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Türkic Languages
Linguistics Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences
Old Türkic - Russian Dictionary (OTD)
Science Publishing, Leningrad Branch, Leningrad, 1969
Editors V.M.Nadelyaev, D.M.Nasilov, E.R.Tenishev, A.M.Scherbak
Affixes and analytical constructions

Links

http://kungrad.com/history/etno/topon/
http://altaica.ru/LIBRARY/e_dts.htm

Files

OTD order:
A, Ä, B, Č, C, δ, D, E, F, G, ϓ, H, Ḥ, İ, Ï J K, L, M, N O, Ö, P Q R, S, Š T U, Ü, X, Z, Ž, Ǯ

Introduction.pdf a.pdf bc.pdf dei.pdf j.pdf klmn.pdf op.pdf q.pdf rs.pdf t.pdf uz.pdf Word.doc Affixes
() A, Ä, B, Č, C, δ, D, E, F, G, ϓ, H, Ḥ, İ, Ï J K, L, M, N O, Ö, P Q R, S, Š T U, Ü, X, Z, Ž, Ǯ A - Ǯ ()

Posting Introduction

The publication in 1969 of the Old Türkic Dictionary was an epochal event in Turkology. The monumental academic compilation from the written sources was created using the best expert readings of the times from within the walls of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and international Turkologists. Excluded were only the native Türkic scientists working in the shade of the USSR Academy.

Due to the nature of the used sources, the lexicon covers period between the middle of the 7th c. AD and 13th c. AD, without inclusion of the earlier sources (see Codex of Inscriptions), without lexicon of the documents from the European territories, without unsanctioned explorations of the native scholars, without ethnological terminology that fell outside of the used sources: word stems for culinary terminology, artisan terminology, horse husbandry, handcrafts, etc., without documented Türkic terminology of the Scythians, Huns, and Bulgars, and without recoverable terminology from the linguistic borrowings in various Eurasian languages.

It seems that in the translations no efforts were spared to remove any hint of Turco-Russian correspondence, for example, the word ČANAQ is not translated with the word chan (vat), but with a phrase "wooden dish", ČAN is translated with the word chashka (cup), and so on. The word SARAJ (serai) is transcribed in Persian, but not in Russian (it is an ingrained Russian word now), and so on. No plausible explanation is given for the selection of the alphabet symbols, or what they symbolize, in apparent disdain and apprehension for the conventional Türkic alphabet adopted in Turkey. It is hard to believe that anonymous censors have read every line of the volume; it was rather a spirit of self-censorship guided by notions and duties.

It is extremely important that the sources are a hodge-podge collection of different languages, different dialects, different societies, and from different times. Combining all that wealth into a single pile termed Old Türkic language is a gross misnomer and misrepresentation, like combining snippets from all Romance languages and naming them a single Romance language. The name actually refers to a phylum of Old Türkic languages, consisting of numerous ancient Türkic languages. From the reverse-sorted pile, we get not only different allophones from diverse languages, but also traces of remote and displaced languages. An indication of extraneous admixture is expressed by the notations limited (), rare (), isolated cases ( ), that essentially express the same property of extraneousness. Among such oddities we find the plural marker -t of Mongolic origin, past marker -t (-d) and possessive marker -s, apparently from western vernaculars (retained in English went, slept, had, retained, and so on, and in his, hers, theirs, mama's. foot's, and so on). No compilers' effort was spent on distinguishing linguistic trunks represented by diverse sources, other than republishing the Kashgari's lexical data divided by its sources, but without introjection of the mass of material in the compiler's disposal not known to Kashgari. The resultant summary view is like observing Mars from the Earth, a detached view of various eastern vernaculars and dialects viewed as consubstantial and defined by the enigmatic term Old Türkic

The dictionary alphabet is unorthodox, compare with Turkish. Probably, some of the characters relay more the sounds of the foreign alphabets than the Turkic pronunciation:
Turkish A   B C Ç - D E F G Ğ   H - I İ J K L M N O Ö P - R S Ş T U Ü V - - Y Z  
OTD   Ä   Ǯ Č δ           ϓ                       Q               W X J   Ž
Approximant ant echo   jaw chap this           gh       hit             her         she     mule     hen york    

Posting notes are shown in blue boxes or in (blue parenthesis), and subheadings highlighted in blue. Page numbers are shown in the beginning of the page in blue.
An attentive eye would find some typos, the pdf source file is here . X represents the Greek χ, apparently used to express a voiced H. Numerous verb voices were verbalized in Russian, in lieu of using defined linguistic terms, and retained in their verbalized definition.

Old Türkic - Russian Dictionary (OTD)
ATTACHMENT II
INDEX OF GRAMMATICAL FORMS (AFFIXES AND ANALYTICAL CONSTRUCTIONS)
BY OLD TÜRKIC MONUMENTS OF 7th-13th cc.
649

1. In the Index are used accessible materials (consolidated and from individual monuments) that provide an interpretation of ancient Türkic grammatical forms or just their recount; also were used grammatical forms from the ancient Türkic monuments examined during preparation of the OTD. This list is not exhaustive of all grammatical forms innate to the ancient Türkic language and recorded in the surviving monuments, and does not differentiate them by their linguistic affiliation.

2. The grammatical articles of the Index are arranged alphabetically by OTD order by leading forms (the leading word in bold heading the beginning of each article) and are divided into articles with interpretation of grammatical function, and articles without interpretation that refer to the relevant articles with interpretation by the leading forms denoted with the notation see.

3. The leading forms of the articles are word-forming and inflectional affix morphemes in hard versions; the soft versions are the leading forms of the articles without interpretations only if the initial consonant in the affix is transmitted by another letter, different from that of the hard consonant.

4. Grammatical interpretation of each affixal form is given only for one of its hard versions, conditionally designated as a primary version and used as a leading form of the article containing an interpretation. The rest of phonographic versions of that form are included in the consolidated listing as leading form of articles without interpretations, placed in alphabetical order with reference to the base version. The leading form of articles with a list of interpretations is accompanied by a listing of all other phonographic versions of that morpheme, including versions with soft row vocalization. In that list, enclosed in parentheses, comma separates versions that differ by phonetically conditioned vocalization, and a semicolon separates versions that differ by the consonantal beginning, and phonetically not caused by vocalization. The connecting vowel is conditionally included with the phonetically caused versions of the affix.

5. Articles with the leading homophonic form morphemes are placed in the following order:

1) nominal word form,
2) nominal inflection (form version, form variation)
3) verbal word form,
4) verbal inflection (form version, form variation).

6. Analytical constructs are given as a combination of needed structural elements and are divided into two structural types:

1) analytical base with the first element in the form of the notional word base, conditionally marked with the letter R;
2) analytical forms with the first element in the word form of the notional word. The analytical forms are grouped in an article under the leading form, and the analytical forms within the paragraph are given in alphabetical order following a marker o in the article on the leading form, identical with the morpheme of the notional word in that analytical form.

7. Grammatical interpretation of the forms is very brief, with abbreviations (see list of abbreviations in the OTD introduction section). The markers + and - are also grammatically interpretative abbreviations.
The marker + in front of the affix indicates that this affix is attached to the nominal stem (substantive, adjective, numeral, and also adverbial and pronominal) base;
The marker - in front of the affix indicates that this affix is attached to the verbal stem.
The marker - after the affix indicates that the affix forms verbal base (word-forming, voice forms, or modal).

8. Two (or more) grammatical meanings of one form is delineated by Arabic numerals. The grammatical interpretations are followed by examples of grammatical forms, the semantics of which is elucidated in Russian translation when corresponding or close equivalent meaning can be found in Russian; for illustration in parentheses are given original forms of the lexical stems with Russian translation.
650

A
-a (-ä) deverbal noun, see -u deverbal noun
+a (+ä) dative, rarely:
adaqa (adaq 'foot'), ӧgä (ög 'mind'), cf. +qa noun, dative, with direction, goal, target, redress, destination, location, time, actual subject in causative construction; combined with postpositions
+a- (+ä-) intrans., trans. denoun verb:
sïɣta- 'cry, weep' (sïɣït 'weep'), küčä- 'to force' (küč 'force'), cf. +u-
-a (-ä) participle, see -u participle
-a (-ä) finite present form (found in LOC); with pers. predicate marker:
urum üstikä sen atlar bola sen 'you are going to campaign against Urum' (atlar bol- 'intend to campaign'), men seŋgä bašumnï (qutumnï beräa men 'I am giving you my head and my happiness' (ber- 'to give'), cf. -u participle
+ad- (+äd-) verb intrans.: qutad- ' become happier' (qut 'happiness'), edad- 'get comfortable' (ed 'property'), cf. +d-.
-aɣ (-äg) see -ɣ.: -ɣ (-g; -ïɣ; -ig; -uɣ, -üg; -aɣ, -äg), cf. -q ; -ɣ (-g) see -tïŋ.: -tïŋ (-tiŋ; -tuŋ, -tüŋ, -dïŋ, -diŋ; -duŋ, -düŋ; -tïɣ, -tig; -dïɣ, -duɣ) verb finite form: 1) 2nd pers. sing. objective past tense, 2) 2nd pers. nearest future tense with mod. tinge of danger-warning
+aɣ + (+äg) see .: +ɣ (+g), see ŋ noun poss.; +ɣ (+g; +ïɣ, +ig; + uɣ, + üg; +aɣ, +oɣ, +ög) noun accus. case, cf. +nï, +ïn: +nï (+ni) accu., -ïn (-in) see -n. adv., +n instrumental, +ïn possessive case, +ïn accu. case.
-aɣ (-äg) deverbal noun, adj. connoting the continuance: sıçğa:k (diarrhea, ) fr. sıç- (shit, ), rare (archaic, western), normally --an (-än), Cf. Russian () kakan(ie), English  ??
-aɣlï (-ägli)
see -ɣlï: -ɣlï participle of absolute 1) general tense, 2) future tense with mod. of imperative (obligation), attributive, predicate, with pers. predicate marker as the last predicate, substantiated in first appl.
-aɣma (-ägmä) see -äma.: (?)
-aɣsa (-ägsä) see -ɣsa.: -gsä- see -ɣsa- verb mod. base of intention to act
+aɣu (+ägü) num. coll.:
üčägü 'three, company of three' (üc 'three'), altaɣu (< 'altı + aɣu) 'group of six ('altï' six'), ikägü (ikiı-agü) 'two, group of two' (iki 'two'), cf. +gü numeral.
+aɣut pl., rare cases:
alpaɣut 'selected warriors' (alp 'accurate shooter, hero' * + a-ɣu + t), bajaɣut 'rich (pl.)' (baj 'rich' * + a-ɣu + t), cf. +t, -ɣut. (relict. pl. ending, retained in Mongolian)
-ajan (-äjän) see -jïn finite.
-ajaq see -jaq.: (-jaq; -jäk;-ajaq) deverbal noun, isolated cases
-ajïn (-äjin) see -jïn finite.
-ajn (-äjn) see -jïn finite.
-al- (-äl-), see -1-.: (-1-; -ïl-, -il-; -ul-; -ül--; al-, -äl-) verb voice 1) passive (trans.), 2) medial (trans.), 3) impersonally medial (intrans.);
-alam (-äläm) see -lïm.: (-lïm; -lim; -alım, -älim; -alam, äläm) finite. inclination 1st pers. pl.
-alïm (-älim) see -lïm.: (-lïm; -lim; -alım, -älim; -alam, äläm) finite. inclination 1st pers. pl.
+am (+äm) see +m.: (+m; +ïm, +im; +um, +üm) poss. 1st pers. sing.
-am (-äm) see -m.: (-m; -ïm, -im; -um, -üm) abstract noun, result and object, degree
+amaz (+ämäz) see +mïz.
-an (-än) see -ïn. noun of result, the object of action from base intrans. verb, phenomena from base intrans. verb, rare (write - written) (retained in Russian, English - , write - written)
+an (+än) dimin., intensive (obs. pl.?), rare:
erän 'men' (er' 'man'') oɣlan 'child, son, young man' (oɣul 'child, son'), ortan 'flame' (art 'flame, fire') (retained in Russian, English - , homo - human).
+an (+än) see +n instr. (with hammer)
-an- (-än-) see -n- voice
1) passive (trans. verbal stems);
2) medial (non-trans. verbal stems);
3) active subject oriented  (trans. verbal stems).
-an (-än) participle past tense
:
baran 'gone, departed' (bar- 'to go'), kelim 'comer, new arrival' (kel- 'to come'), cf. -ɣan.
-an (-än, -en, -il, -ïl, -in, -ïn, -ur, -un, -ür, -ul, -ül) reflexive form of verb
adalan 'become misfortunate' (adala- 'cause misfortune'), adïrïn 'parted' (adïr- 'to part'), asun- 'to hang' (as- 'hang'),

+ (+äŋ) see +ŋ poss. 2nd pers. sing.; +ŋ gen. poss., subject, definition in izafet (poss.) compound, non-izafet (non-poss.) definition, predicate, form of communication with a postposition; occasional substantiatable
+aŋaz (+aŋaz) see +ŋïz.: (+ŋaz; +ŋäz; +ŋïz; +ŋiz; +ïŋïz, +iŋiz; +uŋïz, üŋïz; +uŋuz, +üŋüz; +ɣïz, +giz; +ŋaz, +ŋäz; +aŋaz, +äŋäz) poss. 2nd pers. pl.:
-aŋlar (-äŋlar) see -ŋlar.:( -ŋlar; -ŋlär; -ïŋlar, -iŋlär; -uŋlar, -üŋlär; -aŋlar, -äŋlär) finite imper. verb 2nd pers. pl.:
-ap (-äp) see -p participle
+aq (+äk) dimin. isolated cases:
jolaq 'path (jol 'road'), ju1 aq 'creek' (jul 'rivulet'), cf. +q (retained in Russian - , - ).
-aq (-äk) see -q.:(-aq, -äk; -ïq, -ik; -k; -q; -uq, -ük;) noun, adj.:
+ar (+är; +rar, +rär) num. separation:
birar 'one at a time' (bir 'one'), üčar 'three at a time' (üč 'three'); ikirar 'two at a time' (iki 'two'), altïrar 'six at a time' (altı 'six').
-ar- (-är-) see -ur-. (-ür-; -ïr-, -ir-; -ar-, -är-)  1st pers. verbal active voice base (from base intrans. verb)
-ar- (-är-) see -ur-. (-ür-; -ïr-, -ir-; -ar-, -är-)  aorist (past continuous) verbal active voice: saça:r (was dripping/dripped, (past continuous)) (saç- scatter, sprinkle, drip, drop, throw away, sow)
-asï (-äsi) (< -a + sï) participle of absolute future with imperative (obligation) mode:
barasï jer 'place should go to' (bar- 'to go'), turası oɣur 'time to rise, time when (you) should get up', cf. -a finite., +sï.
-as- (-äs-) see -s-  verbal voice
1) cooperative,
2) reciprocity

B

biz postpositive pers. predicate indicator 1st. pers. pl. in compound nominal and participle predicates, and in compound predicates with some finite forms of the nominal or participle origin:
az biz 'we are few' (az 'little, few') berig biz 'will give back' (ber- 'give' -ir); kečürsar biz 'if (we) miss dateline' (kečür- 'exceed the time-limit' -sar).

Č

noun:
inanč 'trusted, trustee' (inan- 'trust'), ökünč 'repentance' (ökün- 'repent'), ajmanč 'fear' (ajman- 'fear'), qïlïnč 'case, act; transgression' (qïlïn- ' become'), cf. -ču, -n- voice
+č (-uč, + üč) dimin., usually followed by 1st pers. sing. poss. affix:
atačım 'my daddy' (ata 'father') ögüčüm 'my mommy' (ög 'mother').
+ča (-čä) adv.:
azraqča 'too little' (azraqaz 'few, some, little') türkča 'in Türkic' (türk 'Türkic'), cf. +ča equitive,
+ča (+čä) equitive
1. comparison
2. equation,
3. ultimateness,
4. proximity (in numbers)
:
qunı sanınča ['countless as sand' (san 'count'); küclür jetmisča 'as the strength allows' (jet- 'get, reach'), törüčä 'by law, according to law' (torü 'law'); qapuɣča 'to the gate' (qapuɣ 'gate'); eligča 'about fifty warriors' (elüg 'fifty') cf. +ča adv.
-ča participle (?) prerequisite:
joq bolča 'as soon as was dead' (joq bol- ' die'), joɣurča 'as soon as crossed' (joɣıır- 'cross').
-čaŋ (-čäŋ) adj. rarely:
erinčaŋ ermagü 'sloppy' (erin- 'to be careless, lazy'), ajančaŋ 'respectful' (ajan- (?)).
-čaq (-čäq) adj., rare:
basınčaq 'unfortunate' (basin- 'oppressed'?) (retained in Russian - /malchik - malchugan, fr. /mal ''/'cattle ~ ''/'treasure').
+čï (+či) name of a doer:
balïqčï 'fisherman' (balïq 'fish') emči 'physician, doctor' (em 'healing remedy'), armaqčï 'fraud-plier' (armaq 'fraud').
-čï (+či) participle (?) absolute future of  imperative (obligation) mode; rare examples:
ölmači sen 'you should not die' (öl- 'die'), tegmäči 'I should not participate in attack' (teg- 'attack'), bozaɣulačï bolmïs 'had to separate' (bozaula 'separate').
+čïɣ (+čig) see +siɣ: +sïɣ (+sig; +čïɣ, +čig) adj. of similarity:
+čïq (+čik; +čuq, +čük) dimin.:
oɣlančiq 'my boy, my little' (oɣlan 'boy') baqačuq 'little frog' (baqa 'frog').
651

-ču (-čü; -čï) noun:
abïnču 'joy; paramour' (abïn- 'enjoy'), ögrünčü 'joy' (*ögnin-< ögir- 'rejoice'), aqïnčï 'raid, bandit' (aqïn- +čï?), cf. -č, + čï.
-čun see -sun finite verb form of
1) causative-inclinative 3rd pers. sing. and pl.,
2) respectful inclinative, 2nd pers. sing.; optional for the first mood with affixes
-lar pl. and seldom -ɣïl sing..
+čuq (+čük) see +čïq-

D

+d- verb intrans.:
jaɣïd- 'become enemy' (jaɣï 'enemy'), cf. +ad-.
+da (+dä) see +ta. locative., with respect to:
1) the place of stay,
2) the time of execution (with participle Names and time)
3) the place of origin; combined with postpositions
:
+da- (+dä-) see +ta-. trans. verb
+dačï (-däči) see -tačï. participle
1) absolute future with mod. of possibility,
2) present and indefinite, attributive, predicatively, as predicate with pers. marker of predicate, in analytical form modifies second member:

+dam (+däm; +täm) noun, adj.:
erdam 'courage, generosity, talent' (er 'man'), taɣrïdam 'divine, divinity' (taɣrï 'god'), kündam 'sunny' (kün 'sun'), birdäm ~ birtäm 'joint; unity' (bir 'one'), tildäm 'eloquence' (til 'language'), boɣdäm 'moldy, mold' (boɣ 'mold').
-dam (-däm) see -tïm. finite form of objective 1st pers. sing. past.
-damaz (-dämäz) see -tïmïz. finite form of objective past. 1st pers. pl.
+dan (+dän) see +tan. initiation
1) initial action,
2) in conjunction with postpositions

+daqï (+däki) see +taqï. adj. of place and time
+dar (+tar, +thar, +der, +ter, +ther, etc.) plural collective suffix used as a sign of respect, i.e. pl. you vs. sing. thou,  pl. usteres vs. sing. usted, mother vs. mama, father vs. (f)ata, (f)atha, brother vs. bi:r man.
The word mother is a variation of mama with the affix -tur/-tür/-dur/-dür. The Türkic plural collective suffix -dVr (-der/-ter/-ther, -dar/-tar/-thar, etc.) was once very productive and may ascend as far back as the Neolithic times, contemporaneous with other cognates from the most archaic lexicon. It is used as a sign of respect, i.e. pl. you vs. sing. thou, a form habitually used by self-aggrandizing personalities and in the E. Europe as a traditional pl. appellation for mother and father not infected by Russ. ing. appellation, Cf. čavındır, čavuldur, čavundur, čavdır (You) famed (čav fame), Bayındır/Bayındur ruling dynasty of Ak Koyunlu confederation, Onogundur (Bulgars), etc. (Golden P., 2014, Oq and Oğur ~ Oğuz//9th Eurasian Scientific Forum)

+daš (+däš; -taš, +täš)
noun to denote participation, accompaniment:
joldas 'companion' (jol 'road'), qarïndas 'uterine kin, brother, sister' (qarïn 'belly').
-dï (-di) see -tï. finite form objective past. 3rd pers.; functions predicatively in analytical form
-dïɣ see -tiŋ. finite form:
1) objective past. 2nd pers. sing.,
2) nearest future with mod. tinge of danger-warning 2nd pers.:

-dïlar (-dilär) see -tïlar. finite form objective past. 3rd pers. pl., operates as the last predicate:
-dïm (-dim), see -tïm finite form of objective 1st pers. sing. past..
-dïmïz (-dimiz) see -tïmïz finite form of objective past. 1st pers. pl.
+dïn (+din) see +tïn. adv. and adj. locative
+
dïnqï (+dinki) see +tïnqï. locative adj.:
-dïŋ (-dïŋ) see -tïŋ. finite form:
1) objective past. 2nd pers. sing.,
2) nearest future with mod. tinge of danger-warning 2nd pers.:

-dïŋïz (-diŋiz) see -tïŋïz. finite form of objective past.  2nd pers. pl.
-dïŋïzlar (-diŋizlär) see -tïŋïzlar. finite form objective past. 2nd pers. pl.:
-dïz- (-diz-)
see  -tïz-. verbal voice:
1) causative (from base trans. verb.)
2) passive (from base trans. verb)

-du (-dü) see -tï finite form objective past. 3rd pers.; functions predicatively in analytical form.
-duɣ see -tïŋ finite form:
1) objective past. 2nd pers. sing.,
2) nearest future with mod. tinge of danger-warning 2nd pers.:
.
-dum (-düm) see -tïm finite form of objective 1st pers. sing. past..
-dumïz (-dümiz) see -tïmïz finite form of objective past. 1st pers. pl.
+dun (+dün) see +tïn adv. and adj. locative.
+dunqï (+dünki) see +tïnqï locative adj.
-duq (-düğ) see -tïŋ finite form:
1) objective past. 2nd pers. sing.,
2) nearest future with mod. tinge of danger-warning 2nd pers.:

-duguzlar (-dügüzlär) see -tïŋïzlar finite form objective past. 2nd pers. pl.:
-duq (-dük) see -tuq. participle absolute past; attributive, predicative, principal term of phrase, as a predicate without pers. marker, sometimes with affix of pers. possess.
-dur- (-dür-) see -tur-. verb voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) active (from base trans. verb)
+duruq (+dürük) noun, rare:

kümüldürük 'breastgirth (saddle)' (< ?), bojunduruq 'yoke' (bojun 'neck').
-duz- (-düz-) see -tïz- verbal voice, causative, passive (trans.)

G

-g . noun, adj.
+g see +ŋ. poss. 2nd pers. sing.
-ga  (-qaj, -gäj;  -ɣaj; -käj; -ɣa, -gä; -qa, -kä) see -ɣa adj. rarely
+gä (+kä) see +qa. noun, dative, with direction, goal, target, redress, destination, location, time, actual subject in causative construction; combined with postpositions
- see -ɣaj verb, finite absolute future with mod. of possibility or imperative (obligation); with pers. marker of predicate, with pl. affix option.
+gä-  (+qa-, +ka-; +ɣä-, +gä-) see +qa- denoun/adj. verb rarely: erinčkä- 'to be merciful, clement' (erinč 'miserable, unhappy')
-gäč see -qač noun instr.
-gäj see -ɣaj see -ɣa adj. rarely
+gäk see +ɣaq noun isolated cases.

-gäk see -ɣaq noun with various meanings of base.
-gäli see -ɣalï relative tense participle of follow-up action with mod.
1. purpose (in one-subject appl.),
2. causation (in two- and more-subject appl.); relative  tense of preceding initial action; in analytic bases
.
-gälir see -ɣalïr participle absolute closest (~direct) future , sometimes with intent mod.; predicatively as main member of expression, with pers. predicate marker, particles as a function of last predicate, with postpositions as main member of expression.
+gär- see +ɣar- verb trans.
+gärü see +ɣaru directional with direction, destination.
+gi see +qï dimin.
-gič see -qïč noun instr.
-gil see -ɣïl finite imperative 2nd pers. sing.
-gin see -ɣïη noun.
-ginčä see -ɣïnča participle of relative following tense
1) limit
2) adversative comparison; as attribute, as principal term of expression, not last predicate in phraseological compound
s
+gir- see +qïr- verb imitating.
-gir- see -ɣïr- mod. base of unfulfilled planned action
-gür- see -ɣur- causative verb voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) active (from intrans. verb base.)

-git- see -ɣït-base verb voice.
1) causative of main trans. verb,
2) active of base intrans. verb

-gli see -ɣlï participle of absolute
1) general tense,
2) future tense with mod. of imperative (obligation), attributive, predicate, with pers. predicate marker as the last predicate, substantiated in first appl.

-gmä see -ɣma participle of absolute
1) general tense,
2) future  with mod. of obligation; attributive; substantiated

-gsä- see -ɣsa- verb mod. base of intention to act
+gü see +ɣu noun, adj. rare
+gü (+gün) coll. num.:
ikigü 'two of, by two', ikïgün 'both' (iki 'two'), cf. +aɣu.
-gü see -ɣu noun, instr. of action, subject of action
-güč see -qïč noun instr.
-güči see -ɣučï participle absolute general tense, attributive, predicate; substantiated
-gülük see -ɣuluq participle absolute future  with mod. of possibility to act; attributive, predicate; in analytical expressions
-gün see -ɣïn noun.
-gür- see -ɣur- causative verb voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) active (from intrans. verb base.)

-güt- see -ɣït-base verb voice causative (trans.), active (intrans.)
Ɣ

-ɣ (-g; -ïɣ; -ig; -uɣ, -üg; -aɣ, -äg) noun, adj.:
ajaɣ 'respect' (aja- 'read'), kečig 'crossing, ford' (keč- 'pass, cross'), sevüg 'favorite' (sev- 'love'), cf. -q.
+ɣ (+g), see ŋ poss.
+ɣ (+g; +ïɣ, +ig; + uɣ, + üg; +aɣ, +oɣ, +ög) accus.:
sözüg, sözög (süz 'word, speech'), kišig (kiši 'man'), nomuɣ, nomoɣ (nom 'teaching, dharma'), cf. +nï, +ïn.
-ɣ (-g) see -tïŋ.
-ɣa (-gä) adj. rare:
bilgä 'wise' (bil- 'know'), qïsɣa 'short' (qïs- 'shorten'), ögä 'wise' (ö- 'dumat').
+ɣa- (+gä-) see +qa noun, dative, with direction, goal, target, redress, destination, location, time, actual subject in causative construction; combined with postpositions
+ɣa- (+gä-) see +qa- denoun/adj. verb rarely:
-ɣa (-gä) see -ɣaj finite absolute future with mod. of possibility or obligation; with pers. marker of predicate, with pl. affix option:
-ɣač (-gäč) see -qač noun instr.
-ɣaj (-gäj; -qaj, -käj; -ɣa, -gä; -qa, -kä) finite absolute future with mod. of possibility or obligation; with pers. marker of predicate, with pl. affix option:
ol maŋa kelgäj 'he will come to me' (kel- 'to come'), saŋa men keräkiŋ japa turɣaj men 'I will do what is necessary for you' (jap- 'do'), kök linxua körgäj siz 'hen you will see blue lotuss' (kör- 'see'), neɣ ödsüz öiümin ölmägajlär 'they would not die an untimely death' (öl- 'die'), qajusïŋa emgäktä ozɣurɣaj sen 'both of them you have to (~ can) save from suffering' (ozɣur- 'save'), könäki nelük toŋɣaj 'how a bucket can freeze?' (toɣ- 'freeze').
-ɣaj erti finite form with the mod. of unreal possibility:
jazuqqa tüsä teginmägäj 'we may be charged' (tüsa tegin- 'fall, sink'), bu jerkä neij tegmagäj erti 'he would not have reached that country' (teg- 'reach'), ïdu jaraɣaj erti 'it would be good to send' (ïdu jara- 'it makes sense to send').
652

-ɣalï (-gäli;-qalï, -käli) relative tense participle of follow-up action with mod.
1. purpose (in one-subject appl.),
2. causation (in two- and more-subject appl.); relative  tense of preceding initial action; in analytic bases
:
jazïdaqï suvlïn eδärgäli evdäki taqïɣu ïčɣïnma 'in pursuit of pheasant in the desert do not miss the chicken' (eδär- 'go after... chase...'), bu jörügüg belgülüg qïlɣalï tözün eliglär nomlaju jarlïqamïš 'to make this definition clear, noble rulers deigned to teach it' (belgülüg qïl- ' make clear'); oqïtɣalïaj 'urge to make [them] read' (oqït- 'urge to read aloud'), kumari eligxan sizni alɣalï ïdï tükätmiš 'Kumar's ruler has already sent people to invite (literally take) you' (al- ' take'), tisigıdma evdaöıjin eïqɣalï ' do not let the woman to exit the house' (čïq- 'exit'); adrïlɣalï jerilgäli erü erü ür keč boltï 'since ways were parted, it is a long time' (adrïl-jerïl- paired 'to part'), tiši bars enüklägäli jeti kün bolmïš 'seven days passed as the tiger kittened' (enüklä- 'to whelp').
-ɣalï alq- analytic base of deliberate termination:
ölürgäli alqdï 'stop killing' (ölür- 'kill');
-ɣalï anun- analytical mod. base of deliberate preparation for action:
jüküngäli anun- 'prepare to worship' (jükün- 'worship');
-ɣalï bol- analytical mod. base of possibility:
balïqlï qušlï učɣuta batɣuta tapïnča-qïja učɣalï batɣali bolurlar 'fish and birds in flight and swim can fly and swim at their own volition' (uč- 'fly', bat- 'submerge, dive'), ol quvraɣnïŋ öŋräsin kinin bilgäli bolmadï 'he could not (~was not able) know the past and future of this community' (bil- 'know'), tüpkärgäli bolmaz 'impossible to justify' (tüpkär- ' justify'), cf. -ɣalï u-;

-ɣalï küsä- analytical mod. base of desire to perform action:
anïtmaɣalï küsä- 'do not want to cook' (anït- ' cook');
-ɣalï oɣra-
analytical mod. base of intentions (decision) to act:
ertgäli oɣra- 'resolve to pass' (ert- 'pass'), cf. -ɣalï saqïn-;
-ɣalï qal- analytical mod. base of unfulfilled planned action:
ol turɣalï qaldï 'he almost did not get up' (tur- 'get up'), ol barɣalï qaldï 'he nearly left' (bar- 'leave'), cf. -ɣïr- mod. base of unfulfilled planned action;
-ɣalï qatïɣlan- analytical mod. base of subjectively conditioned intensity of action:
üzgäli qatïɣlan- 'try to break' (üz- 'break'), cf. -ɣalï qïlïn-;
-ɣalï qılïn- analytical mod. base of subjective due to the intensity or intention of committing actions:
körkitgäli qïlïn- 'try to show' (körkit- 'show'), öz enüklärin jegäli qïlïnur 'ready to eat their young' (je- 'eat'), cf. -ɣalï qatïɣlan-;
-ɣalï saqïn- analytical mod. base of intention (decision) to act:
jarmanɣalï saqïn- 'conceive to climb, mount' (jarman- 'climb, mount'), cf. -ɣalï oɣra-;
-ɣalï tur- analytical mod. base of readiness (predetermination) for immediate implementation of action:
kirgäli tur- 'intend to enter immediately' (kir- 'enter'), bars ačmaq suvsamaq emgäkin ertiŋüsïqïlïp una-qïnja ölgäli turur 'tigress was dying (literally, just about ready to die), infinitely exhausted by pangs of hunger and thirst' (öl- 'die');
-ɣalï u- analytical mod. base of possibility:
umuɣ bolɣalï uɣajlar 'they can become a support' (umuɣ bol- ' be hope, support'), kim bolɣaj... munuŋ isig özin ulaɣalï udačï 'who will be able to extend her life?' (ula- 'extend, continue') cf. -ɣalï bol-.
-ɣalïr (-gälir; -qalïr, -kälir) participle absolute closest (~direct) future , sometimes with intent mod.; predicatively as main member of expression, with pers. predicate marker, particles as a function of last predicate, with postpositions as main member of expression:
men barɣalïr men 'I am going to go now' (bar- 'depart'), kirkälir sen 'now you want to enter' (kir- 'enter' ), künüm batɣalïr teg jarumaz tünüm 'my sun (ie, life) is about to dusk, and my night would not be light', oqïtqalïr üčün 'to immediately suggest reading' (oqït- 'force to read'), ötrü ol jeklär častani elgig körüp siŋirkälir osuɣluɣ qïlïnïp tegirmäläjü avlap ïnča tep tedilar 'then those demons saw Raja Castani, and surrounding him with an air of being ready to immediately swallow him, started asking' (siŋir- ' absorb').
-ɣan (-gän; -qan, -kän) noun outcome instr.: qabarɣan 'blister' (qabar- 'swell'), qabartɣan 'likes to fib' (qabart- 'fib') basɣan 'hammer' (bas- ' press').
-ɣan (-gän; -qan, -kän) participle
1) general tense
2) in limited use past
:
sanïp sözlägän er sözi söz saɣï 'words of man who speaks thoughtfully (weights his words), are the best of the words' (sözlä- 'talk'), ol kiši ol joldan azıtɣan 'this man leads astray from that way' (azıt- 'lead astray').
653

-ɣanča (-gänčä) see -ɣïnča participle of relative following tense
1) limit
2) adversative comparison; as attribute, as principal term of expression, not last predicate in phraseological compound
s
+ɣaq (+gäk; + qaq, + käk) noun, isolated cases: erkäk 'sire' (er 'man, husband') tozɣaq 'flower dust (pollen)' (toz 'dust').
-ɣaq (-gäk; -qaq, -käk) noun with various meanings derived from base:
japušɣaq 'Clematis (plant)'  (japuš- ' stick') ičkak 'vampire' (ič- 'drink'), qačqaq 'runaway' (qač- 'run'), tutqaq 'capture' (tut- 'grab'), cf. -ɣuq noun.
+ɣar (+gär) see +ɣaru.
+ɣar- (+gär-; +qar-, +kär-) verb trans.:
suvɣar- 'give to drink (water)' (suv 'water'), közgär- ' show' (köz 'eyes'), muŋqar- 'disturb' (muŋ 'concern, grief'), köŋülkär- 'meditate' (köŋül 'heart; consciousness'), čïnɣar- 'investigate, examine' (čïn 'truth, verity').
+ɣaru (+gärü; +qaru, +kärü; +ɣar, +gär; +ŋaru, +ŋärü < +n +ɣaru) directional with direction, destination:
Ujɣur-ɣaru 'to Uigurs' (Ujɣur 'Uigurs'), jaɣï-ɣaru kiriš qurdum 'I stretched bowstring against the enemy' (jaɣï 'enemy'), begkärü 'to the ruler' (beg 'ruler' ), ordïsïn-ɣaru (~ ordïsïŋaru) 'to the court of the ruler' (ordu 'court'), baŋaru 'to me' (ben ~ men 'I, me'), muŋar 'to this' (bu 'this' +n  +ɣar).
-ɣčï (-gči; -ïɣčï, -iğči) (< -ɣ +čï) noun:
jorïɣčı 'liaison between matchmakers' (jorı- 'to go'), jazïɣčï 'letter-carrier - a liaison between matchmakers' (jaz- 'write').
+ɣï (+gi) see +qï dimin.
-ɣïč (-gič) see -qïč noun instr.
-ɣïl (-gil; -qïl, -kil) finite imperative 2nd pers. sing.: qačgïl  'run away (imp.)' (qač- 'escape'), jegil 'eat' (imp.)' (je- 'eat'), baqqïl 'look (imp.)' (baq- 'look').
-ɣïn (-gin; -ɣun, -gün; -qïn, -kin; -qun, -kün) noun:
qačɣïn 'runaway' (qač- 'escape') barqïn 'walker' (bar- ' to go'), tutqun 'captive' (tut- 'catch'), tergin 'community' (ter- 'gather').
-ɣïnča (-ginčä; -qïnča, -kinčä; -ɣanča, -ɣänčä) participle of relative following tense
1) limit
2) adversative comparison; as attribute, as principal term of expression, not last predicate in phraseological compound
s:
δgülük uɣanča eligiŋ bilä telim qïl 'while can, do more good with your hand' (u- 'able'); elig tutɣïnča ot tut 'instead of shaking hands [as a guarantor], and better hold the fire' (tut- 'hold, grasp, grab'), öküz aδaqï bolɣïnča buzaɣu bašı jeg 'better be a calf's head than the feet of a bull' (aδaqï bol- 'to be feet' ), tikmäginčä ünmäs tilämäginčä bulmas 'until planted, will not grow, until sought, will not be found' (tik- ' plant, stick', tilä- 'search'), men kelginča evig barqïɣ uz tutɣïl 'until I get there, lead the household exemplary' (kel- 'arrive'); közüg jumup ačqïnča 'in no time (literally, until would open his closed eyes). "

+ɣïr- (+gir-) see +qïr- verb imitating.
-ɣïr- (-gir-) mod. base of unfulfilled anticipated action:
ol mendin qolɣïrdï 'he almost asked me' (qol- ' ask'), er suv sačɣïrdï 'man nearly sprayed with water' (sač- ' spritz'), ol maŋa kelgirdi 'he wanted come to me [but did not come]' (kel- ' to come').
-ɣïr- (-gir-) causative see -ɣur- causative (trans.), active (intrans.).
-ɣït- (-git-; -ɣut-, -güt-; -qït-, -kit-; -qut-, -küt-) base verb voice.
1) causative of main trans. verb,
2) active of base intrans. verb
:
qaH qorqmasa sen küčün körkitür 'if would not be afraid, will show force' (kor- 'look'), jelgüt- 'let trot' (jei- 'trot').
+ɣïz (+giz) see +ŋïz.
-ɣlï (-gli; -ïɣlï, -igli; -uɣlï, -üglï; -aɣlï, -ägli; -qlï, -kli) participle of absolute
1) general tense,
2) future tense with mod. of intention, attributive, predicate, with pers. predicate marker as the last predicate, substantiated in first appl.
:
könürügli isig jel jeltirmäz 'hot scorching wind does not blow (könür- 'scorch), ol ödün täŋri elig bögü xan kentü dintarlar erigli (~ erikli) quvraɣ-ɣaru kelti 'then divine ruler Bögü Khan cane to the community where dwell (literally usually are) the selected' (er- ' to be, to dwell'), men evkä barïɣlï men 'I intend to go home' (bar- 'depart'), ol at suvɣarïɣlı erdi 'he wanted to water his horse' (suvɣar- 'give to drink (water)', edgü ögli 'friend' (< edgü ö- 'think [well-meaning]'), jaratïɣlï 'creator' (jarat- 'create').
-ɣma (-gmä; -ïɣma, -igmä; -uɣma, -ügmä; - aɣma, -ägmä) participle of absolute
1) general tense,
2) future  with mod. of obligation; attributive; substantiated
:
bu bitig bitigmä atïsï' jolïɣ t[egin] 'who was writing (literally one who has to write) this inscription, nephew of [Kul-Tegin] Iolyg-tegin' (biti- 'write'), ičikigmä ičikdi 'to whom fell to obey, he obeyed' (ičik- 'submit'), ölügmä ölti 'who had to die, he died' (öl- ' die'), täŋriči men nomčï men tegmäkä artïzïp 'being duped by those who say of themselves:
"I am the Messenger of God, I am an interpreter of faith"' (te- 'speak') (English: tell).
-ɣsa- (-gsä-; -ïɣsa-, -igsä; -uɣsa-, -ügsä-; -aɣsa-, -ägsä-) (< -ɣ +sa-) verb mod. base of intention to act:
ol evkä kirïgsädi 'he wanted to enter the house' (kir- 'enter'), oɣlïnïŋ ölmiš jerin körügsäp 'wishing to see the place where their son died' (kör- ' see'), jarmaq alïɣsadï 'he wanted to take money' (al- 'to take'), cf. +sa-, -sa-.
654

-ɣu (-ɣü; -qu, -kü) noun, instr. of action, subject of action:
süpürgü 'broom' (süpür- 'brush'), bïčɣu 'knife' (bïč- 'cut'), qanaɣu 'lancet for draining blood' (qana- 'bleed' ), evüsgü 'sieve' (evüs- 'winnow'), ičgü ~ ičkü 'drink (n.)' (ič- 'drink, v.'), ergü 'residence, habitat' (er- 'to be'), cf. -ɣu participle
-ɣu (-ɣü; -qu, -kü) noun, adj. rare:
meŋigü 'bliss' (meŋi 'happiness; joyful, blessed'), inčkü 'peace, quiet' (inč 'quiet [n.], calm [adj.]'), oɣlanɣu 'gentle' (oɣlan 'child, youth').
-ɣu (-gü; -qu, -kü) participle absolute future, usually with mod. of imperative (obligation), possibility (optative mood); attributive; predicative; in analytical constructions:
turɣu jer 'place where required (~ possible) to stop' (tur- 'to stop, stay, lodge'), bu evkä kirgü öδ 'it is time to enter the house' (kir- 'enter'), qïlmaqu qïlïnč 'act that can't be done' (qïl- 'do, make'), uqušuɣ biligig özüm sözlägü 'I'll have to talk about understanding and knowledge' (sözla- 'speak'), cf. -ɣu noun.
-ɣu bol- verbal analytical mod. base of objectively or subjectively conditioned predefined action (subjunctive mood):
qajuda jegü bolsa ičgü kerak 'where eating, [there] should be drinking' (je- 'eat');
-ɣu et- verbal analytical mod. base of intention to act:
Sinχadiviqa barɣu ersär 'if decided to go to Ceylon' (bar- 'depart');
-ɣu jarlïqa- verbal analytical base for causative voice:
ajïtɣu jarlïqa- 'suppose asking' (ajït- 'ask');
-ɣu keräk ~ -ɣu kergäk verbal finite form of absolute general tense with mod. of obligation or necessity (jussive mood):
taqï tegü tegü kergäk 'again need talk and talk' (te- 'speak'), qajuda jegü bolsa ičgü keräk 'where eating, [there] should be drinking' (ič- 'drink');
-ɣu teg analytical participle form of absolute future tense with mod. of possibility; attributive, predicative:
qorqɣu teg körk 'terrifying image (literally image inspiring fear)'  (qörq- 'to fear'), ögrünčümüz sözlägü teg ermäz 'our joy is not expressible with words' (sözlä- 'speak');
-ɣuqa küsä-
verbal analytical mod. base of intent to act:
saqïnɣuqa küsüjür biz 'we want to think it over' (saqïn- 'to think, think over');
-ɣuqa tutuz- verbal analytical base for causative voice:
oqıɣuqa tutuzur men 'I urge to read' (oqï- 'read').
-ɣuč (-güč) see -qïč noun instr.
-ɣučï (-güči; -qučï, -küči) participle absolute general tense, attributive, predicate; substantiated:
kül-güči er 'man, who is laughing', keligli turur qut jana barɣuči ''coming happiness leaving again' (bar- 'depart'), taɣqa aɣqučï 'ascending mountain' (aɣ- 'ascend'), bitig bititküči 'is forcing to write documents' (bitit- 'force to write'), ajɣučï 'adviser' (aj- 'explain'), qolɣučï 'beggar' (qol- 'ask').
-ɣuluq (-gülük; -quluq, -külük) participle absolute future  with mod. of possibility to act; attributive, predicate; in analytical expressions:
adïrtlaɣuluq belgü 'signs by which one can distinguish' (adïrtla- 'distinguish'), bu ersär aršilar turɣuluq orun ol  'this is a place where hermits can live' (tur- 'dwell'), kim bu alaŋurmïš ač barsïɣ tirgürgülük 'who can revive exhausted this hungry tiger?' (tirgür- 'revive').

-ɣuluq bol- verbal analytical mod. base of obligation, situational determination:
qamaɣqa ajaɣuluq bolɣajlar 'it is predetermined for them (~ they should) be honored by all' (aja- 'honor, respect'), qadïr javlaq kejiklär bar bolup biz joqadɣuluq emgängülük bolmalïm 'we should not die or suffer because here are dangerous beasts' (joqad- 'die', emgän- 'suffer'), öritgülük bolzun bodi köŋül bu küntä 'let in these days surely raise in themselves a desire to become sighted' (örit- 'raise');
-ɣuluq er- verbal analytical mod. base of obligation, intent:
evkä barɣuluq erdi 'he had to go home' (bar- 'depart'), bizkä kelgülük erdi 'he had (~ he intended) to come to us' (kel- 'to come'), ötrü ol tïnlïɣlar ol ol qïlmïš ajïɣ qïlïnčlarïn eŋmintin bir ksan ödtä jemä kizlägülük jašurɣuluq ermäz 'and these creatures should not even for a moment to hide and conceal those or other their sinful crimes' (kizlä- jašur- paired 'hide, conceal, cover');
-ɣuluq tur- verbal analytical mod. base of intention:
ol satɣuluq turur 'he wants to sell' (sat- 'sell').
-ɣun (-gün) see -ɣïn.
-ɣuq (-gük) noun:
qazɣuq 'stake' (qaz- 'dig'), tapuzɣuq 'puzzle' (tapuz- 'let find'), cf. -ɣaq  noun with various meanings derived from base.
-ɣuqa (-gükä) see -ɣu participle absolute future, usually with mod. of imperative (obligation), possibility (optative mood); attributive; predicative; in analytical constructions:.
+ɣur- (+gür-) see +qïr- imitative verb .
655

-ɣur- (-gür-;-qur-, -kür-) verb voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) active (from intrans. base,)
:
körgür- 'urge to see, to show' (kör- 'look'), toδɣür- 'satiate' (toδ- 'be satiated'), tïrɣür- 'revitalize' (tir- 'being alive'), ötgür- ~ ötkür- 'to send (via someone) (öt- 'penetrate').
-ɣut pl., isolated cases:
 uruŋut warriors' (< urun- 'fight' -ɣu +t), cf. +t, + aɣutt.
-ɣut- (-güt-) see -ɣït- base verb voice. causative (trans.), active (intrans.)

Ï

+ï (+i; +u, +ü) poss. 3rd pers. sing. and pl.:
ati 'his (~ their) horse'; sözi 'his (~ their) words' (söz 'word') közi 'his (~ their) eyes' (köz 'eye'), cf. +sï.
+ï- (+ï-) denoun verb see +a-: +a- (+ä-) intrans., trans. denoun verb.
- ï (-i)  participle  see -u participle: -u (-ü; -ï, -i; -a, -ä; -ju, -jü) relative tense participle and adverb
-ïɣ (-ig.)  see .
+ïɣ (+ig) see accu.
-ïɣčï (-iğči) see -ɣčï.
-ïɣlï (-iğli) see -ɣlï.
-ïɣma (-igmä) see -ɣma.
ïɣsa (-igsä see -ɣsa-.
+ïl see +1.
- ïl- (-il-) see  -1-.
-ïm (-im) see -m.
+ïm (+im) see +m.
+ïmaz (+imäz) see +mïz.
+ïmïz (+imiz) see +mïz.
-ïmsïn- (-imsin-) see -msïn-.
-ïn (-in), see -n. noun result, the subject of the action from the base verb no trans., phenomena from the base intrans. verb rarely.
-ïn (-in), see -n. adv., +n instrumental, +ïn possessive case, +ïn accu..
+ïn (+in; +un, +ün; +än) poss. base 3rd pers. oblique case:
boɣzïnta 'in his throat' (boɣuz 'throat' +ïn +ta), aɣzïntïn 'from his mouth' (aɣız 'mouth' +ïn +tïn), jerändä 'in their country' (jer 'land, country +än +dä), . +sïn poss., ï poss., +ïn ~ +sïn accu.
+ïn (+in; +un, +ün) accu. poss. 3rd pers.:
atïn 'his (their) horse' (at 'horse'), erdämlärin 'his (~ their) merits' (erdäm 'merit'), cf. +ïn poss., +sïn poss., +sïn accu. poss., +, .
--ïn- (-in-) see +n- mod., +n- voice
-ïnč (-inč) (< -n -č) see -č noun.
+ïnč (+inč) see +nč ordinal number.
-ïnču (-inčü) (< - -n -ču) see -ču noun.
-ïndï (-indi; -undï, -ündi) (<-n-*dï) adj., noun of type of action, result of action:
aqïndï suv 'running water' (aq- 'flow'), keδindi ton 'donned clothing' (keδ-  'don'), ögündi kiši 'boastful man' (ög- 'praise'); salundï sač 'hair dropped on the back' (sal- 'drop back').
+ïŋ (+iŋ) see poss., gen.
-ïŋ (-iŋ) see verbal finite imper. form.
+ïŋïz (+iŋiz) see +ŋïz poss. 2nd pers. pl..
+ïŋïz (+iŋiz) see -ŋïz finite verb form 2nd pers. pl..
-ïŋlar (-iŋlär) see -ŋlar finite imper. verb form 2nd pers. pl.
-ïp (-ip) see -p participle
-ïpan (-ipän) see -pan participle oblique tense, accomp. or precedence; functions as direct predicate and principal part of expression.

-ïq (-ik) see -q noun, adj..
+ïq (+ik) see +q dimin. isolated cases.
+ïq- (+ik-) see +q- verb intrans.
-ïq- (-ik-) see -q- verbal voice base of
1) passive (from base trans. verb)
2) medial with additional intensity (of trans. and intrans. verbal stems)
.
-ïr- (-ir-) see -ur- 1st pers. verbal active voice base (from base intrans. verb).
+ïrqa- (+irkä-; +urqa-) verb intrans. isolated cases:
tsujurqa- (~ sujurqa-! 'be compassionate' (< Ch. 亲 tsy(-ai) 'maternal love'), alpïrqan- (alpïrqa -n) 'have difficulties' (alp 'difficult').
+ïš (+) see +š noun; rare.
-ïš (-iš) see  noun abstract
-ïš- (-iš-) see -š- verbal voice base of
1) cooperative,
2) reciprocity
.
-ït- (-it-) see -t- verb base voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) passive (from base trans. verb, limited cases)
3) active (from base intrans. verb)

-ïz (-iz) see -z noun, adj., isolated cases

J

-ja (-jä) participle  see -u participle
-jan (-jän) see -jïn finite.
-jaq (-jäk;-ajaq) noun, isolated cases:
tutjaq ~ tutajaq 'connection, coupling' (tut- 'hold'), jörgäjäk  'locks' (jörga- 'braid').
-jïn (-jin) (< -j-ï-n) participle, isolated cases with positive verb base:
atï küsi joq bolmazun tejin türk bodun üčün tün udïmadïm 'for the Türkic people, I did not sleep nights thinking (~ desiring) that it was not infamous' (te- 'speak').

Note: The interpretation of the form bolmajïn (Ton2,) because participle -jïn  with negative base bolma- is doubtful, cf. -jïn finite.

-jïn (-jin;-jn;-jan, -jan;-ajïn, -äjin;-ajn, ajn;-ajan, -äjan) finite form of inclination. 1st pers. sing.:
ajajïn 'I would show reverence' (aja- 'honor, respect'), tiläjin ~ tiläjn 'I would ask' (tilä- 'request, seek'); qïlajïn 'I would do' (qïl- 'do'), biläjin 'I would learn' (bil- 'know'), bolajan ' yes, I'll become' (bol- 'become').
-jn see -jïn finite.
-ju (-jü)) see -u participle
-juq (jük) participle absolute past tense; attributive, predicative, as main part of expression; with pers. predicate marker as a function of the last predicate; with affix-case. and postpositions in function of not last predicate and the main part of expression; in analytical forms; substantiated:
tüsäjük men 'it dreamed to me ~ I had a dream' (tüsä- 'see čo (i'), qarïjuq biz 'my grow old' (qarï- 'grow old'); uzun turqaru övkä köŋül öritmäjük tïnlïɣ men 'I am a living creature that has never allowed to be given to a rage' (örit- 'allowed to raise'), ïdmajuqïŋa (< ïd-ma-juq-ïŋ-ɣa) 'because [I] did not send  (ïd- 'send'), kürü umajuq teg 'like if he could not see' (kör- 'see', körü uma- 'not able to see').; sïjuq 'scraps' (sï- 'break').
-juq erti (~ erdi) analytical finite form oblique tense preceding in the past:
alqu qïlɣuluq išlärin alqjuq erdi '
qïlɣuluq islärin alqjuq erdi '[by that time], he completed all tasks he had to do' (alq- 'completed').
-jur (-jür) see -ur participle:  participle absolute pres., future and oblique tense, attributive, predicate, as main member of expression, with pers. predicate marker (and optionally pl. affix) as a last predicate; with pers. poss. affix with case affix and postpositions as not last predicate and leading term of expression; in analytical forms; substantiated
656

K

-k see -q (above).
+k see +q (above).
+k- see +q (above).
-k- see -q- (above).
+kä see +qa dat.:  dative, with direction, goal, target, redress, destination, location, time, actual subject in causative construction; combined with postpositions
-ka- see -ɣaj finite absolute future with mod. of possibility or obligation; with pers. marker of predicate, with pl. affix option:.
-küč see -qač noun instr.
-käj see -ɣaj finite absolute future with mod. of possibility or obligation; with pers. marker of predicate, with pl. affix option:.
+käk see +ɣaq noun isolated cases
-kak see -ɣaq (above).
-käli see -ɣalï (above).
-kalir see -ɣalïr (above).
-kän see -ɣan noun, -ɣan participle, -mazɣan participle: negative participle.
+kar see +ɣaru.
+kar- see +ɣar- (above).
+kärü see +ɣaru (above).
+ki see + dimin.
-kil see -ɣïl (above).
-kin see -ɣïŋ (above).
-kinčä see -ɣïnča participle of relative following tense
1) limit
2) adversative comparison; as attribute, as principal term of expression, not last predicate in phraseological compound
s
+kir- see +qïr- verb imitating.
-klï see -ɣlï (above)
+kü see +ɣu (above)
-kü- see -ɣu noun, -ɣu participle
-küč see -qïč noun instr.
-küči see -ɣuči (above).
-külük see -ɣuluq (above).
-kün see -ɣïn (above).
+kür- see +qïr- verb imitating.
-kür- see -ɣur- (above).
L

+l (+il) adj., isolated cases:
jasïi 'ludicrous' (jas 'young age), qïzïl 'red' (< ? *qïz, comp. qïzar- 'blush, to turn purple') (ikil axle (ik shaft)).
-l adj., rare:
tükäl 'perfect' (tüka- 'to end, be sufficient') inal 'trusted' (person), inal 'trusted (person)' (inan- 'to trust').
+l- (+al-) trans. verb, isolated cases:
tusul- 'use' (tusu 'benefit'), oŋal-  'improve' (oŋ 'correct').
-l- (-ïl-, -il-; -ul-; -al-, -äl-) verb voice
1) passive (from base trans. verb),
2) medial (from base trans. verb)
3) impersonally medial (from base intrans. verb):

aŋar jarmaq berildi 'he was given money' (ber- 'give'), oq atïldï 'were shot arrows' (at- 'shoot'), jïɣač bičildi 'tree was sawed down' (bïč- 'cut, saw'), türk bodun qanïn bolmajïn tabɣačda adïrïltï qanlantï 'Turkic people, without (?) a Khan, separated from Tabgach, obtained a Khan' (adïr- 'separate'), evkä kirildi 'entered the house' (lit. 'house was entered') (kir- 'enter'), emgäktin tïnïldı 'sighed of [loss of] burdens' (tïn- 'to breathe, relax').
+la (+lä) adj., adv., isolated cases:
körklä 'handsome' (körk 'looks') tünlä 'nocturnal' (tün 'night'), činla 'in fact' (čin 'the truth').

+la- (+lä-) intrans. verb, trans.:
qïšla- 'to winter, spend winter' (qïš 'winter'), qušla- 'bird hunting' (quš 'bird'), jüklä- 'to pack' (jük 'pack'), sözlä- 'speak' (söz 'word').
+laɣ (+läɣ) adj. see +lïɣ adj.
+lar (+lär) pl.:
išlar 'affairs' (iš 'affair') beglär rulers, Beks' (beg 'ruler, Bek'), cf. -lar.
-lar (-lär)
l) pl. in participle forms:
qïlurlar 'they will do [make]' (qïlur 'he will do ~ they will do'), bolɣajlar 'they wil' (bolɣaj 'he will ~ they will')
2) in finite forms, see -ŋlar, -sunlar, -tïlar.
+larï (+läri), optionally together with +i ( see +i) poss. 3rd pers. pl.:
artučlarï 'their juniper' (artuč 'juniper'), iniläri 'their younger brother' (ini 'mladshy brother'), but' it is their younger brothers' (inilar 'younger brothers').
+lï (+li) affix. of conjoin relations between homogeneous members of sentence:
adïɣlï toŋuzlï art üzä soqušmiš ermiš 'bear and boar met at the pass' (adïɣ 'bear', toɣuz 'boar'), täŋrili jerlidä 'in heaven and on earth' (täŋri 'heaven', jer 'earth'), el tutdačï beg erkä süli ašlï kertgünčli üčägü teŋ kergäk 'ruler ruling state equally needs three [things] - military, materials (lit. food), and confidence' (sü 'army', aš 'food', kertgünč 'faith'), bilgä bilig edgülï ajïɣlï nomlarïɣ činɣarïp adïrtlap ajïɣïɣ qodup edgüg alar üčün 'because wise knowledge distinguishes between beneficial and malevolent dharmas, [it] casts the adverse and select favorable' (edgü 'favorable', ajïɣ 'unfavorable'), ögli qaŋlï ulatï kiši oɣul 'becides mother and father, wife and children " (ög 'mather' qaŋ 'father').
+lïɣ (+lig; +luɣ, +lïg; +laɣ, +läg) adj.
1) possession, endowment by initial base,
2) poss. related by initial base,
substantiatable
:
aδaqlïɣ 'with legs', 'having legs' (aδaq 'noga'). ülüglüg 'with share' (ülüg 'share'), qujaslïɣ er 'man from Kuyas ~ living in Kuyas' (qujas name of a settlement), jaɣïslïɣ orun 'place for sacrifices' (jaɣïs 'sacrifice, sacrificial food'), sanlaɣ ~ sanlïɣ 'included in..., reckoned to...' (san 'number'), evlig 'wife' (ev 'home'), tïnlïg 'live creature' (tïn 'breath'), qullïɣ 'slave owner' (qul 'slave').
-lïm (-lim; -alım, -älim; -alam, äläm) finite. inclination 1st pers. pl.:
sözlälim 'we'll talk' (sözlä- 'talk'), bolmalïm 'we shall not [do, be, etc.]' (bolma- 'not to be'), ötün-älim 'let's ask' (ötün- 'to ask, beg'), unïtalam 'let's forget' (unït- 'forget').
657

+lïq (+lik; +luq, +lük) noun.
1) abstract (from adj. and noun)
2) coll., congestive places (fr. noun)
adj.
1) determined period (from names of time)
2) purposeful (after specific subjects), substantiatable
.
ačlïq 'hunger' (ač 'hungry'), arïɣliq 'purity' (arïɣ 'clean'), biligsizlik 'ignorance' (biligsiz 'ignorant'), učuzluq 'cheapness' (učuz 'cheap'), adašlïq 'friendship' (adaš 'friend'), tanuqluq 'testimony' (tanuq 'witness'), čečaklik 'garden, flower garden' (čečak 'flower '), jemišlik 'orchard' ( jemiš 'fruit'), aɣïlïq 'treasury, treasury' (aɣï 'gem'), tavarluq 'warehouse' (tavar 'property, goods'), künlük '[one]-day', iki künlük 'two-day, for two days'(kün 'day'), qač ajlïq 'for so-many months' (aj 'month'), čaruqluq 'leather for a pair of shoes' (čaruq 'type of leather shoes'), tuɣaqlïq jïɣač 'wooden blanks for plugs' (tuɣaq 'plug').
+luɣ (+lüg) see +lïɣ adj.
+luq (+lük) see +lïq.

M

-m (-ïm, -im; -um, -üm) abstract noun, result and object, degree:
istäm 'desire' (istä- 'seek, desire'), ölüm 'death' (öl- 'to die'), alïm 'debt' (al- 'to take'), talïm 'booty' (talï- 'to rob') kedim 'clothes' (ked- 'to don'), oqtam 'distance of arrow flight (shot)' (oqta- 'fire'), jarïm 'half' (jar- 'dissect').
+m (+ïm, +im; +um, +üm) poss. 1st pers. sing.:
jïlqïm 'my livestock' (jïlqï 'cattle'), ïšïm 'my business' (ïš 'business'), oɣlum 'my son' (oɣul 'child, boy'), köŋlüm 'my heart' ( köŋül 'heart, soul').
-ma (-mä) 1) noun of object or result of action,
2) adj. reflecting result of action
:
tizmä 'waistband' (trouser waistband) (tiz- ' to string'), tügmä 'bukle' (tüg- 'to knot'), barma jïl 'last year' (bar- 'depart'), bïčma jorïnčqa 'mown clover' (bïč- 'to cut').
-ma- (-mä -)  verb stem with negation:
qïlma- 'not to do' (qïl - 'do'), ölürmä- 'not to kill' (ölür- 'kill').
-madï (-mädi; -madïn, -mädin; -matï, -mäti; -matïn, -mätin; -maδïp, -mäδip) negative participle  of following or preceding tense:
biltizmädin tujuzmadïn tïŋlïɣlarqa asïɣ tusu qïlu jorïjur ertilär 'they did good for live beings without letting on to know that' (biltiz-tujuz- paired 'let know'), uča umatïn olurur 'is sitting, unable to fly away' (uča u- 'able to fly away'), sabïn (sab 'speech, word'; sabïn 'said [words']) almatïn jer saju bardï 'not accepting the words of [his Kagan], you left to roam various lands' (al- 'to take'), bor bolmaδïp sirkä bolma 'without becoming wine, do not become vinegar' (bor bol- 'to become wine').
-madïn (-mädin) see -madï negative participle.
-maδïp (-mäδïp) see -madï negative participle.
-maq (-mäk) abstract noun:
uqmaq 'consciousness, understanding' (uq- 'understand'), ölmäk 'dying, death' (öl- 'die'), ačmaq 'fasting, hunger' (ač- 'fast'), suvsamaq 'thirst' (suvsa - 'want to drink, thirst'), anïŋ kelmäki jaqtï 'approaches time of his arrival'  (kel- 'to come'), ol er bu oɣurda barmaqqa isigländi 'that man believed [weather] at this time [too] hot for departure' (bar- 'depart'), amranmaq nizvanï olarda arïtï bultuqmaz 'they absolutely do not display passions of love' (amran- 'love').
-maqčï (-mäkči) < -maq +čï see -maq, +čï.
-maqlïɣ (-mäklig) see -maq abstract noun, +lïɣ adj.
-maqsïz (-mäksiz) see -maq abstract noun, +sïz negative adj.
-mas (-mäs) see -maz negation participle.
-maš (-mäš) see -mïš absolute past tense participle.
-matï (-mäti) see -madï negative participle.
-matïn (-mätïn) see -madï negative participle.
+maz (+mäz) see +mïz poss. 1st pers. pl..
-maz (-mäz; -mas, -mäs) (cf. negation base -ma-and participle -ur) negation participle absolute pres., future, and indefinite tense, acts and formed as participle -ur; substantiatable:
bilmäz kiši 'unknowing person', jïian kendü egrisin bilmäs 'snake is unknowing of its curvature' (bil- 'know, aware'), olar barmazlar (~barmaslar) 'they will not go', biz barmaz biz (~ barmasmïz) 'we will not go ~ we are not leaving' (bar- 'depart'), suv bermäskä süt ber 'to that who would not give water, give milk' (ber- 'to give').
-maz erti finite past tense continuous:
bilinmäz ertilär 'they did not realise' (bilin- 'be aware, admit').
-mazɣan (-mäzgän; -mazqan, -mäzkän) negation participle of relative following tense indicating limit; as attributes of tense, leading term of expression; not last predicate:
tamu erkligi ögümin köŋülümin sačmazɣan tamudaqï ört jalïn taqï önmäzkän örtlüg jalïnlarta taqï aɣanmazɣan ökünälim 'repent, before ruler of hell did not dispel my doubt and will, while the flames of hell did not flare up and while we did not fell into flames of fire' (sač- 'scatter', ön 'appear, arise', aɣan- 'to fall'), qara üpgük jïl jurumazqan tedi ödmäŋ körmaŋ ürkittiŋ 'black hoopoe, until he turned light, was saying for a year: "Do not advise me, do not look at me, or you'll scare me" (jaru- 'become light').
-mazqan (-mäzkän) see -mazɣan negation participle.
658

men postpositive pers. marker of predicate 1st pers. sing. in compound nominal and participle predicates, and compound predicates with some finite forms (of nominal or participle origin):
čam čarïm qïlmaz men 'I will not challenge' (čam čarïm qïl- 'challenge'), bermädin kečürsär men 'if (I) miss dateline, without giving' (kečür- 'exceed time limit').
-mïr (-mur) noun, isolated cases:
almïr 'greed' (al- 'to take'), jaɣmïïr 'rain' (jaɣ- 'go' for rain).
-mïs (-mis) see -miš.
-mïš (-miš; -muš, -müš; -maš, -mäš) (-mïs, -mis) absolute past tense participle; attributive, predicative, as main part of expression; with pers. predicate marker, and optionally with pl. affix as last predicate, with pers. poss. affixes with declension affixes and postpositions as not last predicate and leading term of expression; in analytical structures; substantiatable:
sïnamïš bütülmiš kišig tut qatïɣ 'strongly hold to a tested and trusted man' (sïna- 'test', bütül-  'trusted'), bititmiš bitig 'book, written by assignment' (bitit- 'urge to write'); ol evka barmïš ol 'he went home' (bar- 'depart'), tüsümänlärkä bitig idmiš siz 'you sent paper to officials' (id- 'send'), qop qanqa bulɣanmïš arïɣsïzqa ürgänmišin körüp 'seeing that he was all stained with blood and covered with filth' (bulɣan-  'get dirty', ürgän- 'be flooded'), jer täŋri törümištä baj jemä bar joq čïɣaj jemä bar 'since land and sky emerged, existed rich and poor'. (törü- 'emerge'), kertgünč küč bar bolmiš üčün tört türlüg sïmnularqa čalsïqmaz bastïqmaz  'because appeared faith and strength, [now] is impossible to be felled by four kinds of demons' (bar bol- 'to become, to appear'), bermiš seniŋ bil 'know: what was given is yours' (ber- 'to give'); ögmiš 'praise' (ög- 'to praise') jemiš 'fruit' (je- 'eat, devour').
-mïš bol- analytical mod. base of predetermination:
abam birök bu etüzümin titsär men ötrü ülgüsüz sansïz mün qadïɣlarïɣ qartïɣ bezig jiriŋig qanïɣ igig aɣrïɣïɣ qorqïnčïɣ ajmančïɣ barčanï titmis ïdalamïš bolur men 'if I part with this my body, then I would part with all countless sufferings, ulcers, with fire and blood, with diseases and fear' (tit- ïdala-  paired 'part, drop off');
-mïš erdi (-erti) finite form in (~long-past) preceding tense and mod. of reality:

taštïn ilinčükä önmiš erdim 'I went out of town for a walk' (ön- 'to exit'), ögkä qaŋqa sevitmiš erdiŋ qadaš-a 'oh, brother, you were loved by mother and father' (sevit- 'to be loved');
-mïš ergäj potential mood finite form:
azu biziŋ amraq ögükümüz eŋ kičigi maɣasatvïɣ ïčɣïnmïš ergäj-mu biz 'or have we lost Mahasatva, the youngest of our dear sons?' (ïčɣïn- 'lose, miss');
-mïš ermiš finite form of preceding tense and oblique (inferential) mood:
adïɣlï toŋuzlï art üzä soqušmïš ermiš adïɣlïŋ qarnï jarïlmïš toŋuzuŋ azïɣï sïnmïs 'bear and boar met at  the pass, [and then] the bear's belly was slit open, boar's tusks were broken' (soquš- 'meet');
-mïš kergäk (<~keräk) finite form with the mod. of need or imperative (obligation):
bilmiš kergäk 'should know' (bil- 'to know').

+mïz (+miz; +muz, +müz; +ïmïz, +imiz; +umuz, +ümüz; +maz, +mäz; +ïmaz ~ +amaz ~ umaz) poss. 1st pers. pl.:
törümüz 'our laws' (törü 'laws, common law'), özümüz 'we themselves' (öz 'myself'), qaŋamaz 'our father' (qaŋ 'father') sačimaz 'our hair' (sač 'hair').
-msïn- (-msin-; -ïmsïn-, -imsin; -umsïn-, -ümsin-) verb hypothetical (simulative) mod. base:
iš bilimsindi 'he pretended to be versed in case' (bil- 'know'), ol tarïɣ tarïmsïndï 'he pretended to treat the crops' (tarï- 'till soil'), jazuqïn kečrümsindi 'he pretended to forgive his transgression' (kečür- 'forgive sins'),
-mus (-müs) see -mïš.
-muš (-müš) see -mïš.
+muz (+müz) see +mïz.
N
-n (-ïn, -in; -an, -än) noun result, subject of action from base intrans. verb, effect of base intrans. verb, rarely:
jïɣïn 'mound, pile' (jïɣ- 'gather'), terin 'crowd, assembly' (ter- 'gather'), tügün 'bundle' (tüg- 'tie'), bulun 'captured, prisoner' (bul- 'obtain, to find'), kišän 'fetters' (kisä- 'tie down'); aqïn 'stream' (aq- 'flow'), jalïn ~ jalan 'flame' (jal- 'blaze, flame').
+n (+ïn, +in; +un, +ün) adv. of time (fr. noun with time connotation), quality (from adj.):
jazïn 'in the spring' (jaz 'spring'), küzün 'in the autumn' (küz 'autumn'), tünün künün 'day and night' ( tün 'night', 'kün 'day'), terkin 'fast' (terk 'fast'), edgün 'good (adv.)' (edgü 'good (adj.)'), erksizin 'powerlessly' (erksiz 'powerless'), eδgülügün 'kindly' (eδgülüg 'kind'), cf. +n instr.
+n (+ïn, +in; +un, +ün; +an, +än) instrumental, of
1) instr.
2) initial base,
3) reason
4) accompanying,
5) comparison
:
659

jasïl one kök bezädïŋ tümän julduzïn ' you decorated blue sky with myriads stars' (julduz 'star'), biligsiz sözin öz bašïn jejür 'ignoramus by his words eats his head' (söz 'word', speech'), taqï ančulaju qaltï urdun basɣan qïsɣač kim kentü uluɣ temirän etilmiš ol 'like anvil, hammer, and tongs are made of noble (?) iron' (temir 'iron'), tilin emgämiš er negü ter ešit 'listen what says the husband who suffered from his tongue' (til 'language'), bu er ol öpkän ürülgän 'man swelled with rage' (öpkä  'anger'), ökünčün sïɣït birlä jïɣlap ökün 'repent, wailing with sobs of repentance' (ökünč 'repentance'), süsi otun oruldï 'his troops were mowed like grass' (ot 'grass'), uluɣ türlüg törün toɣun aɣïr aja tapïɣ uduɣ qïltïlar 'they performed honorific mourning ceremony, in accordance with ritual of highest level' (törü toɣu paired 'traditions, ritual') cf. +n adv.,
-n- (-ïn-, -in-;-un-, -ün-) verb mod. base of hypothetical (simulative) mood:
er suv kečündi 'man pretended to be crossing the creek' (keč-  'cross, cross over'), ol qarlïn toδɣurundï 'he pretended to be satiated' (lit. 'that satisfied his stomach') (toδɣur- 'saturate'); ol at suvɣarundï 'he pretended to have watered his horse' ( suvɣar- 'water [horse]'),
cf. -n- voice
-n- (-ïn-, -in-; -un-, -ün-; -an-, -än-) verb voice
1) passive (from base trans. verb)
2) medial (from base intrans. verb)
3) the subject-orientated in active voice (from base trans. verb)

bitig bitindi 'document was written' (biti- 'write'), bitig oqïndï  'book was read' (oqï- 'read'); balïɣ aɣrïndï 'the wounded suffered pain' (aɣrï- 'to be sick [lit. 'pained']'), er arïndï 'man has cleaned' (arï- 'get clean'), ol sačïn tarandï 'she brushed her hair' (tara- 'comb hair'), ol özïŋä jemiš terindi 'he gathered fruits' (ter- 'gather'), er ïsïn bilindi 'man learned his work' (bil- 'know, learn'), ol özin ögündi 'he praised himself' (ög- 'praise'), cf. -n- mod.
-nč (< -n -č) see .
+nč (+inč; +unč, +ünč) ordinal number:
altïnč 'sixth' (altï ' six'), sekizine 'eighth' (sekiz 'eight') onunč 'tenth' (on 'ten'), törtünč 'fourth' (tört 'four'), cf. +ntï
-nčïɣ (-nčig) (< -n -č +sïɣ) adj.:
qorqïnčïɣ 'terrible, inspiring fear' (qorq- 'fear'), küsänčig 'desired' (küsä- 'wish'), muŋadïnčïɣ  'amazing' ( muŋad- 'to be amazed'), cf. , +sïɣ.
-nču (-nčü) (< n -ču), see -ču noun.
+ndi ordinal number see +nti ordinal number.
-ndï (-ndi) (< -n -dï) noun result (~consequences) of actions; rare:
süpründi 'scrap, rubbish' (süpür- 'sweep').

+nï (+ni) accu:
ajalarnï (ajalar 'palms (hand)') 'tüzüni (tüzü 'all'), cf. accu., +ïn accu. poss.
+nïŋ (+niŋ) b. see  gen.
+nti (+ndi) ordinal affix,
iki 'two': ikinti - ikindi 'second', cf. +nč.
+nuŋ (+nüŋ)   see gen.

Ŋ

+ŋ (+ïŋ +iŋ; +uŋ, +üŋ +aŋ, +äŋ; +uɣ, +g) poss. 2nd pers. sing.:
bögdäŋ 'your dagger', (bögdä 'dagger'), atïŋ 'your horse' (at 'horse'), temiräŋ 'your iron' (temir 'iron'), buŋuŋ 'your care' (buŋ 'care') edgüŋ 'your good (adv.)' (edgü 'good, kindness').
+ŋ (+ïŋ +iŋ; +uŋ, +üŋ +aŋ, +äŋ; +nïŋ, +niŋ; +nuŋ, +nüŋ; +naŋ, näŋ) gen. poss., subject, definition in izafet (poss.) compound, non-izafet (non-poss.) definition, predicate, form of communication with a postposition; occasional substantiatable:
oɣlanïŋ atï 'son's name' (oɣlan 'son'), jana kišinäŋ qanïn kentü sorar 'and she herself sucks the man's blood' (kiši 'man'),ešittim men maɣastvinïŋ tsujurqaju sözlämiš čin savïn 'I've heard heartfelt words spoken by Maɣasatvi, displaying compassion' (Maɣasatvi proper name), anïŋ joruqï netäg 'what is his behavior?' (anïŋ 'his' < ol 'he' joruq 'behavior' +ï), beniŋ bodunum anta erür 'my people will be there' (ben 'I' +iŋ, bodun 'people' +um), biziŋ ev 'our house' (biz 'us'), meniŋ eltä qazɣančïm siziŋ ermäz-mü 'are not my treasures in my country yours?' (siz 'you'), uluɣluq meniŋ sïz alïnmaŋ 'greatness is mine, do not appropriate [it] to yourself' (men 'I'), bu nišan men aratemürnïŋ ol 'this seal is mine, Ara-Temur' (Ara-Temur - proper name), olarnïŋ arasïnta 'among them' (olar 'they').
-ŋ (-ïŋ, -iŋ; -uŋ, -üŋ, -aŋ, -äŋ) finite verbal form of
1) imper. 2nd pers. pl.,
2) imper. 2nd pers. sing., respectful
:
jemäŋ 'do not eat' (je-mä- 'not eat'), senlär baruŋ 'depart (imper.)' (bar- 'depart'), sözläŋ burjuq-a 'oh, burüq, speak up' (sözlä- 'say'), cf. -ŋïz, -ŋlar.
+ŋa, (+ŋä) dat. see +qa noun, dative, with direction, goal, target, redress, destination, location, time, actual subject in causative construction; combined with postpositions
+ŋaru (+ŋärü) directional mood, see +ɣaru.
+ŋaz (+ŋäz) see +ŋïz.
+ŋïz (+ŋiz; +ïŋïz, +iŋiz; +uŋïz, üŋïz; +uŋuz, +üŋüz; +ɣïz, +giz; +ŋaz, +ŋäz; +aŋaz, +äŋäz) poss. 2nd pers. pl.:
ünüɣüz 'your voice' (ün 'voice'), jarlïqïŋïz 'your orders' (jarlïq 'order') törüŋüz 'your laws' (törü 'law, tradition').
-ŋïz (-ŋiz; -ïŋïz; -iŋiz) finite imper. verb 2nd pers. pl.:
avlap meni qojmaŋïz 'having captured me, do not leave (me)' (qoj- 'leave behind'), ajïq ajïp qajmaŋïz 'having promised, do not dodge it' (qaj- 'dodge'), cf. -ŋ, -ŋlar.
-ŋlar (-ŋlär; -ïŋlar, -iŋlär; -uŋlar, -üŋlär; -aŋlar, -äŋlär) finite imper. verb 2nd pers. pl.:
qatïɣlanïŋlar 'try (imper.)' (qatïɣlan- 'try'), barïŋlar ikigü 'go together' (bar- 'leave'), cf. -ŋ,  -ŋïz.
660

O

ol postpositive pers. predicate indicator 3rd pers. in compound nomonal and participle predicates:
bilgä Tojuquq ajïɣ ol 'wise Tonyukuk is bad' (ajïɣ 'wicked, bad'), bu nišan bizniŋ ol 'this seal is ours' (biz 'we '+niŋ).

P

-p adv., isolated cases:
tolp 'whole, completely' (tol- 'to be filling').
-p (-ïp, -ip, -up, -ü; -a, -äp)  participle oblique tense, accomp. or precedence; functions as not last predicate, principal part of expression, attribute; in analytic bases:
bašlap (bašla- 'begin'), barïp (bar- 'depart'), öntürüp (öntür- 'lead out'), qatlap (qatïl - 'to admix'), cf. -pan, -p finite.
  -al-  verbal analytical mod. base of subjective (predicate?) action direction:
aɣï čuz tijiŋ kiš alïr sen terip 'you collect expensive fabrics and precious furs' (ter- 'collect');
- bar- verbal analytical base of beginning of rapid development of action:
bir tekä bir qočqar beš qozï birlä turuɣïnta ölüp bartï 'in the pasture began dying... a goat, a sheep, and five lambs' (öl- 'die'), oɣilanï jitlinip barïp 'their children began disappearing [more often]' (jitlin- 'get lost'), qarïp jašap barmïš üčün 'because I  begin getting old (- begin aging increasingly)' (qarï- jaša- paired 'age');
- bütür-  verbal analytical base of completion:
uqup bütürdüm 'I comprehended' (uq- 'understand');
- kel- verbal analytical base of completion and mod. element of surprise:
süt aqïp kelti '[from breasts suddenly] flowed milk' (aq- 'flow'), jer tebrämäki üzä beliŋläp odunup kelti 'suddenly woke up, terrified by shaking of the earth' (odun- 'wake up');
- qoj- (~ qod-) verbal analytical base of completion (perfect tense):
etin barča jep qodtï 'ate his whole body' (je- 'eat');
- tur- verbal analytical base of duration (continuous tense):
küzätip tur- 'guarding' (küzät- 'protect'), tegmä evät ïšqa körüp turɣï 'do not initiate task quickly, review first' (kör- 'look');
- tükä- verbal analytical base of completion (perfect tense):
bitilip tükädi 'written down' (bitil- 'be written down').

- verbal finite absolute past tense  (Found in LOC); with pers. predicate markers:
meŋgä köp altun jumšap sen baluqnï jaqšï saqlap sen 'you sent me much gold, you protected the city well' (jumša- 'send', saqla- 'protect').

Note: The participle or nominal origin is indicated by personal and declension forms:
muz taɣlarda köp soɣuq boluptïn ' because on the icy mountains was very cold', cf. - participle.

-pan (-pän; -ïpan, -ipän; -upan, -üpän) participle relative  following or preceding tense; as not last predicate and principal term of expression:
özläk at öŋ jerdä arïp oŋup turu qalmïš täŋri küčiŋä taɣ üzä jul sub körüpän jïš üzä jaš ot körüpän joriju barïpan sub ičipän jaš jepän ölümdä ozmïš 'riding horse in the eastern lands, was exhausted, but by the power of the heaven saw in the mountains streams and rivers, saw in the forests greenery and grass, it started roaming, drank water, ate greenery, and escaped death' (kör- 'see ', jorïju bar- 'roam', ič- 'drink ', je- 'eat'), bunča bodun kelipän siɣtamïš joɣlamïš 'so many people came, mourned and wailed at the burial' (kel- 'to come'), cf. - participle.

Q

-q (-k; -ïq, -ik; -uq, -ük; -aq, -äk) noun, adj.:
buzuq 'fragment' (buz- 'break') jaruq 'ray, light, shine' (jaru- 'radiate'), jazuq 'greh' (jaz- 'err, err'), qïlïq 'character' (qïl- 'do') beδük 'tall' (beδü- 'grow'), ačuq 'open' (ač- 'open') tezük 'runaway' (tez- 'flee') cf. .
+q (+k; +ïq, +ïk; +uq, +ük) dimin. isolated cases:
ögük 'loved'; 'mother' (ög 'mother'), cf. +aq.
+q- (+k-; +ïq-, +ik-; +uq-, +ük-) verb intrans.:
aɣuq- 'to be poisoned' (aɣu- 'poison'), taɣïq- 'ascend mountains' (taɣ 'mountain'), kirik- 'to get dirty' (kir 'dirt'), učuq - 'to end' (uč 'end'), tariq- 'to narrow' (tar 'narrow'), ačïq- 'get hungry' (ač 'hungry').
-q- (-k-; -ïq-, -ik-; -uq-, -ük-) verbal voice base of
1) passive (from base trans. verb)
2) medial with additional intensity (of trans. and intrans. verbal stems)
:
basïq- 'to be depressed' (bas- 'suppress'), sančïq- 'to be defeated, to be pierced' (sanč- 'to spike'), bölük- 'to be divided' (böl- 'divide'), ök- 'to be thinking' (ö- 'think'), könük- 'to be burned to the ground' (kön- 'burn'), turuq 'to become stagnant' (tur- 'stand, stop').
661

+qa (+kä; +ya, +gä) dative, with direction, goal, target, redress, destination, location, time, actual subject in causative construction; combined with postpositions:
süčügkä böz kergäk bolup 'is needed cotton cloth for [straining] grape juice' (süčüg 'grape juice'), Turïqa bitig berür men 'I am giving document to Turï' (Turï proper name), bir ton tütünkä berdi 'traded one robe for tobacco' (tütün 'tabak'), qalanqa elčikä bermisim 'turned over by me as tax to the viceroy' (qalan 'type of tax'), kedin jerkä sïčïsï 'border that runs on the west side' (jer 'earth, place'), üčünč aj iki otuzqa 'twenty second day of the third month' ( iki otuz 'twenty second [day]'), Saraŋučqa üč qata ajïtïp 'forcing thrice repeat [verbally] Saraŋučqa' (Saraŋučqa proper name), qapïɣqa tegi 'to the gate' (qapïɣ' gate'), begkä utru 'towards ruler' (beg 'ruler'), cf. +a dative.
+qa- (+ka-; +ɣa-, +gä-) denoun/adj. verb rarely:
erinčkä- 'to be merciful, clement' (erinč 'miserable, unhappy'), jarlïɣqa- 'prescribe, preach' (jarlïɣ 'prescription, sermon'), qïzɣan- (< qïzɣa -n-) 'greedy' (qïz 'greedy').
-qa (-kä), see -ɣaj finite absolute future with mod. of possibility or obligation; with pers. marker of predicate, with pl. affix option:
-qač (-käč; -ɣač, -gäč) noun instr.:
ačqač 'key' (ač- 'open'), qisqač ''pincers' (qïs- 'compress'), jonɣač 'planer' (jon- 'whittle'), cf. -qïč noun instr.
-qaj (-käj) see -ɣaj finite absolute future with mod. of possibility or obligation; with pers. marker of predicate, with pl. affix option:
-qalï (-kälï) see -ɣalï.
-qan (-kän) see -ɣan noun, participle, -mazɣan.
-qaq (-käk) see -ɣaq (above).
+qar- see +ɣar- (above).
+qar see +ɣaru.
+qaru ( +kärü) see +ɣaru.
+qï (+ki; +ɣï, +gi) adj. of time, place:
qïšqï 'to winter' (qïš 'winter'), ajqï 'monthly' (aj 'month'), jajɣï 'summer's' (jaj 'summer') ičräki 'inner, located inside' (ičrä 'inside') suv üzäki 'located on the water' (suv üzä 'on water'), cf. +taqï.
+qï dimin.:
ataqï 'daddy' (ata 'father'), anaqï 'mama' (ana 'mather')
-qïč (-kič; -quč, -küč; -ɣuč, -güč) noun instr.:
ačqïč 'key' (ač- 'open'), qïsqïč ''pincers' (qïs- 'compress'), julɣuč 'tongs' (jul- 'jerk, pull'), cf. -qač noun instr.
+qïja distinguishing-diminutive affix-particle (Russ., Pol., Ukr. -kiy/-)

-qïl see --ɣïl.
-qïnča ( kinča) see -ɣïnča participle of relative following tense
1) limit
2) adversative comparison; as attribute, as principal term of expression, not last predicate in phraseological compound
s
+qïr- (+kir-; +qur-, +kür-; +ɣïr-, +gir-; +ɣur-, +gür-) verb imitating.:
ajqïr- 'cry, greet crying' (aj interjection), qïqïr- 'shout' (*qï interjection).
-qlï (-kli) see -ɣlï.
-qu (-kü) see -ɣu noun, -ɣu participle.
+qu ( +kü) see +ɣu.
-quč (-küč) see -qïč noun instr.
-qučï (-küči) see -ɣučï.
-quluq (-külük) see -ɣuluq.
-qun (-kün) see --ɣïn.
-quq (-kük) see -ɣuq.
+qur- (+kür-) see +qïr- verb imitating.

R

R  (nominal stem) + base of derivational service word:

R bol- verbal analytical intrans. base:
böz kergäk bolup 'needed cotton cloth' (kergäk 'needed, required').
R qïl- erbal analytical trans. base:
bu jörügüg belgülüg qïlɣalï 'to make this definition clear' (belgülüg 'clear').
+r . .:
belgür- 'appear, show up' (belgü 'trait, feature'), eskir- 'deteriorate' (eski 'old '[object]), qarar- 'darken' (qara 'black, dark'), qadɣur- 'to grieve, mourn' (qad 'grieve, sorrow'), qamɣïr- 'bend' (qamɣï 'crooked').
-r see -ur participle
+ra (+rä) directional, of limited use; adverbiable (can serve as adverb):
közrä 'into eyes' (köz 'glaza'), tüprä 'into root' (tüb ~ tüp 'root, base, bottom'), ol anï bašra qaqturdï 'he forced him to strike his head' (baš 'head') tašra 'to outside' (taš 'outer side, outside'), ičrä 'to inside, inside' (ič 'interior').
+raq (+räk) high (absolute) or higher (relative) degree of quality in adj. and adv.:
artuqraq 'in higher degree' (artuq 'excessive, over, above'), jegräk 'excellent' (jeg 'good'), siz kišidä adruq bekräk er közünür siz 'you look stronger compared to other people' (bek ~ berk 'strong'), edgü qïlïnč üküšräk qïlmadïm 'I have not made very many good deeds' (üküš 'many').
+rar (+rär) see +ar num. separation
+rqa- (+rkä-) see -ïrqa.
S

-s see -maz negation participle
+sa- (+sä-) base of intrans. verb with mod. of desire; incidental cases:
suvsa- 'want to drink, thirst' (suv 'water'), etsä- 'want meat' (et 'meat'), cf. -ɣsa-, -sa-.
-sa- (-sä-) verbal base with mod. of desire:
taɣqa aɣšadï 'wanted to climb the mountain' (aɣ 'to rise'), qapuɣ ačsadï 'wanted to open the door' (ač- 'open'), sozüg uqsadï 'wanted to understand the words' (uq- 'understand'), suv ičsädi 'want drink of water' (ič- 'drink'), ol meni ögsädi 'he wished to praise me' (ög- 'praise'), cf. +sa-, -ɣsa-.
662

-sa (-sä; -sar, -sär) finite form
1) causation,
2) temporal conditionality,
3) obligation,
4) concession (if syntax includes indefinite pronoun nčä ~ nečük etc.)
;
With pers. predicate marker with personal predicative affix. without personal syntax; functions as a predicate of subordinate clause and main member of expression (with 1st, 2nd, and 4th moods), as the last predicate (with 3rd mood);
in analytical constructions
:
jaraɣ bulsaŋ opraq jalïŋnï bütür 'if [you] find suitable rags - cover a naked with them' (bul- 'find'), kelsä kiši atma aŋar örtär külä 'when [to you] comes man, do not throw hot ashes at him' (kel- 'to come' ), basïtmasa özdä kičigkä külä 'should not humiliate yourself by laughing at people below yourself [by status]' (basït- 'be humiliated'), özindä uluɣqa tapuɣ qïlsa öz / özindä kičigkä süčig tutsa söz 'should show respect to people above you [by status] / should talk gently (literally sweet) [referring] with the people below yourself' (tapuɣ qïl- 'show respect', söz tut- 'speak, talk'), neča-me opraq keδük ersä jaɣmurqa jarar 'however shabby the attire, it still works in rain', sen kečür neča-me xatalïɣ qul ersäm saŋa 'however much I may have been sinful slave to you, forgive [me]' (r- 'to be'), cf. -sa erdi, -tï ersär.
abaŋ... -sa analytical finite form of
1) real condition
2) unreal condition; functions as principal term of conditional expression, as predicate of a conditional proposition
:
abaŋ sen barsa sen 'if you go' (bar- 'depart'), abaŋ qolsam uδu barïp / tutar erdim süsin tarïp 'if I wanted to, I would have chased him, / I would have captured him, scattering his army' (qol- 'want, ask');

This is a phrase similar to the recorded Eastern Hunnic phrase Army go out, Pugu'd be capture(ed) [.V.S.Taskin Hun Language]:
Süči (Süchi) tiligan, Pugu'yu tutar/秀支 替戾剛 , 僕谷劬 禿當/Xiù zhī Tì lì gāng, Púgǔ qú Tū dāng/Sü chi Ti li gang Pugu chu Tu dang.

The conditional 3rd pers. passive form 'yu tutar ~ [he] would be captured parallels conditional 1st pers. active form tutar erdim süsin ~ I would have captured [him].

birök... -sa analytical finite form of real condition:
birök bizni ölürsär sen jemä neŋ seniŋ balïqtaqï ig toɣa ketgüsi joq 'if you kill us, pestilence in your town will not stop at all' (ölür- 'kill'), cf. -sa (with 1st mood);
abaŋ... -sa (~ -sa bol-) analytical mod. base of possibility:
jïparlï biligli teŋi bir jaŋï / tutup kizläsä bolmaz özdä öŋi 'muskus and knowledge are of one kind: / having received them once, they can not be hidden for yourself only' (kizlä- 'hide');
-sa erdi
finite form (as last predicate) of  imperative (obligation) mode:
qïlu bersä erdi meniŋ išlärim / körü barsa erdi ičim tašlarïm 'he should run my affairs, / he has to look after internal and external [affairs in my state]' (qïlu ber- 'do for someone', körü bar- 'look'), cf. imperative (obligation) (3rd mood).
+saq (+säk) (+sa-q) adj., rare:
tavarsaq '[man with] penchant to acquire property' (tavar  'property, goods'), baɣïrsaq 'compassionate' (baɣïr 'heart'), ersäk '(woman) soliciting men' (er 'man'), cf. +sa-, -q.
-saz (+säz)
see +siz.

sen postpositive pers. predicate indicator 2nd pers. sing. in compound nominal and participle predicates and finite compound predicates (of nominal or participle origin):
meniŋ qaɣanum sen 'you are my Kagan', sen atlar bola sen 'you are going go to campaign' (atlar bol- 'going to campaign')
siz postpositive pers. predicate indicator 2nd pers. sing. (respectful), and pl. in compound nominal and participle predicates and in predicate with some finite forms (of nominal or participle origin):
tüšümänlärkä bitig ïdmïš siz '[you] sent document to administrative phoneys' (ïd- 'send' -mïš), birök sözlämäsär siz 'if [you] do not tell' (sözlä- 'talk' -mä-sär).
sïzlär postpositive pers. predicate marker 2nd pers. pl. in compound nominal and participle predicates and in compound predicates with some finite forms (of nominal or participle origin):
biligsiz tïnlïɣlar sïzlär 'you are ignorant creatures' (tïnlïɣ 'living being' +lar), negülüg ölürür sizlär 'why are you killing?' (ölür- 'kill' -ür), adïŋlarnïŋ emgäkin körsär sizlär 'when [you] are seeing the suffering of others' (kör- 'look' -sar).
+sï (+si; +su, +sü) poss. 3rd pers. sing. and pl.:
atasï 'his (~ their) father' (ata 'father'), taŋri taŋrisi 'god of gods', üčünčüsükä 'to third of them' (üčünčü 'third'), aŋaɣusu ~ aŋaɣusï 'his looks' (aŋaɣu ~ aŋuɣu 'looks, image'), cf. +i.
+sï- (+si-) intrans. verb, rarely:
suvsï- 'become watery' (suv 'water'), ačïɣsï- 'to sour' (ačïɣ 'sour').
-sï- (-si-) trans. verbal; isolated cases:
emsi- 'suck' (em- 'suck').
+sïɣ (+sig; +čïɣ, +čig) adj. of similarity:
oɣlansïɣ ' child-like' (oɣlan 'child, boy'), qulsïɣ 'slavish, slavelike' (qul 'slave'), adïnsïɣ ~ adïnčïɣ 'different, particular' (adïn 'different, otherwise'), qorqïnčïɣ 'terrible, inspiring fear' (qorqïnč 'fear') küsänčig 'desirable' (küsänč 'desire').
-sïɣ (-sig) see -sïq participle of absolute future  imperative.
+sïn (+sin) 3rd pers. poss. base for oblique cases:
anasïŋa (< ana +sïn +qa) 'his (~ their) mothers' (dat.) (ana 'mother'), cf. +ïn poss., +sï poss., +sïn ~ +ïn accu.
+sïn (+sin) accu. poss. 3rd pers.:
süsin 'his (their) army ( accu.)' (sü 'army'), jasïn 'his (their) bow ( accu.)' (ja 'bow'), cf. +sïn poss., +ïn poss., +ïn accu. poss., +nï, .
+sïn- (+sin-) intrans., trans.  verb; isolated cases:
ersin- 'grow manly' (r- 'man'), evsin- 'consider the house to be yours'; bu evni evsindi 'considered this house his (their's)' (ev 'house').
-sïn (-sin) see -sun finite verb form of
1) causative-inclinative 3rd pers. sing. and pl.,
2) respectful inclinative, 2nd pers. sing.; optional for the first mood with affixes
-lar pl. and seldom -ɣïl sing..
+sïndan (+sindän) see +sï (~ +sïn), +tan. +sïŋa (+siŋä) see +sï (~ +sïn), +qa.
663

-sïq (-sik; -suq, -sük; -sïɣ, -sig; -suɣ, -süg) (< *-sï-q ~ ɣ) participle of absolute future  imperative (obligation) mode; attributive; substantiated (without tenses and moods):
alqansïq törü 'law which should be glorified' (alqan- 'praised, glorified'), išlämäsik iš 'matter not proper to do' (išlämä- 'to do'), kün toɣsuɣ ~ kün toɣsugï 'east (literally sun-rise) (tοɣ- 'born; rise of Sun'), kün batsïɣ ~ kün batsïqï' west (literally sun-down) ' (bat- 'sink, dive, submerge, sunset of Sun'), ülasik 'partitioning, division, allocation' (ülä- 'divide').
-sïq- (-sik-; -suq-, -sük-) voice base of
1) passive,
2) oblique passive; limited
:
er arsïqtï 'man was deceived' (ar- 'cheat'), qačɣïn er jetsikdi 'runaway was caught' (jet- 'obtain'), saqïnmasa utsuqar 'would not think - will lose ( literally would be defeated) ' (ut- 'be victorious, to win'), tavarïn alsïqtï ' deprived of his property (literally was taken away in respect to his property) ' (al- 'take, take away').
-sïr- (-sir-) verbal base of simulative mood; isolated cases:
er külsirdi 'man pretended to laugh' (kül- 'laugh').
+sïra- (+sirä-) intrans. verb of deprivation defined by base, limited:
qaɣansïra- 'lose [his] Kagan', elsirä- 'lose its statehood' (el' state, tribal alliance'), ögsirä-tïnsïra- paired 'faint, loss of consciousness' (ög 'thought' tin 'breath'), cf. +sïz
+sïz (+siz; +suz, +süz; +saz, +säz) negative adj.; substantiatable:
aɣisïz 'valueless' (aɣi 'treasure'), jazuqsuz 'sinless' (jazuq 'sin'), igsäz 'healthy (literally sick-less)' (ig 'disease, sickness'); ögsüz 'orphan' (ög 'mather').
+sïzïn (-sizin) see +sïz, +n adv.
+su (+sü) see +sï.
-su (-sü) see -sun finite verb form of
1) causative-inclinative 3rd pers. sing. and pl.,
2) respectful inclinative, 2nd pers. sing.; optional for the first mood with affixes
-lar pl. and seldom -ɣïl sing..
+sun (+sün) see +sïn.
-sun (-sün; -sïn, -sin; -zun, -zün; -su, -sü; -sunï, -süni; -čun) finite verb form of
1) causative-inclinative 3rd pers. sing. and pl.,
2) respectful inclinative, 2nd pers. sing.; optional for the first mood with affixes
-lar pl. and seldom -ɣïl sing.:
bolsun ~ bolzun ~ bolčun 'let it be, let be it' (bol- 'to be, become'), kelürsünlär 'let them bring' (kelür- 'bring'), kelsün 'let [him] come' (kel- 'come'), bulsïn 'let [him] find ~ let [them] find' (bul 'find'), sevüg bolsu 'let [him] be happy,' (sevüg bol - 'be joyful, rejoice'), kirsuni 'let him come' (kir- 'enter'), kök börü bolsunɣïl uran 'let "grey wolf" be a password' (uran bol- 'be a password'), aj uluɣ elig beg bušanu jarlïqamazun 'oh, great Maharaja, do not deign to take thought' (bušanu jarlïqa- 'deign to take thought, be alarmed'), bizni umuɣsuz ïnaɣsïz qïlïp elig beg barmazun 'Maharaja, you should not depart, leaving (literally having made) us without hope and prospect' (barma- 'not to depart').
-sunï (-süni) see -sun finite verb form of
1) causative-inclinative 3rd pers. sing. and pl.,
2) respectful inclinative, 2nd pers. sing.; optional for the first mood with affixes
-lar pl. and seldom -ɣïl sing..
-suɣ (-süg) see -sïq.
+suq (+sük?) noun,; isolated cases:
baɣarsuq'vnutrennosti' (baɣïr 'liver') taŋsuq 'wonderful, amazing' (taŋ 'amazing').
-suq (-sük) see -sïq.
-suq- (-sük-) see -sïq-.
+suš (? < +su-š) noun., isolated cases:
suvsuš 'drink' (suv 'water'), cf. +šu-, -š.
+suz (+süz) see +sïz.
+suzun (+süzün) see +sïz, +n adv.,

Š

+š (+ïš, +iš) noun; rare:
bögüš 'understanding' (bögü 'wise'), baɣïš 'tendon (joint)' (baɣ 'string'), terkiš 'speed' (terk 'fast').
-š (-ïš, -iš; -uš, -üš) abstract noun:
toquš 'strike' (toqu- ~ toqï- 'hit'), baqïš 'glance' (baq- 'see, watch'), iliš '(spiritual) links' (il- 'hitch'), uruš 'strikes, brawl' (ur- 'beat, hit'), küsüš 'desire' (but küšä- 'to wish').
-š- (-ïš -, -iš -; -uš -, -üš -; -aš -, -äš -) verbal voice
1) cooperative,
2) reciprocity
:
ol meniŋ birlä suv kečišti 'he crossed the brook with me' (keč- 'cross'), ol maŋa jemiš terišdi 'he helped me gather fruits' (ter- 'gather'), ol meniŋ birlä öpüsdi 'she kissed with me' (öp- 'kiss'), erän alpï oquštïlar / qïŋïr közin baqïštïlar 'mighty men incited each other, / with asquint eyes (i.e., angrily) glanced at each other' (oqu- 'call', baq - 'look').

T

-t (with final -r in two-syllable stems with -r dropped) abstract noun:
urunt ' brawl, battle' (urunt- 'battle, fight'), bert 'tax, return' (ber- 'to give'), ölüt 'killing' (ölür- 'kill'), bošɣut 'counsel' (bošɣur- 'to instruct, teach'), bütüt 'completion' (bütür- 'finish, complete'), adïrt 'difference, separation' (adïr- 'to distinguish, separate').
+t pl., isolated cases:
tegit ~ tegitlar 'princes' (tegin 'prince'), cf. -ɣut, +aɣut (relict. pl. ending, retained in Mongolian).
-t- (-ït-, -it-;-ut-, -üt-) verb base voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) passive (from trans. verb base, limited cases)
3) active (from intrans. verb base)
:
oqït- 'urge to read' (oqï- 'read'), bitit- 'cause to write' (biti- 'write'), sevit- ~ sevüt- 'be loved' (sev- 'love'), qurït- 'to dry) ' (qur- 'dry (n.)'), oqšat- 'liken' (oqša- 'be alike, similar').
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+ta (+tä; +da, +dä; +δa, +δä) locative., with respect to:
1) the place of stay,
2) the time of execution (with participle Names and time)
3) the place of origin; combined with postpositions
:
atta 'on horse' (at 'horse'), olurmïšta 'when were seating' (olurmïš participle from olur- 'sit'), bu ödtä 'at that time' (öd 'time'), tïlda čiqar 'pronounce' (literally 'convey from the tongue') (til 'language'), bašda ašnu 'before the beginning' (baš 'beginning').
+ta- (+tä-; +da, +dä) trans. verb.:
istä- ~ izdä- 'watch, wish' (iz 'footprint'), alta- 'cheat' (al 'trick, cunning, deception'), üntä-~ ündä- 'call' (ün 'voice' ).
-tačï (-täči;-dačï, -dačï) participle
1) absolute future with mod. of possibility,
2) present and indefinite, attributive, predicatively, as predicate with pers. marker of predicate, in analytical forms modifies second member
:
qutïm bar üčün ülügim bar üčün öltäči bodunïɣ tirigrü igidtim 'because I have fortune and good luck, I raised to life the people who were about to die', ol jergärü barsar Türk bodun öltäči sen 'if you Türkic people would go that country, you can perish' (öl- 'die, perish'), ol iki kiši bar ersär seni Tabɣačïɣ ölürtäči 'until these two people are present, they can destroy you, the Tabgach [people ' (ölür- 'kill'), qoldačïqa miŋ jaɣaq 'to beggar (literally the begging) a thousand nuts' (qol- 'beg').
-tačï bolɣaj finite future tense with mod. of  unreal possibility:
qïltačï biolɣaj men 'I would may have have done it' (qil- 'do'), biznitä adïn kim bolɣaj muŋa jaraɣlïɣ aš ičgü belgürtdäči 'who except us can point them to suitable food and drink?' (belgürt- 'show');
-tačï ertï finite form with mod. of unreality, sometimes  conditioned by subordinate clause:
tirigi küŋ boltačï erti ölügi jurtda julta jatu qaltačï ertigiz 'the live of you would be girl-slaves, and the dead would be thrown on the ground and lay in the water' (küŋ bol- 'to become a slave', jatu qal- 'remain lying'), Kül Tegin joq ersär qop öltäči ertigiz 'without Kül-Tegin, you all would perish' (öl- 'die').
+taki see +taqï
+tam (+täm) see -dam.
+tan (+tän; +dan, +dän) initiality
1) initial action,
2) in conjunction with postpositions
:
ïɣačdan önüp 'emerging from tree' (ïɣač 'tree'), baštan aδaqa tegü 'head-to-toe (feet)' (baš 'head'), QA 1 ï'čdatï qodï entim'I descended from heaven' (qalïɣ 'sky'), cf. +tïn.
+taqï (+takï; +täki; +daqï, +däki) (< +ta +qï) adj. of place and time:
evdäki 'located in house' (ev 'house'), balïqïmtaqï' living in my city' (balïqïm 'my city'), üč ödtäki 'living in three times (i.e, in the past, present, and future)' (öd 'time'), cf. +qï.
+taš (+täš) see +daš.
+tï (+ti; +dï, +di) adv., rare:
edgüti 'well' (edgü 'good'), qatïɣdï 'solidly, strongly' (qatïɣ 'strong, hard').
-tï (-ti;-tu, -tü; -dï, -di; -du, -dü) (< *-t +ï) finite form objective past. 3rd pers.; functions predicatively in analytical form:
ölti ~ öldi 'died (sing.) ~ died (pl.)' (öl- 'die'), bajudï 'became rich (sing.) ~ became rich (pl.)' (baju- 'getting rich, get rich').
-tï ergäj finite form past tense with mod. of possibility:
jeklär tegirmiläjü avlap eltilär ergäj 'possibly, they surrounded him, and having caught, demons took [them] away' (elt- 'take away');
-tï (~ dï) ersär past tense finite form of conditional allowance, acts as subordinate conditional predicate:
algïsmïz ötügümüz täŋrikä arïɣïn tegmädi ersär 'if it turned out that our thanksgiving prayers have not reached the perfect god' (teg- 'reach'), evkü barqqa badïmïz ersär 'if it turned out that we tied [the divine light] to the world's vanity (literally, to the house and property) ' (ba- 'tie');
-tï erti (~ erdi) finite form with  of precedence, operates as the last predicate:
üküš telim tïnlïɣlar bultï erti 'myriads of live creatures found' (bul- 'to find, obtain').
-tïlar (-tilär; -dïlar, -dilär) finite form of objective past. tense 3rd pers. pl.; acts last predicate:
ötüntilär 'they asked' (ötün- 'request, beg'), beklädilär 'concluded' (beklä- 'conclude, wall up'), cf. -tï, +lar.
-tïm (-tim; -tum, -tüm; -dïm, -dim; -dum, -düm; -tam, -täm; -dam, -däm) finite form of objective past 1st pers. sing.:
tuttïm'I grabbed' (tut- 'catch'), keltim ~ keldüm 'I came' (kel- 'to come'), iktülädim 'I tended' (iktülä- ~ igdülä- 'care [for child])', cf. -tï, +m.
-tïmïz (-timiz; -dïmiz, -dimiz; -dumïz, -dümiz; -tamaz, -tämäz; -damaz, -dämäz) finite objective past tense 1st pers. pl.:
ačtïmïz 'we opened' (ač- 'open'), keldimiz ~ keltämäz ''we came' (kel- 'to come'), bardïmïz 'we left' (bar- 'depart'), ögdümüz 'we praised' (ög- 'praise'), cf.  -tï, +mïz.
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+tïn (+tin; +tun, +tün; +dïn, +din, +dun, +dün) adv. and adj. locative:
tašdïn 'outside' (taš 'outer side'), öŋdün küntün buluŋda 'at south-east' (öŋ 'east' kün 'sun').
+tïn (+tin; +dïn, +din; +dun, +dün) initial
1) initial locative,
2) causation with postpositions
:
orundun (orun 'place'), emgäktin (emgäk 'suffering'), adatïn (ada 'misfortune'), Burqantïn öŋi 'except Buddha (Burqan "Buddha'), cf. +tan.
+tïnqï (+tinki; +tunqï, +tünki; +dïnqï, +dinki; +dunqï, +dünki) locative adj.:
kündünki 'southern' (kün 'sun'), baštïnqï 'frontal, first, initial' (baš 'head, beginning'), cf. +tïn adv. +qï
-tïŋ (-tiŋ; -tuŋ, -tüŋ, -dïŋ, -diŋ; -duŋ, -düŋ; -tïɣ, -tig; -dïɣ, -duɣ) finite form:
1) objective past tense 2nd pers. sing.,
2) nearest future tense with mod. tinge of danger-warning 2nd pers.
:
kečtiŋ 'you crossed' (keč 'transverse, cross, move'), keldiŋ 'you came' (kel- 'to come'), tapïnduɣ 'you served' (tapïn- 'serve'), ödmäŋ kömäŋ ürkittiŋ 'do not lecture [me], do not watch [me], [otherwise], beware [watch out], [you will] scare [me]' (ürkit- 'scare, spook).
-tïŋïz (-tiŋiz; -tuŋuz, -tüŋüz; -dïŋïz, -diŋiz ...) finite form of objective past tense  2nd pers. pl.:
bardïŋïz 'you departed' (bar- 'depart'), bolttuŋuz 'you became' (bol- 'to be'), cf. -tï, +ŋïz.
-tïŋïzlar (-tiŋizlär; -tuŋuzlar, -tüŋüzlär; -dïŋïzlar, -diŋizlär; -tuŋuzlar, -düŋüzlär) finite form objective past tense 2nd pers. pl.:
ötüntüŋüzlar 'you respectfully reported' (ötün 'speak respectfully'), qazɣandïŋïzlar 'you acquired' (qazɣan- 'procure'), cf. -tï, +ŋïz, -lar.
-tïz- (-tiz-; -tuz-, -tüz-; -dïz-, -diz-; -duz-, -düz-) verbal voice:
1) causative (from base trans. verb.)
2) passive (from base trans. verb)
:
bulduzdï neŋni 'tasked to find [the] thing' (bul- 'find'), ol maŋa iš bildüzdi 'he taught me the trade ~ he allowed me to grasp the trade' (bil- 'know, understand'), ol tavar alduzdï 'the property has been taken away' (al- 'take, take away').
-tu (-tü) see -tï verb active (intrans.), causative (trans.), passive (trans., limited cases) voice (Recycled in Balto-Sl., Indo-Iranian, and archaic Gmc. languages)
-tum (-tüm) see -tïm finite form of objective past 1st pers. sing.
+tunqï (tünki) see +tïnqï locative adj.
-tuŋ (-tüŋ) see -tïŋ finite form 2nd pers. sing. simple past, nearest future tense with mod. tinge of danger-warning.
-tuŋuz (-tüŋüz) see -tïŋïz finite form 2nd pers. pl. simple past tense.
-tuŋuzlar (-tüŋüzlär) see -tïŋïzlar finite form 2nd pers. pl. simple past tense
-tuq (-tük; -duq, -dük) participle absolute past tense; attributive, predicative, principal term of phrase, as a predicate without pers. marker, sometimes with affix of pers. possess.:
barduq jerdä 'in the country [you] were going' (bar- 'depart'), bïlmaduq neŋ 'unfound thing (literally, thing that was not found)' (bul- 'find'), men ja qurduq 'I strung bow' (qur- 'to string bow'), saŋa keldükim 'I came to you' (kel- 'to come'), men iglätükdä 'when I was sick' (iglä- 'sick'), anï kördüktä 'when [I, he] saw her' (kör- 'look, see').
-tur- (-tür-; -dur-, -dür-) verb voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) active (from base trans. verb)
:
adïnaɣuqa biltürmädin uqturmadïn 'without letting other people to know' (bil- 'know ', uq- 'understand'), aš ičkü aɣï barïm bertürürlär 'force to give food, drinks, jewelry, property' (br- 'to give'), küsüšümin qanturu jarlïqazun 'deign he would to satisfy my desires' (qan- 'satisfy').
-tuz- (-tüz-) see -tïz-.
U

-u (-ü; -ï, -i; -a, -ä) noun, adj., adv., postpositions:
körsi 'friend' (körüš- 'meet'), ötnü 'loan' (ötün- 'ask'), jazï 'plain' (jaz- 'lie, stretch), uva 'type of dish' (uv- 'crush, crumble'); tolu 'full' (tol- 'fill up, full'), tüzü' proportionate' (tüz- 'arrange in order, clean up'), tükäti completely' (tükät- 'complete, finish, end'), jana 'anew, again' (jan- 'return'), tegi 'up to' (teg- 'reach'), tapa 'in the direction to...' (tap- 'find'), cf. -u participle.

-u (-ü; -ï, -i; -a, -ä; -ju, -jü) relative tense participle, acting as adverbial of not last prdicate (in single-subject and different-subject expressions); in analytical forms; in lexicalized combinations; adverbalized and grammatized in postpositions, conjunctions, and particles:
inim Kül Tegin birlä eki šad birlä ölü jitü qazɣantïm 'together with my brother Kül Tegin and two shads I was acquiring to full exhaustion' (ölü jitü paired 'being exhausted (literally dying-perishing)', etin jejü qanïn ičip baɣarsuqlarïn etüzlariŋä jörgäjürlär erdi 'ate their meat and drunk their blood, [and then] wrapped their innards on our bodies' (je- 'eat', ič- 'drink'), aŋar körü biliŋ 'look at it (stone inscription) and understand (kör- 'see', bil - 'understand'), jaruq biligläri jaltrïju jarlïqančučï köŋüllari üklijü jazïnčsïzïn ermäk čaɣšapatïɣ küzätdi 'shoine their bright knowledge, multiplied their compassion, they
kept a vow to be sinless' (jaltrï- 'shine ', ükli- 'multiply'), adïrtlaju uq- 'understand' (adïrtla- 'analyze'), ölü jitü 'being exhausted' (öl- 'die'), turu ölü 'perishing, being exhausted', artaju joqad- 'perish' (arta- 'perish'); ulatï 'and the others' (ulat- 'continue'), ötkürü 'in consequence' (ötkür- 'penetrate'), jana 'again' (jan- 'return' ), cf. -a finite form.
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-u alq- verbal analytical base of completion:
qïlu alq- 'do' (qïl- 'to do');
-u ber- verbal analytical mod. base of from-subject direction of action:
ilgärü kün toɣsïqda bökli qaɣanqa tegi süläjü bermiš qurïrɣaru temir qapiɣqa tegi süläjü bermiš 'they went with war to the Bekli Kagan in the east, they went with war to the Iron Gate in the west' (sülä- 'go watering campaign'), qaɣanïm ben özüm Tojuquq ötüntük otünčümin esidü berti '[seeing my interest] Kagan heard my report, which I, Tonyokuk, respectfully reported [to him]' (esid- 'listen'), olurïpan Türk bodunïŋ elin törüsin tuta bermiš eti bermiš 'raised [to Kagan], they built up and organized the state of Türkic people [in its (their) interest]' (tut- et- paired 'build, create');
-u bil- verb, analytical mod. base of possibility:
aqi er biligni jetä bildi 'generous man managed to reach knowledge' (jet- 'reach'), qalï sözläjü bilmäsä til sözüg 'if language can not express words' (sözla- 'tell');
-u bol- verbal analytical mod. base of possibility:
qïip bol- 'can do' (qïl- 'do'), örü bolmaz 'can not climb' (ör- 'rise');
-u ïd- verbal analytical base of complete finality:
Türk bodun ellädük elin ïčɣïnu idmis qaɣanladuq qaɣanïn jitürü ïdmïs 'Türkic people completely lost (literally dropped. missed) its tribal confederation, which it was creating, and completely lost its Kagan, who reigned [over it]' (ïčɣïn- 'miss', jitür- 'lose');
-u jara- verbalanalytical mod. base of feasibility, suitability:
ïdu jaraɣaj erti 'it would make sense to send' (ïd- 'send');
-u jarlïqa- verbal analytical mod. base of deference to acts of high official:
tükal bilgä taŋri täŋrisi burxan nirvanqa kirü jarlïqadï ersär 'if the God of Gods Buddha, full of wisdom, deigned to enter nirvana' (kir-'enter'), üč türlüg közünčin (three different precious) ertüdin (treasuries) jumqï (all) alï (supreme) jarlïqadï (deign to utter) '[Christ] was pleased to take all three different subjects (Supreme [Buddha?] deigned to utter all three different precious treasuries)' (ai- 'take' [al-'to take']), aj uluɣ elig beg bušanu jarlïqamazun 'oh, great Maharaja, do not deign (literally, do not let to deign) to brood [by bad news]' (bušan-'brood, be sad') (bušanu jarlïqa- 'deign to brood');

-u kör- verbal analytical mood base with  subject-conditioned intensity:
buŋdïp qaɣan jelü kör temiš 'having experienced  deprivations [on the road), Kagan said: "Try to ride faster" (jel-' ride, race [by horse])', baqa körgil emdi uqa sïnaju 'now, delving and checking, try to look carefully' (baq-' peer, watch');
-u olur- verbal analytical base of duration:
kelmäz ersär tïlïɣ sabiɣ alï olur 'if [it, he] does not come, get the news' (al-'to take'), Ötükän jïš olursar beŋgü el tuta olurtačï sen türk bodun 'when you, the Turkic people, live in Ötükän taiga, you can have (~ build) [your] eternal tribal alliance (el 'country')' (tut-' hold, build');
-u qal- verbal analytical finite base:
özlük atöŋ jerdä arïp oŋup turu qalmïš 'riding horse in the eastern countries, having grown exhausted, lost its strength' (tur- 'to lose strength'), Usïn Buntatu jurtda jatu qalur erti 'settled [to live] in the Usyn Buntatu area'(jat- ' lie down, lay');
-u qan- verbal analytical mood base of satisfaction with named action:
körü qanmaz 'did not satiate seeing' (kör-'look');
-u qatïɣlan- (~ qataɣlan-)  verbal analytical mood base of subject-conditioned performance intensity of named action:
tïda qatïɣlan- 'try to hinder' (tïd-'hinder, impede'), bodïsvt atïn ataju tapïnu udunu qataɣlansar 'if [he] would diligently name the Bodhisattvas and earnestly respect and honor them' (ata- 'call by name, tapïn- udun- paired "respect, honor');
-u saqïn- verbal analytical mood base of mental vision:
bu beš uluɣ jaruq jašuq bolu saqïnmïsta kin 'after imagined [in mind] appearance of these five powerful rays' (bol- 'to become, to appear'), ört jalïn jalïnu saqïnrïš kergäk 'must be imagined [in mind] blaze of  flame' (jalïn-' burn, blaze');
-u tegin- verbal analytical mood base of
1) objectively conditioned possibiulity (~ obligation)
2) subject-conditioned intensity of named action:
on miŋ balïqlar künkä köjüp una-qïnja ölgäli turu teginürlär 'myriad of fish, burning from sun, are [under present conditions] near death' (ölgäli tur- 'to be near death'), jazuqqa tüsä teginmägäj ertimiz 'we should not trigger indictment [ because of this]' (jazuqa tüs- 'get accused, fall into sin'), eŋ kičigi maɣasatvi tegin[ig?] taqï /667/ tapïšu teginmäz tiläjü teginürlar 'a youngest, Prince Mahasatvi, still can't be found, but every effort is made to find him' (tapïš- 'find together', tilä- 'seek'), bir ödün tapïnu udunu ataju teginsär 'if for some time with all diligence he would show respect and honors, and call by name' (tapïn-udun- paired 'render honors', ata- 'call'), qïlu teginür men 'I will make every effort to do [that]' (qïl- 'do' );
667

-u tur- verbal analytical base of duration, sometimes with tinge  of generic mood (ordinariness):
ïraqtan közünü turur 'seen from afar' (közün- 'seen'), ut | a] 0ɣu! / uq aj oɣul / ölümüg unïtma öjü tur odul 'oh son, understand / do not forget about death, constantly think [of it], wake up' (ö ~ 'think'), külsa kök täŋri külä turur ïɣlasa kök täŋri ïɣlaja turur 'she would laugh ~ and blue sky [seems] laughing, she would weep ~ and blue sky [seems] crying' (kül- 'laugh ', ïɣla- 'cry').
-u tükat- verbal analytical base of  completion:
men tükal oqïju tükattim 'I have read  completely' (oqï- 'read'), sizni alɣalï ïdï tükatmiš ol 'already sent [people] to invite you' (ïd- 'send, dispatch' );
-u u- verbal analytical mod. base of possibility, ability:
jaɣï bolup etinü jaratunu umaduq jana ičikmiš 'becane enemy of [Tabgach people], but could not settle and organize, and again fell under the rule of [Tabgaches]' (etin- jaratun- paired 'organize'), jïlqï kötürü umatï 'horse could not lift [stone]' (kötür- 'lift'), asïɣ tusu qïlu usar men 'I could do good [to live beings]' (qïl ~ 'do, create').
+uč (+üč) see .
-uɣ (-üg) see .
+uɣ see  .
-uɣlï (-ügli) see -ɣlï.
-uɣma (-ügmä) see -ɣma.
-uɣsa (-ügsä) see -ɣsa.
-ul- (-ül-) see -1-.
-um (-üm) see -m.
+um (+üm) see +m.
-umaz (-umäz) < -u umaz see -u participle.
-umsïn- (-ümsin-) see -msïn-.
+umuz (+ümüz) see -mïz.
+un (+ün) see +ïn accu., +n adv., +n instr.
-un- (-ün-) see  -n- mod., -n- voice.
-unč (-ünč) (< -n-č) see .
+unč (+ünč) see +nč.
-unču (-ünčü) (< -n-č) see -ču.
-undï (-ündi) see -ïndï.
+uŋ (+üŋ) see .
- (-üŋ) see .

+uŋïz (+üŋiz) see +ŋïz.
-uŋlar (-üŋlar) see -ŋlar.
+uŋuz (+üŋüz) see +ŋïz.
-up (-üp) see -p participle.
-uq (-ük) see -q.
+uq (+ük) see +q.
-uq- (-ük-) see -q-.
-ur- (-ür-; -ïr-, -ir-; -ar-, -är-)  1st pers. verbal active voice base (from base intrans. verb):
jašur- 'to hide, conceal' (jaš- 'hide'), ölür- 'euthanase, kill, waste' (öl- 'die, perish'), kelür-~ kelir- 'bring, convey' (kel- 'come, walk in, ride in'), ketär- 'remove, take away' (ket- 'leave, depart')
-ur (-ür; -jur, -jür; -r; -ar, - är; ïr, -ir) participle absolute pres., future and indefinite tense; attributive, predicate, as main member of expression; with the pers. predicate marker (and optionally pl. affix) as last predicate; with affix. pers. poss. with case affix and postpositions as not last predicate and the leading term of expression; in analytical forms; substantiatable:
qïlur (qïl- 'do'), bilür (bil- 'know'), nomlajur (nomla- 'preach'), tejür ~ ter (te - 'talk'), uqar (uq- 'understand'), kesär (kes- 'cut'), qalïr (qal- 'rermain'), kelir (kel- 'to come'), aɣïp kelir soɣïq suv aɣtarïlïp janturu jorïtï 'cold water fountain [in the well] subsided and went back' (aɣ 'to rise'), meni kim tutar 'who'd catch me?' (tut- 'catch'), sa ajur men 'I tell you' (aj - 'say'), jaruq julduz toɣarda oδnu kelip baqar men 'when appear bright stars, I wake up and look [at them] (toɣ- 'be born', baq- 'look'),qaltï ïɣ jaŋï jerdän temin örtürürčä 'like growing plants on fresh soil' (örtür- 'force to get up'), tarïqsar qamɣaq barïr teg ediŋ ketdi '[game luck]'d leave - and your wealth will disappear (literally gone), as flees (literally leaves) tumbleweed' (bar- 'depart'), küsüš tözlüg ol tep temäki ersär küsüšüg umunčuɣ turɣurur üčün 'as to the expression [of favorable dharmas] as associated with the roots of desires, it is because they inspire desires and hopes' (turɣur- 'arouse, beget').
-ur (-ür; -jur, -jür; -r; -ar, - är; ïr, -ir) bol- verbal analytical mod. base of intention or willingness to act:
atlar bola sen 'you gonna go campaigning' (atla- 'campaign mounted on horseback'), tapuɣuŋlarqa men jürür bola men 'I want (~ am ready) to go ahead of you' (jür- 'go, move');
-ur erti (~ erdi) finite absolute past with duration:
ozɣurur ertim 'I was saving' (ozɣur- 'save'), ol jultuz jemä olarnï biriä barïr erdi 'that star was moving with them' (bar- 'go, move about').
668

+urqa- see +ïrqa-.
-uš (-üš) see  -š.
-uš- (-üš -) see  -š-.
-ut- (-üt-) see  -t-.
-uz- (-üz) verb voice  base of causative (of base trans. verb):
bajatqa tutuzdum seni men 'I assigned (literally handed, forced to take) you to God' (tut- 'take, hold'), biltizmädin tujuzmadïn tïnlïɣlarqa asïɣ tusu qïlu jorïjur ertilär '[bodhisattvas] benefited living beings, not letting on to know' (bil- tuj- paired 'know, be aware').

Ü (Added explicated nest)

-ü (-u; -ï, -i; -a, -ä) see -u, noun, adj., adv., postpositions
-ü (-u; -ï, -i; -a, -ä; -ju, -jü) see -u, relative tense participle, acting as adverbial of not last prdicate (in single-subject and different-subject expressions); in analytical forms; in lexicalized combinations; adverbalized and grammatized in postpositions, conjunctions, and particles:
-üglï (-ɣlï, -gli; -ïɣlï, -igli; -uɣlï; -aɣlï, -ägli; -qlï, -kli)  see  --ɣlï, participle of absolute
1) general tense,
2) future tense with mod. of intention, attributive, predicate, with pers. predicate marker as the last predicate, substantiated in first appl.

-ügmä (-gmä, -ɣma; -ïɣma, -igmä; -uɣma; -ügmä; - aɣma, -ägmä)
 see  -ɣma, participle of absolute
1) general tense,
2) future  with mod. of obligation; attributive; substantiated

-ügsä- (-gsä-, -ɣsa-; -ïɣsa-, -igsä; -uɣsa-, ; -aɣsa-, -ägsä-) (< -ɣ +sa-) 
see  -ɣsa-, verb mod. base of intention to act:
-üɣ (-g, -ɣ; -ïɣ; -ig; -uɣ, -üg; -aɣ, -äg) noun, adj.  see  .
-ük (-k, -q; -ïq, -ik; -uq; -aq, -äk) 
see -q, noun, adj.
-ük- (-k-, -q-; -ïq-, -ik-; -uq-) see -q-, verbal voice base of
1) passive (from base trans. verb)
2) medial with additional intensity (of trans. and intrans. verbal stems)

-ül- (-1-; -ïl-, -il-; -ul-; -al-, -äl-) see -1-. verb voice
1) passive (from base trans. verb),
2) medial (from base trans. verb)
3) impersonally medial (from base intrans. verb)

-üm (-m; -ïm, -im; -um) see  -m, abstract noun, result and object, degree:
-ümsin- (-msin-, -msïn-; -ïmsïn-, -imsin; -umsïn-) see -msïn-, verb hypothetical (simulative) mod. base:
-ün- (-n-; -ïn-, -in-;-un-) see -n-, verb mod. base of hypothetical (simulative) mood:
-ün- (-n-; -ïn-, -in-; -un-; -an-, -än-) see -n-, verb voice
1) passive (from base trans. verb)
2) medial (from base intrans. verb)
3) the subject-orientated in active voice (from base trans. verb)
-ünč (-unč) (< -n-č) see noun.
+ünč (+nč; +inč; +unč) see +nč ordinal number
-ünčü (-unču; -ču, -čü; -čï) (< -n-č;) see -ču. noun
-ündi (-indi, -ïndï; -undï, -ündi) (<-n-*dï) seee -ïndï, adj., noun of type of action, result of action
-üŋ (-ŋ; -ïŋ, -iŋ; -uŋ, -aŋ, -äŋ) see , finite verbal form of
1) imper. 2nd pers. pl.,
2) imper. 2nd pers. sing., respectful

+üŋ (+ŋ; +ïŋ +iŋ; +uŋ, +aŋ, +äŋ; +nïŋ, +niŋ; +nuŋ, +nüŋ; +naŋ, näŋ) see . gen. poss., subject, definition in izafet (poss.) compound, non-izafet (non-poss.) definition, predicate, form of communication with a postposition; occasional substantiatable
+üŋ (+ŋ; +ïŋ +iŋ; +uŋ, +aŋ, +äŋ; +uɣ, +g) see . poss. 2nd pers. sing.
-üŋ (-ŋ; -ïŋ, -iŋ; -uŋ, -aŋ, -äŋ) see . finite verbal form of
1) imper. 2nd pers. pl.,
2) imper. 2nd pers. sing., respectful

+üŋiz (+ŋiz, +ŋïz; +ïŋïz, +iŋiz; +uŋïz, üŋïz; +uŋuz, +üŋüz; +ɣïz, +giz; +ŋaz, +ŋäz; +aŋaz, +äŋäz) see +ŋïz. poss. 2nd pers. pl.
-üŋlär (-ŋlar, -ŋlär; -ïŋlar, -iŋlär; -uŋlar; -aŋlar, -äŋlär) see -ŋlar, finite imper. verb 2nd pers. pl.
+üŋüz (+ŋiz, +ŋïz; +ïŋïz, +iŋiz; +uŋïz, üŋïz; +uŋuz; +ɣïz, +giz; +ŋaz, +ŋäz; +aŋaz, +äŋäz) see +ŋïz. poss. 2nd pers. pl.
-ü (-p; -ïp, -ip, -up; -a, -äp) see -pparticiple oblique tense, accomp. or precedence; functions as not last predicate, principal part of expression, attribute; in analytic bases
-üpän (-pan, -pän; -ïpan, -ipän; -upan) see -pan, participle relative  following or preceding tense; as not last predicate and principal term of expression
-ür- (-ur-; -ïr-, -ir-; -ar-, -är-) 1st pers. verbal active voice base (from base intrans. verb)
jašur- 'to hide, conceal' (jaš- 'hide'), ölür- 'euthanase, kill, waste' (öl- 'die, perish'), kelür-~ kelir- 'bring, convey' (kel- 'come, walk in, ride in'), ketär- 'remove, take away' (ket- 'leave, depart')
-ür (-ur; -jur, -jür; -r; -ar, - är; ïr, -ir) participle absolute pres., future and indefinite tense; attributive, predicate, as main member of expression; with the pers. predicate marker (and optionally pl. affix) as last predicate; with affix. pers. poss. with case affix and postpositions as not last predicate and the leading term of expression; in analytical forms; substantiatable
qïlur (qïl- 'do'), bilür (bil- 'know'), nomlajur (nomla- 'preach'), tejür ~ ter (te - 'talk'), uqar (uq- 'understand'), kesär (kes- 'cut'), qalïr (qal- 'rermain'), kelir (kel- 'to come'), aɣïp kelir soɣïq suv aɣtarïlïp janturu jorïtï 'cold water fountain [in the well] subsided and went back' (aɣ 'to rise'), meni kim tutar 'who'd catch me?' (tut- 'catch'), sa ajur men 'I tell you' (aj - 'say'), jaruq julduz toɣarda oδnu kelip baqar men 'when appear bright stars, I wake up and look [at them] (toɣ- 'be born', baq- 'look'),qaltï ïɣ jaŋï jerdän temin örtürürčä 'like growing plants on fresh soil' (örtür- 'force to get up'), tarïqsar qamɣaq barïr teg ediŋ ketdi '[game luck]'d leave - and your wealth will disappear (literally gone), as flees (literally leaves) tumbleweed' (bar- 'depart'), küsüš tözlüg ol tep temäki ersär küsüšüg umunčuɣ turɣurur üčün 'as to the expression [of favorable dharmas] as associated with the roots of desires, it is because they inspire desires and hopes' (turɣur- 'arouse, beget').
-üš (-š; -ïš, -iš; -uš) see , abstract noun
-üš- (-š-; -ïš -, -iš -; -uš-; -aš -, -äš -) see -š-, verbal voice
1) cooperative,
2) reciprocity
:
-üt- (-t-; -ït-, -it-;-ut-, ) see -t-, verb base voice
1) causative (from base trans. verb)
2) passive (from trans. verb base, limited cases)
3) active (from intrans. verb base)

Z

-z see -maz, -z. noun.
-z (-ïz, -iz) noun, adj., isolated cases:
uz 'master' (u- 'can, be able').
-zun (-zün; -zunlar, -züniar) see -sun finite verb form of
1) causative-inclinative 3rd pers. sing. and pl.,
2) respectful inclinative, 2nd pers. sing.; optional for the first mood with affixes
-lar pl. and seldom -ɣïl sing..
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20/25/2012
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