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Müle E.
QUESTION ABOUT KYIV BEGINNING.
Questions of History - No 4 - 1989 - pp. 118 - 127
MÜLE Edward - science fellow of the Münster University (Germany).

Translator's notes

This is a partial translation of the article, with only factual paragraphs completely translated, and the spin and citations of the patriotic discourses mostly skipped. The reader would be impressed by the stream of the firm facts, a nearly-complete absence of the scientific dating methods, which by the 1980es were a scientific must at any level of the archeological research, a complete absence of any DNA reference, and such failures like ignoring the significance of the kurgan burials, belt buckles or ornaments, links with Saltovo-Mayak ceramics and artifacts, coins, and other blinders invalidating both the dating and attribution, and limiting the sources to the sanctioned news of the "Tale of the Bygone years". It is interesting to note that by the time of their fill, the eroded dirt moats were already 250 years old, and their dating based on the fill material is quite ingenuous. This summary article is about 15 years old, but its cited 50-70 years old facts completely decimated the official historical doctrine supported by the archeography in the service of imperial policy. A scientific approach would inevitably discover the true dates and attributions. For the article in its published form please see the Russian-language version.

QUESTION ABOUT KYIV BEGINNING.

The emergence and development of the old Rus cities in view of the achievements of the Soviet archeology became for a long time a subject of live discussion (1). In the last decades the archeological research gave plenty of new material. The former ideas about the old Rus city and especially about its pre-urban and early urban forms, based on a very thin written data, were considerably expanded. First of all it relates to the Kyiv. The excavations done there from the beginning of the 20th century gave plentiful materials which illuminated the history of the capital of the pre-Ancient Rus with detail unattainable from the written sources. As a result of the analysis of the archeological sources alongside with observation of the topographical, social and economic, and cultural development of the Kyiv from the end of the 10th century brought a new interpretation of its earlier history: the beginning of the city is dated by the boundary of the 5th-6th centuries. It is based on the fact that already in the 6th-7th centuries the settlements on the right bank of the Dniepr reached a stage of an "embryo city", which during the 8th-9th centuries turned into a "early feudal city, and in the 9th-10th centuries became a quite advanced medieval city" (2).

This concept, supported by the celebration in the 1982 of the 1500-anniversary of the Kyiv, was considered as widely accepted. However, in contrast with the  "anniversary concept" a part of historians and archeologists believes, as before, that the formation of Kyiv as a city occurred in the 8th-10th centuries. Only at the end of that period the separate settlements merged into a united settlement with the city character (3). In this connection comes a question how were appraised the archeological sources received in the last years. Do they provide a sufficient base for the raised interpretation? (4)
118

 The most ancient populated area of Kyiv is considered, not in the least instance because of its favorable topographical position, the Fortress mountain (Zamkovaya Gora), towering apart above the Dniepr level by 70-80 meters. The settling of this place, in the third quarter of the first millannia, is witnessed, alongside with some previous accidental finds (fragments of ceramics, an amphora, fibula, a figure of a lion, three Byzantian coins), first of all by the cultural sediments discovered in the 1930es and 1940es. Under the cultural layer of the 9th-10th centuries was found a more ancient layer originally dated by the 6th-7th centuries (5). However, a careful analysis of ceramics has shown, that among the fragments found, only an insignificant portion belongs to the Korchak (i.e. Slavic - Translator's Note) type of the 6th-7th centuries, and the prevailing number of the fragments belongs to the Slavic ceramics of the 7th-9th centuries (6).

Despite of that, P.P.Tolochko first dated this ancient layer by the 6th-8th centuries, and later even by the 5th-8th centuries. (7), even though in the excavations in the northern part of the mountain only in one of four wells have been found fragments of the 8th-9th centuries ceramics (8). Tolochko considers that possibly the settlement was fortified already in the 6th-8th centuries, and its inhabitants, judging by the amphoras and coins, had trading connections with the Byzantian provinces of the Northern Black Sea. Because the settlement of the 5th-8th centuries ostensibly had a direct continuation in the 9th-10th centuries, the Fortress Mountain is considered to be the most ancient nucleus of the later city (9). However, in the excavation report of the 1940, the question about continuation of the settlements was left open. In it is distinctly clear a sterile layer of clay which is sandwiched between the two noted cultural layers (10).
119

M.K.Karger, characterizing the period from the middle of the 5th till the second half of the 8th century as the most dark period in the history of Kyiv, posed the settlement on The Fortress Mountain only to the the 8th-10th centuries, and applied to it the term "fortress", which contain a latent indication of the fortified settlement, though in the excavation report he talks only about a "settlement", and the data about the fortifications is absent (11).

(End of edited translation)

Settlement the 9th-10th of centuries could be located only in a northwest part of mountain Zamkovoj that proves to be true presence here the cultural layer strongly broken by the latest constructions, with the rests of three dwellings and fragments of ceramics. In the report on excavation the found out materials are interpreted as belonging to mainly poor population which was engaged in agriculture, by hunting and fishery, but alongside with it on the basis of a treasure with 37 hersonesskimi coins and one dirPodolom 943 are judged presence and prosperous inhabitants. The unique foundry form from clay has served as the proof of existence of jeweller workshop (12). Such istochnikovaja the base serves Tolochko as the basis to speak about mountain Zamkovoj IX-of X centuries as about enough advanced settlement , the central part of feudal city in which representatives of the Kyiv top (13.)

 The Old Kyiv Mountain, located to the south Zamkovoj lived, in the northwest part also had rather favorable topographical conditions which promoted with early por to occurrence of settlement on this place. The platform of settlement reliably protected naturally from three sides{parties} by abrupt slopes, only from the south required artificial defensive works. At finding-out of a question from what por began continuous settling this nucleus of later city in X century, it is possible to lean{base} on three archeological complexes: the rests of a mysterious stone construction, rva and traces of four dwellings. The stone construction which for the first time has been dug out on Century. V.Hvojko in 1908 and in addition investigated in 1937, has consisted of the big stone platform in the sizes 4,23,5 m with four ledges at corners. Near to it{her} there was a massive column with alternating layers of clay, coal and ashes, and also numerous bones of animals. Hvojko did not doubt, that this construction had cult character (14). In the report of 1937 not published till now the assumption is stated, that this construction most likely is the base bashneobraznogo buildings (15). However interpretation Hvojko since then, in essence, does not reconsider. (Begining of edited translation) In fact, the presence of a pit ("massive column"), filled with sequential remains of the meals and preparations for tPodol, is an attribute of the ritual procedures, which most of all testifies to a cult character of the building. Karger dated the sanctuary (the author is using the Turkic loanword "kapishche" for the "sanctuary" - Translator's Note) widely,  8th-10th centuries (16). Tolochko, who in the 1970 followed the dating of Karger (17), now recognizes that the kapishche was there already in 6th-7th centuries, and it, in his opinion, testifies that the settlement on the Old Kyiv Mountain already by then was a cultic-religious center of the Polyanian union of the tribes (18). However the remains of the furnace, fragments of the hand-modeled ceramics and clay spinner, found in the 1937 under a stone slab, hardly attest to it.
120

A moat, surrounding an area about 2 ga in the northwestern part of the mountain, has been investigated, since the 1909, in total of seven sites. Already at the end of 30es its defensive character has been proved. The deciding question about the time of its construction remains not clear as a whole. Only the final date of the moat existence was determined rather precisely: it is linked with the construction of the Desyatinnaya church, which is in the immediate proximity of the moat (19). All attempts to determine, proceeding from that, the initial date of the existence of the moat can be based (with the total absence of the laboratory dating capabilities - Translator's Note) only on the fragments of the modeled ceramics, which was found in the filling of the moat. The suggested various dating, however, in the beginning did not fall outside of the limits of the 8th-10th centuries (20). Only S.R.Kilievich on the basis of the same ceramics fragments, without new additional materials, dates the moat by the 7th century (21).

The date of four inhabited buildings too is determined mainly by the finds of the ceramics. Here again in one case it is observed an unreasonable over-dating. Karger dated the excavated by him in the 1939 building by the fragments of the modeled ceramics by the 8th-10th centuries. Kilievich did it by the 7th-9th, and Tolochko did it by even 7th-8th centuries (22.) The other two dwellings, which were exscavated by Kilievich in the 1958 and Tolochko in the 1965, also were dated 7th-8th centuries (23). The fourth dwelling in which the furnace, with well preserved ceramics of the Korchak type was found, Tolochko dates to the 5th-6th to centuries (24). Actually in the remains of the building, which were excavated in the 1971, is an only find, going probably back to the 5th-6th centuries (25). Together with not numerous accidental finds which do not come from the area of the most ancient fortified settlement (26), Tolochko uses this solo find as deciding argument of that the Old Kyiv Mountain has been continuously occupied from the 5th-6th centuries (27).

This modest archeological evidence confirms, in the opinion of the Kyiv archeologists, the accuracy of the stated in the 1960es by the Acad. B.A.Rybakov opinion, that the annalistic legend about the foundation of Kyiv reflects the real historical process and that the legendary Kyi was "a large historical figure" at the boundary of the 5th-6th centuries (28). The speculative constructions of Rybakov, which have some originality, with the attraction of the Byzantian and Armenian sources, however, can hardly replace a serious interpretation of the text source studies of the annals which arose approximately at the end of the 11th century (29).
121

(End of edited translation)

Reliable certificates which with the greater reliability can specify fortified settlement on mountain StaroKyivskoj, meet in written sources only since IX century. These data of the Story of time years of the second quarter of IX century give the first initial data on constantly developing politiko-administrative functions a small town on mountain ( on mountains in woods, on mountains above rekoju Dnieprovskoju ) (30). Parallel Byzantian sources confirm, that polulegendarnye messages about Askolde and Dire have a historical basis (31). The function of settlement certified, thus, in written sources on mountain StaroKyivskoj as center is proved by indirect image philological researches about the Scandinavian name of Kyiv - Kanungardr, going back to IX century. Application of a word "gardr" which, apparently, under influence vostochnoslavjanskogo "hailstones" - "city" has got the second sense - the central place, the lock , probably, means, that Kyiv in first half IX century already had advanced protogorodskoj a level (32). To voknjazheniju Oleg this level, certainly, has even more raised{increased}. The chronicler of the beginning of XII century has estimated value of Kyiv the then so highly, that has attributed to Oleg saying se budi mati a hailstones Russian , having program value: to make Kyiv capital (metropolis - mati a hailstones) the created state (33). Undoubtedly, conducting{leading} political role of Kyiv at Oleg specify the russko-Byzantian trading contracts of 911 and 945 years (34).
Obviously, not casually by this period the first detailed description in Stories of time years (record of 945) concerns The Kyiv settlement that enables to locate his{its} political center in a northwest part of mountain StaroKyivskoj (35). The specified annalistic message corresponds to archeological materials. Simultaneously the annals tells about existence in days of Olga of two princely court yard from which one was inside detintsa, another - behind his{its} limits. Some Kyiv archeologists count the rests of the first court yard rotondoobraznoe the building which has been dug out in 1970-1972 and 1981-1982(36) '. The sizes of the rests of his{its} base and walls, fragments of frescos and a marble, a detail of a stone groove specify really oustanding construction. Whether however there is in this case a speech about Olga's palace? Bohr on the basis stratigraficheskih supervision counts the given construction of considerably more ancient, than Desjatinnaja church, and Tolochko recently dates rotondoobraznoe a construction even the end of IX century (37). Century. And. Kharlamov, specifying on appreciable similarity of construction technics{technical equipment} of this construction with kapishcPodol, open Hvojko, does not do{make} a conclusion about date of construction, and to attempts Bohr and Tolochko to identify her{it} concerns with restraint. Resolutely rejected tPodol and P.A.Rappoport who besides counted dating of a construction of X century extremely disputable (38).
122
The second princely court yard located, under the annalistic description of 945, outside detintsa, contacts some archeologists the certain building open already in XIX century, and in view of presence of a plenty of slate, a marble, fragments of frescos, a mosaic, a window pane is considered{examined} as rich construction (39). Despite of it, Karger counted the identification leaning{basing} on these finds, fantastic guesses (40.) J.S.Aseev rejects the newest attempts of identification, as well as Rappoport which specified, that the construction technics{technical equipment} of the rests of the base speaks about legitimacy more likely to date his{its} time of erection Desjatinnoj of church (41).
For more detailed characteristic detintsa Olga's times and Svyatoslav Kilievich used four stone constructions, located ostensibly a semicircle at the "free" city area (42). Taken thus fragmentirovannye the rests of walls till now, however, precisely are not dated. Few basic data contained in diaries Hvojko, making excavation in 1907-1908, specify more all on XII-XIII centuries (43). However irrespective of existence of these stone constructions the Kyiv archeologists nowadays recognize that detinets in first half X century have been built up so densely, that was required to distribute settlement to a burial ground adjoining to same (44). As arguments three complexes can be involved only: srub, open D.V.Mileevym in 1908 under southern apse Desjatinnoj of church which Karger interpreted as the funeral chamber; construction stolbovoj the designs, dug out Kargerom in 1946. And dated him{it} time not earlier than 980, and the similar construction which has been found out Kilievich in 1973, with materials X-XI of centuries ' (45). Recently one more dwelling concerning by X century about which, however, anything to tell is revealed is impossible, as field materials still completely are not published (46).
Inside detintsa it is not found more than any constructions for time up to last quarter of X century, except for litejno-jeweller workshop (1981) (47). Hence, to speak about especially high density of building of this site, leaning{basing} on archeological materials while but it is necessary. As to time of expansion of settlement here there is a question on the termination{discontinuance} of burial places in an extensive burial ground which from a southeast was rested in defensive rov. Open here about 110 barrows are dated on funeral stock the 9th-10th centuries (48). In due time some rich burials on a basis kuficheskih and the Byzantian coins were dated boundary of the 8th-9th centuries with what recently has agreed and Tolochko. Karger fairly rejected this dating, specifying on the late coins concerning by 961-976 and 913-959 years (49). It{he} did not limit time of functioning of a burial ground of 980 whereas Tolochko recognizes that in first half X century of a burial place here have been stopped (50).
123
Despite of such difference in questions of dating, materials from barrows (it is especial distinctions in structure and character of burials and their stock) are considered as the indicator of progressing social differentiation and polyethnic character of the ancient population of Kyiv. Simultaneously the subjects of import which are taking place in funeral stock, allow to draw conclusions on trading communications{connections} of Kyiv. Karger, leaning{basing} on finds of eastern subjects, and first of all a glass beads and dirPodolov, spoke about close communications{connections} with halifatom only from the middle of X century. Separate finds specify communications{connections} with Scandinavia and empire of francs, subjects of the Byzantian origin, to surprise, absent (51).

(Begining of edited translation)

In contrast with Karger, Tolochko sees in the artifacts of the eastern origin the proof of existence of the international western - eastern trade already in the 8th-9th centuries, that ostensibly has received its reflection in the finds of the dirPodols and in the messages of the Arabian authors (52). However, the earliest messages of the Arabian geographers with a mention of Kyiv called by tPodol Kuiaba, belong to the time not earlier than first half of the 10th century (53). The cited by Tolochko monetary treasures also can hardly serve as the proof of strongly established trading connections with the Arabian East in the 8th-9th centuries, as they went into the ground not earlier than the 10th century. The suggestion by Karger, that the main stream of the eastern trade at that time has not yet reached the Middle Dniepr, on the contrary, finds a confirmation in the numismatic research (54).

North-east from the Fortress and Old Kyiv Mountains, between the heights and the Dniepr with its influent Pochay, is located the Podol. Before the excavations of last decades, which brought new knowledge about this area, all the data about the time of the formation there of the settlements was an only source, the record contained in the "Tale of the Bygone years" under 945: "Because of flowing water near the Kyiv mountain then on the Podol did not sit people, but on the mountain" (55). According to this message it was considered for a long time, that the Podol was occupied only from the second half of the 10th century (56). This assumption was completely rejected by the archeological research: in several places of the Podol in the powerful cultural layer with the thickness of up to 14 m was found a construction horizon belonging, undoubtedly, to the time before 945 (57). Out of 30 excavations, performed before 1984 in various areas of the Podol, in the seven were found construction horizons which can be dated by the 10th century. In two excavations, on the street  Shchekavitsa and Voloshskaya, the bottom layers belong to the end of the 10th century (58), in the other five they already developed at least by the beginning of the 10th century. Tentatively, the most ancient construction was open in the Zhitny market (59). M.P.Sagajdak dates its construction on the basis of the dendrochronological study by the end of the 9th century (time of cutting of the tree used in it is 887) (60).
124

(End of edited translation)

Though Kyiv dendrodaty, received Sagajdakom (61), are met with some mistrust and consequently date of construction of a considered{an examined} building is not considered reliable, his{its} arrangement is direct on a sole of a hill specifies what here, obviously, and was area of initial building of the Podol. As is known, this area in X century has consisted of three various heights of river terraces, and bottom from tPodol most ancient of the constructions dug out here was exposed to constant flooding (62.) not casually is found out on the highest terrace located on 7-8 m is higher than average. And other four complexes of the constructions concerning by first half X century (63), also are closer to a hill, than to coast of the river as they have arisen on the second river terrace which has occupied the most part of the Podol.

(Begining of edited translation)

The wooden buildings studied there are broken by the estate complexes, fenced off from each other by palings and having the areas from the 250 to 700 sq. meters (64). Near to them were found the remains of the ancient streets. Two manors, from the the found material (an ornament, balance scale, walnuts, fragments of amphoras) can be linked to the trading activity of their owners. The traces of crafts were met only on one manor (four foundry forms from Ovruch slate for manufacturing belt buckles) (65) (the belt buckles were a necessity and a trademark of every Bulgarian and Khazarian male dress, unlike their Slavic contemporaries - Translator's Note).
125

(End of edited translation)

For three manors Sagajdak gives dendrohronologicheskuju date: the beginning of X century (date of cabin of logs - 900-924) (66). Stratigraficheskie supervision, the unique coin in quality terminus ante quern () and ceramics allow to speak dating attribute, that the beginning of continuous settlement on the Podol concerns at least to first half X century. (Begining of edited translation) Despite of it, Tolochko suggests that already in the 6th-8th centuries. the Podol was partly populated, invoking as the proof the old accitental finds (Byzantian coin of 537, Chersonessus amphora, fibulae), and also fragments of modeled ceramics which he in part dates by the 7th08th centuries (67). (End of edited translation) K.M.Gupalo supposes, that the specified finds have got on the Podol from mountain Zamkovoj and consequently cannot be the certificate of existence on the Podol of settlement till IX century. V.I.Mezentsev subjects to the critical analysis dating of the ceramics offered{suggested} Tolochko, and shows, that considered{examined} fragments of modelled ceramics concern more likely to the 9th-10th to centuries. Gupalo considers, that it is possible to speak about continuous settling the Podol from IX century., Mezentsev believes, that the beginning of settling can be attributed{related} to time not earlier the end of IX century (68). The Kyiv archeologists are uniform that the Podol of first half X century was significant trading and craft area with the advanced building and developed street system.

(Begining of edited translation)

Alongside with the closely located settlements on the Fortress and Old Kyiv Mountains, and in the Podol, on the Bald Mountain was also found a settlement. The archeological finds and observations, giving materials about the existence there of the settlement in the 9th-10th centuries, have been mostly made in the 19th century (finds of hoards and burials). At the end of the 19th century was possible to observe the traces of an earthen bulwark which, probably (sic - Translator's Note), belonged to the 9th-10th centuries. However, in the 1947 Karger already noted a significant destruction of the cultural layer, and now it hardly contains any decisive evidence (69). Nevertheless, in the 1965 Tolochko could find some new materials (kurgans, remains of dwellings, traces of the moat) which, in his opinion, can be dated by the 9th-10th centuries and testify to the presence at that time of the fortified settlement (70).

Karger and G.S.Lebedev also suggest the artificial fortifications of the Bald Mountain. The last sees in the burial ground, dated by him by the first half of the 10th century, a proof of the existence of the simultaneous, and hence, limited by the 10th century, fortified settlement. He believes that, probably, that this is the settlement which appears in the Constantine Porphirogenesos composition under the name Kastron Sambatas (i.e. Castle of Shambat or Shambat Castle - Translator's Note). (End of edited translation) In the Lebedev's opinion , Oleg who has preferred to lodge in own lock, instead of in the lock of glades won by him{it} could base same. After domination of a new dynasty has become stronger also a princely residence in days of Olga was placed on mountain StaroKyivskoj, the settlement on Bald mountain in second half X century has lost the value (71). Tolochko sees the reasons concerning early desolation of settlement on Bald mountain that in comparison with all early Kyiv settlements it had topograficheski adverse position. It{He} does not accept dating settlement only limits of X century, carrying the most ancient burials to VIII-IX to centuries ' (72).

About settlements on mountains Shchekavitsa, Detinka, in area Pecherska hardly probable it is possible to speak before XI century. Only in attitude{relation} Kopyreva of the end which adjoined to a northeast part of city of Jaroslav later, pa the basis of some data can assume, that this area has been in part populated in X century (73).
126

The picture which develops as a result of the review of the research materials about the Kyiv complex of settlements in the last quarter of the 10th century shows a number of small, topographically detached settlements, whose character in some cases is determined only partially. On the Fortresss Mountain the settlement already existed in the 6th-8th centuries. However, its connection with the settlement of the 9th-10th centuries, which was found Ibid, remains doubtful. The defensive fortifications for all the time of the settlement existence are not confirmed convincingly. The only site for which the artificial fortification is confirmed, occupies about 2 ga in the northwest of the Old Kyiv Mountain. The material found there goes back to the 6th century, but the contours of the fortified settlement are detectable not earlier than the 7th-8th centuries. Only from that time on the dwellings, and probably, also the defensive moat and "kapishche", testify to the continuity of the settlement. About "a significant and advanced settlement", as Tolochko sounds, is hardly possible to confidently state.

The politico-administrative and cultic-religious role as to the center in the 7th-8th centuries did not belong to this settlement yet. The dating of the decisive archeological complexes, the defensive moat and "kapishche", remains unclear till now. It is possible, that both of them arose only in the 9th century. For that time the written sources gradually supplement the archeological materials, testify to forming functions of the city of Kyiv as a center (of the newly evolving Türko-Slavic Rus state, not as a center of the pre-existing Türkic states of Avaria, Bulgaria and Khazaria - Translator's Note). Clearly noted not only in the annals, but also in the archeological sources (kurgans of the princely combatants, foundations of the stone buildings) the military-political functions of city as center in the 10th century. At that time the settlement becomes the center of the Kyiv conglomerate of the settlements.

The question about the diffusion of the built-up area already in the middle of the10th century across the moat to the necropolis adjoining to it in the view of the available data remains disputable. The Podol appreciably stands out only from the beginning of the 10th century. In the middle of the 10th century it, with its manors, palings and streetsalready  acts as a developed area of the city with expressed trading and craft character. On the Bald Mountain in area of the late Kopyrev end the settlement is found only in the 10th century. Whether the settlement on the Bald Mountain was fortified, is not clear. It is possible, at last, that alongside with the known from the sources settlements was a number of small manors and separate courts in the area of the Kyiv complex of settlements, for example, on the Detinka and Shchekavitsa mountains.

Literature

(1) See, napr., Old russian city. Materials of the All-Union archeological conference devoted to the 1500-anniversary of city of Kyiv. Kyiv. 1984; Theses of reports of the Soviet delegation on V the International congress of Slavic archeology (Kyiv, September, 1985). M. 1985; I.V.Goroda's Oaks, majesty shining. L. 1985;
Kuza A.V. Drevnerusskie of settlement. In book: Ancient Russia. City, the lock, village. M. 1985: Tolochko P.P.Proishozhdenie of the most ancient vostochnoslavjanskih cities. In book: the Earth Southern Russia in IX-XIV centuries (a history and archeology). Kyiv. 1985; Frojanov I.J., Dvornichenko A. Ju. The cities - states in Ancient Russia. In book: Becoming and development earlyklassovyh societies. City and the state. L. 1986.
(2) Tolochko P.P. Proishozhdenie and early stages of a history of ancient Kyiv. In book: New in archeology of Kyiv. Kyiv. 1981, p. 43-47; same. An origin and early development of Kyiv (to the 1500-anniversary of the basis) a .-history of the USSR, 1982, 1, p. 43;
g g about. Ancient Kyiv. Kyiv. 1983, p. 29; same. An origin of the most ancient vostochnoslavjanskih cities, p. 6-7, 10; e g about. Ancient Kyiv. In book: Theses of reports of the Soviet delegation, p. 8.
(3) Rabinovich M.G. Iz of a history of city settlements of eastern Slavs. In book:
History, culture, folklore and ethnography of Slavic peoples. M. 1968, p. 134; Mavrodin V.V., F r about I n about in And. J.F.Engels about the basic stages of decomposition patrimonial building and a question on occurrence of cities pa Rusi.-the Bulletin of the Leningrad university, 1970, 20, p. 11; Bulkin V.A., Oak I.V., Lebedev G.S. Arheologicheskie monuments of Ancient Russia IX-XI of centuries. L. 1978, p. 10-14, 140; o And. A Ya. the Kyiv Russia. L. 1980, p. 228-229; To at for A.V.Sotsialno-istoricheskaja typology of old russian cities X-XIII of centuries. In book: Russian city. Issue 6. M. 1983, p. 32; see also: Goehrke . Die Anfange des mittelalterlichen Stadtewesens in eura-sischer Perapektive.-Saeculum, 1980, Bd. 31, S. 210-211; e j u s d. Bemerkungen zur alterrussischen Stadt der frflhen Teilfurstenzeit (Mitte des 11. Jahrhunderts bis Mitte des 12. Jahrhunderts). In: Beitrage zum hochmittelalterlichen Stadtewesen. Koln - Wien. 1982, S. 211-213.
(4) This question is in more details discussed: With and 11 m e r J. The Archaeology of Kyiv ca A. D. 500-1000. In: Les pays du nord et Byzance. Uppsala. 1981; Muhle E. Die An-fange Kyivs (bis ca 980) .-Jahrbiicher fur Geschichte Osteuropas, 1987, Bd. 35.
(5) Rozkopki in i on ropi 1 in 1940 rivers i, 1947, 1, p. 147.
(6) Shovkopljas A.M. Earlyslavjanskaja ceramics from mountain Kiselevki in Kyiv. In book: Slavs before formation{education} of the Kyiv Russia. M. 1963, p. 138-144.
(7) Tolochko P.P. Istorichna i starodavnjogo Kyiv. ie. 1970, p. 52; same. An origin and early stages, p. 69; same. Ancient Kyiv, p. 44.
(8) Kharlamov V.A. Issledovanija on mountain Zamkovoj in Kyiv. In book: Archeological opening of 1977. M. 1978, p. 396.
(9) Tolochko P.P. Origin and early stages, p. 52; same e. Ancient Kyiv, p. 44-45. B.A.Rybakov believes, that historical Ky sat on mountain Zamkovoj up to a construction strengthening on mountain StaroKyivskoj (B.A.Gorod's Kija Fishermen, - Questions of a history, 1980, 5, p. 44-45).
(10) Rozkopki 1940 r., p. 146.
(11) Karger M.K. Drevny Kyiv. T. 1. M. - L. 1958, p. 92, 96, 115; Rozkopki 1940 r. p. 143.
(12) Rozkopki 1940 r. p. 141-142, 145-146; Karger M.K.Ibid works, p. 113.
(13) Tolochko P.P. Istorichna i, p. 65; same e. An origin and early stages, p. 69-70; same. Ancient Kyiv, p. 44-45.
(14) Hvojko V.V. Drevnie inhabitants of an average Dniepr basin and their culture (on excavation). Kyiv. 1913, p. 55; Karger M.K.Ibid works, p. 105-106.
(15) Karger M.K.Ibid works, p. 110.
(16) Ibid, p. 111.
(17) That l about ch to about P.P.Istorichna 1, p. 49.
(18) Tolochko P.P. Proishozhdenie and early stages, p. 54, 58; same. Ancient Kyiv, p. 29.
(19) Karger M.K. Ibid works, p. 98-102; T about l about ch to about Item. ., G at p and l about To. M. Rozkopki of Kyiv at 1969-1970 pp. In book: Starodavysh ie. ie. 1975, p. 7.
(20) Brajchevskij M. Ju. When there was Kyiv? Kyiv. 1964, p. 79; SH and with to about l-sky I.P.Kogda has arisen the city of Kyiv? In book: Culture of medieval Russia. L. 1974, p. 72. Both authors date moat VIII century. Karger and I.I.Ljapugpkin suggest to date moat VIII-IX centuries. V.A.Bogusevich dates same the 9th-10th centuries (Bogusevich V.A.Pro pohodzhennja i topografio drevnjogo Kyiv for arheologichnpmi dannimi.-i, 1952, 7, p. 67; L I Pushkin I.I. Slavjane of Eastern Europe before formation{education} of the Old russian state. L. 1958, p. 35).
(21) Kilievich the P. River Detinets of Kyiv IX - first half XIII centuries. Kyiv. 1982, p. 28.
(22) In the same place; Karger M.K. Ibid works, p. 105; Tolochko P.P. Istorichna -1, p. 49.
(23) Kilievich S.R. Ibid works, p. 28, 141; Tolochko P.P., Kilievich S.R.Arheologichni i StarokshvskoCH burn 1965-1969 pp. In book: Kshvska it old - davina. Kshv. 1972, p. 5-7.
(24) Tolochko P.P.Raskopki ancient Kyiva.-decorative art of the USSR, 1972, 1, p. 54-55; the image of ceramics see: Kilievich S.R.Ibid works, p. 30-31.
(25) About dating ceramics korchakskogo such as see: Rusanov I.P.Slavjanskie dpevnosti VI-VII centuries. M. 1976; Sedov V.V.Vostochnye Slavs in VI-XIII centuries; 1982, p. 10-19.
(26) T about l about ch to about P.P.Proishozhdenie and early stages, p. 53, a map.
(27) Ibid, p. 43; T about l about ch to about Item. Item Ancient Kyiv, p. 29.
(28) B.A.Drevnjaja's fishermen Russia. Legends. Bylinas. Annals. M. 1963, p. 35-36; e g about. Time legendary Kija. Occurrence of Kyiv. In book: the History of the USSR. . I. M. 1966, p. 351-354; same. The city of Kija, p. 31-47. Hypothesis Rybakova, except for Tolochko, have accepted J.E.Borovsky, S.R.Kilievich, N.F.Kotljar (about r about in with to and and the Ya. E. 1 1 davnjorusskogo perekazu about zasnuvannja Kyiva.-i 1 magazine, 1981, 7; Kilievich S.R.Ibid works, p. 25; Kotljar N. F. Ancient Russia and Kyiv in annalistic legends and legends. Kyiv. 1986).
(29) See resolute criticism: SHaskolsky I.P.Ibid works, p. 70-72; even sharp Daskevic J. The review on: Tolochko Item. Item Ancient Kyiv. Kyiv. 1983.-Russia Mediaevalis, 1987, 6/1, s. 258-259.
(30) The story of time years (PVL). CH. 1. M. - L. 1950, p. 16, 18, 20. It is possible, that a Kaganate rusov, which the question is in Bertinskih the annals (Annales de Saint Ber-tin. P. 1964, pp. 30-31) had the center in Kyiv (see Schramm G. Gentem suan Bhos vocari dicebant. Hintergrunde der ersten Erwahnung vor Russen (a. 839). In: Ost-mitteleuropa. Berichte und Forschungen. Stuttgart. 1981, S. 1-10; SH and with to about l-sky And. Item News Bertinskih of the annals in view of the data of a modern science. In book: Annals and chronicles. 1980. M. 1981).
(31) The Homilies of Photius Patriarch of Constantinople. Cambridge (Mass.). 1958, pp. 82-110; Patrologia graeca. Vol. 102, col. 736-737.
(32) Schramm G. Die normannischen Namen fur Kyiv und Novgorod, - Russia Me-diaevalis, 1984, 5/1. G l and z y r and n and. ., D and to with about I T.N.Drevnerusskie of city in drevneskandinavskoj writings. M. 1988, p. 32-34.
(33) PVL. CH. 1, p. 20.
(34) Ibid, p. 24-29, 34-39.
(35) Ibid, p. 40.
(36) Bohr J.E. Pamjatniki of monumental architecture and painting. Secular constructions. In book: New in archeology of Kyiv. Kyiv. 1981, p. 175, 180; To both l and e-v and ch S.R.Ibid works, p. 36, 153; Tolochko Items Ancient Kyiv, p. 34-36.
(37) Tolochko P.P. Ancient Kyiv. In book: Theses of reports, p. 9.
(38) Kharlamov V.A. Issledovanija of palace construction on mountain StaroKyivskoj. In book: Archeological opening (joint-stock company) of 1981. M. 1983, p. 327-328; same. Researches of stone monumental architecture of Kyiv X-XIII of centuries. In book: Archeological researches of Kyiv 1978-1983. Kyiv. 1985, p. 110; Rappoport P.A. Russkaja architecture X-XIII of centuries. The catalogue of monuments. L. 1982, p. 9; see also:
Aseev J.S.Zodchestvo of ancient Kyiv X-XIII of centuries in a context of world{global} architectural process. In book: Old russian city. Kyiv. 1984, p. 6.
(39) Tolochko P.P., Kilievich S.R. Novye of research of mountain StaroKyivskoj. In book: Archeological researches in Ukraine in 1965-1966. Kyiv. 1967, p. 175;
Borovsrij J. E. Monuments of monumental architecture, p. 174; Kilievich S.R.Ibid works, p. 36; Tolochko Item. Item Ancient Kyiv, p. 34, 36.
(40) Karger M.K. Ibid works T. 2, p. 67.
(41) Aseev J.S. Ibid works, p. 6; Rappoport P.A.Ibid works, p. 9.
(42) Kilievich S.R. Ibid works, p. 39, 42, 154-155.
(43) Korzuhina G. F. The new data on V.V.Hvojko's excavation on manor Peter in Kyive.-the Soviet archeology, 1956, t. 25, p. 332, 339-341.
(44) Kilievich S.R. Ibid works, p. 49; Tolochko Item. Item Ancient Kyiv, p. 36.
(45) Karger M.K., Ibid works, p. 172-173, 175, 224, 334-336; Kilievich S.R.Ibid works, p. 49, 158.
(46) Kilievich S.R. Raskopki in territory of a monastic court yard in Kyiv. In book: joint-stock company of 1983. M. 1985, p. 280-281.
(47) Kilievich S.R. Raskopki on mountain StaroKyivskoj. In book: joint-stock company of 1981, p. 265; Orels R.S.Novoe about jeweller craft of Kyiv X century. In book: Archeological researches of 1978-1983, p. 61-66, 74.
(48) Golubev and L.A.Kyivsky nekropol.-materials p researches on archeology of the USSR. 19'i9, 11, p. 103, 106; Karger M.K.Ibid works, p. 221.227-229.
(49) Karger M.K. Ibid works, p. 223-226.
(50) Tolochko P.P. Istorichna 1, p. 63-64; see also: Motsja O.P.Pitanija etshchnogo to a warehouse of the population davnjogo Kyiva.-Arheolopja, 1979, t. 31, p. 30.
(51) Karger M.K. Ibid works, p. 215-220.
(52) Tolochko P.P. Pro torgovelsh zvjazki Kyiv z kraCHnami arabskogo Shodu that 11 VIII-ò an item. In book: Arheolopchsh doslshchzhennja starodavnjogo Kyiv. Ky. 1976, p. 3-6.
(53) See. e and l and from V.M.Pro nazvu Kyiv in Arabian 1 X item that sprobi and tlumachennja in istorichshj 11.-Ukrashsky 1 magazine, I960, 1, p. 82-84; Richter-Bernburg L. Der fruhrnittelalterliche Handel Nord-und Ost-europas nach islamischen Quellen. In: Untersuchungen zu Handel und dor vor-und fluhgeschichtlicher Zeit in Mittcl-und Nordeuropas. T. 4. Gottingen. 1987, S. 678; M.K.Uk's Kara - ger. works, p. 123-124; see also: Korzuhina G. F. Abu Hamid Al-Garnati travel from Bulgar to Hungary. In book: Problems of archeology. Issue 2. L. 1978, p. 190.
(54) V.L. Denezhno-vesovye Denezhno-vesovye of system of Russian Middle Ages. M. 1956, p. 104-105; Kropotkin Century. Century. About topography of treasures kuficheskih coins of IX century in the East Europe. In book: Ancient Russia and Slavs. M. 1978, p. 113-115; Noonan Th. S. When did DirPodols First Reach the Ukraine, - Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 1978, 2, pp. 34, 39.
(55) PVL. CH. 1, p. 40.
(56) See, napr., Tikhomirov M.N.Drevnerusskie of city. M. 1956, p. 20, 45.
(57) Stratigraficheskie supervision have shown, that cultural layers on the Podol were replaced by alluvial adjournment which were consequence{investigation} of floods of Dniepr. They were especially strong time in 10-20 years and thus interrupted a life on the Podol. In this connection the annalistic message of 945 can be interpreted in such a manner that the desolation of the Podol mentioned in same has connected with the next flooding and was time (see. T about l about ch to about P.P.Istorichna i, p. 72;
same. New archeological researches of Kyiv. In book: New in archeology of Kyiv, p. 10-13). About stratigrafii and chronology of the Podol see: Sagajdak M.P.Stra-tigrafija and construction horizons of the Kyiv Podol. In book: Materials on archeology of architectural monuments of Ukraine. Kyiv. 1982; same; to e. Stratigrafija and chronology of the Kyiv Podol of the end IX - first half XIII century. Avtoref. kand. diss. Kyiv. 1986.
(58) Ivakin G.J., Stepanenko L.J.Raskopki in a northwest part of the Podol in 1980-1982. In book: Archeological researches of 1978-1983, p. 86-87, 90; Sagaidak M.A.Raskopki in Kyiv. In kp.: joint-stock company of 1983, p. 351-352.
(59) Tolochko P.P., Gupalo K.M., Kharlamov V.A.Rozkopki to Kyiv - to the Podol 1973 r. In book: Arheolopchsh dosl! dzhennja, p. 22, 24-26.
(60) Sagajdak M.A.Dspdrohropologija of Kyiv. In book: New in archeology of Kyiv, p. 449.
(61) Sagajdak M.A.Dendrohronolopchsh doslshchzhennja derevjanih 1 to the Podol. In book: Archeology of Kyiv, p. 62-63; same. Dendrohronologija, p. 423-450.
(62) Gupalo K.M. Podol in ancient Kyiv. Kyiv. 1982, p. 18-20; Sagajdak M.A.Stratigrafija and construction horizons, p. 151-152.
(63) The red area: Gupalo K.M., Tolochko P.P. Davnjokshvsky 1 at svpl! novih arheolopchnih doslshchzhen. In book Starodavshi Kshv, p. 40-79; street. Three - polja and street. Horevaja: Ibid, p. 65-70; street. The bottom shaft: G at has fallen about To. . And in a-kin N. ., Sagajdak M.A.Dosl1dzhennja Kgpvskogo to the Podol (1974-1975 pp.). In book: Arheolopja Kyiv, p. 38-40; street. The top shaft: Ibid, p. 40-41.
(64) See: Kharlamov V.A. Konstruktivsh osoblivost! derevjaiih 1 to Podol X-XIII of an item. In book: Arheolopchsh dosladzhennja, p. 47-55; same. Kshvska sadiba X item Arheolopja, 1977, t. 24, p. 37-46; Tolochko P.P.Massovaja building of Kyiv X-XIII of centuries. In book: Old russian cities. M. 1981, p. 63-94; X and r l and m about in Century. ., G fall K.M.Massovaja city building of Kyiv X-XIII of centuries. In book: New in archeology of Kyiv, p. 79-140.
(65) Gupalo K.M., Ivakin N.J., Sagajdak M.A. Ibid works, p. 47-51; see also Gu has fallen about To. ., Ivakii N. Ju. About craft manufacture on Kyiv Podole.-the Soviet archeology, 1980, 2, p. 205-208.
(66) Sagajdak M.A. Dendrohronologija of Kyiv, p. 437, 442, 449, 450.
(67) Tolochko P.P. Istorichna 1, p. 53; same. An origin and early stages, p. 77-78; same. Ancient Kyiv, p. 56, 58.
(68) Gupalo K.M. Do of a feed{meal} about formuvannja posadu davnjogo Kyiv. In book:
Arheolopchsh doslshchzhennja, p. 17; same. A Podol, p. 19-31; Mezentzew V.V. The Emergence of the Podil and the Genesis of the City of Kyiv: Problems of Dating.-Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 1986, 10, pp. 56-61.
(69) Karger M.K. Ibid works, p. 112, 129-130, 523.
(70) Tolochko P.P. Istorichna 1, p. 68; e g about. Ancient Kyiv. p. 46.
(71) Bulkin V.A., Oak I.V., Lebedev G.S.Ibid works, p. 13-14; Lebedev G.S.Epoha of vikings in Northern Europe. L. 1986, p. 240-241.
(72) Tolochko P.P. Istorichna 1, p. 67, 71; same. Ancient Kyiv, p. 48, 50.
(73) Braichevskii M. Ju. Excavation in Kotsyrevom the end in Kyiv. In book: joint-stock company of 1970. M. 1971, p. 299-300.
127
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio (ca 950 AD)

Of the coming of the Ruses in monoxyla from Rus to Constantinople

The monoxyla which come down from outer Russia to Constantinople are from Novgorod, where Sviatoslav, son of Igor, prince of Russia, had his seat, and others from the city of Smolensk and from Teliutza and Chernigov and from Vyshegrad. All these come down the river Dnieper, and are collected together at the city of Kiev, also called Sambatas.

 

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