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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman
DJAGFAR TARIHI
(THE ANNALS OF DJAGFAR)

Volume 2
Part 2 (Continued)
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS OF BULGARS

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Translator's Notes

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.

PART 2
BOOK ABOUT NATIONAL HOLIDAYS OF BULGARS
FROM MYTH TO CELEBRATION (Continued)

 100

YANGYR BOTKASY

This Bulgarian holiday in the beginning has been devoted to spirit (Alp) of a rain and a lightning to the Kubar, and then has turned to a holiday of calling of a rain. The Kubar was one of the most powerful Alps and the lightning frequently amazed injust people, for what rather were afraid of it{him} and esteemed.

The superstitious fear before anger of the Kubar was brightly displayed in "Note" of 922 by Bulgarian seid Ahmed ibi the Fadlan: "I saw many thunder-storms in their country. And if the thunder-storm will strike on the house they do not come nearer to it{him} and leave his{its} such what it{he} is, and all that in it{him} is, - the person and property and all other, yet will not destroy his{its} time - and they speak: it is the house on which inhabitants the anger" lays. (Travel of the Ibn - Fadlan to Itil. ., 1939, with. 73).

This holiday in people referred to as well "Chulmechteki", and "Teleu botkasy". It{he} was marked in a heat of summer{years}, during ripening bread. Specially for a holiday the white bull or the white cow was fattened.

... The celebration in a field, at any water (a spring, ruchja, the rivers began and. t. d.) from prayer of women. It "prayer of women" - miracle preserved bright feature of the former domination of the woman in a Bulgarian society. According to description Kul Gali, thirteen elderly women in a distance from other participants of a holiday became in one number{line} on a carpet the person to the sun with the dismissed hair. They represented mothers of the strongest Alps (to mothers to give up in requests it was impossible). The woman second at the left in a number{line} said a request - spell, inverted to the Tangre and to the Kubar then all women tried bolamyk and porridge from cups each other. Sometimes zaklinatelnitsa, the playing role of mother of the Kubar, resorted to a ceremony "pokazyvanija a dairy breast". Having naked a breast, she{it} called "son" to look on its{her} withered from bezvodja breasts with which she{it} has reared it{him}, to be ashamed of its{her} pity kind and to give the ground, animals and plants of a rain.

After that women came back to everything, both and children with pleasure poured over youth each other water that "su jullary achylsyn" ("ways of water have opened"). Pouring each other, guys sentenced: "Chulmek-chulmek May kirek, chilek-chilek jatsgyr picks" ("Pots oil is necessary, buckets - a rain").

Then followed sacrifice of the sacrificial animal, reminding that the Alp the Kubar most of all liked to go for a drive on the bull (about it Bashtu "Shang kyzy das ~ tany"), and a feast on which ate ritual porridge "jatsgyr botkasy" is spoken in a poem Michael-

"Rain porridge" (given the name to a holiday), a fish, oil, eggs and. Other, drank milk, sang ceremonial songs and pripevki-riddles. Interesting examples of such pripevok-riddles are resulted in G.M.Davletshina's book "the Itil Bulgaria: spiritual culture" (Kazan. 1990, with. 49 - 50):

Sakmardagy sarajgyr Sagyiyp toryp keshnider, Bilterdege bish to biys Bishese yes kolynlyj.

Kolynnary sarala, JAn-jagyna tarala, Any a barrow keshenets ZiNennere tarala.

The yellow horse on Sakmare Neighs from the impatience, Five kobylits (mine) on a circuit All five jerebjatsja.

Jerebjata turn yellow, Run up on the sides{parties} who it will see, Mind{Wit} for reason comes. (the Thunder-storm with lightnings).

Most ancient of Bulgarian pripevok-riddles is resulted in the book "the Code kumanikuo (1303), preserved in library italjanekopgtjueta-gu man ista Petrarcas:

Jugaryda jau kupkan, Ugyn atar, uze kachar.

Above the troops has risen. Strelu lets out{releases}, and itself it is hidden. (the Thunder-storm with lightnings).

From the end XVI - XIX centuries, iod pressure of a mosque, the ceremony "pokazyvanija a dairy breast" has ceased to be executed, and men and women began to mark holiday Jatsgyr botkasy separately from each other.
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102

CHUMAR (SAMARAS) BOTKASY

One of the brightest Bulgarian holidays was Chumar botkasy. It is clear. In fact the celebration was marked after harvesting with the purpose to thank Supreme and spirit of fertility - the Alp Samara (his{its} name has got in pozdnebulgarskuju an epoch form "Chumar") for the received crop and to strive for new. More all of data on this tradition has kept for us Kul Gali.

Marked Chumar botkasy 40 days, in September - the beginning of October (only in cities it{he} was celebrated on August, 23 - on October, 1 that the capital nobility has had time to have fun and on rural Chumar botkasy), and it opened and closed medjlisami in a field. During very ancient times began a holiday September medjlis the women, named "kyzlar echkene" - "maiden drink" (places of gathering of women till now in people name Kyz tauy - the Maiden mountain, Kyz kala-ey - the Maiden small town and. t. d.), and finished October medjlis men (the Audan or Djur echkene" - "knightly drink" referred to "). Between these medjlisami people about 40 days visited to each other. But Bulgarian Khan Michael Jalkau (931 - 943), loved{liked} every possible amusements, ordered women and men to carry out{spend} both medjlisa together. Only very notable Bulgarian knights and old soldiers carried out{spent} October the Audan echkene separately from other people - either on the nature, or in the house of the hospitable owner.

Medjlisy passed so. In the beginning on them ceremonial songs (at moslems the pray was made) were executed, then sacrifice of sacrificial animals and feasts with competitions of storytellers - chjchenov, with dances, games, jokes and with the obligatory use of the main dish of a holiday - a millet cereal "chumar botkasy" (it is literally - "porridges Samara - Chumara", given a name followed to a holiday), soup "chumar", prosjanogo beer - buzy (why the feast referred to echken - as drink). Then military tournaments followed - and feasts renewed with new force-* in honour of winners of fights.

Duels were playing of parts bultariana myth about Itself. The second name not less loved{liked} by people Samara - Gjul-djimesh or Djimchachak ("TSvegushche-fructifying"). Therefore this Alp sometimes represented fine young men with a flower in a hand. The myth about Samara - Gjuldjimeshe, kept Kul Gali, says, that once the malicious spirit - djinn droughts and death Shurale has destroyed trees around of the main source of water. This djinn was represented as a huge dried up tree with copper leaves and with a mouth - duplom "kuvysh" of which sticked out awful copper teeth - canines. Therefore Shurale named and Kuvyshem - Dupel-nym (in sense "Duplopastnyj"), Djinn has dried up a spring and has hammered in his{its} source the roots. The Earth was captured with a terrible drought.

In the beginning female spirit of love the Alp - bika the Turan has tried the world to persuade Shurale to release{exempt} a source in exchange for something - but it is vain, as Kuvysh has demanded impossible - a post of the Visir of Alps which Ur (Mar) has occupied. Then Ur has asked the Kubar to punish the impudent fellow. The Kubar has struck Shurale a lightning - but only has beaten out his{its} one tooth. At Kuvysha the new canine has there and then grown, and vybityj has fallen to the ground and turn{transform} - in monstrous mednobokogo the bull-- Kepkeja. The unicorn has rushed to the nearest city of Bulgars, intending to crush it{him}. However business was entered by the Audan. It{he} has blocked to a monster a way, but Kepkej has thrown it{him} in the sky and has decided to spread a bogatyr on the horn. For now the Audan fell, the unicorn trambled down his{its} wolf cap - burek. It has deduced{removed} from itself the mighty Alp of the Storm - the Wolf. It{he} has turned back invisible and has bent down a horn of a monster to the ground. The Audan has safely landed and has split a unicorn into parts the sword then has hanged out these pieces on a sacred tree (on old rebellious custom). For this feat the Audan has received nickname "Zikej" or "the Oguz> - "Bull".

Samaras, having learned{having found out} about event, sat on the horse and has jumped on fight with Shurale. Samaras could address in a dragon, and also in a deer or the bull why it{him} named also the Baradj (Dragon) and the Turki (the Great Bull), but more often Bulgars represented his{its} fine horseman - a bogatyr and named in honour of him{it} one of days of week - ytlar kunu (day of the horseman - Tuesday).

Gjuldjimeshu it was possible to cut down and split Kuvysha (parts of that Have turned to fineer Shurale (jarymtyklar), harmless for Alps. But able 4-~ 4 tjuveka. The source has been released{exempted}, but Water in it{him} became dead from blood Kuvysha. Samaras and the Turan on Pleasures ispili from a spring also have fallen asleep. The Audan who has seen it, Has waited an arrival of rooks and has addressed to the Alp to the Hag with the request about The help. The hag with wife Chakchak has attributed{related} the Oguz in wonderful up to linu Basan where it{he} has picked an alive grass ^ millet. From millet Chakchak Has made water of life - buzu, and this drink was recovered by the Turan, Samara And a source.:

Holiday Chumar botkasy was representation on motives of this myth. I think, the reader has already understood: sacrifice of a sacrificial animal meant a victory of the Audan - Oguz over a unicorn, fighting tournaments - fight Samara with Shurale (the winner always personified Samara, and defeated - Shurale), and consumption of food and drink from millet people as though anew recovered and strengthened kind Alps.

Are not less interesting, than a myth, details of ceremonies Chumar botkasy. For a holiday special wooden troughs were done{made} of a trunk of a sacred tree - a poplar, containing up to 10 and more boilers buzy. Near to troughs two were put kazana (boiler), from which already buzu spilled in wooden bowls - a sphere (from here - Russian words "chara", "charka") participants of a celebration. In other boilers prepared chumar (soup chumar) and chumar botkasy (millet cereal).
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103

During the most ancient time opened a holiday of a spell and ceremonial songs of Bulgarian priests - askalov. Since 737. Chumar botkasy began to open and prays of mullahs, after which were already begun to sing ceremonial songs. Then in doislamskuju an epoch let out{released} from a shelter of the excited sacrificial bull, and horse volunteers could battle to it{him}. But in X century of the mullah have achieved an interdiction of this custom. Therefore in more later time of the bull and other sacrificial animals pinned up at once then hanged out some their parts on a sacred tree and began a feast.

Feasting had fun, as could - joked, sang, danced, played - and glanced on majdan - a platform of competitions. And there these fights which participants battled the fighting weapon were played. After "easy" warm-ups (djigitovki, podnimanija coins from the ground on full skaku and dr,) and competitions in accuracy of shooting on the purpose ~ "ulaku" ("goat"), fixed on a crossbeam of a field gate (in Kazan they were put on Ulak majdany, on a meadow opposite to the Kremlin), followed "audarysh" (struggle on horses with the purpose to force the contender to touch the ground), kopejnye congresses of horsemen - contenders "setsge sugyshy" ("kopejnaja fight") and the heaviest vi and single combats - "the Hon sugyshy" or "jalangach sugysh" ("fight naked") in which two contenders naked on a belt{zone} beat each other pletjami.

Then there came turn skachek (bajga), symbolizing flight behind an alive grass for Samara and the Turan.

In everything, kinds of competitions (except for "fight naked" and struggle on horses) could take part and women. In bloody fights with application pletej and the fighting weapon and in jumps quite often gibli people also were mutilated, but it did not stop a holiday and fun as was considered on the given celebration as business natural and not so sad. Even when in 943 Khan Michael Jalkau during gallop has fallen from a horse and rasshibsja to death his{its} son Mohammed has told: "At will Supreme, people come and leave, and the will of the Creator [eternally and continuously] is embodied", - and ordered to continue a holiday.

So character of Bulgars, not casually gained to itself loud glory of the most brave and strong soldiers was tempered...
104

The most ancient data about Chumar botkasy have reached us in pozdneshumerskih (Babylon) sources which have kept (the truth, in slightly deformed kind) even Bulgarian names. So, the Sumero-Babylon epos about Gilgameshe is afrazijskoj processing of a Bulgarian myth about Samara. Bulgarian name Gjuldjimesh has turned in the Babylon retelling in "Gilgamesh", Enkej - in Enkidu, Kuvysh - in Huvavu (and then and in Humbabu) and. t. d. Gilga-mesh and Enkidu make the same feats, as Gjuldjimesh-Samaras and the Audan - Enkej: kill the monstrous bull, cut down malicious tree Huvavu, search for a plant giving immortality... Bulgarian by origin the epos about Gilgameshe was then is perceived{recognized} by ancient Jews and has got in "Bible".

Despite of all vicissitudes of life, Chumar botkasy, in view of his{its} extreme importance (a problem of a crop.-It is a question of a life and death), it was celebrated by all Bulgars very for a long time. So, Christian preacher Israil wrote to 684, that bulgarsuvary on the holiday sacrificed animals, and blood of them spilled around of a tree, and a head and a leather{skin} hung up on suchja a sacred high oak. After that Bulgars ate and drank, arranged struggle and fights (in which opponents acted naked), gallop on horses, games, dancings... All this Was accompanied zvonom and by a roar of drums (M, I.Artamonov. A history of Khazars. ., 1962, with. 187). As we see, enough podrob) *5Ñ image Chumar botkasy VII century.

And here is how has described pervooktjabrsky medjlis Kazan Chumar botkasy 1552 Bulgarian letopisets Tahtagul (it is quoted this description under the text of " the Kazan history", kept it{him}), "khan Also [has asked] to read a pray of mullahs..., not desiring [in the beginning) it. And all city dwellers of Kazan... [Began] to bring victims... Khan and grandees Kazan stallions and cows well-fed..., and simple and absolutely poor people of sheeps and hens and brought [other] bird and pinned up. Also have started to be pleased and have fun, play representations and to sing pagan songs, and to dance, pleshcha hands i.prygaja" and to play the psaltery, and to strike [bowes about strings] skripok, both strong noise, and a roar [drum-type] to make, ^ jokes to joke..." During same time in the palace, separately from people, "strong prince Chapkun... Drinks red wine and honey sweet, and has fun, accepting... Honours from the friends - grandees". Did not remain outside of look Tahtagula and such appreciable detail of a holiday, as huge troughs and boilers for buzy. But here heart of an orthodox moslem does not maintain, and Tahtagul compares participants pitija buzy to the dogs who are drinking up from lohanej (the Kazan history. . - ., 1954, with. 59, 149, 153).
105

And as were torn from frustration at kind Chumar botkasy hearts of mullahs! But there is a terrible pogrom of the Moscow gain XVI century, survived - and mullahs could inspire destruction of Bulgarian knights and the majority of carriers of national traditions, an improbable impoverishment to people, that this disaster was the result of non-observance by people of norms of an islam, and to forbid celebrating by moslems Chumar botkasy in a former kind.

Moslems, certainly, have not forgotten the holiday, but from his{its} ceremonies have dared to keep only singing of fragments of ritual songs, cooking and consumption of porridge - in a field, behind a village fence (and, men and women were treated separately from each other). Bulgars - krjasheny have kept Chumar botkasy in more full kind under name Kyzlar echkene. In a holiday on which sacrificial geese were eaten, rams and even bychki, participated guys and girls, and Djigits treated girls with beer and executed for them songs...

Hardly, I think, it is possible to regret about vozlijanijah, happened on a holiday in honour of revival Samara and to Rounds. But to restore such moments Chumar botkasy as harmless for a life militarized tournaments, execution{performance} of ceremonial songs and dances iod game of musicians, probably, costs{stands}. In fact Chumar botkasy is a holiday of a crop, and a crop our people collects and will collect every year, as well as it is a lot of millenia back. And buzu let will replace curative koumiss. Here I with letopistsem Tahtagulom quite agree...
106

KAZ OMESE

Bulgarian holiday Kaz emese was in the past of one of the most favourite and cheerful national traditions. There was it{he} many millenia back on a basis indoarijiana ceremony of fertility Mihragan and a cult Alp - biki Su Anasy, addressed in a duck, the goose and a swan (from here - an image of Khanevna Swans in Russian fairy tales). Bulgarian people during the development has merged these rituals of the indoarijskih and Turkic ancestors with useful work - processing zakolotyh geese during November and December frosts therefore holiday Kaz emese was born - Goose to help.

The main heroine of a holiday was Su Anasy. In honour of favourite female spirit Bulgars brought on Kaz vmese in a victim of geese to thank the Alp - biku for an issue and safety of poultry and to receive all this and during subsequent time.

The sequence of ceremonies of a holiday was those. In the beginning, after prays, the hairpin of geese, then them oshchipyvanie and processing (houses and in a court yard) the girls invited to the aid of owners and young women followed. When processing zakolotyh geese went in the street to a court yard from all aul Djigits converged with

Musical instruments also helped girls jokes, songs and dances. Then in the evening owners suited a celebratory junket (ash) for participants of processing of geese - girls and young women, and also for husbands of the last.

The junket looked like a cheerful party (aulak), here too there were both jokes, and game on musical instruments/ entertainments, and gantsy, and songs. Were executed, certainly, and myths about Su Anasy.

One of them tells, how once the Alp - bika in an image of a duck has got from a bottom of world{global} ocean sand and from him{it} the land (a late variant of this myth see in the book was created: G.M.Davletshjn. The Itil Bulgaria: spiritual culture. Kazan, 1990, with. 47).

In the other myth it is told about ingenuity Su Anasy. When stolen she{it} djinn Albastyj was born{carried} by the Alp - biku (being in shape gusyni) on underground labyrinthes in the gloomy cave Su Anasy pulled out the down and threw it{him} on road. On this down Su Anasy the Audan could find and release{exempt}...

The main food on a holiday were, certainly, dishes from goose meat - first of all "bash-ajak beleshe".

On aulak - it is especial toward the end they be tried to penetrate and young men to see girls and to take part in fun. However guys krajne^edko managed to persuade owners to let them (and that if they were close relatives). Obviously, in Kaz emese has preserved (the truth, in the weakened kind) motive of the detached female feast of a ceremony kyzlar echkene. So more often Djigits climbed on a party without the permission, at own risk, that resulted in romantic adventures with the usual end - flight of uninvited visitors on street...

And description Kaz emese started XX century, made F. 3. Gafarovoj - the inhabitant sat Jatsa the Aul of area Aznakaevianof Tatarstan: "As soon as the river froze and covered by strong enough layer of ice, arranged Kaz emose.

Since morning the grandfather pricked geese, preliminary having read a pray. Usually pricked 20 - 25 geese, leaving only several best (breeding) birds. By this time girls and young women beforehand were invited. They also plucked geese: in the beginning large feathers, then pomelche and down. In an operating time of the woman talked and joked.

After "the main thing oshchipyvanija" tushki scalded boiled water, both children and teenagers started to pull out "shyrpylar" from a leather{skin} of geese... After end of this operation of the woman suspended some part tushek to koromyslam and went to the river where in an ice-hole (beke) washed out tushki and their interiors. Others tushki hanged out in cold kleti till the spring. And in the spring the last tushki (if remained were salted. The dish prepared from them, was considered special: for it{him} prepared for wedding or the big holidays.
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Oshchipyvanie came to the end with tea drinking of owners with assistants. To it{him} necessarily prepared tebikmek on the fat taken from svejevypotroshennyh tushek.

And it was arranged ash to which assistants and their husbands were invited in the evening. On ashe prevailed gusjatina".

The part prepared for the future gusjatiny went on narduganovsky a table. Inhabitants of America and the Old World, loving{liking} to meet Christmas with a piece gusjatiny in hands, and do not guess, that are obliged to this pleasure to two Bulgarian holidays - Kaz omase and Nardugan.
108

KAZ KANATLARYI SYDYRU OMESE

About this holiday so tells F. 3. Gafarova: "In December, before Narduganom, other holiday - Kaz kanatlaryn sydyru emese was marked - To help at oshchipyvanii goose wings. On this to help also girls gathered. They plucked wings and feathers and separated down from which filled pillows (mender) and the big pillows (jastyk or tushek). Of work of the girl, certainly, joked, shared news. Then owners arranged for them tea drinking with an entertainment, renumerating them for work...

In the early morning of the next day, before sunrise, the grandmother went to the river (to which in auls kitchen gardens usually closely adjoined) and on a way, from the gate up to the river, has scattered the horn rests of feathers and wings - kauryj. On coast she{it} read a pray and wished, that at geese was born a lot of healthy gusjat and that they went on same path from the river to the house".

In more ancient times as marked Kul Gali, for gusjat asked also Su Anasy.
109

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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Home
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In Russian

Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases
Kipchaks

Alan Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Sabir Dateline