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MIKAIL BASHTU IBN SHAMS TEBIR
SHAN KYZY DASTANY
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Contents
Biography - a little of what we know
Actors and personalities
A little glossary

Links

http://ziezi.net/volga/
http://tribal.abv.bg/volga/  Text in Russian (inactive?, see http://www.abv.bg/?)

Introduction

Written in 882, the poem of Mikail Bashtu reached us in a form that during its millennium-long life had little chance to survive intact. Its original language had been changed, we know only a Russian line-by-line translation; its original contents went through generations of narrators and storytellers, and religious and political editing. The poem reached us in a handwritten copy in Russian language, made in Kyzyl Yar in the northern Kazakhstan by Ibrahim Mohamed-Karim Nigmatulin (188? -1941), possibly prompted by the global state campaign of confiscation all written materials in alien languages. The poem was first published in Turkey in Turkish in 1991, in 1992 the poem was published in Kyiv in Ukrainian, and in 1997 the poem was published in Sofia in Bolgarian and Russian. For negative opinions and dismissals an inquiring reader can search the Web, there are quite a few morsels, some of them quite entertaining. In its motherland, the Tatarstan in Russia, the poem had not yet been published, and still goes around as samizdat clandestine print. Yet. Officially, the poem does not exist or, when cornered, is brushed aside as a falsification not to be honored by acknowledging, and definitely not deserving a printed and bound form. For comparison, the pearls like the" Protocols of the Elders of Zion" and "Veles Book" were published and republished in Russia in zillions dozens of times. Such a poignant stand may be a best monument to the timeless creation of the great author. The irony is that a reader of this page from, say, New Zeeland, has a chance not given to the native population by its mother country.

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CONTENTS

 

Section I. ACTS OF ALPS AND GENIES

1. AS ALMIGHTY CREATED ALPS

2. AS ALMIGHTY CREATED PEOPLE

3. AS ALPS WANTED TO RUIN PEOPLE

4. HOW ALBASTYI SOLD HIS SOUL TO A SHAITAN

5. AS AJDAHA FOUGHT WITH PEOPLE

6. AS LAISH WENT TO THE NORTH

7. ABOUT SOME STRONG ALPS

8. AS GALI PUNISHED ALP KUYAN

9. ABOUT DAMNED JOREGS

10. ABOUT THE ALP BOYAN AND HIS SONS

11. AS IDJIK GOT MARRIED

12. AS WAS RENEWED THE PEOPLE OF HONS

Section II. ROAD TO THE SHAN-ALBAN DAUGHTER'S HOUSE

21. AS AT FOUND TULPAR

22. AT LEARNS ABOUT THE BEAUTY BOZ BIY

23. AT MEETS WITH ARBUGA AND PARTICIPATES WITH HIM IN THE CAMPAIGN OF ALAMIR

24. AT AND TARVIL BECOME FRIENDS AND NAME THEMSELVES BULGARS

25. AT SEPARATES FROM TARVIL AND SEARCHES FOR BOZ BIY ALONE

26. AT MEETS TAT IRAN

27. TARVIL RESCUES AT, BUT AGAIN SEPARATES WITH HIM

28. AUDAN'S VOYAGE BY SEA

29. AS AT AND TARVIL MEAT AGAIN

30. FRIENDS PUNISH DEMON AJDAHA AND GO TO RESCUE BOZ BIY

Section III. FIGHT WITH JOREGS

31. AS WERE STOLEN THE HEAVENLY LUMINARIES

32. AS AT FELL OUT WITH TARVIL AND WAS RESCUED BY ARBUGA

33. AS BECAME THREE BULGAR FRIENDS

34. CAPTURE OF JOREG'S TOWER

35. BATTLE IN THE TAM'S UNDERGROUND WORLD

Section IV. BROTHERS FIND THEIR HAPPINESS

41. AT LEADS FREED BOZ BIY TO HER FATHER

42. AT IN THE LAND OF SABANS

43. MEETING OF AUDAN WITH SHAN ALBAN

44. AS TARVIL ACTED AS AUDAN'S MATCHMAKER

45. WEDDING OF THREE ELBIRS

46. THREE ELBIRS MOVE TO BULGARIA

47. AS TULPAR AND AT DIED

Mikail Bashtu Ibn Shams Tebir
(Mikail Bashtu)
820 - 900

Note. Most of the dates are found in the sources, but some are interpolated as plausible approximations - Translator's Note

Mikail Ibn Shams is better known under his name Mikail Bashtu

Genealogy of Mikail Bashtu Ibn Shams Tebir

Sindj, a merchant, native of India. Sindj was one of the first in the Khurasan (NE part of Persia) to accept Islam from the Arabs,

his son was Abdallah, a mullah in the Northern Dagestan

Abdallah started a translation of all official documents of the kingdom from the old Bulgarian alphabet "kunig" (aka "Runic" script) to the Arabic script.

His son was Shams, a mullah in the Kara Bulgar, i.e. in the Western Bulgaria

Abdallah and Shams made a big contribution to the spread of Islam among the western Bulgars, and they were renown theologians.

His son was Mikail Ibn Shams (ca 820 - 900), from Bashtu (modern Kyiv) and a Tebir (secretary), hence his name Mikail Bashtu Ibn Shams Tebir

His son was Abdallah, a mullah, theologian, historian. He was the author of the book "Khazar History" and a well-known poem "Kisekbash kitaby". Mullah Abdallah went a few times to the city of Bagdad, trying to convince the Caliph to recognize the Itil Bulgaria as a Muslim state. In the 921 he managed to attain that a Great embassy of the Caliph was sent to the Itil Bulgaria, with which he returned to the Bulgaria in the 922.

Mikail Bashtu was a mullah, theologian, chichan (poet) and historian. Mikail Bashtu earned respect and long remembrance of the Bulgars for his life-long service.

819 AD (203 A.H.) The father of Mikail Bashtu, mullah Shams, who later adopted the name Bashtu and is known in the Moslem world as Shams Tebir or Shams Bashtu, for the first time converted to Islam a ruler of the Kara Bulgarian state, Kan Urus Ugyr Aydar (819-855),.

835 (220 A.H.) Mikail Bashtu is as a secretary in the office of Kara Bulgarian Kan Urus Ugyr Aydar (819-855), he completed a translation, started by his grandfather Abdallah, of all official documents of the kingdom from the old Bulgarian alphabet "kunig" to the Arabic script.

835 (220 A.H.) Michail Bashtu is a mullah in the city of Kyiv

835 (220 A.H.) From the hands of mullah Michail Bashtu a most numerous and powerful Sabanian clan Baryn in the Dniepr basin accepted Islam.

835 (220 A.H.) Michael Bashtu examined texts written in "samra", the original "runic" type script that became a basis for Türkic alphabet and picked out the ancient words that could be used by mullahs in speeches and notes. A century later, Ahmed ibn Fadlan (aka Bakir) left that decision to stand, but forbade the Moslems to use "samra".

840 (225 A.H.)  Mikail Bashtu managed a first census of the Kara Bulgar population. It turned out that in the Internal Kara Bulgar lived 500 thousand people, of them 50 thousand were Bulgars. In the Balyn (Northeast Rus, Volynia), which was a tribute dependency of the  Kara Bulgar, lived 600 thousand people. In the External Kara Bulgar and in the Princedom Bulgar of the Kara Bulgar lived 173 thousand taxpayers. The tax rate in the Kara Bulgar was a cost of one marten pelt per year from a household.

855 (240 A.H.) Gabdulla Djilki was raised to the Bulgarian throne after the Aydar's death, supported mainly by the Muslim nobles. That displeased the Tengrian part of the Bulgarian nobles, who during Aydar's reign conceded a significant part of their power to the Bulgarian Muslim nobles. The younger brother of Djilka, Lachyn (Rürik for Anchians), headed dissatisfied Tengrians and started a revolt against Gabdulla. The Aydar's faithful ally Byzantium,  and Khazaria supported the Tengrian Lachyn in a civil war. In the beginning Gabdulla was victorious over Lachyn and his Khazarian allies.

 860 (245 A.H.) Bulgarian fleet consisting of the Anchians' ships under command of the head of the Anchians Djir and Scandinavian Varyag () mercenaries under Askold ravaged the palisades of the Byzantium capital.

 864 (249 A.H.) Lachyn with his allies suddenly attacked Gabdulla Djilki in his summer residence (batavyl) Khorysdan (nowadays - Putivl). Djilki retreats to the Bulgarian capital Bashtu, but the Kyivans, led by Askold, tied up Djir, and announced to Djilki: 'We shall not let you into the capital, Kan,  until you resolve in the field your dispute with your brother Lachyn about the ascendancy'. Gabdulla Djilki beat off the attack by Lachyn, and expelled Askold from Bashtu.

865 (250 A.H.) Aggravated by the betrayal of the Kyivans, Djilki moved the capital of the Bulgarian state from Kyiv to Bulgar, and moved there a part of the Moslem Kara Bulgars. The Ukraine was split into two allodial (autonomous) Beyliks: a Kyiv Beylik (the right-bank part of the Ukraine) and a Kara-Bulgarian (the left-bank part of the Ukraine). Anchian Bek Djir was appointed the head of the Kyiv Beylik, and a senior son of Gabdulla Bek Almysh Djafar was appointed the head of the Kara-Bulgarian Beylik.

865 (250 A.H.) Michail Bashtu is a mullah in the city of Bulgar

865-882 (250 A.H.-268 A.H.) Mikail Bashtu wrote the poem "Shang kyzy dastany" (Poem of the Shan daughter). Mikail Bashtu reworked the Ancient Bulgarian myths and legends, including the songs of Kuban, composed in the legend "Shan Talgau" written by his famous predecessor, Attila's pra-pra-grandson Boyan-Chelbir Sandugach (Gr.  Sindilh probably from Shan Talgau, Slav. Solovey, ruled 535-590; for etymology of Sogd. word see A.Dybo 2007 Lingivistical Contacts Of Early Turks ). In the Mikail Bashtu's poem the contents of the old Bulgar dastan about the feats of three co-fraterns-bogatyrs (elbirs) were fused with new themes. The poem was learned by heart by many, and it became a part of the national wedding ritual.

865-900 (250 A.H.-286 A.H.) After relocating with Kan Djilki to the Middle Itil region, mullah Bashtu was actively spreading Islam in the Itil Bulgaria, and he organized elementary schools at the mosques, called mektebe. 42 mektebes were opened in the 865-882, during rule of Kan Djilki, due to the mullah Bashtu's labors. In the period from 882 to 900 were opened another 180 mektebes. In all, in 35 years Mikail Bashtu established 222 mektebes. The children were taught to read and write, read hadises, the religious books, and learnt by hart some ayats, small fragments from Koran..

865-900 (250 A.H.) Mikail Bashtu organized a prospecting for the deposits of iron, gold, silver, copper, coal and jewels in the Ural mountains.

865-900 (250 A.H.-286 A.H.) Mikail Bashtu was instrumental in inducing, as their Vizier, the Kans Djilki and Almysh to patronize the trade, by persuading them that their kingdom "will be as strong, as strong would be the trade". On the advice of Mikail Bashtu they subordinated the northern peoples and equipped and secured the trading roads which were criss-crossing Bulgaria.

890 (276 A.H.) Mikail Bashtu organized a Bulgarian coin mint in the Bulgar city.

895 (281 A.H.) Almysh was raised to the Bulgarian throne after the Djilki's death and became a Kan of Itil Bulgaria

900 (286 A.H.) Mikail Bashtu died during a trip to the Urals, in a night storm on the Kama near the city Yar Chally, the present Naberejnye Chelny, when the vessel where Mikail was spending a night capsized, and he drowned. Mikail Bashtu left a famous son, Abdallah ibn Bashtu, who was a mullah, theologian, historian, the author of the book "Khazar History", sited by the Moslem writers. A few times Mullah Abdallah went to Bagdad, to convince the Caliph to recognize Itil Bulgaria as a Muslim state. In the 921 he succeeded to have a Great embassy of the Caliph sent to the Itil Bulgaria, and Bulgaria recognized as a Muslim state. Abdallah ibn Bashtu was a head of the Moslems in the Itil Bulgaria, and a Vizier of Kan Almysh.

 
Actors and acting personalities

At, Audan-Dulo - main hero, prince, son of Kan Idjik, Khan Attila Dulo >>

Alamir = Alexander the Great, aka Alexander Macedonian, well known in the Türkic folklore for fending off Macedonian attacks in Thrace and in Middle Asia.

Alvar = aka Alvar Askal, Askal Dulo (ca. 577-602), killed by his brother Apsikh Avar  Dulo >>

Arbuga = "ar" - man + "buga/bugay" - bull, i.e. Bull-Man, maybe semantically akin to "Giant-Man"

Atil = "ata" -father + "il" - land, i.e. fatherland, native land. In Middle Ages Danube-Prut-Dniester-Dnieper interfluvials were called Atil-kiji - "motherland people land" (dial. Atil-kiji, Etil-kiji)

Atile = aka Attila, Attila, Audan-Dulo, At (b. 406, 434-453) >>

Aydar = Urus Ugyr Aydar Dulo (819-866), present Russian form of the name is "Gaydar/Gaidar" >>

Boyan = aka Boyan-Imen, an ancestral storyteller and singer and lover of music from tribe Imen, appearing in the Slavic folklore as a proper name for a legendary and prophetic teller-singer. The Slavic folkloric Boyan, as well as boyan/bayan musical instrument may well refer to a specific, with time becoming a legendary, person of Kan Boyan-Chelbir or Sandugach, Shan Talgau, Sindilh, Utrik Dulo (535-590), a pra-pra-grandson of Attila. He entered the Bulgarian history as the great poet, musician and music player, assembled ancient Bulgarian myths and legends into a legend "Shan Talgau" ("Tale about Shan"), from which Michael Bashtu in the 882 created his epic poem "Shan kyzy dastany". People also called Boyan-Chelbir "Sandugach" ("Nightingale") and "Shan Talgau" ("Sandilh" in Greek). As a head of the state, Boyan-Chelbir doubled as a prime cleric, and was leading the people in prayers to Tangra. The Sandugach, a favorite encampment capital of Boyan-Chelbir on the river Kuban, existed until destroyed in the 640 by the Arab invaders. >>

Bulan = Bolan - "Deer", nickname and also light yellowish hue of horse

Bulümar = Gr. Balamber Dulo (ca. 363-378) >>

Chakchak = Flower

Djilka = Horse, Djilka Dulo (ca. 343-363)  >>

Djilka = Horse, Djilka Dulo (ca. 855-882)  >>

Duloba = "Dulo" - the name of the dynasty to which belonged, among many others, Attila and Kurbat/Kubrat + "oba" - country, place to live, encampment, etc., akin to IE's root in "habitat", "obituary" etc. Duloba is the "Duleba" of the Rus' annals, country of Dulo dynasty

Gazan = Gazan Dulo ca. 320-343. Gazan may be a dialectal pronunciation of the generic name for the legendary Kushan primogenitor (Kushan => Gazan) leader who established a Hunnish state in the Itil-Kama interfluvial   >>??

Kurbat Bashtu = aka Gr. Kubrat (620-660), son of Danube Bulgarian Beylik ( Princedom) Kan (Khan) Alburi Aspar Askal Dulo (593-602).  >>

Mal = "mal"- cattle, a protector of shepherds, equivalent of St. Drogo in the Catholic hierarchy, later known from annalistic sources as a name of a tribal leader of "Drevlyane", a Slavic rendering with a meaning of "Forest People" of Agathirs, i.e. the "Forest People", in the same Volyn geographical area in the early Middle Age times

Shambat = son of Danube Bulgarian Beylik ( Princedom) Kan (Khan) Alburi Aspar Askal Dulo (593-602), his name was mentioned by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the De Administrando Imperio as "city of Kyiv, also called Sambatas", junior brother of Khan Kurbat and uncle of Khan Asparukh

Tangra = aka Tengre, Tingir, Dingir etc., a God-Sky, Supreme God, Almighty, Creator

Ulchi = Slavs from Danube territories, "Ulichi" of the Rus' annals

More later

Glossary

A small glossary of the patently Türkic words that were not translated into Russian but are used as Türkic loanwords. Some of the words have Slavic or Indo-European synonyms, the others are direct borrowings without synonyms. Also included in this glossary are the references for the dynastic personalities and geographical locations.

aksakal = "ak" - white + "sakal" + beard, i.e. white-bearded, i.e. elder man

archa = a desert heavily thorned tree renown for its survivalist abilities

argamak = "noble horse"

arkan = arkan, noose

aul = village, usually summer or mountain village, versus kishlak - a permanent winter village

bal = honey

Baran = Ram

Bars = Bars, Leopard, Lion

Biy-su = river Pechora

bogatyr = mighty hero

Buri = Storm ("Burya" in Russian vernacular)

Buri-chay = "buri" - raging + "chay" - river, i.e. Raging River, present Dniepr, aka Borisphen of "unknown" Scythian etymology

Burdjan = eastern part of central-northern Caucasus, abutting the Caspian Sea

chirkes = dagger; also, mercenary. Also spelled "cherkes"

Chirmyshes = Finno-Ugrian Mojars (Magyars)

Chulman river = Kama river

Chulman Sea = Arctic Sea north of Eastern Europe and Western Asia

djura = knight

Djien = celebration and fair associated with autumn collection of taxes and holding a court by the ruling monarch, later without a monarch and even irrespective of the taxes.

Echegel = one of three major components of the Bulgarian Confederation, Esegs with the center in the city Nur-Suvar, 150 km SW of Kazan

horde = army, in English it has a meaning of "disorganized multitude", in Russian - a vague negative connotation of coherent alien power

Hur = strike, hit, and known in the European sector of the IE languages of the post-Hunnish epoch as a battle and joy cry "Hurray", "Ura", "Hurrah", "Hoorrah", "Hoorray" etc.

Itil = aka Idel, Atil, Ra, Rha, Volga, Bulga (Bulga has not been documented and remains a retroactive speculation), "idi" - great, big + "yul/yiyl" - river, i.e. Idel/Itil  = great, big river, and the Slavic form of "yiylga" =  river was enunciated as "Volga"

 jorpek = scarf

Kaf = known to us as a first syllable of the name Caucas(us), "kau/kath/kaf" - white + "kas/kaz" - rock, bluff, in the context likely referring to Caucasus range, the nearest and most familiar geographical landmark in the Scythian Eastern Europe

Kara-Djar = "kara" - black + "djar" - head, i.e. Black Head, present Chernigov, from Chernigolov, where "cherni" is black and "golov" is head in Slavic

Kara-Tash = "kara" - black + "tash" - stone, i.e. Black Stone

kazaks = Cossacks, initial meaning was for a warrior battling without amour out of neglect to the death and displaying a superior bravery, and also the one who gave a vow to not marry until he had performed some military feats

Khakan = dialectal pronunciation of the title "Kagan" recorded for the Khazars

kobyla = mare, female equine. In the IE languages this pre-antique time borrowing has forms "caballus" (Lat,), "caballero",  "caballa", "caballada",  etc. (all Sp.), etc.

kolchan = quiver

koshchi = driver,

Kuk-Kuyan = Blue Hare

Kuyan = Hare, Jackrabbit

Kuyantau = "Hare" + "tau" - Mountain, the largest hill of Kyiv

kyzy = girl

sapog = boot, the most widespread IE borrowing from the Türkic language, represented in the IE languages in the forms of "zapata (Sp.), bota (Sp.), choboty (Slav.), sapog (Slav.),  cipõtisztító (Hung.), saapas (Fin.), boot (Eng.), bote (Port.), botte (Fr.) and so on. In the IE Etymologic Dictionary it is "of unknown origin", but originally "for riding boots only"... It just happened that Scythians and Huns were riders.

Sokol = Falcon

Solovey = Nightingale, fr. "thief" in the Finnish languages: "salams, salitśa" (Mordv.), "sala" -secret (Fin.), "šl" - thief (Mari). Solovey son of Budimir and Solovey-The Robber are prominent personalities in the Southern Slavic folklore.

steppe = steppe, vast treeless plain of southeastern Europe and Asia, in the IE Etymologic Dictionary it is" of unknown origin".

sudja = sweet drink, honey drink, lit. "sweet water"

Sula = Danube, from "su" - water, "la" - plural suffix la/lar, i.e. "Waters". The use of the Türkic term "Sula" for another East-European river is documented in the "Tale of the Igor's campaign".

suma = bag, also "sarma, sauma, sagma " = bag, this word was not only used by Slavs, but also by Balts and Greeks, all in a sense related to a "saddle bag"

Surej = aka Djurash, is the Dagestan and Vaynakhstan, i.e. the eastern part of central-northern Caucasus, abutting the Caspian Sea

tabun = herd

Tarkhan = widely used title for upper nobility, most frequently designating an autonomous ruler with few duties and various privileges.

Tash-Bash = "tash" - stone + "bash" - head, sung in the chrestomathic poem of Pushkin who was re-arranging folk tales still existing in his time, 18-19 cc.

taz = washbasin

Umians = ?

Uria = legendary mountain 50 km from Nur-Suvar, now confiscated and commercialized by Russian Orthodox Church for pilgrimage

yurt = a portable felt house. The word "yurt" also designates motherland, native place, a native country, like "Ak-Bulgar Yorty" is akin to the "Bulgarian mother country"

 
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