In Russian
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Chapters 1-5 · Chapters 6-10 · Chapters 11-15 · Chapters 16-20 · Chapters 21-25 and Ghazi-Baradj · Appendix
Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman

Volume 3
Editorial Materials

Conspectus of “Djagfar Tarihi“ fragments
(Sacred grove, Temple)
Fargat Nurutdinov
Fargat Nurutdinov DJAGFAR TARIHI publication story pp. 6-10 4
Fargat Nurutdinov Timing of the Kazan city foundation pp. 11-15 4
Fargat Nurutdinov Bulgarian Khans of all dynasties pp. 81-103 List
Fargat Nurutdinov Tore (Tengrianism) pp. 110-124 6
Fargat Nurutdinov ? Ukrainian Troy pp. 129-141 6
Fargat Nurutdinov How and when got to Kazan a Czech coin of the 10th c. pp. 141-144 7
Fargat Nurutdinov Unknown Mokhammediyar pp. 145-156 7
Fargat Nurutdinov Oldest History of Trident pp. 157-166 7
Fargat Nurutdinov Miniatures from the Djagfar Tarihi Annals pp. 171-177  
Kul Gali HON KITABY A few advices for travelers to Tubdjak pp. 16-30 1
Kul Gali HON KITABY Description of Saksin pp. 31-58 2
Kul Gali HON KITABY Brief about Bulgaro-Kipchak relations pp. 64-75 3
Kul Gali Brief about Yar Chally p. 169  
Kultasi Kazan History pp. 60-62 3
Bakhshi Iman Brief about Bulgarian Viziers pp. 75-80 3
Reykhan Bulgari Flowers of the Kipchak Fields pp. 103-106  
Gazi Baba Brief about Bulgarian Heraldry p. 107  
Gazi Baba Bulgarian Calendars Tore and Kam-Boyans pp. 108-109 Calend
Gazi Baba Abstract about Tore pp. 110-124 6
Gazi Baba Alphabet of Danube Bulgars p.125 Alphab
Gazi Baba Batyr Djilan and Karamats (Sacred Groves, Temples) pp. 126-128 6
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Djagfar Tarihi Contents

Volume 3 Contents

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Translator's Notes

In the statement of the author and publisher Fargat Gabdul-Khamitovich Nurutdinov, he wrote the annalistic contents of the Volume 3 as a conspectus. Per F.Nurutdinov, the conspectus renders the annalistic information in the “Djagfar Tarihi“ of the snatched original translation of collection. While studying in the IYALI KFAN USSR (Language and Literature Institute of the Kazan Branch of  USSR Academy of Sciences) graduate school, F.Nurutdinov reportedly tried to initiate publication of the translation of the annals, but that led to an opposite result, in 1982 all Nigmatullin original notebooks with the text of the translation were snatched from the summer cabin of his father. F.Nurutdinov retained only a portion of “Djagfar's“ translation that was located at his Kazan home, apparently none of then were Nigmatullin's original notebooks. However, F.Nurutdinov's notes in the text indicate that some portions are of the original Nigmatullin translation.

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition contains typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The “mouse over“ explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of its writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the “mouse over“ explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.


1. Kul-Ashraf letter to Turkish sultan Suleiman Kanuni (1552).
2. Introduction article and notes Bahshi Iman (1680)
3. Kul Gali book “Hon Kitaby“ (1242)
4. Musa Ibn Halilja book “Information about cities, menzels and roads of the Bulgarian State, useful to those who goes on them...“ (1460) with postscripts of Ibragim Bahshi,
5. Annals of Gazi-Baradj “Gazi-Baradj Tarihi“ (1246)
6. Gazi-Baba note “Biography of Gazi-Baradj“ (1262ã.)
7. Sheikh Mohammed-Amin book “Just way, or Pious acts of Bulgarian sheikhs“ (1483)
8. Mohammediar Bu-Yurgan annals “Kazan Tarihi“ or “Bu-Yurgan Kitaby“ (1551)
9. Tahtagul “Shahri Gazan dastany“
10. Ish-Mohammed annals “Sheikh- Gali Kitaby “ (1605)
11. Tug (Tuk) Mohammed annals (17 century)
12. Ahmetzyan Kultasi annals (18 century)
13. Notes and postscripts by Karashevs, owners of manuscript (18-19 centuries), using this Saifetdin annals and other sources
Conclusion on reliability degree of Bahshi Iman messages in annalistic collection “Djagfar Tarihi“

Conspectus of “Djagfar Tarihi“ fragments

Òîðé includes:

1) Religious Mythology;
2) Ritual;
3) Basic laws of the ancient Bulgars (therefore later the word “tore“ began to mean “Codex of Basic Laws“, “Constitution“)


The fullest and most authentic (in my opinion) information about the religious mythology of the Bulgars is given by Gazi-Baba. Here it is (the original text of Gazi-Baba is in quotation marks).

For various reasons the Muslim writers did not want to discuss superstitions in detail. Only Kul Gali narrated about them in more detail than the others, especially about the Hudayar (Bogomil), but he also noted once: “... I do not dare to describe the all measure of human blunders“ fearing that even to talk about them is a sin. Therefore relaying this question he leaned first of all on the “knowledge and a guesses which the Almighty granted me...“

The real, and not the primitive folks, Toré tells about the structure of the world... The whole Universe, created by Tangra, is called “Vir Tan-Fa“. It consist of three worlds: a Top or Heavenly world (Ustügu Uran, or Kuk), the Middle world or the land (Chil, Urta Uren) and the Lower or Underground world (Tama or Adaky Uren). The Middle world was a visible part of the universe(Chil), and other worlds are invisible parts of the universe (Tun or Tunay). The palatine of Tangra is in the Top world. Because the human mind is limited by Tangra, we cannot understand the sense and purpose of this or that phenomena. But from that little that is clear, everything in the Vir Tangra (in the universe) consist of differences, but all the differences in their sum are equal, and consequently they are in a balance. When something breaks  the balance, it is subject to a destruction, and gets eliminated “by the will of Tangra“. When Tangra has created Alps or Divines (spirits), he created both the kind and the malicious Alps. But the kind and malicious is in in everything in existance from the begining, both in Alps and people, and therefore everyone can sometimes do both the kind, and the malicious acts. The ones who make, at our today's opinion, more of the kind things, we call “kind“, and the one who makes more of the evil things we call “malicious“. But tomorrow our views will change, and “kind“ can become for us “evil“, and “evil“ can become for us “good“. Therefore, some followers  primitive folks' Toré expressed their fear and respect, prayed and sacrificed to all the Alps without differentiation.

In the beginning Tangra created Alps of the first generation: Bergen (or Mergen, Birgün-Birkün, Uzi-Aba, Buran, Leugen, Subash, Djam-Buran, Mar) is the spirit of a chaos, natural disasters, sun and hunting, he is able to become a huge dragon Baradj, Turan (Torna-“Crane“, Uranus, etc.) is a female spirit (Alpbika) of life and love (she was taking a form of a crane, goose, swan, duck, snake...). By the will of Tangra, they brought into the world the Alps of the middle generation with these names: Tama (Tamta, Albastyi) is a spirit of mountains, droughts and darkness, Ulyat or Kuzge (“Mouse“), is an Alpbika of epidemies and illnesses, Djil is a spirit of wind, Kubar (Barys, etc.) is a spirit of thunder-storm, lightning and heavenly water, Saban(Samar, Simbir, Amur, Küngosh, Nardugan, Mardukan, Karga, Güldjimesh, Chumar, etc.) is a spirit of light, crop and abundance, Kermes (Bay-Terek, Imen, etc.) is a spirit of forest (he had a right to report to Tangra at any time about everything, that went on the Earth and among the Alps), Archa (Artysh, Erdim, Ermi, Artimesh, Timesh, Urabika, etc.) is an Alpbika of virginity and forest animals, Ashna (Ergi, Chakchak, etc.) is an Alpbika of field plants, she arose from a drop of a morning dew by the will of Tangra...

Two Alps of the middle generation, Kubar and Saban, were twins and both of them were also called Subash, Baradj, Atryach... For their great acts both of them have also received a honorary title “Aga“ (“Aka“), i.e “Senior“. Therefore the holidays in their honor (Sabantuy, Kargatuy, Nardugan, etc.) also were called “Akatuy“...

Among the Alps of the third generation or the younger Alps most known are Su-Anasy or Hatyn (a daughter of Tam and Ulyat), Alpbika of the water animals (she could take a shape of a duck, goose, swan, and other water animals), Ajdaha (a son of Tam and Ulyat), a spirit of debauchery and adultery, Shurale (a son of Tam and Ulyat) , a spirit of drought and death, Kuk-Kuyan or Tashbash (a son of Tam and Ulyat), a spirit of roads and trade (for a disrespect he could make to travelers different dirty tricks and send robbers on them), Tun-Buri (a son of Kubar), a spirit of drowned men (if he appeared to somebody, it meant that his fate was to drown), Buri or Baryn (a son of Kubar), a spirit of thunder and a Khalib (i.e. a messenger of victory and glory), Yan-gyr (a son of Kubar), a spirit of rain and a Khalib, Mal-Moger or Bulut, Malmysh, Bulümar, Balamir, etc. (son of Tam and Ulyat), a spirit of cattle (belonging to the nomadic cattle breeders) who could take a shape of a huge bull, Kysh-Tarkhan (a son of Saban also known under the names of Taygas, Yabalak, etc.), a spirit of winter, Bulgarian Grandfather Frost, Hazyasy (the children of Kermes patronized by Archa), the spirits of various places, Boyan or Boyan Imen, Djok, etc. (a son of Kermes), a spirit of healing, fortune-telling and shamanism (“Djok“) (remember the Rumanian/Moldavian ancient dance Djok - Translator Note)... Tama-Tarkhan, Ajdaha, Ulyat and Shurale were considered bad, malicious, unclean Alps, and Shurale later began to be called Shaitan (Devil). Once, Tama-Tarkhan decided to become a ruler of it all, and went against the Alps who refused  to obey him. He swallowed many Alps, but those who escapedasked in fear  for a help from Tangra. Tangra armed with lightning tridents the Alps Saban Mardukan and Kubar, and sent them against the rebellious Alp. Kubar's “horse“, a bull with whom he went to the fight, failed, and therefore Saban ovberpassed his brother and struck Tama-Tarkhan with the trident. With the help of Kubar, who appeared in time, Saban managed to hack Tama-Tarkhan onto three parts. One part remained as a darkness, another became the Lower Visible Sky, the third became a World ocean (“Chulman dingeze“). By the will of Tangra Kubar and Saban took a form of the geese (or ducks), and caught sand-grains in the water, from which they built the Earth. While they did it, in the air (between the Heaven and Earth) from the sparks of the lightning tridents, by the will of Tangra, came the souls (which flew in the air, but were coming to rest in the Earth as gorgeous birds).

 The Alps, swallowed by him, came out from the ruptured cave-guts of Tama-Tarkhan, and from the clay legs of the Alp of darkness, Shurale made figures of people, hoping to amplify with their help his power. But the figures were ugly and lifeless. Then Shurale asked Alpbika Ulyat (who was able, in an image of a winged mouse, to reach the high tent of Djam-Buran in the Invisible Sky-World) to steal a towel from the bath of the forefather of the Alps. “Djam-Buran, it is said, is very handsome, and the towel with which he wipes retains his features. With the help of this towel I shall transfer the beauty of Birgün to people, and I  insult him for his dislike of us“, Shurale told her. Ulyat stole the towel and dropped it to Earth, and Shurale wiped the figures of people with the towel, and they became beautiful. To make people live, Shurale caught souls-birds and inserted them in the figures. They came to life, and the people appeared. But Tangra did not allowed that Shurale took hold of the people, their souls remained belonging to Tangra, and after their death they again fly up above the Earth, and Shurale gets only lifeless rotting bodies. Birgün complained to Tangra about Shurale and Ulyat, and the Creator disfigured them externally, and in addition took away Ulyat 's wings.

Because the flesh of the people is made out of the body of Tama-Tarkhan, the carnal desires of people and the acts to execute these desires are unworthiness and evil. These desires and acts spoil the souls of the people. After a death of a person his soul is examined between the heaven and earth. If the soul has little dirt, the soul is cleansed and when pure it rises to the Sky. And if a soul is loaded with the dirt of evil, it falls into the underground world (Tama) and turn into malicious spirits, the Joregs. Therefore it is necessary to live so that lowly thoughts and acts were as few as possible.

The real Toré says: all people are born equal, but subsequently, by the will of the Creator, they receive different inclinations and start to engage in different affairs. By virtue of the abilities granted by the Creator, and the opportunities, people become richer or poorer, but they all should honestly engage in their business, not to be envious and not to offend each other.

And the representatives of one of the aggressive currents in the simple folks' Toré, “madjars“, were saying this. Tangra created only the Invisible world, and all the Visible world and the man was created with His sanction by Shurale. Only the man's soul is created by Tangra. For these souls to rise to the Sky, to Tangra,  after a death, and to receive from the Creator an eternal pleasure in the Invisible World, all carnal matters should be rejected completely, and a full equality between people should be kept. There should not be a submission of one man to another, or a state, officials, army, envy, money, wealth and poverty, personal property. Even the wives should be common. Should not also be prayer leads (priests), buildings for prayers and obligatory symbols of Tangra, for everyone is obliged to pray Tangra himself, anywhere and without any conditionalities, instead of charging unknown people with prayers, possible sinners (whose prayers are void because of their crimes). Madjars forbade wars in the name of the rulers, and killing of the animals, which did not know inequality, but killed the rich and hung Kam-Boyans, saying: “If you are very outstanding, clever and all-knowing, than serve Tangra himself, instead of the Shurale's servants!“ The Madjars said: “Good people are only the continuously altruistic [to others] people. From there comes their name “Madjars“, “Sacrificing“. “And our aristocrats called Madjars “Elbegens“, “Rooks“ and “Ayiyars“ (pronounced Ah-i-yar - Translator Note).

Hudaiyar adopted the Madjar's ideas and, adding to them some Christian prayers, he created the heresy of Hudayar (Bogomil). After the Hudajar's death, his followers started killing snakes, because Hudajar died from a bite of a snake, and this differentiate them from the old Madjars. The Bulgars of the Ak-Bulgar (Itil Bulgaria) preserved the ancient Bulgarian custom of revering snakes, therefore the Hudayarism did not spread among them. A symbol of our Madjars was a black “Rook sign“.  Saksin had the same sign as its coat of arms. After the Ayiyarian revolt in the Bulyar (in the 1182-1183), Gabdulla Chelbir forbade this symbol, and ordered to make the Saksin coat of arms red. And the Khudaiyars did not have an emblem.


In an extreme antiquity were two main prayers (“men tayre“ - “big prayer“): winter and summer.

The summer “men tayre“, where Tangra was worshipped , was called Djien, and the winter ceremony was in honor of Nardugan and ancestor spirits, the heroes (“son“) Nardugan or Mardukan. These prayers were conducted by elected kelbirs, and all Bürgans (Yurgans) or Kam-Boyans were forbidden to appear in the “men tayre“ places, bacause during their communication  with the malicious spirits they absorbed evil and could despoil  the a prayer place, the “karamat“. On the breast, kelbirs had an image of Tangra or the spirits (depending on whom the prayer was devoted to), and in the hand held a staff topped with a half-moon, a sphere and a red horse tail. During the pray to Tangra the peraying were looking up to the sky with their hands raised upwards, and then they bowed and bend flat on the ground. They could not look into the ground, under it live the unclean spirits. Earlier, when were brought human sacrifices, quite often men wrestled each other for the honor to be sacrificed...

The people considered the sun, the moon and the stars to be the eyes of Tangra, therefore they prayed to the rising sun. During the regal epoch, the Kans or other members of the royal house were selected as kelbirs.

Gazi-Baba describes the djien prayer which he saw himself. Karamat was on a raised place in a glade, the “Wall“ was barely visible wattle fence, and it was visible only by three gates of the karamat (the eastern were called Tangra Kapa, the northern were called Kuk Kapa and the southern were called Er Kapa), and from the western side it was tightly closed from the evil spirits.

In the middle of the Karamat grew some trees, the most beautiful of which was called a sacred tree Bay Terek. To the south of Bay Terek on the ground was made a scaffold for the kelbir, “eg-kepe“...

When the people led by Kelbir came in the Karamat,  the sacrificial animals (a white horse, a white bullock and a white sheep) were brought  to the western “wall“ and tied to the three columns. Then the animals were lead to the three columns in the place near Tangra Kapa, called aba or uba, slaughtered and dissected. Their skins were hung on three columns. Instead of the real animals, to the columns by the western “wall“ were tied their effigies. This was done to deceive the malicious spirits, that being attracted by the animals, they would still remain by the western “wall“ and would not come inside the Karamat. Through the Kuk Kapa was brought water for the preparation of the sacrificial food, and were set up three fires on which the meat of the sacrificial animals had began to be cooked. The people watched all this until the Kelbir proclaimed from a tree: “Man tayre! Looking at the sun, speak!“

Then the people stared to the eastern part of the sky, put hats under armpits, and the Kelbir started a prayer. In the old times it was this:

You, the white ruler,
With one thousand faces!
You, the golden ruler,
With one thousand eyes!
You, the silver ruler,
With one thousand ears!
You, the copper ruler,
With one thousand braids!
You, the emerald ruler,
With one thousand torsos!
You, the pink ruler,
With one thousand hands!
You, the black ruler,
With one thousand legs!

I pray, submitting to your orbiting!
I pray, turning toward the Sun!
Vir Tangra! Bir Kanar [One Ruler]!
Bir Toré [One Law]! Men Tayre [Big Prayer].
One beginning, One Kelbir.

You are a Lord of our seven-colored land,
You are a lord of our seven tribes!
We who gathered here,
To appease you with donations,
As a token of submission we give you
From our seven tribes
Seven souls of pure young men,
Seven souls of pure girls.
You are a lord of all alive.

As a sign of it we give you
Seven pure idjiks (sacrificial horses),
Seven pure moskhas (bullocks),
Seven pure rams.
Accept all this from humble us,
Also send us your mercy.

Let your land be colorful
With your seven blessed colors.
Let the black soil will be fertile,
Let there be pink flowers,
Let the emerald rivers be deep,
Let the emerald grass be high.
Let the copper-sided  cattle be uncountable,
Let the silver-trunk forest be high,
Let the gold sun shine,
Let the thousand-year white yurt stay strong!

(This poem, interlineally translated from the Russian translation, gives a fine illustration of the rhyming the first words of the stanza that exist in the Türkic poetry, and  possibly is unique among the main languages of the world. Zaur Gasanov in his book “Royal Scythians“ uses this unique rhyming in his interpretation of the answer of the Scythians to Darius, cited by Herodotus  - Translator Note)

“But I've heard simpler words and somewhat different, though its beginning was the same... “Kanar“ was said as “Kana“... The phrase about human sacrifice was dropped, and instead jumped to the words “You are a lord of all alive“. Further was said about the actual number of the sacrificed animals. People were repeating after the Kelbir, who was looking at the sky, his phrases, and after each phrase they bowed low.

When the words “I pray, submitting to your orbiting!“ were said, everybody went after Kelbir around the Bay Terek. When the words “I pray, turning toward the Sun“ were said, again they went around the tree. When “One beginning, one Kelbir“ was said, a third time they went around the Bay Terek.

After that on a sign by Kelbir, who already moved over to a raised place near the tree, everybody knelt and prayed with lifted to the sky faces and arms, finishing this part of the prayer with the words: “Pure and beautiful idjik (sacrificial horse), pure mosha (cow), and pure baran (ram)“. When the people said these words, Kelbir rose and took in his hands a ladle made of a skull (whose skull?) and silver. He poured in the ladle a bal (honey - Translator's Note), lifted it to the sky, and saying: “Accept from humble us all this“, poured out the bal into the fire in one of the fires near the uba (habitation - Translator's Note). Then he put into the ladle some bread with a salt, and did with them the same, as with the bal. At last, he put meat in the ladle and, after the same actions and words, threw it in the third fire (for archeologists to find and admire the wealth of Iranian-speaking Scythians who enigmatically throw silver into the fire).

Having done it, the Kelbir returned to the  takhet (raised place, future Russian “takhta“) near the tree and started speaking, raising his arms in the beginning of each phrase and lowering them at the end, and the people were repeating all his words... [from the words “Accept from humble us all this...“ to the words “In your seven blessed colors“]. Then Kelbir watered from the ladle the Bay Terek and other trees with the blood of the sacrificed animals, while the “kazanchis“ bore behind him the kazans (cauldrons) with that blood, and people were repeating the pray.

Finishing with it, Kelbir came back to the takhet and with the words “Men Tayre! Sing looking at the Sun!“ summoned the dyngyrchies [musicians] with drums, pipes, bagpipes, dyngyrs (tambourines), dombra and kubyz. Dyngyrchies, kneeling near Bay Terek, started  playing, and the girls rose and lifted above long white linen coverlets, chorus sung a part of the prayer... [from the words “Let the black soil will be fertile“ to the words “Let the thousand-year white yurt stay strong“]. In the beginning of each phrase the girls lifted the cloths upwards, and in the end lowered them above their heads. And the people who remained kneeling, like Kelbir in the beginning of each phrase raised their arms upwards and in the end lowered them. And the covering with the cloths meant that the people enter under a protection by Tangra with a pleasure...

When this song have been sung, the girls have lowered the cloths to the ground, and Kelbir sat on one of them. Four men, “Madjars“ or “Batyrs“, lifted him and carried him three times on the cloth around the Bay Terek, saying three times: “Let the thousand-year white yurt stay strong“. The people were following behind them. In the beginning of each phrase the man were raising the cloth with Kelbir up, and in the end they lowered it. Kelbir and people it the same time were raising and lowering their arms , looking into the sky.

The Kazanchis at that time already poured a part of the bal from a wooden trough into kazans (cauldrons), and the Shambats (like Kurbat's brother Shambat, and one of the names of Kyiv) have cut the prepared meat into pieces.

When the singing has ended, Kelbir first tied to a branch of the Bay Terek three ribbons and tied them, then the same was made by the other people, and doing this they thought up of their wishes and swore a fidelity to Tangra with the words: “Bir Tangra! Bir Kanar! Bir Toré! Men tayre!“ The respectable men tied the ribbons to the branches of the Bay Terek, and other tied to the branches of other trees. The ribbons should be white, dark blue(green) and red (yellow). White color meant Tangra, dark blue or green meant the Sky and heavenly waters, and red or yellow meant the fertile Earth lit up by light and favor of Tangra. In addition to that, in small tents also tied the coins...

Then the Kelbir took the bowl with the bal passed by the kazanchis, and spinkled from it the Bay Terek, ribbons and people.

After him the trees and ribbons were spinkled by all the people. The Kelbir and all present people kept exclaiming: “Bir Tangra! Bir Kanar! Bir Toré! Men tayre!“ (The tradition of tying ribbons on trees is still with us, in a literal form, and in metastasized form, as depictions of the ribbons on the car trunks)

After that the Kazanchies and Shambats distributed the bal, meat, broth, eggs and porridge to the men, married women and lads. The food was placed on the cloths, people sat around and began feasting. But after a little the girls, who stayed without a meal, sung a song “Batumar“, in which the Alp Kubar of thunder-storm, heavenly waters and lightning was called “Kumar“ and “Samar“:

“Kumar, pour, pour, pour!
Samar, pour, pour, pour!
I shall sacrifice you a black sheep!
A thigh I shall I leave for you,
A multi-colored spoon I shall give you,
Tasty porridge I shall give you!
My rain, pour, pour
For the people not die from hunger
For plenty of grass
For sated cows
For us a milk to drink!
Have you eaten, my girlfriends?
Are you sated, my girlfriends?

Dyngyrchies accompanied them, and then accompanied the guys who sung in response to the girls:

The Sun, leave, leave, leave!
A spoon of porridge I shall give you,
Frying pan oil I shall give you,
I Shall kill a fat bull [for you]!
Porridge I shall give you,
Meat I will eat mysel,
Bones throw to a dog!“

With these words the guys gave the girls meal which only did not have meat. After a while the girls sung “Batumar“ again, and again the guys treated them, but again without the meat. This was repeated a few times, till the end of the feast. Finally, the girls received some meat, but had to carry it away  and eat only at the dawn of the next day (In animal-breeding society, where the meat is a main staple, this ritual is somewhat puzzling).

“As I was told, the malicious spirits thought that the meat was sacrificed for them, and did not harm the people. But also existed other explanations for this custom...“

The coverlet on which Kelbir was carried was torn into peices so that everybody received a slice, and the people left for homes, saying; “Bir Tangra! Bir Kanar! Bir Toré! Men tayre!“ From these slices later were made amulet bags. The Kelbir, Kazanchies, Shambats and dyngyrchies were generously renumerated with plenty of food.

Another men tayre, Nardugan, in the remote past was celebrated in the tenth month, which the people call also Nardugan. This men tayre was begining with the people with face masks and in the most freakish clothes poured out into the streets of the village, and with a loud music and with wild shouts were expelling the unclean spirits. These dressed called themselves “kukers“, i.e the “inhabitants of heaven“, and they were acting in the unclean spirits' images and from the unclean spirits' name to avoid a revenge of the evil spirits... A few men dragged behind them a sled, on which some old things were thrown out from each house. They were convinced that together with these things they were throwing out all the evil collected in the house in a year. In addition, everyone was armed with sticks, pitchforks, axes, wooden sabres, homemade spears, horned helmets (Is not the horned helmets foible a privilege peculiar solely for the Germanic people?). With these weapons they were knocking on the doors of each house, and then were entering inside carrying smoking branches of archa (Juniper - Translator's Note) or pine and fumigated them, since the unclean spirits were afraid of the smoke.

From time to time, while doing this, all “kukers“ sang the beginning of the Nardugan prayer, which glorified Mardukan or Nardugan. In it The people of different locations in the Nardugan prayer recalled different numbers:

“You, behind the white clouds,
You, behind the black clouds,
You, in the dark blue sky,
You, in the possessions of Tangra,
You, wearing so many braids,
You, who've done so many feats (or “killed so many enemies“),
You, whose glory have reached the Sky,
You, aba (ancestor) of such and such
You, whose face shined with beauty,
You, whose heart was full of compassion,
You, whose soul was full of nobleness,
You, whose strength protected a weak...“

In the villages, to these prayer words were added all kinds of scaring refrains, about the “kukers“ galloping against an enemy, the unclean spirits, by a call of Nardugan, from four sides, on horses of four colors and full of determination to crush the evil spirits with all kinds of weapons.

Expelling the unclean spirits from the village, the “kukers“ were leaving to a cemetery. On the  way they took a snow city, which most frequently was represented by a small hill with ice slopes, and after that the hung an effigy of the Tama-Tarkhan seized by them, and burnt the sled with old things. In the cemetery was again sung the beginning of the prayer which had been already described, and to it were added such words:

“Accept from us so many camels,
Accept from us so many horses,
Accept from us so many rams...(the number and kinds of victims varied)
Accept from us expensive weapons,
Accept from us expensive clothes,
Accept from us precious wares,
Accept from us dulcet drinks,
Rejoice from our gifts,
Tell Tangra our prays
Let Tangra accomplish them,
Let our hearts be filled with joy“.

When the words were spoken about the weapons, the Kelbir, who was supervising the prayer, implanted arrows near the altar columns, when it was about the clothes, he was spreading some fabric, when it was about the wares, he was putting a big bowl on the cloth, when it was about the drinks, he was pouring a honey drink into a bowl near the columns. Then everybody, starting with Kelbir, drank the sacrificial drinks in honor of Mardukan and other hero ancestors, the ancestors of many clans, repeating the same prayer, but addressing it to the abays (ancestors - Translator's Note). After that the “kukers“ came back to the village, bashing with joy. The fires were set for them at the entrance in the village, and they jumped through the fires. In the village, the “kukers“ collected gifts from each house, which they were putting in their torbas (cloth bag carried on the back - Translator's Note). All that time they also sang different songs, which were frightening off the owners with the disasters when they were stingy, or promised good fortune if the owners were generous... (i.e precursor of Halloween trick-and treating)

Before spreading out to the houses for feasts and fortune-telling, the “kukers“ were laughing  and dancing and dripping each other with water. In many places the strong freezing weather forced Bulgars to move some acts of the Nardugan to the time of the other holidays, mainly to the spring, especially for a time of the Süren and Shillyk (prayer in the cemetery). Thus the activities, devoted to the destruction of Mardukan, his resurrection (in 40 days), and his wedding to Ashna-bika (Chakchak), almost commingled.

 recorded by the will of Kansübiga Urus-Ügur Aydar by the tebir Shams in the city of Bashtu (from the records of Kul Gali and Gazi-Baba)

2. Those men and women who were found guilty in desecration of the Toré, adultery, larceny of the state and public property, military and tackled horses, violence and larceny [robbery], should be tied to sarmans (?), hacked into pieces, and the pieces should be hanged on a birch (aspen)...

3. A foreigner who was maligning Toré, shall be tied to a horse and it be driven until the perpetrator would conk off, and the stranger, who seduced a Bulgar to revere another's spirits, shall have his nose cut, ears cut, beaten up and expelled from the State...

4. If any ruler or Boyan would secretly adopt another faith, they shall be executed. If a simple Bulgar would adopt another faith and hide it, he shall loose all his property, his nose, his ears, shall be beaten  and expelled from his clan. If any Bulgar would openly adopt another faith, he loses all his titles, all property and ceases to be a member of the clan, but is not expelled and punished as a dishonest person...

6. Yurgans (Bürgans) or Kam-Boyans who lost their power and were caught deceiving people, shall be hang on the trees...

8... For betrayal [of the state] shall be executed not only the guilty, but also his close relatives...

10. Kagan Kan-Sübigi [emperor] (i.e. Khan-Army-Bek, i.e. Khan-Head-of-the-Army, a telling etymology - Translator's Note), Kapagan [or Karagan, a head of the government], Bagyl-Tarkhan [or Inal, a leader of the nobles] and Eschergu Bagyl acting as Idjik [or Idik, a Superior Judge], are elected in the Great Kineshes...

Before the Great Kineshes all clans shall join by their choice to one of the four great clans, Baryndjar [Baryn], Shirak [Shirin ], Küngly-Argyn [Hon's and Serbian clans] (i.e. Huns and Suvars - Translator's Note) and Madjar-Esegel, headed by elected Turung (or Tudjung)-Abys [or Abyzes - a note in the margin]...

11. The number of the Bagyls and Baganyns,  the participants of the Great Kineshes, shall not exceed 500, and all of them shall receive a title Bulyar.

... The number of the palace Bulyars shall be limited to 30, and the number of the inside or hall Bulyars shall be limited to 12, and they shall carry a title of Men-Bagyls [Great Bagyls]...

13... The sons of Kagans or Kan-Sübigi from the concubines do not belong to the royal clan, but belong to the clans of their mothers...

15. The taxpayer population pays to the treasury a tax at a rate of one- twentieth part of all their property.

16. The Kan has a right to collect a tenth from the merchants, a tenth from the celebratory gifts (abar) (i.e. if you donate a dollar to the newlyweds, they get 90 cents, and the Kan gets 10 cents - Translator's Note), a tenth for the judging, a tax at a rate of one- twentieth part of all the property from the people of his yurtluk (his possessions, his country - Translator's Note).

19... Kulbiys (or Ulugbeks, viceroys of the Kan) supervise only the collection by the kurenchies of the Kan's share (ak danga) (white money - Translator's Note), and the kushtans (representatives of the Kapagan) supervise only the collection by the bilemchies of the state share (kara danga) (black money - Translator's Note), and all of them travel on certain roads and take the prepared danga at the chunkases. If the danga is not prepared by the set time, then they have a right to turn off from the road and to take the predetermined danga by force in the presence of the turungs...

21. Outside of angyl, the judicial complaints are resolved by Idjik...

25. The ransom for the bride should be paid in any case, even if she was carried off by force... If during a bride abduction attempt the thief or someone from his pals gets killed, nobody bears the responsibility for it...

30. Before a battle is necessary to pray to Tangra, Birgün-Karabag and Kubar asking them to grant a victory... near the posted Kan's bunchuk and regimental biligs... and with sacrifice of people, horses, rams... Everyone swears to fight bravely for the victory... and die from a sword in case of a flight from the battlefield... Then a Kelbir sprinkls bunchuk, biligs and all the warriors with the water, for Tangra and his spirits to grant the army a power to win...

After a victorious battle is necessary to have a thanksgiving prayer service and sacrifices...

32. A soldier who has shown a disrespect for his weapon..., is deprived of it...(Among sins of disrespect for the weapons is urinating without removing weapons, see details for urinating)

33. The warriors who arrived to the gathering point without full arms, who fail to execute an order... or flee from a battlefield, shall be executed by the military leader...

35. About the booty... A house is considered a trophy of the soldier who was the first to pierce its wall with his weapon, a spear or another one...

36. The bodies of the dead great warriors of the enemy cannot be laid into the ground, because their souls would stay in our land and they would revenge. Their bodies should either be burnt, and they will never resurrect, or be hang on the trees, and to make bowls out of their skulls and drink, then Tangra will revive them, but already in our land, and He will pour their power and courage into the muscles and souls of those drinking from it...(a most popular and legendary Türkic tradition, widely documented and always noted, from Scythian and Hunnic times to Middle Ages)

37. The captured can't be killed... But if the enemy committed crimes...then the war captives can be punished  for that... And if among the captives are found commoners, they have to be separated from the others [captives], and impaled on the stakes or boiled in kazans... The same must be done with the leaders of the robbers and the marauding soldiers of the enemy.

38... A murderer is turned over to the relatives of the killed, and they decide, to kill him or to allow him to redeem his life...

If the relatives of the killed forgive him and would allow him to redeem his life, a man murderer redeems it either for 1,000 sheep, or for 100 camels, or for 300 horses, and the woman murderer redeems it for a half of this quantity of the cattle...

Precisely the same is for a bodily injury... the injurer either loses the same part of his body, or redeems it with the consent of the victim...

39... If someone died of a poisoning or witchery, the poisoners or spell makers shall be treated as the murderers... If the poisoning or a spell have not cause a death, the guilty should pay ur [a tribute, ransom, citation, tax] to the victim corresponding with his position...

If the ur is not paid, it is collected from the relatives of the guilty, and the means of the poisoning or magic are destroyed... If they were made through the use of the wine, the vineyard is destroyed... if it was done by the means of the meat, the cattle is destroyed...

41... The murderers of their parents, close relatives, rulers and Bayans, not forgiven by the relatives of the killed, are tied to the crossbeam of a gate and are shot by the arrows, after which they are put in boxes and lowered to the bottom of the waters, so that the sin of such murders was washed off by the sacred water...

42. The Yurgans, aliens, slaves without relatives, suicides and those pointed at, at the will of Tangra, by a Kubar, should be buried outside of the cemeteries...

The bodies of Yurgans who died incidentally should be hung on the trees, and from their branches should be suspended bird's wings, with which their souls would depart to the sky...

For the deseased Yurgans and for those pointed at by the trident of Kubar... Outside of the cemetery on the trees should be made an eg-kepe (a platform of the boards) and on this eg-kepe shall be put a box with the body and a provision of food and drink... If there are no trees, the box shall be set on the columns... In addition, it is necessary to also hang on the trees or columns the wings and images of the birds...

44. A thief compensates for the stolen tenfold. If he is not capable to compensate, the payment is taken from his close relatives...

45. If a thief gets caught red-handed for the first time, and would swear to not steal any more, take from him the proper payment. If the thief gets caught a second time, take from him the proper payment, and also strip him of his nose, ears, and levy a beating.. as a disgraced person. If the thief gets caught in a third time, take from him the proper payment, and break his both legs.

46... If a damage is inflicted on the merchants or governing people, and the guilty have vanished, the responsibility for the crime is carried by the Bagyls and the people of the district where the crime took place...

48. If somebody was caught slandering, he shall be punished for the crime which he tried to incriminate to an innocent...

50. If an owner without adult children dies, his juvenile children and property are transferred to his father, until they mature...

If his father is not alive, they are transferred to the a brother of the diseased, and the wives of the diseased become the wives of his brother...

51... A pregnant woman is freed from a punishment... A woman with children in the division of the property receives not only her share, but also the shares for her children... The fathers of the children may be different, but a mother is the same. Let the children not forget it, and bow their mothers before they greet their father...

52. If any foreign ruler does not turn over to the State its Bulgars citizens, cattle and property..., then the Kan has a right to take it away in a raid by a force right after he had received the refusal...

53. If someone fled from the State to a foreign country, the border guards of that section of the border through which the criminals fled are executed for it

54. If someone tries to hide a criminal and a crime, he shall be tortured: beating ... piercing... suspension by a rib, lowering of hands and legs in boiling water... and then collect from him the proper payment for the crime...

55. If someone tries to avoid the sentenced punishment, he is executed...

56. About the sworn agreements...

It should be known: that an oath accompanied by pouring of all the water from a vessel means an oath with your own life; that... tying three leathers or  heaping the stalks (branches) means an oath with the life of all the family and children...; that... spraying into something means an oath by the sprinkled property which in case of violation of the oath will be destroyed by Birgün and Kubar by the will of Tangra; that... takinh in hand a handful of soil means an oath by the well-being of their land; that... killing a dog means an oath with the life of the whole clan, which in case of violation of the oath will be destroyed by evil spirits...

It should also be known, that... urination [in particular cases]..., portraying other people and beings in a bad state... results in a spell... A dog killed and buried in a place of a future settlement, will protect this settlement, so... [break in the record].

57. If an agreement, sealed by a witnessed oath, has not been carried by one of the agreed, the other has a right to complain to a judge and, under a court decision, to take hold peacefully or by force what the violaror swore by...

59. About the code of conduct at the public gatherings...

Everybody is obliged to revere Tangra, spirits and their stars, for which to assemble seven obligatory public gatherings... During the prayers the woman should always be separate from the men... The Kam-Boyans are not admitted to the Great Prayers (“Great Prayer“ is “Men Tayre“, see above - Translator's Note)...

Let the Hons (soldiers) unite by 40 [men] into Djurashes (military affiliations) in the Chumar in the north, and in the Nardugan in the south, and leave the villages and cities to the forested Audan-Dulo, steppe Tatyrany and mountain Burtasy (locations of the temporary residence for the Djurashes), where they shall swear to Birgün to revenge the death of Alp Nardugan, and shall live in the autumn till the military assembly (in November, before the Kaz omese), and in the winter till the Süren (in March), but not less than 40 days... Let the tribute be paid to them in their tübas as they require, and if it is not paid, they have a right to take it by force... Let it be regarded as a tribute from Ashna to Birgün for not saving her husband... Let the Hons-Djurashes (Hon-Turchi) ware the masks and clothes of the kukers (inhabitants of the heaven), because they protect the tübas from the evil spirits who can revenge if they see the real face... Let the old soldiers be like the wolves and dress in the wolf, bars (tiger) and bear hides and bureks (“wolf hoods“), and the young shall be in sheep (goat) and bull costumes, and the old shall teach the young, and the young shall learn from the old before the young receives bureks (clothing and rights of the old)...

During the autumn (Chumar) and the winter (Nardugan) meals and festives, i.e. during ashnyaks (where are especially revered Birgün Audan and Saban-Djimesh or Audan) the women are forbidden to disturb the solitude of the men, and the men are forbidden to disturb the solitude of the women. However, a group of men, with a consent and by the choice of the women, can protect the gathering of the women from a distance, but doing this, they should simulate to be the “sisters“ and carry female names, or imitate an animal...

At this time are allowed fighting encounters and secret theft by small forces of the cattle from the pastures, but without an unnecessary bloodshed, and nobody is responsible for a death in the fighting...

But all this does not apply to the merchants, the life and goods of which are always inviolable...

If the ashnyak took place in the autumn, then in the winter in Nardugan the Djureshes conduct only an one-day gathering of the tribute...

Should not be emphasized that in one place Birgün is called Bay Terek, in another Karabag, in a third Djam, in the fourth Kysh-Tarkhan, in the fifth Kermes, in the sixth Audan, in the seventh Mar, in the eighth Ryshtau [Rustam - a note in the margin], in the ninth... and also that in the different places the Alps are also called differently. But everybody (during the gathering) should pray identically...

The city Karamats (Karamadji) (Sacred Grove, Temple - Translator's Note) should be... identical and have walls in seven spans, three gates, eastern, northern, and southern, in the corresponding spans, and in the place of the southern gate should be a joint of spans... Near the uba should be erected a high tower, Istanbulgan (Istambulgan) or Iskel (“Holy Khan's Tower“)... On the walls of the Karamats... shall be depicted the signs

Tangra,  , ,
First Alp Birgün    ,
Alp Saban Subash Mardukan (Nardugan)  Õ ,
Alp Kubar   ,
Tamga of Idel, the seven-point star -  

[break in the record].

Conspectus of “Djagfar Tarihi“ fragments
(stolen? or copied?)  “NIGMATULLIN'S TEXT“)
Historical background

After two decades of the Byzantine control, mass rebellions broke out aimed at restoring the Danube Bulgaria state. The first one rose in Belgrade (present-day capital of Serbia) in the 1040. It was headed by Peter Delyan, called Batyr Djilan (djilan is snake in Kipchak Türkic). In the conspectus of the Gazi Baba records, he was a grandson of the glorious tsar Samuel, and son of the tsar Gabriel Radomir from his first wife, the daughter (Hedvig ? an unlikely candidate to pass along a Türkic royal memory) of the Hungarian king Stephen I (Vaik Arpad, István, reigned 997-1038). The rebellion, backed by the Djilan's uncle, the Hungarian king Peter Orseolo (aka Urseolo, reigned 1038 - 1041), ended with Peter Delyan being proclaimed a Bulgarian Kagan/tsar. Peter Delyan reigned for two years (1040-1041) and succeeded in liberating a great part of the Bulgarian lands. The insurrection collapsed quickly when the Kagan was treacherously blinded by his second cousin with royal blood, Ulushuyan, aspiring to the Bulgarian throne.



... In the Davat-Hané (State Archive) about Batyr Djilan, the son of Baradj (aka Gabriel Radomir, 1014 - 1015, the eldest son of Shamil  - Translator's Note), the grandson of Shamil (Samuil) (aka Samoil, Samuel, 976-1014 - Translator's Note)...  was preserved a following story ... He received his name Djilan because he was born in the Year of the Snake (981 AD). His mother named him Batyr - in memory of Asparuh, who had a nickname Madjar or Batyr... In the Madjarian (Hungarian) monastery where he lived, he was constantly tormented by a desire to restore the house (state) of his father and grandfather. To satisfy somehow this desire, Djilan-Batyr wrote a history of the Burdjan... He wrote from the memory, since all the archives of the Burdjanian Khans was seized by the Kreshes (Byzantines)... But that has only strengthened his desire, and gradually it came to completely diminate all his thoughts. In the result he became so reckless that at an old age he moved from his quiet monastery to the home of ancestors, to the Kubardara (Macedonia) responding to a call of the  Burdjanian Bulgars who rose there against the Kreshes...

Pleased with his coming, the Burdjanians immediately elected him a Kagan of the Ulag-Bulgar, and the deposed leaders, by the old Bulgarian custom, were killed... Not being able, because of the old age, to participate in the war against the Kreshes, Djilan-Batyr only read the prayers, and his commanders were winning one victory after another... It came to a point that just an arrival of a small file of the poorly armed Burdjans, the Kagan(emperor) of the Rum fled in a horror together with his huge army. In the abandoned wagon train the Kapagan Djurash (Manuel Ivets ? - Translator's Note) found the things and the books of the former Bulgarian Khans, which were immediately brought to the Kagan Djilan-Batyr... At that moment of the highest glory of the Burdjanian Kagan he send a Hungarian djur Alat Bahta... to the Ak-Bulgarian Kan Baluk (Kan Ashraf Baluk, 1025, 1028 - 1061 - Translator's Note) with rich gifts and a request for help... Together with him to the Bulgar also left the ambassador Istan of the Urum-Baba (the Roman Pope) in the Burdjan, one of the descendants of Lachyn (i.e. Rurik, 855 - ca 882, a descendent of Atilla from Dulo dynasty - Translator's Note)...

On the way to the Ak-Bulgar one of the Alat companions was seized by the Balynians, and the Balynian Bek (Yaroslav I the Wise ? - Translator's Note) found out about the purpose of the embassy... Needing a glorious and victorious war to rectify the unpleasant impression from the failure of the Gilas Khin raid to Bashtu, Ashraf-Kan sent to the aid of Djilan-Batyr a division of Kumans headed by Kur-Batyr. But when he arrived to the Sula (Danube), the Burdjan was already taken again by the Kreshes. And the Bek of Bashtu also sent an army to the Burdjan, but to the aid of the Kreshes. However, this help did not help the Urumkhan (Byzantian emperor) (Michael IV, 1034-1041, or Michael V, 1041-1042 - Translator's Note)...

Being unable to defeat the Burdjanian Bulgars in an open and honest fight, the impious Kreshes applied to their favorite way of fight against their opponents... and sent to the camp of Djilan-Batyr his relative, Ulushuyan (aka Aleutian, second son of John Vladislav and a second cousin of Djilan-Batyr, who was a patrician and commander of Theodosiopolis in Armenia - Translator's Note). The father (John Vladislav, reigned 1014-1015, a cousin and murderer of Baradj aka Gabriel Radomir - Translator's Note) of this Ulushuyan was distinguished only by his treacherous, from the behind, murdering of the Djilan-Batyr's father... Ulushuyan himself was even more inutile hominid than his father, and for the profits did not even loathe to join one vile Judean sect of the Ariyaks (Armenians). When that was discovered, the Urumkhan wanted to execute the sectarian, but then came the news about the accession of Djilan-Batyr in the Burdjan, and Urumkhan decided to ruin the Kagan of the Burdjanians with the help of Ulushuyan. The infidel, on behalf of the emperor, was urged to destroy Djilan-Batyr... in exchange for his life and a rich reward, and he agreed without hesitation, and went to Kubardara (Ohrid ? Kubardara = “Kubar-river“ = r. Vardar - Translator's Note) with pleasure.

There he informed the Burdjanian Kagan that a unit of Kreshes and mercenary Balyns (Ruses) is moving toward the Kubardara. That was a part of the Balyn army, sent by the Bashtu Bek to the Urumkhan, but very soon they escaped the influence of the Kreshes and went on their own started to despoil and plunder the Burdjanian and Kreshian settlements. Therefore, the Urumkhan  allowed Ulushuyan to wipe out that rebellious group in order to gain the trust of the Burdjanian Kagan, and to carry out the evil plan. Kapagan Djurash, sent by the Kagan to the specified by Ulushuyan place, really has found Balyns there... Waiting out until the drunk Balynians fell asleep, Djurash with hid people captured them and took them to the Kagan... In memory of the Burdjans blinded by the Kreshes, all the captured were blinded... At a feast to celebrate the victory the people of the executed leaders, and the Khudaiyars who saw in the sectarian one of their men, started shouting that Ulushuyan would bring them military success, and demanded to install him at the head of the army. Almost nobody was listening to Djurash, who questined the sincerity of Ulushuyan and tryed to bring the people to reason, and the Kagan had to accomplish the demand of the crowd.

After that, Ulushuyan asked Kagan to where it would be better to lead the army, and the Kagan  told him... Ulushuyan immediately led most of the ragtags, armed with the best weapons, to the Bagyl (Solun, the site of the decisive battle? - Translator's Note) place ordered by the Kagan, and succeeded in informing the Kreshes about it. Those suddenly attacked and decimated almost all the lubbers. With a handful of escapees Ulushuyan returned to the quarters and, publically accusing the Kagan in the defeat, demanded election of a new Kagan. In fact, in accordance with an old custom of the Bulgars, a Kagan could be overthrown and even killed in case of a major failure in a war. Djilan-Batyr and Djurash gave a number of excuses for the vindication, but the mob did not listened to them and elected a new Kagan Ulushuyan. Feeling more confidently, Ulushuyan told the mob: “By the custom we should execute our former Kagan, who ceased seeing the future. But I do not wish that I also, like my father, was accused of fratricide. Therefore I suggest to only blind Djilan-Batyr“... The sons of the executed leaders, and the Khudaiyars headed by Ulushuyan, tied down Djurash and blinded Djilan-Batyr. After that, Ulushuyan in the first night flew back to the Urumkhan with a joyful news for him, and was forgiven and generously awarded...

In the morning the people at once recovered from the intoxication, learned the truth, and freed Djurash from the shackles, and began convincing him to lead them. But the Kapagan with the blinded Kagan and with the most noble men parted from them... On the way to a mountain refuge the Kagan decided to send his son Mamil with a part of Burdjanian royal archive to the Sula (Solun - Translator's Note) to meet the Ak-Bulgarian army and and to hire Madjars... The majority of the mob also fled to Sula and has distracted the Kreshian guards. because of that Mamil managed... to meet Kur-Batyr and to inform him about the occupation of the Burdjan by the Kreshes... Disturbed by the movements through the Sula, many thousand of the Burdjans, Madjars... did not allow Mamil start gathering a new army, but took in his people... At the same time the mercenary Balynians from one side,  and the Kreshes from another side began approaching the mountain refuge, intended to revenge for the blinded comrades...

Kagan Djilan-Batyr, learning about it, and also learning that the hope for the aid by the Madjars have failed, ordered the Kapagan Djurash to surrender the fortification to the Kreshes, to preserve the life at least to some nobles... The Urumkan, almost not p[aying attention to the mob... and afraid only of Djilan-Batyr, came to an indescribable joy from the news about the capture of the Burdjanian Kagan. He even dared to meet the unit which was carrying captives at a safe distance from Istanbul (Constantinopole), to create an impression of his personal participation in the victorious affair... The people of the Rum welcomed him as a great commander, which increased the joy of the emperor. In that circumstance he preserved the life to the most noble captives and put them in a dungeon. But after the a soon death of Djilan-Batyr, who was broken from the ingratitude of the crowd and the loss of the last hopes for freeing the land, Urumkhan  released some of the nobles.. .. Mamil, married to the daughter of one of the descendants of the Kagan Azan, remained in the Madjar and came to the Ak-Bulgar a few times with the Madjarians and Altynbashian (Roman - Translator's Note) ambassadors. In one of these visits he accepted the true belief... and presented the Kan Akhad with the list of the Khans from the clan Dulo ... A part of his descendants returned to the service of the Urumkhan and to the error of the Tri-deity, out from the desire to live in the land of the ancestors

[break in the record].

Conspectus of “Djagfar Tarihi“ fragments
(Sacred grove, Temple)

... The biggest and beautiful gate, with wooden columns decorated with skilful carvings, stood at the eastern side... To the right of the eastern gate towers were being built towers.., which were thought to be inhabited by all kinds of Baradjes: Elbegens, Alabugas, Leugens, Atryaches, Küngoshes, Simbirs... They were believed to protect the Karamats from the unclean forces and blasphemers. I saw the images of these Baradjes: some had the heads of the bulls, the others of the cocks, the third of the tigers, the fourth of the dogs, the fifth of the eagles... In the Bulyar the Karamats were also on the hill Balyn-Kasé or Djerem-Shan (this is a famous hill 10 km from Bulyar, later known as Batu-hill, later converted to a Moslem sacred place, and later apprehended and converted to Russian Orthodox miracle spring, active nowadays and known for its miraculous healing powers - Translator's Note), in large village Tytyak, in the place Djurdizé, in... in the Bolgar..., in the Gülistan

[break in the record].

Fargat Nurutdinov


The subject of this article should excite everybody: the treasures of the famous kings, but not only about them.

Everybody  knows that the most sensational archeological discovery in the history of the mankind was the finding by the German researcher Heinrich Schliemann  (1822-1890) of both capitals of the Near-Eastern Bulgars at once, the cities of Atryach (“Troy“) in Turkey and Meken (“Mycenae“) in Greece.

The Bulgars as ethnos arose in the Itil-Ural area on the basis of merging a part of local Saklans (eastern Arians) and newcoming Finno-Ugrs into one people. One of the Türkified in the depths of the Asia Ugrian tribes, participating in that process, transferred to the Bulgarian people the Türkic language of the Oguz type (“Bulgarian Türki“) and a special language of the Kam-Boyans (shamans of the ancient Bulgarian religion, Toré or “Tengrianism“), a mix of the Türkic, Finno-Ugric, Samodian (i.e. Nenets - Translator's Note), Manchurian, and other Far Eastern languages. About 17 thousand years ago Bulgars united seven related Saklanian and Finno-Ugrian tribes of the Itil-Ural into a state Idel, “Seven (ide) Tribes (ale)“, and all these tribes began to be also called Idelians, and sometimes also Bulgars. For the Bulgarian chronists all these seven tribes were Bulgars, even though they spoke different languages. Already more than 10 thousand years ago between the Bulgars arose and then became prevailing prevailing the most ancient religion in the world, Toré (“Tengrianism“).

Separate groups of Idelians (also including Bulgars) frequently migrated from Idel to other countries: to the Ukraine, Near East, Central Asia, India, etc., where they were creating the states. We already depicted how the Idelians settled the Ukraine. I only remind that in the Ukraine since the most ancient times until the 18th century in use were two Idelian languages: a “Bulgarian Türki“ (it knew all the Cossacks ) and the Saklanian language. After the treachurous destruction by the Russian tsarism ofd the Ukrainian Kazak self-governing the “Bulgarian Türki“ was forbidden, and all Ukrainians started to speak only in the Saklanian language (it became a basis for the modern Ukrainian language).

The ancestors of the Trojan and Mikenian Bulgars left Idel to the Near East (Sumer, Turkey, Balkans) more than 10 thousand years ago. In the name of their royal dynasty, the Trojans preserved the most ancient Bulgarian name for the God, Bir Djam (Yam, Yama), and in the name of theit land they preserved the Bulgarian word il (el), i.e. “country, tribe, people“.

Let's recall that one of the princes of Troy carried a purely Bulgarian name Barys and was a son of the Trojan king Bir Djam (in the Homer's “Illiad“ whose name comes from the name of a Bulgarian tribe Kamyr-Kimer, these names are rendered in the forms “Paris“ è “Priam“). And the Mikenians preserved many Bulgarian words: mek or a mak (wolf) in the name of their capital, aga (senior, superior), and mumin or bumyn (leader) in the titles Mikenian kings (in the Greek manuscript of the Homer's “Illiad“ that reached us, this title is rendered in the form “Agamemnon“)... In addition, for it Mikenians, like in the Bulgarian custom, made masks of the deceased. These masks survived in the Mycenae and the Itil Bulgaria, and preserved the features of the ancient Bulgars, not distinct from the features of the modern Bulgars.

During the funeral of the heroes and leaders, the Trojan and Mikenian men, described by Homer, sobbed over the deceased, cut off a part of their hair, made sacrifices, had feasts, races, wrestling and fighting tournaments. Precisely the same did more than two thousand years later the Itil Bulgars, per the Ahmed Ibn Fadlan's description (922).

But the Bulgars, in the description of their neighbors, were very disjointed, since the excessive love of freedom did not allow them to submit to each other. The ancient Bulgarian saying states: “How many are the Bulgars, so many also are the Beks (Princes, Rulers)“.

At about 1200 BC the Bulgarian governors of the Troy and Mycenae quarreled and begun a fratricidal war. The Mikenians, led by Agamemnon (i.e. “Aga-Mumin“, a Superior Leader) came to the walls of the Troy, and after a 10-years siege took and destroyed it. From the Troy remained only a name, and people have forgotten where it was. In fact, this victory had so weakened the Mikenians that soon they were crushed by the wild tribes of the Dorians (the ancestors of the Greeks), who came to the Balkans from somewhere north, and the Mikenian empire metamorphosed to Greece...

However, happened something impossible, deep underground H. Schliemann not only found the Troy, but in one of its walls he found the treasures of king Bir Djam (Priam). During the WWII these treasures were taken from the Germany to Russia, which for a long time was kept as a secret...

But what the Ukraine has to do with that?  would exclaim some impatient reader. And it is because the Ukraine in the 7th century became a center of another large Bulgarian state, the Great Bulgaria, spread from the Carpathian mountains to the Altai. Every Ukrainian is a descendant of the Bulgars and others Idelians, and consequently, the Bulgarian history, beginning from Idel (which already included Ukraine) and to the disintegration of the Great Bulgaria into the Kyiv Bulgaria (Rus) and the Itil Bulgaria in the 9th century, is also his or her history.

And every Ukrainian should know that it was in the land of the Ukraine in the 1912, that was found the world's largest, after the Trojan, a hoard of the Bulgarian treasures, laid in the tomb of the well-known Kan or Kagan (king) of the 7th century Great Bulgaria Kurbat Küngrat (his names very frequently were distorted and took the forms like: “Kurt“, “Chor“, “Khort“, “Kubrat“, etc.). But before we tell about the treasure, a few words about its owner, king Kurbat - “Kubrat“.

Most information about Kurbat is found in the Bahshi Iman's collection of the Bulgarian annals “Djagfar Tarihi“(1680), and in the remarkable work of the Bulgarian scientist Hristo Todorov-Bembersky “Great Bulgaria of Kan Kubrat“. Some moments of the Kurbat's biography are reflected in the Byzantian sources and (as was shown by H.Todorov-Bembersky) in the Arabian annals.

In accordance with the “Djagfar Tarihi“, Kurbat was a descendant of the well-known Bulgarian king Atilla from a Hunnish dynasty Dulo (that dynasty ruled the Great and the Itil Bulgaria in the 2nd-16th centuries AD). The father of Kurbat was a Bek (Prince) of the Danube Bulgarian Beylik (Princedom) Alburi Askal died in the 602, during an attack on his stan Azi-Ulag (modern Romanian city Yasses) by the Avarian Bulgars. The poor Alburi was already blind at that time, and in the turmoil accidentally blundered under a horse... After the death of Alburi his Bulgarian Beylik fractured onto small principalities because the heir of the Bek, Kurbat, still was very small (Kurbat was born in 593). Kurbat's mother, Akdjan (her name in the form “Oksana“ is popular in Ukraine until now) (Ak-Djan/Oksana, the Russian spin notwithstanding, is “White Soul“, “Noble Soul“  in Türkic - Translator's Note) was from the clan Küngrat, and among her ancestors was a famous Türkic Kagan of the 6th century Idjim-Istan (Istemi-Kagan). Kurbat's Tengrian baby name was Baradj, and his adolescent name was Kurbat.

While Kurbat was small, he was in care of his uncle, Akdjan's brother Teles Yurgan (Bürgan), who succeded to hold on to a part of the Beylik. A main task for Yurgan (the Byzantines called him “Organa“) became the restoration of the unity of the Bulgarian Beylik. But many Bulgarian tribal Beys (Princes) and Bails (“Bagyls“, “Bylis“) (grandees) did not want to recognize Kurbat's authority and desperately resisted unifying attempts of Teles, with the support of the Avarian and Türkic Kaganates. In the 619 the separatists beys succeded in squashing the Kurbat's stan, and he, together with Teles, fled to Rum (so Bulgars called the Byzantium and the capital of Byzantium the city of Constantinople). The history of the Kurbat's flight to Rum was in enough detail restored by H.Todorov-Bembersky. The Byzantian emperor Heraclius (610-641 - Translator's Note) met the exiles warmly. The Byzantian sources note that the emperor paid them royal honors and granted Kurbat a title of Patrician (the highest aristocratic title of the Byzantium), which Kurbat highly valued and called that himself the rest of his life. In the H.Todorov-Bembersky's work is noted that the Arabian sources called Kurbat “Shahriar“. This word “Shahriar“ (more precisely “Shahriyar“) just is the Bulgarian equivalent of the Byzantian title “Patrician“. Certainly, Kurbat had also higher titles, but retained the title “Shahriyar“ as a sign that he is able to appreciate a true friendship. In fact, for all the time of the Kurbat's reign the peace between the Great Bulgaria and Byzantium was never broken. A fidelity to his friends, as it is seen, was a noble trait of Kurbat. The Bulgars had another equivalent of the title “Patrician“, the “Bulyar“, which also meant “Wise“. Therefore Kurbat was also called Bulyar.

Many disputes were caused and are causing now the message of the Byzantian chroniclers that one of the Bulgarian Princes during his stay in Rum has accepted Christening. But in the 619 (the 26-year old - Translator's Note) Kurbat was not yet a Prince (Governor) of the Bulgarian Beylik, the actual governor, a prince of the part of the Beylik,  was his uncle Yurgan. Therefore, most likely it was Yurgan who has accepted Christening. After that the Byzantium began helping Yurgan by all means, and in addition, to the side of Teles switched the Valachs (the ancestors of the modern Romanians) and Saklans, among whom already spread the Christianity.

Having received such a strong support, Yurgan and Kurbat come back to the Bulgarian Beylik, and in the 620 AD defeated the separatists Beys and Avars. After that victory, the unity of the Bulgarian Beylik was restored, and Yurgan voluntary transferred the full authority to Kurbat. In memory of that victory Kurbat ordered to erect in the place of the ancient stan of the Bulgarian kings Kan-Bulun (“Royal hill“), founded in the 375 AD by the Bulgarian Khan Bulümar, the city Bashtu (which means the same “Royal hill“). His younger brother Shambat, who was also carrying a nickname “Kyi“, built Bashtu in the 620 AD under an order of Kurbat, and therefore later the fortress Bashtu began to be called “Shambat“, and the whole city (the fortress with palisades) began to be called  Kyi (“Ky“ pronounced “Ki“ like in kilt +  “i“ like “y“in yolk - Translator's Note). So, the city of Kyi was formed in the 620 AD, the modern Kyiv, which became the main capital of the Kurbat's Bulgaria. (  for description of the archeological developments in Kyiv that decimate the “Tale of Bygone Years“ used in Russian historiography as a gospel - Translator's Note)

In addition to the Bashtu-Kyi, Kurbat also built many other cities: Iske Bandja (in the place of the old Roman Phanagoria) (which in turn was built by the Greeks before the 5th c. BC in the place of the Hunnogurian, i.e. Bulgarian, settlement - Translator's Note), Balyn (Balin, Balyndjer) (supposedly near v. Haidar in the Don area of the modern Kharkiv province; Balanjar was also in the Causasus, a miliatary command post Bülün - army + dhar - head -  Translator's Note), Shyger (Sugrov) on Severski Donets (present Izüm, 130 km SE of Kharkiv, on r. Severian Don - Translator's Note), Sarkel (White Veja)(Sary-kel, White Fortress - Translator's Note) on the r. Don, etc. From now on, as found H.Todorov-Bembersky, in the world the word “Bulgar“ began to be associated with “city dweller“, “townspeople“. In view of the work of the Bulgarian scientist. the most ancient Scandinavian name of the Bulgaria, Gardarika (i.e. the “Country of Cities“ in the Scandinavian) becomes transparent.

In the 635 Kurbat, taking advantage of the disorder in the Türkic Kaganate, without a war took over from the Türks the ancient Idelian possessions(Ciscaucasia, Itil region, Siberia and Kazakhstan), and immediately proclaimed himself a Kagan (emperor) of the Bulgars, and his boundless empire was called Great Bulgaria.

“Djagfar Tarihi“ preserved a little-known Tengrian name of Kurbat, “Maguly“, i.e. the “Son (uly) of the Wolf (mag, mek)“. He received this name  right after his birth, probably because his father was called Alburi, “Regal (Al) Wolf (Buri)“. But precisely this Tengrian name of Kurbat has allowed us to establish that he was sung in a Kyiv saga under a name “Mikula Selyaninov“ (Mikula is dialectal Michael, Selyaninov is attribute from “selyanin“, i.e. “settler“ - Translator's Note). The Christian Saklans casually contorted the Tengrian “Maguly“  to “Minula“, and the title “Shahriyar“ (in the Bulgarian this word meant not only a “Patrician“, but also a “townsman“, “settler“!) to the “Selyaninovich“ (which in the Saklanian also meant “sedentary“!). In same Saga, Yurgan is sung under a name “Volga“ (deformed word “Volhv“, i.e. “Wizard“), in fact the Yurgan (Bürgan) in the Bulgarian is “wizard“! The subject of the Saga “Mikula and Volga“ is a demonstration of a victory of the settled, city life (personified by Mikula-Kurbat) over the nomadic (its symbols are Volga-Yurgan and his thirty bogatyrs, later transformed by Pushkin into “Uncle Chernomor“ (“Uncle Black Sea dweller“ - Translator's Note) and thirty three bogatyrs (mighty heroes in Türkic  - Translator's Note)). And where this victory is taking place? At an ancient Bulgarian feast Akatuy- Sabantuy (“plough feast“), which was a main holiday as far back as for the Bulgars of Sumer 6 thousand years ago, and till now still is a main holiday for the Itil Bulgars of the Kazan. Do you remember, dear reader? Mikula (Kurbat) wins over the fighters in a power encounter (they could not, and he did lift the plough), and his uncle Volga (Yurgan) in a race. Now also the Bulgarian Sabantuy is done precisely with such a program (power competition and races).

But even more than that, Kurbat even entered the Kyiv annals under a name “Horiva“ (the reader should recollect that one of the forms of the Kurbat's name was “Chor/Khor“). The Itil Bulgars most frequently called Kurbat “Baradj“ and “Bulyar“ (“Wise“), and the Arabs called Kurbat “Hakim“(in Arabic “Hakim“ also means “Wise“). And that is said about Kurbat in the “Djagfar Tarihi“: “... It was a powerful king, who was loving peace, order and settled life;... in addition to Bashtu he built cities Iske Bandja, Balyn or Balyndjer, Shyger, Sarkel, Istyan... By his greatness and wisdom Kurbat reminded Tuki (Atilla), but from all occupations he was preferring the trade, and he did not personally shun from approaching the arriving from Rum(Byzantium) ships and recount the brought goods. He set up customs stations and toll ferries along all Burichay (Dniepr), they were bringing him a huge income. In all that the Kan Almysh (Khan of the Itil Bulgaria in the 895-925, who lived before in Kyiv and Karadjar - Chernigov) tried to imitate him...

For the safety of navigation... Kurbat himself sailed Burichay (Dniepr) and gave each gan (cataract) its name...

The first after Bashtu (Kyiv) cataract, as was said, he ordered to call Katrag, in honor of his favorite son Katrag, (compare C.Porphyrogenitus 300 years and two languages later: “first cataract, called Essoupi, which means in Rusian and Slavic 'Do not sleep!' - Translator's Note)
The second... - Kubar, in honor of his adopted son, (compare C.Porphyrogenitus: “second cataract, called in Rus Oulvorsi, and in Slavic Ostrovouniprach, which means 'the Island of the Cataract' “ - Translator's Note)
The third - Gulyam Süri, meaning “Spring Memorial“ and “Noise“..., (compare C.Porphyrogenitus: “third cataract also, called Gelandri, which means in Slavic 'Noise of the Cataract' “ - Translator's Note)
The fourth - Ülbarys or Leu, which means “Frightening“, “Monstrous“, (compare C.Porphyrogenitus: “fourth cataract, the big one, called in Russian Aeifor, and in Slavic Neasit, because the pelicans nest in the stones of the cataract“ - Translator's Note)
The fifth - Azbargan, which means “Excellent Shooter“, in honor of his son Azbarug (Asparuh), (compare C.Porphyrogenitus: “fifth cataract, called in Rus Varouforos, and in Slavic Voulniprach, because it forms a large lake,“ - Translator's Note)
The sixth - Kugünchagan, in honor of his wife..., (compare C.Porphyrogenitus: “sixth cataract, called in Rus Leanti, and in Slavic Veroutzi, that is 'Boiling Water'“ - Translator's Note)
The seventh - Aiyar, that means “Greedy“, “Insatiable“, (compare C.Porphyrogenitus: “seventh cataract, called in Rus Stroukoun, and in Slavic Naprezi, which means 'Little Cataract'“ - Translator's Note)
The eighth - Limangan or Balyngan, which is “Gulf Cataract“, (C.Porphyrogenitus lists only seven cataracts - Translator's Note)
The ninth - Ilyatbir (“Ruler of Flourishing Country“), a title name of his senior son Bat-Boyan,
The tenth - Lachyn, in honor of his adopted son,
The eleventh - Davylgan, which means “Churning Cataract“,
The twelfth - Kermek (“Young Hero“, “Venturer“), in honor of Kan Kermek (Hernak, Hernach, Irnik, etc, third son of Attila - Translator's Note) who founded the Bulgarian beylik...

Kurbat named the island on the Burichay, where came to rest those who passed these cataracts, Bürgan, in honor of his uncle Teles,  but the people started calling it Kurdizé or Khurdizé, “Kurbat's Stan“... On the Kurdize was set up a customs house... (compare C.Porphyrogenitus: “reach the island called St. Gregory, on which island they perform their sacrifices because a gigantic oak-tree stands there; and they sacrifice live cocks - Translator's Note)

Kurbat named the cataract behind that island Bilig - in honor of Bürgan's favorite son ...

When this task was completed, Kurbat stepped onshore and staked there his trident tipped banner... The simple Saklans and Anchians loved him very much, and called him Khur (“Khor“, “Khoriv“) and Meguly (“Mikula“)..“

In the 640es new conquerors, the Arabs, started breaking in into the Caucasus  possessions of the Great Bulgaria. At the same time, the Türkic Kagans from a clan Afshina enlisted to their service the Oguz tribe Tugyz-Ugysh and began attacking with them the Great Bulgaria from the east, and the Baltic pirates, the askals or burlaks, were coming from the north. If the marauding attacks by the pirates and nomads were chronic for Bulgaria, which knew how to fight them, the powerful advance of army of Islam was a new phenomenon, and consequently it was especially dangerous.

In the 642, (per the data given in the work by H.Todorov-Bembersky) an Arabian commander Abdurrahman for the first time broke to the N. Ciscaucasia, where he met Kurbat, who remained in the Arabs' memory under a name Shahriar (Shahriyar). True to himself, Kurbat chose to avoid a war, hated by him, and concluded with the Arabs a peace treaty. This meeting, as determined H.Todorov-Bembersky, the Arabian historian Abu - Djafar at-Tabari described in detail in his book “ Histories of kings“ (quoted here from the H.Todorov-Bembersky's work, but in some cases with our own translation): “King by the name Shahriar... went towards Abdurrahman and concluded a peace not to pay to a tribute (to the Arabs), saying the following: “I am between two enemies, one is Khazars (so Bulgars called Tugyz-Ugyshes), and another is Ruses (at-Tabari brings to his story a 9th century nickname of the Scandinavians, “Ruses“; but actually, the Bulgars in the 7th century called Scandinavians and other Baltic pirates “askals“, “burlaks“ or “Sadumians“), who are the enemies to the whole world, and in particular to the Arabs, and to fight them, except for the local people(i.e. Bulgars), nobody can. Instead of our tribute, we shall fight  Ruses and hold them with our own weapons, for them not to leave their country. Count this as our tribute and taxes we annually would do“. Abdurrahman answered (to Kurbat): “I have a superior over me (Caliph), I shall notify him“, and he sent Shahriar with one of his (people) in Surrake, who (guided Kurbat and) said: “I shall notify (Caliph) Omar“.

When Omar was told about it, he answered that it should be considered a tribute“. “Djagfar Tarihi“ preserved the news about Kurbat-Shahriyar  sending to Caliph Omar (“Umar“ or “Gumar“ in the Bulgarian) his senior son and successor Bat-Boyan Ilyatbir, who the first of the Bulgars accepted Islam and the name of the Caliph, “Gumar“ (“Umar“). Therefore in the folk legends of the Ukrainian Saklans Bat-Boyan remained under a name Bat-Umar (“Budimir“), and in the legends of the Itil Bulgars he remained under a name Kamyr-Batyr (here “Kamyr“ is a distorted “Gumar“). Bat-Boyan was also a first Bulgar who made a hadj. “... The Caliph Omar, who was considered a wisest and fairest of all the Caliphs, received Bat-Boyan and asked him: “Who were ancestors of the Bulgars and where the Bulgars live?“ Bat-Umar answered: “The ancestors of the Bulgars... are the Saklans (eastern Arians) and Türks (at that time Bulgars called with the word “Türks“  the Finno-Ugrians, Ugrians and Türkified Ugrians). And Bulgars occupy the land which was earlier called “Balyndjer“, “Djeremel“ or “Seber“. And all these names mean the same “meadow“ or “field with small thickets (i.e. forest-steppe)“. Now we call our land after our people, Bulgaria“. Caliph answered: “All the land belongs to the Almighty, in fact He created it and everything on it, therefore to call it by the name of the peoples is incorrect“. Bat-Umar agreed with it, and they decided that in his messages the Caliph will call Great Bulgaria “Balyndjer“... On the return way the Caliph again received Bat-Umar and handed him... Koran, useful books, and a green banner, for him to hand these invaluable gifts to Kurbat...

Bat-Boyan returned to the Sandugach stan (on the river Kuban), from where he arrived to Bashtu, where he handed over to his father the gifts and the message of the Caliph... After that Bat-Boyan left to his city Barys or Shirkan (“Sharukan“) on the river Seber (Northern Donets)...

But soon, unfortunately, the Caliph Umar... was wickedly killed (in the 644) by a Bardjian (Persian), who wanted to revenge the Arabs for the ravaging of the Bardjil (Persian state)...“ After that the mood of Abdurrahman changed, and he suddenly demanded from the Great Bulgaria all the Northern Caucasus. Kurbat tried to calm him, but he was restless and in the same 644 year attacked first the Great Bulgaria. “Djagfar Tarihi“ narrates how “Tazbash (the Bulgarian name of Abdurrahman, and sometimes of the Arabs and the Arabian countries) advanced to the Sandugach city and set up an ambush near it... When Bat-Umar left from the Sandugach towards the Arabs, he immediately fell into this ambush... The luck was on the side of Bat-Boyan, he saved by flight, but he has lost almost all his soldiers and the most beautiful city of Sandugach, which was ruthlessly crushed by Tazbash... Learning about this debacle, Bat-Boyan... ordered to call Tazbash “Sandugach“, for nobody to forget about his crime...

At-Tabari described this break between the Arabs and the Great Bulgaria after the death of theCaliph Omar (quoted by the H.Todorov Bembersky work, but in some cases with our own translation): “Abdurrahman (after the death of Omar) conferred with Shahriar (Kurbet) and said: “I shall conduct in these Derbend (in the Northern Caucasus) a holy war, I shall bring an army and turn the inhabitants of the cities and gorges into Moslems“. Which Shahriar (Kurbat) responded: “(But) these inhabitants, praise be to them!, do not allow the enemies to attack us!“ Abdurrahman said: “I disagree with it. Behind these Derbend (i.e. beyond Northern Caucasus) from the side where come the Ruses and Djurans (i.e. “Turan“ = Türks) is a state with many cities which is called Balandjar (Balyndjer, i.e Great Bulgaria)... I will not stop until I reach the border of the Balandjar with my army...“ And he took the army (and) went through a pass in the mountains to a campaign against Balandjar...“

However, the Bulgars, and also the Chechens (Nakhs), Ingushes (Nakhs), Laks and other peoples of the Northern Caucasus gave the conqueror such a fierce resistance that Tazbash-Abdurrahman postponed for a while his plan of a “200 farsang“ forced march (the distance from the Northern Caucasus to the Kyiv) against the Great Bulgaria - Balyndjar.

The story, preserved in the “Djagfar Tarihi“, about a treacherous depredation of the Sandugach by the Abdurrahman allowed us to establish that Abdurrahman remained in the legends of the Great Bulgaria under a name of Nightingale the Robber. Moreover, the Bulgars and Saklans even remembered the Muslim name of Abdurrahman. In one of the Kyiv Sagas the Nightingale the Robber is called... Nightingale Rahmanovich, and in a legend of the Itil Bulgars a first preacher of Islam  in the Bulgaria was called Abdurrahman (Abdurrahman really was a first spreader of the Islam in Bulgaria, but the truth is, spread by force, and, as writes at-Tabari, “he converted many cities into Islam“). But who then was Iliya Muromets? Not any other as Bat-Boyan! The people reduced his title name “Ilyatbir“ to “Ilya-Iliya“ (recollect how people reduced the name of the city Baltavar to “Poltava“), and “Muromets“ meant “the ruler of the Great Bulgaria“. The matter is that the word “Muromaya (Muravaya) was an equivalent of the popular name of the Great Bulgaria, “Balyndjer“ (“Balyndjer“ meant the “Meadow Land“ and “Great Bulgaria“ in the Bulgarian, and “Muromaya“ - “Muravaya“ meant the “Meadow Land“ and “Great Bulgaria“ in the Saklanian). At the same time, the bilingual Saklans of the Ukraine certainly also used the name “Balyndjer“ in the form “the Land of Polyan“ (“Balyn“ mutates to “Polyan“). So, the well-known “tribe“ of Polyan in the “Tale of the Bygone years“ are the citizens of the Great Bulgaria, “Polyanies“ of Kurbat! It is frightening to think that would happen if the “Djagfar Tarihi“ did not survive. So the historians would till now write that “the tribe of Polyan“ lived in the 7th century in the territory of the Ukraine, though at that time (by the data of the “Djagfar Tarihi“) the Ukraine was an advanced center of the largest state in the world, that of the Great Bulgaria of Kagan Baradj Kurbat-Küngrat-Kubrat-Shahriyar-Hakim-Horiv-Bulyar!

 As tells the “Djagfar Tarihi“, Kurbat died  in the 653. “Shortly before his terrestrial death, wrote the Bulgarian chronicler, the Great Bulgaria was again attacked by the Khazars, and he dispatched arrows to his sons (an arrow is a sign of war obliging the feudal to come to the ruler with an army) to gather the army... When the sons have gathered, Kagan (Kurbat) announced that he feels the approach of his death, and that he is leaving the power to his senior son and co-ruler Bat-Boyan. Then... he ordered to give him the arrows and, taking them in a bunch.., he said, that while arrows are together, they cannot be broken, but separately it is easy to break them, an arrow after an arrow. “Therefore you should always be together, and nobody can defeat you“, - bequeathed Kurbat to his sons.“

Küngrat died when his sons were already racing to the Shir (Don), which was approached by the enemies. Katrag, who remained with his father, managed to bring for the funeral only Bat-Boyan, who did not rode off too far. At the request of the younger son, Kurbat was buried in the Katrag's possession . H.Todorov-Bembersky makes an important point: Kurbat was buried not by the Christian, but by the ancient Bulgarian custom, and that proves that he was not a Christian. In the tomb of the king, by tradition, all were laid all his treasures, because the person, Bulgars believed, should be judged not by the size of the riches he left, but by the quantity of his kind actions.

About what happened later “Djagfar Tarihi“ tells: “When Bat-Boyan finally crossed the Shir (Don), he saw fleeing people of Kumyk (the Bulgarian military leader)... and learned that Shambat and Asparuh were already defeated and were hid in the Burtas (Middle Itil region)... Katrag from the run attacked one Khazar division busy with a crackdown, and pursued it, but it led him to the main forces of the Kagan, who has not had dismiss them yet... Katrag lost all his troops, and he himself was captured. Then Bat-Boyan ordered his soldiers to praise the power of the Almighty before the decisive fight... He and his soldiers hollered “Allah Akbar!“ so that the ground started to shake, and then attacked and defeated the Khazars... Kaban, a nephew of the killed in fight Kagan... concluded a peace with Bat-Boyan, in which the Khazars received for the settlement the land between Idel and Djam, and obligated to render a military help to the Bulgar State... In the treaty, the new Kagan calls Uguzes in the Bulgarian “Khazars“, and himself a “Kagan of Khazars“... In memory of this battle Bat-Boyan took a name Khalib (“Victor“)...

Katrag was released and received Ubek for his valor. Later he became a biy of the Burtas, and founded the city Baltavar, in memory of the center of the Kara-Saklanian (Ukrainian) province, the city Baltavar (later that name took a form “Poltava“ - F.N.). When that city grew up, it began to be called Bulgar, and the name “Baltavar“ remained only for its citadel. This citadel was also called “Mardjikan“, “Mumin“ and “Taji-balik“... Of these names  only two survived, and the third, “Taji-balik“ was given to a caravanserai (which later received another name, “Men Bulyar“ - F.N.)... The descendants of Katrag ruled Bulgar for 191 years... Soon after that Tazbash with a huge army again attacked the State (Great Bulgaria)... and besieged Bat-Boyan in Sharkel (Sarkel, White Veja). Asparuh... did not come to his aid, and only the valor of the Sharkelians saved the city and the life of the Khan... Kagan Kaban, also called Khin, appeared in time with his Uguzes, and helped Sharkelians to finish off the knocked away from the city Tazbashians... Bat-Boyan was so shocked by this attack of the Tazbashians that in a roiled state even forsook the true belief... However, he retained the name Bat-Umar in memory of the noble Caliph Umar...“Per at-Tabari, cited by H.Todorov-Bembersky in his work, this second attack of Abd-ar-Rahman against the Great Bulgaria took place in the 654. The Arabian chronicler writes that the defenders of the strongly fortified city “Belendjer“ (i.e. Sharkel) gave the conqueror a fierce resistance, and with the help of missiles and a high tower (in its honor, undoubtedly, the city was named Sharkel, i.e the “ White Tower“) struck many enemies. After a several days of the fighting, when to the aid of city came the Khazars, its defenders left the fortress and completely crushed the Arabs. Abd-ar-Rahman was killed together with 4 thousand of his warriors, and the surviving conquerors fled to Derbent. So Bat-Boyan (“Iliya Muromets“) struck the Nightingale-Robber (Sandugach, i.e. Abd-Ar Rahman).

But immediately after this brilliant victory the Great Bulgaria began to fragment. The “Djagfar Tarihi“ noted: “After the battle the Bulgarian beys of the Saksin demanded from the Khan (Bat-Boyan) that he either took the rule of the province into his hands, or transferred it under the rule of Kaban... Bat-Boyan could not keep under his control the Kara Bulgar (Ukraine) and Saksin (N. Caucasia) simultaneously, and  therefore he reluctantly gave Saksin to the Kagan. The Saksinian beys forced Kaban to drop his union with the Uguzes, and proclaimed him a Kagan. But then the Saklanian Beys turned their Kagans into the Kan-Kelbirs (Main Priests), and transferred all the authority to the Kagans-Beks, elected from the most noble Bulgarian Beys. The first Kagan-Bek was elected a Bey Oygyr Kolyn-Évén. At the same time the Beys extended to the Saksin the name of “Khazar“, because it became the name of the dynasty (of the Kagans)... Katrag, mindful... of Asparuh, whose possessions bordered his, acceded to the entreaties of Oygyr and switched to the service of Khazar...

His fears were not for nothing: in the 672 Asparuh... attacked the Ubek... In the 673 Katrag, with the help of Oygyr managed to bounce Asparuh from the Burtas..., and he went to... Shambat, who was fighting Bat-Boyan for the Bashtu... In the 674 Shambat, receiving a help from the askals (Baltic pirates), who came from a big island near Artan (Baltic), seized the Bashtu (Kyiv) and pronounced himself a Kagan of the Kara Bulgar (Black or Ukrainian Bulgaria)... Bat-Boyan retained only the steppe part of the Kara - Saklan (Black Sea and Azov coasts), but he endured that, even though he did not abdicate from the power.... Despite of Oygyr's desire to finish a war in Tubdjak, he had nevertheless to execute the will of Tangra, expressed by the Kagan Kaban... and help Bat-Boyan... Together, they kicked Asparuh out from Bashtu, and in the 677 he had to go to Ulag tuba (Danube region, Walachia), which he declared his Ulag-Bulgar Kaganate... Kyzyl-Kubar and Lachyn, who first hastened to recognize the power of Shambat, and then of Asparuh, did not have to do anything but to follow Asparuh to Ulag. They helped Atil-Kusé (“Beardless Atilla“ was a derisive nickname of Asparuh - F.N.) to add first the Angyl, and then the Bersula (the eastern part of the modern Bulgaria) and Makidan (Macedonia) to the Ulag-Bulgar. For that, Asparuh gave them Makidan as a demesne... Once an ambassador from the Altynbash (Italy) came to Lachyn and offered him to take a daughter of the deseased Altynbash Bulgars' Bek, who did not have any sons, as a wife, and to become their leader... Lachyn, whose soul was overflooded with agony that a Saklanian Bika (Knyajna which he loved)... chose to marry not for him, but Kubar, without a long hesitation went with his people to the Altynbash... and there became a polytheist (i.e. Christian). Kyzyl-Kubar remained in the Mikidan (among his descendants there were the Danube-Bulgarian Khans and the founders of the “cyrillics“, Cyril and Methodius)...“

As we can see, the will of Kurbat Küngrat has not honored by his descendants, they quarreled with each other, and divided the Great Bulgaria State into three Bulgarian empires: the Kara Bulgars (the central, Ukrainian, part of the Great Bulgaria), Khazaria (the eastern part of the Great Bulgaria) and Ulug-Bulgar (the western part of the Great Bulgaria). “Djagfar Tarihi“ preserved a curious detail of this epoch of a “great division of the Great Bulgaria“. In the heat of the cruel civil strife between the princes of the Great Bulgaria Asparuh got hold of the Koran, books, banner and the letter of the Caliph Umar. When Bat-Boyan demanded a return of these relics, Asparuh sent him a letter with these words: “... You have repudiated the true belief, and so the gifts of the Caliph also... And I, though I did not accept the Islam, I was always amicable with the Arabs, and, therefore, I have a better right to keep them myself.“ Under a banner of the Caliph Umar, from the territory of the Ulag-Bulgar (Romania, Moldova and southwest Ukraine) Asparuh attacked the Byzantium (in the 679) and wrestled Moesia and Macedonia from it. The Danube-Bulgarian Khans, the descendants of Asparuh,- kept the Islamic relics as the greatest relics until the acceptance of Christianity in the 865. In the 866 the ambassadors of Danube-Bulgarian Khan Barys (“Boris-Michael“) asked the Pape Nicolaus I what to do with the green banner and Muslim books. The Pope answered that the banner should be made into a cross, and the Muslim books should be “surely burned“ (F.V.Salihova. Question about acceptance of the Islam by the Bulgars. Za-Kazanie: problems of history and culture. Kazan, 1995, p. 147-148). The further fate of the Caliph Umar gifts is unknown...

Hard to tell how long Bat-Boyan warried about the loss of these relics. In the 682 he accepted Christianity and allowed the Christian preachers from the S. Caucasia to destroy some Tengrian sacred relics of the Bulgars.

This act terribly aggravated Oygyr, the actual head of the Khazar. In spite of the fact that the Kagan was always friendly with Bat-Boyan, Oygyr forced Bat-Umar to pay a tribute to the Khazar, and revenged the S. Caucasia for the destruction of the Tengrian prayer places by raiding the Caucasian Albania and Armenia. The Bulgarian horsemen chained in iron, crushed the armies of the Albanian, Georgian and Armenian Princes and captured a huge booty. Even centuries later, the Armenian chroniclers were recollecting this invasion of the Khazar Bulgars with a shudder. From that time the Caspian sea began to be called a Bulgarian or Khazar sea.

As is noted in the “Djagfar Tarihi“, Bat-Boyan (“Iliya Muromets“) was strongly upset when the “Christian gods and saints“ did not help him in his conflict with the Khazaria, and he returned to the Tengrianism. And for the Tengrian saints to have forgiven to him his sacrilege of the 682, Bat-Boyan initiated a pogrom of a Christian church in the Bashtu. In the Kyiv Saga “Iliya's Revolt against Vladimir“ this event is described as follows:

“Here to Ilüshenka began to be hot:
Soon he tensioned a tight bow,
Put a tempered arrow,
Shoot he here into God's churches,
God's churches and strange crosses,
Their cupolas gilded.
Ilya exclaimed by all muzzle,
In all muzzle with a loud voice:
“Hey you, pub paupers, Khan's lakeys!
Come to drink with me the green wine,
Strip the cupolas gilded!“
... Are selling the cupolas (church domes) gilded...“

In memory of his coming back to the Tengrianism, Bat-Boyan erected in Bashtu (Kyiv) a huge monument to the revered Tengrian spirit Birgün (“Perun“ of the later Kyiv annals). The mentioned in that Saga “princess“ Opraksiya was, actually, the daughter of Bat-Boyan Abrak-kyz, given in marriage (by the demand of Oygyr) to the Kagan Kaban, and the “Prince Vladimir“ is the Kagan Kaban himself (his Bulgarian name is just translated into Russian with the word “Vladimir“). As is noted in the “Djagfar Tarihi“, Oygyr agreed to reconcile with Bat-Boyan only after he married his daughter to the Kagan Kaban, and returned to the Tengrianism. Oygyr Kolyn-Even  himself was included in Rus Sagas under a name “king Kalin“ (the Saga “Iliya and King Kalin“). The Kyiv Sagas was also preserved the names of the father-in-law of Bat-Boyan, the Caucasian prince Arslan Alban Ryshtau (priest Levonty Rostovsky in the Saga “Ilya Muromets and Idol in Kyiv“, and others), of the wife of Bat-Boyan, the daughter of Arslan Alban Ryshtau Djuba-Bika, to whom Bat-Boyan gave as a present his favorite possession, the settlement Batavyl - “Putivl“ (epic “Putyatichna Toy“), of the son of Arslan Alban Ryshtau, Alasha, who was serving Bat-Boyan (epic “Alesha Levontievich Popovich“).

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Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3
Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Chapters 1-5 · Chapters 6-10 · Chapters 11-15 · Chapters 16-20 · Chapters 21-25 and Ghazi-Baradj · Appendix
In Russian
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali Biography
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
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