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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman
DJAGFAR TARIHI
(THE ANNALS OF DJAGFAR)

Volume 2
Chapters 1 - 3

 

 

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Translator's Notes

In the statement of the author and publisher Fargat Gabdul-Khamitovich Nurutdinov, he wrote the "History of Bulgar" in 1972 as a conspectus for his graduate work. Per F.Nurutdinov, the conspectus rests on the information in the Kul Gali book "Hon Kitaby" and "some other ancient Bulgarian annals" of the astray original translation of the "Djagfar Tarihi".

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.

Editorial Page of the book

Editor-in-chiefs F. G.- Kh. NURUTDINOV and R.S.SHARIPOV

The second volume of the first edition of the Bahshi Iman collection of the Bulgarian annals  "Djagfar Tarihi" (1680) includes articles and notes of the last owner of its full text, F. G.- Kh. Nurutdinov, written based on the materials of the part of the collection lost in the beginning of the 1980's, and therefore containing most valuable and unique information.

The second volume consists of three parts. A first part of the book, entitled "History of Bulgar" (From most ancient times to the beginning of the 13 century) was written by F. G.- Kh.  Nurutdinov in 1972 as a conspectus for his graduate work. The work rests on the information in the Kul Gali book "Hon Kitaby" (1242) and some other Ancient Bulgarian annals of the lost part of the "Djagfar Tarihi".

A brief historical sketch "Book about national holidays of Bulgars" and a section "Articles and Notes" constitute a second and third part of this volume.

Bakhshi Iman

DJAGFAR TARIHI

(Djagfar's History)

Volume 2. Print 350 copies.

Publisher of "Bolgar Ile" bulletin, 1994.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1. HISTORY of BULGAR (From most ancient times to the beginning of 13-th century)

Chapter 1. Beginning of a Bulgarian history

Life and superstitions of ancient people 7
Mythology of Bulgars' ancestors 8
Settlement of Bulgars 9


Chapter 2. Epoch of ancient Bulgarian kingdom Idel

Idel's attempt to conquer the south of Asia 10
Idel's wars with Persia and Greece 12
Hunnish period of Bulgarian history 13
Idel during fragmentation 14


Chapter 3. Bulgarian state during the Kara-Bulgarian period (7 - middle of 9 century)

Bulgaria and Khazars 18
Bulgaria in reign of Tsar Aydar 20
Transfer of Bulgarian capital from Kiev to city of Bolgar 21

Chapter 4. The Bulgarian state during period of 1-st Emirate (865 - 1236)

Struggle of Bulgaria with Khazarian horde for hegemony in the Eastern Europe 22
 Accession and politics of Almysh Djafar 25
Arrival of Great Embassy 26
Almysh's reforms 28

Increase of feudal exploitation during reign of weak Kans 30
Bulgaria during reign of Talib 33
Time of reign of three brothers 37

Beginning of struggle between Masgutes and Ashrafids 40
Kan Adam and his son Shamgun struggle with push of nomads to Bulgaria 42
Vezirian period of Emir Kolyn 43

Feudal reaction during reign of Anbal and transfer of power to Otyak 45
Bulgaria in the beginning of reign of Gabdulla Chelbir 47
Attempt by Chelbir to break through to Near East and to India 48
Raise of Chelbir power inside Bulgar and in Northeast Rus 50

First encounter of Bulgars with Chingiz Khan Mongols 52
Bulgarian struggle against Mongolo-Tatar invasions and push by East Rus feudals 54

Chapter 5 Bulgarian Culture during 1-st Emirate 56


PART 2. BOOK OF BULGARIAN NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

From a myth to holiday 58

Nardugan 76
Nauruz 81
Soren 80
Sabantuy 83
Shillyk 86
Chachak Bairamy 88
Subush 90
Djien 93

Yangyr botkasy 100
Chumar (Samar) botkasy 102
Kaz omese 106
Kaz kanatlaryn sydyru omese 108


PART 3. ARTICLES AND NOTES

Chelbir and Bulgaria 109
Kul Gali on Gazan and sailings 110
Kul Gali on Bashtu and Barys 111
Kazan 112
Bulgaria and Mongols 113

Bulgarian Calendar 118
Bulgarian Metrology 123

Dictionary of Bulgarian words 125
Major Bulgar symbols and shields of arms of klans, cities and provinces 143
Kul Gali on events of 1183 151
Bulgarian chronist on Shakh-Gali 152
Kul Ashraf letter to Turkish Sultan Sulejman Kanuni 153

PART 1
F.Nurutdinov
HISTORY of BULGAR
(From most ancient times to the beginning of the 13 century)

CHAPTER 1. THE BEGINNING OF THE BULGARIAN HISTORY

Life and believes of the most ancient people

About 100 thousand years ago the north of the Europe was covered by a powerful glacier. The thickness of ice reached 2 kms. Came the Glacial Epoch.

Though the glacier has not covered the Itil-Ural region, nevertheless it was near and its breath made the climate of our territory very severe. The most ancient ancestors of Bulgars during that epoch hid from the cold in the caves of the Ural mountains. They hunted animals of that epoch which later dyed out: mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses and horses. One of the Ural caves of our ancestors had survived in Bashkiria. It was found in 1959, and it is called Shulgantash or Kapovaya. On its walls the ancestors of Bulgars have drawn figures with red paint of mammoths, horses, woolly rhinoceros. These images are the most ancient pictorial art of the humans, they are some tens of thousands years old.

Their land, geographically called Itil-Ural, people named Ura-Arya or Turan (later - Iské or Old Turan).

About 40 thousand years ago the glacier began to recede, whence it has came, to the north. The climate began to soften. People descended from the Ural mountains to the Itil-Kama plains and occupied all our territory.

In accordance with the Bulgarian legends, about 35 thousand years ago seven Saklanian (Indo-Arian) and Sindian (Ancient Türkic) tribes united in a powerful union of tribes which began to be so called: Idel ('seven tribes') 'seven (ide) tribe (él)'. The name 'Idel' became the first name for our people. On a banner of Idelians was an image of a wolf head. Therefore this banner was called Bulgars ' wolf or black (bulg) a head (Arian) '. The mentioned image has appeared on a banner Idelians not casually - in fact the wolf was tomemom Bolgar. Totemom the spirit as any animal from whom conducted the origin ancient tribes refers to in a science, During those ancient epoch people still trusted in the various spirits representing in their imagination of force of the nature before which the person was still then is rather defenceless. Dyhov Bulgars named 'alp' ('alyp'), 'expert', 'diu' ('divines') ', djinn '. Alp Samaras or Gjuldjimesh ('TSvetushche-fructifying') ' a flower (gjul) the fruit (djimesh) ' was spirit of a crop, an issue, alp Mardukan (Nardugan) or the Simbir-hag ('Rook', 'Raven') " spirit was warm both light and the patron of people, etc.

Totem Bolgar the Wolf (Storms, the Magician - poppy, Sin (the Chin{Grade}, Khin, Sjan), etc.) was spirit of a victory - 'Baryn' (therefore it{him} named as well alpom Barnom).

Mythology of ancestors of Bulgars

The first samples of folklore are connected to spirits - myths. The most ancient monuments of oral national creativity in which allmighty spirits are sung refer to as myths and weakness and dependence of the person on them is shown. Myths were executed during ceremonies of sacrifices to spirits on the basis of which there were many national holidays. The ritual dances given the maintenance{contents} of myths by means of movements, also were a part of these ceremonies on their basis there were the most ancient national dances.

The most ancient myths of Bulgars were a myth about the Mardukane-hag (' Sak and Juice ') and about wonderful rescue alpom the Wolf of Bulgarian prince.

In a myth about the Mardukane-hag (which was the son of spirit of the Sun - May or Mara-Nara and was called also Simbirom) it is told about attempt of malicious spirits - 'djinnov', headed Albastyem, to ruin a sort human. To destroy strongly dosajdavshih him{it} people, malicious spirits have constructed a high wall which has closed the sun. On the land there have come{stepped} a gloom and a cold. Ice began to cover her{it}, and people were threatened with full death. Alp the Hag together with the synovjami Sakom and Juice has gone to break a wall. Beams of the sun began to burn them and then Mardukan has sent sons home behind honey which could protect them from a burn. But Sak and Juice were frightened and have disappeared in night. The hag waited their some time, and then has alone broken a wall. So it{he} has returned to people the sun, so - light, warmly, a life. But it{he} has flashed from heat close shined. His{its} burning feathers have fallen to the land and have turned in hot black horses. Nevertheless, at will Tangry, the Hag comes back to people in shape of an ordinary rook in each spring.

In the other myth the main character - alp the Wolf. When once enemies have destroyed one bulgarsklj a sort and wanted to kill already his{its} last representative - the small son of the biy (leader) of a sort alp the Storm has not admitted{allowed} it. It{he} has given force of fatally wounded mother of the boy, and she{it} has managed to plant{put} the son in the big boiler and to throw the boiler in the river. The river has brought the boiler with the child to the big and impassable bog. Then alp the Magician - wolf has forced spirit of a crop Samara obratitjeja in a deer, to make the way over a bog to the river and to attribute{relate} the boy in a den volchitsy. Volchitsa has brought up the boy whom began to be called 'CHingiz' or ' the Magician uly ' (the Son of the Wolf).

According to the same legends, about{near} 15 tys.let back ideltsy have subordinated to itself all other tribes of Itil-Yaik (Idel - Urala) and have formed the state Idel. The first tsar Idelja was Djam. After the name Idelians became the name of the state, our people began to be called as the name of the banner - 'Bulgars'. Therefore other peoples named Bulgars or 'Sinds' (' wolf people '), or 'black-headed'.

The period peshchrnoj lives of Bulgars in the Ural mountains has left traces on their traditions. Since Bulgars began to esteem mountains (as trusted, that at their tops the God - 'Ersu' - 'Tangra' and spirits is), and also to bury in caves. When Bulgars have gone down from the Ural mountains on plains of the Volga region began to build imitations of mountains - pyramidal stupenchatye and gladkostoronnie temples with funeral halls - caves ('kepe') inside. In these temples - pyramids priests of Bulgars - 'askaly' and 'Arbats' supported cult Tangry and spirits serving to the God and buried leaders - biys. The temple complex from the big temple - in honour Tangry both spirits ('Askala') and small - for burial of biys (' May july '-from here 'mausoleum') was usually erected. Pyramids were under construction as of a stone (' eg kepe ',' teme '), and from the land (' a barrow '.' The Balkans '). Not having an opportunity to collect thousand people for construction of pyramids, other Bulgars - notable and simple people - buried the relatives in an earthen cave. This cave was dug out in a lateral wall of a sepulchral hole then in it{her} the body deceased was put, and the cave was pawned by stones or boards, At Bulgars the body of the deceased should not be fallen asleep by the land. Later on tombs znati mountain simulated namogilnye stones, and on tombs of simple people - wooden columns or trees.

Moving of Bulgars

In Bulgarian society Idelja internal conflicts - the civil wars forcing some groups of Bulgars the pokidatbolgo-Ural ancestral home sometimes flashed and to leave in other lands. First such case has taken place about{near} 12 thousand years ago. Then and later Idel was left{abandoned} by some groups of Bulgars.

One of them _ America, and in languages of the American Indians Bulgarian words till now are kept.

Other group of Bulgars left to Northern China, where became known under names sjanbijtsev (from 'Sinds') or gunnov.

The third group of Bulgars has lodged in Central Asia, the fourth - in Northern India, the fifth - in the Near East (the Balkans, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Iraq, the Western Iran, Syria, Palestine, Northern Egypt). Near-Eastern Bulgars have formed power of Samaras (Sumer) in which all Near East has come. In 3 thousand up to n. e. This power has broken up, though its{her} name and culture was inherited with the state Pozdneshumarskoe (in Iraq) with preobladavshim in it{him} afrazijsko-jazychnym the population. The ethnic individuality to Bulgars managed to be kept only in Asia Minor where they have lodged enough in compact weight.

Bulgars the western part of Asia Minor have based the big city of Atrjach (Troy named which began to refer to atrjachtsami (etruskami), and in eastern part of Asia Minor have taken to itself one of names of spirit of a crop loved{liked} by them Samara - the Turki (the Great Bull ') and were nicknamed turkis (in 6 century up to n. e. The Persian tsars have moved to Central Asia one thousand maloaziatskih Bulgars - turkis, and from them the Central Asian Bulgars also have apprehended custom to refer to as turkis). Bulgars lived in other places less compactly (besides many Bulgars were lost during the Flood in Southern Iraq and 3182 up to n. e. In cities the At-Alan, etc., probably, under the name of this lost Bulgarian city this accident has received the name ' destructions Atlantidy ') and have been assimilated by neighboring peoples (Egyptians, akkadtsami, vavilonjanami, assyrians, etc.), apprehending many elements of a Bulgarian civilization.

In 2 thousand up to n. e. Ancient greek tribes have grasped at Bulgars the Balkans (from '6') and attacked Troy. The part atrjachtsev pokjnula then native city (struggle for him{it} went some years) and left on peninsula Appeninsky to which has named the most ancient native land - Idelja (in the form 'Italy') and where has created the new state Etruria and has based the city of Rome (from Bulgarian 'rem-rjam' - a hill with low vegetation).

Everywhere Bulgars distributed elements of the culture including myths which Mongols (have apprehended legends on CHingiz-khan), Chinese, the American Indians, indijtsy (where the legend about Maguly has turned to a fairy tale about 'Maugli'), Egyptians, Italians (a legend about Roman volchitse), etc. peoples, secrets of metallurgical manufacture, custom to erect pyramids, the mausoleums, cave temples, etc.

CHAPTER 2. EPOCH  OF THE ANCIENT BULGARIAN KINGDOM IDEL

Attempt Idelja to win the south of Asia

Meanwhile in drevnebulgarskom the empire Idel covering territory from Moscow suburbs up to Yenisei, Bulgarian dynasties and surnames of these dynasties frequently their reigns by names of an empire Idel and its{her} population were replaced became for a while. So, during reign of a dynasty the Sarmatian (8 century up to n. e. - 1 in n. e.) Bulgars and Idel frequently named accordingly Sarmatians and Sarmatiej, during reign of a dynasty Alan (1 - 2 in n. e.) - Alans and Alan, during reign of the Hunnish dynasty (2 - 5 in n. e.) - gunnamii and Idel during the period to reigns Suvarskoj of a dynasty (6 - the beginning 7 ) - Suvars (savartami) and Suvar, etc. However the self-name of Bulgars thus has not been forgotten. Teams idelskih tsars were made mainly of Bulgars why, say, the founder of the Sarmatian dynasty reigning Alabuga even called Bulgarom (8 century up to n. e.) . Idel was rannefeodalnym an empire. It shared on specific beiliki (independent princedoms) which chapters - biys (bei) collected from peasants subject to them (Igenchian) podati and paid a part of the incomes I reign as a tribute with beiliks. Dealers and handicraftsmen also gave a part of the incomes I reign also to biys.
10

In 7 in up to n. e. The well-known Bulgarian tsar from the Sarmatian dynasty the Burtas ('Partatua' Near-Eastern sources) has decided to attach to Idelju other areas of Bulgars, absent-minded worldwide from Northern China up to Asia Minor (Turkey). The son of Burtas Azak has made a campaign to Central Asia and, dojdja up to Bulgarian lakes (Balkhash) has attached to Idelju indoarijskie tribes northern sakov (their Bulgars named Kypchaks). However indoarijskie tribes southern sakov - massagetov (Bulgars chazyvali their Masguts) have refused to obey Idelju and began to attack on Kypchaks. The Kypchaks broken by them have addressed to the Burtas with the request to give to them the new land for a residence - far away from Masguts. The Burtas has asked at living in Northern Black Sea Coast kimmerijtsev to concede Idelju half of their land - Priazovye - for settlement Kypchaks. And when those have refused, has directed against them Azaka.

Kimmerijtsy were association of four germanojazychnyh tribes (Bulgars named them 'dout' - 'four', or 'kamyrtsy') - ancestors of some German peoples (it is ready, kimvrov, tevtonov, etc.). A part kimmerijtsev under a name hettov in 3 thousand up to n. e. Has managed to be ratified in the central part of Asia Minor where has got under influence of local Bulgars and it is strong bulgarizirovalas.

Azak has completely crushed kimmerijtsev and has forced them to run in a panic to the Near East. All territrija between Baltic and Black sea has been included in the state Idel. In memory of victory Azak has named itself starobulgarskim a name of sea of Azov - Madji (Mada), and Bulgars have named this sea his{its} name - Azakskim (that is Azov). The Earth kimmerijtsev has been given subordinate Idelju kipchakam which Bulgarian name Greeks have altered in 'Scythians'.
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After that Madji with a small Bulgarian team and numerous kypchakskim a home guard has gone to carry out the order of the father on a gain of the Near East. Here allies of Bulgars were assyrians (their state was in territory of Iraq which bylgary named Suvar - that is 'Entre Rios'. Tsar the Burtas has been married to the daughter assirijskogo tsar Asarhaddona (680 - 669 up to n. e.) Samaras - bi. The Bulgarian army has subordinated Media, has crushed Urartu and Palestine, and began to attack Egypt. Egyptian pharaon Psammetih has preferred to agree to render tribute Idelju and it has rescued the country.

Bulgars dominated in the Near East 28 years (with 653 for 625 up to AD). In 625 up to n. e. Submitting Idelju midijsky tsar has perfidiously interrupted kypchaksknh military leaders directly at itself on a feast. The Scythian home guard has dissipated, and Madji it was necessary to deduce{remove} the small Bulgarian team back to Idel.

Soldiers Idelja with Persia and Greece

In 516 - 514 up to n. e. The state Idel has reflected a reciprocal attack from the Near East the Persian armies, grasping in 6 century up to n. e. Territory from India up to Egypt. Then in Idele descendant Madji Timer who has become famous for the attacks to Iran through Derbent corrected. Persians have intruded Idel from the West, having forwarded through Danube on the huge bridge. Bulgaro-kypchakskie groups the guerrilla attacks have completely exhausted soldiers of the Persian tsar Darija, and at the river Sotly-su the part of Bulgars - turkis from the Persian army also has come over to of the side{party} of the fellow tribesmen. In the Don steppes Dary has realized banefulness of the enterprise and has turned back. In otmestku the Persian governor angry by defeat has moved one thousand Bulgars - turkis from Asia Minor to Central Asia. Them began to be called 'emi' or 'erdim' (on - grecheski - 'germihiony') as they have been moved about the rivers Ermi (Kizil Irmak). Image Darija was kept some time in bulgvrskih legends under a name of the Alamir-sultan. But later Bulgars began to be called the Alamir-sultan of the Greek commander Alexander the Great.

In 4 century up to n. e. Idel began to clash with Greece, but in 3 century up to n. e. kshchaki unexpectedly come over to the side{party} of Greeks and try to supersede idelskie armies from Black Sea Coast. In the answer Bulgarian armies of descendant Timera of tsar Targiza strike a crushing blow on kypchakam-Scythians and return the control over Black Sea Coast. Wars in the West have demanded hiring of soldiers - nomads, especially aggressive massagetov.
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The Hunnish period of a history of Bulgaria

In 1 century n. e. To authority in Idele there comes a dynasty Alan which beginning was put by Alan - descendant Kubana, the son reigning Suvar - Mardji (his{its} rate Suvar was on a place of Saksin) and his{its} wives - massagetki. At a court of this dynasty its{her} influence masgutskih relatives that has caused the strongest discontent staroidelskoj (Bulgarian) znati amplifies. In the middle of 2 century AD Bulgarian to know results in authority the Hunnish dynasty.

Begins Gunsky the period of a history of territory.

The legend kept Kul Gali so tells about this event. When the Hunnish tsar Agardja the Barrel secretly invited on

Reign to Idel group of dissatisfied Bulgarian biys, has come nearer to the rate idelskogo tsar on river Ayr (Or) descendant Alan Tash by a nickname Ayr - Tash has acted to it{him} towards. However the majority idelskih feudal lords has come over to of side{party} Agardji and has offered Ayr - Tashu: ' Try to defend an empire in a duel - in fact mother of your ancestor of Alan - SHuran - has achieved authority, having won in fight of the brother of the husband '. Duel Agardja has won Ayr - Tasha and has received his{its} empire. The sister of the victim in single combat Ayr - Tasha became wife Agardji, based together with it{her} the Hunnish dynasty the Barrel (directly sort Agardji named Hungar, but we shall conditionally call it{him} 1 Gunskoj a dynasty).

Come with Agardjej gunny were descendants severokitajskih Bulgars - sjanbijtsev. During a life in Northern China their language has undergone significant influence of neighbours (especially manchurians). Gunny named Idel 'Itil' or 'Atil', idelskih Bulgars - 'buljarami' ('Bilyars'), and idelskie Bulgars called the Asian relatives srbijtsami or sjurbijtsami (from 'sjanbi'). To Idel majority gunnov has very soon returned to gospodstvovavshemu here to oguzo-Türkic language, but some tens Hunnish words which have left the alive reference{manipulation} were kept by the Bulgarian priests interested in the greater separation of the caste from all national, wordly (including from national speech). Later this insignificant quantity{amount} of Hunnish words kept (up to the end of 14 century) and a part of Bulgarian mullahs - also for the same purpose. The part serbijtsev has mixed up with idelskimi finno-ugrami and has begun serbijskoj etnogruppe which in 16 century has received the name the Chuvash.

After death of the strongest idelskogo tsar from 1 Hunnish dynasty Kama - Batyra in Idele has flashed war between it{him} synovjami because of a throne. The Hunnish military leader (Buljumar (Balamber) has taken advantage of it. It{he} married the daughter Kama - Batyra Turambike and has won imperial throne Idelja, having based dynasty Atil (we conditionally name her{it} 2 Hunnish dynasty). However their descendants continued to rank themselves and as a sort the Barrel. It is interesting, that brothers Turan-biki, aspiring to not admit{allow} an output{exit} of the sister in marriage for Buljumara (having married on Turan-bike, it{he} became their relative so, and one more contender in struggle for a throne), have put a condition: Buljumar marries on Turan-bike only after will guess riddles of all of its{her} brothers. Buljumar, however, has guessed all riddles...
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Tsar Sasanidskogo of Iran SHapur II has declined Buljumara to joint war against Byzantium in exchange for annual Iranian tribute Idelju, and in 370 the Bulgarian army has developed{unwrapped} approach to the West. Allies of Byzantium - kavkazsko-Don Adanskoe the princedom based run from Idelja by representatives of the Alanian dynasty, and the Gothic princedom in Pridneprovje, and also the Byzantian cities in Black Sea Coast were pokoreny and are included in structure Idelja. In 378 the Bulgarian army has crushed byzantines near Adrianople (Kan - Dere). War with Byzantium then has developed into a gain of Europe. Descendant Buljumara tsar Atilla (434 - 453), subordinated Idelju almost all Europe - from France up to mountains Karpatskih has especially become famous in campaigns on the West. The Byzantian and Western - Roman empires paid idelskim to tsars a tribute, and many German, valashskie and slavic tribes served in gunno-Bulgarian armies. The rate idelskih tsars from 2 Hunnish dynasties is transferred in the beginning in based Buljumarom an aul the Hon - Balyn (to a place of Kiev), then - to Hungary and, at last, to Germany.

But after death Atilly in 453 in Idele war between Bulgars and a part of tribes subject to them, and then and between descendants Atilly has inflamed. Son Atilly Kermek becoming tsar Idelja, tried to keep possession of the father, but it is vain: the Bulgarian state has lost the Western and the Central Europe, having kept under the authority its{her} only eastern part.

Idel during dissociation

Descendant Kermeka - idelsky tsar Buljak (Boloh) by a nickname of Bulgars has tried in the union with Iran to win from Byzantium a part seized it{him} prichernomorskih the lands.

In 516 g.idelskoe the army va to the chapter with the senior son of tsar - the Expert - Terekom, made mainly from nijevoljskih Bulgars - Suvar (savir), has grasped Armand (Armenia) and almost all Asia Minor. The local tjurko-Bulgarian population in every possible way helped the fellow tribesmen. But in the same year in Kazakhstan there was a meeting of army Tjurkutskogo kaganata, formed{educated} by the Central Asian Bulgars - turkis (' ermi - germihionami '), and Bulgarian group of other son Buljaka Djambeka (Tamja-Tahana). The Central Asian tjurko-Bulgars in a science it is accepted to be called tjurkutami - for their difference from idelskih tjurko-Bulgars. Tjurkjuty on behalf of the tsar - 'kagana' have demanded from idelskogo.tsArya the conclusion of the union with kaganom and payments of a tribute by him{it} ' for them nenapadenija '. After this have there and then risen subject Idelju Kazakhstan kyrgyzy (on them has passed the Bulgarian name of the first owners of Kazakhstan - Kypchaks - 'skifov ') which tjurkjuty have seduced with lower tribute. In such conditions Buljak has preferred to conclude the union with kaganom and to agree to payment of a tribute tjurkjutam, and the main army has deduced{removed} from Asia Minor and Armand to Kazakhstan for suppression of the Kirgiz mutiny. Pleased tjurkjuty have not prevented ideltsam to suppress revolt Kirgiz Kypchaks.

In 520. Buljak has died, and on a throne the Expert - Terek - the son of the senior wife of tsar has ascended. In 522 tjurkjuty, concluded the antiIranian union with Byzantium, have demanded from idelskih Bulgars to stop attacks on byzantines. The expert - Terek has not obeyed this requirement and then tjurkjuty in 527 have helped to seize power in Idele to younger wife Buljaka - suvarke Bojarkyz - a supporter of the close union with Türkic kaganatom and foundress Suvarskoj of a dynasty. Bojarkyz has arranged slaughter of sons Buljaka from his{its} other wives in which the Expert - Terek was lost also. After that Idel has broken up to two beilika (princedoms) - the Bulgarian Tarkhanlyk and Suvarsky beilik (eastern Volgo-Siberian part Idelja). The Bulgarian Tarkhanlyk has been based by the second son of senior wife Buljaka Djambekom. It{he} ran from Idelja to Crimea where in the beginning served byzantines, and then in Azake (Eastern Crimea and Priazovye) has based the Bulgarian Tarkhanlyk with the center in Bungare or Echke - Bulgar ('Fanagorija'). The largest cities beilika, except for Bungara, were Bandja - Kepe or Agardja ('Kerch'), Tamja-Tarkhan ('Tmutarakan'), etc. Very soon borders of a Tarkhanlyk have captured other areas of Northern Black Sea Coast, Ciscaucasia and Average Pridneprovja, occupied by Bulgars, indoarijtsami ('Alans') and Anchians ('anty').

In 558. The Bulgarian Tarkhanlyk has been compelled to recognize dependence on the nomad - avar, expelled tjurkjutami from Asia and lodged on Average Danube with weight subordinated by him{it} ugrov (ancient Hungarians).
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" But then germihionskaja to know it was divided{shared} into groupings ermijtsev and uzov (this clan was formed as a result of rapproachement of a part germihionov and oguzov). Uzy have seized power in Türkic kaganate and the significant part of Bulgars - ermijtsev led by the beem Askalom ('Askil') left to 563 from Turkestan in the Bulgarian Tarkhanlyk. The Tamja-Tarkhan has accepted fellow tribesmen - ermijtsev on service and has allowed to lodge him{it} in area Hon - Balyn then this settlement has received name Askala. Askal married the daughter of the Tamja-Tarkhan, and their son Alvar Askal became the successor of authority of the Tamja-Tarkhan. In 602 Alvar Askal (577 - 602) at which the main rate of the Bulgarian Tarkhan was already settlement Askal (from here - and nickname Askala), has declared full independence of the Tarkhanlyk from Avarian kaganata. But brother Alvara Apsih (by a nickname the Avar) with a part transilvanskih (ulagskih) Bulgars has remained is true to avars. In same year Apsih has invited Alvara to negotiations on the river Burat (Prut) and has perfidiously killed it{him}. However the new Bek - younger brother Alvara the Bu-Yurgan ('Body') has kept independence of the Bulgarian Tarkhanlyk at support of Byzantium, the union with which has concluded still Alvar. In 619. The Bu-Yurgan for fastening this union has accepted with a part of Bulgars the Greek (orthodox) christianity in the Byzantian city of Krjashen ('Korsun', 'Chersonese'), From that time Bulgars name orthodox Bulgars 'krjashenami'.
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This step of the Bu-Yurgan has displeased the majority of Bulgars - tengriantsev, and the Bu-Yurgan had to concede authority in a Tarkhanlyk to the senior son Alvara - tengriantsu Kurbatu ('Kubrat'). In 620 younger brother Kurbata the Shambat, at will of the Tarkhan, builds in Askale a fortress of Bashtu which transforms fortress Askal into city. In Askale-Bashtu Bulgars, anchiitsy, Greeks (descendants of the byzantines got in a Bulgarian captivity in Adrianopolskoj to fight of 378 and lodged in the Hon - Balyne) and representatives of other peoples lived. From Bashtu the Shambat with an army from Bulgars and Anchians in the same year goes in a campaign on the avar. The campaign appeared successful. The Shambat has won a part of territory of Failure (nowadays - Hungary), Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Baltic, Austria, Yugoslavia and has proclaimed the own state under the name the Duloba - ' Area (sorts) the Barrel ' (as it{he} was from a Bulgarian imperial sort the Barrel). The Slavs esteeming the Shambat as sacred - for their disposal of an avarian yoke - and assisting to it{him} in everything, named his{its} state 'Duleba'. Kurbat has demanded that the Shambat has attached the Duloba to the Bulgarian Tarkhanlyk, but that has refused and has received for it from Kurbata nickname Kyj ('Separated', 'Cut off'). However campaign SHchambata and formation{education} Duleby (existing in 623-658) The avar that has allowed Kurbatu to pay the main attention to the east where Türkic kaganat it was shaken with civil war has undermined power and lived last years. In 629. Türkic kaganat has collapsed on two parts - Balasagunskuju (sredneaziatsko-Mongolian) and Khazarian (zapadnokazahstanskuju) then Kurbat immediately subordinates authority Suvarsky beilik and in 630 proclaims again connected parts idelskoj the lands a uniform Bulgarian empire (Bulgars, Bulgaria). Henceforth the territory of our territory for ever receives the historical name - Bulgars (Bulgrija), and the name Idel is assigned Volgo-Kamskoj by river system (to be calleds of seven largest rivers of this system styles to add a word 'Idel' 'Kara-Idel' - Volga, 'Ak-Idel' - White, 'CHulman-Idel' - Kama, ' Sura Idel ' - Sura, ' Aka Idel ' - Oka, ' Nukrat Idel ' - Vyatka, ' Bula Idel ' - CHeremshan).

Owing to the power (the territory Bulgar reached from Danube up to Yenisei, including all East Europe) 7 - 9 centuries frequently call the Bulgarian state of the period also the Kara-Bulgarom, that is ' Great Bulgaria ') as a principal value of a Bulgarian word 'Kara' was at that time ' great, mighty '. At the same time one more Bulgarian word - 'Urus' meant ' great, mighty '. Bulgars other areas Bulgar began to be called Bulgars of Ukraine 'penalties - Bulgars' or 'Uruses - Bulgars' (that is ' great Bulgars ') - in fact in Ukraine were in 7 - the middle of 9 century 'great' (i.e. political) the centers of this power (the main thing from them was Bashtu) and the Ukrainian Bulgars have played a main role in restoration of uniform Bulgarian statehood under the name of Bulgars. The name of Bulgars of Ukraine - 'Kara' or 'Urus' has received also Black sea. In the beginning his{its} name - ' the Kara (Urus) dingez ' - meant ' the Sea of great Bulgars ' or ' the Great (Mighty) sea '. But then from the end of 9 century, when a Bulgarian word 'Kara' poluchils primary value 'black' ' the Kara dingez ' and 'penalties - Bulgars' began to translate as 'Black sea' and ' black Bulgars '. As we see, anything 'black' in the name 'Black sea' actually is not present. As if to the second Bulgarian name of the sea - ' the Urus dingez ' from 10 century when the Old russian state was formed, it{him} began to understand as ' the Sea Russian (Russian sea) '. However, as it is seen, it also historical misunderstanding. Nowadays many starobulgarskie words and terms, not clear the scientist of the West, appear that Russian, Mongolian, Chinese, etc. So, Russian declares a word 'camel', though it - primordially Bulgarian word, meaning humpbacked (bere) a buffalo (bulut) '.
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CHAPTER 3. The BULGARIAN STATE DURING the Kara-BULGARIAN PERIOD (7 - the middle of 9 century)

Bulgaria and Khazars

The Bulgarian state of an epoch of the Bulgarian empire (7 - 16 centuries) had feudal character. On top of a class ladder there were governors (the Kan - tsar, the Baltavar - the leader, the governor, Emir), is lower - large secular feudal lords - Beks (slujilye knjazja) and biys - bei (breeding knjazja), are even lower - slujilye feudal lords tsars (elbiry or alpary) and separate large feudal lords (Djurs - combatants). The important role in Bulgaria was played by ecclesiastics - priests, and with acceptance of an islam - seids (religious chapters of moslems) and mullahs of all ranks. All of them entered into a ruling class of feudal lords (knights).

In Bulgarias in a class of feudal lords were included as well independent merchants and handicraftsmen.

Till 10 century below feudal lords there was a class of peasants (Igenchian), paying taxes reign also to separate feudal lords, and also salesmen serving to merchants and handicraftsmen - podmasterjev. Slaves were maintained also, but their contribution to economy was small. From 10 century when the islam has been declared by the state religion of Bulgaria, Bulgarian igenchei-moslems (Subashis and Al-Chirmyshes) began to have the rights of knights, and slaves - to be released{exempted} in case of acceptance of an islam by them or after six-year work on the owner.

For the reason, that the Bulgarian state in 7 - the middle of 9 century named Kara Bulgarom, and politically gospodstvovavshih in it{him} of the Ukrainian Bulgars - a Kara Bulgars, we shall name the period 7 - the middle of 9 century of a history of our territory the Kara Bulgarian.

In 658. The Shambat has been broken by francs (they named the Shambat "Himself") and avars and has returned on service Kurbatu. Kurbat has again given it{him} a title of the governor (Ulugbek) of area of Bashtu, but ordered in punishment for the former disobedience to be called only Kyem. Therefore the city of the Shambat - Bashtu - receives his{its} name Kyj which nowadays sounds in the form 'Kiev'. Behind a fortress of Kiev - Bashtu which the Shambat has built up to the Avarian campaign, up to the end of 10 century his{its} name 'Shambat' was fixed. Kiev stood on hills ('mountains') which was called as Bulgars Kujan or Cook - Kujantau (' Mountains of spirit Kujana or Cook - Kujana '), therefore Kiev was called as well Cook - Kujan.

In 660. Kurbat, the title which has accepted in 630 of the Kan or kagana (tsar, emperor), dies, and on a Bulgarian throne lift his{its} senior son of the Bat-Boyan. But in three years the Shambat at support of younger son Kurbata Asparuha Madjara (former the deputy Leopard - silt or Itil-Yaik and the Esegel or Siberia) has acted against the Bat-Boyan with the purpose zavladenija a throne. Asparuh has left from Barsile and has grasped North Caucasian area Bulgar which named Burdjan. Together with North Caucasian Bulgars - Burdjans (ancestors kumykov, karachaevtsev and balkartsev) Asparuh the Shambat - from the north, from Kiev has developed{unwrapped} approach to destiny (personal possession) the Bat-Boyan in Black Sea Coast from the east, and. In these conditions the Bat-Boyan has concluded the union with the Khazarian horde (the Horde the union of several nomad tribes) on which Khazars received a part jujnobulgarskih the lands (Azak, Northern Caucasus and the Bottom Volga region with the Bulgarian cities of Itils or Atil, Samandar - Semender, etc.) And for it should help Bulgarian I reign to break his{its} relatives - rebels. Khazars have helped the Bat-Boyan and have broken Asparuha. Asparuh ran with a part of the Bulgars to the uncle to Kiev, and after death of the Shambat in 672 has left in the beginning in Kashan (Moldova), and then - in Pridunavje. In Bulgarian Pridunavje it{he} in 681 proclaims the own Bulgarian state, which name is written (for difference from the basic Bulgarian state) in the form 'Bulgaria' or ' the Danube Bulgaria '. Bulgars Asparuha also name in a science 'bolgarami' - for difference from a great bulk of Bulgars. The Bulgarian tsar the Barys (Boris) in 9 century has accepted orthodox christianity and has entered in Bulgaria instead of tjurko-Bulgarian language language subject bolgaram the local slavic population as the Bulgarian Slavs already for a long time were orthodox Christians and have helped the Barys with his{its} struggle against relatives - contenders.

Khazars were perfectly arranged on received from Bulgar lands as in the chapter of Khazars there were the Central Asian Bulgars, and Khazarian kagany also were selected from ancient Bulgarian imperial sort Sin or Afshin (that is ' a sort of the Wolf '). Khazars have made the center of the horde the Bulgarian city of Itil and in the beginning lived rather amicably with the Bulgarian state. Bulgarian tsars paid to Khazars a tribute that Khazars protected from attacks of enemies southern and eastern borders Bulgar. But quite often Bulgars helped Khazars in their wars, and in such years Khazarian kagany a tribute with Bulgar did not take. Actually mutually beneficial union Bulgar with the Khazarian horde has existed up to the middle of 8 century. Together with Khazars Bulgars have broken army of the arabs, trying to win Northern Caucasus.

But in 732 g.hazarsky kagan has been completely broken by arabs. On conditions of the hazaro-Arabian contract, kagan the islam, and weight has allowed desiring to accept all Bulgar - Burdjan has accepted Moslem. From it 737 the islam starts to be distributed in the environment of Bulgars.
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In the middle of 8 century one adjusted antiarabski Khazarian kagan has tried to force to refuse Burdjans - moslems an islam and to return to the most ancient Bulgarian doislamskomu to belief - to tengrianstvu. Burdjan have refused to obey kaganu and from the sanction of Bulgarian tsar have moved in the Leopard silt where have based city Bolgar and Bulgarian beilik (in the beginning g Bolgar was called Mardukanom, and beilik - Mardukanskim, in honour alpa Hags). Khazarian kagan has demanded from Bulgarian tsar to expel Burdjan from limits of Bulgaria, but that has refused. Then kaganu Khazars it was necessary to recede and reconcile to settlement of Burdjans - moslems in Bulgaria for the sake of preservation important for Itilja the bulgaro-Khazarian union. Moreover, after a while Itil gives Muslim merchants and handicraftsmen a number{line} of privileges, and the some people Burdjan come back in the Khazarian horde.

Bulgaria in reign of tsar Aydar

But in the beginning of 9 century Khazarian kagan Obadija with a part subject to it{him} oguzskoj and Kirgiz znati accepts iudaizm the Iranian sense and begins new prosecution of moslems. For this purpose it{he} employs a part ugrov, expelled of Kazakhstan Badjanakskim the union oguzskih and the Kirgiz tribes. Burdjans - moslems which main city Samandar ('Semender') was lift revolt against Khazarian kagana, but it suffers{bears} failure, and thousand insurgents - moslems run in 820 to Bulgaria. Bulgarian tsar Aydar (815 - 855), which called as well the Urus - Ajdar (as his{its} dynasty was called 'Urus', that is ' great, mighty ') hospitably accepts new fugitives and settles them in Ukraine. In the same 820. Aydar together with a part of black Bulgars accepts an islam and requirement Obadii about delivery of fugitives refuses.

In answer Obadija has broken off vital to the Khazarian horde the union with Bulgaria and has moved on it{her} war together with hired Kazakhstan ugrami. However ugry, received from kagana for suppression Samandarskogo of revolt Priazovye (on - bulgarski 'Madjar') and consequently nicknamed madjarami (magyars), have changed Obadie and in deciding{solving} fight with Aydar's army at Bulgarian balik (a small fortress) Kharka (modern Kharkov) came over to of the side{party} of Bulgars. Due to this Aydar has completely crushed a Khazarian army. After that Bulgarian tsar concludes the union with Badjanaks ('pechenegami') and marries on pechenejskoj bike (knjajne). Their son the Djilkas, also the accepted islam and a Muslim name the Gabdulla were.

Tengrianskaja to know the Khazarian horde, seeing banefulness of policy{politics} Obadii, has killed kagana-iudeja and has put on his{its} place kagana-tengriantsa. New kagan has hastily concluded the union with oguzskoj Guzskoj a horde (wandered to the south Badjinaks, in southwest Kazakhstan). It has helped the Khazarian horde to avoid simultaneous impact of Bulgars and Badjinaks on Itilju, preparing Aydar as from fear before guzami Badjanaks have not dared to begin war against Khazars.

Then Aydar has decided to undermine the Khazarian horde economically. It{he} has forbidden to Bulgarian and all European merchants to go from Bulgaria to Khazars and has based a new trading way from Europe to Asia around of Khazarian possession. This waterway went from Scandinavia in capital Bulgar Kiev through Baltic and Bulgarian beilik, and from Kiev went on Storm - tea (Dnepr) and Black sea to Asia Minor and Zaavkazje. Not casually therefore Aydar has accepted on Bulgarian service a plenty of Scandinavians (Danes, Norwegians and Swedes) and Balts (Slavs - kolbjagov from Kolobrzeg, prussov, Finns, etc.) and has given the Scandinavian and Baltic merchants the big privileges.

For development new Aydar has formed a waterway of a part Igenchian Ukraine, (switching SHamlyn-) and Galidj (the future Novgorod land) the special category state Igenchian and has charged Smolensk to Belarus him{it} instead of payment of a tribute to feudal lords to build for the Bulgarian state trading and warships. As settlements of these Igenchian settled down in upper flows of the large rivers on which they were floating by the ships made by them in the center Bulgar Bashtu - Kiev them named Subashis (from Bulgarian 'subash' - ' a upper flow of the river '). So in Bulgaria the new category Igenchian - state igenchei has appeared.

Due to a new trading way has blossomed and became the big city of Kiev (Bulgars called it{him} officially 'Bashtu'). At Aydar Bulgarekoe the state of the Kara-Bulgarian period has reached{achieved} the best blossoming.

Carry of capital of Bulgaria from Kiev in city Bolgar

After Aydar's death in 855 on a Bulgarian throne have been lifted the Gabdulla of the Djilka, leaning{basing} mainly on Muslim to know. It has displeased tengrianskoj parts Bulgarian znati, compelled conceded at Aydar a significant part of the authority Bulgarian Muslim znati. The younger brother of the Djilka - the Lachyn (Anchians called it{him} Rjurik), dreaming to borrow{occupy} a Bulgarian throne, has headed dissatisfied tengriantsev and began from them struggle against the Gabdulla. Unexpectedly Byzantium, former Aydar's ally. And also the Khazarian horde have supported tengriantsa Lachyn from fear before amplification{strengthening} of Bulgaria as the trading competitor and the center of an islam. In civil war (so war between various groupings inside one country refers to) has Bulgar flashed.
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In the beginning the Gabdulla has broken Lachyn and his{its} Khazarian allies. In 860 under the order of the Djilka the Bulgarian fleet consisted of the ships Anchians and the Scandinavian mercenaries (them named 'vAryagami') has crushed posady capitals of Byzantium Ystambula ('Constantinople'), commanders fleet Djir (a head Anchians) and Askold (a head vAryagov) have been generously awarded For it tsar.

But in 864 when the Gabdulla had a rest in the years{summer} rate (batavyl) Khorysdan (nowadays - Putivl), the Lachyn has suddenly attacked him{it} with the allies. The Djilka has wanted to be covered in capital Bulgar Bashtu, but kievljane led by Askoldom have connected true I reign Djir and have declared the Gabdulla: ' we shall not let you, tsar, in capital while you will not decide in a field of the dispute about prestolonasledii with brother Lachynom '.

The Gabdulla of the Djilka has beaten off an attack Lachyn and has expelled Askolda from Bashtu, but has been so annoyed by act Kievljan that has transferred capital of the Bulgarian state to 865 from Kiev in Bolgar and has moved there with a part of black Bulgars - moslems. Ukraine has been divided{shared} by tsar into two specific (independent) beilika - Kiev (a right-bank part of Ukraine) and Kara-Bulgarian (a left-bank part of Ukraine). In the chapter Kiev beilika the Bek Djir, and in the chapter Kara-Bulgarian beilika - the senior son of the Gabdulla the Bek the Almysh the Djafar has been put.

The Kara-Bulgarian period of the Bulgarian state has ended.
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