave you) bu balıkka kirgülük küč kösün ‘authority (Hend.) to enter this city?’ U IV 8, 28; Čaštanı elignig küčin kösünin ‘the might of King Caštana’ do. 10, 51; o.o. TT VII 40, 14-15; X 127, 202, 247; Hüen-ts. 317; 2071-2.

D küsenč Dev. N. fr. küsen- Refl. f. of küse:- not noted before xiv; ‘desire, wish; something desired’. Survives in NW Kar. L. R II 1500. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (my lovely, good God! my famous one!) ktisünčim (? so read) ‘my heart’s desire’ M II 8, 17: Chr. üč törlüg küsünč (? so read) ‘three kinds of desirable things’ (gold, myrrh, and frankincense) U I 6, 14: Kom. xıv ‘desire, longing’ küsenč CCG; Gr.

'Dis. V. GSN-

D kesin- (cut) Refl. f. of kes- (cut); survives at any rate in SW Osm. kesin- ‘to cut out (clothes) for oneself’. Xak. xı ol ö:zige: et kesindi: ‘he \\ cut off (iqtafa'a) a piece of meat (etc.) for himself’ Kaš. II 157 (kesinü:r, kesinme:k): Kip. xv inqafa'a ‘to be cut’ (üzün-/) kesin- Tuh. 6b. 6.

Tris. GSN

D küsenčig Dev. N./A. fr. küsen-; ‘desirable’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. küsenčig megiler [gap] ‘desirable joys’ TT III 123; (His Majesty, our lovely) küsenčig adınčığ ‘desirable, exceptional’ (brilliant king) M III 35, 22: Bud. küsenčig ı^uk Tušıttakı ordusiga ‘to his desirable holy palace in the Tušita (heaven)’ USp. 43, 8; küsenčig is a component in a royal title in Pfahl. 6, 2.

VUD kösünsüz Hap. leg.; Priv. N./A. fr. kösün; in the Hend. küčsüz kösünsüz ‘powerless’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M III 37, 16-17 (i) (ögsüz).

Dis. GSR

D kesre: ‘behind; after, afterwards; in the west’; der. fr. *ke with the Loc. Suff. -re:, cf. kerü: which has the Directive Suff. -rü:; the -s-, however, is inexplicable. Obviously a very old word; discussed by Bang in Vom Köhtürkischen zum Osmanischen, AKPAW, Berlin, 1907, I, p. 7, note 3 which mentions the only known survival NE Abakan k&zre ‘behind’ (a mountain). Türkü vııı yağaru: kontukda: kesre: ‘after they have settled hearby’ IS 5, IIN 4; kesre: ‘in the west’ (the Tarduš begs ... in the east (ögre:) the Tölis begs) II S 13; ol xan yok boltukda: kesre: ‘after that xan died’ Ongin 1; o.o. do. 2; I E 5, etc. (anta:): vııı ff. Man. antada kesre ‘thereafter’ Chuas. 172: Uyğ. vııı anta: kesre: ‘thereafter’ Šu. N 10-12.

PU ?F küsri: Hap, leg.; it might be expected that a normal anatomical term would be commoner, perhaps a l.-w. The ordinary word for ‘rib’ is eye:gü: (rib). Xak. xı küsri: caimnihu'l--šadr ‘the sides of the chest’ (i.e. the ribs?) Kaš. I 422.

D kösrük Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. kösür-; Hap. leg., but there is a Kom. xıv V. kostirükle-‘to hobble’ (a horse) CCG; Gr.-, perhaps connected etymologically w. the syn. words SW Osm. köstek; Tkm. kössek, but a Dev. Suff. -tek is not well attested. Xak. xı kösrük tuša:ğ šikel yadayi'l-faras ‘a hobble for (fastening) two of a horse’s legs’ Kaš. I 479.

Dis. V. GSR-

D kösür- Hap. leg., but cf. kösrük; syn. w. kiše:-;prima facie Caus. f. of*kös-. Xak. xı ol atığ kösürdi: ‘he hobbled (aškala) two of the horse’s legs’ Kaš. II 78 (kösürür, kösürme:k).

Tris. GSR

VUD kösürgü: ‘a leather bag’; occurs four times in Kaš.; in the main entry spelt kesurgur, elsewhere the first syllable is unvocalized, and in I 358 it is mis-spelt k.sirlür, but it can be \\ explained etymologically as a Den. V. fr. kösür- in the sense of something of which the neck is tied with a string. Xak. xı kösürgü: al-cireb ‘a leather hag’ Kaš. I 490; o.o. I 358 (sanač); III 48 (yıparltğ).

Tris. GSR

VU kösürge:/kösürge:n (mole, shrew mole) ‘a mole’; both Hap. leg.; an old animal name ending in -ge:/-gen. There is no widely distributed word for ‘mole’ in Turkish, see Shcherbak, p. 151; the phonetic resemblance of SW Az., Osm. köstebek is prob. fortuitous. Cf. közsüz. Xak. xı kösürge: ‘a kind of field-mouse’ (al-cirden — MS. al-cirden) Kaš. I 490; kösürgern ‘a kind of mole’ (al-xtild) I 522.

Dis. GSŠ

D küsüš (wish, desire)wish, desire’; Dev. N./A. fr. küse:-. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A. M I 28, 21-2 (ağıŋ: Man. TT IX 116 (ka:n-): Bud. küsüš is common; Sanskrit iccha ‘wishes’ küsüšleri TT VIII E.z\ (I have written this) Utret Mama küsüšige ‘in accordance with the wishes of Ütret Mama’ U I 15, 2; o.o. do. 31, 4-5 (küse:-); PP 14, 5 etc.; Kuan. 223; TT V 24, 54 (ka:n-); do. 68 (umunč); VII 40, 70 etc.VIII F. 11; X 385, etc.: Civ. TT 1115 (ka:n-); VII 27, 14 etc.: Xak. xı KB küsüš is common; sometimes meaning ‘wish, desire’, e.g. (if a man has wisdom) bulur er küsüš ‘he achieves his desires’ 160; o.o. 44, etc. — but in most cases it seems rather to mean ‘desirable, precious, rare’, and the like, e.g. (men without understanding are numerous) ukušluğ küsüš ‘those with understanding rare’ 199; o.o. 207, 361, 1030, 1105, 1155 (tüzünlük), 1725,5161.

Dis. V. GSŠ-

D kesiš- (cut, conclude, settle, intersect) Co-op. f. of kes- (cut); s.i.a.m.l.g. except SE (?) usually for ‘to help to cut’, or as a Recip. ‘to intersect’, but w. some extended meanings, esp. in SW Osm. where it also means ‘to conclude (an agreement), to settle (an account), to draw (a game)’, etc. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kesiš-occurs in several commercial docts. in such phr. as yüz yastukka kesištimiz ‘we have settled for a price of 100 yastuks’ USp. 62, 5-6; o.o. 107, 5; 108, 6; 109, 5; 110, 5; 116, 11 (üzüš-): Xak. xı ol maga: yığa:č kesišdi: ‘he helped me to cut (// qat') the pieces of wood’ (etc.); also used for competing Kaš. II 101 (kesišü:r, kesišme:k): Čağ. xv ff. kesiš- (spelt) Co-op. f.; be-hanı buridan 1va qit'a qit'a kardan ‘to cut, or cut in pieces, together’ San. 314V. 5 (quotn.).

D küseš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of küse:-. Xak. xı eren kamuğ tava:r küsešdi: ‘the men all wished (tamanne) for wealth’; also used when they boast to one another about their wealth (tafexarii bi'l-mel) Kaš. II 101 (küsešü:r, küsešme:k).

Tris. GSŠ

D küsüšlüg P.N./A. fr. küsüš; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. bu kutluğ künüg küsüšlüg teginür ertimiz ‘we ventured to desire this auspicious day’ M III 34, 13-14: Bud. nom küsüšlüg tınlığlar ‘mortals who desire the (true) doctrine’ TT V, p. 33, note B 90, 4; in some contexts it is the P.N./A. of küsüš as a translation of Sanskrit kema ‘desire’, e.g. küsüšlüg öglüg teŋri yerl kemarûpadeva-loka ‘the heavenly land of desire and form’ U III 46, 6-7; küsüšlüg öglüg yertlnčÜ kenıarûpadhetu TT X 141.

D küsüšsiiz I Inp. leg.?; Priv. N./A. fr. küsüš. Uyğ. vııı (f. Bııd. Sanskrit anicche ‘without desire’ küsüšsüz TT VIII A.35.

Mon. G(Q)Š

ke:š (quiver) ‘a quiver’; the closed -e:- is well established by the O. Kır. and other spellings. Survives only (?) in NW Kar. L., T. R II 1180; l.-w. in Pe., Doerfer III 1697. Other modern languages use either phr. like ‘arrow case’ or forms of Mong. saeadakjsa'adak. O. Kır. ıx ff. altu:nlig (sic) kešig bglimte: bantım ‘I have bound the golden quiver round my waist’ Mai. 3, 2; ditto (with minor changes) do. 10, 5; altu:n keš adnldim (sic}) ‘I have parted from my golden quiver’ do. 25, 3: Xak. xı ke:š bi'1-ttnela ‘with (i.e. in contrast to ki:š which precedes it) al-kinena ‘quiver’; the Oğuz and their Kip. kinsmen do not know this word Kaš. III 126; 8 o.o.: xıv Muh. al-ca'ba ‘quiverke:š Mel. 5, 15; Rif. 76 (quoted as a word in which ye' represents -e:- in contrast with ki:š in which it represents -i:-): Xwar. xıv keš ‘quiver’ Qutb 97: Kom. xıv ‘quiver’ keš CCG; Gr.: Kip. xv kinena keš Tuh. 31a. 2.

ki:š (sable) ‘sable’, both the animal and its skin; s.i.m.m.I.g.; l.-w. in Pe., but not an Uralian or Indo-European l.-w., see Doerfer III 1698. Türkü vııı II N 11-12; S 12 (teyig): Xak. xı ki:š al-sammur ‘sable’; and its taü: is called ki:š kudrukı: Kaš. III 126 KB 3836 (örle:-), 4425 (ič), 5367 etc. (teyig): xıv Muh. al-sammûr ki:š Mel. 5, 14; Rif. 76 (see ke:š (quiver)), 174 (only): Čağ. xv ff. kiš sammür; in Mong. bulğan (buluğa» in Haenisch 22) San. 3i5r. 11 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) kiš ‘sable’ Oğ. 13: xıv ditto Qutb. 99: Kom. xıv ditto CC/; Gr.: Kip. xıv ki:š al-sammûr İd. 83: xv ditto Tuh. 19a, 11.

Dis. GŠE

kiši: ‘man, person, human being’, without distinction of sex, often in contrast to animals and supernatural beings. In Runic and Uyğ. script indistinguishable fr. kisi:, q.v. S.i.a.m.l.g. as kiši or the like; NW Kumyk alone giši. Türkü vııı kiši: is fairly common, e.g. edgü: bilge: kišig edgü: alp kišig ‘good wise people, good tough people’ I S 6, II N 4; bir kiši: yagilsar ‘if one individual misbehaves’ do.: vııı ff. kiši: is common in IrkB, e.g. eki: aylığ kiši: oğla:n ‘a human child of two months’ 2; (heaven heard it above) asra: kiši: bilti: ‘mankind knew of it below’ 54: Matı, eki adaklığ kišike ‘to twolegged human beings’ (as opposed to animals)

Tris. GŠG

Chuas. 80; igid kiši tanuki ‘a false witness for a man’ do. 101-2; a.o.o.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A. (just as a louse) kišlnig terisinde Unüp ‘that emerges from a man’s skin’ (sucks his blood) MI 8, 14-15: Man. ayığ kišiler ‘wicked men’ TT II 16, 21-2; a.o.o.: Bud. kiši is very common, e.g. kayu kiši ‘any man who’ PP 11, 5; kišili kiši ermezli 'human and non-human’ TT VI 432-3: Civ. kiši is very common, e.g. TT I 26 (alta:-), 56 (kora:-): O. Kır. ıx IF. (I was left an orphan at the age of three, my elder brother) kiši: kıldı: ‘made a man of me’ Mai. 6, 2; a.o.o.: Xak. xı kiši: al-insen ‘a man; mankind’; used for an individual or as a collective (yaqa' 'ale'l--tvehid wa’l-canŋ and for males and females: kiši: al-zawca ‘a wife’; I heard this word in Yağma:, they say ol kiši: aldnmu: ‘has he married ?’ (tazawwaca) Kaš. III 224 (in the second meaning clearly a Sec. f. of kisi:); nearly 200 o.o.: KB kiši is very common; e.g. bodunda talusı kišide kedi ‘chosen among the people, the best of men’ 34: xııı (?) At. kiši is very common, e.g. kiši kutluğı ‘most blessed of men’ 23: Tef. kiši ‘man’; also ‘wife’ (error or Sec. f. of kisi:) 181: xıv Muh. al-insen giši:; al-nes gišhler Mel. 8, 15; 45, 3; Rif. 81, 138 (kiši:, kišhleŋ; a.o.o.: Čağ. xv ff. kiši (spelt) (1) ‘a person’ (šaxs) in general, either male or female; (2) mard tva ewez-i mufrad (sic, ?corrupt) ‘a man’, in the Singular (P) San. 3i5r. 14 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı (?) birkart kiši ‘an old man' Oğ. 313; two o.o.: xıv kiši ‘a man’ Qutb 99: Kom. xıv kiši ‘man, men’; common CCI, CCG; Gr. 149 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-insen kiši: Hou. 19, le: xıv kiši: al-insen, used of males and females; also used metaph. for al-zawca; they say kišim ewdedür ‘my person (insanŋ is at home’, meaning ‘my wife’ Id. 82; nes kišhler Bul. 16, 9: xv racıd ‘man’ kiši: Kav. 29, 2; 52, 16; inšen kiči (sic) Tuh. 3b. 11 and about 30 o.o. of kiči: Osm. xıv ff. kiši ‘man, men’; c.i.a.p.; in a few xıv and XV texts specifically ‘male’ as opposed to ‘female’ TTS I 472; 7/645; III 460; IV 525.

Dis. V. GŠE-

kiše:- ‘to hobble (a horse)’ and the like; syn. w. kösür-; ?a First Period l.-w. in Mong. as küli- (Kow. 2602, Haltod 235); n.o.a.b.; in some modern languages displaced by kišenle- (not an old word). Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 39 (tetrti:): Xak. xı ol atığ kiše:di: ‘he hobbled (šakkala) the horse’; and one says er ku:lin kiše:di: ‘the man bound (or shackled, qayyada) his slave’ Kaš. III 268 (kiše:r, kiše:me:k): KB (the merciful God chose His servant and) kišedi ukuš birle kılkın tilin ‘bound his character and tongue with understanding’ 1838.

köši:- (conceal, hide, shade) Hap. leg., but the -Ğ- is fixed by köši:ge:, q.v.; cf. köli:-, q.v. Modern V.s of similar form in, e.g., SE Türki: NC Kır. are not related. Xak. rti ta:m kü:nüg köši:di: ‘the wall hid (ıvere) the sun and obstructed it (s Jight)’ (satarahe); also used of anything which obstructs the light (satara’l-adwe') Kaš. III 267 (köši:r, köši:me:k).

Dis. V. GŠD-

D köšit- Caus. f. of köši:- (conceal, hide, shade), but practically syn. w. it. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kün teıjri öz küčin örtgeli köšitgeli [gap] ‘in order to cover the sun and obstruct (its light) by his own strength’ TT X 305-e: Xak. xı built kö:küg köšitti: ‘the cloud covered (or blocked out, satara) the sky’; also used of anything that covers (or blocks out) anything Kaš. II 307 (köšitü:r, köšitme:k).

Dis. GŠG

köšek (cub, puppy) ‘a young animal’, the kind varying in different languages; not noted in Turkish before xııı but obviously current before the separation of Standard and L/R Turkish, see Studies, p. 52, since it was a First Period l.-w. in Mong. as gölige (Koto. 2602)lg5loge (Haltod 264) ‘a puppy’, and occurs in Hungarian as kölyök ‘a kid or other young animal’, no doubt borrowed from Old Bulgar, or some related language. Survives as köšek ‘camel colt’ in SC Uzb.: NW Kk.: SW Az., Osm., Tkm. (kö:šek), see Shcherbak, p. 106. Čağ. xv ff. köšek/köšelek (both spelt) ‘a one-year-old camel colt’; a ‘two-year-old’ is called torum, and a ‘three-year-old’ taylak San. 306V. 18; a.o. i73r. 9 (torum): Kip. xııı al-faštl ‘camel colt’ kö:šek Hou. 14, 13: xıv ditto Bui. 7, 6; köšek ditto Id. 82: xv ditto Tuh. 27b. 10 (taylak in margin): Osm. xıv ff. köšek ‘camel colt’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 492; II 661; III 483; IV 548.

D kö:šik (sic, under fe'il) (Conc. N.) fr. köši:- (conceal, hide, shade); cf. köši:ge:, kö:Iik. Pec. to Xak. Xak. xı kö:šik al-xamar wa'l-satra ‘a screen, covering’ Kaš. I 409: KB kayu sığnu keldi tiledi köšik (rhyming w. Ğšik) ‘some came to take refuge (with him) and asked for a screen (from their enemies)’ 451.

Tris. GŠG

D köši:ge: Dev. N. fr. köši:- (conceal, hide, shade); acc. to Kaš. ‘light shadow’, as opposed to köli:ge: (shadow, shade) ‘deep shade’. Mong. köšige ‘curtain; the side wall of a tent’ (Kow. 2587, Haltod 229) looks more like a l.-w. fr. kö:šik with suffixed -e than fr. this word. The modern words with this meaning, köšiğe/köšögö and the like, in several NE languages: SE Tar.: NC Kır. seem to be reborrowings fr. the Mong. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (climbing a big tree, breaking off the branches and leaves, taking them, and) balık üze örtüp köšige kılıp ‘covering the fish and giving them shade’ Suv. 602, 2: (xiv Chin-Uyğ. Dict. ‘curtain’ köšige (?Mong. l.-w.) Ligeti 176; RII1307): Xak. xı köšhge: ‘slight shade’ (al-zillu'l-šağiŋ Kaš. I 448; III 174 (both main entries): (Kom. xıv ‘curtain’ köšegen (? Mong. l.-w.) CCI; Gr.).

D köšiklig Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. köšik. Xak. xı köšiklig ye:r ‘a shady (muzallal) place’ Kaš. I 509.

Dis. V.

Dis. V. GŠL-

D kišel- Pass. f. of kiše:-; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB biligüg klšeldi turup yügrümez ‘the wise man has been hobbled; he stands still and cannot run’ 6614; o.o. 6615.

Tris. GŠL

D kišilik (humanity, kindliness, mankind, group) A.N. fr. kiši:; originally ‘humanity, kindliness’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g.; the original meaning survives in one or two languages like NC Kır.: NW Kk., but elsewhere it usually means ‘mankind’ or, with a preceding numeral, 'a group of (so many) persons’. Xak. xı KB kišilikke himmat muruwwat kerek ‘mankind must have energy and humanity’ (and a man’s (kišŋ humanity must be as great as his energy) 414; (if a man is to rise to fortune he must have uprightness) könilik atı ol kišilik bütün ‘the name of uprightness is complete humanity’. (Men are not rare) kišilik kız ol ‘it is humanity that is rare' 865-6; a.o. 1690 (anut-): xııı (P) At. bu kün bu ajunda kišilik isiz ‘today in this world humanity is (regarded as) a sin’ 385: Xwar. xıv kišilik ‘humanity, kindliness’ Qutb 99: Osm. xıv ff. kišilik 'humanity' is noted in one or two xıv to xvı texts; the word also occurs in phr. like kišilik kaftan ‘formal dress’ fr. xıv onwards TTS I 473; II 646; III 461; IV 526.

Dis. GŠN

D kišen (hobble; fetters) Dev. N. (Conc. N.) fr. kiše:-; ‘a horse’s hobble; fetters, leg-irons’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW; cf. buka:ğu:, tuša:g, kösrük. See Doerfer III 1699. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT VII 36, 15 (üm): Xak. xı kišen šikel ‘hobble’ Kaš. II 13 (seš- (untie, loosen)); n.m.e.: KB kišen ol kišike bilig ham ukuš ‘knowledge and understanding are (like) fetters on a man’ 314; (the King said, ‘what is this fastening (berk) of yours ?’) negü teg kišen ol seni berkleyü ‘what kind of fetters are they that hold you fast?’ 701; o.o. 702, 1837, 6615 (bür-): Čağ. xv ff. kišen (spelt) zincir ‘chain’ San. 31 sr. 13: Kom. xıv ‘horse’s hobble’ kišen CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-šikel kiše:n Hou. 14, e: xıv ditto Id. 82: xv šikel... Tkm. kišen Tuh. 20b. 12 (see tuša:ğ).

Dis. V. GŠN-

D köšin- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of köši:- (conceal, hide, shade). Xak. xı er künke: köšindi: (MS. köšündi:) ‘the man shaded himself (tazallala) from the sun’; also used when a man hides himself (taıvere) from somebody Kaš. II 157 (köšinü:r, köšinme:k).

D kišne:- (neigh) ‘to neigh’ of a horse and the like; as opposed to okra:- ‘to whinny’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with initial k-; morphologically a Den. V. in -e:- fr. kišen (hobble; fetters) but with no obvious semantic connection. Xak. xı at kišne:di: ‘the horse neighed’ (šaha la); and one says katır kišne:di: ‘the mule brayed' (sahaca) Kaš. III 302 (kišne:r, kišne:me:k); a.o. I 236, 3: xııı (?) Tef. kišne- ‘to neigh’ 181: xıv Muh. (?) \\ (among ‘sounds’) šahilu’ ['*yl kišnemek Mel. 73, 11 (in one MS. only): Čağ. xv ff. kišne- (spelt) of a horse, ‘to neigh’ (štha kardan) San. 3i5r. 5 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ditto 'Ali 3e: Kom. xıv ‘to neighkišine-/kišne- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı šahala l-faras at kišnedi: (MS. kešnedi:) Hou. 12, 20: xıv ditto Id. 83; Bui. 55r.: xv ditto Tuh. 23a. 3.


Tris. GŠN

D kišenlig (fettered, hobbled) P.N./A. fr. kišen (hobble; fetters); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB kišenlig yarağsızka barmaz üküš ‘a man in fetters cannot get into much mischief 314; a.o.o. 315-16 (ködezlig).

D kišensiz (unfettered, unhobbled) Hap. leg.?; Priv. N./A. fr. kišen (hobble; fetters); ‘unhobbled’ and the like. Xak. xı KB 374 (kölün-).

Dis. GŠR

F gešür (carrot)carrot’; l.-w. fr. Pe. cazar. Survives in NW Kar. T. gešür R II 1576; ICk. gešir; Kaz. Jdšer: SW Tkm. kešir. Oğuz xı Kaš. I 431 (2 turma:): xıv Muh. al-cazar gešür Mel. 78, 3; Rif. 182 (unvocalized).

Dis. V. GŠR-

VU köše:r- (full, overflowing) ‘to be full to overflowing’. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı kö:l köšerdi: ‘the lake was very full (imtala'a... cidda (n)) so that it almost overflowed’ (tafid) Kaš. II 79 (köše:rür, köše:rme:k; verse); kö:lü:ŋ takı: köše:rü:r ‘and the pond is full to overflowing’ (yamtali min faydihŋ I 73, 11.

Tris. GŠR

VUD köšerge:k (claustrophobic) Hap. leg.; the kef is unvocalized, and there are a fatha above and a kasra below the šin, but the translation suggests that this is a Dev. N./A. (connoting habitual action) fr. köše:r-, Xak. xı köšerge:k er ‘a man who feels cramped for space (claustrophobic) (yatatfayyaq 'alayhi makenuhu) when he sees people in his house’ Kaš. II 290.

Mon. G(Q)Y

S key See ked (very, extremely, extremely good) (quite).

QOJ II 1. пазуха:; 2. грудь, лоно (1. inside, bosom, hollow; 2. breast, bosom) (OTD p. 453)

Mon. V. GY-

S key- See ked- (ke:d- (g-)) (wear put on, dress).

S 1 küy- See kü:d- (kü:d- (küd-) (g-) (wait, endure, tend, cherish, respect, pasture, posses, track down, watch, protect, покуда, ждать,ожидать, обслуживать) (покуда)).

S 2 küy- See küñ- (küñ- (g-) (burn, ignite, ripen)).

QOJ- 1 класть, помещать; 2. оставлять, бросать, покидать QOY- 1 deposit, lodge; 2. depart, throw, leave (OTD p. 453)

Dis. GYE

küye: (g-) (moth, worm) ‘a (clothes-)moth’. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some phonetic changes; NW Kumyk: SW Tkm. güye; Osm. güve. See Doerfer III 1692. Xak. xı küye: ‘the worm (al-süs) which eats felt, etc.’ Kaš. III 170: Kip. xııı al-iits küye: (MS. in error kübe:) Hou. 11, 20: xv düd ‘worm’ (kurt/sülük/ (PU) sowulšan/) küye Tuh. 15b. 3; 'att ‘moth’ küye 25a. 12.

Dis. V. GYB-

?E küyfen- Hap. leg.; this word is spelt quite clearly in the MS. but can hardly be right; \\ f is not a Xak. sound (see Studies, p. 167) and, even if it is taken as a scription of v, the consonantal cluster -yv- is otherwise known only in ayva: which is prob. a l.-w. On the other hand, / is known to occur as an error for m, -ym- is a consonantal cluster which occurs in other words, e.g. eymen-, and küymen-exists with the same meaning in some medieval and modern languages. Moreover, it can be explained as a Refl. Den. V. of küyüm which seems to be a genuine word although it is an unvocalized Hap. leg. This word has therefore been entered as küymen-.

Dis. V. GYM-

Dis. GYD

VU?F küde: Hap. leg.; prob. a l.-w.; there is some semantic connection w. 2 küy- (küfi-) but -de: is not a known Dev. Suff. Xak. xı küyde: ‘a furnace’ (al-atün) in which gold and silver ores are melted and refined Kaš. III 173.

E küydüg misreading of kövdörj.

Dis. V. GYD-

S küydür- See kündür- (burn).

Dis. GYG

keyik (? g-) (animal) originally a generic term for any ‘wild four-legged game animal’; hence used as a N. for specific wild animals, deer, wild goat, etc., and as an Adj. for ‘wild, untamed’, and the like. It is therefore often difficult to determine the exact meaning in some contexts. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in NW Kumyk giyik: SW Osm. geyik, but Tkm. keyik. The alternation between -e- and -i- in the first syllable in modern languages confirms original -e-, which is the spelling in O. Kır. Türkü vııı (we settled down) keyik yeyü (sic) tavıšğan yeyü: (sic) ‘living on wild game and hares’ T 8: vııı ff. keyi:k (sic) occurs seven times in IrkB and seems to mean ‘wild game’; e.g. in 15 keyi:k oğlı: ‘young wild animals’, parallel with kiši: oğlı: ‘young human beings’; in 31 and 49 bars keyi:k ‘a leopard and a wild game animal’ went out to look for food together; and in 63 the king’s army went hunting and eli.'k keyi:k ‘roe deer and (other) wild game’ were caught in the ring of beaters: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. yılkı ajunında barmıš kušlar keyikler ‘ (persons who) have been reborn as animals and are birds or wild game’ U II 43, 12-14; a.o. U IV. 18 215 (teŋrikle:-): Civ. kilen keyik müyüzi teg ‘like the horn of a wild unicorn’ (Chinese ch’i lin — Giles 1,044 7,186) TT 142; a.o. H II 14, 122: O. Kır. ıx ff. köyik Mai. 44, 2 (tezig): Xak. xı keyik al-wahšî min kull šay fVl-ašl basically ‘wild’ of anything; and when this word is used specifically (utliqat) it refers to ‘antelopes, wild boars, and wild goats’ (al-ziba wa l-ufr wa’l-uiuül) and any other animals of this kind which are eaten: keyik kiši: ‘a wild man’ (al-nasnes): keyik sögüt ‘a wild (al-wahšt) willow tree’; similarly the wild variety of any domesticated species (šinf phlŋ is called keyik Kaš. III 168; over \755\ 20 o.o. usually translated ‘wild game’; in III 353» 9 al-ziba : KB (this wicked world... does not love those that love it but) keyik teg kačar ‘runs away like a wild thing’ 401; keyik teg turur kilki ‘ (my own) character is like a wild thing’ 698; a.o. 712 (tezig): xııı (?) Tef. keyik ‘wild animal; wild goat’ 178 (kiyik): xıv Muh. al-zvahšî ‘wild animals’ geylk Mel. 54, 8; keyi:k Rif. 138; al-ğazel ‘gazelle’ (iwu:k; in margin) geyig 175 (only): Čağ. xv ff. keyik (‘with k — k’) ehü ‘gazelle’ Vel. 368; Šart. 317T. 13 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) keyik, apparently spelt kik, occurs several times in Oğ., e.g. kik av avlaya turur erdi ‘he was constantly hunting wild game’ 16-17: xıv kedik (sic) ‘wild game’ Qutb 93; Nahc. 338, 4: Kom. xıv ‘wild’ keyik CCI; Gr. 136 (quotn.): Kip. xııı al-tvuhûš mut-laqa (n) ‘wild animals’ in general keyik Hou. 11,2: xıv al-ğazel keyik (/ıvuğ) Bui. 10, 7; baqaru'l-wahši ‘wild cattle’ šawan keyik/ keyik šığır do. 8-9: xv al-ğazel köyik Kav. 62, 6; tvalıš k^yik Tuh. 38b. 3: Osm. xıv andxv geyik ‘wild four-legged animals’ in several texts TTS I 307; III 293.

S keyüg See kedüg.

S küyük See *küfiük.

Tris. GYG

D keyikči: (g-) (hunter) N.Ag. fr. keyik ‘wild game hunter’; pec. to Uyğ.? Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kuš[čı] keyik[či] balıkčı ‘wildfowlers, wild game hunters, and fishermen’ PP 1, 7 — 8; o.o. U II 84, 9; III 54, 5 (>•); 57, 3 (ü)î 58, 8-9 (tokın-); 61, 3; TTIVS, 56.

Dis. GYL

D keylig (g-) (man (scared)) Hap. leg.; presumably a crasis of kiyiklig. Xak. xı keylig ‘a wild man’ (al-nasnes); used metaph. for a man who looks suspiciously in every direction  (scared)as he walks (yamši mutalaffita (n)) like someone stupefied or a wild animal (ka'l-madhüš aıvi’l-tvahšt); he is called keylig kiši: Kaš. III 175.

Dis. V. GYL-

D küye:le:- (g-) Den. V. fr. küye:; survives with the same meaning in SW Osm. güvele-, Xak. xı er kidiz küye:le:di: ‘the man cleared the worms (naza'a'1-süs) out of the felt (etc.) when he shook it and drove them out of it’ Kaš. III 329 (küye:le:r, küye:le:me:k).

Dis. GYM

VU küyüm Hap. leg. and unvocalized, but with a clear semantic connection w. küymen-. Xak. xı ol küyüm küyüm (sic) kü:n ke-čürdi: amde'l-naher fi ğafla le qata'a šuğl vca le kena feriğa (n) ‘he spent the day indolently without actually stopping work or being unemployed’ Kaš. III 169.

Dis. V. GYM-

D küymen- (slothful, aimlessly) Refl. Den. V. fr. küyüm; ‘to be indolent, to potter’. Mis-spelt in Kaš., see E \\ küyfen-. Survives in SC Uzb. kuyman-/ kuymalan- ‘to potter, fuss, feci bothered’. There is a connate form in NE Tel. küymel-‘to dawdle, dither’ R II 1422; SW Tkm. küylen- has much the same meaning. Xak. xı er ı:ška: küymendi: ağfala'1-racıılfi’l-amr wa lain yubrimhu ‘the man dawdled over the matter and did not settle it properly’; küm-yendi: a metathesized alternative pronunciation Kaš. III 196 (küymenü:r, küymenme:k; MS. küyfen- and küfyen-): Čağ. xv ff. küymen- (-di etc.) ta'allul tva bahena eyle- ‘to make excuses, dawdle’ Vel. 375 (quotns.); küymen- (spelt) bahena tva ta'allul kardan San. 310V. 26 (quotns.).

Dis. V. GYN-

S küyün- See kün-.

Dis. V. GYR-

S küyür- See künür-.

Mon. G(Q)Z

1 kez (g-) (notch) ‘the notch of an arrow’; survives only (?) in SW Osm. ğez. Xak. xı V.ez fitqu’l--sahrn ‘the notch of an arrow’; one says ok kezi: Kaš. I 326; a.o. III 318, le: xıv Muh. (i) (among ‘weapons, etc.’) al-fatvaq (? error for al-fûq) o:k kezi: Rif. 173 (only): (Čağ. xv ff. gez (‘with g-’) ‘an arrow without feathers’; and if someone cuts a stick in a garden or wood and ties a string to it and makes a bow, and cuts another stick suitable for shooting and fastens some kind of feather to it and shoots it they call such an arrow gez; and also any straight branch like an arrow on a tree Vel. 353 (quotn.); gez ‘an arrow without feathers or head; a kind of arrow with a thick middle and slender ends’ San. 300V. 7 (quotn.); Steingass lists a Pe. word gas with some of these meanings; it is no doubt a Pe. l.-w.): Kip. xıv kez (MS., in error, küz) hayta yaqa'u'l-filq mina'l-watar ‘ (the place) where the notch for the bowstring is’ Id. 81: Osm. xıv ff. gez ‘the notch in an arrow’; in several texts TTS I 309; II 432! IV 339

2 kez (sediment) Hap. leg.; there does not seem to be any widely distributed word with this meaning. Xak. xı kez al-qurera ‘sediment’, that is the remains of milk, flour, etc., which stick to the bottom of a cooking pot and are scraped off it; one says ešič kezi: (MS., in error, kizi:) Kaš. I327.

F 3 kez (raw-silk) Hap. leg.; no doubt a l.-w., but not Chinese; perhaps cognate to Pe. kazjkajl kac ‘raw-silk’. Cf. barčın. Xak. xı kez ‘the name of a kind of Chinese brocade’ (dibecu'l--Šîn) Kaš. I 327.

1 kiz (g-) (cupboard, clothes bag) (case (box)) Hap. leg.; but cf. kizle:-. Xak. xı kiz al-'atida iva'l-taxt wa 'aybatu'1-tiyeb ‘a perfume box; wardrobe; clothes bag’ and also any kind of ‘cupboard’; hence one says kizde:ki: kin (MS., in error, kiz) yipar ‘the scent of musk stored in a cupboard’; this is said only as a simile for the fragrance of girls’ breath (tib fami'l-caıverŋ Kaš. I 327.

S 2 kiz See kidiz (felt).

1 kö:z (g-) (gaze, eye, sight, spring, aperture) ‘eye’; c.i.a.p.a.i.; göz in NW Kumyk: SW Osm., Tkm.; with extended meanings like ‘a small aperture’, e.g. ‘the eye (of a needle)’, and used in many idiomatic expressions. The meaning ‘a spring’ (of water) is prob. not native Turkish but due to an overliteral translation of Ar. al-'ayn, which means both ‘eye’ and ‘spring’. There is obviously a very old etymological connection with kör- (see, look, obey, experience), q.v. Türkü vııı IN 10 (kör-); IN 11 (1 ka:š), etc.: vııı ff. Man. közin körüpseeing with the eyes’ Chuas. 312; közümte ‘in my view’ (worthless) TT 11 8, 44-' Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (wealth) közige nep ilinmegey ‘will not catch his eye at all’ (i.e. will not attract him) MI 15, 5; köz adakka sevük ‘the eye is dear to the leg’ do. 23, 5-e: Man. közi karam ‘my black-eyed (beauty)’ MII9, 19; a.o. TT III 152 (yum-): 13ud. köz ‘eye’ is common, e.g. köz ağrığ igig ‘an eye disease’ U II 68, 2 (iii); közin ačıp ‘opening his eyes’ UIII35, 29;a.o. PP si, 5~6 (tegler-): Civ. köz ‘eye’ is common, e.g. II I 65 (yaruksuz): Xak. xı kö:z, almost always so spelt, occurs over seventy times, usually translated al-’ayn ‘eye’, less often al-tarf or al-basar ‘sight’ and the like; there is n.m.e. of this or 2 kö:z (embers) in our MS. of Kaš. prob. owing to a scribal error, but the vowel was almost certainly long since there is no comparable confusion in the text at kez, küz, kiz: KB (let your words be) közsüz karağuka köz ‘an eye for the blind’ 178; körürmen közin ‘I see with my eyes’ 926; a.o. 770 (ačıt-): xııı (?) At. közi suk baxll ‘the miser with greedy eyes’ 255; a.o.o.: Tef. köz ‘eye; the bezel of a ring’, and in idioms 181: xıv Muh. al-'ayn gö:z (sic) Mel. 46, 13; Rif. 140; (under ‘dress’) al-fašš ‘the . bezel (of a ring)’ gö:z ka:š 53, 8; 150; 'aynu'l- j -me' ‘a spring of water’ su: gö:zi: 77, 1; 180: Čağ. xv ff. göz (‘with g-’) (1) čaštn ‘eye’; (2) qarha ‘a sore’ which breaks out on the body (quotn.); ( (3) güz); (4) čašma ‘a spring’ San. 3oer. 29 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı köz ‘eye’ ’Ali 21: xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 6, etc.: xıv ditto, also ‘spring’ Qutb 104; MN 100, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘eye’ köz CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı (under ‘waters’) al 'ayn, 'aynu'1-me' (sic) köz Ilou. 6, 19; (under ‘parts of the body’) al-'ayn köz do. 20, 3: xıv köz al-'ayn... also al-me'u'l--ma'in ‘spring water’ Id. 81; 'ayni közüm... 'aynıık közün Bul. 16, 10-12: xv al-'ayn köz Kav. 60, 11 — 12; 'aynu'1-sü' ‘evil eye’ šakır köz; 'ayn köz Bul. 24b. 6; a.o.o.: Osm. xıv ft‘. göz ‘eye’ noted in several idiomatic expressions TTS 1330 ff.; \\ 461 ff.; III 317 ff.;7F362 ff.

2 kö:z (embers) ‘burning embers’; survives only (?) in 'A SW Az., Osm. köz; Tkm. kö:z; there arc\J traces of a syn. word w. back vowels in some modern languages, e.g. NE Alt., Leb., Šor, Tel. kos R II 621: SE Türki koz Shaw 156 (only), but their status is dubious. Xak. xı kö:z al-camr ‘burning embers’ / 337, 12 \\  (1 ür-); n.m.e. (see 1 kö:z (gaze, eye)): xıv Muh. al-camr gö:z Mel. 68, 16; kö:z Rif. 169: Čağ. xv ff. köz (with k-) axger-i afrilxta ‘burning embers’ San. 3oer. 28 (prov.): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 104: Kip. xıv köz... also bayna'l--camr wa'l-aykar; the last word does not exist in normal Ar. and is prob. a corruption of Pe. axgar (see Cağ.) td. 81; al-camr köz Bul. 4, 12: xv ditto Tuh. 11b. 3: Osm. xıv ff. köz ‘burning embers’; c.i.a.p., esp. in Ar. and Pe. dicts. TTS I 492; \\ 662; III 484; IV 549.

2 köze:- (poke a fire, stir up burning embers) Den. V. fr. 2 kö:z (embers); ‘to poke a fire, stir up the burning embers’; koze:di: ‘he poked the fire with a poker’ Kaš. III 265 (köze:r, köze:me:k).

D kö:zme:n (bread) Den. N. fr. 2 kö:z (embers) (burning embers) bread (baked) in the hot ashes;

Tris. GZC

küz (g-) (autumn) ‘autumn’; s.i.a.m.l.g.; güz in NW Kk., Kumyk: SW Osm., Tkm. (güyz); Čuv. kSr Ash. VII 271. Türkü vııı (?) küzte: ‘in the autumn’ Hoyto Tamir X 3 (ETY II 171): Uyğ. vııı ol yıl küzin ‘in the autumn of that year’ Šu. E 8: vııı ff. Civ. küz is fairly common in USp. in such phr. as küz yağıda ‘at the beginning of autumn’ 1,4: Xak. xı küz al-xarif ‘autumn’ Kaš. I 327; a.o. II 172, 4 (kelig); III 160, 19: xııı (?) At. kelür küz kečer yaz ‘autumn comes, summer passes’ 471; a.o. 472 (tüket-): xıv Muh. al-xarif gü:z Mel. 79, 17; kü:z Rif. 184: Čağ. xv ff. güz (with g-) (3) ‘the three months of the season of autumn’ (xarif) San. 306V. 2: Xwar. xıv küz ‘autumn’ Qutb 108: Kom. xıv ditto CCI, CCG; Gr. 160 (quotns.): Kip. xıv küz fašlu’l-xarif td. 81; al-xarifküz Bul. 13, le:xv ditto Kav. 36, 15 (MS., in error, büz).

Mon. V. GZ-

kez- (g-) (go, move) ‘to travel, walk about, traverse’, usually with the connotation of walking about to view the scenery or the like rather than travelling to a specific destination. The V. is Trans, and places traversed are in the Acc. S.i.a.m.l.g., gez- in NW Kk., Kumyk: SW Osm., Tkm. Uyğ. vııı (VU) Čığıltır költe: ak suv (? so read) kezü: sügüšdim ‘I walked along the Ak Suv (river) from the (VU) Čığıltır lake and fought a battle’ Šu. E e: vııı ff. Man. TT III 60-1 (1 e:l): Bud. ol kutluğ orunlanğ kezser tegzinser ‘if one travels through those holy places and circulates (round them)’ Hüen-ts. 93-4; U III 20, 5 (i) (1 a:r- (tired, exhausted, weak)): Xak. xı ol ye:rig kezdi: ‘he traversed (naqqaba) the place and walked about in it’ (lefafihe) Kaš. II 10 (keze:r, kezme:k): KB ajunuğ kezermen maga yok orun ‘I traverse the world and have no (fixed) place of my own’ 747; a.o. 79: xııı (?) Tef. kez- ‘to traverse’ 169: xıv M«/ı. (f) seha wa tafarrada (?) ‘to travel by oneself, alone (?)’ kez- (MS. ker-) Rif. no (only): Čağ. xv ff. kez- (-dik, ‘with k-’) gez- ve sayr eyle- ‘to travel’ Vel. 358 (quotn.); kez- gaštan wa sayr kardan ‘to ramble, travel’ San. 313V. 12 (quotns.); kezgardidan ’to ramble’ is pronounced with -e- (not -i-) do. 25V. 2e: Xwar. xııı kez- ‘to walk about or through’ 'Ali 47: xıv ditto Qutb 97: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı dera mina'l-dawren ‘to traverse’ kez- Hou. 40, e: xıv kez- tefa Id. 82; al-daıuren kezmek Bui. 5, 13 \. xv dera mina'l-dawren kez- Kav. 77, 16.

Dis. GZE

D keze: (g-) Gerund of kez- (g-) (go, move) used as an Adv.; ‘in succession, in due course’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the sun and moon...) tört buluouğ keze yarutı tınlığ-larığ Igldür ‘illuminate the four quarters (of the world) in succession and nourish living creatures’ TT VI 244-5: Civ. iki üč kata muni teg kılsar keze uz ačılur ‘if one acts like this two or three times, in due course it is completely cured’ II I 153-4.

Dis. V. GZE-

D 1 köze:- (g-) (gaze) Den. V. fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye); survives in SW Tkm. göze- ‘to tie up the mouth of a sack or the like, to prevent the contents from coming out’; this and the Osm. meaning seem to derive fr. kö:z in the meaning of 'hole, aperture’, and the like; in Xak. it seems rather to mean ‘to pick the eyes out’. Xak. xı ol üzümni: köze:di: natafa wa'ltaqata habbe-ta’l-'inab mina'I-unqud ‘he plucked (Hend.) individual grapes from the bunch’ Kaš. III 265 (no Aor. or Infin.; follows 2 köze:-): Osm. xv ff. göze- is used in several Pe. dicts, for ‘to mend holes in a garment’ and once for ‘to sieve (grain)’ TTS 7/463; III 318; IV 363: xvııı göze- (‘with g-’) in Rumi, rufü kardan cema ‘to mend (holes in) a garment’ San. 3oer. 28.

D 2 köze:- (reignite) Den. V. fr. 2 kö:z (embers); ‘to poke a fire, stir up the burning embers’; survives with the same meaning in NE Koib. R II 1300; and SW Tkm. kö:ze- ‘(of a fire) to burn up’ (Intrans.). Xak. xı ol ot koze:di: harata'1-ner bi’l-mihret ‘he poked the fire with a poker’ Kaš. III 265 (köze:r, köze:me:k).

D küze:- (g-) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. küz. Xak. xı ol yayla:ğda: küze:di: ‘he spent the autumn (aqema'l-xarif) in the summer pasture’ (etc.) Kaš. III 265 (küze:r, küze:me:k).

Dis. GZC

F küzeč ‘a jug’ or other vessel; it appears fr. TT I 197-9 (see Si:-) that it could be a vessel standing on legs. Unquestionably a l.-w. fr. some Iranian language, cf. Sogdian kivzt'yk (küzatik?) ‘a jug’ and Pe. keza (also a l.-w. in Ar.), but it is not clear whether it is an actual Iranian word or a Turkish Dim. f. in -č fr. such a foreign word. Cf. küveč. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VIII C. 10 (batığlık): Civ. TT I 189 (idiš); 194-7 («:-): Xak- XI küzeč al-küza (MS., in error, al-lawza) wa’l-bastuqa ‘a jug, an earthenware water vessel’; this word agrees with the Ar. except that the (final) ha is changed to cim Kaš. I 360: Arğu: xı kü-deč (with del) also al-küza; there is a similar interchange between dal and zey in Ar., e.g. dabara and zabara ‘to write’ and me' dueq and zueq ‘brackish water’ Kaš. I 360.

Tris. GZC

DF küzečlig Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. küzeč. Xak. xı (after küzečlik) and the owner (of an earthenware water vessel) with -g Kaš. I 506.

Tris. GZC

DF küzečlik Hap. leg.; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. küzeč. Xak. xı küzečlik tltig ‘clay suitable for making an earthenware water vessel’ (al-bastilqa) Kaš. I 506.

Dis. GZD

D közet (g-) Hap. leg., but see közetči:, közetlig; morphologically a Dev. N. in -t fr. köze:-, but semantically connected with közed-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Hud. üč közet ödün ‘at the time of the third night watch (of two hours)’ TT V 10, 99 (ungrammatical translation of a Chinese phr.).

Dis. V. GZD-

D kezit- (g-) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of kez- (g-) (go, move); in other languages the Caus. f. is kezdür- or the like, not noted in the early period. Xak. xı ol meni: ye:r kezitti: ‘he made me traverse (tawwafanŋ the place’ Kaš. II 306 (kezitü:r, kezitme:k).

D köze:d- (g-) (gaze, eye) Trans. Den. V. fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye); ‘to guard, protect, watch’, and the like. Kaš.’s etymology is absurd; he was misled by the fact that the -d- was assimilated to the -t- in the Perf. In Uyğ., usually in the Hend. kü-közed-, same meaning. Survives only (?) in NE Šor, Tel. küzet- ‘to tend or watch (sheep)’. See közet and ködez-. Türkü vııı inim Kül Tegİnig közedü: ‘protecting (or watching over) my younger brother Kül Tegin’ I W 1 (a much damaged passage): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. usually in the phr. kü- közed- M III 36, 4-6 (iii) (also I 31, 4-6 (ı); kü:-); TT IX 55 — (after a gap) közedip TT III 116; siz yarlıkamıš yarlığığ sımtağsız kögülün kö-zetdi («c?) ‘they respected the commands which you had given with a mind free from carelessness’ do. 131; a.o. 137: Bud. usually in the phr. kü- közed- and esp. küyü közedü tut- U IV 36, 81-3 (ačın-); o.o. (kü:-j — bu kapağ közedü tururlar ‘they stand guarding this gate’ PP 42, 3-4; etöz közedgü tamğa ‘a mıtdre for protecting the bodv’ TT V 8, <53; [gap] küze:tgülük (sic) TT' VIII A. 1; o.o. PP 73, 3 (borluk); U III S2, 25 and see yüze:gü:: C-iv. etözügln közedsersen ‘if you protect your body’ TT 142; o.o. do. 173 (2 ergür-); VII 27, 2 and 9; 28, 27 and 48: Xak. xı ol meni: közettı: intazaranî ‘he watched (or watched for) me’; its origin is kö:z attı: rame bi-basarihi ilayya intizera (n) ‘he threw a watchful glance at me’ Kaš. II 306 (közetü:r, közetme:k); a.o. II 86 (ködez-); közetmiš ne:ŋ al-šay’u'l--mahfüš ‘a thing which is protected’ II 170, 6; it is used, translated hafaza, to illustrate con-jugational forms in II 318-21: (KB in 26 and 168 the Vienna MS. has közet- where the Fergana MS. has ködez-): xııı (?) Tef. közet-before -di; közez- before other Suffs.; once (? error) közer- ‘to protect’ 187-8 (küxet etc.): Čağ. xv ff. közet-/közle- (both spelt) ba-nazar cust-cü kardan ‘to look diligently for (something)’ San. 305V. 23 (quotns.): Xwar. xv ff. közed- ‘to be on one’s guard’ Qutb 108 (küzed-): Kip. xv raqaba ‘to watch over’ közet- Tuh. 17a. 12: Osm. xıv to xvıı gözet-‘to watch, watch for, expect'; in three texts TTS II 464.

Tris. GZD

D közetči: N.Ag. fr. közet; survives in NE Tel. küzetčl (jf’c) ‘shepherd’ R II 1507. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. biz ordu kapağ közetči biz ‘we are the guardians of the palace gate’ PP 43, 5-6; a.o. Suv. 401, 9-10 (tegin-): (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. közezči (sic) ‘guardian, protector’ 188: (xiv Muh. nefir tea cestls ‘watchman, spy’ gözde:či: Mel. 50, 12; közde:mči: Rif. 145: Xwar. xıv közetčisiz ‘unprotected’ Qutb 104).

D közedigJig P.N./A. fr. a N.Ac. fr. közed-. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit rakšite vanašančle ‘protected in a forest clump’ küze:tiglig a:rığta: TT VIII C.4; a.o. do. A.34 (kaglı:čı:).

D közetlig Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. közet; syn. w. közedlglig. Xak. xı közetlig ne:g ‘a thing which is protected’ (al-mahfiiz) Kaš. I 506.

Tris. V. GZD-

?C közetkil- (g-) occurs only in one laic and badly written Uyğ. text, possibly mistranscribed; -kil- is not a known Den. or Dev. Suff.; perhaps a crasis of közet kıl-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kagim teŋri burxan yarlika-mıšın tünli künli közetkilür sekiz tümen burxan šravakığ közetkilü alu teginür-men ‘I keep the commandments of my father the divine Buddha by night and day, and venture to keep and receive the eighty thousand Buddha srevakas’ USp. 100, 12-14.

D közetiš- (g-; közediš-); Co-op. f. of közed-; mentioned only as a grammatical example. Xak. xı ol maga: at közetišdi: ‘he helped me to protect (/; hifz) the horse’; also used for competing Kaš. II 322, 16; n.m.e.

Dis. GZG

D kezig (g-) (intermittence, irregularity) Dev. N. fr. kez- (g-) (go, move); with a rather wide range of meanings, none very closely related to those of kez- (g-) (go, move), of which the basic connotation seems to be intermittence, ‘a turn (which comes from time to time); an intermittent illness’. The word is spelt kezig in TT VIII and rhymes with isig in KB which seems to confirm the -g, but some modern forms point to an alternative final -k, perhaps going back to a parallel form kezek, a Dev. N. in -ek, but it is impossible to associate particular meanings with these alternatives. Survives in SE Türki kezik ‘typhus’ J3Š 524: NC Kır., Kzx. kezek/kezü: ‘turn’; kezlk ‘fever’: SC Uzb. (provincial) kezak ‘turn’: NW Kk. gezek ‘turn’; gezik ‘a cold in the head’; Kumyk gezik ‘turn’; Nog. gezüv ‘turn’: SW Osm. gezek ‘patrol’; gezik ‘a rodent ulcer’; Tkm. gezek ‘a turn’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. islmeklig kezig Igig ‘a recurrent \759\ fever’ (occurring every, every other, every third or fourth day) U II 68, 1-5 (ı); kezig ig kiğen ‘recurrent diseases (Hend.)’ TT V 8, 83 — tüzünler kezigige kirü tükeser ‘if one succeeds in entering the ranks of the good men’ TT V 22, 34 — Sanskrit kelakramena ‘in the course of time’ ölömlög kezig birle: a:zu tize: ‘with, or upon, the turn of death’ TT VIII D.28; o.o. do. D. 11, etc. (eyin); TT V 20, 6 (2 kuŋ; 24, 57 (tlzig); 26, 107-8 (idnla:-): Civ. [gap] kezigj ‘the succession’ (of the nine thresholds) TT VII 13, 2; (let all the workers of the domain go) kezigde ‘in turn’ USp. 25, 6; onunč kezigke tutzun ‘let him take it for the tenth round’ 65, 7-8; a.o. 80, 5: Xak. xı kezig al-humme ‘fever’, which takes a man with shivering fits (bi-ra'da); sang kezig ‘jaundice’ (al-yaraqan); kezig al-nawba ftl-’amal, ‘a turn’, in relation to work; hence one says senig kezi:gi:g (sic) keldi: ‘your turn has come'; kezig al-ctir’a ‘daring’; one says bu: i:šta: saga: kezig kere:k ‘you need daring in this business’ tva ma nehu'l-awwal its meaning is (the same as) the previous one (the significance of this is obscure) Kaf. I 391: KB (a high position has come to you) kezigče ‘in your turn’ 236; similar phr. 1476, 4760; dawlat kezlgi ‘your turn for good fortune’ 4761; (fortune is elusive ... if it runs away) tegmez yana terk kezig ‘your turn does not quickly come again’ 713; similar phr. 2382, 3628: Čağ. xv ff. kezek (‘with k- -k’) ‘a rodent ulcer’ (akila marad) (quotn.); and they also use it for a game played with a wooden drinking cup (? ; minqar) Vel. 352 (gezek (‘with g-’) ‘a sweetmeat’ is the Pe. word gazak); gizek (spelt) sayr tva gardif ‘travel, wandering about’; and metaph. (ŋ pas wa hiresat ‘the (night) watch’ (quotn.); (2) pesben tva haris ‘sentry, guard’ (quotn.); (3) natobat ‘turn’ San. 3i4r. 18: Kom. xıv ‘pestilence’ keziv CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv ff. kezik ‘turn’ in one xıv text TTS I 453; gezek (jic?) ‘turn’ in one xvı text III 293 (kešig in the same sense in I 453; IV 503 is A reborrowing fr. Mong., where, by -z- > -s-; -si- > -fi-, the word became kefig; there was some confusion between this word and kesek, see Haenisch 99, and it is not easy to identify in Mong. but the P.N./A. kefiktii ‘sentry, bodyguard’ is noted in xııı , Haenisch 100. See also Doerfer I 331-2).

Tris. GZG

D kezük (g-) (shuttle, челнок) Pass. Dev. N. fr. kez- (g-) (go, move); lit. ‘something which is moved to and fro’; ‘a weaver’s shuttle’. The word carries one damma in the MS. which has been falsely attributed to the küf by previous editors, but it precedes kezig, which precedes küjek, so must have had a fatha on the first syllable and the člamma on the second. Survives only (?) in SE Türki ktiztik ‘shuttle’ BŠ 557. Xak. xı kezük the translation is corrupt; ?read huwa (MS. fŋ elatu'1-haik bi'l- (MS. al) -xuyufi’l-mun'aqida ba'tfuhe 'ale ba'4 bihe yufarraqu'l-sadal-a'le mina’l-asfal ‘a weaver’s instrument with thread wrapped over and over round it with which the upper and lower \\ warp threads are parted’; also used by the weaver (nesic) of brocade, etc. Kaf. I 391.

D küzki: (g-) N./A.S. fr. küz; ‘autumnal’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; NW Kk. güzgi; Kumyk güzgü: SW Tkm. güzkü. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. küzki üč aylarda ‘in the three autumn months’ TT VII 38, 5-6; a.o. TT I 134 (tğač): Xak. xı KB üči küzki yulduz ‘three of (the signs of the zodiac) are autumn stars’ 142.

Dis. V. GZG-

D küzük- (g-) Intrans. Den. V. fr. küz; ‘to turn to autumn, become autumnal’. Survives in NE Alt., Tel. R II 1509; cf. küzger-, Xak. xı yı:l küzükti: ‘the year turned to autumn’ (šera xarlf) Kaf. II 118 (küzüke:r, küzükme:k).

D kezger- (g-) Trans. Den. V. fr. kez; pec. to Xak. Xak. xı er ok kezgerdi: ‘the man cut a notch (fatvtvaqa) in an arrow’ Kaf. II 196 (kezgerür, kezgerme:k); a.o. III 106, 14.

D közger- (g-) (gaze, eye) Hap. leg.; Trans. Den. V. fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye). Xak. xı ol atamnı: maga: közgerdi: ‘he brought about an interview (al-mu ayana) between me and my father’, that is a meeting (al-muleqet) Kaf. II 196 (közgerür, közgerme:k).

D küzger- (g-) Den. V. fr. küz. Both forms below are Hap. leg.; cf. küzük-. Xak. xı ödlek küzgerdi: tatvaccaha’l-zamen an yašîr xarif ‘the season turned in the direction of autumn’ Kaf. II 196 (küzgerür, küzgerme:k): ö:d (time) küzerdi: same translation, but al-waqt ‘time’ for al-zamen II 77 (küzerür, küzerme:k).

D közkiš- (g-) (gaze, eye) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of kozük-, Den. V. fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye), which s.i.m.m.I.g.; gözük-in SW Osm., Tkm. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (he is ready to go to King Ğileditya and) savvšıg baxšılar birle közkišgeli ‘have an interview with the Hinayana teachers’ Hüen-ts. 255-6.

Tris. GZG

D köze:gü: (poker, кочерга) Dev. N. (N.I.) fr. 2 köze:- (reignite); ‘a poker (for stirring the fire)’. S.i.s.m.1. w. substantial phonetic changes, SE Türki kösey: NC. Kır. kösö:/közö:; Kzx. köseü: NW Kk. kosew; Nog. kösev: SW Osm. küskü (rat; mouse); Tkm. kesevi. Xak. xı köze:gü: al-mihdet ‘a poker’ Kaf. I 448 (prov.): Kom. xıv ‘poker’ kösöv CCG; Gr.

D keziglig (g-) (sentry, watchman) P.N./A. fr. kezig (intermittence, irregularity, turn); with various potential meanings; in KB it is more likely to mean ‘sentry’ (cf. the Mong. l.-w. kefiktii ‘sentry’) than ‘feverish’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. in a brief damaged document, USp. 68 one Baš kara (?) is apparently required to act as herdsman kez[ig]lig ‘because it is his turn’: Xak. xı KB (he lay down but could not sleep) keziglig kiši teg közin yummadı ‘like a sentry (?) he did not close his eyes’ 4890.

Tris. GZG

PU?F közkeni: Hap. leg.; the vowel marks, though faint, seem to indicate this pronunciation; prob. a l.-w. Xak.xi közkeni: al-qutrub, that is ‘a kind of beetle (mina'1-cılen) that flies about at night with a buzzing sound’ (ma tantn) Kaš. I 493.

PIJ?F közkenek (lizard, bird (falcon)) Hap. leg.; the dicts, translate at-'azaya 'a large lizard’, but as 'aze means ‘to injure’ and the like it presumably also means some kind of bird of prey. Prob. a l.-w. Xak. xı közkenek ‘a bird which resembles the saker falcon (al-saqŋ and al-'azdya, and makes violent attacks in the air’ ( ?; yataballağ bi’l-rilı) Kaš. I 528.

Dis. GZL

D kezlik (g-) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 kez; lit. ‘an instrument for making notches’; a l.-w. in Pe. as gazlak/gizlik; survives in SW Osm., Tkm. gezlik ‘a small knife, pocket knife’, and the like. Xak. xı kezlik ‘a small knife (sikkin) which a woman has with her fastened to her dress’ Kaš. I 478: Čağ. xv ff. gezlik (spelt) ‘a small knife’ (kard)\ also current in Pe, as gizlik San. 300V. 15: Kip. xıv kezlik ‘a knife (sikkin) used for making arrow notches’ (li'l-ffiq) Id. 81.

D küzlüg (g-) (autumnal) P.N./A. fr. küz; svn. w. küzki; survives in SW Osm. güzlü ‘autumnal’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. üč künlük yaz (PU) kuv-rağlık bir yarım kün küzlüg [kuvrağlık] ‘three days communal laboıır (?) in the spring and one and a half in the autumn’ USp. 55, 21-2; yazlığ küzlügi [gap] do. 66, 4.

D közlük (g-) (gaze, eye) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye); survives meaning ‘eye-glasses; (a horse’s) blinkers or eye shields’ in several NW languages and SWT Az. közlük (g-); Osm., Tkm. gözlük. Xak. xı közlük ‘an object woven from horsehair, put over the eyes when they are suffering from ophthalmia or excessive glare’ (ramadat arv qamirat) Kaš. I 478: Čağ. xv ff. (közlük (‘with k- -k') gözlü ‘having... eyes’ Vel. 368 (quotn.)); gözlük (‘with g-’) (1) they talk of nargis gözlük in the sense of nargis-i čašm ‘pheasant-eve narcissus’ (same quotn.); (2) (see Osm.); (3) ‘a black oily seed used in eye-salves’, in Pe. čašttıak, in Ar. adrasul-kalb Polypodium San. 306V. 7: Osm. xvııı gözlük (2) in Rumi, ‘eye-glasses’ ('aynak) which they put over the eyes to strengthen the sight San. 306V. 8.

Dis. V. GZL-

Ü 1 kezle:- (g-) Den. V. fr. 1 kez; survives, with the same and extended meanings, in Osm. gezle-, Xak. xı ol okin kezle:di: ‘he cut a notch ( füq) in his arrow’ Kaš. III 300 (kezle:r, kezle:me:k): xııı (?) At. (praise the generous man and) baxllka katığ ya okun kezlegil ‘cut a notch in an arrow for a strong bow (to shoot) the miser’ 228: Osm. xıv andxvi gezle- ‘to put the arrow notch on the bowstring’ (?) in two texts TTS II 434; III 293.

D 2 kezle:- Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. 2 kez. Xak. xı kezle:di: (after 1 kezle:-) also used for ‘scraping the sediment off a pot’ (ide axraca'l-qurara mina'I qidr Kaš. III 300.

D kizle:- (g-) (hide) Den. V. fr. 1 kiz (cupboard, clothes bag) (case (box)); lit. ‘to put (something) in a box or bag’, i.e. ‘to hide’. Survives only (?) in SW Az. kizle- (g-); Osm., Tkm. gizle-; elsewhere ‘to hide' is yašur-. Türkü vııı ff. Man. M III 21, 3 (i) (ağı:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kizlephide!’ do. 11, 10 (ii); yemegil begrü (j/c?) kizle yašurğıl ‘do not eat it, hide (Hend.) it safely’ 29, 1 (in: Bud. PP 56, 1 (bekrü:); Iliien-ts. 130-1 (bediz); Suv. 138, 1-2 (yašur-); 140, 20 (egim); 446, 15: Xak. xı ol kizle:di: ne:ijni: ‘he hid (hatama) the thing’ Kaš. III 300 (kizle:r, kizle:me:k); er tava:r kizle:di: ‘the man hid the merchandise’ (etc.); its origin is the noun kiz III 318, 17; kizlep tutar sevüklük al-hubbıi l-maktüm ‘concealed affection’ II 172, 10; a.o. III 71, 20: KD kerek sözni sözler kiši kizlemez ‘a man says what is necessary and does not hide it’ 185; o.o. 311-12, 665, 970, 977-8 (kergeklig), etc.: xıı (?) KBVP 13 (ur-): xıı (?) At. 118 (köm- (dig, bury, cultivate)), 169 (katığ); a.o.o.; Tef. kizle- ‘to hide’ 178: xıv Muh. al-cantm ‘to hide’ gizlemek (MS. -niah) Mel. 39, 8; Rif. 125 (corrupt h for c, -r- for -z-): Čağ. xv ff. kizle-/kizlet- (spelt) 'Frans. V., ‘to hide' (pitıhetı kardan) Satt. 313V. 27 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ditto 'Ali 58: xıv ditto Qutb 99: Kip. xııı xabba ‘to hidekizle:- Hou. 39, 20: xıv kizle- xaba'a ditto; and in the Kiteb Beylik tamara ‘to hide in the ground’ 82: xv xabba kizle- Kav. 77, 13; Tuh. 14b. 9 (also (VU) tornala-, yašır-, šakla-, šakın-).

D közle:- (g-) (gaze) Den. V. fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye); s.i.a.m.l.g. with some phonetic changes and a wide range of meanings of which the commonest is ‘to keep under observation’; gözle- in NW Kk., Kumyk; SW Osm., Tkm.; közle- (g-) in Az. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 64 (körüklüg): Xak. xı ol am: közle:di: ‘he hit him in the eye’ (al-’ayn) Kaš. III 300 (közle:r, közle:me:k; but see közleš-): Čağ. xv ff. közle- (-11) gözle-Vel. 368; San. 305V. 23 (közed-): Xwar. xııı közle- ‘to watch, watch for’ 'Ali 58: xıv ditto Qutb 105: Kip. xııı nazara ‘to eve, look at’ közle:- lîou. 35, 3; kö:zle:- do. 36, 17: xıv közle- 'ayana 71a raqaba ‘to view; to watch over’ İd. 82: xv Tuh. 17a. 12 (közed-): Osm. xıv ff. gözle- ‘to watch over, observe, look for’; in several texts TTS I 333; II 466; IV 365.

D kezlet- (g-) Caus. f. of kezle:-; survives in SW Osm. gezlet-. Xak. xı ol ok kezletti: ‘he ordered that a notch (ftiq) should be made in the arrow’ Kaš. I1 348 (kezletü:r, kezletme:k).

D kizlet- (g-) Caus. f. of kizle:-; s.i.s.m.l.; SW Az. kizlet- (g-); Osm. gizlet-, Xak. xı ol maga: sö:z klzletti: ‘he urged me to conceal ('aid kitman) the statement’ Kaš. II 348 (kizletü:r, kizletme:k): Čağ. xv ff. San. 313V. 27 (kizle:-).

Dis. GZN

D 1 kezlen- (g-) Refl. f. of 1 kezle:- ; survives in SW Osm. gezlen-. Xak. xı ok kezlendi: ‘the arrow was notched’ (fuwidqa) Kaš. II 252 (followed by 2 kezlen-).

D 2 kezlen- Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of 2 kezle:-. Xak. xı ešič kezlendi: ‘the sediment stuck (i!tašaqati'l-qurara) to the bottom of the cooking pot’ Kaš. II 252 (kezlenli:r, kezleninerk).

U kizlen- (g-) Refl. f. of kizle:-, often used as a Pass.; survives only (?) in SW Az. klzlen- (g-); Osm., Tkm. gizlen-, Xak. xı ol tavairm kizlendi: ‘he pretended to hide (yaktum) his property’, also for ‘he applied himself to hiding (istabadda bi-kilmen) his property’ Kaš. II 253 (kizlenü:r, kizlenme:k): Čağ. xv ff. kizlen- 'to be hidden’  (pinhen šudarŋ San. 314T. 15: Xwar. xıv kizlen- ‘to hide oneself’ Qutb 99; MN 219: Kom. xıv ‘hidden’ kizlenmiš CCG; Gr.

D kezleš- (g-) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of kezle:-. Xak. xı ol agar ok kezlešdi: (translated) ‘he competed with him in cutting notches (fi tafiviq) in arrows’; also used for helping Kaš. II 224 (kezlešü:r, kezlešme:k; ‘competing’ should have amg blrle:; agar ,s appropriate only for ‘helping’).

D kizleš- (g-) Recip. f. of kizle:- ; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ola:r ikki: tavarr kizlešdi: ‘those two hid (katama) their property (etc.) from one another’ Kaš. II 224 (kizlešü:r, kizlešme:k): Čağ. xv ff. kizleš- Co-op. f. ‘to be hidden together’ (be-ham pinhen šudan) San. 3i4r. 14.

D közleš- (g-) Recip. f. of közle:-; s.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: közlešdi: ‘he competed with me in looking’ (or staring,/f’l-ru'ya), that is he eyed me ('eyananŋ and I eyed him Kaš. II 224 (közlešü.T, közlešme:k).

Tris. GZL

D közüklürük (g-) N.I. ultimately der. fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye); the -ill- is irregular, perhaps inserted by false analogy w. tizildürük der. fr. tizll- and kömüldürük der. fr. kömül (kögül), but the Kip. form is a regular Dev. N. fr. közün- (visible, appear), N.o.a.b.; cf. közlük. Xak. xı közüldürük ‘an object woven from horsehair, put over the eyes when they are suffering from ophthalmia or excessive glare’; alternative form közlük Kaš. I 529: (Kip. xıv közündürük ‘a shade (al-ša'riya) put over the eyes’ Id. 81).

D kizleglig (g-) Hap. leg.; P.N./A. fr. a Dev. N. fr: kizle:-; ‘hidden’. Uyğ.vııı ff. Bud. USp. 101, 20-1 (örtüglüg).

D kizlenčü: (g-) Dev. N./A. fr. kizlen-; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kentü kiz-lenčügün... kizleg ‘hide your own hidden treasure’ (without being miserly regarding the pure doctrine, believing with a generous mind and not doubting) M III xi, 7-10: Xak. xı kizlenčü: ‘a hidden treasure’ (al-xabtya), and in the prov. kizlenčü: kelinde: ‘a hidden \\ treasure is found in the bride’, because she keeps her charms hidden for her husband Kaš. III 242: xiıı (?) Tef. kizlenčü ganclar ‘secret treasures’ (Pe. l.-w.) 178: Xwar. xıv kizlenči ‘hidden’ Qutb 99.

Dis. GZM

D kö:zme:n Den. N. fr. 2 kö:z (burning embers); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı kö:zme:n xubzul-malla ‘bread (baked) in the hot ashes’ Kaš. I 444; a.o. II 27, 11 (köm- (dig, bury, cultivate)).

Dis. GZN

küzen ‘polecat’; a very old word, a First Period l.-w. in Mong. as kürene (Kow. 2636, Haltod 237) and Hungarian as göreny; the suggestion, see Doerfer I 328, that this word is connected w. Mong. kürenjküreı7 ‘brown’ which later became a l.-w. in some Turkish languages is improbable on phonetic grounds, but not impossible. S.i.a.m.l.g. except SE, see Shcherbak, p. 146. Xak. xı küzen (zey unvocalized) ‘an animal of the rat (al-curden) family used to hunt sparrows and also (ayda (n)) jerboas’ Kaš. I 404: Xwar. xıv küzen Zaj. suggests ‘weasel, marten’ but the context would equally admit of ‘polecat’ Qutb 108 (note refces. to old Osm.): Kom. xıv ‘polecat’ kara küzen CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-arsa ‘weasel’ kü:ze:n (MS. kü:ne:n) Hou. 11, 14: xıv küzen al-nüns Sveasel, ferret’, and in the Kiteb Beylik al-dalaq ‘marten’ Id. 82; al-nims küzen Bul. 10, 9: xv ditto Tuh. 36a. 12.

D közgü: (g-) (mirror) contracted Dev. N. (N.I.) fr. közün- (visible, appear), listed as a Dis. under fa'le in Kaš.; ‘mirror’. Survives in NC Kır. küzgü: SC Uzb. ktfzgu: NW Kar. küzgü; Kumyk güzgü: SW Az. küzgü (g-); Tkm. gözgi, but elsewhere displaced by j.-w.s like Ar. 'ayna. See Doerfer III 1674. Türkü vııı ff. words transcribed küzkü:si: and küzküm (no doubt misreadings of közgü:si:, közgüm) appear on two metal mirrors of unknown provenance ETY II 171; IrkB 22 (ıčğın-): Yen. [sekjiz bağı:r (sic) köznü:si: on kara: közgü:si: ‘his eight copper mirrors and ten black mirrors’ Mai. 26, 11 : Uyğ. vııı ff. Man (spirits) közügüče közünüpen ‘appearing like (shapes in) a mirror’ M II 12, 6-7: Bud. közügüde ‘in a mirror’ USp. 102a. 10; a.o. TT VI 410-11 (etiglig): Civ. (he should rub in the salve and) közügüde körzün ‘look in a mirror’ III 125: Xak. xı közgü: al-mir'et ‘a mirror’ Kaš. III 379; o.o. III 45 (yüzlüg), 132 (5 kü:g): xıv Muh. al-mir'et gö.*zgü: Mal. 68, 12; Rif. 169 (k-): Čağ. xv ff. közgü ‘with k- -g-’) 'ayna ‘mirror’ Vel. 368; gözgü ‘with g-’) eyina ‘mirror’ San. 306V. 5: Xwar. xıv közgü ‘mirror’ Qutb 109; MN 248: Kom. xıv ‘mirror’ küzgü CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-mir'et kö:zü:gü: Hou. 18, e: xıv köznü: (Pközgü: intended) ditto Id. 81: xv ditto közgi: Kav. 64, 10: Osm. xıv ff. gözgü (gözigü, gözügü), once (xiv) gözügü ‘mirror’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 331; II 464; III 319; IV 364.

Dis. GZN

E közünč seems to be a mistranscription of küsünč (küsenč), q.v., in M II 8, 17; U I 6, 14 and is a scribal error for körünč, q.v., in Kaš. III 373, 12.

D köznek (g-) (reflection) Hap. leg. (?); contracted Dev. N. fr. közün- (visible, appear); occurs in a passage about throwing out a bridge to people who have trodden on ‘a reflection’ on the surface of the water thinking it to be a solid object. See közünük. Uyğ. vııı fr. Man. TT III 55 (suklun-).

Dis. V. GZN-

D közün- (g-) (visible, appear) Refl. f. of *köz-, presumably a very old alternative pronunciation of kör-, which is obviously connected etymologically with 1 kö:z (gaze, eye); syn. w. körün-, ‘to be visible, to appear’. In phr. like közünür ajun ‘the visible world’, the Aor. Participle practically means ‘present’, as opposed to ‘past’ and ‘future’. Türkü vııı ff. Man. bĞš közünür tavglrd (Iranian l.-w. ?) etöz smlan ‘the five component parts of the visible... body’ M III 18, 12-13 (Ü); b^š közünmez tutulmaz yavlak biHgler ‘the five invisible, impalpable evil mental states’ do. ig, 14-15 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M II 12, 6-7 (közgü:); TT II 16, 28 (a:ju:n); 111 148; IX 46, xi6 (ka:n-): Hud. közün- is common, e.g. (there is a mountain over there) közünürmü ‘is it visible?’ PP 37, 6; közünürsiz ‘you appear to be’ (a very strong man) do. 66, 5; közünür ajun ‘the visible (present) world’ do. 11, 3; Stw. 474, 20 etc. — (you will go into the city and) lu xamga közüngeysiz ‘let yourself be seen by (i.e. present yourself to) the king of the dragons’ PP 40, 1; a.o. 44, 5: Civ. TT 121 (o:z-), 61; (all the signs of thirst) közönür (sic) ‘appear’ VIII I.g] in the astronomical texts közün- (visible, appear) is the standard word for ‘ (of a star) to become, or be, visible’ TT VII 1, 20-2 (loiŋ etc.: Arğu: xı (immediately after körün-) and in Arğu: one says közündi ne:!) ‘the thing was seen’ (ruiya); wa fthi ba'dul-qiyas ‘there is a certain rule concerning it’; it is taken fr. their word kö:z ‘an eye’, but they make a difference (yttxalifün) between the Perf. and the Imperat. and sav kör, that is ‘see’ (abšiŋ w. ra , and the Perf. w. zey Kaš. II 157 (közünür, közünme:k): Kip. xııı îeha ‘to appear’, in the sense of appearing to someone so that he can see you kö:zin- Hon. 43. 17 (the other Kip. authorities have körün-in this sense; this may be a scribal error). [közgü: (g-) (mirror), köznek (g-) (reflection), közün- (g-)/körün- (g-) (visible, appear), közünük (g-) (window)]

Tris. GZN

S közügü See közgü:. (mirror)

D közünük (g-) (window) Dev. N. (Conc. N.) fr. közün- (visible, appear); ‘a window’. There is a morphological and semantic difference between this and köznek, q.v., -ük being properly a Pass. (or, for Intrans. V.s, an Intrans.) Suff.; this word must therefore lit. mean ‘something which is seen’, perhaps with the application of ‘something which is seen from within the building’ rather than ‘something you see out of’; the later meaning ‘aperture’ and the like is obviously a metaph. extension. Survives in most NE languages as köznek/köznök/ közönök/közünök ‘window’ R II 1302-3; Khak., Tuv. közenek: NC Kır. közönök 'aperture; button-hole’: SC Uzb. ktfzannk ‘a hole; a cell (in a honey-comb)’, most of which look more like modern forms of köznek. Türkü vııı ff. (in the para, enumerating parts of a tent) közünüki: ne: teg ‘what is its window like?’ IrkB 18: Čağ. xv ff. gözünek (‘with g- -k’) xirhah asbebi ‘ (part of) the equipment of a tent’ Vel. 368 (quotn.); gözünek (spelt) ditto (az elet-i xaytna) San. 306V. 10 (quotn.).

Dis. V. GZR-

S küzer- See küzger-.

Dis. GZS

D kö:zsüz (g-) (eyeless, blind) Priv. N./A. fr. 1 kö:z (gaze, eye); ‘without eyes, blind’. S.i.a.m.l.; in SW Az. közsüz (g-); Osm. gözsüz. See teglük. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. MI 18, 6 (i) (teglük): Bud. ol közsüz kiši ‘that blind man’ PP 74, 5: Xak. xı KB 178 (kara:ğu:), 271: xııı (?) Tef. közsüz ‘blind’ 182; a.o. 200 (kara:ğu:): Kom. xıv ‘blind’ közsüz; ‘mole’ közsüz (PU) opea (sic) CCI] Gr.: Kip. xııı al-a'md ‘blind’ közsi:z (MS. kizsi:z) Hon. 26, 8: xıv Tkm. közsüz al-a'me ay bile 'ayn (that is ‘without eyes’) Id. 81; ?Kıp. köz’siz (PU) sebek ‘a mole’ (al-xuld) do. 82; al-xuld kössüz temek (? MS. etmek) Bul. 10, 15: xv al-a'me közsiz kiši: dir Kav. 60, 9: Osm. xıv ff. gözsüz ‘blind’, in several texts; gözsüz sepet (xıv),/gözsüz tebek (xviŋ ‘a mole’ TTS II 467; III 320; IV 365-6 (the second words in the Kom., Kip., and Osm. phr. for ‘mole’ are all very obscure, but the xvıı phr. is clearly the origin of the modern word köstebek).

Dis. V. GZŠ-

D keziš- (g-) (cross, traverse) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of kez- (g-) (go, move). Xak. xı ol maga: ye:r kezlšdi: ‘he competed with me in traversing (ft tatıvef) the place’ Kaš. II 100 (kezišü:r, kezišme:k; the translation is wrong; maga: implies ‘he helped me’; ‘he competed with me’ should be meniŋ birle:).

D közeš- Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of 2 köze:-. Xak. xı ol maga: o:t közešti: (sic) ‘he helped me to poke (/i tahrit) the fire’; also used for competing Kaš. II 100 (közešü:r, közešme:k).


It is generally believed, and is no doubt true, that no native Turkish word begins with L; all the words listed below are either demonstrably l.-w.s or of a kind which might reasonably be supposed to be l.-w.s. It is also possible that there are some l.-w.s listed above in which the initial L is preceded by a prosthetic vowel. If so, these would be parallel to the l.-w.s with initial r- preceded by a prosthetic vowel, see R. Some Chinese and Indian l.-w.s with initial L which occur only in Uyğ. texts have not been included below since they never became fully naturalized in Turkish.

Mon. LA

F lu: (dragon) ‘dragon’ l.-w. fr. Chinese lung (Giles 7.479), which was pronounced without the final -ng in some NW Chinese dialects of the first millennium; often spelt luu (representing lu:?) in Uyğ.; prob. originally introduced into Turkish as one of the animals of the twelve-year cycle. In this context it still survives in some modern languages, see O. Pritsak, Die bulgarische Fürstenliste, Wiesbaden, 1955, p. 80. Cf. na:g. (Türkü vııı lüy in It's edition of Ongin 12 is a misreading of kon): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. alku ağuluğ luular' yılanlar 'all kinds of poisonous dragons and snakes’ PP 39, 6; a.o. do. 40, 1 (közün- (visible, appear)); (in a list of supernatural beings) lu Sanskrit nega, a mythical ‘snake’ U II 20, 23; Kuan. 142: (in a list of disreputable professions) luu üntürgüčl yatčı ‘snake charmer and magician’ UII 84, 12; TT IV 8, 60: Civ. luu yıl ‘the dragon year’ USp. 10, 1; 125, 1; common in the same context in TT VII and VIII P.: Čağ. xv ff. luy means nahang ‘crocodile’ in Mong.; also ‘the constellation of the Whale’ (hiit); also the name of one of the Turkish years San. 3i8r. 6 (no doubt reached Mong. through Turkish luu, Koiv. 1965, Haltod 486).

Mon. LB

F la:v (wax) Hap. leg.; l.-w. fr. Chinese la ‘wax’ (Giles 6,668; Pulleybfank, Middle Chinese lep). Xak. xı la:v al-mwmilladi yuxtarn bihi ‘sealing ’ Kaš. III 155.

F liv (cereal) some kind of food, or a dish of food; no doubt a l.-w., prob. fr. Chinese li ‘a grain’, e.g. of rice (Giles 6,958; Pulleyblank, Middle Chinese ljip). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. in TT VII 14 a list of stars, the appropriate offering (hulled millet, rice, etc.) to them is described as livi ašı, e.g. 28 (tuturkan), 39 (buğday); in USp. 88, a charter of rights to a holy man, it is said that various officials üv yemezünler ‘must not eat (his holy?) food (or offerings?)’ 88, 30: Xak. xı li:yü: (or li:w?) Kaš. III 438 (kenč); n.m.e.: KB (the chamberlain) liv aš tdrgl klrse ‘when the table of food is brought in’ (must scrutinize it) 2549; (two things increase the reputation of begs) eHnde tuğl kör törinde livf ‘their banners in the forecourt, the food (which they lay) before the scat of honor’ 2553.

Dis. LCN

?F la:čın (falcon) ‘falcon’, the actual variety differing in different languages, in SE Türki ‘the Bar-bary falcon’, in SW Osm. ‘the peregrine’. The most durable of all words beginning with 1-; s.i.a.m.l.g. as lačm/lašın. Almost certainly a l.-w., prob. Tokharian (Agnean ?). Cf. čavlı:, čağrı:, toğan, turumtay, sırjkur, etc. Türkü vııı ff. La:č[ın] Baylu:k P.N. Mir. B v. 4 (ETY II 66): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (three doves encountered) lačınka ‘a falcon’ Suv. 620, 20: Xak. xı la:čın al-šehin ‘a gerfalcon’; one of the predatory birds; hence men are called La:čın because of their bravery Kaš. I 410: KB 2381 (kov-): xıv Muh. al-šehin la:-čı:n Mel. 72, 13; Rif. 175: Čağ. xv ff. lačın šehîıı in Ar. šaqr; also the name of a tribe of Turks San. 3i7r. 27: Xwar. xıv lačm ‘falcon’ Qutb 109: Kip. xııı al-šehin la:čı:n (-c-) Hou. 10, 2; as a P.N. do. 29, 5: xıv ditto td. 87; Bui. 11, 10: xv ditto Tuh. 20b. 11; as a P.N. do. 41b. 12: Osm. xvııı lačın... and, in Rümi, kuh-i saxt ‘a precipitous mountain’; lačm kaya ‘a precipitous mountain’ in general, and the name of a particular mountain San. 3i7r. 28 (no doubt a geog. name misunderstood).

VUF lučn.t (help) Hap. leg.; second syllable unvocalized. No doubt like other Gancak words a l.-w. Gancak xı lučn.t ‘help in cleaning the grain (etc.)’; that is among the villagers (// ahli'l-qura), they help one another by sending a slave or an animal to thresh the corn Kaš. I 451. (OTD p. 334: LUČNUT общественная взаимопомощь крестьян при молотьбе)

Dis. LDA

VUF le:tu: (noodles) Hap. leg.; perhaps l.-w. fr. Chinese leng-t'ao ‘to wash in a sieve with cold water’ (Giles 6,869 10,824). Xak. xı le:tu: ‘noodles’ (atriya) chilled with water, snow, and ice and mixed with seasonings (al-abesiŋ; it is eaten to cool one (li'1-tabrîd) Kaš. III 237.

Dis. LĞD

F loxta:y (girdle) Hap. leg.; no doubt a Chinese phr.; Brockelmann, on the authority of B. Schindler, plausibly suggests lo ‘raw silk’ (Giles 7,323; Pulleyblank, Middle Chinese lek), tai ‘girdle’ (Giles 10,554; Pulleyblank, Middle Chinese teŋ. Cf. barčın, etc. Xak. xı loxtary ‘red Chinese brocade (dibec) with small gold coins (or spangles, fulüs šufŋ attached’ Kaš. III 240.

Dis. LĞN

F la:ğu:n (lagoon) Hap. leg.; an old widely distributed culture word, the immediate source for Turkish uncertain ; Brockelmann quotes Syriac hjinn, Greek lagoinos, Assyrian liginnu, the last prob. the original word. Xak. xı la:ğu:n (cup) 'a hollow (ntanqilŋ object like a grain measure (al-sa) used for drinking milk or water’ Kaš. I 410.

Dis. LĞZ

F lağzı:n (pig, swine) ‘pig, swine'; the earliest name for this animal in the twelve-year cycle; later displaced by topuz (pig, swine), q.v. Prob. a Tokharian (Agnean ?) l.-w. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı lağzı:n yıl ‘in the Pin Year' II S 10: lakzin (sic) yıl lit. A. b.2 (ETY II 122): Uyğ. vııı lağzı:n yılka: Šu. N 11: vııı ff. Man.-A ditto M I 12, le: Bud. (some people...) koy lağzın ulatı tınlığlarığ ölürür ‘kill living creatures like sheep, pips, etc.’ PP 3, 1-3.

Dis. V. LLA-

DF lala:- (chop, cut, slash) Den. V. fr. Chinese la ‘to cut, slash’ (Giles 6,653); this word was let in Middle Chinese, but this V. occurs only in a fairly late Uyğ. text, and by this time the Chinese word had no doubt lost its final consonant. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. (take the beads in a snake’s head (? , see bončuk (bead, bead necklace)), burn them) yumšak sokup lalap ‘crush them and cut them up finely’ II. I 131; o.o. do. 166, 171-2, 183.

Dis. LMG

F limken (yellow plum) Hap. leg.; l.-w. fr. Chinese lin--cliitt, Middle Chinese Ijim-kjim ‘a species of Pyrus' (Giles 7,157 2,101). Xak. xı limken al-iccešıt'1-ašfar ‘’ Kaš. I 444.

Dis. LNG

S ? lengeč See yeŋgeč. (crab; the constellation Cancer)

Mon. LŠH

F löšp (mucus, phlegm) the Tokharian A (Agnean) word trip ‘mucus, phlegm’ found its way into Turkish, prob. through translations of medical texts, and survived in an abraded form until xi. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (demons) lešip ašlığlar 'who cat (vomit) mucus’ UII 61, 10; o.o. Suv. 588, 14; 591, 8; 592, 19 (kuzit-): Civ. lešpmucus’ TT VIII I.$, 7 and 12: Čigil xı le:š al-luab ‘mucus’; le:š also al-balğam ‘phlegm’; one says le:š aktı: ‘the mucus and phlegm flowed’ Kaš. III 127.

Dis. LYA

PUF liyü: (mud) Hap. leg.; in the same para, as le:tu:, between ka:m: and ü:hi:; the first vowel ought therefore to be long, and the word may be corrupt, but it may represent some Chinese l.-w. like liao or liu. Xak. ıx liyü: ‘mud’ (al-tm) which turns into hard clay (crust) (šalšel) when it dries Kaš. III 238.


No native Turkish word except a few onomato-poeics, particles, etc., originally began with m-, but in most Turkish languages initial b-, when followed by a nasal within the body of the word (but not in Suffs.), is changed to m- by assimilation. In a few languages, like Xwar. xııı (?), this change has taken place even when there is no nasal in the word. Words with initial m-, of which the original form has not survived, are listed here as main entries; the remainder are entered here only w. crossreferences.

Mon. MA

1 ma:/l me: (and, too, enclitic: emphasis, indefinite relative) perhaps an abbreviation of yeme:; an Enclitic with several functions, (1) in some cases it is best translated ‘and’ or ‘too’, and indeed has been treated by some authorities as an independent word, although there is no real doubt that it is an enclitic. (2) in others it hardly seems to do more than give some emphasis to the preceding word. (3) attached to the Interrogatives, kim, ne:, etc. it turns them into indefinite relatives, e.g. ne:če: ‘how much?’, ne:če:me: ‘however much'. It disappeared in the medieval period except in a few words like ne:me:, q.v., in which it has become fused with the preceding word to form a new word. It is discussed at length in v. G. ATG, paras. 291, 352; Brockelmann, para. 1446. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kaltı/ınča kalti... ančulayu ma ‘just as ... so also’ M I 13, 10; 14, 13; 17, le: Bud. (the Bodhisattva said) biz me ‘we too’ (when we grow old will deteriorate) USp. 97, le: Civ. ma/me is fairly common in USp. (1) for ‘too, also’, e.g. on beš batman men me berzün ‘let him also give 15 batman of flour’ \\ 76, 8; (2) attached to Interrogatives, e.g. kim kim me čam čarım kilmazunlar ‘do not let anyone object’ 13, 12-13; negüke me kattırmayın ‘without delaying for any reason’ 6, 4-5: Xak. xı neče: me: obrak kedük erse: ‘a garment, however shabby it may be’ (tva t'n kena xalaq) Kaš. III 38, 20; (and see ne:me:); n.m.e.: KB ata ornı kaldı atı ma bile, adın ma takı bolsıı mig mig ula ‘your father’s place remains (for you) and also his name; may there be another too, add thousands more’ 111; (of an ageing sage; ‘his understanding has gone’) ham qalam ma tinar ‘and his pen too comes to rest’ 294; yana ma ayıttı ‘and again he asked’ 525; o.o. 735, etc.: xıı (?) KB VP y^türür kamuğnı ma yemez özi ‘He feeds all and does not eat Himself’ 4; neteg kim tiledi me boldi kamuğ ‘just as whoever he wished came into existence’ 6 (in this sentence me belongs to kim though separated from it): xııı (P) At. (keep away from liars) kečür sen me 'umrug könilik Uze ‘and live your life uprightly’ 154; nečeme ‘however much’ 174; a.o.o.; Tef. nečeme 220: Xwar. xııı (?) (become the chief of the begs here) me ‘and’ (let your name for ever be Karluk) Oğ. 24e: xıv tün me kün ‘night and day’; ma/me Enclitic ‘also’ Qutb 109.

2 ma:/2 me: (exclamation: aha, bingo) an Exclamation, ‘here you are!; take this!’, and the like; s.i.a.m.l.g. sometimes as ma, sometimes me. Xak. xı the word is entered twice, once as mim alif ha , sometimes abbreviated to mim he', and once as mim alif; both might represent me: but ma: is more probable, at any rate for the first; ma: (h) an Exclamation (harf) meaning huneka wa xud ‘here you are; take it’; one says this when handing something over ('inda munawalati'l--šay’) ... to save time one sometimes says ma (h) Kaš. III 118; ma: (or me:?) an Exclamation meaning ‘take it’; hence one says ma: xud wa haka ‘take it, here you are’; it is said both with he' and with alif ma (h); examples of alternative spellings with initial he' and alif in Ar. follow III 213.

3 ma:/3 me:/2 ba:/2 be: (mare) (Chimese ma) See 2 be: (mare) (Chimese ma). Cf. Russian merin.

VU 3 me: (be :) (bleating) onomatopoeic for bleating; survives in SW Osm. me, Red. 2039, which rather than ma: is presumably the sound intended. The Den. V. ‘to bleat’ is first noted as VU mele- in Kip. xiv, Id. 88, and exists as mere- in SE Türki and mele- in SW Az., Osm., Tkm. Xak. xı me: ‘an onomatopoeic for the sound made by lambs, kids, and the like; this agrees with Ar. as is said in Dü'l-rumma bi’smi'l-me' mabgüm (‘bleated’) Kaš. III 214.

4 -ma:-/4 -me:- (verbal negation suffix, negation clitic -ma-): yemegil ‘do not eat it’, yemezünler ‘not eat’, kizlemez ‘does not hide it’, yummadı ‘did not shut’, etc. Identical to prohibitive Skt. me and Gk. mē.

Dis. MCA

F mačı: (cat) the standard word for ‘cat’ in NW, but unknown elsewhere in this form; obviously a l.-w. See četük (cat, tom cat, (female) cat), mü:š. Survives in NW Kar. T. mačı R IV 2050; Kow. 232; Kaz. meče/ meči R IV 2106; there are also cognate forms NE Tel. mıjık R IV 2148: SE Türki möšük BŠ 713; müšük Jarring 203: NC Kır. mıšık; Kzx. mısık: NW Kk. pıštk; Kumyk mišik; Nog. mısık: SW Az., Tkm. pišik. Kom. xıv ‘catmačı CCI; Gr.: Kıp. xııı al-qitt ma:čı: (also called če:tük) Hou. 11, 11: xıv ma:čı: (-c-) al-sinmlr ‘cat’ İd. 87.

Traces of undifferentiated semantics for the unique lexical pair četük - mü:š, just like the distribution of the čat/cat, are spread across Eurasia, including Europe, and across linguistic families: IE group west Albanian branch Alb. mace, Romance branch Fr. mec, Rum. pisica, mata (pisica is an allophone of mü:š with m-/b-/p- alteration, Cf. Az. pišik); Slavic branch Macedon machka (мачка), Serb. machka (мачка), Slvt., Sloven. mačka; Uralic family Hu. macska; Sino-Tibetan family Ch. mao (猫), Türkic family Az. pišik, Kaz. mysyɣ (мысық), Uzb. mushuk; all “cat”, all allophones of mü:š that in other languages of the same linguistic branches stands for “mouse”. The distribution is unidirectional, the “mouse” name is widely applied to cats, while the “cat” name is never applied to mouse, that is a significant indicator. These “mouse” forms for “cat” are allophonic with the “IE” base mü:š for “mouse”, IE etymology cites this base for all IE cognates for the word “mouse”, while the same base for “cat” either escaped or was ignored by the IE-bound linguists, see mouse. The distribution of the pair četük - mü:š “cat - mouse”, the relicts of its undifferentiated semantics period make this phenomenon a paradigm in its own right; the distribution of the members of the pair is an evidence of the paradigm transfer, and a transfer systemic in its progression, with particular clusters of languages propelled toward one or the other meaning. The paradigm does not end there, the word kök (Eng. cock “rooster”) implying maleness also belongs there. A third member associated with the Türkic pair is a term for “rat”, a component of undifferentiated “mouse”, saqïrqan, sïqïrqan (and buzaɣu tïlï, jamlan), also found in Europe (Cf. IE Romance Fr. souris; unknown affiliation Bask sagu, Finno-Ugrian Hu. (s)eger, all “mouse”) and beyond (Cf. Uralic shingere “mouse”, Dravidic (s)agar “mouse”, and the oldest on record Sum. (s)egir “rat”). The evidence is striking in its many manifestations, for example, the Romance branch for “cat” has “cat” form in some languages, “mouse” form in other languages, and “rat” form in third languages. The Gmc. group has only “cat” form for “cat”, and under IE etymological scheme is endowing only the “cat” part of the European “cats”, leaving the other European and Asian “cat” languages to their own devices, including that of the Rum. form that is identical with the Az. form, which in turn is an allophone of the basic Türkic form. The dispersion of the paradigm's components makes a vivid picture. The IE etymological suggestion on “ultimately Afro-Asiatic” (Nubian, Berber) origin of the term “cat” is beyond ludicrous, and the idea of the Nubian-Japanese-Burmise linguistic commonwealth could be diagnosed as schizoid. The Nubian and Berber forms mark the trace of the Celtic 4th mill. BC circum-Mediterranean anabasis traced by R1b Y-DNA dating. All in all, the IE etymology for the “cat - mouse” paradigm looks more like a satire on science than anything close to a science.

Dis. MCG

S mejek See *banak. (dung)

Dis. MDG

F midik (layman) ‘layman’; l.-w. fr. Sogdian myd'k, which is syn. w. Sanskrit pfthagjana; both words, sometimes in Hend., occur in Uyğ. Bud. texts. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. midik pirtigčan... men ‘I am a layman’ (attached to the pleasures of this world, see bodul-) Hüen-ts. \766\ 289; o.o. TT IV 4, 10 (toyin); 5, 21 (uğuŋ; p. 15, note A 21, 9; Suv. 41, 10.

Tris. MĞZ

(D) muğuzğa:k (buzz) Hap. leg.; prob. a Dev. N./A. (connoting habitual action) fr. an onomatopoeic V. *muğuz- ‘to buzz’. Arğu: xı muğuzğak ‘an insect (dubeb) (buzzed) like a bee’ Kaš. I 5°4-

Mon. MG

?S mük (bük-) (bent) Hap. leg.; obviously cognate to bük- (bend, fold, twist, bow, kneel, revolted), and perhaps Sec. f. of a homophonous N./A. *bük. Xak. xı one says ol mük turdi: qdma qiyama'l-reki’ ‘he stood in a bent posture’ Kaš. / 335

Dis. MGE

F mekke (black ink)black ink’; l.-w. fr. Chinese mo ‘black; ink’ (Giles 8,022; Pulleyblank, Middle Chinese mdk\ in some dialects mbak), which is also a Chinese l.-w. in Mong. as beke (Kow. 1124, Haltod 281). Cf. šütük. Uyğ. xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. mo ‘ink’ meke Ligeti 182: Xak. xı mekke (h) ‘the name of a writing material (naqš, so to be translated here?) imported from China, in which Turkish writings (kutubül-turkiya) are written’; the -k- in it is doubled, and the ha was originally alif Kaš. III 424, 23.


S mükim/mükin See büküm. (hank, skein, моток)

Dis. MLD

PUF meldeğ (or meldek?) (felted, mat, matte) (meld > beld > felt > (фетр, войлок)) Hap. leg.; looks like a Middle Pe. Past Pass. Participle in -dag (Modern Pe. -da), perhaps cognate to Pe. melîdan ‘to rub, polish, smooth’ and the like. Neither 'arda nor ma”ata are ordinary Ar. words; Brockelmann disregards them and merely translates the word ‘felted’; Atalav translates the phrase erkek avadanlığı gibi kečelešen sölpüyen, a very improbable sensus obscenus; the most probable meaning etymologically is ‘anything felted, like a hard substance worn smooth’. Xak. xı meldeg ne:g kttll šay' mutalabbad nalnva'I-'ardati’l-mu-nıa"ata Kaš. I 480. (OTD p. MELDAK свалянный (о шерсти, пухе) (МК I 480) ~ milled)

Dis. MMA

VU mama: (mama) Hap. leg. in this sense, but see mamu: (mama); obviously a quasi-onomatopoeic; syn. w. 1 op (working team of animals). Xak. xı mama: al-rakis that is ‘the ox in the middle of the oxen when they tread out the corn’; the others revolve round it Kaš. III 235.

VU 1 mamu: (mama) obviously a quasi-onomatopoeic; s.i.m.m.I.g. as mama (Tkm. ma:ma) for ‘grandmother; mother; a respectful term for older women; midwife’, and the like; in some languages there is a homophonous word (NE Tel. mama; SC Uzb. mamma; SW Az., Osm., Tkm. meme, etc.) meaning ‘nipple, the female breast’. Xak. xı mamu: ‘the word for any woman sent with the bride on her wedding \\\ night’; not a genuine word (luga gayr asltya) Kas. III 235: Kip. xıv ma:ma: a word used to address an older woman (al-kabira mina'l--nisa) or to refer to her Id. 88.

VU 2 mamu: (nipple, female breast) NE Tel. mama; SC Uzb. mamma; SW Az., Osm., Tkm. meme, etc.) meaning ‘nipple, the female breast

Dis. MMĞ

SF mamuk See pamuk. (cotton)

Mon. MN

(S) ma:n (b-) (gait (fast), step, walking, journey) survives, in the same meaning, as maŋ (gait (fast), step, walking, journey) in NE Šor: NC Kzx. (dialect): SW Tkm.; see Shcherbak, p. 116. Xak. xı ma:n ya:šlığ ko:y ‘a sheep which has passed (stepped over) the age of four’; used only of sheep Kaš. III 157 (main in the two preceding entries ma:n kıšla:ğ ‘the name of an Oğuz country’ (biled, i.e. the Mangkishlak peninsula in the Caspian) and main kend ‘a ruined town near Kešğar’ is not likely to be the same word): Čağ. xv ff. maŋ (rhyming with tang) ‘a three-year-old sheep’ (gûsfand) San. 3i9r. 19.

(S) maŋ (b-) (gait (fast), step, walking, journey) ‘gait’; homophonous w. maŋ-; survives as maŋ ‘the gait of a horse; a fast gait’ in NE Alt., Leb., Šor, Tel. R IV 2006, and Tuv.; maŋ in other meanings (e.g. see main) in various modern languages is not connected w. this word. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (go on your way, merchants) maŋlamıš maŋ sayu ‘in every step that you take’ (may you be tranquil and safe) maŋlamıš maŋıgızlar ‘and may the steps you take’ (be free from danger) Tiš. 45b. 4-7; o.o. U II 24, 2 etc. (akru:); U II 72, 17 (yorıš-).

S 1 men See ben. (I, me)

VUF 2 men (or min?) (flour) ‘flour’; l.-w. fr. Chinese mien ‘flour’ (Giles 7,892 or 7,895; Pulleyblank, Middle Chinese mjen). Survives only (?) in Sarığ Yuğur men, S. Ye. Malov, Yasyk zheltykh uigurov, Alma Ata, 1957, p. 76. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. on beš batman men ‘fifteen batmans of flour’ USp. 76, 8; o.o. do. 91, 4 etc.; HI 40 (čokrat-), 67 (1 konak), 119 (yasımuk).

S 1 meŋ (b-) (bird-seed, small grain) (food) ‘bird-seed, small grain’, and the like; n.o.a.b.; this may be merely another, perhaps the original, meaning of beŋ (mole (face)), q.v. Türkü vııı ff. bara köylk egke: meŋke: barmhš egi:n meŋi:n bulmiıš ‘a leopard and a deer went to look for game and grain and found their game and grain’ IrkB 31: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 36, 6 (1 a:š (food)): Xak. xı meŋ 'alafu'l-tair ‘poultry food’, that is a word for the grains (al-htıbûb) which they pick up Kaš. III 358 (prov.); o.o. I 425, 19; II 18 (sok-): KB kuška meŋ egsümez ‘the bird does not lack grain’ 1193, 2054; o.o. 3564-7; 4417.
(MEŊ II. пища, корм для птиц (МК III 359); добыча ловчей птицы (food, bird feed, wild game of raptors) [OTD p. 174, 341]) [EDT p. 346, 766]

S 2 meŋ See beŋ. (mole (face))

S miŋ/miŋ See biŋ. (big, thousand)

S muŋ See buŋ. (distress, calamity, suffering, grief, sorrow, melancholy, compulsion, need)  (simpleton, ignorant man, silly, foolish, wisdom tooth (silly tooth, idiom))

S 1 mün See 1 bü:n. (defect, vice)

S 2 mün See 2 bün. (soup, broth) (bullion)

3 mün (monetary wealth, capital) MÜN II богатство в деньгах, капитал (monetary wealth, capital) [OTD p. 352] < moneta

Mon. V. MN-

S 1 man- See 1 ba:n-. (bound, tie, put on)

S 2 man- See 2 ban-. (dip, sink, season, baptize)

S maŋ- (b-) (gait (fast), step, walking, journey) ‘to walk’ and the like; homophonous w. maŋ; survives only (?) in SE Türki maŋ ‘to go, walk, travel, ride’. See maŋığ, maŋim. Xak. xı KB tilek birle maŋsa kiši arzulap ‘if a man longs for something and walks with his desire’ (he does not tire or lag on the road till he reaches it) 3702; a.o. 374 (kölün-): Čağ. xv ff. maŋ- (spelt) qadam gudeštan ‘to walk’ San. 318V. 27 (quotn.).

S min-/mün- See bin-. (min-, min-/mün-) (mount, ride (a horse))

S mun- See bun-. (deranged, disturbed, senile, feebleminded, mad)

S mun- (bun-) See bun (this) oblique stem bun- changing in most languages to mun-

möŋ- (b-) (rear, kick) survives in SE Tar. möŋ- ' (of a horse) to rear, kick’ R IV 2130. Xak. xı at mögdi; cama'a'I-far as caramizahu tva ramaha ‘the horse gathered its legs together and galloped’ Kaš. III 391 (möŋe:r, möŋme:k).

Dis. MNA

manu: (? b-) (wild cat) ‘a ’; survives in NE Tuv. manı; see Shcherbak, p. 130. Shcherbak suggests that this became a l.-w. in Mong. as mamll; the only meanings given for this word in Kow. 1973 are ‘sentry; bird-scarer’; it is not listed in Haltod, which gives malur (also in Kow. 1995) for ‘wild cat’; SE Türki molun/mo:lunwild cat’, and acc. to Shcherbak ‘domestic cat’ might be a metathesis of manul, perhaps affected by malur which seems to be native Mong. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. manu in lists of predatory animals Suv. 599, 15; 610, 14.

S meŋe/1 meŋi: See beñi:. (brain) (meningitis etc.)

S 2 meŋi: See beŋi:. (joy, pleasure)

SD mu:nu: (b-) (this) Acc. of bu: (this) used as a sort of Excl., generally in antithesis to o:nu: (that), q.v. Xak. xı Kaš. III 238: KB 1161, etc. (o:nu:).

Dis. V. MNA-

SD müne:- (b-) (blame (blemish), rectify (blemish)) Den. V. fr. 1 mün (1 bü:n) (defect, vice) in the sense of ‘to find fault’ or ‘to correct a fault’. Survives only (?) in NC Kzx. mine- same meaning. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (because he held these views) uzatı yĞrer müneyür ertigiz ‘you criticized and found fault with (blamed) him at great length’ Hüen-ts. 1798: Xak. xı ol to:nuğ müne:di: ‘he cut the sides of the garment to rectify (remove, correct) unevenness, etc.’ (li-yusli-hahu mina'l-inhiraf (MS. in error inhiraq) wa ğayrihŋ Kaš. İII 274 (müne:r, müne:me:k).

Dis. MNC

VU ?F manču: (wages) pec. to Kaš.; morphologically this could be a Dev. N. fr. 1 man- (bound, tie, put on) or 2 man-. (dip, sink, season, baptize) but there is no obvious semantic connection and it is more likely to be a l.-w., perhaps a Chinese phr.; cf. mandu: (??). Xak. xı manču: ucratu’l-muhtarif faqaft ‘wages, only of a craftsman’s wages’ Kaš. I 418; a.o. 419 (tuzğu:).

S munča: See bunča:. (many, bunch)

SD mančuk (b-) (tied) Hap. leg.; Dev. N. (Conc. N.) fr. 1 man- (bound, tie, put on) (1 ba:n-) (bound, tie, put on) in the sense of something tied on. Cf. SC xix Sart banča ‘a bundle’ R IV 1472. Xak. xı mančuk ‘anything suspended (yuallaq) from the saddle like a saddlebag or nose-bag (feedbag)’ (al-haqîba wa’l-mixlet) Kaš. I476. ‘

S mončuk See bončuk. (bead, bead necklace)

PU (S) münčig (b-) (uterus, feedbag ?) Hap. leg.; the equivalent word in the Chinese original is ‘uterus’, but the word has no obvious etymology. Cf. oğulčuk. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (in a list of demons) münčig ašlığlar ‘eaters of uteri (or eaters from feedbag ?)’ U II 60, 1 (iii).

Tris. MNC

SC munčulayu: (b-) (so, in this way) prob. a crasis of munča: (many, bunch) and ulayu: (continuously, one after the other, all together, en bloc); ‘in this way’ or the like. N.o.a.b. Cf. ančulayu: (thus, so, so much). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. munčulayu tetrü sakınıp ‘thinking deeply in this way’ U II š, 3-4.; künige ayığa munčulayu berip ‘giving in this way (or so much?) day by day and month by month’ PP 7, 4-5; o.o. do. 33, 1; 48, 7; TT V 8, 71; 26, 112 etc.

Tris. V. MNC-

SD mančuklan- (b-) (tied) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. mančuk (tied). Xak. xı er to:nm mančuklandi: ‘the man put his garment in a box (šiwen; MS. siwan) and hung (tied) it ('allaqahu) on the saddle behind him’ Kaš. II 276 (mančuklanu:r, mančuklanma:k; MS. mon- in error).

SD mončuklan- (b-) (with bead, bead necklace) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. mončuk (bončuk) (bead, bead necklace). Xak. xı ki:z mončuklandı: ‘the girl owned beads and ornaments’ (xarazat wa hullt) Kaš. II 276 (mončuklanu:r, mončukİanma:k).

Dis. MND

F mandu: (vinegar) Hap. leg.; ‘vinegar’. The ordinary Turkish word for ‘vinegar’ is sirke:, q.v.; this word, which has no obvious Turkish etymology, is therefore likely to be a l.-w., perhaps a Chinese phr. Xak. xı mandu: the word for ‘Turkish vinegar’ (xall Turki); fresh grape juice is put in an earthenware jar (bustiiqa) and fermented; then pure wine is poured into it and left for a night to mature. It is the best kind of vinegar Kaš. I 420.

S muntağ See buntağ. (like this, at this time)

?SF manda:r (b-) (wrap) Hap. leg.; prob. an Iranian l.-w. cognate to Pe. band ‘cord, tie, fastening, etc.’. See mandarlan-. Oğuz xı manda:r a plant which wraps itself (yaltawŋ round trees and often causes their death (al-yubs); it is ‘ivy’ (al- ašaqa) Kaš. I 457.

SD munduz (b-) (senile, feeble-minded) N./A.S. fr. mun- (bun-) (deranged, disturbed, senile, feebleminded, mad); ‘senile, feeble-minded’, and the like with some extended meanings. There does not seem to be any other trace of such a Dev. Suff.; it can hardly be identical with the Den. Suff. in küntüz, q.v. Xak. xı munduz al-nblah mina'I-tuls ‘a feeble-minded, stupid person’ (prov.): munduz akin al-ati mina'I-sayl ‘a stream in flood’: munduz yorı:ğa: at al-farasulladi hi ya'riful-sayr illal-hamlaca ‘a horse that knows no form of progression except an amble’ Kaš. I 458; o.o. I 77 (akin); 96 (ergüz): KB ay biliğsiz kiši munduzi 'oh ignorant, stupid man’ 643; o.o. 963 (telve:), 2090, 2655, 6394: xııı (?) Tef. munduz is associated with ‘liar’ and seems to mean ‘malicious’ rather than ‘stupid’ 22e: Kom. xıv ‘simple-minded’ munduz CCG; Gr.

Dis. V. MND-

SD maŋit- (b-) (gait (fast), step, walking, journey) Caus. f. of maŋ- (gait (fast), step, walking, journey); n.o.a.b.? Xak. xı KB (a dying man) yetilse ödi kör maŋıtmaz butuğ ‘when his time comes, cannot make his legs walk’ ian.

SD meŋde:- (b-) (pluck) Hap. leg. but see meŋdet-, meŋlet-; Den. V. fr. 1 meŋ (beŋ) (bird-seed, small grain) (food) ; originally ‘to pick up grain’ and the like. Xak. xı ol amg sačın meŋde:di: ‘he plucked out (natafa) his hair’ Kaš. III 401 (meŋde:r, meŋde:me:k; verse, see kır-).

SD meŋdet- (b-) (pluck) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of meŋde:- (pluck). 'The text in the MS. is corrupt, the spellings being miqeddetti:, miqdeir, miŋde:vie:k. Xak. xı ol amg sačın meŋdetti: antafa ša’rahn 'he had his hair plucked out’ Kaš. I1 358 (meŋdetü:r, meŋdetme:k).

SD 1 mandur- (b-) (bound, tie, put on) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of 1 man- (bound, tie, put on). Xak. xı ol maga: kılıč mandurdı: “he urged me to gird myself ('alal-tanattuq) with a sword’ Kuš. II 197 (followed by 2 mandur-).

S 2 mandur- See 1 bandur- (dip, sink, season, baptize).

S mindür-/mündür- See bintür- (mount),

SD muntur- (b-) (deranged, disturbed, senile, feebleminded, mad) Hap. leg. (?); Caus. f. of mun- (bun-) (deranged, disturbed, senile, feebleminded, mad). Uyğ. vııı ff. Alan.-A yekler erüš kišig munturur ‘ (various) demons make many men mad’ Alan. III 29, 9 (iŋ.

SD meŋdeš- (b-) (pluck) Hap. leg.; Recip. f. of meŋde:- (pluck). Xak. xı ikki: urarğut meŋdešdi: ‘the two women plucked at one another (tamltafat) and each of them took hold of the other one’s hair’ Kaš. III 399 (meŋdešü:r, meŋdešme:k).

Tris. MND

PUF mindatu: Hap. leg,; this word which is indexed under fa'lalü, mandin:, also Hap. leg., indexed under fülali, and mundaru:, also Hap. leg., indexed under fa'lalel and included in a sub-para, with sanduwa:č (nightingale), and so prob. mis-spelt, all seem cognate both in form and meaning. They are obviously l.-w.s and have an Indian look; perhaps connected w. Sanskrit mandita ‘ornamented, adorned’, but some other origin is possible; al-qazzma is not an ordinary Ar. word; it is der. fr. qazz, a Pe. l.-w. in Ar. meaning ‘silk’, and may mean ‘a silken garment’ or the like. Xak. xı mindatu: nl-qnszfna Kaš. I 4^1 : Čigll xı (VU) mandiri: ‘the word for the gathering which assembles in the presence of the bridegroom and bride (al-tnaclisn'lladi yucvta 'bayna'l -xatan wa'I-'ants) at night, when ceremonial gifts (al-niteŋ are presented’ I 492: Xak. xı (PU) mundaru: al-hacnla vünn'l-hartr ‘a bridal canopy of silk’ / 529.

SD muŋadınčığ (b-) Dev. N./A. fr. *muŋadin- Refl. f. of muŋad- (buŋad-); etymological!) it should mean ‘confused, perplexed’, or the like, but it seems rather to be laudatory in character and to mean ‘marvellous’ or the like. Pec. to Uyğ., and usually used in association w. adınčığ (separation) or taŋlančığ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. Al III 39, 2-3 (ii) (adınčığ): Bud. mugadınčığ uluğ ıš ktidüg ‘a marvellous great undertaking’ Suv. 613, 19; o.o. TT V 20, 9 (adınčığ); V IV 28, 31-2 etc. (tag-lančığ).

PUF mandiri: and mundaru: See mm-datu:.

Tris. V. MND-

SD muŋadtur- (b-) (anguished) Hap. leg.?; Caus. f. of muŋad- (buŋad-). Xak. xı KB muŋadturmağıl sen yegü kedgüke ‘do not let yourself be worried about food or clothing’ 1264.

SDF mandarlan- (b-) (wrap) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. manda:r (wrap), but not, like it, described as Oğuz. Xak. xı yığa:č mandarlandi: Uta-wal-labldb ’ale’l-šacar ‘the tree was wrapped in bindweed, Dolichos lablab’ Kaš. II 271 (mandarlanu:r, mandarlanma:k).

Dis. MNĞ

SD maŋığ (b-) (gait (fast), step, walking, journey) Hap. leg.; N.Ac. fr. maŋ- (gait (fast), step, walking, journey). Xak. xı maŋığ al-xatwa ‘step, gait’; hence one says amg maŋığı: kö:r ‘look at his gait’ Kaš. III 365.

SD munuk (b-) (mentally confused) Hap. leg.; Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. mun- (bun-) (deranged, disturbed, senile, feebleminded, mad); ‘mentally confused’ and the like. Xak. xı Kaš. I 66 (2 azuk).

S munğak See muyğak.

SD munğui (b-) (mentally confused, troubled) n.o.a.b.; in TT III, where -ğ- is often represented by -k-, the spelling is mutikul, in the Suv. MS., which is xvııı, muıjğıd; the meaning, which can only be deduced fr. the context, might well be ‘mentally confused, troubled’, and the like, so it is best explained as a Dev. N./A. fr. mun- (bun-) (deranged, disturbed, senile, feebleminded, mad). The resemblance to the tribal name Mongğol is purely fortuitous. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (they were liberated from an animal existence) umuğsuz irinč ınunğu! kal ağu-luğ (spelt akuhığ) ‘hopeless, miserable, men S.i.a.m.l.g. except SW with various phonetic changes. Türkü vııı ff. (of an omen) muQ-lu:ğ ol anığ yavlak ol ‘it is distressing and tally disturbed, savage, and poisonous’ TT III 25-6; o.o. do. 27, 89: Bud. (tell me quickly, Minister, where my son is. My body is distressed and annoyed, as if it was being burnt with fire) ögümin kögülümin ıčğınıp munğul (muTfğul) bolup bilinmezmen ‘I am losing my understanding and mind, becoming mentally confused, and do not know (what has happened)’ Suv. 624, 17-18.

SD munğa:n (b-) (mentally disturbed) N./A. of Habitual Action fr. mun- (bun-) (deranged, disturbed, senile, feebleminded, mad); lit. ‘mentally disturbed’ and the like. I’ec. to Kaš. where it is entered twice, in I 440 under fa'letı, and in I 476 under fa'lel. In the latter case the section contains no other words ending in -a:n and this word comes between mančuk (the last word ending in qaf) and bürček (the first ending in kaf)\ it is therefore almost certainly an error for munğaık a parallel N./A. in -ğa:k which would have the same meaning. Xak. xı munğa:n kiši al-tartar ‘a garrulous person, chatterbox’ Kaš. I 440.

F mınğuy Hap. leg.; l.-w. fr. the Chinese phr. mien ‘flour’ (see men) and hu ‘paste’ (Giles 4,936; Pulleyblank, Middle Chinese you). Xak. xı mınğuy the name of the ‘paste’ ('acm) used to stick (glue) papers together; the dough Čacin) for it is mixed with water and then boiled until it becomes very viscid Kaš. III 241.

Dis. V. MNĞ-

SD muŋuk- (b-) (distressed) Pass. Den. V. fr. muŋ (buŋ) (distress, calamity, suffering, grief, sorrow, melancholy, compulsion, need); ‘to be distressed’ and the like. Pec. to Xak. Xak. xı er muŋukti: umtuhina’l-racul wa’d-fitrra ‘the man was distressed and subjected to pressure’ Kaš. III 395: KB muŋuksa yağı yüz ölümke urur ‘if the enemy is hard pressed he turns his face to death’ 2391.

SD manğır- (b-) (dip, sink, season, baptize) Hap. leg.; Inchoative f. of 2 man-. (dip, sink, season, baptize) (2 ban- (dip, sink, season, baptize)). Xak. xı ol etme:kig yarğka: mangırdı: ‘he began to dip (yašbağ) the bread in oil and plunge (yağmis) it into it’ Kaš. II 197 (manğıra:r, manğırma:k).

SD muŋkar- (b-) (distress) Trans. Den. V. fr. muŋ (buŋ) (distress, calamity, suffering, grief, sorrow, melancholy, compulsion, need); ‘to cause distress’ and the like. Pec. to Xak. Xak. xı ol am: muŋkardi: idtarrahu wa'mtahana ‘he applied pressure to him and distressed him’ Kaš. III 397 (muŋkarur, muŋkarma:k): KB ayı muŋkarursen bu kün sen meni ‘oh! you are distressing me today’ 4024.

Dis. MNG

S mengü:/meŋgü: See beŋgü: (eternal).

Dis. V. MNG-

SD münük- (b-) (faulty, defective) Hap. leg.; Intrans. Den. V. fr. 1 mün (1 bü:n) (defect, vice); ‘to be faulty, defective’, and the like. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. the 28th hexagram kuo ‘to commit a fault’ (Giles 6,622) is translated uluğ münükmek TT I 224.

Dis. MNL

SD muŋluğ (b-) (sorrowful, melancholy, distressed) P.N./A. fr. muŋ (buŋ) (distress, calamity, suffering, grief, sorrow, melancholy, compulsion, need); ‘sorrowful, melancholy, distressed’, etc. very bad’ IrkB 22: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 30, 3 (ii) (Ğndür-): Xak. xı muŋluğ er ‘a melancholy (al-mumtahin) man’ Kaš. III 382: KB muŋluğ is common as a stock epithet for ‘suffering’ mankind, e.g. kamuğ barča muŋluğ törütülmiši 'all His created beings suffer’ 5; o.o. 24, 28, 1056 (1 uli:-), 1673 (čırğuy), 4403: (xiv Muh. ma'yübvicious, defectivemu:nlu:ğ Mel. 52, 7; Rif. 148; prob. an error for mü:nlü:g): Čağ. xv ff. muŋluğ mu tim wa muta allim ‘distressing, distressed’; both meanings occur (har dil emada) San. 320V. 25 (quotns. for each meaning): Xwar. xııı muŋlu (one MS. bugla) ‘distressed’ *Ali 49: xıv muŋli/ muŋlığ/muŋluğ ditto Qutb 112; muŋluğ Nahc. 2S6, e: Kip. xıv muŋlu: (-ŋ- marked) al-muhtac tea ma'nehu dul-heca ‘distressed, in need’ Id. 89.

Dis. V. MNL-

SD manil- (b-) (dip, sink, season, baptize) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of 2 man-. (dip, sink, season, baptize) (2 ban- (dip, sink, season, baptize)). Xak. xı etme:k sirke:ke: manilldi: ‘the bread was dipped (šubiğa) in vinegar’ (etc.) Kaš. II 138 (manilur, mamlma:k).

SD münel- (b-) (trimmed) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of müne:- (blame (blemish), rectify (blemish)). Xak. xı to:n müneldi: ‘the sides of the garment and the superfluous (material in the) hole for the neck (qawaratuhu’l-za ida) were trimmed’ (quti'a) Kaš. II 138 (münelür, münelme:k).

S münül- See binil-. (mounted, ridden)

SD maŋla:- (b-) (step, stride, gallop) Den. V. fr. maŋ (gait (fast), step, walking, journey); ‘to step, stride’. Survives with this meaning as maŋda- in SE Tar. R II 2010 and for ‘to gallop’ in several NE languages as maŋta- ditto; Khak. maŋna-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kšatrik begler maŋin maŋlapstriding with the gait of the kšatriya chiefs’ U IV 8, 16 (and I 41, 1; both mistranscribed and mistranslated); a.o. Tiš. 45b. 4 (maŋ).

SD meŋle:- (b-) (grain) (food) Hap. leg. but see meŋlet-, meŋlen-; cf. meŋde:- (pluck); Den. V. fr. 1 meŋ, q.v., for a similar phr.; ‘to look for, or pick up, grain’. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 49 (egle:-).

SD münle:- (b-) (soup, broth) (bullion) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. 2 mün (2bün) (soup, broth) (bullion). Xak. xı ermünle:di: ‘the man sipped the soup’ (hassd... al-maraqa) Kaš. III 301 (münle:r, münle:me:k).

SD meŋlet- (b-) (peck) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of meŋle:-. Xak. xı ol ka:zığ meŋletti: al-qata'l-batta’l-habb ‘he gave the goose (Kaš., as usual, ‘duck’ grain (etc.) to pick up’ Kaš. II 359 (meŋletü:r, meŋletme:k).

SD meŋlen- (b-) (peck) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of meŋle:-; ‘to pick up grain for oneself’. The simürgvik is described as ‘a bird like a nightingale’ in the language of Balesegün, but the quotn. seems to be ordinary Xak. Xak. xı Kaš. II 290 (simürgük); n.m.e.

Tris. MNL

SD meŋi:lig (b-) (joyful, happy) P.N./A. fr. 2 meŋi: (beŋi:) (joy, pleasure); ‘joyful, happy’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. meŋi:li:g beg er ermi:š ‘he was a happy beg’ IrkB 5; a.o. do. 62: Uyğ. VI11 ff. Man.-A M III 11, 3 (ii) (barimlik): Bud. alku meŋilig boldilar ‘they all became joyful’ PP 72, 3-4; Gnčgülüğ meŋülüg (sic) ‘peaceful and happy’ TT IV 12, 59-60; o.o. U II 45, 56; Suv. 192, s etc. (it has sometimes been mistranslated ‘eternal’ owing to confusion with meŋgü (beŋgü: (eternal)) ‘eternal’): Xak. xı KB meŋilig bodun kim bu yaglığ begi; meŋilig beg ol kolsa bodm yegi ‘happy are the people who have a beg like this; happy is the beg if his people seek what is good for him’ 1789 (the MSS. have some v.l.s, but this was the original text); o.o. 1975, 5398, 6370.

SD meŋi:lik (b-) (joyfulness, happiness) A.N. fr. 2 meŋi: (beŋi:) (joy, pleasure); ‘joyfulness, happiness’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ti turkaru meŋiligin (sic) ‘in complete and lasting happiness’ TT III 110: Bud. U 11 34, 6-7 (asığlık); Suv. 354, 7 (etigsiz): (Xak. xııı (?) Tef. meŋülük ‘eternity’ is a parallel A.N. fr. meŋgü (beŋgü: (eternal))).

Tris. V. MNL-

SD 1 meŋi:le:- (b-) (rejoice; happy) Den. V. fr. 2 meŋi: (beŋi:) (joy, pleasure); ‘to rejoice; to be happy’. N.o.a.b. It is possible that Kaš.’s translation of 2 meŋf.'Ie:- is purely imaginary and based on a false etymology; the verse quoted certainly contains 1 meŋi:le:-. Türkü vııı ff. (seated on a golden throne) meŋi:leyü:rmen ‘I am happy’ IrkB 1; o.o. do. 4, 28, 51, 5e: Bud. (that man) meŋi meŋileyür ‘is happy’ TT VI 198.

SD 2 meŋi:le:- (b-) (consume brain, honored with brain dish, prize, spoils) Den. V. fr. 1 meŋi: (beñi:) (brain); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı er meŋi:le:di: ‘the man ate the brain’ (al-dimeğ); this is the original (meaning); then this was used in speech (fVl--kalem) in the same contexts as the Ar. phr. tûbe lak (‘you have been invited'), that is that a man must slaughter a sheep to get the brain which is the best part of the animal; and whoever is honored (ukrima) by the slaughter of a sheep for the sake of the brain and has it placed before him is greatly complimented (muhtaram); then this word is used for anyone who receives special food, it is addressed to him; (in a verse) eren ta:pup (? so read) meŋi:le:di: (MS. müŋi:le:di:) yan'amtil-ricel mina’l-aımveli'llatt nahabûlte ‘the men rejoice at the spoils which they have captured’ Kaš. III 405 (no Aor. or Infin.).

Dis. MNM

SD maŋim (b-) (step, stride) N.S.A. fr. maŋ- (gait (fast), step, walking, journey); ‘a single stride’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB (a man is born and mounts the horse of time) küni bir maŋım ol tüni bir maŋim ‘ (each of) his days is one stride and (each of) his nights one stride’ 1389.

Dis. MNR

S miŋa:r See biŋa:r (pıŋa:r) (spring (water)). \\\

Dis. V. MNR-

maŋra:-/müŋre:- (make noise) (bang, banging) Introductory note. Both these V.s, which seem to have an onomatopoeic origin and to represent earlier forms *bagra:-/*bügre:-, mean 'to make a noise’ of some kind. Kaš. uses the first only of human beings and the second only of animals, and this distinction survives in most early languages, although reversed in Čağ. In modern times the first s.i.a.m.l.g. except with some phonetic changes, e.g. NC Kır. ma:ra-, and means only ‘to bleat' or ‘to low', and the second survives only (?) in NW Nog. müŋire- ‘to bellow'. (If *bagra:-/*bügre:- is make noise, bagram/bayram “celebrate” can’t be a Pe. loanword)

S maŋra:- (b-) (shout) (bang, banging) ‘to shout’. Türkü vııı ff. Man. M I 6, 10 (ün): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M III 9, 12-13 (i) (ünde:- (summon, wave to come)): Bud. inisin okiyu maŋradi ‘he shouted calling his younger brother’ PP 58, 3-4; Xak. xı er maŋra:di: ‘the man (etc.) shouted’ (šaha) Kaš. III 402 (maŋra:r, maŋra:ma:k): Čağ. xv ff. maŋra:- (spelt) of a cow, sheep, and the like ‘to low, bleat’ (nela kardan)-, and of a man (inšen) they say muŋra- (sic) San. 3igr. 8: (Xwar. xıv maŋia- ‘ (of a cock) to crow’ Qutb no): Kom. xıv ‘to bleatmaŋra- CCG\ Gr. 163 (quotn.): (Kip. xıv adana ‘to call to prayer’ banla-/banğla- Bul. 32V.: xv adana mina'l-eden li'l-šalet mağla- (sic, for maŋia-) Kav. 75, 7; adana maŋla- Tuh. 5b. 13; a.o.o.: Osm. xıv ff. baŋla- ‘to shout, call to prayer; to crow; to thunder’; in several texts TTS I 74; II 103; IV 73).

S müŋre:- (b-) (bellow, low, bleat) ‘to bellow, low, bleat’, etc. Türkü vııı ff. (I am a maral deer) müŋre:-yü:rmen ‘I bellow’ IrkB 60: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Suv. 12, 21-2 (ağrm-): Xak. xı u:d müŋre:di: ‘the bull bellowed’ (xera) Kaš. III 403 (müŋre:r, müŋre:me:k): xıv Muh. (among animal noises) tuğa'u'l-baqar wa'l--ğanam ‘lowing, bleating’ muŋrarmak (? sic; -mak is a common error for -mek in Muh.) Mel. 73, 11; Rif. 17e: Čağ. xv ff. muŋra-/muŋraš-/muŋray-/muŋurğa- (all spelt) nela kardan inšen of a man ‘to shout’; and of animals they say maŋra- San. 320T. 7 (quotns.): Kom. xıv ‘to lowmuŋra- CCG; Gr. 166 (quotn.).

SD maŋrat- (b-) (shout) (bang, banging) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of maŋra:- (shout) (bang, banging). Xak. xı ol anı: maŋrattı: ašetahu wa šayyahahu ‘he made him call out and shout’ Kaš. II 358 (maŋratu:r, maŋratma:k).

SD müŋret- (b-) (bellow, low, bleat) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of müŋre:- (bellow, low, bleat). Xak. xı ol u:dnı: müŋretti: ‘he made the bull bellow’ (axera'l-tawŋ\ and one says o:t ešlčni: müŋretti: ‘the fire made the pot boil violently and noisily’ (ağlat... bi--fawaren wa šawt); and one says ol erni: uru:p müŋretti: ‘he beat the man till he made him howl and bellow like an ox’ (a'wehu wa axarahu xuweri’ l-baqar) Kaš. II 358 (müŋretü:r, müŋretme:k).

SD maŋraš- (b-) (shout) (bang, banging) Co-op. f. of maŋra:- (shout) (bang, banging); s.i.s.m.l. following the modern meanings of \771\ maŋra:- (shout) (bang, banging). Xak. xı (the cloud rose noisily) aktı: akın müŋrešü: ‘the stream flowed with a babbling sound’ (Hend., bi-ranin wa xariŋ; (the people were astonished by it) kökrer takı maŋrašu:r Kaš. translates wa hiya tar'ad tva taših tva tabriq ‘and it (the cloud) thunders and crashes and flashes with lightning’, but it seems likelier to mean ‘it (the cloud) thunders, and they (the people) all shout (in alarm)’ Kaš. III 398, 25-7; n.m.e.

SD müŋreš- (b-) Co-op. f. of müŋre:-; n.o.a.b. Xak. xı (in the spring) sığır buka: müŋrešü:r ‘the bulls and cattle bellow joyfully’ (xdra... faraha (n)) Kaš. II 79, 21; a.o. III 398, 25-7; n.m.e.: Čağ. xv ff. San. 32or. 7 (müŋre:-).

Dis. MNS

F or S mansiz or mensiz See bensiz. (without me)

SD mü:nsiz (b-) Hap. leg.; Priv. N./A. fr. mü:n (1 bü:n); ‘without defects, sound-hearted’. Xak. xı Kaš. III 140 (1 bü:n).

Dis. MNŠ

?S müŋuš ‘a corner’; first appears in the medieval period and survives in NE/NC Bar., Tob. müyüš R IV 2221: SC Uzb. muylš; it seems to be an unusual Sec. f. of bünüz (horn), q.v. (Xak.) xıv Rbğ. bir müŋüšde ‘in a corner’ (in hell) R IV 2220 (quotn.): Čağ. XV ff. müŋüš güša-i xena tva sara ‘the corner of a house or mansion’ San. 32m 4 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv müŋüš ‘corner, secluded nook’ Qutb 113; Nahc. 268, 13; 321, 4: Kom. xıv ‘corner’ müŋüš CCG; Gr.

Dis. V. MNŠ-

PUSD miŋeš- (b-) ‘to ride behind someone else on the same horse’; the word, which carries a damma as well as a kasra on the mim, appears in Kaš. under the heading wa naw minhu ‘and another sort of it’ in a section containing V.s with four consonants, the second being -g-, after meŋdeš- and before kügren- (keŋren-), which perhaps implies a spelling miŋgeš- or even mingeš-. It survives with the same meaning in SE 'Par. miŋgeš- R IV 2150; Türki mingeš- BŠ 707: NC Kzx. mingeš-: SC Sart miŋiš- R IV 2150; Uzb. mingaš-: NW Kk. mingeš-, and in SW Osm. blnglš- (of teeth) ‘to overlap’ Sami 335. Morphologically it seems to be the Co-op. f. of a Den. V. fr. *blnig, a N.Ac. fr. bin- (min-, min-/mün-) (mount, ride (a horse)). Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: miŋešdi: irtadafa ma'Vl-faras wa nahtvahu ‘he rode behind me on a horse or the like’ Kaš. III 399 (miŋe-šü:r, mlgešme:k).

Dis. MNZ

S meŋiz See beŋiz (complexion).

S müŋüz See *büŋüz (horn).

SD meŋzeg (b-) (likeness, resemblance) Dev. N. fr. meŋze:- (beŋze:-) (resemble); ‘likeness, resemblance; something \771\ resembling’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı KB amg oxšağı yok azu meŋzegl ‘there is nothing like or resembling Him’ 16; a.o. 17 (1 bo:d (body, clan, stature, height (body))): xıı (?) Tef. meŋzegexample; (physical) shape’ 222: xıv Muh. al-mitl ‘similarity, resemblancemeŋzeg Mel. 85, 3; Rif. 191.


Dis. V. MNZ-

S meŋze:- See beŋze:- (resemble).

S meŋzet- See beŋzet- (compare).

Tris. MNZ

SD müŋüzge:k (b-) (horny) Hap. leg.; Den. N. fr. müŋüz (*bünüz) (horn) in the sense of ‘something horny’. Xak. xı müŋüzge:k ‘hard skin on the hand (macalu'l-yad wahwa'l-ğilaz) which results from manual labour’ Kaš. III 388.

SD meŋizlig (b-) (beautiful) P.N./A. fr. meŋiz (beŋiz); (complexion) ‘beautiful’and the like. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U III 57, 6 (i) (osuğluğ): Civ. TT VII 26, 17-18 (körklüg).

SD meŋizsiz (b-) (ugly) Hap. leg.?; Priv. N./A. fr. meŋiz (beŋiz); ‘unbeautiful’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M III 37, 16 (i) (ögsüz).

Tris. V. MNZ-

SD meŋizlen- (b-) (complexion) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. meŋiz (beŋiz) (complexion). Xak. xı kiši: meŋizlendi: hasuna wachu’l-insen ‘the man’s face was beautiful’ Kaš. III 407 (meŋizlenü:r, meŋizlenme:k).

SD müŋüzlen- (b-) (horned) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. müŋüz (*bünüz) (horn). Xak. xı kuzı: müŋüz-lendi: fala'a qarnul-hamal ‘the lamb (etc.) grew horns’ Kaš. IİI 408 (müŋüzlenü:r, müŋüzlenme:k). .

Mon. MR

F mır (honey)honey’; l.-w. fr. Chinese mi (Giles 7,834; Pulleyblank, Middle Chinese mjit, in some 1st millennium NW dialects mir) the Chinese word is itself a l.-w. fr. Tokharian B (Kuchaean) mit (i.e. akin to Eng. mead), which seems to exclude the possibility that ba:l, q.v., was taken fr. Tokharian. Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. mır in a list of drugs, etc. Suv. 596, 1: Civ. mır is included in several prescriptions in HI 114, 128; Dat. mırka do. 143.

mır and ba:l are allophones

Mon. MRC

F mırč/murč (pepper) ‘pepper’; ultimately der. fr. Sanskrit maricajmarica, same meaning, prob. through some Iranian (?) intermediary. The alternative medieval form burč shows the same sound-change m > b that seems to have occurred in ba:l, q.v. S.i.a.m.l.g. with some phonetic changes and initial m- in NE, SE, NC Kır., and SC and initial b- in NC Kzx., NW, and SW (Tkm. only). Cf. bitmül (pepper). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. kara murč ‘black pepper’ H I 134; murč do. 7, 49; TT VII 22, 3: xıv Chin.-Uyğ. Dict. hu chiao ‘black (lit. foreign) pepper’ (Giles 4,930 1,350) murč R IV 2195; \772\ Ligeti 183: Xak. xı murč al-fulful ‘pepper’ Kaš. I 343; a.o. II 186 (soktur-): Čağ. xv ff. burč fulful; burč ditto, also ıstı ot and in Rumi büber San. 132V. 13: Kom. xıv ‘pepper’ burč CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı i (among cooking materials) al-fulful (MS., in error, al-quft') burč Hou. 17, 18: xıv burč (-c) al-fulful Id. 29; Bid. 7, 1: Osm. xıv to xvı burč ‘pepper’ in several texts TTS I 126; II 178; IV 134.

Dis. MRD

F merdeit (bear-cub, piglet) Hap. leg.; presumably l.-w. fr. Pe. mardak ‘a little man’, Dim. f. of mard. Xak. xı merdek ‘the young of a bear’ (naladul-dubb); it is called adığ merdeki: ‘bear-cub’ (al-daysam); and some Turks call ‘the sucking pig’ (al-xinaıvš) torjuz inerdeki: Kaš. I 480.

Dis. MRM

F marim (joint, extremity) Hap. leg.?; l.-w. fr. Sanskrit marme ‘a joint, or other external part of the body’. This is not the word in Uyğ. IX Suci 7 and 9 marıma:, marımınča: which is the Syriac l.-w. mer ‘teacher’ with the 1st Pers. Poss. Suff., ‘to my teacher, like my teacher’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT III, p. 26, note 5, 11 (yüze:gü:).

Dis. MRZ

F mara:z (labourer) Hap. leg.; in the meaning ‘paid labourer’ it is a l.-w. fr. Sogdiaıı maraz, see Benveniste in Journal asiatique, vol. 236, pt. 2, 1948, p. 184; xiyar in the longer phr. is a synonymous Sogdian l.-w. Xak. xı mara:z al-izlim ‘indigo’: mararz ‘a paid labourer’ \\\ (al-'aciŋ; one says xiya:r mara:z Kaš. I411.

Mon. MŠ

VUF mü:š (mu:š, müš, muš) (cat) one of several words for ’catt’, see četük (cat, tom cat, (female) cat), and no doubt a l.-w., but not Pe., where müš means ‘mouse, rat’. As such Hap. leg., but some of the modern words listed as cognate to mačı: may be more cognate to this word. Čiğli xı mü:š al-hirra ‘female cat’; in Oğuz četük Kaš. III 127; o.o. I 391 (küvük) and, with Xak. words and provs., in 7438, 14; II 14, 18; 105, 24; III 165 (küvük); 267, 19.

Dis. MŠG

VUF mašıč (muscat) Hap. leg.; no doubt a l.-w. Xak. xı al-'inabu’l-ğirbib ‘high quality black grapes’ are called mašıč üzüm Kaš. I 360.

Dis. MŠĞ

VUF mıškıč (wild cat) Hap. leg.; l.-w. fr. Sogdian tnwikyic ‘wild cat’; cf. manu:. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. H I 57-8 (ergüz-).

Dis. MYA

S meyi See *beni:.(not listed) (ODT p. 340, MEJI головной мозг (meyi brain)

Dis. MYB-

PU muya:w- (mew) Hap. leg.; ‘to mew’; an obvious onomatopoeic. The pronunciation is quite uncertain; \\\ the only form is apparently a Cer. iti -u: spelt muya:wu or muya'u:, but as neither can be der. fr. any ordinarily shaped Turkish V. the word may be a mere onomatopoeic. Xak. xı mü:š oğlı: muyaiwu tuğdı: ‘a kitten is born mewing’ (Kaš. ivaladu'l-hirra ya'mii uma ummihi ‘the kitten mews like its mother’) Kaš. II 14, 18; n.m.e.

Dis. MYĞ

S mayak See *bañak. (dung)

VUS muyğa: (b-) (willful, headstrong) Hap. leg.; a pejorative Adj. perhaps meaning ‘headstrong’ or the like. Morphologically it might be a Dev. N./A. fr. *muy- (*buñ-) parallel to muyğak, if that can be taken as a Dev. N./A. fr. the same V. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT VI 254-5 (*y-).

S?D muyğak (buñğak) (deer type (fem.)) ‘the female maral deer’. It is twice spelt mımğak in the Vienna MS. of KB, and although this may be merely an error of a kind common in that MS. it may be a reminiscence of the original form of the word, which is morphologically a Dev. N./A. (connoting habitual action), cf. muyğa:. Survives in NE Tel. muyğak R IV 2170; Khak. muyğax; other languages use the Mong. l.-w. maral. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M I 35, 5 (eder-): Bud. muyğak USp. 102c. 5; muyğaitkıya Dim. f. do. 3: Xak. xı muyğak (MS. mayğak) al-ahnaf mina'1-nes tca'l-acrad min dawati’l--haıvefir ‘a man with bow legs and a short-haired hoofed animal’ Kaš. III 175 (no doubt the same word, with a suggestion of its character as a Dev. N./A.): KB sığun muyğak ‘the male and female maral deer’ 79 (ağna:-), 5374-

Tris. V. MYĞ-

SD mayaka:- (bañaka:-) (defecate) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. mayak (*bañak) (dung)); ‘to defecate’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. TT VII 42, 5 (art).

Dis. MYL

SD mayil (banıl) (over-ripe) Hap. leg.; ‘over-ripe’; apparently Intrans. Dev. N./A. fr. may- (*ban-); cf. mayil-. Xak. xı mayii (ye’ unvocalized) yönıiš ‘the word for any fruit when it has become soft (lena) after it has ripened (nadica) and passed its prime’ (cawaza haddahu), for example a peach or soft large melon Kaš. III 168.

Dis. V. MYL-

SD mayil- (banil-) (over-ripe) Pass. f. of may- (*ban-); ‘to be over-ripe’, cf. mayil, mayıš-. There are traces of may- and its der. f.s in several modern languages; NE Kač., Kız., Koib., Sag. mayik-/mayil- ‘to be exhausted, weak’ R IV 2014; Khak. mayix-: NC Kır. mayi-‘to be damaged’ do.; maytar- ‘to bend’ (Trans.); mayrı-/mayıš- ‘to bend (Intrans.), to be bent’; Kzx. may- ‘to be exhausted, weak’ R IV 1986; mayir- ‘to bend’ (Trans.); mayıs- ‘to bend’ (Intrans.): NW Krtm mayıš- ‘to be bent, to collapse’ R IV 2015. \773\ The same general connotation runs through the whole group. Xak. xı ka:ğu:n mayıldı: 'the fresh water-melon went bad (infasaxa), that is when it is kept overnight and becomes over-ripe’, also used of any fruit Kaš. III 190 (mayilu:r, mayilmd:k).

Dis. MYM

VUSD moyum (b-) (confused, запутан) Hap. leg.; N.S.A. fr. *moy- (*bofi-); ‘confused’ and the like, cf. moymal-, boymaš- (tangled, complicated), Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Chinese hurt ‘confused’ (Giles 5,239) is translated moyum adırtsız Hüen-ts., Brie/e, p. 34, note 1929.

Dis. V. MYM-

VUSD moymal- (b-) (tangled, complicated, запутан) Hap. leg.; Pass. Den. V. fr. moyum (confused, запутан); cf. boymaš- (tangled, complicated, запутан). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. iijikde moymalmıšlarka ača yada söz-leyür erdi ‘he spoke and expounded (Hend., the true doctrine) to those confused by the letter (of the scriptures)’ Hüen-ts. 1929-30.

Dis. MYN

S muya:n See buyan. (merit, meritorious deed, success) (benefit, merit)

Tris. MYN

SDF muyančılık (b-) Hap. leg.; A.N. fr. a N.Ag. fr. muya:n (buyan) (merit, meritorious deed, success) (benefit, merit). Xak. xı muyančılık al-tatvassut tva'1-šulh bayna'l--raculayn ‘mediation and reconciliation between two people’; one says sen muyančılık kılmediate between us’; its origin is muya:n al-tatveb ‘recompense for good deeds’ Kaš. 77/ 179.

SDF muyanlik (b-) (benefactive institution) (benefit, merit) Hap. leg.; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. muyarn (buyan) (merit, meritorious deed, success) (benefit, merit); ‘a charitable institution’. Xak. xı KB 489 (bugad-).

Dis. MYŠ-

SD mayıš- (banıš-) (collapse); Co-op. f. of may« (ban-); ‘to collapse’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l., see mayil-. Xak. xı er yerke: mayıšdı: ‘the man stuck (laziqa) to the ground’, because of obstinacy or laziness (min hirenihi ica kasalihŋ, that is when he is ordered to do something and refuses to accept the order (mayıšu:r, mayıšmark; the ye' carrying both kasra and damma): yamašdı:, metathesized form of mayıšdı: (yama:šu:r, yamašma:k; so vocalized owing to confusion with 1 yamaš- ?) Kaš. III 189.

Mon. MZ

S moz See bo:z (grey).

S muz (mist) See bu. 2 bu: (bug, bus, pus, muz) (steam, fog, mist) ‘steam’;


The only basic Turkish words beginning with n- are ne: (what) and ne:g, and even 1 ne:ŋ (no any, not at all, thing, property, wealth) 2 ne:ŋ (any, at all) may be ultimately der. fr. ne:. The other words listed below are either der. f.s, Sec. f.s, or l.-w.s. Several other l.-w.s occur in Uyğ., some frequently, but are not listed below since they never occur except in Man. or Bud. religious works and so never really became part of the language. These include Sanskrit l.-w.s like namo ‘homage’ and nirvan 'nirvana', and Iranian (mostly Sogdian) l.-w.s like nığošak ‘Hearer’ (a Man. technical term), noš ‘elixir’, and nizvam ‘emotion, passion’. In the latest Uyğ. texts and in later languages there are also a few Mong. l.-w.s like nökör ‘personal servant, friend’ and in the Islamic period many Ar. and Pe. l.-w.s; the only one likely to cause confusion is Pe nenot’, which occurs as early as KB (Kutadğu: Bilig, ca. 1070) 17, 18, etc., usually with a Neg. V.

Mon. NA

ne (no, nor) Pe ne ‘not’ KB (Kutadğu: Bilig, ca. 1070) 17, 18, etc., usually with a Neg. V.

Since negation is a major constituent of any language, skipping Türkic no by a footnote comment is seriously uncouth.

The assertion of ne (no, nor) being a Pe loanword can’t be taken seriously, for a slew of reasons, the first because the direction of the borrowing is scientifically presumptuous and groundless; secondly because chronologically the not numerous Indo-Aryan farmers (Pe) were latecomers (ca 1500 BC) to the Near East populated by Semitic, Dravidian, and Türkic people (Gities, Kangars, Kumans among others, ca 4500 BC) and the direction of cultural borrowing would flow in opposite direction; thirdly because the cited Pe form ne was just one of numerous allophones with cognates spread across Eurasia: ne, ni, no, nor, not, nyet, nein, nah, nay, neither, nope, and so on, the selection of the Pe “proto-form” appears to carry a certain biased preference; fourthly because reliance on a tiny segment of linguistic evidence, based mostly on foreign sources, can’t pretend to reflect the linguistic developments spread across 6 millennia, from ca. 5000 BC (Kurgan migrants did not migrate to the Near East without their own languages) to ca. 1000 AD (EDT sources). The “Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish” is but a myopic window into a long and winding process. A more acute perception would connect the the Türkic fundamental root (“no”, interjection) both with the negation no in all its allophonic forms, with the negation clitic -ma-, and with the negation a- and un-. The transposition and transition to nasal and non-nasal velars are routine linguistic evolution in both internal and loanword processes, greatly amplified with the development of writing and internationalization of scripts and communities. The Türkic is a precursor for the above negation forms, it appears in Eng. un-, Anglo-Sax. an- and un-, Gk. and Lat. ana- (e.g. anabiosis), etc.; its -ŋ- was a letter of the Türkic alphabet, but could not be reproduced in many other alphabets (e.g. Anglo-Sax. Latinized records etc.).

ne: (what, why) originally an Interrog. Pron. ‘what?’ used in speaking of inanimate objects in the same way that kim (whom) is used of animate beings, and like that word also used as a Pron. Adj. and later, under the influence of Indo-European grammar, as a Relative Pron. and occasionally in an exclamatory sense. In all these meanings it is sometimes also used of animate beings. As well as the derivatives below some oblique cases are almost used as Advs. The word and its der. f.s are discussed at length in v. G. ATG, see Index, p. 212. C.i.a.p.a.i. Türkü vııı ne: xağanka: išig küčig berü:rmen ‘to which xagan shall I offer my services ?’ I E 9, II E 9; (we are an army of two or three thousand) keltečlmiz bar mu: ne: ‘would it be (a good thing) for us to come?’ T 14; ben saga: ne: ayaynn ‘what shall I say to you?’ T 32; neke: tezer biz... neke: korku:r biz... ne basmalım tegelim ‘Why are we running away ?... Why are we afraid ?... Why should we be downcast? Let us attack.’ T 38-9; a.o. T 57: vııı ff. afiı:ğ kılınčlıığ šımnu: no: yavlak čulvu: saki:nti: ‘what evil blasphemy did that wicked demon think of?’ Toyok III v. 2-7 (ETY II 178): Man. ne bar ermiš tepen biltlmiz ‘we knew what existed’ (before there was a heaven and earth) Chuas. 163; (if our prayers have not reached God) ne yerde tıdıntı tutunti erser ‘but have been obstructed or detained somewhere’ do. 217-18; (we knew) teŋrili yekli nede ötrü sügüšmiš ‘why heaven and the demon fought’ 164-5; °-°- do. 169, 172, etc.; ne üčün teser ‘if one says “why?”’ M III 6, 7 (ı): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A ne üčün teser M I 23, 29; ne er sen ‘what man are you?’ do. 33, 19: Bud. ■ ne üčün ‘why?’ PP 4, 5 etc.; neke \\\ ‘why?’ do. 5, 2 etc.; tususi ne bar ‘what advantage has it?’ PP 21, 1 ; Sanskrit ye7>arra ‘and as much as’ ne: yarjlığ yeme: TT VIII A.2; ne: yörüg 'what interpretation?’ do. II.6; ne ayıtmıš kergek ‘what ought one to ask ?’ TT X 16; o.o. do. 55, 197, etc.: ne yeme followed by Conditional ‘whatever’ (may...) TT IV 10, 8 etc.; ne erser asığka tusuka klrmedi ‘did not enter into any kind of advantage (Hend.)’ Suv. 612, 2-3: Civ. ne busuš ol 'what grief is there?’ TT I 187; ne ada bolğay ‘what danger will come?’ do. VII 30, 2 — ne kim İš kılsa ‘whatever he does’ do. 28, 37 (in these texts negü: is much commoner than ne:): Xak. xı ne: a Particle (harf) meaning me de ‘what?’; hence one says ne: te:rsen ‘what do you say?’: ne: a Particle expressing surprise (al-ta'accub), hence one says ne: me: edgü: kiši: ol ‘what a good man (etc.) he is!’ or ne: me: yavuz ne:g ol bu: ‘what a bad thing this is!’ Kaš. III 214; and about 20 o.o. as either an Interrog. Pron. or Adj., e.g. ne: uğurda: keldi:g ‘at what time did you come?’ I 53, 14: KB ne ‘what?’ is common in conversation, e.g. tilekl ne ermiš ‘what was his wish?’ 503; o.o. 507, etc. — ne erse ‘anyone’ or ‘anything’, declined as a N., is common, e.g. ne ersedin ermez senig birliklŋ ne erselerig sen törüttürj senlrj ‘Thou has no oneness with anyone; any that Thou hast created are Thine’ 13: xııı (?) At. ne ‘what?’ as a Pron. or Adj. is common, e.g. tavar ašğı ne ol ‘what is the advantage of wealth ?’ 287; ne neŋ bar ‘what thing is there ?’ (as good as knowledge) 100 — biligsiz ne aysa ‘whatever the ignorant man says’ 119 — ne kim kelse erke ‘whatever comes to a man’ 145; Tef. ne ‘what?’; ne kim (.. . erse) ‘whatever’; nersesome, something’ 227-8: xıv Muh. ayš ‘what?’ ne: Mel. 5, 7; Rif. 75; (Interrog.) me ‘what?’ ne: (sic) 16, 15; 94 (followed by examples); ne: has an Interrog. meaning and corresponds to ayy šay' ‘what?’, e.g. ‘what are you doing?’ ne: ktlu:rsen; ‘what do you want?’ nc: ti:le:rsen 17, 19; 9e: Čağ. xv ff. the entries in Vel. are confused; ne is translated by ne, and oblique cases, etc., of ne by corresponding oblique cases of ne, e.g. nöge neye that is ne ičün ‘why ?’, also ne nesneye ‘to what thing?’, but the Acc. Suff. -m/ni is also entered as a separate word and so translated fulen ‘so- and-so’, and the Gen. Suff. -niŋ/-niŋ translated fulanut) 391 ff.; ne is a word which when placed at the beginning of a sentence means čih ‘what?’, the Pe. Interrog. Pron. (and at the end of a word -m/-ni is the Acc. Suff.) San. 322r. 3 (various der. f.s and phr. like ne üčün ‘why?’ follow): Xwar. xıv ne ‘what?’, nerse ‘thing’ Qutb 113; MN 250, etc.: Kom. xıv ne (also nege, neden) occurs as an Interrog., Indefinite, and \775\ Relative Pron./Pron. Adj. CCI, CCG; Gr. 168-9 (quotns.): Kip. xııı ayš ne: Hou. 56, 15 ff.: xıv ne: ayy šay' Id. 89; ayš ne:; 'aid ayš nečün (-0) Bul. 15, 6; fi'l li-ta'accub ne:; li-acal ayš ne:nüg wiičün (jic) do. 16, 2-3: xv ne: (bi-imela, i.e. ne: not na:) ayš; also ne: Kav. 16, 8 (various der. f.s and phr. follow): Osm. xıv ff. ne with various idiomatic meanings and in phr.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 525 ff.; II 702 ff.; III 517 ff-; IV 584 ff-

Dis. NCG

D nü: (what) Hap. leg.; no doubt, as Kaš. says, a crasis of ne:gü: (what). Xak. xı nü: a Particle (harf) used instead of ne: and meaning me de; hence one says nü: t&rsen ‘what do you say?’; originally ne:gü: but abbreviated Kaš. III 215.

Tris. NBŠ

F n^vašigi ‘a good spirit’; ultimately der. f. Middle Pe. new tcexšig, prob. through the Tokharian A (Agnean) form naivesik (see TT X, p. 57). The word is discussed in Sir Harold Bailey, Irtdoiranica, BSOAS XVIII, 1957- N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. nayvašİgi teŋrilerke ‘to the good spirits and gods’ U II 80, 64 (and see note, p. 83); a.o. TT X 271: xıv Chin-Uyğ. Dict. $Mti ‘supernatural being’ (Giles 9,819) nayvašigi U II, p. 83, note 64; Ligeti 184: Xwar. xııı (?) yaxšı nevšigilerdin (so read?) körüklügrek erdi ‘he was more beautiful than the good spirits’ Oğ. 7-8.

Dis. NCA

D ne:če: (nothing, неча, нечего) Equative f. of ne:; properly an Interrog. Pron. ‘how many?’, but with Indefinite and Relative connotations in some contexts, see v. G. ATG, paras. 195 etc.; sometimes declined as a N. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE (?); but note that ‘how many?’ is neče in SW Az., nice in Osm., and that in both languages nece means ‘in what language?’ Neše ‘why? how?’ etc. which occurs in some medieval and modern languages seems to be not a Sec. f. of this word but a crasis of ne iše fr. 2 i:š. Türkü vııı ff. Man. neče yügürür ertl anča ‘the more he ran, the more’ (he vomited) MI 7, 12-13; phr. like beš teŋrig... neče sıdımız bertdimiz erser ‘inasmuch as (or to the extent that) we have injured and hurt the five gods’ Chuas. 51-2 are common in this text: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A neče otačı otm birle kelser ‘however many physicians come with their remedies’ M I 15, 6-7; nečeke tegi ‘to the extent that’ (men and women fail to partake of the strength of the five gods) do. 16, le: Man. neče... išler küdügler erser ‘however many... undertakings there may be’ TT II 16, 41-5: Bud. neče... bar erser ‘however many... there may be’ TT IV 16, 62; VIII H.ıo (ne:če:); Suv. 530, 2 etc. — Sanskrit (let a man strive) tevat yevad arthasya nišpati ‘so much as will achieve his purpose’ anča:ka tegl ne:če:ke: tegl asığnıg bütmeki bolsar (p-... p-) TT VIII E.44; a.o. do. 45 — neče teglig ‘like what?’ (Interrog.) U III 73, 2; ‘howl’ (exclamatory) TT X 345 — nečede ken t<5min öglenip ‘after some time he completely recovered consciousness’ Suv. 619, 18-19; nečede ölser ‘as soon as he dies’ U III 43, 19; a.o. do. 80, 3: Civ. bu yerke neče uruğ batsar ‘whatever quantity of seed is planted in this land’ USp. 28, 5: Xak. xı neče: a Particle (harf) meaning kam' fVl-'adad ‘how many?’; hence one says neče: yarma:k birdiŋ ‘how many dirhams did you give?’; tea yakün ayda (n) istifhema (n) ‘and it is also Interrogative’ (sic) Kaš. III 220; similar o.o. \\ I 49 (1 e:n); III 157 (sa:n) — avčı: neče: al bilse: adığ anča: yo:l blli:r ‘however many tricks the hunter knows the bear knows as many ways out’ I 63, 13; a.o. I 332, 12 — neče: yitig biče:k erse: ‘however sharp a knife is’ I 384, 24; o.o. I 458, 13; III 38, 20 (neče: me:): KB neče ‘however much, or many’, usually w. Conditional, is common 23, 114, 347, 736, etc.; neče me same meaning 918, etc.; sometimes almost ‘whenever’, e.g. 247: xııı (?) At. neče is common, usually w. Conditional ‘however much’; ‘how much?’ 180; ‘why?’ 181; neče me ‘however much’ 38, 174; Tef. neče ‘how many?; however much’; neče me ‘however much’; n^če kim bardı erse ‘whoever (or however many?) went’; bir neče ‘a few’ 229; (neše ‘why?’ 230): xıv Muh. kam istifhemiya neče: Mel. 17, 6; Rif. 95 ; (li-ma ‘why?’ neše: 43, 7 (only)): Čağ. xv ff. (neše nice in the sense of ‘because’ (stire) Vel. 393); nece (spelt) čih qadr tva har čand ‘how much?; however much’ (quotn.); neče (spelt) čand te ‘how many times ?’ (quotn.) San. 322V. 15: Xwar. xııı neče (neše ‘how?’) 'Ali 17; bir neče ‘some’ do. 54: xııı (?) bir neče ‘some’ Oğ. 153: xıv neče ‘how many ?; however many’ Qutb 114; MN 44, etc.; ndče me kim muhimm ‘however important’ Nahc. 241, 2; (neše ‘why?’ do. 237, 3-8; 238, 6 etc.): Kom. xıv ‘how much?’ neče CCI; neče me ‘however much’; anča... neče ‘so much ... as’ CCG; Gr. 169 (quotns.): Kip. xııı kam neče: (-c-) Hou. 50, 15; 55, 8 ff.; bi-kam ‘for how much?’ neče:ye: do. 55, 13 ff.: xıv neče: (‘with -Č-’) ham td. 89; (Tkm. neše: li-ma do. 90); kam neče: (-c-) Bui. 15, 5: xv ham neše: (-š- is the usual scription for -č- in Kav.) Kav. 16, 21 ff.; if you ask a question about a number you say neče (-r-) Tuh. 57a. 13 ff.; kutlama ‘whenever, whatever’ neše ki do. 89b. 9: Osm. xıv ff. nice/niče ‘how?; what?; several; often’ and in several idioms including niče me; c.i.a.p. TTS I 526 ff.; II 705 ff-; III 521; IV 588 ff.

Dis. NCD

F mjda:ğ Hap. leg.; obviously an Iranian (? Sogdian) l.-w. Cf. bile:gü:. Xak. xı mj-da:ğ, ‘with -j-’, al-mišhad (MS. mašhad) ‘whetstone’ Kaš. I 465.

Dis. NCG

D nečük unusual der. f. of ne: with Suff. -čük (very rare; function obscure); properly ‘how?’, occasionally ‘why?’ or as a Relative or Indefinite Adv. Prob. a very old word. The \\ Instr. nečükin and an odd Den. V. form nečukledi:, both rare, are included here for convenience. Survives on!v (?) in SE Türki: SC Uzb.: NW Kar. L., T. Türkü vııı ff. (I am a young gazelle) otsu:z suvsu:z kalti: uyı:n nečü:k yorı:yı:n ‘how can I get on without grazing or water? How anı I to walk ?’ IrkB 45: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (the god Xormuzda had a merciful heart) šımnuğ nečükledl ölürdi ‘how did lie (come to) kill the demon?’ Ml 19, 10: Chr. (go and seek him) nečükin bulsarsizler (so read) ‘however you find him’ (come back and tell me) U I 6, 2; a.o. do. 6, 5 (ün-): Bud. 61 törü nečük tutarbiz ‘how shall we maintain the realm and customarv law?’ PP 9, 6; o.o. do. 54, 4; U III 48, 12; U IV 10, 76 — kalti nečük ‘just as’ Suv. 139, 7 and 19 — nečükin ‘how?’ PP 12, 6; Kuan. 98; Hüen-ts. 71, etc. — nečükledl (? sic, transcribed nečekledŋ od-ğurak tegingülük bolur ‘how must one definitely attain? U III 4, 8-9; nečükledl... ig toğa kĞtmez ‘how is it that the diseases (Mend.). . . do not disappear ?’ U IV 10, 62-3: Yapa:ku: xı nečük a Particle (harf) meaning li-mn ‘why?’; hence one says nečük bardıŋ ‘why did you go ?’ Kaš. I 392; a.o. do. (nelük); (in a Xak. verse) körüp nečük kačmadıŋ ‘why did you not fly when you saw me?’ I 79, 20: xııı (?) Tef. ııečük ‘how?; how’ 228: Čağ. xv ff. ııečük (‘with -k’) nice ve nifün ‘how? why?’ Vel. 393 (quotn. containing nečükleš-j; nečük čih güna ıva čili nahiv ‘how? in what way?’ (quotn.); (nečukleš- čih nahiv kardan ‘to do in what way?’ (quotn.)) San. 322V. 8-13: Xwar. xııı nečük 'Ali 17: xıv nečük ‘how?’ Qutb 113; MN 284, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘how?; as; like’, etc. nečlk CCI, CCG; Gr. 169-71 (quotns.): Kip. xııı kayf ‘how?’ nečük Hou. 55, 16 ff. (quotns.): xıv ditto İd. 80; But. 15, e: xv kayf nešük Kav. 17, 6 ff. (quotns.); kayf nečik Tuh. 56b. 2; a.o.o.

Dis. NCG

Dis. NDG

C ne:te:g a combination of ne: with the Postposition te:g, q.v.; properly Interrogative ‘like what?’ but often used as a Relative Adv. ‘as, just as'. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. nete/ nite ‘even’; netekim/nitekim/niteki ‘just as, even as; for example; thus’. Türkü vııı ff. kererkü: iči: ne:teg ol ‘what is the inside of the tent frame like?’ IrkB 18; a.o.o.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A neteg ‘just as’ M I 23, 6 (ağız): Hud. Sanskrit katliam ‘how?’ ne:te:g TT VIII A.23; yathe ‘as’ neteg do. B. 12; ne:teg do. E.45; (I am ready to do) neteg yarlikasar ‘as he commands’ U IV 16, 155; kalti neteg... ančulayu ‘just as... so’ TT IV 12, 37; V 24, 51 etc.; a.o. U III 57, 6 (i) (osuğluğ): Xak. xı neteg ‘an Interrogative Particle (harf istifham) meaning kayf ‘how?’; hence one says neteg sen ‘how are you?’ Kaš. I 392; 10 o.o.: KB muniŋ šukrı emdi neteg öteyin ‘how am I now tQ proffer thanks for this ?’ 390; emdi köglüg neteg ‘how are you feeling now?’ 523; a.o. 839: xıı (?) KB VP neteg kim tiledi me boldi kamuğ ‘and everything camc into existence as he wished’ 6; a.o. 22: x 111 (?) Tef. neteg ‘how?; just as, as’ 228: xıv Muh. kayf nete: Mel. 17, 6; Rif. 95: Čağ. xv ff. netek (‘with -k’) nice nesne (sic?) ‘how?; how’ (quotn.); netük nice (quotn.) Vel. 392-3; netek/ n^tük (spelt) čih nahiv tva čih gutta ‘in what way? hnw ?’ Sait. 322r. 2 (1 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı nete 'Ali 17: xıv neteg how?’ Qutb 114; MN 227.

Tris. NDG

D neteglik A.N. fr. ne:te:g; survives in SW Osm. netelik/nitellk ‘essence, essential nature’. Xak. xı KB (Thine existence is manifest; Thou art as bright as the sun and moon) neteglikke yetgü kögül ögde yok ‘in the (human) understanding there is no thought which can reach (Thy) nature’ 12; o.o. 16; neteglikke kirme ‘do not try to investigate the nature (of God)’ 2e: xııı (?) Tef. neteglik ‘nature, character’ 229: Xwar. xııı netellk ditto 'AH 18.

Mon. NG

F na:g (snake, crocodile, mythological beings, serpent gods) l.-w. fr. Sanskrit naga, properly ‘snake’, but also used for various mythological beings, serpent gods and the like; as one of the animals in the twelve-year cycle it replaced the earlier word lu: in Xak., the only language in which it occurs, and prob. reached that language through Sogdian. Xak. xı na:g al-timselı ‘crocodile’; na:g yila:n al-tuban ‘a serpent’; na:g yılı: ‘the name of one of the twelve years in Turkish’; the year A.H. 469 (1076-1077 AD), in which I wrote this book, was this year Kaš. III 155; a.o. (year) I 346, 6.


Dis. NGE

D negü: (ne:gü:) (what) Den. N./A. fr. ne: (what), and for practical purposes syn. w. it. N.o.a.b. See negülük. Türkü vııı ff. (a blind colt looked for an udder on a stallion; if he is lost (?) in broad daylight) tün ortu: kanta: negü:de: bolğay ol ‘where (Hend.) will he get to at midnight ?’ IrkB 24: Uyğ- vııı ff. Bud. oğrı tep tedü-kütjüz negü ol ‘what is it that you called a thief?’ PP 59, 4-5; ne negü iš išlegeli uğrasar ‘if he starts to do any work’ U II 23, 26; negü erser turned in ‘without saying anything’ do. 31, 50; a.o. do. 5, J4 (ötgürü:); negü üčün ‘whv?’ U III 35, 26; bu etöz yeme negüke kergeklig ol ‘and what is this body needed for?’ do. 43, 27-8; o.o. U IV 10, 42 etc.; (the form negül before a gap in Hüen-ts. 108 is prob. the beginning of negü-lük, but in TT VI 31 v.l. it seems to be a crasis of negü: ol): Civ. (if one burns a dog’s tooth and) negüke türtser ‘rubs it on any (part of the body)’ TT VII 23, 3; negü sakınč eakinsar ‘whatever thought he has’ 28, 4; an^ similar o.o. w. Conditional; negü kim, neglLme 'any, anything’ are common in USp.: Xak. xı Kaš. İII 215 (nü:); n.m.e.: KB negü ter ‘what (someone) says’ is very common 156, 165, etc.; ııegü bar ajunda \\ biligde küsüš ‘what is there in (this) world more desirable than wisdom?’ 260; negüke ‘why?’ 467, 583, etc.; (if the water is dirty) ııegün yup arir ‘what can a man wash with to be clean?’ 2108; o.o. 583, 663 (yum-), 1069 (udik), 1394 (ek-), 3488 (ke:geš-):x 111 (?) At. (hear) biüglig negü tdp ayur ‘what the wise man says’ 129; (tell me) bu negüke kerek ‘what is this necessary for?’ 314: Tef. negü ‘what?’; neg/negü also occurs at the beginning of questions with no specific meaning 228: (Čağ. xv fF. nağu (sic) ne üčün ‘why?’ Vel. 390 (quotns.): nağu čire ‘why?’ Son. 321V. 14 (same quotns.), seems to be a corruption of this word).

Dis. NMA

Tris. NGL

D negülük (why?) A.N. fr. negü: (what) used as an Interrogative only, usually as an Adv.; ‘why?’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Chr. (this is a lump of stone) negülük ol ‘why is it?’ (that our animals cannot carry it) U I 8, e: Bud. Sanskrit kim ‘why?’ negülük TT VIII D.8; ditto ne:gülük D.30; negülük tuğdum men ‘why was I born?’ PP 4, 8; o.o. do. 30, 1; 66, 6; 68, 8 (barığsa:-); negülük ol ‘why?’ (when you have come so far, give up and turn back?) Hüen-ts. 96; o.o. U III 41, 3-4 (tirig); IV 8, 27: Xak. xı KB negülük t^sesen ‘if you ask “why?”’ 196, 296; negülük ‘why’ (do you put aside these good things ?) nelük ‘why’ (do you not accept this advice?)

Dis. NLG

(S)D nelük ‘why?’; exactly syn. w. negülük and almost certainly a crasis of it, since there is no other reasonable explanation of the -Ü-, cf. nü: < negü:. Survives in nelikten ‘why ?’ in NC Kır., Kzx.: NW Kk. Türkü vııı ff. Irkfi 57 (kanığ): Uyğ. Man.-A nelük keltig bizirje ‘why have you come to us?’ M I 33, 20: Xak. xı nelük a Particle (harf) syn. w. nečük (q.v.) and used by the other Turks instead of it; it means li-ma ‘why?’ Kaš. I 392; five o.o., mostly ne:lük, but in

1 94, 2 mis-spelt ne: elük: KB nelük ‘why ?’ is fairly common 241, 369, 775, 3984 (negülük), 6440-1, etc.: xııı (?) At. nelük ‘why?’ (occurs four times); Tef. ditto 228: xıv Muh. li-ma ne:li:k/nelük/n'c:re:k/ne:k Mel. 17, 17; Rif. 96 (with kam for fi-ma): Xwar. xııı nelük ‘why?’ 'Ali 17: xıv ditto Qutb 113; MN 255: Kip. xıv nelük li-ma in Kip. (i.e. as opposed to Tkm. neše:) Id. 90; li-ayy šay' ‘why?’ nelük Bul. 15, 11: xv another Interrogative is nellk meaning li-ma Tuh. 57b. 7 (quotn.).

Mon. NM

F no:m (religions, religious law) the Greek word nomos properly ‘law’ was a l.-w. in Syriac and was adopted by the Manichaeans as a technical term with a rather wider meaning ‘law, doctrine’, etc.; from this it passed to Sogdian as mom and was used in Buddhist texts to translate Sanskrit dharma, which, has an even wider range of meanings. In Turkish it is used in both Man. and Bud. texts with a similarly wide range of meanings. It is not connected with Tokharian A (Agnean) nom mentioned in TT X 58 note; this is a pure Tokharian (Indian trading lingua franca Kushana grossly misnamed Tocharian) word meaning (and cognate to the English word) ‘name’. It became an early l.-w in Mong. where it came to mean ‘law; scripture; religion; book’, etc. NE Tel. nom ‘law’ R III 695; Tuv. nom ‘book’ are reborrowings fr. Mong. and not survivals. The original word is n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. [gap] nomi ol Toyok IV x. heading (ETY II 180): Man. nom is fairly common in Chuas.; it is generally best translated ‘doctrine’, e.g. arığ nom ‘the pure doctrine’ as opposed to igid nom ‘false doctrine’, but in 72 teŋri nomın sözleser seems to mean ‘when (we) recite the holy scriptures’ and in 228-9 the exact meaning is obscure; nom törü ‘doctrine and rules’ do. 74 (tıd- (? tı:d-) (obstruct, restrain)); 128 (tut-); TT II xo, 91 (ur-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (of a Man. dignitary) nom uluğı ‘chief exponent of the doctrine’ (?) MI 12, 17; nom bitig ‘scripture’ do. 25, to; a.o.o.: Man. nom ratnike ‘to the jewel (Sanskrit l.-w.) of doctrine’ TT IX 32; (the pure) nomın dinin ‘doctrine and religion’ 88; o.o. in TT IIi: Chr. M III 49, 9-12 (ii) (ornaš-): Bud. nom is used to translate dharma in the Buddhist triad Buddha dharma sangha ‘Buddha, law, and community' TT IV 14, 63, and is common in all the meanings of dharma ‘ (religious) law, doctrine’, etc., e.g. burxan nom nomlamaklığ ‘preaching the Buddhist doctrine’ TT V 26, 86-7: Civ. bu nom bitigke tapınıp udunup ‘respecting and worshipping this scripture’ TT VII 14, 10; a.o.o. in semi-Buddhist texts: Xak. xı no:m al-milla toa’l-šari'a ‘religion; religious law’; hence one says teŋri: no:mi: ‘God’s religious law and faith’ (dîn). Similarly all religions (al-miial) are called no:m. This is a word of the Chinese (luğattı'l-Šinin) Kaš. III 137.

Dis. NMA

C ne:me: (something, anything, how) a combination of ne: with the Enclitic 1 me:; originally an Indefinite Pron. ‘something, anything’, or the like; rare in the early period, the list of early occurrences below being fairly complete. In some modern languages, esp. in NE, it has completely replaced ne: in all its meanings; survives in NE most dialects neme/n^me R III 690-1; Khak. nfme: SE Türki neme/nime BŠ 736; Jarring 208: NC Kır. neme/eme: SC Uzb. nima: NW Kk. name: SW Tkm. neme. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (now I wish to return home) nemen ötgeymü men ‘shall I (be able to) get through somehow?’ (or ?how shall I...?) Hüen-ts. 27; (I do not know) nemen takı neče yašağuguz [gap] ‘how and how long your life [?will last]’ do. 54: Civ. (if he has a loss) neme tapmaz ‘he does not recover anything’ TT VII 28, 40: Xak. xı neme: a Particle (harf) meaning ‘I do not know’ (le adrŋ; hence one says neme: ne: kıldı: ‘I do not know what he has done’ Kaš. III 236; a.o. III 214 (ne:).- xııı (?) Tef. nime a Particle, \\ ‘however, nevertheless’, etc. 230: xıv Muh. (in a para, on Exclamations of Surprise) such a word is neme:, e.g. ‘what a brave man he is!’ neme: alp er turur Mel. 18, 1; Rif. 9e: Čağ. xv ff. neme nesne ‘thing’ Vel. 391 (quotns.); neme/nemerse (both spelt) čiz ‘thing’, in Ar. šay’ San. 323r. 3 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı (?) (he captured) sanağuluksuz nemeler yılkılar ‘innumerable things and livestock’ Oğ. 308: xıv neme ‘thing’ Qutb 113; neme yaxšı kul turur bu Ayyüb ‘what a good servant this Ayyüb is I’ Nahc. 333, 8; a.o. 376, 4: Kip. xıv neme ‘thing, anything’, esp. w. a Neg. V. CCI, CCG; Gr. 171 (quotns.): Kip. xıv neme: šay' ‘ (any)-thing’; one says neme: yedin mü ‘have you eaten anything?’ Id. 90; šay' (nesne:, also) neme: Bul. 16, 1: xv šay' neme (nesne) Tuh. 21a. 11; a.o. 58b. 7.

Dis. NMC

DF nomčı: N.Ag. fr. no:m; ‘preacher’, and the like. N.o.a.b. Türkü vıii ff. Man. Chuas. 135-6 (artız-), 324-5 (teŋriči:): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. bu nomuğ arvıšığ nomlağlı nomčı ‘a preacher who preaches this doctrine and dheranV TT VI 373-4; a.o. Kuan. 126-7


Tris. NMC

F nami:ja: Hap. leg.; no doubt an Iranian (? Sogdian) l.-w. Člgil xı namnja: al-silf tcahiva zawe uxti'l-mar'a ‘one’s wife’s sister’s husband’ Kaš. I 446.

Dis. NML

DF nomluğ P.N./A. fr. no:m; ‘possessing a... doctrine’ and other meanings taken fr. the meanings of no:m. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. edgü tetyük nomluğ ratnig ‘the jewel (Sanskrit l.-w.) of the doctrine called "good”’ TT III 108; azağ nomluğlarda ‘with those who have false doctrines’ IX 89: Bud. nomluğ etöz translating Sanskrit dhartnakeya, one of the three bodies or natures of the Buddha (cf. belgürtme and 1 tüš) which are discussed at length in Suv. 38,14 ff.; (the hand with which one eats) nomluğ tatığığ ‘the sweet food of the (true) doctrine’ TT V 22, 45; a.o.o. in TT V and Hüen-ts.

Dis. V. NML-

DF nomla:- Den. V. fr. no:m; ‘to preach’ (with or without an Obj.). N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. burxanlar arığ dintarlar nomlasar kirtkünmedin ‘not believing when the prophets and pure Elect preach’ Chuas. 133-4: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. ewanglyon nom ratnig nomlap ‘preaching the precious doctrine of the gospel’ TT III 62-3; a.o.o.: Bud. Sanskrit jageda ‘he has preached’ nomladı (MS. -tı) TT VIII D.6; (the Buddha) bu (MS. bo) su:darığ nomla:yu: ya:rlıka:dı ‘deigned to preach this sutra' do. H.3; o.o. TT V 26, 86-7 (no:m); VI 373-4 (nomčı:); PP 46, 4-7; 49, 6 etc., often in the phr. nom nomla:-. \\

Mon. NN

?D 1 ne:ŋ (no any, not at all, thing, property, wealth) has two meanings: (1) Adverbial, with Neg. V.s ‘(no) any, (not) at all’, and the like, pec. to Türkü and Uyğ.; (2) as a N., ‘thing, property’, also found in Xak. As both these meanings are also found among the various meanings of der. f.s of ne: (what) it seems reasonable to suppose that it is a Den. N. fr. ne:. Türkü neŋ buguğ yok ‘you have no trouble’ IS 8, II N 6; a.o. I E 26 (yılıšığ) — neŋ neŋ savım erser beggü: taška: urtım ‘I have put on the memorial stone all that I had to say’ I S 11, II N 8; neŋ yerdeki: xağanlığ bodunka ‘for peoples having a xagan in every (?) country’ T 5e: vııı ff. Man. (the Mojak will hear and) neŋ taplamağay ‘will not approve at all’ TT II 6, 26; a.o. do. 8, 41: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A neŋ with Neg. V. is common, e.g. ağı baram közige neŋ llinmegey ‘wealth and property will not catch his eye at all’ M I 15, 4-5; o.o. do. 15, 9; 16, 11 etc.: Man. neŋ... yok’ ‘there is no (trick) at all (that he cannot play)’ M II 5, 8-10: Bud. ne:ŋ, in TT VIII spelt both ney and ne:y, with Neg. V. is common, e.g. Sanskrit na prayatasi ‘you do not exert yourself’ neg katığla:ma:z se:n TT VIII D.9; neg adınsığ kılmazun ‘let him not do anything different’ Hüen-ts. 284-5: Xak. xı neŋ al-šay' ‘a thing’; hence one says bu: ne: ne:ŋ (sic) ol ‘what is this thing?’; neŋ al-mal ‘property, wealth’ (verse) Kaš. III 360; over 300 o.o. almost all spelt ne:ŋ and translated ‘thing’; there does not seem to be any case of ne:ŋ with Neg. V.: KB neŋ is common, both for ‘thing’, e.g. bu tört neŋ ‘these four things’ 306, and ‘property’, e.g. evi neŋ tolur ‘his house is full of property’ 759: xııı (?) At. neŋ is common both for ‘thing’ and ‘property’; Tef. neŋthing’ (both abstract and concrete) 228: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 113.

?D 2 ne:ŋ (any, at all) Den. N. fr. ne: (what)

Dis. NRA

S naru: See aŋaru:. (there) (nary)

Tris. NRĞ

(S)D narukı: N./A.S. fr. naru: (aŋaru:) (there) fr. ne: (what); ‘situated beyond, on the other side’, and the like. Pec. to Xak.? Xak. xı KB munigda narukı neče egri yol ‘however winding the road may be from here onwards’ 4876.

?C nerek Kaš. is prob. right in saying that this is a crasis of ne: kergek (cf. nelük), since it has exactly the same meaning. Survives in NE Alt., Tel. ne:rek R III 679. Xak. xı nerek a Particle (harf) meaning li-me de yanbaği ‘what is it necessary for?’; one says bu: saga: nerek ‘why do you need this?’; its origin is ne: kere:k and it was abbreviated Kaš. I 392: KB yağı neg bolurda bu eški \\ nerek talu net) bolurda yavuz ne kerek 'when a new thing comes into existence, what need is there for the old ? When a good thing comes into existence, what need is there for the bad ?’ 688; blligsiz bolur kul nerek kul sözl 'the slave is ignorant, what is the need for a slave’s statement?’ 190e: xııı (?) At. aya hirš idisi harišlik nerek, ayu her maga bu negüke kerek ‘O miser! what is the need for miserliness; tell me what this is needed for’ 313-14: xıv Muh. Mel. 17, 17; Rif. 96 (nelük).

Dis. NRG

Mon. NZ

2 ñü:z (y-) (face) ‘the face’, synonymous w. bet (face) (wlita, litso, лицо). C.i.a.p.a.l. w. the usual phonetic changes; in Čuv. n€r, ‘appearance, beauty’, Ash. IX 59; a First Period l.-w. in Mong. as rtt ur (Haenisch ıi7)/niğur (Koto. 649, Haltod 139); in some modem languages w. extended meanings like ‘surface’ and in Osm. ‘effrontery; cause’, etc. Exceptionally in NE Tuv. čüs is ‘a joint’, and ‘face’ šıray (Mong. l.-w.). Cf. bet, yüzegü:. Türkü vııı (of the arrows) yüzige: (so read) bašıga: bir te[g-medi:] ‘not one reached his face or head’ I E 33: vııı ff. (it is better to know one man by his name) mig kiši: yüzi:n biligi:nče: ‘than a thousand men by sight’ Tun. I Ila. 4-5 (ETY II 94): Man. (sufferings) yüzümüz utruluğ ‘which confront us’ TT II 6, e: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (I wish to see your lovely, shining, warm) yüzügüzen ‘face’ MI 10, 9: Man. kög (sic) kalığ yüzinte ‘facing the firmament’ TT III 129: Bud. munug yüzin ‘this man’s face’ PP 63, 1; o.o. U III 14, 12 (külčir-), etc.: Civ. yağız yer yüzi ‘the surface of the brown earth’ TT I 4; o.o. VII 23, 1 etc.: Xak. xı yü:z al-tvach ‘the face’ Kaš. III 143 (prov.); over 50 o.o., same translation: KB evige yüz urdi ‘he faced homewards’ 951; evrer yüzin ‘he turns away his face’ 403; a.o.o.: xııı (?) At. rasüllar ürttg yüz ‘the prophets (have) white (i.e. pure) faces’ 25; o.o. 159 (at-), etc.; Tef. yüzface’ 165: xıv Muh. \\\ Čag. xv h. yiu ru srni. 343?. 5  (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ditto 'Ali 14, etc.: xıv ditto Qutb 89; MN 41, etc.; Nahc. 9, 8 etc.: Kom. xıv ditto CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı mac-muul-tvach ‘the face as a whole’ yüz Hou. 20,8: xıv yüz al-tvach Id. 93: xv Kav. 60, 13; Tuh. 38a. 10 a.o.o.: Osm. xıv ff. yüz common in phr. and idioms TTS I 856 ff.; II 1085 ff.; III 835 ff.; IV 9*7 ff-




Initial r-, like initial l-, q.v., was a sound entirely foreign to the Turkish language and any l.-w. with initial r- which became established in the early language assumed a prosthetic e e.g. ertlni, erej (happiness, bliss). There is a sprinkling of Indian and Iranian l.-w.s in some Man. and Bud. texts without the prosthetic vowel, e.g. ratni, the Tokharian (Agnean ?) form of Sanskrit rntna, which later became ertini, but these are not listed here since they never became at home in Turkish. In the Moslem period a number of Arabic and Persian l.-w.s entered the language unchanged, but those used in popular speech usually assumed a prosthetic vowel, e.g. SW Osm. uruc ‘fasting, a canonical fast’, a corruption of Pe. nlza. The only wort! with initial r- in Kaš. is that listed below.

VUF rabčat (fully vocalized) Hap. leg.; origin uncertain, but no doubt an Indo--European l.-w. cognate to Russian rab ‘slave’; rabota 'work', etc. (arbi, аrbеit, obra, orbus, orphan - ὀρφανός) Gancak xı rabčat al-suxrtya ‘unpaid forced labour’; as when for example a chief (nl-amir) takes animals belonging to the peasantry (al-ra'iya) and carries his goods on them without payment Kaš. I 451.
(Vasmer, рабо́та ORIGIN: Производное от и.-е. *orbhos (см. раб, ребёнок), родственное гот. arbaiþs "нужда", д.-в.-н. аr(а)bеit ж. "работа, тягота, нужда" (Торбьёрнссон 1, 59; Клюге-Гётце 22). > раб, рабыня
рабова́ть ORIGIN: д.-в.-н. roub "грабеж", roubôn "грабить"; см. Мi. ЕW 271; Брюкнер 451.
ребёнок ORIGIN: Праслав. *orbъ дало вост.-слав. и зап.-слав. rоbъ, ю.-слав. rаbъ. Ю.-слав. формы на -о-, вероятно, заимств. из придунайских районов; см. Нахтигал, Akzeпtbew. 271 и сл. Русск. *реб- получено из *роб- в результате стар. ассимиляции гласных. Исходной формой было *orbę, род. *orbęte; см. Соболевский, Лекции 90; Преобр. II, 190. || Родственно лат. orbus "осиротевший", греч. ὀρφανός -- то же, арм. оrb (основа на -о), род. п. оrbоу "сирота", гот. arbi ср. р. "наследство", arbja м. "наследник", греч. ὀρφοβόται ̇ ἐπίτροποι ὀρφανῶν (Гесихий), ирл. orbe "наследство", др.-инд. árbhas "маленький, мальчик"; см. Педерсен, Kelt. Gr. 1, 32, 117 и сл.; Ягич, AfslPh 13, 292; Миккола, Ursl. Gr. 89 и сл.; Траутман, ВSW 12; Торп 19; Хюбшман 423. Ср. раб, па́робок. Знач. "раб" могло развиться из "сирота", потому что первонач. сироты выполняли наиболее тяжелую работу по дому; см. Янко у Гуйера (LF 40, 303 и сл.). Сближение с лит. dárbas "работа" (Бецценбергер, GGA, 1896, 956) сомнительно. Нельзя выдвигать праслав. праформу *reb-, вопреки Мейе (МSL 14, 383), Микколе (Ваlt. u. Slav. 39), а также *r̥bho-, вопреки Педерсену (KZ 38, 313); см. Соболевский, там же.)


Mon. SA

S (D) sa: (Sp. su, Engl. thou, lisping tha) crasis of saŋa: (to you, тебе), Dat. of sen (Sp. su, Engl. thou, lisping tha); an unusually early case of a crasis common later. Xak. xı sa: a Particle (harf) meaning anta 'you'; hence one says sa: ayurmen ‘I say to you’ (lak). The alif is changed from nun in the word sen or abbreviated fr. the word saŋa:; (irrelevant Ar. parallels follow) Kaš. III 208 (following a para, on (the Suff.) -sa:/-se: meaning law ‘if’).

F so: (chain, lock) no doubt, as Müller suggested, ‘chain, lock’, l.-w. fr. Chinese solock, chain’ (Giles 10,204). N.o.a.b. but see sola:- (chain, fasten, interlock). Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (plundering, robbing, breaking in, opening doors and) sosın söküp ‘pulling their locks apart’ U II 76, 1; yeti temir son kemi solap turğurdı ‘he tied up the ship, fastening it with seven iron chains’ PP 31, 5-6; a.o. do. 33, 2-3 (1 ač- (open)).

S su: See suv. (water, river)

VU sö: (time past, былое) noted only in the phr. söde/södin berü ‘for a long time past’, but cf. söki: (sö:ki: former, of old). In Chuas. v./.G. transcribed it suy and confused it with suy (tsuy (sin) ) ‘sin’, a Chinese l.-w.. N.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. söde berü... yazmtımız erser ‘if for a long time past we have sinned’ (against the sun and moon gods, etc.) Chuas. 13; o.o. do. 49, 85, etc.: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. ögüm kagım sönde (sic, acc. to Pelliot) berü meni sevmez erti ‘for a long time past my mother and father have not loved me’ PP 56, 7-8; (because their attachments (Hend.) have not been broken (Hend.)) sö- (text in error suv) -din berü ‘for a long time past’ Suv. 61, 17; o.o. spelt soo, do. 280, 7; 695. 23.

VU 1 sü: (army, troops)army’. The theory put forward in TT X, p. 19, note 206 that this should be transcribed šö: and taken as a l.-w. fr. Chinese shou ‘to hunt’ (Giles 10,013) is quite untenable since the spelling with s- is universal in texts in Ar. script. The word itself cannot be traced later than about xv, but the phr. sü: bašı: ‘army commander’ lived on and, when sü: itself had been forgotten, was taken to be su: bašı: and used for ‘water (i.e. irrigation) superintendent’, an official of great importance in the Middle East, see e.g. SW Osm. šu bašı Sami 835, Red. 1188. This misunderstanding suggests that the vowel was -ü: but this is not certain (sic). Türkü vııı sü:army’ is common, esp. in the phr. sü: süle:- ‘to make an expedition’ (süle:- vs sulı attests to form ); sü bašı: Inel (sic) Xağan Tardu:š Šad barzu:n ‘let Inel Xagan, the Tarduš Šad, go as army commander’ T 31: vııı ff. sü: occurs several times in IrkB, e.g. xan süke: barmi:š yağı:ğ sančmhš ‘the xan went to the army (i.e. on a campaign) and \\\ routed the enemy’ 34: Yen. sü: has been read in several inscriptions, but the only clear case is Mai. 26, 8 (1 teg): Uyğ. vııı sü: occurs 8 times in Šu., usually in such phr. as sü: yorı:dı: ‘the army set out’ N 6; [sü:] bašı: ben ‘I was the [army] commander’ has been restored in the Side line: vııı ff. Man.-A kentü kentü süsin [gap] ‘their own armies’ M I 22, 5 (ı); Bud. , usually spelt suu (cf. sö: (time past, былое) in Suv.), is fairly common, e.g. alku törlüg sü: čeriglerde [gap] ‘in all kinds of armies and troops’ U II 74, 4 (ı); a.o. do. 69, 5 (in: Civ. süke barğu iš bolur ‘it becomes an affair of going to the army’ TT VII 36, 15-16; a.o. I 67 (sančıt-): Xak. xı sü: al-cund ‘the army’ Kaš. III 208 (prov.; verse); about 40 o.o. translated al-cund or less often al-cayš ‘army’ or al-'askar ‘the soldiers(troops); in I 478, 8 the full title of Selcük (sic, not Salcuk) ‘the ancestor of those Sultans’ is given as Selcük sü: bašı:: KB in 2266 the King asks what qualities sü bašlar kiši ‘an army commander’ requires; the answer is in Chap. XXX, 2269 ff.: xııı (?) Tef. army’; süsi birle ya'nî laš-karı birle 278: (xiv Muh. rafiqu'l-askar ‘fellow-soldier’ sü:de:š Mel. 50, 1; Rif. 145): Xwar. xııı army’ 'Ali 52: xıv ditto Qutb 162: Kıp. xııı Hou. 14, 10 (čerig): Osm. xıv to xvı army’ in several texts TTS I 652; II 853; sü bašı, here spelt su bašı, with šu in some texts fr. xv (perhaps a later MS.) onwards, occurs in all periods; in the earliest period the title was clearly military and this continued till xvııı, but the transition to civil duties is hinted in dicts, fr. xvı onwards I 646; II 844; III 640; IV 707.

Sü: participates in the single preserved Hunnic phrase of the 4th c., in Chinese phonetical transcription: Süchi Ti li gang Pugu chu Tudang 秀支 替戾剛 僕谷 禿 劬當, where, first, the form “army” in Süchi is attested, and second, the modern transcription süči “army man, army commander, trooper” is a compound of the Noun “army” + Noun Agent affix -či:, demonstrating salient continuity between the 4th c. Hunnic language and the modern Türkic languages, and Chinese attestation for ; su: bašı:/suv bašı: is unrelated to sü: bašı:.

F 2 sü (preface)preface’; l.-w. fr. Chinese hsü (Giles 4,771). Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Suv. 2, 5 (ula:l-)..

Mon. V. SA-

sa:- (say-, sa:y-, sana:-, sa:na-) (think, reckon, count, desire, worry) (think) ‘to count’; in its original form obsolete everywhere; it has become say- in NW Krım, Nog.: SW Az., Osm., Tkm. (sa:y-), but it has been displaced, in all other languages completely, and in these partially, by sana:- (Tkm. sa:na-), q.v. (Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. this word was read by Pelliot in PP 68, 8, but the correct reading is barığsadıgız): Xak. xı er ko:nığ (sic) sa:di: ‘the man counted ('adda) the sheep’ (etc.) Kaš. III 247 (sa:r, sa:ma:k; verse); o.o. I 281, 22 (where it is described as the origin of the Desid. V. Suff. -sa:-/-se:-); III 250, 4: KB sayu berdi bilgin ukušı tegin ‘he reckoned up his knowledge and the extent of his understanding’ 569; ikigüni bir tep isizke samado not reckon them both to be as bad as one another’ 875; (the King) kamuğ edgülükni atamıš sayu ‘has named and counted up all the advantages’ \782\ bašıga tegi bağna šadım neče ‘I have counted how many rungs there are up to the top (of the ladder)’ 6034: xııı (?) Tef. samaknumber, calculation’ 261: Čağ. xv ff. say- šay- Vel. 283; say- (spelt) šumurdan ‘to count’ Satt. 236V. 25: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 151: Kip./Tkm. xıv (Kıp. šana-) 'adda; Tkm. ša- Id. 60: xv al-'adad šaymak, the Imperat. is šay Kav. 64, 18; 'adda (šana-/) šay- Tuh. 25b. 13: Osm. xıv ff. say- ‘to count’, but more often ‘to reckon (something) to be (something)’; in several texts TTS I 606; IV 669.

sı:- (break, destroy, rout, conquer, confute) ‘to break’ (Trans.), both lit. and metaph.; survives in NE Kač., Sag. R IV 602 (phr.) and SW Osm., but elsewhere displaced by sındır-, first apparently noted in Xwar. xiv, Qutb 164, or other words. Türkü vııı (I brought a decorator from the Chinese Emperor and decorated the tomb) meniŋ savımın sımadı: ‘he (i.e. the Chinese Emperor?) did not break (i.e. reject) my statement’. (The Emperor’s chamberlain sent a decorator) IS 11, UN 14; üč otuz balık sıdı: ‘they broke (i.e. captured) twenty-three towns’ T 19; o.o. IE 36 (udluk); Ix. 21: vııı ff. Man. Chuas. 51 (bert-), 256 (bača:k): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A üč yeğ savın sımağlı ‘not breaking the three good words’ M III 29, 3 (in: Man. (eat the lamb’s flesh, but) sügükin simaglar ‘do not break its bones’ M III 39, 3 (iii): Bud. yinčge sipbreaking (gold-bearing ore) into small pieces’ Suv. 71, 14; odğurak terig muni sıdıgız ‘you fundamentally confuted him’ Hüen-ts. 1801; sıdačı siz... yatlanğ ‘you rout the strangers (to the true doctrine)’ do. 2063-4; o.o. TT IV 8, 67 and 75: Civ. küzečig küzedip simasar ‘if a man looks after a cooking pot and does not break it’ (it is a vessel for serving food); apam bir adakin sısar ‘but if he breaks one of its feet’ (it spills the contents) TT I 197-9; a.o. do. 17 (bert-): Xak. xı ol otug sı:dı: ‘he broke up (kasara) the fire-wood’ (etc.); and one says ol sü:ni: sı:dı: ‘he routed (hazama) the army’ Kaš. III 249 (sı:r, sı:ma:k); sıyu:ma:s, crasis of siyu: u:ma:s ‘he cannot break’ I 123, 21; 128, 13; o.o. I 282, 14; 382 (kapak); 473, 1: KB yağını sımak ‘to rout the enemy’ 2272; sıma köglini ‘do not break his heart’ 4264; boym sımağınča ‘unless you break their necks’ 4807; sığıl burxanın ‘break his idols’ 548e: xııı (?) At. (if your tongue gets out of control) tišigni sıyur ‘it breaks your teeth’ 132; Tef. - ‘to destroy’ (abstract) 270: xıv Muh. kasara sı:- Mel. 30, 11; 40, 17: Rif. 114, 130 (both mis-spelt sın-); al-kasr sı:mak 35, 8; 121: Xwar. xıv si- ‘to break’ Qutb 163: Tkm. xıv sı- kasara Id. 51: Osm. xıv ff. sı- ‘to break (lit. or metaph.); to conquer’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 619; II 814; III 618; IV 683.

VU su:- (pull, draw) Hap. leg.; basic meaning obscure. Xak. xı ol agar boyu:n su:dı: inqada lahu tea xada'a ‘he obeyed him and submitted (lit. extended his neck)’; and one says ol maga: yu:g su:dı: ‘he sent (arsala) me hanks of wool to spin’ (li'l-fatl) Kaš. III 248 (su:r, su:ma:k).

Mon. SB

sa:b (turn, succession (to do something)) ‘a turn (to do something)’; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (of the last in a series of named tcachers) sabında nom İšin IšlegUke yarağ-lığ ‘fit to do the work of (teaching) the doctrine in his turn’ Hüen-ts. 1983-4; a.o. Suv. 590, 13: Xak. xı sa:b al-natvba fi'1-caneb li--kalem wa fi'l-tahn wa'I-saqy ‘a turn to reply to a speech, to use a mill, or to irrigate (one’s land)’; hence one says ol sö:z (le)ge:li: sa:b be:rme:s ‘he does not give (others) a turn to speak’, and in regard to using a mill, etc. senig sa:b keldi: ‘your turn has come’ Kaš. III 145.

sa:p (sap, šap) (handle) ‘the handle (of a sword, knife, etc.)’; s.i.a.m.l.g. with this and extended meanings. The long -a:- in Kaš. seems to be an error (cf. 1 baš, 1 taš (? d-) (outside)); the SW Tkm. form is sap (sa:p ‘pure’ etc. is the Ar. l.-w. šef) and the Acc. in Osm. is sapı, not sabi, which implies a final -p and so a short vowel. Xak. xı sa:p tıišebu'l-sayf tea'I-sikkın ‘the handle of a sword or knife’ Kaš. III 145 (prov.); a.o. I 384, 25 (yon-): Xwar. xıv sap ‘handle’ Qutb 150: Kip. xııı (‘halter’ yu:la:ŋ; al-micarr ‘the leading-rope of a halter’ yu:la:r ša:pı: Hou. 14, 5: xıv šap al-nišeb İd. 5e: xv ditto Tuh. 36b. e: Osm. xvııı sap (‘with -p’) in Rumi, ‘the handle (dasta) of a sword, knife, arrow’, and the like San. 228V. 17.

sa:v (sav, šaw) (say, speech) ‘a speech’, etc.; derivative fr. sa:- (say-, sa:y-, sana:-, sa:na-) (think, reckon, count, desire, worry) (think); the difference between this word sa:v (talk ~ speech, account, story) and sö:z (say, express ~ word, statement, saying), if it is not simply one of chronology or dialect (sö:z is rather rare in the early period), seems to be one of quantity; sa:v seems to mean ‘a (full-length) speech; a narrative or story, a message’, while sö:z seems to mean basically ‘a single word, or short utterance’. Very common in the earlier period, but not noted after xıv except in the Hend. söz sav. Türkü vııı sav is common, esp. in 7'; it is used (1) of Bilge: Xagan’s address to his people, e.g. bu savımın edgü:ti: ešid ‘listen carefully to this speech of mine’ I S 2; a.o.o.; (2) of speeches or representations, e.g. Tavğač bodun savı: süčig ‘the Chinese people’s (i.e . Türkic tribe Tabgach, ancestors of Tuvinians) words are honeyed’ I S ^5, II N 4; (3) of a report or narrative, e.g. körüg savı: antağ ‘the spy’s report was as follows’ T 9; (4) of a message, e.g. sav anča: idmiš ‘they sent the following message’ T 9: vııı ff. edgü: söz sav elti: keli:r ‘he comes bringing good news’ IrkB 7, 11; kul savı: ‘the slave’s speech’ (is addressed to his master), kuzğum savı: ‘the raven’s words’ (are a prayer to heaven) do. 54; savlar ‘a statement’ (of the qualities of the seven planets and five kinds of jewels) Toyok 4 (ETY II 57); Tun. Ilia. 2 (ETY II 94; tanukluğ); a.o.o.: Man. sav elitip sav kelürüp ‘carrying messages to and fro’ Chuas. 104-5; amg savın alıp ‘accepting his preachings’ do. 137; yumšağ savı sözl ‘their mild words’ M III 20, 7 (ı): o.o. do. 33-4 (čulvu:), 199; TT II 10, 77-8: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M 115, 2 (ögek): \783\ 18, 3 (i) (adir-); 19, 14 (tanukla:-): Bud. Sanskrit katliam ‘statementsa:vığ TT VIII A.21; vedam ditto do. G 17, a o- do. E.49: bu sav ešidip ‘hearing this statement’ PP 61, 2; ötüg savpetition’ do. 15, 7; a.o. do. 76, 2; savığ sözüg (the second later deleted) ‘statement’ TT X 26; a.o. Hüen-ts. 2040 (1 öt-); and many o.o.: Civ. in TT I the standard formula is (if such- and-such an omen is received) savın ınča ayur ‘it gives the following message’ 14, 32, 44, etc.; türk savında ‘among Turkish proverbs’ VII 42, heading: Xak. xı sa:v al-matal ‘a proverb’, hence one says sa:vda: mundağ kelir ‘there is a proverb which says’; sa:v al-qifsa ‘a story, narrative’; sa:v al-hikeya ditto; sa:v al-risala ‘a message’; sa:v al-kalem 'z statement’; sa:v al-anbe' wa’l-ahadit ‘news, reports’; hence the Prophet (al-nabi) is called sa:včı: because he gives news, tells stories, delivers messages, and quotes proverbs Kaš. III 154 (verse); about 12 o.o.: KB (I have heard of his fame, wisdom, and understanding and) siliğ savını ‘his pure utterances’ 527; a.o. 973 (eğsü:-); öt sav/öt sav erig 'advice’ is common, see 1 öt: (pierce, pass) xııı (?) Tef. Jjadit ‘traditional story’ sav 257: Kip. xıv šaw al-da'zve ‘claim, petition’ Id. 61: Osm. xıv ff. söz sav see sö:z; xıv sav ‘story, news’; in two texts TTS I 603.

sep (dowry)dowry’; survives, sometimes with extended meanings, in NE several dialects R IV 493: SE Türki: NC Kır. (in Kzx. only for ‘use, benefit’): SC Uzb.: NW Kumyk: SW Tkm. Cf. kabın (dowry, betrothal, marriage). Xak. xı sep cihez kull 'arüs wahwa meluhe ‘the dowry of a bride’, that is her property Kaš. I 319: Kom. xıv ‘a bride’s dowry’ iseb CCG; Gr.

sip (colt at one year) ‘a one-year-old colt’; n.o.a.b., but survives as sıpa ‘a donkey colt from six months to a year’ in SW Az., Osm. (in the latter also for other young animals), see R IV 668; Shcherbak, p. 124. (Uyğ. vııı in a geog. name see 1 baš): Xak. xı sip ‘a colt (al~ -muhŋ when it has reached its second year’ Kaš. I 319; tegilr meniŋ sa:vimni: bilge:-lerke: (MS. bilge-.leke:) ay, tinar kali: atatsa: kısrak šıpı: (MS. sinŋ ta:y ‘convey my message and say to the wise “the mare rests when her colt grows up to be a horse”’ I 207, 11; III 158, 9 (adding ‘because it is then ridden on instead of her’); a.o. I 487 (sıpa:kuŋ: (Kip. xııı al-cahš ibtt sana ‘a one--year-old donkey coltsıpa: (-p-) Hou. 12, le:xiv sıpa: (‘back vowels and -p-’) al-cahš Id. 51).

su:v (water, river)water’; c.i.a.p.a.l.; in SW Tkm. still suv; in NE Koib., Sag., Šor. suğ; Čuv. šıv/šu (sic) Ash. XVII 171, 205; elsewhere su, occasionally su:; sometimes with extended meanings, ‘stream, river’, etc. Türkü vııı yer suv occurs several times; it has been suggested that it has a mystical or religious connotation, but the context in this and other languages shows that it merely meant ‘territory’, i.e. an area containing both land and \\\ streams, lakes, etc.; ečü:miz apa:mız tutmiš ye:r suv idlsiz bolmazu:n ‘let not the territory which our ancestors (Hend.) held become ownerless’ IE 19; ditto but kalmazu:n ‘let not... remain’ II E 16; similar phr. I E 20, II E 17; (the Tokkuz Oğuız) yerin suvi:n ıdıp 'abandoned their territory’ (and went to China) II E 35; [long gap] yerigerti: suvi:-garu: kondi: ‘settled down in their territory’ II E 40; üze: Türkü teŋri:si: Türkü ıduk yeri: suvı: anča etmiš ‘the god of the Türkü thus organized the sacred territory of the Türkü’ IE 11, 11 E 10; ıduk yer suv also occurs in a damaged passage in II E 35 — Am: suvfiga] bardfimiz] ol suv kodi: bardimiz ‘we went to the river Am:, and went down it’ T 27; o.o. IE 24 (1 ka:n); do. 27, 22 (1 o:t): vııı ff. (a horse) tag üze: yul suv körü:pen ‘seeing a spring and water on the mountain’ IrkB 17; a.o. do. 33; in the Toyok document about precious stones (ETY II 57 ff.) suv (perhaps an over-literal translation of the Iranian original) means something like ‘colour’, e.g. ol ok tašı^ suvı: ya:šı:l bolsar ‘if the colour of that stone is green’ 26-7: Man. suv teŋri ‘the water god’ Chuas. 36; suv ičrek! tınlığka ‘to aquatic creatures’ do. 86; (I do not wish to live) y^rtinčü yer suvda ev bark ičinde ‘in a dwelling in the territory of this world’ TT II 8, 41-2: Uyğ. vııı suvı: Seleğe: ermiš ‘their water (river) was the Selenga’ Šu. N 2: vııı ff. Man.-A suv teŋri M I 21, 2 (ı); ol suv bulğakı ‘that disturbed water’ M III 10, 11 (ı): Man. TT III 55 (küvenčlig): Bud. suvda suv öglüg tağlar ‘mountains in the water (i.e. waves) the colour of water’ PP 17, 4; many o.o. — C6mbüdvip yer suvdaki ‘in the territory of Jambudvipa’ PP 44, 1; (there was a holy fsŋ ol yer suv ‘of that territory’ do. 59, 1: Civ. suv ‘water’ is common in all texts; in TT VII 1, 19 the planet Mercury is called suv yultuzi ‘the water star’, the Chinese name: O. Kır. ıx ff. yerime: ayıta: suvıma: adrıldım ‘I have said farewell to my land and parted from my water’ Mai. 11, 4; (I was parted) yerim suvi:m sizime: do. 45, e: Xak. xı su:v al-me' ‘water’ Kaš. III 129 (prov.; following an entry tu:f (sic) ‘a belt (minfaqa) woven by hand from woollen (al-šüf) threads’; as such it must be an error, perhaps for šüf as a l.-w.); over 100 o.o.: xııı (?) At. halimlik suvın sač ‘sprinkle it with the water of mildness’ 340; Tef. su/suv ‘water; liquid’ 275: xıv Muh. al-nahr ‘river’ ulu: su: Mel. 4, 20; Rif. 75; al-me' su: 15, 14; 76, 16; 92, 180 (in margin suf): Čağ. xv ff. suw (so to be spelt, under stn-i mağmum with tceıc) eb ‘water’, as is well known, also ravaej, ratv--naq, ceh, 'izzat, and ab-i rü ‘current, brilliance, distinction, honor (Hend.)’ San. 2481. 28 (the later translations assume that it is used with the same metaph. meanings as eb): Xwar. ( xııı sudağı ‘in the water’ 'Ali 18): xııı (?) su ‘water’ Oğ. 166, 205: xıv suvfmetri gratia su ‘water’ Qutb 161-2; MN 5, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘water’ su (before vocalic Suff.s suv-) CCI, CCG; Gr. 224 (phr.): Kip. xııı \784\ al-me’ šu: Hou. 6, 1 «S: xıv ditto Id. 55 (and two phr.): xv ditto Kav. 31, 5; 58, 14 (and two phr.); Tuh. 35a. 5; mir had ‘lavatory’ šu öy (for ev) do. 35a. 7: Osm. xıv ff. su/šu (in one xıv text before vocalic Suff.s suv-) c.i.a.p. in various phr. TTS I 646 ff.; II 844 ff.; 850; III 641 ff.; IV 709 ff.

suğ See su:v (water, river) Koibal, Sagay, Šor.

All cognates associated with water, moisture, and juices that start with su-, so-, sog- attest to much wider spread of the form suğ- than Koibal, Sagay, and Šor: soak, soggy, ONorse sökkva, Slavic sok, etc, and the derivatives like sink (v.), sink (n.), corresponding Türkic siŋ- (v.), sip (v.), corresponding Türkic syp (v.), sea, corresponding Türkic si, suck (v.), corresponding Türkic saɣ- (v.), etc. ultimately also ascend to the prime root su.

Mon. V. SB-

sap-, sep- Preliminary note. There is great confusion about V.s of these two forms. The only certain form in Türkü is sep- 'to repair (something broken)', and the only certain form in Uyğ. sap- 'to instil, graft’, and the like, although 'to equip, fit out’ was almost certainly sep-. Kaš. lists only sap- and translates it (1) 'to thread (a needle)’; (2) 'to repair (something broken)’, but distinguishes between saptur- 'to order to repair and septür- 'to order to provide a dowry’, obviously a Caus. f. of sep- which is homophonous w. sep 'a dowry'. On this basis therefore it looks as if the Türkü word was misspelt and Kaš.’s two meanings go back to some common origin. Sap- 'to thread (a needle), to inoculate, graft’ survives in SE Türki: perhaps NW Kaz. R IV 401: and SW Tkm.; sep- 'to equip’ is not noted again. In the medieval period two apparently new V.s appeared, sap- 'to go astray, deviate’, and the like, which is noted in xix NC Kzx. and NW Kaz. in R IV 402 and survives in SIV Osm., and sep- ‘to scatter (solid matter, e.g. seed), to sow; to sprinkle (liquids), to irrigate’, which is practically syn. w. sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow) and s.i.a.m.l.g. (in SW serp-),

sap- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)) ‘to thread (a needle), to graft, inoculate (lit. or metaph.); to repair (something broken)’. See above. Türkü vııı ff. sinuki:yi:n sepermen (sic) ‘I repair your broken things’ IrkB 48 (and see ula:-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (How are you worthy to be called) kalınču burxan šasinin ur[tačı?J saptačı ‘one who grafts in (?) the surviving discipline (Sanskrit sesana) of the Buddha?’ Hüen-ts. 306-7; antağ yok erdi kögüzinte sukmayuk körjülinte sapmayuk ‘thus he was not one who refused to take (the teaching) to his bosom or graft it (?) into his mind’ do. 1927-8: Xak. xı yi:či: yigne: sapdi: ‘the tailor threaded (daxxala... al-silkfŋ the needle’; and one says ol kuš kanatın sapdi: ‘he joined up (i.e. mended, wasala) the bird’s wing’; also used of anything defective (?) when one pulls it together and joins it up (taqasara 'an cinsihi fa-carrahu wa wasalahu) Kaš. II 3 (sapa:r, sapma:k): KB 1858 (buzuk): xıv awsala sa:pti: Mel. 20, 1; Rif. 99 (sap-): (Kom. xıv ‘to stand aside (for someone)’ sap- CCG; Gr.: Kip. xıv šaptı: (-/>-) nakaba 'ani'l-tarlq ‘to go astray from the road' td. 56).

1 sa:v- (say, speak)

2 sav- (sa:v-, saw-, sa:w-, se:v-) See sevrä- (sevrǝ-) (v.) “decrease, diminish, rid, get rid of”, savıl- (turn away, drive away, repulse; divert, go away, avoid, escape from, stand aside, get out of the way, let loose, spray, disperse, bring to an end).

sep- (equip, fit out) ‘to equip, fit out’, and the like. See above, and septür-. (Türkü vııı ff. see sap- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle))): \\\ Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the old man agreed and became the Prince’s guide. Then) kagi xan teginke septi ‘his father the King equipped the Prince’ (and gave him the food, water, transport animals, and everything else required by the 500 men) PP 28, 1-2: (xiv Muh. rašša’l-mCi ‘to sprinkle water’ su: sep- Mel. 26, 11; ditto wa nafadn’l-tawb ‘to shake the dust off a garment’ sep- Rif. 109: Čağ. xv ff. sep- (-tŋ sep- ‘to sprinkle’, that is to sprinkle water or something else Vel. 284; sep- (‘with -p-’) afšurdan ‘to sprinkle’ San. 249V. 4 (quotns.): Kip. xıv sep- (‘with -p-’) rašša qalila (n) (‘lightly’) Id. 51 : xv rašša sep- Tuh. 17a. 11: Osm. xıv ff. sep- ‘to sprinkle’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 614; 11 810; III 613; IV 677).

sev- (like, love) (savor) ‘to love; to like’, with a wide range of shades of meaning. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. several phonetic changes NE Alt., Tel. sLi- (no other languages): SE Tar. söy-; Türki söy-/süy- (‘to kiss’): NC süy-: SC sev- : NW Kaz. söy- ; others süy- : SW Az., Osm. sev- ; Tkm. söy-. S Türkü vııı ff. sevdükimi:n yeyü:r-men ‘I eat what I like’ IrkB 3: Man. idi sevmezmen ‘I do not at all like’ (to live a worldly life) TT 118, 42: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. TT III 98-9 (ana:): Bud. sever taplar ‘loves and likes’ U III 25, 4; o.o. TT V 10, 112 (ağırla:-); X 256 (amran-); a.o.o.: Civ. buyanığ sevgillove virtue’ TT I 111: Xak. xı ol meni: sevdi: ahabbani ‘he loved (or liked) me’ Kaš. II 15 (seve:r, sevme:k; prov.); three o.o.: KB sev- with various shades of meaning is common, e.g. sevip sözi tuttum ‘I have loved him (the Prophet) and accepted his words’ 46; a.o. 135 (sevit): xııı (?) At. anı ne xalayiq sever ne xaliq ‘neither the creatures nor the creator love him' 272; Tef. sev- ‘to love’ 264: xıv Muh. ahabba sew- Mel. 22, 1; Rif. 102 (in error sevin-); 'ašiqa ‘to love passionately’ sew- 29, 3; 112; al-hibb sewmek (MS. mak) 36, 5; 121 (se:w-): Čağ. xv ff. sew- (-er, etc.) sev-, muhabbat et - manesına Vel. 290-1; sew- dust deštan ‘to like, love’ San. 2s8r. 23 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı sev- (with triply dotted waw) ‘to love’ 'Ali 37; (with simple waze) 41: xıv sev- ditto MN 173, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to love, like’ sow- CCI; sev-, söv-, söy- CCG; Gr. 218 (quotn.): Kip. xııı ahabba sew- Hou. 34, 8; habba sew- do. 39, le: xıv sew- ahabba; also used in P.N.s (yusamme bihŋ Id. 54; (al-habîb sevtüküm Bul. 9, 6): xv habba sew-Kav. 12, 6; muhabbata (n) ‘in friendliness’ sewmek üšün (sic) do. 33, 6; ahabba söy- Tuh. 6b. 5; sow- do. 79b. 11.

süp (very) (super) (OTD: süp süzük очень чистый very clean, süp tüp очень прозрачный very transparent, süp tüz очень ровный very smooth)

Dis. SBA

PU subı: (conical, tapering, oval, almond shaped, cudgel)conical, tapering’, and the like; homophonous w. subı:- (taper), which proves that it had back vowels. This is confirmed in Kip.; but it survives only (?) in SW Osm. where it is transcribed söbü in Sami 740 and sübü in R IV 850 (with cross-refces. to söbö/söbü which are not listed) and Red. 1086. SW Osm. sopa ‘a cudgel’ (i.e. a tapering stick) may, however, also be descended fr. this word. Xak. xı \785\ anything long with a tapering end (tawil muhaddadii l-ra s) is called subı:; hence a man’s head, when it is not round (mudawivar) is called subı: ba:š Kaš. III 217: Kip. xıv šubu:/šubı: asil ‘long and tapering’ Id. 56; halbe subı Tuh. 12b. 12 (halba means ‘milch camel’; there is presumably an omission between the two words, prob. sağlık (milch animal) or the like for halba, but there is no obvious Ar. word beginning w. h- with a meaning appropriate to subı:): Osm. xıv ff. words meaning, of the face ‘oval’, of the eyes ‘almond shaped’ are listed as follows šobıca xiv; šöbek xvi; söbe/söbü xvı ff.; söbek xvı ff. TTS I 639; II 838; III 637; IV 703.

Dis. V. SBA-

sabı:- (or sapı:-?) (wave) Hap. leg., but cf. sabıt-. Xak. xı at kudruki: sabı:dı: ‘the horse’s tail (etc.) waved’ (taharraka ‘was in motion’) Kaš. III 256 (sabı:r’ sabı:ma:k).

D suva:- (irrigate, water, plaster) Den. V. fr. su:v (water, river); originally ‘to irrigate (land); to water (animals)’, and the like; in modern languages later forms of suvğar- (irrigate, water) are used in this sense. In the medieval period it was used for ‘to plaster’ and this must also be an early meaning, see suval-, suvaš-. In this sense s.i.s.m.l. as siba-/suba-/siva-/suva-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. PP 1, 3 (0:1): Xak. xı kanıŋ emdi: ye:r suva:r ‘your blood now waters (yasqŋ the ground’ Kaš. I 498, 21 \ n.m.e.: xııı (?) Tef. Suva- ‘to plaster up’ (the entrance to a cave) 27e: Čağ. xv ff. suwa- (spelt) andiid kardan ‘to plaster’ San. 247V. 9 (quotns.): Tkm. xv layyasa ‘to plaster’ šuva- (in margin‘also pronounced šıva-’); Kıp. šıza- Hap. leg., Pcorruption of šıva-) Tuh. 32a. 11.

PU subı:- (taper) Hap. leg., but see subıt- (taper); homophonous w. subı: (conical, tapering, oval, almond shaped, cudgel). Xak. xı subı:di: ne:g fela’1-šay’ tva ta’allala tarfuhu ‘the thing was long and its sides tapered off’ Kaš. III 257 (subı:r, subı:ma:k).

Dis. SBC

D sa:včı: (messenger, sayer, go-between) N.Ag. fr. sa:v (say, speech); normally ‘messenger’, and so a less distinguished term than yala:vač (a l.-w., q.v.); but as in this meaning it corresponded to Ar. rasfil it was used by early Moslem Turks for ‘the Prophet’; in this sense it was soon displaced by the Pe. l.-w. payğembar and now survives only (?) in NE Tob. sawčıgo-between’ R IV 431. Türkü vııı ff. a savčı: on a yellow horse and a yala-vač on a bay horse bring good news IrkB 11; a.o. do. 55: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (if we have gone from one town, country, or realm to another as a) (VU) tigči savčı ‘messenger’ (i.e. making mischief) TT IV io, 21 (tigči is Hap. leg., prob. a N.Ag. fr. a Chinese l.-w.): Xak. xı sa:včı: ‘a prophet’ (al-rasül) from among the prophets of God; its base is sa:v meaning ‘news, a statement, a proverb’, and the prophet communicates these things Kaš. III 441 (and see Oğuz); a.o. III 154 (sa:v): KB savčı ‘the Prophet’ (Muhammad) 30, 388: xııı (?) \\\ Tef. savčı ‘prophet’, once in the Hend. yalavač payğambar savčı 257: xıv Muh. (>) (in a list of occupations) rasül ‘messenger, envoy’ sawčı: Rif. 156 (mis-spelt su:rčır, Mel. 57, 12 e:lči:): Oğuz xı sa:včı: al-rasûl wahwa’l-safir ‘messenger, envoy’, who travels between the families of an intended bridegroom and bride with messages Kaš. III 441; a.o. III 154 (after sa:v) same translation, adding ‘because he reports the statements of one to the other and vice versa, as I have explained’; not here described as Oğuz: Xwar. xııı savčı (with triply dotted tvdw) ‘prophet’ 'Ali 48: Kip. xıv šawčı: (-c-) ‘one concerned with disputes (mansiib ila’l-da'wa), in the sense of differences between two adversaries; such a person must be a qadt; and šawčı: is used for ‘prophet’ (al-nabŋ; they say sawčımuz ‘our prophet’ meaning ‘the Prophet’, God bless him td. 61.

D suvčı: (water-man) N.Ag. fr. su:v (water) ; s.i.s.m.l. for ‘water-seller, water-carrier, mariner, swimmer’, etc. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kim yerči suvčı kemiči bar erser ‘if there are any guides, pilots, or boatmen’ PP 22, 4-5; a.o. do. 23, 8; Civ. (in a charter of immunities) borlukıga ögen kesgüčiler suvčı kirmedin ‘the people who cut the streams and the water superintendent must not enter his vineyard’ USp. 88, 45-6 (as the V. is kes- ‘to cut’, not kaz- (dig) ‘to dig’, the first were presumably labourers who cut the banks to release irrigation water): Čağ. xv ff. sučı (spelt) seqi tva ebder ‘cup-bearer; butler’ San. 239r. 9 (quotns.).

Dis. SBD

D sevit (loved, lovable) Caus. Dev. N, fr. sev- (like, love) (savor), lit. ‘one who causes love’, rather than ‘one who loves’; ‘the planet Venus’. For practical purposes Hap. leg., the only other occurrence being in the passage in Rbğ. quoted fr. KB, R IV 501, and prob. a word invented by the author of KB. Cf. čolpan. Xak. xı KB sevük yüz urundı bĞšinči Sevit, seve baktı erse sen özni avıt ‘fifth, Venus put her lovely face (in the sky); when she looks lovingly at you, enjoy yourself’ 135.

PUF sibüt (coriander) Hap. leg.; no doubt a l.-w., presumably, in Kešğar, Indo-Iranian; cf. Pe. sibitt ‘dill, Anethum graveolens’. Kešğar xı sibüt al-kuzbara ‘coriander’ Kaš. I 356.

D savdıč (basket) prima facie a Den. N. in -dıč, cf. tardıč (unknown meaning, possibly Der. of tartaq “comb” or därd “suffering”), sağdıč (best man (wedding)), but there is no semantic connection w. sa:v (say, speech) and it may be, like other names of artefacts, a l.-w. Cf. savdıčlan- (have basket), which fixes the vowels. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı savdıč al-qaf'atıillatî turmal mina'1-ağsen ‘a basket plaited from twigs’, used for carrying fruit, etc. Kaš. I 455.

Dis. V. SBD-

D sabıt- (or sapıt-?) (wave) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of sabı:- (wave). Xak. xı at kudruk sabıttı: ‘the horse waved (harraka) its tail’; and one says it \786\ kudrıık sabıttı: 'the dog wagged (hašhaša) its tail’ Kaš. II 298 (sabıtur, sabıtma:k); bu: at ol kudruk sabıtğa:n ‘this horse is constantly waving its tail’; also of a dog when it wags its tail, when it asks for food or sees its people (ahlahu) and fawns on them I 513.


D sevit- (like, love) (savor) Caus. f. of sev- (like, love) (savor); ‘to make (other people) love (oneself)’. N.o.a.b., but fairly common in KB. Cf. sevtür-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (Queen Bhadrii every day made gracious affectionate speeches to the king) etözin sevifgeür üčün ‘in order to make him love her body’ U III 54, 16-17; o.o. TT V 28, 119 etc. (ayat-): Xak. xı KB (this wicked world) sevitür sunup tutsa bermez elig ‘ingratiates itself to you, but if you reach out to grasp it, does not give you its hand’ 400; (hear the words of) sevitmiš kiši sevitse kiši kör mün erdem bašı ‘the man who has made himself loved; if a man makes himself loved his faults are (regarded as) the height öf virtue’ 533; o.o. 582, 594, 3704.

D suvat- (irrigate, water, plaster) Caus. f. of suva:- (irrigate, water, plaster); as such n.o.a.b., but other later forms of this V. and suvğar- (irrigate, water) form parallel Caus. f.s šubat-, suvart-, etc. w. similar and extended meanings. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. U I 29, 6-7 (u:d): Čağ. xv ff. suvat- Caus. f.; atıdûd kardan ‘ttTorder to plaster’ San. 247V. 23.

PUD subıt- (taper) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of subı:- (taper); cf. subı:la:- (taper). Xak. xı oi ne:ŋni: subıttı: ‘he tapered (aHala) the thing, that is constricted its sides and lengthened it’ (yuhaddid tarfahu wa yuta7UTvilahu), as, for example, a nail Kaš. II 298 (subıtu:r, subıtma:k).

D saptur- (repair, mend, misguide) Caus. f. of sap- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)); n.o.a.b. in its original meaning but s.i.s.m.l. as the Caus. f. of sap- in its later meanings. Xak. xı ol maga: kuš kanatın sapturdı: ‘he ordered me to join up (i.e. mend, bi-ıvašl) the falcon’s (al-bezî) wing’ (etc.); also used for mending (rafd) anything Kaš. II 183 (sapturur, sapturma:k): (Kip. xıv šaptur- ankaba ğayrahu ‘to lead someone astray’ td. 56).

D septür- (equip, fit out) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of sep- (equip, fit out); precedes saptur- in Kaš. Xak. xı ol amŋ kızın septürdi: amara bi-tachiz bintihi tva zaffahe ilal-xatan ‘he ordered that his daughter should be given a trousseau and conducted her to the bridegroom’ Kaš. II 182 (iva'l-azmval mašdaruhe bi’l-kef, i.e. septürür, septürme:k).

D sevtür- (like, love) (savor) Caus. f. of sev- (like, love) (savor); s.i.a.m.l.g. w. the same phonetic changes and shades of meaning as sev-. Xak. xı ol (sic, superfluous) terjri: seni: mapa: sevtürdi: ‘God put love for you (mahabbatak) in my heart’ Kaš. II 185 (sevtürür, sevtürme:k): xııı (?) At. akı bol akılık seni sevdürür ‘be generous, generosity makes you loved’ 260; Tef. sevdür- ‘to make (someone) love (something)’ 265: Čağ. xv ff. sewdür- Caus. f.; xu'ttdrn mahbüb kardan ‘to make oneself loved’ Sat 1. 258V. 12. \\

Tris. V. SBD-

D savdıčlan- (have basket) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. savdıč (basket). Xak, xı er savdıčlandı: ‘the man owned a basket’ (qaf'a) Kaš. II 271 (savdıčlatıu:r, savdıčlanma:k).

Dis. SBĞ

D sapığ (joined) Dev. N. fr. sap- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)); ‘something joined to something else’ and the like. In Uyğ. only in the phr. ulağ sapığ ‘ (endless) succession’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M 111 13,19 (ii) (1 ula:ğ): Bud. TT VI 015, etc. (1 ula:ğ): Xak. xı sapığ kisrtil-xiba ‘the lowest flap of a tent’ Kaš. I 374 (lit. something joined on to the rest of the fabric).

D suwuk (suvuk) (fluid, liquid, juice, сок) Intrans. Dev. N./A. fr. suva:- (irrigate, water, plaster); ‘fluid, liquid’, and the like, with extended meanings. Survives w. the same meanings in SW Osm. sıvık (also cıvık); Tkm. suvuk. Cf. suvlag. Kip. xı suwuk (sic) ‘anything liquid and runny’ (mayi' raqtq) like clotted cream and thick fruit juice when it has become runny (raqqa); hence one says suwuk yuğrut ‘runny yoğurt’; suwuk kudruk ‘a long tail with very little hair on it’ (1qaliltil-ša'ŋ, like the tail of a camel; also a tree (i.e. with few leaves), etc. Kaš. III 164 (the -w- with both damına and kasra everywhere): Tkm. xııı al-raxw walnva’t-naim 'soft’ (opposite to ‘hard’ katı:) šuwı:k (MS. šaıvf.k); Kıp. yumšak Hou. 28, 1: Osm. xıv ff. sıvık ‘liquid, runny’; c.i.a.p. 7'TS I 626; II 823; III 626; IV 690.

D sapğa:k (joint (body)) Hap. leg.; this word occurs, in a list of words with four consonants which are arranged in strict alphabetical order, between čamğuk and saplik but is spelt bašğak in the MS.; there is no doubt that it is mispointed and should be spelt sapğak; Dev. N. fr. sap- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)), lit. (the part of the body) ‘which joins’ (the upper to the lower part). Xak. xı sapğa:k me fatcqa’l-ivarikayn ‘ (the part of the body) above the hips’ Kaš. / 470.

Dis. V. SBĞ-

(S) sıvğa:- (sı:- (break, destroy) Hap. leg.; the word is quite clear in the photograph; prima facie a Den. V. fr. *sıvığ (?); there does not seem to be any cognate word (sı:- (break, destroy)), but the meaning is clear. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (then the magicians in the city of Babylon took a bow and arrow; they strung the bow and shot at Zrušč Burxan (the Prophet Zoroaster)) okı yana sıvğar öz tamırıpa tegdi ‘their arrow turned (broke (the path)) to one side and penetrated his own vein’ (the demon then died) Man.-Uig. frag. 401, 8.

D suvğar- (irrigate, water) Trans. Den. V. fr. su:v (water, river); ‘to water (livestock); to irrigate or water (land)’. S.i.a.m.l.g.; in SW Az., Osm., Tkm. suvar-: NC Kzx. suar-: NW Kk., Nog. suvğar-; Kır. Kumyk, and all other language groups sugar-. Xak. xı ol atsuvğardı: ‘he watered (saqiya) the horse’ (etc.) Kaš. II 188 (suvğarur, suvğarma:k); o.o. in grammatical examples II 44, 18 etc.: xııı (?) Tef. suvar- \787\ ‘to irrigate’ 27e: XIV Muh. asqa'l-ma ‘to irrigatesuwarr- Mel. 22, 9 (istaqal-wa su: tart- Rif. 103): Čağ. xv ff. suwar- šuvar- ‘to moisten’, that is to moisten mud, etc. Vel. 301; sugar- (spelt) ‘to give water’ (eb dadan) to the thirsty; ‘to moisten’ (sireb kardan)-, also pronounced suwar- San. 243V. 26 (quotn.); reverse entry do. 247V. 28: Xwar. xıv sugar- 'to irrigate’ Qutb 161; suvar- ‘to water’ (sheep) Nahc. 113, 12: Osm. xıv ff. suvar-, sometimes sıvar-, ‘to water’, etc.; c.i.a.p. TTS I 649; //850; 77/645; /F714.

D suvğart- (irrigate, water) Caus. f. of suvğar- (irrigate, water); s.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı if it is desired to form a Caus. of a V. ending in -r-, -t- is added to it, and (in the Perf.) the -d- (of the Suff.) is merged with it, the result is -tt-, the -d- being assimilated, e.g. ol atın suvğarttı: ‘he directed someone to water (saqiya) his horse’ Kaš. I1 256, 2; n.m.e.

Tris. SBĞ

D suvuklik (liquid) Hap. leg.?; A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. suvuk; ‘a liquid’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. TT V 26, 100-2 (2 čuğ).

C sipa:kur (manger) Hap. leg.; Kaš.'s etymology is possible, but surprising, since akur, q.v., a Pe. l.-w., properly means ‘a stable or stall’, although used in the medieval period for ‘manger’. It is perhaps a l.-w., and this a false etymology. Xak. xı sipa:kur al-mixlet ‘a nose-bag’; originally sip aku:n: mi'lefu'1-tanî mina'l-xayl ‘a manger for a colt that has cut its first teeth’ Kaš. I 487.

Tris. V. SBĞ-

D sa:vikla:- (blabber, maunder) Hap. leg.; the word is certainly so spelt, but there is no other trace of sa:vik, fr. which it is a Den. V. This might conceivably be a Dim. f. fr. sa:v (say, speech) fr. sa:- (say-, sa:y-, sana:-, sa:na-) (think, reckon, count, desire, worry) (think), in which case the V. might mean ‘to talk incoherently’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. [gap] ağzmtın ta:šğa:ru: üntü-rü:r koğšatr sa:vıkla:r kögli: a:da:r 'he brings up (his food), grows weak, and talks incoherently; his mind wanders’ (assuming an unusual scription of a:za:ŋ TT VIII 1.3.

*suvığ (liquid)

VUD suvığlan- (fluid) Hap. leg.; Refl. Den. V. fr. *suvığ (liquid) Dev. N. fr. suva:- (irrigate, water, plaster). Cf. suvuk. Xak. xı ol ba:lığ suvığlandı: 'he reckoned that the honey (etc.) was runny’ (raqiq) Kaš. II 267 (suvığlanu:r, suvığlanma:k).

D suvğarımsın- (irrigate, water) Refl. Simulative Den. V. fr. a N.S.A. fr. suvğar- (irrigate, water); noted only in grammatical sections. Xak. xı the most correct way (of expressing the idea that a man pretends to do something but does not actually do it), and the commonest, is to add (to the Reft. f. of the V.) before the nün a mim and a sin (MS. šîn), making three consonants in all, e.g. ol at suvğarımsındı: ‘he pretended to water (yusqŋ the horse’ Kaš. II 202, 12; a.o. 77 261, 22; n.m.e.

D suvğarın- (irrigate, water) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of suvğar- (irrigate, water), used as a Simulative; in a grammatical section \\\ immediately before suvğarimsın-; the MS. actually has suvğardı: but the context shows this to be an error. Xak. xı if it is desired to express the idea that a man pretends to do something but does not actually do it, one way is to add nun (to the basic V.) before the del (of the Perf.), e.g. ol atsuvğarmdı: (so read) ‘he pretended to water (yusqŋ the horse’ Kaš. II 202, 3; n.m.e.

D suvğarıš- (irrigate, water) Hap. leg. ; Co-op. f. of suvğar- (irrigate, water); noted only in a grammatical section. Xak. xı if you wish to modify a V. in this section to express help (i'ena) in doing something or competition, you add. šîn (to the basic V.) before the del (of the Perf.), e.g. ol maga: at suvğarıšdı: ‘he helped me to water (fi saqy) the horse’ Kaš. II 201, 21; n.m.e.

Dis. SBG

D sepük (equipped, fitted out) Hap. leg.; Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. sep- (equip, fit out); etymologically this should mean ‘equipped, fitted out’; its exact meaning in its context is discussed under silkim, q.v. Xak. xı KB 4599 (silkim).

D sevig (active: like, love, loving, liking), sevük (passive: like, love, liked, beloved) Preliminary note. These two words, the first a N.Ac. in -ig fr. sev- (like, love) (savor), 'love, loving, liking', and the second a N./A. in -ük (Passive), 'liked, beloved', must be carefully distinguished. This is not easy in der. and later forms, since sevig became sevüg by labial attraction at a fairly early date. Cf. sačığ, sačuk.

D sevig (active: like, love, loving, liking) see above. N.o.a.b., displaced in the medieval period by words like sevgü: (active: like, love), N.Ac. in -gü:, or l.-w.s. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (if we have sinned) etöz seviginče yorıp ‘acting in accordance with the desires of the flesh’ Chuas. 196-7: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A etöz sevigin uvutsuz (sex) išin 'bodily love and shameless behaviour’ (i.e. sexual intercourse) M I 16, 18-19; seveg özütlüg mğošaklar ‘the Hearers with loving spirits’ do. 28, 24; kentil sevigin ‘because of self-love’ do. 34, 19: Man. sevig kögülin 'with loving thoughts' M III 34, 17: Bud. PP 78, 5-6 (amrak): Civ. Sevig Buyruk P.N. USp. 112, 2: (xiv Muh. al-sadiq ‘close friend’ sewgü: Mel. 55, 1; Rif. 152: Kip. xııı (after sew-) al-mahbüb ‘belovedsewgü: Hou. 39, 16: xıv ditto Id. 54): Čağ. xv ff. see sevük: Osm. xıv and xv sevi/sevü/sevüglove’; in several texts, TTS / 615; 77 811; III 616; IV 678 (xiv sevgübeloved’, once I).

D sevük (active: like, love, loving, liking), (passive: like, love, liked, beloved, dear, favorite)  see above. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A MI 23, 6 (ağız); o.o. do. 7 and 28: Xak. xı sevük ne:g ‘a thing which is loved’ (al-mahbüb) Kaš. I 390; aydım agar se:vük («V) ‘I said to him “beloved!” ’ I 94, 2: KB sevük savčı birle ‘with the beloved Prophet’ 30; sevükrek atın ‘his favorite horse’ 315; o.o. 135 (sevit): xııı (?) Tef. sevükrek ‘most loved’ 265: Čağ. xv ff. sewük (‘with -k’) mahabbat ‘love’ Vel. 291 (but quotn. contains sewük sewgen ‘one who loves a beloved’); (sewgüm \788\ (sic) mihr Tva mnhnbbat Move’ San, 258V. 29; it is not clear whether this is an error for sewgü or a mistranslation of ‘my beloved’): Xwar. xıv sevükbeloved, dear’ Qutb 157.

Dis. SBG

sibek (cradle catheter, axle, taproot) the basic meaning underlying both translations seems to be ‘a long object in a central position’; survives only (?) in SW Osm. sübek ‘an infant’s urinal in a cradle’; \x Anat. sibek (1) ditto; (2) 'the iron pivot of a hand-mill’; (3) ‘the tap-root of a tree’ SDD 1225; söbek (2) only, inter alia, do. 1247. Xak. xı sibek ‘the pivot of a hand-mill’ (qutbu I-raha), that is the iron (rod, al-hadida) round which the upper millstone revolves; sibek ‘the hollow reed (al-qasab) which is fixed in an infant’s cradle for him to urinate in’ Kaš. I 389.

söbek (only, inter alia)

Tris. SBG

D seviglig (lovely) P.N./A. fr. sevig (active: like, love, loving, liking); ‘lovely’ and the like, esp. of the face. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A seviglig... yüzügüzen ‘your lovely face’ M I 10, 8-9: Man. Wind. 42-3 (ičigllğ): Bud. seviglig y[üzin] U III 17, 9; o.o. do. 34, 2-3 (ii) (ün); U II 37, 60-3 (tap-časız); TT X 123, 346, 550, etc.: (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. sevigli ‘dear’ 265: Xwar. xıv sevüglüg ‘lovely’ Qutb 157; (an action) sevüglügrek ‘more agreeable’ (to God) Nahc. 265, 16.

D seviglik (love) A.N. fr. sevig (active: like, love, loving, liking); ‘love’. Although the second vowel is almost consistently -Ü-this seems to be an A.N. fr. sevig not sevük. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı kizlep tutar sevüglik al-hubbu'l-maktum ‘concealed love’ Kaš. II 172, 10; n.m.e.: Čağ. xv ff. sewüklük (‘with -k-k’) sevmeklik ‘love’ Vel. 290 (quotn.); se\vüglük/sewiglik (both spelt) mahabbat ‘love’ (quotn.), also mahbılb %ua dûst dešta ‘beloved, friend’ (quotn.) San. 258 V. 29: Xwar. xıv sevüglük ‘loveliness’ Qutb 157.

D sevügsüz (sevigsiz) (loveless; unloved) Priv. N./A. fr. sevig (active: like, love, loving, liking); ‘loveless; unloved’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı sevüg-süz al-bağîd (MS. bağiz) ‘odious’ Kaš. II 250, 2 (yodki:); n.m.e.: Xwar. xıv sevügsüz erdi köylüm ‘my heart had no love in it’ Qutb 157.

Dis. SBL

D saplık A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. sa:p; apparently Hap. leg.; similar modern forms are P.N./A.s representing saplığ. Xak. xı saplik ‘anything which serves as the hilt (maqbad) of a knife or sword or the handle (nišeb) of anything’ Kaš. I 470.

D savlığ (speaking) P.N./A. fr. sa:v (say, speech) fr. sa:- (say-, sa:y-, sana:-, sa:na-) (think, reckon, count, desire, worry) (think); used w. preceding Attributive, ‘speaking’ (the truth, etc.). Pec. to Uyğ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. PP 55, 2 (köni:); TT VI 119 (utu:n).

D suvla:g (water hole, водопой) Dev. N. (Conc. N.) fr. suvla:-; s.i.s.m.l. as sulaw/sulak ‘a watering-place for livestock’ or, more generally, ‘a place with abundant water’. Xak. xı suvla:ğ mašra'atıil-~ma ‘a place where water can be drawn’; suvla:ğ ism niatedi' ‘a place-name’ Kaš. I464: \\\ Xwar. xıv suvlağ (MS. in error savlağ) ‘a watering-place for livestock’ Qutb 156.

D suvluğ (watery) P.N./A. fr. su:v (water, river); properly ‘watery, possessing water’, with various extended meanings including some derived fr. idiomatic uses of eb in Pe. (see su:v (water) Čag.). S.i.a.m.l.g. w. phonetic changes similar to those of su:v, q.v. Xak. xı KB yüzüg tutčı suvluğ tutayın tese ‘if you resolve constantly to retain respect’ (Pe. idiom) 4297; neče kızğu eglig yüzi suvluğ er ‘how many rosy-cheeked, respected (Pe. idiom) men’ (have been ruined by women) 4524: Xwar. xıv yüzi suvluğ Qutb 156 (mis-spelt savluğ), 162: Kom. xıv ‘spelt’ (grain) (PU) suwlu CCI; Gr.: Kıp. šu:luw al-mawrida ‘watering trough’ td. 55; al-kalak ‘a raft of inflated skins’ suwluw Bui. 4, 15.

D suvluk (watery, trough; rain-coat, blister, water bowl, pool, towel, turban, horse’s bit) A.N. (Conc. N.) fr. su:v (water, river); with a wide range of meanings connected w. water, the oddest being ‘a horse’s bit’ perhaps because it makes the horse dribble. Survives in NE Koib., Kiier., Sag. suğluk ‘a horse’s bit’ R IV 760; Khak., Tuv. ditto: NC Kır. su:lukbit; trough; rain-coat’; Kzx. sulik ditto: SC Uzb. suvluk ‘bit’: NW Kk., Nog. suwlik ‘bit’: SW Az. suluğ ‘blister’; Osm. sulukbit; water bowl; blister’; Tkm. suvlukbit; a place with abundant water’. Uyğ. vııı ff. suvlukwater-trough’ U III 38, 28: Xak. xı suvluk al-mindil ‘towel, turban’, and the like Kaš. I 471; in I 201 (urun-), III 323 (saču:Ia:-), and 6 o.o., al-'imema ‘turban’ — surluk al-imema III 262 (saru:-; perhaps a scribal error): xıv Muh. (?) al-safiha Svater--trough’ su:luk Rif. 169 (only): Čağ. xv ff. suluk a generic term for ‘water vessel’ (su zarfı) or ‘pool’ (birka) for collecting and storing water; also ‘watery, full of water’ (sulu ve ebdeŋ Vel. 298 (quotn.); suluk (spelt) (1) dahana-i asb ‘a horse’s bit’; (2) čîz-i ebder ‘a water-container’ San. 24 (>r. 23 (same quotn.): Osm. xıv ff. suluk ‘water-vessel, pool’, and, fr. xvi, ‘the cheek-piece of a bit’ TTS I 646; III 642; IV 709.

D suvla:ŋ (smooth) Hap. leg.; Dev. N./A. fr. suvla:-; the semantic connection is obscure, but cf. suwik. Xak. xı suvla:g yığa:č ‘a smooth (al-marde) tree which has no branches (ğııšn) on its stem’ (seqihe); suvla:ŋ sač ‘straight (or lank, al-sabat) hair’ Kaš. III 386.

S süvli:n See sügli:n. (pheasant, Phasianux spp.)

Dis. V. SBL-

D sapıl- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)) Pass. f. of sap- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı y*P yigne:ke: sapıldı: ‘the thread was threaded (insalaka) through the needle’; and one says oğul ata:sıŋa: sapıldı: ‘the boy kept close (iltahaqa) to his father while going to the place’ Kaš. II 120 (sapilur, sapilma:k); a.o. I 158 (etil-).

D savıl- (turn away, drive away, repulse; divert, go away, avoid, escape from, stand aside, get out of the way, let loose, spray, disperse, bring to an end) Pass. f. of sav- (turn away, drive away, repulse; divert, go away, avoid, escape from, stand aside, get out of the way, let loose, spray, disperse, bring to an end), which is not noted before the medieval period. The earliest occurrence is prob. in xııı (?) Tef. (VU) sav- \789\ ‘to spray (perfume)’ 264 (sev-); it also occurs in Kip. xıv šaw- hawtvala which has several meanings, here perhaps 'to turn away’ Id. 60, and Osm. xıv ff. sav- Trans, ‘to drive away, repulse; avoid, escape from; bring to an end; let loose’; Intrans. ‘to go away, come to an end’ TTS I 605; II 800; III 605. The Pass. f. survives only (?) in SW Osm. savul- ‘to stand aside, get out of the way’, and the like. In some other languages savıl- is a Sec. f. of sağıl-, Cf. savur- (scatter; winnow). Xak. xı kü:n savıldı: ‘the sun turned downwards and declined’ (melat... wa zelat); and one says köglüm aga:r savıldı: (MS. savuldı:) ‘my heart inclined towards him’; also used of anything which has withdrawn from stability and turned downwards (zeta min qarnnhi wa mela) Kaš. II 125 (savılur, savılma:k; MS. savul-); kadğu: yeme: savilsu:n ‘let sorrow depart’ (yarhal) // I 106, 11; (I said) agar savılma: (MS. savulma:) le tamil ile Qolbaq ‘do not incline towards him (Kolpak)’ III 80, 19; a.o. II 163, 3: KB töpüdin savılmıš bakır sokun-a ‘Mars had declined from the zenith’ 4888; o.o. 4889, 6216 (ülkeŋ: Xwar. xııı sawa:l- (sic) ‘to disappear’ 'Ali 50: Kom. xıv ‘to step aside, make waysuwul- (sic) CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı hade mina'l-xurftc 'ani'l-tariq ‘to turn away from the (right) road’ šawul- Hou. 39, 17: xıv šawul- tanahhe ‘to be diverted’ Id. 61: Osm. xıv ff. savul- ‘to be avoided; to be put on one side; to make way for (someone); (e.g. of summer) to pass, elapse’; c.i.a.p. TTS I 606; II 801; III bob; IV 668.

Tris. V. SBL-

D sevil- (liked, loved, savored) Pass. f. of sev- (like, love) (savor); ‘to be loved, liked’, etc. S.i.m.m.I.g. with the same phonetic changes. (Xak.) xııı (?) At. sevilmek tile-sesen kišiler ara ‘if you wish to be popular with people’ 259: Xwar. xıv sevül- ‘to be liked’ Qutb 157: Kip. xv mahbûb ‘loved’ sewülmiš (or söwülmiš ?) Tuh. 32b. 9.

D suva:l- (irrigated, watered, plastered) Pass. f. of suva:- (irrigate, water, plaster); originally ‘to be watered, irrigated’; s.i.s.m.l. as sual-, subal-, etc. ‘to be plastered’. Xak. xı tarığ suvaldi: ‘the crop was irrigated’ (suqiya), also used of anything sprinkled with water (ide rušša 'alayhi'l-me') Kaš. II 125 (suvalur, suvalma:k); (sokul- follows here); ev suvaldı: ‘the house (etc.) was plastered’ (tuyyina, MS. in error tayyana) II 125 (suva:lur, suva:l-ma:k, sic); o.o. suvaldı: II162, 13; suva:lur III 240, 8.

D sapla:- (grip, impale, transfix) Den. V. fr. sa:p; s.i.s.m.l. as sapla- (1) ‘to fit (transfix) a handle, etc.’; (2) ‘to plunge (a sword) (impale) in up to the hilt’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. keyikči er ağuluğ okın saplap tošğuru tartıp presumably ‘a hunter fitting his poisoned arrow (to the bow) and drawing it fully back’ (shot the elephant in the heart) U III 57, 3 (in: Xak. xı er kılıč sapla:dı: ‘the man fastened (rakkaba) the sword in its hilt’ (qabVatihŋ; also used when he fastened the handle (nišeb) of anything Kaš. III 296 (sapla:r, sapla:ma:k).

D savla:- (talk) Den. V. fr. sa:v (say, speech) fr. sa:- (say-, sa:y-, sana:-, sa:na-) (think, reckon, count, desire, worry) (think); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol tellm savla:di: ‘the man talked a great deal’ \\\ (takallama bi-kalem katıŋ; also used when a man quoted proverbs (daraba... al-amtel) Kaš. III 297 (savla:r, savla:ma:k); kıš ya:yğaru: savlayu:r (MS. savlamtr, but rhymes w. tavrayu:r, savrayu:ŋ ‘winter argues with summer’ III 278, 11: xııı (?) Tef. sawla- ‘to make a speech’ 257.

D suvla:- (irrigate, water) Den. V. fr. su:v (water, river); s.i.m.m.I.g. usually as sula- ‘to irrigate’, less often ‘to water (livestock)’; w. extended meanings in SW Osm. Xak. xı at suvla:di: ‘the horse drank (šariba) water (etc.)’; and one says er titig suvla:di: ‘the man moistened (ame (ha)) the mud (etc.)’ Kaš. III 297 (suvla:r, suvla:ma:k); yuvğa: suvm suvlama: (unvocalized, but so read) le tasqi bi-me' le ašl lahu ‘do not drink water flowing from an unknown (?) source’ III 80, 21: KB 449 (böri:): xıv Muh. (after šariba ič-) šariha ‘to drink copiously’ su:vla:- (-/-) Mel. 27, 11; Rif. no: Čağ. xv ff. sula- (-p) sula-, sireb et- ‘to drink to satiety’ Vel. 299; sula- ešemîdan eb ‘to drink water’ San. 24er. 15.

D saplat- (grip, impale, transfix) Caus. f. of sapla:- (grip, impale, transfix): ‘to order to fit a handle’; s.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol kılıč saplattı: ‘he ordered someone to fasten the tang (rakkaba'l-silen) in the hilt (al-qabVa) of the sword’; also for to fasten the handle (nišeb) of anything like a knife or dagger Kaš. II 344 (saplatu:r, saplatma:k).

D suvlat- (irrigate, water) Caus. f. of suvla:- (irrigate, water); s.i.s.m.l. as sulat-. Xak. xı ol čöbni: suvlatti: ‘he ordered someone to sprinkle water on the dregs of something’ (rašša'l-mcr’ bi-tacir šay’) Kaš. II 346 (suvlatu:r, suvlatma:k).

D savlan- (spoken of) Refl. f. of savla:- (talk) used as Pass.; ‘to be spoken of’. N.o.a.b. Xak. xı Kaš. III 199, 28 (čavlan-); n.m.e.: KB (the King said, a good man is always praised, but) müni bu isizler ara savlanur ‘his faults are always quoted among these wicked men’ 909.

D suvlan- (moist, watery) Refl. f. of suvla:- (irrigate, water); s.i.s.m.l. as sulan-, generally used as Pass. Xak. xı suvlandi: ne:g ‘the thing was moist and full of water’ (rafuba wa katura me'uhu) like fruit when it is soft (lana) and full of juice or a boil when yellow liquid appears in it and it is swollen (tarahhala); and one says amg kö:zi: suvlandi: ‘his eyes watered’ Kaš. II 247 (suvlanu:r, suvlanma:k): KB (man uses his tongue to speak; if he speaks well) yüzi suvlanur ‘he is honored’ 275 (cf. suvluğ).

D savlaš- (talk) Recip. f. of savla:- (talk); n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. Man. TT 118, 55-6 (ögrünč-len-): Xak. xı ol meniŋ birle: savlašdı: ‘he quoted proverbs to me and I to him’; also used of messages, speeches, and anecdotes Kaš. II 215 (savlašu:r, savlašma:k).

Tris. V. SBL

VUD subı:la:- (taper) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. subı: (conical, tapering, oval, almond shaped, cudgel); cf. subıt- (taper), Xak. xı subı:la:dı: ne:ŋni: ‘he \790\ lengthened (taunala) the broad thing, and constricted its sides’ (haddada farfahu) Kaš. III 323 (subı:la:r, subı:la:ma:k).

Dis. SBN

saban (plough)plough’, but whether a generic term, or originally the name of some particular kind of plough is uncertain. Survives only sporadically as sapan ‘wooden plough’ in SE Türki and saban in NC Kzx. (‘obsolete’): SC Uzb. (ditto): NW Kumyk, Nog. (only): SW Osm. (only), which suggests an original specific meaning. Cf. bokursr.. Xak. xı saban al-fadden bi-camV eletihi ‘a plough with all its accessories’; saban also ‘cultivating the land' (falehatu’l-ard) Kaš. I 402 (prov., see örtgün); o.o. II 214, 4; III 416, 23 (same prov.): xıv Muh. al-mihrat ‘plough’ sa:ba:n Mel. 60, 2; Rif. 158: Čağ. xv ff. saban ‘a wooden object on which they fasten a piece of iron and use it to till the ground’, in Ar. fathidir, (and sapan 'a sling’) San. 228v. 20: Kom. xıv ‘plough, ploughed field’ saban CCI, CCG; Gr. 210 (quotns.): Kip. xııı al-milıret šaba:n Hou. 9, 9: xıv ditto šaban Buİ. 4, 1: xv ditto Tuh. 33b. 9: Osm. xvı ff. saban noted in several phr. TTS II 775; m 583; iv 647. ......... ...

D sevinč (joy, pleasure, delight, affection, love) (savory) N.Ac. fr. sevin- (rejoice, be joyful, glad); ‘joy, pleasure, delight’; in one or two early passages perhaps rather ‘affection, love’. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE (?) with some phonetic changes. Türkü vııı ff. Man. (then all the people...) bizige dındarlarka yüküntiler sevinč ötüntiler ‘did obeisance to us, the Elect, and expressed their pleasure (or affection?)’ TT II 10, 82-3: Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A (this scripture was recited) uluğ ögrünčün ‘with great jov’ (and written) ağır sevinčiıı ‘with intense delight’ M I 25, 3-5; ol sevinč ‘that joy’ M III 13, 13 (in: Man. sevinč ötünü M III 34, 18; o.o. VVind. 44, etc. (erdem); TT III 17: Bud. TT I 'III G.4Q, etc. (ögrünč); U IV 46, 38 etc. (utli:): Civ. (make your mind joyful) yerke teŋrike sevinč tut ‘bring (?) joy to earth and heaven’ TT I 12-13; o.o. do. 52, 131; VII 27, 13, etc. (ögrünč): Xak. xı sevinč al-stirfir ‘joy, delight’ Kaš. III 373 (prov., see oxsin-; verse): KB sevinč is common; normally ‘joy’, e.g. sevinčin tolu tut ‘make his joy full’ 117; o.o. 123 (avınč), 34o (arkuk), 359. 913, etca different shade of meaning in (praise the Prophet and) sevinčin tile ‘seek to do what will please him’ 39; a.o. 52: xııı (?) At. sevinč erse kedin ‘if joy comes later’ 371; a.o. 413; Tef. sevinč ‘joy; joyful news’ 265: xıv Muh. al-farah ‘joy’ sevinč (-f-) in Turkistan, sewinč in our country Mel. 8, 1; Rif. 79; a.o. 52, 1; 148: Čağ. xv ff. sewinči mujdağanı ‘his reward (for bringing good news)’ Vel. 291 (quotn.); se\vinč (spelt) mujda tea nmvld ‘good news; reward’ San. 259r. 4 (same quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) sevinč ‘joy’ Oğ. 2: xıv ditto Qutb 157; sevünč ditto do. 4; ‘a reward’ Nahc. 20, e: Kom. xıv ‘jov’ sövünč CCI, CCG; Gr. 223 (quotns.). \\\

Dis. V. SBN-

D sapın- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of sap- (repair, graft, inoculate, thread (a needle)). Xak. xı išle:r yigne: sapındı: ‘the woman undertook to thread the needle, but did not actually do it’ Kaš. II 150 (sapmu:r, sapinma:k).

D sevin- (rejoice, be joyful, glad) Refl. f. of sev- (like, love) (savor); ‘to rejoice, be joyful, glad’, etc. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. the same phonetic changes as sev-. Türkü vııı II E 2 (ögir-): vııı ff. IrkB (ögir-): Man. TT II 8, 60 (ögir-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M I 28, 13 (ögir-): Bud. (the king of the dragons) ertigü sevindi ‘was very glad’ PP 46, 8; o.o. do. 53, 2 etc. (ögir-); ögmiške sevinmedin ‘without taking pleasure at being praised’ U III 73, 21: Civ. sevinmek as the name of a hexagram TT I 87; a.o. do. 128-9 (örüki:): Xak. xı er sevindi: ‘the man rejoiced and was merry’ (surra... wa'btahaca) Kaš. II 153 (sevinü:r, sevinme:k, everywhere spelt scvün-; verse); o.o. II 286, 20 (ulğa:d-) etc., 10 in all, spelt sevin- and translated surra or fariha ‘to be glad’: KB 81 (küven-): xııı (?) At. okığlı kišinig sevinsün cenı ‘so that the soul of the man who reads it may be glad’ 44; Tef. sevin-/sevün- ‘to rejoice, be glad’ 265: xıv Muh. fariha sewin-Mel. 29, 14; sevin- (-f-) Rif. 113: Čağ. xv ff. sewin- (spelt) šedi kardan ‘to rejoice, be glad’ San. 258V. 15 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı (?) (Oğuz Xagan...) sevindi küldi ‘was pleased and smiled’ Oğ. 198; a.o.o.: xıv sevün- ‘to rejoice’ Qutb 157; Nahc. 369, 2: Kom. xıv ‘to rejoice, be joyful’ sevin-/sövin-/sövün-/söyün- CCI, CCG; Gr. 219 (quotns.): Kip. xııı fariha sewin- Hou. 35, 13: xıv ditto Id. 54; Btd. 68v.: xv ditto söwün- Kav. 74, 6; al-farah sewinmek do. 61, 16; surra wa fariha söyün- Tuh. 20a. 11; a.o. do. 28b. 4.

Tris. SBN

D sevinčlig (joyful, happy) P.N./A. fr. sevinč (joy, pleasure, delight, affection, love) (savory); ‘joyful, happy’, etc. S.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A MI 11, 19 (ögrünčlüg): Bud. Suv. 15, 8 etc. (ögrünčlüg): Civ. tašdm ünser sevinčlig bolur ‘if he goes out (of his house) he is happy’ TT Vll 28, 44; o.o. do. 14, 12 etc. (ögrünčlüg); I 155 (eke:): Xak. xı KB sevinčlig is fairly common, e.g. sevinčlig bolur anda yazlur kašı ‘he becomes happy there and his brows relax’ 813; o.o. 951, 1260, 1561: xııı (?) Tef. sevinčlig ‘happy’ 265: xıv Muh. al-farhen ‘joyful, cheerful’ sevinčli:g (-/-) Mel. 55,' 13; Rif. 153: Xwar. xıv sevinč-lig/sevlnčlüg ditto Qutb 157: Kom. xıv ditto sövünčlü CCG; Gr.

D sevinčsiz (unhappy) Priv. N./A. fr. sevinč (joy, pleasure, delight, affection, love) (savory); ‘unhappy’, etc. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. kayu tınlığ-larnıg utlısı[z] sevinčsiz kılmıšları ‘what deeds of human beings bring neither reward nor pleasure?’ U IV 40, 184-5: Xak. xı Kaš. III 377, 2 (tapığsa:k); n.m.e.

Tris. V. SBN-

D sevinčlen- (pleased, delighted) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of sevinčle:- (see below); ‘to be pleased, delighted’, etc. \791\ Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Hüen-ts. 215 (üdlen-): (Kom. xıv sövünčle- ‘to bring joy to (someone Dnt.)' CCG; Gr.).

D sevintür- (happy) Caus. f. of sevin- (rejoice, be joyful, glad); ‘to make (someone Acc.) happy’, etc. S.i.s.m.l. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. [gap] sevintürgelir üčün ‘in order to make... happy’ TT X 554: Xak. xı KB olarnı meniydin sevindür tučı ‘make them (the Prophet’s four Companions) constantly pleased with me’ 62; begin ked sevindürse tapnur kuli ‘if his servant by his service greatly pleases his master’ (the road to honor is opened to him) 845; bodunuğ sevindürgil elgin tılın ‘make the people happy with your hand and tongue’ 1367: xıv Muh. (?) (after fariha sevin- (rejoice, be joyful, glad)) farraha ‘to make joyful’ sevindir- (-/-; unvocalized) Rif. 113 (only): Čağ. xv ff. sevindür- Caus. f.; šedi kardan ‘to make glad, joyful’ San. 258V. 27: Kom. xıv ‘to make happy’ sövündür- CCG; Gr. 224 (quotn.): Kip. xv sewindir- also means farraha (Caus.) Kav. 74, 3 (see sön-).

D sabanla:- (plough) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. saban (plough). Xak. xı ol ye:rig sabanlardı: ‘he ploughed and tilled (falaha... wa karaba) the land’ Kaš. III 342 (sabanla:r, sabanla:ma:k).

Dis. SBR

süvri: (pointed, sharp, sting) ‘with a tapering end, sharp, pointed’; syn. w. subı: (conical, tapering, oval, almond shaped, cudgel) but not connected etymologically unless they have a common foreign origin. Survives only (?) in SW Az., Osm. sivri 'pointed’, etc.; sivri sinek ‘mosquito’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. süvri süyün sančıp ‘piercing with a sharp lance’ U II 86, 48; süvri sıšlar ‘sharp spikes’ TM IV 253, 56; a.o. do. 255, 138 (učluğ): Xak. xı süvri: ‘anything with a tapering end’ (muhaddadu'l-ra's), like teeth, spear- or arrow-heads, lamp-stands (al-mamlra), spits, and other small (šiğeŋ things Kaš. I 422: xıv Muh. (?) (after al-baqq ‘gnat’ čı:bı:n — a medieval wrord) sewri: sinek Mel. 63, 8 (in one MS.): Kom. xıv ‘sharpsürü CCG; ‘gnat’ (?) sürü čıbın CCI; Gr. -. Kip. xıv 8iiwrü: čıbın al-ba’ûd ‘mosquito’, compounded of süwrü: raqiqu’l-tarf mahdud ‘slim, tapered’ and čıbın al-dabeb ‘fly’ td. 54; al-ba'üd siwri čıbın, and in another dialect (htğa‘ ?Tkm.) siwri siye:k Bui. 10, 15: xv ba'iid süwri šıbın Tuh. 7b. 9: Osm. xvııı siwri (spelt) in Rûmî, ‘a sting (niš), the sharp (tizŋ point of anything’; siwri siyek in Rümi, *a gnat’ (pašša), in Ar. baqq San. 2s8r. 28.

E süprük See süprül-. (sweep, drive out, send away)

PU subrain (tall, conical, tapering, oval, almond shaped, cudgel) Hap. leg.; spelt suyra:n in the MS. but between Sabra:n, a place-name,' and tügsi:n; cognate to subı: (conical, tapering, oval, almond shaped, cudgel). Oğuz xı subrain ‘anything long (tawil) in the shape of a lamp-stand (al-manera) or the like’ Kaš. /436.

Dis. V. SBR-

D savrä- (savrǝ-), sewrä- (sawrǝ-) see sevrä- (sevrǝ-) “decrease, diminish, rid, get rid of” .

D savur- (scatter; winnow) Caus. f. of sav- (turn away, drive away, repulse; divert, go away, avoid, escape from, stand aside, get out of the way, let loose, spray, disperse, bring to an end) (see savıl-) although the semantic connection is not very \\ close; ‘to scatter; to winnow’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. except NE; SE Türki sovur-/so:r-/so:ra-: NC Kır. sapır-; Kzx. suir-: SC Uzb. sovur-: NW Kk., Kaz. suwir-; Kumyk suvur-; Nog. suvir-: SW Az., Tkm. sovur-; Osm. savur-, Xak. xı er tarığ savurdi: ‘the man turned over the wheat with a pitch-fork (darre (sic) al-ta'em) and cleaned it in the heap’ (naqqahu fi’l-kuds); also used of anything when you winnowed it and cleaned jt in the wind (nasaftahu wa naqqaytahu fVl--rih) Kaš. II 82 (savura:r, savurma:k); (God created (the sky like) a blue turquoise) savurdı: ürüy kaš ‘and scattered (natara) on it (the stars like) jadt' (yašm); this is a white stone of which seals (al-xawatim) are made I 330, 25: Xlll (?) Tef. savur- ‘to winnow; to scatter’ 257: Čağ. xv ff. sawur- (spelt) ‘to scatter (afšandan) earth, threshed com, and the like and toss them in the wind’ (ba-böd dadan) San. 236T. 22 (quotns.): Kip. xv darre (sic) šowur- (šawur- added below the line) Tuh. 16a. 8; salla ‘to pull (something) out gently’ šowur- do. 20a. 4.

D sevrä- (sevrǝ-) (v.) “decrease, diminish, rid, get rid of” f. of sav- (turn away, drive away, repulse; divert, go away, avoid, escape from, stand aside, get out of the way, let loose, spray, disperse, bring to an end) (OTD p. 498 savrä-, sevrä-, sewrä-, уменьшаться, убывать, становиться редким, освобождаться, избавляться)

sipir- (süpür- (-b-)) (sweep, drive out, send away) ‘to sweep’; with some metaph. meanings like ‘to drive out, send away’ in some modern languages. An early l.-w. in Mong. as ši'ür- (Studies, p. 227); s.i.a.m.l.g. with various phonetic changes (-i-/-ü-, -p-/-b-). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. (like the servants of kings and begs who) sipirür arıtır ‘sweep and clean’ (the house and furniture) Wind. 33-4: Xak. xı ol ev süpürdi: ‘he swept (kanasa) the house’ Kaš. II 85 (süpürür, süpürme:k): xıv Muh. sahaqa ‘to rub cleansüpür- (-b-, unvocalized) Rif. 110 (Mel. 27, 3 sü:rt-); kanasa süpür-30, 13; 114: Čağ. xv ff. süpür- (spelt) cerûb kardan ‘to sweep’ San. 238V. 2 (quotns.): Kıp. xııı kanasa min kansi’l-bayt süpür- <b>(-b-)</b> Hou. 37, 1: xıv süpür- (‘with -p-’) kanasa td. 51; Bul. 78V.: xv ditto Kav. 74, 11; kanasa süpir- Tuh. 31b. 1.

S suvar- (cease, quit, end) See suvğar- (irrigate, water), savra:- (cease, quit, end) (??) pec. to Kaš.; see savrat-, Xak. xı ıš savra:dı: ‘the action was discontinued’ (istafrağa); also used of anyone doing something when he stopped doing it (farağa 'anhu); and one says sökel i:gdin savra:di: ‘the invalid recovered from his disease’ (indamala'l--maričl tva'nsalla minhu) Kaš. III 281 (savra:r, savra:ma:k); iğler yeme: savrayu:r al-amred taqill ‘illnesses also abate’ (in the summer) 77/278, 13; o.o. 7 103, 2; 777 41, 20 (the same verse, translated qalla and farağa).

D savurt- (scatter; winnow) Caus. f. of savur- (scatter; winnow); s.i.s.m.l. Xak. xı ol ayar tarığ savurttı: adrehu'l-hinta ‘he ordered him to winnow the wheat’ (etc.) Kaš. III 431 (savurtur, savurtma:k; the V. here used is similar to, but different fr., darre translating savur-).

D savrat- (cease, quit, end) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of savra:- (cease, quit, end); the Infin. is given as -me:k, but this is no doubt an error; the second half of the entry was inadvertently omitted in the MS. and inserted \\\ later; the error may he due to the fact that the entry immediately followed süvrit-, and so was in any case misplaced. Xak. xı ol evln savrattı: farrağa baytahu mina'l-qumeš tua'l--mita ‘he emptied his house of furniture and goods’; and one says ol ı:štın savrattı: atammn amrahu rca farağa minim ‘he finished what he was doing and stopped doing it' Kaš. II 332 (savratu:r, savratma:k; see above).

D süvrit- (süvri:d-) (pointed, sharp) Trans. Den. V. fr. süvri: (pointed, sharp) with the -d- changed to -t- by false analogy fr. süvritti:; ‘to sharpen’. Survives only (?) in SW Osm. sivrit-. Sami 759 enters three words in succession, sivir- ‘to be sharp’, sivri ‘sharp’, sivrit- ‘to sharpen’; Red. 1105 adds sivril- ‘to be sharp’, sivrilt- ‘to sharpen’, but omits sivrit-; there is no other trace of sivir- and it was prob. invented to explain the other words. Xak. xı ol yığa:čığ süvritti: ‘he sharpened the end (allala tarf) of the piece of wood (etc.), that is when he tnpered it off’ (haddadahu) Kaš. II 332 (süvritü:r, süvritme:k).

D savruk- (scatter; winnow) Hap. leg.; Intrans. f. of savur- (scatter; winnow). Xak. xı kö:zdin (MS. -den) ya:š savruktı: ‘tears dripped (taraššaša) from his eyes’; also used of water when it formed waves- and the waves broke into spray (meca zva’dtarabat amzvecuhıt bi-fazvrerŋ in the rivers Kaš. I1 228 (savruka.-r, savrukma.k; verse).

D savrul- (scattered, dissipated) Pass. f. of savur- (scatter; winnow); s.i.s.m.l. with some phonetic changes. Xak. xı su:v (water) savruldı: ‘the river formed waves with spray and bubbles’ (meca... bi-fazuaren 10a ğalyen); also used of a cooking pot when the broth in it was scooped up (rufi'a) in a ladle and put back in it (rudda fîbe) to stop it from boiling over; and one says tarığ savruldı: ‘the wheat was winnowed’ (dnrriya) and ya:š ktf:zdin savruldı: ‘tears dripped from the eyes’ Kaš. II 232 (savrulur, savrulma:k; verse): Čağ. xv ff. sawrul- (spelt) ‘to be scattered (afšurda) and tossed in the wind’ San. 236V. 7 (quotns.).

D süprül- (sipril-) (sweep, drive out, send away) Pass. f. of sipir- (sweep, drive out, send away); s.i.s.m.l. w. the same phonetic changes. Xak. xı ev süprüldi: ‘the house was swept’ (kunisa); and when one is angry with a man one says süprül (so read, apparently later altered to süprük) that is ‘go away’ (adhab) as sweepings (al-kanesa) go away without anyone minding Kaš. If 231 (süprülür, süprülme:k): Čağ. xv ff. süpürül- cerüb šudan ‘to be swept’ San. 238V. le: Kıp. xıv süprül- ‘to be swept’; also used by them in the sense of insalla ‘to slip away’ id. 51.

D savrııš- (scatter, dissipate) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of savur- (scatter; winnow), Xak. xj ol maga: tarığ savrušdı: ‘he helped me to winnow [fVI-tadriva) the wheat (etc.)’; also used when he helped to stir (fî'1-tadrîya, sic) the broth with a ladle to prevent it from boiling over Kaš. II 212 (savrušıı:r, savruš-ma:k; if the text is right both darre and darre are used here).

Tris. SBR

PUF suburğa:n (or supurğa:n ?) (tomb) ‘a tomb’. This word was discussed at length by W. B. Henning in Transactions of the Philological Society (of London) 1945, PP- 157 After discussing other cognate Iranian words for ‘tomb’ he reached the conclusion that this was a l.-w. fr. Sogdian *zmryn. The second consonant was prob. -b- not -p-. N.o.a.b., but a l.-w. still surviving in Mong. as suburğan (Kow. 1392, Haltod 34Ü). Cf. 2 sı:n (tomb). Türkü vııı ff. supurğan (sic) ičre ‘within the tomb’ MI 6, 2: Uyğ. vııı ff. 13ud. sın suburğan arasınta ‘among the tombs’ U II 53, 5 (iii); [sın ?] suburğan yerke yakın ‘near the place of the tombs’ III 19, 9 (ii); Sitavan [sujburğanka ‘to the funereal grove (Sanskrit sita-vana) and the tombs’ do. 21, 3 (ii); sin suburğan orun TT VI 290 (v.l. to sin orun): Xak. xı suburğa;n al-ne'tls zva muqebirul-kafara ‘a funeral vault, a pagan (Tengrian) cemetery’ Kaš. I 516 (prov.; mis-spelt subuzağa:n).

D süpürgü: (sipirgü:) (broom, brush) N.I. fr. sipir- (sweep, drive out, send away); ‘broom, brush’. An early l.-w. in Mong. as ši'ürgc (Studies, p. 240); s.i.a.m.l.g. w. some phonetic changes. Xak. xı süpürgu: al-miknasa ‘brush, broom’ Kaš. I 490: xıv Muh. al-miknasa süpürgü: Mel. 69, 9; Rif. 170: Čağ. xv ff. süpürgü (spelt) cerılb ditto San. 239r. 1 (quotn.): Xwar. xıv sipürtke (si:pü:rtke) ditto Qutb 158: Kom. xıv ditto sibürtke (sic) CC/; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-miknasa sepürge: (-b-) Hou. 17, 1: xıv süpürge: (-b-) ditto Id. 51: xv ditto süpürgen (sic) Kav. 74. 11; ditto sipirgi (-/>-; in margin sipirge) Tuh. 34a. 7.

D süpründi: (sweepings, rubbish) Pass. Dev. N. fr. *süprün- (siprin-) (sweep, drive out, send away) Refl. f. of sipir- (sweep, drive out, send away); ‘sweepings, rubbish'. Survives in SW Az. süpürüntii; Osm. süprüntü. Xak. xı süpründi: al-q<nnenıa ‘sweepings, rubbish’ Kaš. I 493.

Dis. SBS

D suvsuš (decoction, настойка) Dev. N. fr. suvsi:-; ‘a potable liquid derived from a process of steeping grain and the like; a decoction’; esp. ‘a weak decoction’. N.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Hüen-ts. 1941-2 (tuturka:n): Civ. a:lku su:vsušla:rta: yeg üstünki xan sodak tegme: bolu:rla:r ‘they are called the royal beverage (Sanskrit sodaka), the best of all decoctions’ TT VIII 1.16; a.o. II II 8, 31 : Xak. xı suvsuš exir me'i'l-hinta ba'd me dahaba qumua šarebihi ‘the final decoction of wheat after the strength of its beverage has gone’; also a name for ‘pure milk (al-mehid) diluted with water’ Kaš. I 460.

D suvsiz (waterless) Priv. N./A. fr. su:v (water, river); ‘waterless, without water’. S.i.m.m.l., usually as susuz. Türkü vııı (day and night for seven days) suvsiz kečdim ‘I made my way without water’ II SE: vııı fF. IrkB 45 (otsuz): (Xwar. xıv susuzluk 'lack of water’ Qutb 162): Kip. xııı bi/e me’ ‘without water’ šu:sı:z Hou. 52. 6.

Dis. V. SBS-

D 1 suvsa:- (thirsty) Desid. Den. V. fr. su:v (water, river); ‘to be thirsty’ and the like. S.i.m.m.l., usually as susa-, Türkü vııı ff. Man. TT II 8, 37 (2 a:č-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Hüen-ts. 2040-1 (1 us- (thirsty)): Xak. xı er suvsardi: ‘the man (etc.) was thirsty’ Čafiša); in this ease too (i.e. as in other Desid. V.s) the connotation is 011c of longing for something Kaš. III 284 (suvsa:r, suvsa:ma:k); a.o. I 281, 2e: xııı (?) Tef. suvsa:- (-/-) ‘to be thirsty’ 27e: xıv Muh. 'atiša su:sa- Mel. 29, 5; su:vsa:- (corrupted to su:knsa:-) Rif. 113; al-'atšen ‘thirsty’ (opposite to ‘satiated’) su:sa:mıš 53, 13; 151: Čağ. xv ff. susa- (-p) stisa- Vel. 295; susa- tašna šudan ‘to be thirsty’ San. 243r. 22 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı suvsa- (with triply dotted waw) ditto 'Ali 25, 39: xıv suvsağlı (MS. savsağh) ‘thirsty’ Qutb 156; susa- do. 16wateriness 1: Kom. xıv ‘to be thirsty’ suvsa- CCI; susa- CCG; Gr. 226 (quotns.): Kip. xıv šu:ša- 'atiša td. 58; Bul. 62V.: xv ditto Tuh. 26a. 5.

S 2 suvsa:- See suvša:. (whisper)

D suvsi:- (watery, wateriness) Simulative Den. V. fr. su:v (water, river); pec. to Kaš.; cf. suvsuš. Xak. xı sirke: suvsırdı: ‘the vinegar came to taste like water’ (axada... ta'ma'l-ma ); the (al-malya) destroyed the acidity Kaš. III 284 (suvsi:r, suvsi:ma:k); a.o. I 282, 7.

D suvsat- (thirsty) Caus. f. of suvsa:- (thirsty); s.i.s.m.l., usually as susat-, Xak. xı ol am: suvsatti: 'atfašahu ‘he made him thirsty’ Kaš. II 336 (suvsatu:r, suvsatma:k): Čağ. xv ff. susat- Caus. f.; tašna kardan ‘to make thirsty’ San. 243V. 5: Osm. xv korkut- susat- ‘to frighten and cause distress to (someone)’; in one text TTS IV 713.

PU?E sivsin- (freed ?, urinate ?, defile?) Hap. leg.; this reading can hardly he correct ; no word with such a form could, as far as is known, have this meaning; it would be appropriate for *sıdrın-, Refl. f. of sıdır- (strip, peel, scrape), Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit virak-tacitte ‘with minds freed from worldly attachments’ sivsinmiš kögöllöglerr TT VIII A. 28.

Tris. SBS

D suvsa:lik (thirst) ‘thirst’; A.N.-fr. suvsa:- (thirst). N.o.a.b.; modern languages normally use susuzluk or ordinary Dev. N.s fr. suvsa:-for ‘thirst’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. su:vsa:Iik TT VIII 7.9 (alku:), 12 (1 ö:r- (rise, sprout, ortho-)), etc.; H II 22, 30: Xwar. xıv susaük Qutb 161; suvsalik Nahc. 265, le: Osm. xıv ff. susaük (1) ‘thirst’; (2) ‘insatiable thirst, as a morbid condition in camels’; in several texts TTS I 649; 777 644; IV 712.

Dis. V. SBŠ-

D savaš- (argue, fight) Recip. f. of *sava:- (argue, fight) Den. V. fr. sa:v (say, speech) fr. sa:- (say-, sa:y-, sana:-, sa:na-) (think, reckon, count, desire, worry) (think); properly ‘to argue with one another, to quarrel’, but later, in a physical sense, ‘to come to blows, to fight’. Survives only (?) in SC Uzb, savaš-: SW Az., Osm, savaš-; Tkm. \\\ söveš-, A parallel N. savaš ‘a fight’, Dev. N. (connoting reciprocity) fr. *sava:-, occurs in these and some NW languages. Oğuz xı ola:r ikki: savašdı: ‘those two quarrelled’ (tacedale) Kaš. II 102 (savašu:r, savašma:k): (Xak.) xııı (?) Tef. savaš- ‘to fight’ (with someone birle) 257 (also savaš ‘a fight’):xiv Muh. haraba ‘to fight one another’ sawa:š- Mel. 25, 1; šawa:š- Rif. 107; al-harb sawa:šmak 37, 10; šawa:šmak 123: Kom. xıv ‘to fight one another’ sovaš- (sic) CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı deraba mina'l-mu deraba ‘to come to blows’ ša:waš- Hou. 41, 19: (xiv xasama ‘to quarrel’ šawa:š et- Bul. 43V.):xv xasama šawaš- (/talaš-) Tuh. 15a. 2: Osm. xıv ff. savaš- ‘to fight one another’, and savaš ‘a fight’; c.i.a.p. TTS II 800; III 604; 7F 667.

D seviš- Recip. f. of sev- (like, love) (savor); ‘to like, or love, one another’. S.i.m.m.l. w. the same phonetic changes as sev-. Xak. xı ola:r ikkisevišdi: ‘those two liked, or loved, one another’ (tahebbe) Kaš. II 102 (sevišü:r, sevišme:k): Čağ. xv ff. sewiš- (spelt) Recip. f.; ‘to like (or love, dûst deštarŋ one another’ San. 258V. 14.

D suvaš- (irrigate, water, plaster) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of suva:- (irrigate, water, plaster). Xak. xı ol maya: ev suvašdı: ‘he helped me to plaster Čale tatyin) the house’ (etc.); also for competing Kaš. II 102 (suvašu:r, suvašma:k).

D suvıš- (watery) Hap. leg.; ultimately der. fr. su:v (water, river), but there does not seem to be any other example of a Den. V. Suff. -ıš-. Xak. xı yuğurmıš u:n suvıšdı: ‘the dough was flabby (istarxa) owing to the excess of water in it’; also used of any liquid (meyı) that is thin (raqqa) owing to an excess of water Kaš. II 102 (suvıšu:r, suvıšma:k). (The suffix -ıš- is an allophone of the suffix -g/-ɣ/-ag/-aɣ/-ïg/-ïɣ/-ig/-iɣ/-ug/-uɣ/-üg/-oɣ/-ög that forms nouns and adjectives, in this case adjective “watery”; this is the same adjectival suffix as English -ish in British, yellowish; childish, not a Den. V. Suff., but Den. Adj. Suff., the adjective base serves to form verbs)

PU suvša:- (whisper) Hap. leg.; ‘to whisper’; prob. Den. V. in -a:- fr. *suvıš an onomatopoeic for ‘a whisper’. There are several words for ‘a whisper’ in modern languages, the commonest sıbır/šıbır; the nearest to this is NW Kumyk šıbıš. Xak. xı ol kula:kka: suvša:dı: takallama fi’l-udun bi-kalem hafi ‘he whispered in his ear’; (suvša:r, suvša:ma:k; with everywhere); and one says (ol) sökelke: suvša:dı: raqqe'l- alil ‘he whispered spells to the sick man’; tea bi'l-stn luğa fthi ‘another form is suvsa:-’ Kaš. III 286.

*suvšat- See šuvšat-,  (whisper)

*suvšaš- See šuvšaš-. (whisper)

Tris. SBŠ

?D suvušğam (tapeworm, leech) Hap. leg.; apparently Dev. N./A. (connoting habitual action) fr. suvuš- (suvıš-) (watery); ‘tapeworm’. The only common word for ‘tapeworm’ is NW Kumyk suvalčan: SW Az. soxulcan; Osm., Tkm. soğulcan, which goes back to Kip. xıv šu:luncan al- alaq ‘leech’; one MS. adding wa düdu'1-batn ‘and tapeworm’ td. 56, 59; a!-'alaq suwlacarn \794\ Bul. 5, 2 and is also ultimately der. f. su:v. Xak. xı suvušğa:n al-šafar tva hiya hayya fi'I-batn 'tapeworm; intestinal worm’ Kaš. J 519.

Dis. SBZ

PU si:biz (foolish, obtuse, careless) Hap. leg.; no obvious etymology, perhaps a quasi-onomatopoeic. The Turkish languages are rich in words for ‘fool, simpleton’; e.g. for SW xx Anat. SDD V 9 (s.v. ahmak) lists over 150, some here also with no obvious etymology and a quasi-onomatopoeic look. Xak. xı sı:bız kiši: al-a.xraqu'l--ğefil ‘a foolish, obtuse, careless person’ Kaš. I 406.

Tris. SBZ

(D) sıbızğu: (flute, reed-pipe) ‘reed-pipe, flute’, or other similar wind instrument, morphologically Den. N. fr. si:biz hut with no semantic connection, unless it too has a quasi-onomatopoeic basis. Survives in NE Alt., Šor, Tel. sıbiskı, R IV 671; NW Kk., Kaz., Nog. sıbızğı. Xak. xı sibizğu: al-mizmer ‘flute, pipe’ Kaš. I 489; o.o. / 176 and 217 (3 ötür-); 246 (ötrül-): xıv Muh. (?) al-šahaba ‘reed-pipe’ sıbtzğu: Rif. lel(only): Kip. xııı šabebatul-turk sıbızğu: (MS. sıbırğu:) Hou. 24, 11: xıv sıpizğı: (‘with -p-’) al-zamr ‘flute, pipe’ İd. 51; šıbızğı: al-šabeba; ‘already mentioned under s~’ do. 5e:xv zamr tarvrl ‘a long pipe’ sıbızğı (‘a short one’ zurnay, Pe. l.-w.) Tuh. 18a. 10.

Mon. SC

1 sač (hair, curls) ‘hair’, apparently only the hair of the human head. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. phonetic changes (s-/š-/č- ; -s/-š/-č); cf. tü: (hair (body)) (fur). Türkü vııı IIS 12 (btč-): vııı ff. Yen. (his... and copper were as limitless) kara: sačı:n teg ‘as his black hair’ Mai. 26, 7: Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. uzun sačın... ıdıp ‘letting down his long hair’ (7 7/ 25, 15:o.o. U IV 8,38; TT 1^4, 10-11 (egln) etc.: Civ. TT VII 32, 20 (sokun-); а.o.o.: Xak. xı sač al-ša'r ‘the hair’ Kaš. I 321 over 20 o.o.: KB ürüŋ boldı erse kara sač snkal ‘when the black hair and beard have become white’ 1103: xııı (?) Tef. sač ‘hair’ (of the head) 264: xıv Muh. al-ša'r sa:č Mel. 46,2; sač Rif. 139; a.o.o.: Čağ. xv ff. sac (sic) mtiy-i sar ‘the hair of the head’ San. 229V. 18 (quotns.); sač (sic) also müy-i sar and gisii ‘curls’ do. 21: Xwar. xııı sač ‘hair’ 'Ali 14: xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 7e: xıv ditto Qutb 150; MN б, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘hair of the head’ sač CC7; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-ša'r ša:č Hou. 19, 19: xıv šač (‘with ) al-ša'r Id. 5e: xv al-ša'r šaš (sic) Kav. 60, 11; ditto Tuh. 20b. 5.

2 sa:č (sa:c) (frying-pan) ‘an iron plate for baking; a frying-pan’, and the like; also occurs in the phr. sa:č ada:ki: ‘tripod, trivet’. Survives in SW Az. sac, sacayağ; Osm. sac, sacayak; Tkm. sa:č, sačak. Xak. xı sa:č al-miqlat ‘frying-pan’ Kaš. III 147: xıv Muh. al-miqla sa:c Mel. 69, 1; Rif. 169 (mis-spelt sa.rix); al-dikden ‘trivet’ sa:c ayatki: 68, 15; ša:č nda:ki: (sic) 169: Čağ. xv ff. sac ‘a round iron plate’ (nham mudaivivar) in the shape of a shield on which they hake bread San. 229V. 17: Kip. \\\ XIII al-šecul-hadid tna'rüf 'an iron baking tray, known’ (also in Kip.); al-nıinšabu'1-hadtd 'an iron trivet’ ša:c aya:ğı: ‘the legs of a baking dish’ Hou. 17, 15: xıv šac ‘on which thin loaves (rnqnq) are baked’ id. 5e: (xv al-kenûn ‘a stove’ (ocak; in margin) also sacak Tuh. 31a. 15): Osm. xvııı sac ay ağ in Rumi, sih paya ‘tripod’, in Ar. minšab, in l’c. dîg-peya; sac ayak yürümek an expression for ‘to walk three abreast’ San. 229V. 25 (quotn.).

suč (mistake, omission, offence, sin, bounce, deflect) in Kaš.'s first meaning Hap. leg.; his second, metaph., meaning suggests that it may be the origin of SW Az., Osm. suč (sic, not suc) ‘a fault of action or omission, offence, sin’. Xak. xı suč onomatopoeic (hikaya) for (the sound of) glancing off (bouncing) something (nubtvi’l--šay’); hence one says kılıč suč kıldı: ‘the sword glanced off (bounced)’ (naha)\ and one says er suč kıldı: ‘the man avoided (deflected) accepting the thing’ (nabe... qabftla'l-aniŋ Kaš. I 321: Kip. xıv šııč (‘with ’) al-danb ‘a fault' td. 56; (al-daub yazuk which is also al-.xati'a ‘sin’) and al-danb suč (-c) Bui. 5, 12: XV danb šuš (sic) Tuh. 16b. 1: Osm. xıv ff. sučoffence’ (in phr.); in several texts TTS I 646; 77 845; 7I/709.

Mon. V. SC-

sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow) ‘to scatter, sprinkle’, and the like. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. the same phonetic changes as 1 sač (hair (head)) (s-/š-/č- ; -s/-š/-č). Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 20 (köpük): Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A kim özütln üčün edgü u[ru]ğ sačsar ‘whoever scatters good grain for the sake of his soul’ M III 11, 14-15 (in: Bud. (one must worship the Buddhas holding flowers and) sačmıš kergek 'must scatter them (before them)’ TT V 10, 106; «rk sačtı ‘he cast lots’ Hüen-ts. 37; o.o. U III 12, 5; 46, 11; Suxk 183, 15; 485, 3; TT X 155: Civ. sačığ sačsar 'if one scatters offerings’ TT VII 39, 3; pltpltinl sačıpsprinkling long peppers (l.-w.)’ II I 35; a.o. II II 22, 27 (2 ögsüz): Xak. xı men yıpa:r sačtım ‘I sprinkled (natartu) musk (etc.)’; and one says ol evke: su:v (water) sačdı: ‘he sprinkled (rašša) water on the house’ (etc.) Kaš. II 4 (sača:r, sačma:k); tava:rignı: sačmadıg ‘ (why) did you not throw away (tarahta) your property?’ \\ 7 79, 22; yağmur kibi: ka:n sača:r ‘ (my eyes) drip blood like rain’ 7 272, 18: KB közi yaš sačar ‘his eyes drop tears’ 80; burnu yašın sačasprinkling his nose with tears’ 1500; o.o. 719 (te:r-), 4827 (yomğı:): xııı (?) At. 340 (su:v); Tef. sač- ‘to scatter (seed), to drop (tears)’ 264: xıv Muh. (}) al-rašš ša:š-mak Rif. 120 (only): Čağ. xv fF. sač- (‘with -č-’) pešidan n'a afšendan ‘to scatter, sprinkle’ San. 22gr. 25 (quotns.): Xwar. xııı ditto 'AH 34: xıv ditto Qutb 150; MN 265, etc.: Kom. xıv ‘to sow’ sač- CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı ša:č (‘hair’, also Imperative of) rašša, natara Hon. 19, 19; rašša ša:č-, also al-niter do. 40, 13: xıv sač- (‘with -č-’) rašša katîra (n); šač- darra ‘to sprinkle’ Id. 56; batlara ‘to sow’ and natara šač- Bul. 35, 4.

seč- (choose, select, pick out, peck, клевать) ‘to choose, select, pick out’, and the like. Survives only (?) in SW Az., Tkm. seč-; \\ Osm. seč-; cf. üdür- (choose, part, separate, scatter), Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tek mum kamağ kuvrağ ara sečip ‘choosing only this man among the whole community’ Hilen-ts. 253-4: Xak. xı KB törüttİ üdürdİ seče yalguİcuğ ‘ (God) created and picked out (Hend.) man’ 148; sakıšın sečer er yıl ay kün ödüg ‘by calculation a man picks out an (auspicious) year, month, day, and time’ 2220; o.o. 10, 329 (adir-), 797: xıv Muh. (1) mayyaza tva xayara ‘to distinguish, select’ seč- (-c-) Rif. 115 (only): Kip. xıv seč- (‘with -č-’) 'azala šay' mina'1-šay' ‘to distinguish between one thing and another’ td. 51: xv laqata, canta’a, qa*šaša ‘to glean, pick up, collect’ (šöple-/ter-/) šeš- (sic) Tuh. 32a. 9.

Dis. SČĞ

sıč- (shit) ‘to defecate, empty the bowels’. The kind of word often deliberately omitted in dicts, but noted as NC Kır. čıč-: NW Kk. sıč-/šıš- (see Bui. Index): SW Osm. sıč- and, prob. s.i.a.m.l.g. Xak. xı er sıčdı: ‘the man defecated’ (tagawwafa); also used of others besides men Kaš. II 4 (sıča:r, sıčma:k); a.o. I 343, 27 (burxarn): xıv Muh. tagaivwata sı:č- (-c-) Mel. 24, 7; Rif. 106; al-tağamvut sıčmak (sic) 34, 8; 119: Kip. xııı xari'a ‘to defecate’ sic- Hou. 36, 11: xıv šıč- (‘with -č-’) ditto td. 56; tağawwata wa qadara (‘to defile’) sıč- Bul. 42V.: xv šiš- (s;c) tağawwata Kav. 9, 9; Tuh. 10a. 10.

The verbal form šıš- is homophonic with nominal šıš/sı:š 1. like in shish-kebab “bit roast (meat)”, spit, fork, spike; 2. swelling, boil, which express a notion of elongated chunk under which falls the human poop, and which probably was the primeval human lexical experience. Unless it was the other way around, and humans pooped branches and spikes. Ordering shish-kebab, some of us may recall the lexical origin of our order.

*suč- See sučul-. (undress, surface, open, overt, strip, flay, scalp)

Dis. SCA

D saču: (hem, опушка) Hap. leg., but cf. saču:la:- (hem); Dev. N. fr. sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow), Cf. sačğa:k. Xak. xı saču: ‘the fringe’ (hudb) (hem) of a garment, towel and the like, Kaf. III 219. .

D seče: (sparrow) ‘a sparrow’; prob. a Dev. N. fr. seč- (choose, select, pick out, peck, клевать) in the sense of (an animal) ‘which picks out (seeds, etc., on the ground)’. As such Hap. leg., but survives as SW Az., Osm. serče; Tkm. serče, in which the -r- is intrusive, as in serp- for sep-. Oğuz xı seče: al-'ušfür ‘sparrow’ Kaš. III 219: xıv Muh. (l) al-'usfür serče: Rif. 175 (only): Tkm. xııı ditto serče: (Kıp. čıpčık) Hou. 10, 7: xıv ditto serče: (-c-) (and čıpča:k) Bul. 11, 12: Osm. xvııı serče, in Rümi, metaph. ‘quick, impetuous’ (tand u tiz); serče parmak, in Rumi, ‘little finger’, in Ar. xunšur San. 251 v. 8.

F sıčı: (boundary) the Chinese phr. ssil chih (Giles 10,211 1,817) ‘four boundaries’; the vowels are fixed by sıčılığ. Pec. to Uyğ. Civ. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bu borluknig sıčısı ‘the boundaries of this vine-yard are’ (east. . . south... north... west. . .) USp. 13, 6-7; 109, 7; bu y^rniŋ sıčısı ‘the boundaries of this piece of ground’ do. 107, 19; 108, 17.

Dis. V. SCA-

D sučı:- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться) Den. V. fr. suč (mistake, omission, offence, sin, bounce, deflect) in the sense of ‘to move to one side, shy away from something’. Xak. xı at sučı:dı: ‘the horse (etc.) reared (tvataba) and jumped about’ (qafaza) Kaš. III 258 (sučı:r, sučı:ma:k); a.o. III 279 \\ (bukra:-): Xwar. xıv suču- ‘to shy’ (on hearing a drum) Qutb lel (suč-): Osm. xıv to xvı sučı- (1) of a horse or ox, ‘to rear, kick’, and the like; translates Pe. sigizidan ditto; (2) translates Pe. elidan ‘to commit a crime’ TTS I 653; 7^708.

süči:- (? sü:ci:-, see sü:čig) (sweet) ‘to be sweet’; n.o.a.b., but see sü:čig. Xak. xı süčhdi: ne:g ihlawla’l-šay' wa feba 'the thing was sweet and pleasant’ Kaš. III 258 (süči:r, süči:me:k): KB šakar teg süčiyü barır ol kiši: ‘that man goes about (i.e. would go about, conditional form) as sweet as sugar’ 813.

Dis. V. SCD-

D sačıt- (scatter, sprinkle) Čaus. f. of sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow). Survives only (?) in NE Alt., Tel. čačıt- R III 1908; cf. sačtur-. Xak. xı ol agar su:v sačıttı: ‘he ordered him to sprinkle (araššahu) water’ (etc.); and one says ol anıg meŋi:sin sačıttı: ‘he beat him until he scattered (farata) his brain’; also used of ordering to scatter (bi'ntiter) anything Kaš. II 299 (sačıtu:r, sačıtma:k): KB yağığ bir sačıtsa yana terlümez ‘if you once scatter the enemy, they cannot reassemble’ 2396; (how many gallant men’s breasts has death crushed and) sačıttı közin ‘scattered their eyes’ 4845.

D sıčıt- (shit, defecate) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of sıč- (shit); cf. sıčtur- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow), Xak. xı ol anı: sıčıttı: ‘he made him defecate’ (axra’ahu) Kaš. II 300 (sıčıtu:r, sıčıtma:k).

D sučıt- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of sučı:- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться). Xak. xı ol atığ sučıttı: ‘he made the horse (etc.) rear’ (azvtaba) Kaš. II 300 (sučıtu:r, sučıtma:k).

D süčit- (sweet) Caus. f. of süči:- (sweet); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı ol ačığ ne:gni: sučitti: ‘he sweetened (ahle) the sour, bitter thing’; and one says ol ye:rig süčitti: ‘he made the saline ground (al-sabxa) cultivable and fertile’ (qardh wa haqla) Kaš. II 299 (süčitü:r, süčltme:k); KB (truth is bitter but) yarın ašğı kelgey süčitgey seni ‘its benefits will come tomorrow and sweeten you’ 5777.

D sačtur- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow) Caus. f. of sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); s.i.s.m.l. w. phonetic changes. Cf. sačıt- (shit, defecate), Xak. xı ol maga: yarma:k sačturdı: an tara'l-darahim *alaya ‘he had me showered with money’ Kaš. II 183 (sačturur, sačturma:k): Xwar. xıv sačtur- ‘to order to sprinkle’ (perfume) Qutb 150.

D sıčtur- (shit) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of sıč- (shit); cf. sıčıt- (shit, defecate). Xak. xı ol anı: sıčturdı: axra’ahu mitt ixra’ ‘he made him defecate’ Kaš. II 184 (sıčturur, sıčturma:k).

D sactaš- (pull hair) Hap. leg.; Recip. Den. V. fr. 1 sač (hair (head); syn. w. sačlaš- (pull hair), Xak. xı ola:r ikki: sačtašdı: ‘those two took hold of one another’s hair’ (axada... ša’r) Kaš. II 211 (sačtašu:r, sačtašma:k).

Dis. SCĞ

D sačiğ, sačuk. Preliminary note. These two words, the first a N.Ac. ‘scattering' and the like, \796\ fr. sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow), and the second a Pass. N./A 'scattered’ and the like, must be carefully distinguished, since the later forms tend to converge. The later word sačak is a Sec. f. of sačğa:k, q.v. Cf. sevig, sevük.

D sačığ (scattering, distribution, осыпать, рассыпать) N.Ac. fr. sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); ‘the act of scattering’, esp. solid objects as opposed to liquids, e.g. ‘offerings to the gods; offerings so scattered’. Survives in NC Kzx.: šašu Kk. šašuw ‘a wedding present’. Uyğ. vııı ff. TT VI 265-6 (tökük): Civ. sačığ sačsar ‘if one scatters offerings’ TT VII 39, 3; a.o. do. 25, 7 (tökük): Čağ. xv ff. sačığ/sačık/sačuk dügüne edilen saču ‘a wedding present’ Vel. 272 (quotn.); sačığ/sačık (‘with -č-’) (0 niter tea šebeš ‘money scattered among the guests at a wedding’ (quotn.); (2) ‘money and goods sent from the bridegroom’s house to the bride’s house on the occasion of a wedding’ (quotn.) San. 225V. 28: Xwar. xıv sačığ ‘offerings’ (metaph. for tears) Qutb 150: Osm. xıv to xvııı sačı/saču ‘jewels, money, and food distributed on festive occasions’; in several texts TTS I 585; II 775; III 583; IV 647.

D sačuk (scattered, disordered) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); ‘scattered’ and the like. Survives in SW Osm. sačık ‘scattered, disordered’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Dud. sačuk kögüllüg yagluk sakınčlığ tifılığlar ‘scatter-brained people with erroneous thoughts’ TT VI 023: Xak. xı saču:k ne:g ‘something scattered’ (al-mantur) Kaš. I 381.

D sačğa:k (hem) (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow) Dev. N/A. connoting habitual action fr. sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); lit. ‘constantly scattering’, w. various extended meanings. Survives in NC Kır. sačak ‘a hand towel"; Kzx. šašakbrush; tassel; fringe’ SC Uzb. sačok ‘ a fringe; the hair on a horse’s hocks’: SW Osm. sačak ‘the eaves of a house; a fringe (of hair, or on a garment); disordered, scattered' (the last a confusion w. sačuk). Cf. saču:. Xak. ‘a man who throws about his money’ (man yubaddir inalahn) is called sačğa:k kiši: Kaš. I 470: Čağ. xv ff. sačak (‘with -č-’) (1) ‘a fringe (hem) (riša) woven of thread and silk’ (quotn.), in Ar. hudb; (2) ‘a table cloth’ (sufra), in Ar. sammet] (3) ‘the eaves (turra) on the front of a house’, that is an expression for the boarding which thev place on the front of a mansion San. 229V. 22: Kom. xıv ‘fringe’ sačak CCI; Gr.: Kip. xıv šačak (‘with -č-’) al-šarreba ıva'l--'tıtkıll ‘tuft, tassel; fringed hangings’ (al-'u thill also means ‘a branch full of dates, grapes, etc.’) İd. 56.

D sıčğa:k (diarrhea, понос) Hap. leg.; Dev. N./A. in -ğa:k (see sačğa:k) fr. sıč- (shit). Not connected w. SW Osm. sıcak ‘hot’, which is an abbreviation of ısıcak, Dim. f. of ısığ (isig). Xak. xı sıčğa:k alladı ya'tarihi' I-ğa it katira (n) ‘with loose bowels’; this word is irregular; because the rule is that there should be an -n instead of -k; Adjs. connoting the continuance (al-danam) of something are formed in this way (examples follow) Kaš. I 470.

sıčğa:n (rat, mouse) a generic word for both ‘rat’ and ‘mouse’, the first sometimes specified as uluğ \\\ sıčğa:ti; an old animal name ending in -ğa:n. S.i.a.m.l.g. w. unusual phonetic changes (s-/č-/t-; -č-/š-; -ğa:n/-kan/-an). Cf. küskü: (rat, mouse). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. karağu sıčğan ötin ‘the gall of a black rat (or mouse?)’ II I 56; sıčğan is one of the animals of the twelve-year cycle in TT VII (common) and VIII P.33: Xak. xı sıčğa:n al-fa'ra ‘mouse’ (prov.); sıčğa:n yılı: ‘the name of one of the twelve years among the Turks’ Kaš. I 438; o.o. I 75, 18 and 409, 9 (alımčı:) and 6 others mainly in provs.: xıv Muh. al-fa'r sı:čğa:n Mel. 73, 3; Rif. 177; sı:čğa:n yılı: 80, 17; 185: Čağ. xv ff. sıčğan muš, ‘mouse (quotn.); also the name of one of the Turkish years San. 25or, 27: Xwar. xıv sıčkan/sıčanmouse’ Qutb 163: Kom. xıv ‘ratsıčkan CC7; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-fa'r sıčka:n; Tkm. sıčan IIou. 11, 12: xıv sıčğan (‘with -č-’) al-fa'r; Tkm. šıčan and šıčtan (sic, ? error for sıčkan) ; also one of the Turkish months; one says sıčkan a:y; a:y is both ‘moon’ and ‘month’ td. 56; al-fa'r šıčkan (-c-) Bul. 10, 13: xv qaf is sometimes omitted, e.g. šıškan, al-fa'r, sometimes pronounced šıšan Kav. 5, 17; a.o. do. 62, 10; ‘they omit the qaf (in second hand, “from šıškan”) and say sıčan (-c-)’ Tuh. 83a. 6-7: Osm. xvııı sıčan oti (mouse grass) in Rümi, a medicinal herb, in Ar. turebu'1-helik and sammtil-fa'r ‘rat’s bane’ San. 250r. 25.

Dis. V. SCĞ-

D sačğur- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow) Hap. leg.; Inchoative f. of sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow). Xak. xı er su:v sačğurdi: ‘the man was on the point of sprinkling (yarušš) the water’ Kaš. II 187 (sačğura:r, sačğurma:k).

D sučğur- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться) Hap. leg.; abbreviated Inchoative f. of sučı:- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться). Xak. xı at sučğurdı: ‘the horse was on the point of rearing’ (yatib) Kaš. II 187 (sučğura:r, sučğurma:k).

Tris. SCĞ

D sıčğanak (muscle) Dim. f. of sıčga:n; ‘muscle’ lit. ‘little mouse’; the same metaphor occurs in Indo-European languages, e.g. Latin mus ‘mouse’, musculus ‘muscle’. Cf. baka:čuk. N.o.a.b.; there is no standard word for ‘muscle’ in the Turkish languages, all others using phr. or l.-w.s. Uyğ. vııı ff. Dud. sıčğanaklarm tutunup ‘clasping their own muscles’ UIV %, 37 (and / 43, 1); a.o. 22, 299.

Dis. SCG

D sü:čig (? sü:cig) (sweet, wine) N./A.S. fr. süči:- (sweet); ‘sweet; a sweet substance’, e.g.‘wine’. Survives for ‘sweet’ in SE Türki süčük/čüčük: SC Uzb. sučuk/čučuk: SW Tkm. süyel, and for ‘wine’ in Osm. süeü. Türkü vııı (the Chinese people's) savı: süčig ‘words are sweet’ 1 S II 5, II N.4; a.o. do. (2 a:r-): Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. in USf>. r a man acknowledges the receipt of yarım kab bor ‘half a vessel of wine’ in the third month and undertakes to return bir kab süčüg ‘one vessel of wine’ in the autumn; o.o. of süčüg ‘wine’ do. 6, 6; 10, 5: Xak. xı sü:čigsweet’ (al-huhv) of anything; sü:čig \797\ al-xamr bi-'aynihi more specifically 'wine’; this is otic of the words with two opposite meanings (al-added; perhaps because to a Moslem wine is not sweet); and the people of the Ila: valley, that is the Yağma:, Tuxsi:, ČJgJl call ‘wine’ kızıl süčig, that is ‘red wine’ (al-šareb) Kaš. I 408;- o.o. of süčig, usually ‘wine’, sometimes ‘a sweet thing’ / 154 (ačıt-); 157; 282, 7; 373 (bıšığ); III 166 (koyuğ); 397 (slıjdür-); 427 (esürt-): KB süčig tutğu til söz ‘he must keep his tongue and words sweet’ 547; süčig bu tiriglik ‘this life is sweet’ (and death bitteŋ 1170; o.o. 706, 2072 (1 ö:z), 2092 (süčln-) (‘wine’ in KB is always boŋ: xııı (?) At. 209 (ačığ); Tef. sučuğ (sic) /süčüg ‘sweet’ 278-9: xıv Muh. al-hulw sücüg Rif. 96 (only); sücü: Mel. 54, 7 (tatığlığ); 56, 7; 66, 1; 151, 154 sü:cü:g 66, 1; 165 : Čağ. xv ff. sücük, same as cücük 'sweet, tasty’ (širin wa ladid) San. 239r. 9; cücük (spelt) širin zizr. 12 (quotn.): Oğuz xı süm süčig ne:g 'a very sweet thing’ Kaš. I 338: Xwar. xıv süčüg ‘sweet; wine’ Qutb 162; sücüg Nahc. 57, 7; 402, 5: Kip. xııı al-xamr (bor...) also sücü:, which is anything 'sweet’ (al-hulw) Hou. 16,3 ff.; al-huhv Sücü:, which is also ‘grape wine' (and fa:tlu:) do. 27, 8: xıv (Tlcm.) süei: al-ladidii l-huhv; also used for al-xamr; Kip. sücü: td. $1: xv al-xamr (šarğır; that which is made from wheat is called bu:za; and they have a sort made of raisins called) šüšüš (sic) Kav. 63, 5: Osm. xıv ff. süci, occasionally sücü, ‘wine’; c.i.a.p. TTS 1652; II853; III 646; IV 715: xvııı süci in Rümi, ‘wine’ (šareb) San. 239r. 12. 63, 5: Osm. xıv ff. süci, occasionally sücü, ‘wine’; c.i.a.p. TTS 1652; II853; III 646; IV 715: xvııı süci in Rümi, ‘wine’ (šareb) San. 239r. 12. 63, 5: Osm. xıv ff. süci, occasionally sücü, ‘wine’; c.i.a.p. TTS 1652; II853; III 646; IV 715: xvııı süci in Rümi, ‘wine’ (šareb) San. 239r. 12.

Dis. SCL

D sačlığ (hairy) P.N./A. fr. 1 sač (hair (head); ‘hairy’ and the like. S.i.s.m.l. w. some phonetic changes. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. M II 11, 16 (tetrü:) Xak. xı sačlığ er ‘a hairy (al-ša'renŋ man’ Kaš. I 464: xıv Muh. dû ša’r ‘possessing hair’ sa:člığ (MS. sa:clü:g) Rif. 83 (only); ‘blackhaired’ kara: sa:člı: Mel. 10, 17 (only); šera bi-ša'r ‘to become hairy’ sa:člu: bo:l- 27, 15; (Rif. iii sa:č.ldu).

Dis. V. SČL-

D sačıl- (scattered, sprinkled) Pass. f. of sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); ‘to be scattered, sprinkled’, etc. S.i.s.m.l. w. the same phonetic changes as sač-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A tökül-mek sačalmak ‘to be poured out and scattered’ M III 13, 18 (in: Man. M III 40, 3 (iii) (arpa:): Bud. (they saw the Budhisattva’s bones) ınaru berü anta munta sačılıp yatmıšın 'lying scattered this way and that, here and there’ Suv. 625, 10-11; o.o. TT X 436; TM IV 253, 38: Civ. ed tavar sačılur 'property and possessions are dissipated’ TT I 74-5: Xak. xı yarma:k sačıldı: 'the silver coins (etc.) were scattered’ (nutirat) Kaš. II122 (8ačılu:r, sačılma:k); yağmur yağıp sačıldı (translated) ‘the rain drops scattered’ (intatarat) II 122, 21; a.o. / 258, 4: KB yana sačlur andın terilmiš negi ‘the property which had been collected is dissipated again’ 738: Čağ. xv ff. sačıl- (spelt) afšanda šudan \\\ ‘to be scattered’, etc. San. 229V. g (quotns.): Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 151; MN 155.

D sečil- (chosen, selected) Pass. f. of seč- (choose, select, pick out, peck, клевать); survives only (?) in SW Az., Tkm. sečil-; Osm. sečil- 'to be chosen, selected’. Uyğ. vııı ff. Man.-A M III 25, 11 (iii) (agaru:; this might be sačıl-): Civ. [gap] ešte tušta sečildig ‘you have been picked out from among your comrades (Hend.)’ TT I 48: Xak. xı KB biligdin šečildi kiši yılkıdm ‘man was distinguished from the animals by his knowledge’ 1843.

VU (D) sučul- (undress, surface, open, overt, strip, flay, scalp) morphologically Pass. f. of *suč- (there is no semantic connection w. sučı:- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться)), but almost consistently used as an Active Trans. V. The first vowel is prob. -u-, which is the prevailing form in Kom. N.o.a.b. but cf. sučlun- (pull out. surface, open), sučluš-, Cf. soyul-. Xak. xı er to:nın sučuldı: ‘the man took off (undress) (naza'a) his garment’; also used when a sheep is flayed (sulixa cildu'1-šet); (in a verse) törlüg čeče:k sučuldı: ‘the flowers have emerged (surfaced) from the ground’ (uxricat... mina’l-ard) Kaš. II 122 (sučulu:r (or sučlu:r?), sučulma:k): KB sučulma menirjdin bu imen tom ‘do not strip this garment of faith off me’ 393; a.o. 84 (tu:l): xııı (?) Tef. sučul- ‘to strip off’ 278: Xwar. xıv ditto Qutb 161; Nahc. 39, 9; 132, 16; 133, 1: Kom. xıv ‘to strip off (one’s clothes) sočul-/sučul- CCI; čučul- CCG; Gr. : Kip. xıv sučul- (-c-) ta'arra ‘to be undressed’ Id. 57.

D sačlan- (hairy) Refl. Den. V. fr. 1 sač (hair (head); s.i.s.m.l. Cf. sačlaš- Xak. xı er sačtandı: nabata ša'ru'1-racul ‘the man’s hair grew (hairy)’ Kaš. II 246 (sačlanu:r, sačlanma:k). ’

D sučlun- (pull out. surface, open) Refl. f. of sučul- (undress, surface, open, overt, strip, flay, scalp); n.o.a.b. Türkü vııı ff. IrkB 44 (tıtın-): Xak. xı kılıč kı:ndın sučlundı: 'the sword was drawn (insalla) from the scabbard’; also used of anything that is withdrawn from its place Kaš. I1 246 (sučlunu:r, sučlunma:k).

D sačlaš- (pull hair) Hap. leg.; Recip. Den. V. fr. 1 sač (hair (head), syn. w. sačtaš- (pull hair), Cf. sačlan- (hairy), Xak. xı ol ikki: bile: (sic) sačlašdı: ‘those two took hold of one another’s hair’ (axada... šar) Kaš. II 215 (sačlašu:r, sačlašma:k).

D sučluš- (pull out. surface, open) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of sučul- (undress, surface, open, overt, strip, flay, scalp). Xak. xı ol meniŋ ada:ktın tike:n sučlušdı: ‘he helped me to extract (fi tanqîš) a thorn from my foot’; also used for competing, and for helping to draw (fi sail) a sword from the scabbard, etc. Kaš. II 215 (sučlušu:r, sučlušma:k).

Tris. SCL

DF sıčılığ (delimited, bound) P.N./A. fr. sıčı:; n.o.a.b. Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. bu tört sıčılığ borluk ‘the vineyard delimited (bound) by these four boundaries’ USp. 13, 9; 109, n.

Tris. V. SCL-

D saču:la:- (hem) Hap. leg.; Den. V. fr. saču: (hem). Xak. xı ol suvluk saču:la:di: ‘he made a \\ fringe (hem) (hudh) for the towel (nl-»ıindîl, etc.)’ Kaš. III 323 (sačıı:la:r, saču:la:ma:k).

Dis. V. SCN-

D sačın- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow, burst, disintegrate) Refl. f. of sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); s.i.s.m.l. w. phonetic changes. Xak. xı er örzirje: su:v sačındı: ‘the man occupied him with sprinkling (bi-rašš) water over himself’ Kaš. II 150 (sačınu:r, sačınma:k): xııı (?) Tef. sačın- ‘to burst, disintegrate’ 264: Osm. xvı sačın- ‘to sprinkle (perfume) over oneself’; in one text TTS IV 647.

D süčin- (sweet, enjoy) Refl. f. of süči:- (sweet); n.o.a.b. Xak. xı er sö:zke: süčindi: ‘the man took pleasure (tvacada... haletva) in talking, and spent his time on it instead of getting on with his work’ Kaš. II 150 (süčinü:r, süčinme:k; prov.): KB (Aytoldı) tapugka süčindi ‘took pleasure in serving’ (the king) 618; süčigke sučinse ajun begleri ‘if the lords of the world take pleasure in sweet things’ (the ills of the common people are bitter) 2092.

Tris. SCN

D sačındı: (scattered) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. sačın- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); survives w. same meaning in SW Osm. sačıntı. Xak. xı sačındı: ne:r> ‘anything thrown away or scattered’ (al-matrûhıil-mantjiŋ Kaš. I 449.

Dis. V. SCR-

D süčir- (sweet) Hap. leg.; unusual Inchoative f. of süči:- (sweet). Xak. xı ačığ ne:g süčirdi: ‘the bitter thing became agreeable and sweet’ (teba... tca’hlatvle) Kaš. II 75 (süčire:r, süčirme:k).

D sačra:- (spirt (gush), fly, jump) Den. V. fr. sača:r (was dripping/dripped, капавший (past continuous)) Aor. Participle of sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); ‘to spirt (gush), (of sparks) to fly, to jump’, and the like. Survives in SE Türki čačra-/ čačri- ‘to spirt’: NC Kzx. šašra-/šašıra-‘to splash, spatter, crumble, straggle’; SC Uzb. sačra- ‘to spirt, spark’, etc.: SW Az., Osm., Tkm. sıčra- ‘to spirt, jump, jump up’. Xak. xı (the blood horse galloped; red sparks were struck (by its hooves); they set fire to the dry grass) sačrap anın örtcyü:r ‘they fly and thereupon burn it’ Kaš. II 133, 16; n.m.e.: Čağ. xv ff. sačra- (-p) sıčra- Vel. 272; sačra-castan ‘to jump, spring (of sparks), to fly’, etc. San. 229V. 15 (quotn.; when the arrow of fate sačradı ‘has sprung forward’ from the bow of destiny): Xwar. xıv sačra- ‘to jump’ Qutb 150: Kip. xıv šačra- (-c-) tartaša ‘to spirt; (of a pen) to splutter’ Id. 56; taštaša ditto sičra-Bul. 58r.: xv tar taša šašra- Tuh. 24a. 8; fazza tva nntta ‘to be startled, to jump’ (PU tirpilda-/sekir-/) šıšra- (in margin, ‘also sıšra-’) do. 28b. 6.

D sačrat- (spirt (gush), fly, jump) Caus. f. of sačra:- (spirt (gush), fly, jump); survives in SE Türki čačrat-, etc., as sačra:-. Xak.xi ol maga: su:v sačrattı: ‘he accidentally splashed (antara... min ğayr qasd) water on me’, as e.g. when one pours water, oil or any other liquid from one vessel to another, and drops of it are scattered and fall on a garment or something; also used when a man has broken a piece of wood and a bit of it flies off (yatib, MS. yatubb) (sačratğu: follows) Kaš. II 331 snčn\tu:r, sačratma:k).

Tris. SCR

D sačratğu: (spirter, jumper, ambusher, trigger, tripper) Hap. leg.; N.I. fr. sačrat- (spirt (gush), fly, jump), Xak. xı (after sačrat-) hence ‘a kind of trap’ (naw mina'l-fuxııx) is called sačratğu:; it is made as follows, two twigs are joined together (at an angle), and a cord with nooses in it is fastened between them. Then it is covered with dust and grain is sprinkled on it; then a bird settles to pick up the grain and a noose entangles its neck or foot and it is caught Kaš. II 331 (prov.).

Dis. V. SCŠ-

D sačıš- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow) Co-op. f. of sač- (scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow); the Caus. f. sačıštur- s.i.s.m.l. with phonetic changes. Xak. xı ol maga: yarma:k sačıšdı: ‘he helped me to scatter (fi natŋ the silver coins’, (etc.); also used for competing Kaš. II 92 (sačıšu:r, sacıšma:k; MS., in error, me:k).

D sučıš- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of sučı:- (dodge, duck, evade, отскачить, увернуться); the MS. shows a double vocalization sučtš-jsučuš-, Xak. xı atla:r kamuğ sučıšdı: 'the horses (etc.) all reared together’ (istattabat, for istawtabat) Kaš. II92 (sučıšu:r, sučıšma:k).

D sü:čiš- (sweet) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of süči:- (sweet). Xak. xı sü:čišdi: ne:g teba’l-šay’ wa’hlawla ba’tfuhu ft ba’d ‘some of the things were agreeable and sweet’ Kaš. II 92 (süčišü:r, süčišme:k, sic).

Mon. SD

sü:t (-d) (milk) ‘milk’, an echo fr. su (water, river). C.i.a.p.a.i.,; in SW Osm. sütt, before vowels süd-; Tkm. süyt, süyd-. Uyğ. vııı fV. Man. [gap] siitden yeme [gap] Wind. 2: Iîud. süt ‘milk’ is one of the proscribed food (aš) offerings in TT VII 16, 8 etc.: Civ. süt is a common ingredient in remedies in H 1, e.g. it sütin ičgül (j/c) ‘drink dog’s milk’ 21; o.o. H II 30, 144; TT VII several, VIII M.34 (spelt siidh): Xak. xı sü:t al-laban ‘milk’ Kaš. III 120; 30 0.0, all spelt sü:t: KB (if good qualities enter a child) ürüŋ süt bile ‘with (its mother’s) white milk’, 881; o.o. 4442, 5881: xııı (?) Tef. süt ‘milk’ 279: xıv Muh. al-laban sü:t Mel. 66, 7; Rif. 165; al-radV ‘an infant at the breast’ sü:t emge:n 48, '5 ’ 143: Čağ. xv ff- s**' süd • • • Šir manesına ‘milk’ Vel. 291 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı (?) ditto Oğ. 79: Kom. xıv ditto CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı al-halib ‘fresh milk’ süt Hon. 16, 12: xıv süt al-laban Id. 51; al-halib süt (d) Bid. 8, 2: xv al-labanu'l-halîb süt Kav. 63, 4; halib süt Tuh. 13a. 11; laban süt do. 31b. 12: Osm. xıv to xvı süd so spelt, in plır. TTS IV 720 (and see Vel. above).

Mon. V. SD-

?D sat- (sell) ‘to sell’; prob. Caus. f. of sa:- (count), in the sense of making the customer count out the price. The converse ‘to buy’ seems originally to have been simply al- ‘to take’, but the phr. satğın (q.v.) al- appeared at an early date. C.i,a.p.a.i. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (the butchers) etin kanın satarsell their meat and blood’ \799\ PP 3, 4-5; satayin ‘I will sell’ (my life to buy your life) U IV 36, 100: Civ. the phr. toğuru (or toğru) tumlitu sat- ‘to sell outright, irrevocably’ is common on contracts, see toğuru: (truth, true, straight, upright, uprightness, honest, equal, level, facing): Xak. xı ol tava:r sattı: ‘he sold (baa) the goods’ (etc.) Kaš. II 295 (sata:r, satma:k); a.o.o. in grammatical examples: KB bilig satsa bilge biliglig alır ‘if the sage sells wisdom, the wise man buys it’ 470; a.o. 2641: xııı (?) At. anın sattı melın ‘he has sold his property for its (wisdom’s) sake’ 238; Tef. sat- ‘to sell’ 263: xıv Muh. ba'a sa:t-/sa:t- Mel. 19, 21; 23, 11; 33, 6; Rif. 99, 105, 117; al-bay' ša:tmak 35, 16; 121: Čağ. xv ff. sat- furiixtan 'to sell’ San. 228V. 27 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı ditto 'Alt 2e: xıv ditto Qutb 155: Kom. xıv ditto CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı baa rnina’l-bay' sa:t- Hou. 38, 12: xıv sat- be'a İd. 58; sat- Bul. 34, 5: xv be'a ša:t- Kav. 68, 15; sat- Tuh. 8a. 7; a.o.o.

*sıd- See sıdığ, sıdır- (strip, peel, scrape).

si:d- (sit, squat to urinate, defile) (sit, seat) ‘to urinate’. S.i.a.m.l.g., usually as siy-; SW Tkm. sı:- (break, destroy); cf. kašaŋ- (relieve (urinate)). Uyğ. vııı ff. Civ. yerke sidipurinating on the ground’ HI 74: Xak. xı er sitti: ‘the man (etc.) urinated’ (bela); originally si:dti: but assimilated (udğima) Kaš. II 295 (side:r, sidme:k); er si:dti: ditto III 440 (si:de:r, si:dme:k) xıv Muh. bela siy- (or ? sı:- (break, destroy)) Mel. 23, 13; Rif. 105; al-bawl siymeg (? si:meg) 34, 8; 119; law-wata ‘to defile’, and the like siy- (? si:-) 31,3; (115, PU si:be:-): Kom. xıv ‘to urinatesiy- CCI, CCG; Gr.: Kip. xııı bela mina’l-bavol siy- (? or sı:-) Hou. 38, 11: xıv si- (sic) bdla Id. 51; bdla siy- (sic) Bui. 34r.: xv bala mina’l-batvl (MS. mibwal) siy- (or sı:- ?) Kav. 77, 6; bele si- Tuh. 8a. 12; a.o. 83b. 10.

Türkic men urinated sitting (squatting), that was and still is one of ethnological idiosyncrasies probably not mentioned in linguistic dictionaries. The other distinct idiosyncrasy is gesticulation connected with negative and positive answer: “no” is chin up, and/or a verbal click with a slight sidewise motion of the head, “yes” is chin up. Accordingly, si:d- (sıd-, si:t-, sıt-) is “to squat” (English sit and seat), and metaphorically “to urinate” extending to “to defecate” and “defile”. G. Clauson's misunderstanding of the verbal stem si:d- propagates to confusion with its derivatives.

Traditionally, urinating and defecating was wrapped in a set of customary laws and procedures that prescribed and proscribed routine, making it a formulaic act. That was driven by the pastoral lifestyle in widely open steppes, and the proximity of the designated areas to the village camps. The excretive act was viewed as defilous, assault on the environment and its kut spirits. Excretions close to water were absolutely proscribed. Each person had to always carry a set of pebbles for wiping; these mysterious pebbles were found as a part of the burial inventory on the deceased's trip to incarnation. The squatting position reduced visibility and provided a modicum of privacy.

VU so:d- (spit) ‘to spit’; the long vowel suggests -o:- rather than -u:- but n.o.a.b.; now displaced everywhere by tükür- which is first noted in Muh. and the Kip. authorities. Cf. yarla:- (spit). Uyğ. vııı ff. Man. sodmıš yarča ‘like spittle which has been ejected’ TT III 112: Civ. II II 12, iii; .14, 134. Xak. xı ol kiši: yü:zi:rje: sotti: ‘he spat (bazaqa) in the man’s face’; originally so:dti: but assimilated Kaš. II 295 (soda:r, sodma:k); er so:dti: ‘the man (etc.) spat’ III 439 (so:da:r, so:dma:k; prov.); o.o.1341 (čırt); 77 8o (sağur-); III 132, 19 (same prov.).

Dis. SDA

F sata: (coral, dawn) pec. to Xak., and discussed in Clauson, ‘Early Turkish Astronomical Terms, UAJ, XXX D, 1963, p. 365, where it is suggested that it is a l.-w. from Ar. satV ‘the dawn’. If so, the meaning ‘coral’ is a metaph, arising fr. its pink colour. Uyğ. Bud. vııı ff. sita (sic) occurs with gold, silver, crystal, jade, pearls, etc. in a list of jewels Suv. 515, 17: Xak. xı sata: al-baššad (l.-w. from Pe. bassad) ‘coral’ Kaš. III 218: KB 77 (same meaning, see čomğuk) ; (the air was dark... then) sata koptı yĞrdin yadıldı butik ‘the dawn rose from the ground and its branches spread out’ \799\ 4892; kıza baktı yerdin sata kalkanı ‘the shield of dawn (i.e. its spreading light) looked redly from the ground’ 4895; o.o. 3840 (sata kalkanı); 5679.

Dis. V. SDD

D sidit- (urinate, defile) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of si:d (urinate, defile); cf. 8İ:dtür-, Xak. xı ura:ğut oğlın siditti: ‘the woman made her child urinate’ (abdlat); also used of a horseman when he makes his horse urinate Kaš. II 302 (siditü:r, slditme:k).

D si:dtür- (urinate, defile) Caus. f. of si:d- (urinate, defile); s.i.s.m.l., usually as siydir- or the like. Cf. sidit-. Xak. xı ol oğlın sittürdi: ‘he made his child urinate’ (abela); also used of horses; originally si:dtürdi: but assimilated Kaš. II 183 (sittürür, sittürme:k).

VUD so:dtur- (spit) Hap. leg.; Caus. f. of so:d- (spit). Xak. xı ol amŋ yü:zige: sotturdi: abzaqa bi-wachihi ‘he made (people) spit in his face’; originally so:dturdi:; so:dturur, sotturma:k assimilated (sic) Kaš. II 183.

Dis. SDĞ

D satığ (selling, trade, commerce, sale price) N.Ac. fr. sat- (sell); lit. ‘selling’, but usually more specifically ‘trade, commerce’, and sometimes ‘sale price’. S.i.s.m.l. as satığ/satı/satu. See satğın. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. Sanskrit dharmena na vantk caret ‘a man must not trade in the (true) doctrine’ nom üze: ne:g satığ yulu:ğ kılğuluk ermez TT VIII E.9; o.o. of satığ yuluğ PP 13, 7 ff. (ögtün); UII77, 25; 86, 42; TT VI104; VII 40, 68; (your brother has gone to another country) satığka ‘to trade’ U III 82, 14: Civ. satığ kılsa ‘if one trades’ TT VII 28, 10; o.o. do. 15 and 40; in the commercial documents in USp. satığ, which is common, nearly always means ‘sale price’, e.g. bu tavarmrj satığı ‘the sale price of these goods’ 8, 4-5: Xak. xı satığ al-mubeya'a ‘trade, commerce’ Kaš. I 374: KB (you must wage stem war against the infidels) yuluğla bu iške elöz kıl satığ ‘take risks in this affair making your body the price’ 4227; (the merchant) satığ birle tınmaz ‘never rests from trading’ 4419; a.o. 5108: xııı (?) Tef. satığ ‘trade’ 263: Čağ. xv ff. satığ furiixt ‘selling’; satığalığ xarid u furiixt tva ded u sitad ‘buying and selling, commerce’ San. 229r. 22 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı satu ‘selling’ 'Ali 54: Kom. xıv ‘trade’ satığ/satık CCI; satov CCG; Gr.: Osm. xıv to xvıı satu (1) ‘trade’; (2) ‘things sold’; (3) ‘market’ (also satu bazar ‘buying and selling’); common TTS I 603; II 798; III 602; IV 666.

D sıdığ/sidiğ (gap, slit, robe skirt) prima facie a Dev. N. fr. *sıd- (strip, peel, scrape) and cognate to sıdır- (strip, peel, scrape); it would suit both words if *sid- meant ‘to come away in layers, peel off’ (Intrans.); there is obviously no connection w. si:d- so Kaš.’s preference for sidig seems misplaced. Pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı sıdığ ahad daylayi’l-qaba ild'l-talbib mina’l--cenibayn ‘one of the two skirts of a robe up to the collar from the two sides’; hence one says \800\ sıdığ y:ipi:p olturdi: ‘he drew together (damma) to himself the two sides of the robe and sat down’; this is a sign of refinement (mma'l-nama); sıdığ furacnl-asnen bayna'l--littet ’the gaps in the teeth between the gums’; hence one says to someone who is told to keep a secret bu: sö:zni: sıdığdın sizitma: ‘do not let this statement pass (le tudib) the gaps in your teeth’, that is ‘do not disclose it’ Kaš. I 374: sidig ‘one of the two skirts (cenibayn) of a robe’; it is more correct (ahsan) than sıdığ Kaš. I 389.

Dis. SDĞ

VUD soduk (spittle) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. so:d- (spit); pec. to Kaš. Xak. xı soduk al-buzaq ‘spittle’ Kaš. I 381; o.o. III 102 (yuğruš-, translated al-riq ‘spittle’); III 321, 4.

D satğa:ğ (ill-treated, oppressed; ill-treatment, oppression) Dev. N./A. fr. satğa:- (tread, trample); ‘ill-treated, oppressed; ill-treatment, oppression’. Pec. to KB. Xak. xı KB bu satğağ basınčak üčün ‘because of this oppression and scorn’ 911; a.o. 912; neče satğağ erse bu edgü kiši ‘however much the good man may be oppressed’ 919; a.o. 924; (there are many wicked men in the realm) yavaš boldı satğağ kötürmez bašı ‘the men of peace get oppressed and do not raise their heads’ 6453.

D satğın (sold, buy) Pass. Dev. N./A. fr. sat’; ‘sold’; used only in the phr. satğın al- ‘to receive something sold’, i.e. ‘to buy’. Survives only (?) in SW Az., Osm. Tkm. satin al-; the commoner phr. for ‘to buy’ in other modern languages is satıp al-. Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. (I will sell my life and) sizlerniŋ isig özüŋüzlerni satğın alayın ‘buy your lives’ U IV 36, 100-1: Civ. ud satğın alsar ‘if one buys an ox’ TT VII 39, 2: (Xak.) xııı (?)7V/. satin al- ‘to buy’ 264: xıv Muh. ištare ‘to buy’ sa:tu:n al- Mel. 22, 11; Rif. 103; al-šire' sa:tkun almak 126 (only): Čağ. xv ff. satkun al- (-ip) satun al- Vel. 272 ; satkun al-xaridan ‘to buy’ San. 22gr. 9 (quotn.): Xwar. xııı satun al- ‘to buy’ 'Ali 5e: Kom. xıv ditto CCI; Gr.: Kip. xııı ištare sa:(un al-Hou. 37, 7: xıv šatna al- (sic) ditto İd. 58:xv ditto ša:ttm al- Kav. 12, 17; sa:tm alda. 31,7; safın al- Tuh. 87a. 5.

Dis. V. SDĞ-

satğa:- (tread, trample) basically ‘to tread, or trample, on (something Acc.)’ with some extended meanings. Etymology obscure; with no semantic connection w. satığ (selling, trade, commerce, sale price). N.o.a.b., but see satğaš-, Uyğ. vııı ff. Bud. tümen bere tağlarda arğular satğap bulıtığ tumanığ ‘for 10,000 (Chinese) li the valleys in the mountains pass through clouds and mist’ TT IX, p. 22, note 77, 5 (a Hüen-ts. fragment): Xak. xı ol amg boynın satğa:dı: ‘he trod (taxatta) on his neck’; and one says bi:r yo:l bi:rig satğa:dı: (translated) ‘the southerly road crossed (cilza) the westerly road’; and one says alım be:rlmni: satga:di: ‘the debt due to him cancelled (iqtadda) the debt due from him’; (in a verse; the days and nights of this world pass like travellers) kimni: kali: \\\ satğasa: kü:čin keve:r 'if they come on anyone and trample on him (fa-tnan ate 'alayhi zva xabbatahu), they sap his strength’; the phr. relating to roads and debts are Oğuz Kaš. III 288 (satğa:r, satğa:ma:k): KB (when you take your seat, know your proper place and) kišig satğamağıl ‘do not tread on people’ 4112; o.o. 707 (basit-), 5709, 6441: Oğuz see Xak.: Kom. xıv satka- to injure’ (?) CCG; Gr. 215 (in an obscure phr.).

sıtğa:- (roll up) as such Hap. leg., but survives w. the same meaning in SW Osm. sığa-, Xak. xı ol ko:lın sıtğa:di: šammara yadahu ‘he rolled up his sleeves’ Kaš. III 288 (sıtğa:r, sıtğa:ma:k); a.o. I 325, 9.

D satğal- (treaded, trampled) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of satğa:- (tread, trample); the second meaning is presumably Oğuz. Xak. xı er boynı: satğaldı: ‘the man’s neck (etc.) was trodden on’ (xuttiyat); also used of a debt when it has been cancelled (uqtušša) by something which balances it (yııtvesînuhu) Kaš. II 233 (satğalu:r, satğalma:k).

D sıtğal- (roll up) Hap. leg.; Pass. f. of sıtğa:- (roll up). Xak. xı yet) sıtğaldı: šuvımira'l-kummen ‘the two sleeves were rolled up’ Kaš. II 233 (sıtğalur, sıtğalma:k).

D sıtğan- (roll up) Hap. leg.; Refl. f. of sıtğa:- (roll up). Xak. xı er sıtğandı: ‘the man tucked himself up’ (or ‘prepared himself’; tašammara); also used when he has tucked up his clothing (šanmıara tazvbahu); Intrans. and Trans. Kaš. II 245 (sıtğanu:r, sıtğanma.'k).

D satğaš- (tread, trample, get lost, lose senses) Recip. f. of satğa:- (tread, trample); survives as sataš- with a wide range of meanings in NW Kaz. ‘to lose one’s way; to lose one’s senses’ R IV 378; Nog. ‘to lose one’s way; to be at a loss’; SW Az. ‘to tease, pester, provoke, mock (someone Dat.)’\ Osm. ditto and ‘to be aggressive, seek a quarrel’; Tkm. ‘to be exposed to (e.g. pain Dat.)) to meet (someone); to see one another; to do business (with someone Dat.)' Xak. xı ola:r bi:r ikindi: bile: satğašdı: ‘they trod (taxatta) on one another's necks’; also used when people outdo one another in arrogance (yuabbar bihi 'ani’l--tata'ul); and one says ol maga: yo:lda: satğašdı: ‘he met me face to face (laqiyant... muzvecahata (n)) on the road’; Kaš. II 214 (satğašu:r, satğašma:k): xııı (?) Tef. satğaš-/satxaš- ‘to meet (someone Dat.), to come together’ 263; sataš- do. 272 (see sıtğaš- (roll up)): Oğuz xı (after Xak.) and in Oğuz one says ola:r alım berim bile: satğašdı: ‘they cancelled (qassa) their mutual debts’ Kaš. II 214: Xwar. xııı sataš- ‘to meet’ 'Ali 57: xıv satğaš- ‘to meet (someone Dat.)' Nahc. 83, 9; 252, 12-13; 432, 2: Osm. xıv ff. sataš- (in ‘to encounter, or experience (something disagreeable Dat.)') (2) ‘to meet (someone)’; c.i.a.p.: xvııı sataš-, in Rümi, mubtale 7va dücer šudan ‘to be distressed; to experience’ San. 229V. 20 (quotn.).

The semantic copmplex matches that of Nordic term for medium (derisively called shaman, shamanism in later religious lingo, Türkic kam, qam) sei∂ (sei∂r, sei∂-ma∂r (male) sei∂konur (fem.), sei∂ skratti (performer, practitioner, lit. (he) goes, moves, glides)), who performs transmigration into the other world to meet patrons (saints) and deceased: leave the body behind (lose one’s senses), be exposed to, meet (someone), see one another, do business (with someone), meet face to face, fly (glide) (off, to meet, etc.). The form skratti with Türkic suffix -ti is sg. 3rd p. of scriðan “go, move, glide”. Medium is someone who serves as an intermediary between the living and the dead. Nordic sagas attributed supernatural capability to their legendary heroes, including royals. There is a linguistic resonance between the Türkic sataš- (satğaš-), the Nordic sei∂ with prophetic functions, the later seid - a descendent of Islamic prophet Mohammed, and English prophetic seer, which in IE languages is a derivative of the stem ved- “to know”.

D sıtğaš- (roll up) Hap. leg.; Co-op. f. of sıtğa:- (roll up). Xak. xı o!a:r kamuğ bile:k sıtğašdı: ‘the \801\ men all rolled up their sleeves’ (tašammarat. . . 'atti'l-kıımmayn); also used for helping and competing Kaš. II 214 (sıtğašu:r, sıtğašma:k): ( xııı (?) Tef. 272 sıtaš-, the transcription of a V. w. the sin unvocalized, translated ‘to come together; to encounter’, is clearly an error for sataš-).


Contents Türkic languages

Classification of Türkic languages
N. Kisamov Turkic substrate in English
G. Ekholm Germananic Ethnology
C. Stevens Grm.-Türkic traits
A. Toth German Lexicon
A. Toth Türkic and English
R. Mc Callister Non-IE in Gmc. languages
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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