In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
Ogur and Oguz
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
V.Taskin Eastern Huns 3 c. BC - 2 c. AD
V.Taskin Eastern Huns 3 c. AD - 5 c. AD
V.Taskin Kiyan Huns 3 c. AD - 5 c. AD
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman

Volume 2
Part 2 (Continued)

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Translator's Notes

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.




Nardugan - perhaps, the most ancient holiday of Bulgars, in fact on it{her} was played a myth about alie light and heat Mardukane (Narduga-SH) to the hag, kept memory of people of an epoch of a congelation of Europe (ok. 100 '-40 thousand years ago). The holiday carries a name Marduka-on, bytovshzshee in people in the form "Nardugan>. According to a myth, malicious ' spirits have somehow decided to ruin a sort human and have built vyso-'kuju a wall, blocking the sun. On the ground there have come{stepped} a gloom and a cold. She{it} began to become covered by ice, and all alive on it{her} - to perish. To the aid of people has come kind divines - ali the Mardukan-hag. It{he} Together with the synovjami the Sak and Juice has gone to break a wall. Beams of the close sun began to burn them and then Mardukan has sent sons home behind honey which could protect them from a burn. But the Sak and Juice were frightened and have disappeared in night. The hag waited their some time, and then has alone broken a wall. So it{he} a ver-pool to people the sun, so - light, warmly, a life, pleasure. But itself the Hag has flashed from heat shined. His{its} burning feathers have fallen to the ground and have turned in hot black horses. The Tangra has kept to the self-denying Alp a life, therefore the Hag comes back to people in the spring in shape of an ordinary rook. And and Juice the wife of the Hag - the patroness of family Chakchak - has damned the Sak for their change to the father, and at will Supreme they from that event could live only in darkness.

Has passed time. Brothers have repented in sodejannom and try to ask pardons at mother, but they cannot meet it{her}. She{it} always flies after the sun, and they cannot proceed{pass} from night in day.

The holiday was marked on December, 25 each year in honour of concrete event - the beginnings razbitija walls divov the Alp the Hag. On December, 25 immemorial year also has received name Mardukana or Nardugana (two fantastic forms of the same Bulgarian word, but form Mardukan appeared more popularly and from the end XII! - began to dominate over the environment of Bulgars) XIV centuries. Word Mardukan (Nardugan) was comprehended originally, as "Christmas (dukan-dugan) Sun (Mar-Nar)" as the holiday has arisen on a basis a sack - ga of the sun. And later name Mardukan (Nardugan) has turned to a name is scarlet pa Hags and began to be deciphered as "Given birth (dukan-dugan) by Sun (Mar-Nar)". People started to perceive Nardugan as a celebration in honour of the Alp of the Hag and as a symbol of inevitability of a victory of forces of light and goods above forces of a gloom and evil.

Holiday Nardugan proceeded so. In the beginning youth and children in masks and karnavalnyh suits went on houses to collect gifts. The person playing a role of spirit of winter Kysh of the Tarkhan ~~ "Lords of Winter" headed a procession of collectors (Bulgarian "the Grandfather of the Frost"), Kysh the Tarkhan has been dressed in a Bulgarian cap "kama-burek", a dark blue fur coat and bore{carried} in a hand a staff with a half moon. Accompanied Kysh with the Tarkhan two "ravens" (the Sak and Juice), "wolves", etc. essences.

Collectors played on musical instruments, sang ceremonial songs, danced, and for it owners bore{took out} him{it} donations. It was necessary to be generous that year was successful.

Then people decorated a sacred tree (he{it} could be a poplar, an oak, a birch, a pine, a fur-tree, etc.) or his{its} imitation - a column. The girls, dreaming to have children, adhered to a tree multi-coloured tapes - symbols detorodnosti. Besides to a tree attached signs Tangry (as six-final stars or "colors" with even quantity{amount} of "petals" - 6, 8 and t, d.), korzinki with eggs, images Mara as the cock (a symbol of the sun, light and heat) and other an a/seam, etc.

The central moment of a holiday the ceremony of destruction of a wall divov was. "A wall divov" in the form of a snow small town participants Nardugana built this on any raised place of a snow and ice (she{it} frequently represented simple snow gorku). One group of guys playing a role "malicious divov", became on protection of "wall - small town", and another, acted in a role of kind forces, stormed and broke "a wall divov". Storming necessarily bore{carried} on long sticks or carried on a cart huge scarecrows of a horse (also a symbol 1^ара and immortality of the Hag) and camel Tajgasa (simvola Kysh the Tarkhan) - that was ascended with the sun and that the winter was not too severe.

"The wall divov" undertook and collapsed necessarily, and triumphing winners naked ran on a snow and were poured by water (as if it became warm), planted fires and hung up seized by them in "small town" a scarecrow malicious divine Tama of the Tarkhan on a celebratory tree. The most dexterous boys removed the gifts attached to it{him} from a tree (column), and other participants Nardugana played, sang, danced - a word, had fun with all the heart.

After the terminations{endings} of fun the tree had ceremony of bringing of animals in a victim the Tangre and to kind spirits. Skins of Sacrificial animals hanged out on a tree and spoke: "Let the one who to dare to steal them, the snake will bite". In honour Mara the white horse was pinned up, and in honour of the Hag - "sary teke" - "the gold ram". Victims should provide a good harvest and an issue, safety of crops and animals.

And in the evening feasts began. Gifts (ware and grocery), collected by procession Kysh of the Tarkhan, were given needy - so the Bulgarian society provided carrying out of a holiday all mi. On feasts the myth was necessarily sung about the Hag, received in people and the second name "Sak-juice baete" ~ - "the Song about the Sak and Juice". At night (guessed about the future. Guessings with rings and jugs why to victims of own naivety and trustfulness spoke were especially popular: "you that, from a jug have heard a voice?"

Bulgarian holiday Mardukan (Nardugan) was apprehended with many peoples - from Jews up to Russian. In christianity Mardukan - "Christmas of the Sun (light)" have transformed into "Christmas Hristovo", it is not casual at mother Hanss (Jesus) and a Bulgarian "solar" name - Marjam (Maria). At Jews the name of the Alp of the Hag - Marduka-on in the form "Mordechai" has preserved also. Due to christianity, Bulgarian by origin a holiday of Christmas mark (with all his{its} attributes - gifts, Kysh the Tarkhan - the Grandfather the Frost, ukra-shennymi fur-trees, carnivals, guessings, etc.) all Christian nations of the world. Russian people has kept (in the form of exhibition amusement) and nardugaiovsky custom to remove from a column various prizes...

Except for Bulgarian annals, a lot of foreign sources has left to us curious data about Nardugane. Most ancient of the last - "Illiada" Gomera - describes a capture ancient Greeks Bulgarian the cities of Atrjacha (Troy) in Asia Minor about 1200 up to n. e. As narduganovskogo storm "walls divov" - "a snow small town". Let the reader will recollect: Greeks ("kind divines") went on an attack of Troy ("walls divov") with a huge scarecrow

Horses and as it is necessary, have taken city. Other ceremony Nardugana (and other Bulgarian holidays) - razveshivanie skins of sacrificial animals on a tree (including skins of " the gold ram") - became the main motive of an ancient greek myth about argonauts. I shall remind, that in this legend argonauts abduct from a sacred tree a skin "the gold ram" ("a gold fleece"), having lulled a dragon (the snake!).

"The Kazan history" (XVI century) also has not bypassed Nardugan with attention. Interestingly, as in it{her} ceremonies of a holiday have been used at description Belevskoj of fight on December, 5, 1436 (December - narduganovskoe time!). "Tsar... Has made to itself an ice fortress: from the river has dragged thick ice, both showered with his{its} snow and has watered vodoju... (It{He}) has opened a serf gate and, having sat on the horse... Terribly zasvistal, as terrible Great Snakes..." (the Kazan history. М. - Л., 1954, with. 50 - 52),

Despite of efforts of some mullahs hostilely concerned to Narduganu and named it{him} "fight djinnov" (from Ahmed's easy hand ibn the Fadlan who has described Nardugan as fight light and dark djinnov), people persistently continued to mark this holiday. In fact on it{him} there was a traditional prayer for the future crop, and people spoke: "Narduganga barmasats, iten bulmyj" ("If on you will go pa Nardugan the hemp" will not be born, that is there will be no crop). Nardugan was so characteristic for medieval Bulgaria, that in the beginning of XIII century the Catholic monk Julian who has accepted it{him} for "Christmas Hristovo", has named Bulgars "mardukanami" and... "Christians".

By the moment bolshevistskoj revolutions of 1917. Nardugan has kept such ceremonies as maskaradnye amusements rjajenyh ("shamakaj") with carrying scarecrows of a horse and a camel, douche iarduganovskoj water, ignitions of fires, the ceremony isprashivanija a crop "kurkylyk koju (ashlykka dip)" - "that was a crop", guessings (about the future crop - on bark of dogs, about the groom - on rings and so forth), some ceremonial songs (byte about the Sak and Juice, a song "Nardugan tsar bulsyn, eche tuly nur bulsyn").

From the end XVI - XVIII century at Bulgars - moslems of the man and the woman celebrated Nardugan separately.

Bolsheviks have forbidden Nardugan and have fenced off us from all our, Bulgarian "a wall divov" the antiBulgarian policy{politics}. Protesting have shot, and escaped have pretent, as if have forgotten all holidays, both culture, and a history, and even a name of people. And many troubles were tested with our ground (Bulgars silt) after that, as if in punishment for oblivion us of traditions. But nastanet day, and our people ojivet and again will direct on storm of the damned wall divov which will be by all means destroyed.


The reader, got used to meet New year "in an European way", that is in January, probably, will be surprised to that in olden time Bulgars marked it{him}... In March.

The official Bulgarian name of New year - Nauruz (New day) has indoarijskoe an origin. But were in a course and national names of a New Year's holiday - named the main ceremonies of this celebration: "the Hag botkasy" and "Kargatuj>. These ceremonies have been devoted to the main hero of New Year's custom - to the Alp to the Mardukanu-hag. In fact this Alp has broken a wall divov at night on March, 20 due to what above the ground again has ascended the sun and on March, 21 has come{stepped} itself Nauruz - New day!

March nesting of rooks in which images the Alp the Hag (Rook) also was to people after fulfilment of the feat, was a signal to celebrating Nauruza.

People left on surburbs of villages and cities, jgli on hills fires, made a sacrifice the Tangre and to Alps to the Hag and Samara, arranged joint feasts on which prepared and ate meat sacrificial saving and New Year's dishes from loved{liked;favourite} by the Alp the Hag of barley - a barley flour drink (beer) and, certainly, barley porridge "the hag botkasy" ("grachinuju porridge") with meat. Under the name of this porridge all ceremony of preparation and eating ritual nishchi referred to "the hag botkasy". Huge Bulgarian boilers for preparation of food and altars with images of lions, camels, goats, etc. animals up to now have preserved.

Children had most fun on a holiday. They necessarily got on trees, roofs and shouted, imitating croak of rooks.

The holiday vecherne-night feasts on which were sung "Nouruz baete", a myth about the Sak and Juice came to an end, guessings and a ceremony "kargatuj" ("grachinaja wedding") - arrangement of guys and girls about the future wedding as Nauruz was considered as favorable time for a choice of the bride were carried out{spent}. After the conclusions of preliminary arrangement both sides{parties} ate "grachinuju porridge", and the groom managed meat, and to the bride - porridge. On custom, the girl it was left a few{a little;little bit} meat. If early in the morning she{it} ate it{him} arrangement was considered fixed and if is not present - terminated.

In due course, under pressure of a mosque, joint celebrating Nauruza by men and women has stopped, though the custom is forgotten, certainly, was not.

Bolsheviks have ranked Nauruz as Islamic holidays, having shown it full nevejestvo, and with the beginning of the open struggle against religion, have forbidden.

But I am confident: there will come{step} time when our people can is again free sing ritual "Neuruz baete" (the text is resulted under V.M.Berkutova's book):

Neuruz ejte without kildek,
Boilers g; emalshchyzny hens a deck,
Neuruz meberek bad.
A battement bnrsets, kup bulyr,
Pudauka b.irsets, az bulyr,
Bochyk birsen; tamandyr,
SHa-di bad, sh a hell and bad.

We sing Nauruz,
we See fine your persons,
Let there will be kind a New year.
A battement will give - will be much,
Will give pudovku - will be a little.
Will give puchuk - it will be normal,
we Shall be more cheerful,
we shall be more cheerful.



Under certificate Kul Gali, this holiday penalties - Bulgars marked before Kargatuem, and vol the go-Ural Bulgars - before the Sabantuy. Eventually Volgo-Ural has won custom of local Bulgars to celebrate Soren before the Sabantuy, during intensive thawing snows. The name "soren" deciphered as "fire" and as "the holiday of new fire", and it{he} was marked in memory of demolition by the Alp by the Hag of a wall divov (walls of disasters) and about returning the sun and Heat to the ground.

Began a holiday guys who in the morning on the decorated horses and groups, with verdicts and songs, went round all ends of village for ritual gathering eggs - symbols of a life-giving solar energy and abundance. The Bulgarian proverb not without reason says, that eggs kindle ice. And the cock and the hen were for Bulgars symbols of the sun...

In each end of settlement horsemen "went on a wheel" ("tegermechke barabyz") - that is there was in the middle of street in the circle, meaning a sun and simultaneously an altar (Bulgarian altars were the square and round form with images of animals on edges{territories}). The small guys who were running together to horsemen, beat prutikami on a gate, causing owners verdicts. It they as though played Mini-performance of demolition of a wall divov in which a gate were represented by a wall, and knock in them - demolition of a wall of misfortune.

Mistresses of these parts of village left a gate and bore{took out} in a gift to Djigits jaichki which developed in a special bag. When the bag was filled, guys arranged playful horse game in which took away each other a treasured bag. The described horse travels and games referred to "seren chabu" - as " fiery jumps". After the terminations{endings} of this ceremony beforehand the elected owners of the ends of an aul suited for each group an entertainment in a court yard, open-air. On a feast musicians converged, people sang and danced under their game. The part of the collected eggs and entertainments was endowed to imperial treasury and entrusted collectors of taxes.

The major part of a holiday the ceremony of ignition of new fire was. In the evening the aul was bypassed with songs and verdicts with the following procession. Ahead of her{it} uniquitous boys ran, behind them the old cart (cart), vlekomaja girls with the dismissed hair (it is usual their role executed rabyni or daughters of poor men for the certain payment) moved. On a cart symbolically took out from an aul evil spirits and troubles of last year. And that evil spirits and troubles have not escaped from a cart back in houses, it{she} was followed with aggressive songs and klichami by the Djigits armed with sabres...

Boys ran up to the centers and extinguished them, and log huts smoked branches sacred archi or artysha (juniper). Owners bore{took out} from houses and put on a cart any old things (more often, all clothes) or simply a bunch{beam} of straw a symbol of all misfortunes of family, and participants of a detour treated with products. Then Djigits beat on a gate sabres and wished, that the house troubles and did not visit{attend} misfortune.

When the detour of an aul came to the end, the cart was taken out for a village fence, to a cemetery and was burnt. It symbolized a birth of solar fire and death from him{it} all misfortunes and evil spirits.

During burning this fire Djigits threw the old clothes in fire and naked fought with each other on sabres (it symbolized fight of kind and malicious spirits), and teenagers jumped through a flame with exclamations "alas" or "atrjach" (one of names of the Alp of the Hag) and with wishes of disappearance of all troubles and evil spirits. Fight referred to "seren sugu" - "fiery bitje", and pryganje through a fire - "alas" or "atrjach". Then from this fire - "new fire" - the centers in all houses were lit. It was impossible to leave from a fire, not having beaten on sabres and not having waited it{him} dogoranija is referred to "to proceed{pass} a way of the sun" and brought misfortune. In particular, at soldiers force of their weapon vanished.

When "alas" came to the end, participants of a ceremony ate an entertainment and came back home. Guys frequently ran, and Djigits skipped naperegonki from a fire up to an aul. Was considered, that to winners of run and skachek the happiness will come. ' •

During later times of a sabre (which after "alasa" stopped in water with bunches{beams} of burning straw) have replaced their imitations from a tree with which, however, all the same beat all prisutstvovavshih on "scarlet - se". After that palki.brosalis in water or a fire.

From the end XVI - XIX centuries at Bulgars - moslems in Sorene participated only men .


There will be no person who would not know a word "Sabantuy". The literature on this Bulgarian holiday is rather extensive. And how many "scientific" versions about an origin of a celebration according to which the Sabantuy, appeared that "Tatar" the "Bashkir" holiday! And as soon as do not translate his{its} name the "researchers" who are not having any representation about Bulgarian culture! It, appears, and "a holiday of a plough", and "a holiday summer", and "a holiday of work", and "a holiday of spring sowing", and even... "Wedding of cereals and all the same ploughs"!

The mite was brought to judgements about the Sabantuy even by the well-known hero of a poem A.Tvardovian Vasily Terkin:

And who from you knows, What such a Sabantuy?

- A Sabantuy - any holiday?

Or what there - a Sabantuy?

- The Sabantuy happens different.

Instead of ukaesh, do not interpret.

Further Terkin has named a Sabantuy heavy military tests.

But here all right - Vasily in fact "academy" did not finish, and has guessed in fact one feature of the Sabantuy - test (the truth, not the soldier, and the groom). Besides also his{its} words "Instead of you know, do not interpret" so it would be desirable to address to the above mentioned mountains - researchers..

On the Soviet slang the word "Sabantuy" has got value even more wild and far from initial sense - "a pleasure junket".

From all this raznorechivoj information at the reader the head can go Around.:

Meanwhile the Sabantuy - primordially Bulgarian holiday. There was it{he} on the basis of wedding traditions far Turkic and indoarijskih ancestors of Bulgars in the environment of a Bulgarian tribe Sabans. Cattlemen - sabany long time were owners of territory of modern Armenia why their name has preserved in the name of local lake (in armjanizirovannoj to the form - Sevan). However, and many others radical the name of this area have a Bulgarian origin (Armenia - from Bulgarian "Armand" - "the Earth on a slope of mountain", Yerevan - from Bulgarian "er~even" - "military storojka", "zastava", etc.) . In VI century BC Iranians have moved weight Sabans to Central Asia where they together with other Bulgarian tribe ermi-erdim (germihiony) have formed in VI century n. e. A Turkic Kaganate. But it is very fast attitudes{relations} between these Bulgarian tribes have deteriorated, and sabany have superseded germihionov to Idel - Ural and Ukraine. Then other tribes have superseded from Central Asia a part Sabans, and she{it} under a name Badjinaks (pechenegov) also prikochevyvaet to Idel - Ural and participates here in addition of a Bulgarian nationality{national character}. Among other customs sabany have transferred the Idel - Ural Bulgars and a holiday a Sabantuy.

Sabany rather esteemed spirit of a crop, cattle and an issue Samara, naming it{him} Sabanom (Shepherd) of their herds. In honour of loved{liked,favourite} Samara - Sabana this part of Bulgars referred to sabanami, and also marked a celebration "Sabantuy" - "Wedding Sabana". This holiday was carried out{was spent} sabanami in a heat of spring. Once at this particular time there was a marriage Samara - Sabana on Alp - bike Ashne therefore the ground began to come to life after winters.

The Bulgarian nationality{national character} began to mark the Sabantuy on a climatic calendar of the north - at the end of April - the beginning of May, from Friday till Friday - in fact by this period the snow descended{went} and the nature Idel - Urala started to blossom.

But, as wrote Kul Gali, during his{its} time any more did not remember that the Sabantuy is devoted to wedding Samara and Ashny and the name of a holiday - word "Saban" - perceived already as a breeding name Sabans or in sense of the industrial term "shepherd".

The name of spirit Samara sounds as well in the name of a version of a heavy Bulgarian plough - "saban suka", but here the use of a name of spirit had magic sense and should give to a plough ability to provide a crop. So the holiday the Sabantuy had no any attitude{relation} to a plough (which, naturally, never and did not appear on a holiday). And in any way the Sabantuy has not been connected hardly the farmer. On the contrary, the holiday has arisen in the environment of cattlemen and later it was marked just during vesenne-field works - in fact a main role in formation of a Bulgarian nationality{national character} sygra-

Whether all same cattlemen. All traditional elements of the Sabantuy - struggle kuresh and horse gallop - typical customs of cattlemen to which agriculture was alien.

Wordly essence of a primary Sabantuy - in the statement of the right of the young man on a marriage on anyone izbrannitse the heart. And this right by victories over tests - in struggle and on horse jumps was won. In conditions feudal building with his{its} strong vestiges of patrimonial traditions the Sabantuy was not entertaining holiday. The young man from the simple estate, not sustained tests, attracted a shame on itself and all sort and lost the right to take in the wife the beloved.

Ceremonies - test of the Sabantuy continuously changed under influence of social development. It is interesting, that in doislamsky the period at ancestors of Bulgars which were not knowing still{even} female unequality, the young man and the girl competed with each other directly. The Alp of Samaras - Saban could marry on Ashne only after victories over it{her} in bortsovskom a duel.

It will cause a smile in modern young people, but quite often Djigits left such duels with a pale kind, in fact at cattlemen of the woman in the same works, as men frequently were engaged, even were at war and consequently frequently did not concede to them in force. "Shang kyzy dastany" - "the Legend on daughter Shang" - legendary Idjik wins the bride - bogatyrshu the epic legend only by means of pagan spirits - Alps. In XII century the daughter of Bulgarian emir of the Shamgun - Saina, having seized in a duel with the husband - kypchakskim khan, has broken to it{him} edges!

Under influence of a mosque of girls have gradually discharged of struggle. Instead of them on bortsovsky majdan their relatives - men began to leave. It was more difficult to forbid to participate to mullahs to women in horse competitions. Gallop referred to "kyz kuu" - "catch up the girl". In this duel the young man tried to overtake the izbrannitsu. In case of failure already the girl pursued and mercilessly quilted the guy a lash, trying to bring down from his{its} head a cap (loss of a cap was considered as the greatest shame for the man). Here had no time for laughter. Present, in the epic legend "Baraj, dastany" - "the Legend on the Baradj" - Bulgarian princess Altynchach in competition "kyz kuu" pletju snosit a head of the Tatar khan.

In the middle XIII - the beginning of XV century at settled inhabitants of the Kazan area of Bulgaria "kyz kuu" it is replaced by gallop with speed of one only men. In a protogenic kind the custom is kept only at priuralskih Bulgars - cattlemen (Bashkorts or the Bashkir). It speaks that the islam took root in settled more easy, than in the nomadic environment.

In XVII - XVIII centuries "kyz kuu" and at Bulgars - Bashkorts turns to rare and only entertaining show. Simultaneously with it and kuresh gets a kind of power{force} struggle of one men. But if in Bashkortostan to women, level with men, it was still authorized to be present on majdanah the Sabantuy in the Kazan province full participants of a holiday became only men, and women looked at competitions from apart.

But wedding character of the Sabantuy, despite of these restrictions, nevertheless has preserved. The winner (batyr) competitions became the honourable and desired groom. The Sabantuy began with gathering gifts in houses of the newly-married couple which has formed families after of the previous holiday. A symbol of the Sabantuy were long Bulgarian wedding towels with signs on happiness of swastikas embroidered on them. They fluttered on shestah in hands of collectors of gifts and on majdanah, they were used by fighters for capture of the opponent.

The tradition of delivery to winners of the ram has preserved also. Modern batyr, podymajushchy above a head desperately bleating animal, does not think of that does{makes} it in memory of a victory of a legendary Bulgarian bogatyr of the Audan above the Alp the Ram (trying to prevent his{its} marriage) and for the sake of rescue of the future family from quarrels (similar to quarrel Samara and Ashny).

As before, on the Sabantuy the use of alcoholic drinks was forbidden, and drunk immediately left since a holiday.

In XIX ~~ the beginning of XX century. The Sabantuy began to be enriched with entertaining motives gradually. Playful competitions have appeared on majdane games. Visitors from Russian, Chuvash, mari, Udmurt, Mordovian villages began to be invited. Thus struggle and gallop remain the major ceremonies of a holiday.

Under "recommendation" of the Soviet bodies the traditional Bulgarian Sabantuy, since 1925, is liquidated, and his{its} name and ceremonies are transferred invented by bolsheviks June to " a holiday of socialist work".


This Bulgarian holiday frequently confuse and connect to the Sabantuy. Meanwhile it is different holidays.

Shillyk concerns to the category pominalnyh holidays and it was originally marked as 40-day's commemoration on the Alp to the Hag who has burned down on March, 21. From here - and his{its} name which has arisen from indoarijian "chilla" - "forty" and literally meaning "soroko-

dnevka "." Strictly under the schedule" Shillyk it should be carried out{be spent} on April, 29, but usually it{he} was marked right after the Sabantuy before the sowing. In due course Shillyk has included a ceremony of the first borozdy and became as well a holiday of sowing (continuation of a life) and, simultaneously, reverence of ancestors.

At midday all inhabitants of an aul gathered in a field. Here sacrifice of the sacrificial white ram then the ceremony "birsoly" (literally - "millet - oves" proceeded was made, but in starobulgarskom language meant also "plough", and estate of farmers) or "tar-lau" - "tarchachu" - vspahivanie and boronovanie a small site of a field. Easier speaking, it was a ceremony "the first borozdy".

At plowing threw in borozdu abruptly welded{cooked} "chechu ku-kae" - "borozdovye eggs" (as though transferring the ground life-giving energy of the sun that the field was prolific) and a fish (that a rain was enough). And all this ceremony was gratitude of people to the Alp to the Hag for rescue of a life on the ground. After this children collected sacrificial eggs and a fish and brought them back, except for one eggs and one rybiny which were dug in in the ground.

While there was a ceremony "birsoly" - "tarlau" women placed the nominal foods brought with a uniform (a fish pie, pancakes, fried eggs, oil, honey, beer, etc.), prepared in boilers for noodles - a current - mach, porridge and mutton. During old times used for preparation of food and blood of sacrificial animals, and a word "kap" - "blood" meant simultaneously and "sort", "community" why this holiday named and "kap kunu" - "day of blood or a sort". This name was fixed in a Bulgarian calendar as a designation of environment{Wednesday}.

After a ceremony "the first borozdy" said spells (after acceptances of an islam the pray was read) - and people were accepted for a nominal meal. Were eaten and collected in borozde eggs and a fish.

Having ended{stopped} field ash (commemoration), participants Shillyka were sent on majdan where were carried out{spent} gallop of Djigits. The winner skachek was sprinkled with a flour{torment} and received honourable title "Kamyr-batyr" - "the Bogatyr of the test (crop)".

After skachek all visited tombs of ancestors, and the holiday pominalnym a feast in houses at beforehand elected owners of the rural ends came to an end. The part of products during the Bulgarian state was endowed I reign, why one of kinds of the Bulgarian land tax has received the name "shillyk" (the Russian population included of Bulgaria prior to the beginning X century has kept the name "shillyk" in the form "sheljaga").

Next day sowing began.

From the end XVI - XIX century at Bulgars - moslems of the man and the woman marked some ceremonies Shillyka separately from each other.


At this Bulgarian holiday also very respectable age. His{its} close relative - indoarijsky an April holiday of " a red rose". But if in the south it was really possible to find in April roses in the north it was rather inconvenient. Therefore in Bulgaria "Chechak bejreme> - "the Holiday of colors" - was marked approximately in the middle of May - during flowering a bird cherry (shomyrt).

The heroine of a holiday was alp~bika Gjuldjihan or Ashna (Ash ~ nan) - the wife Samara - Gjuldjimesha (Djimchachak) being spirit of vegetation and consequently frequently represented as flower.

Kul has Gali kept a wonderful myth about this the Alp - bike. In this legend it is spoken, that when Samaras has gone on struggle with Kuvy-shem-Shurale has very strictly punished to the wife to not leave anywhere a safe house and to nobody to open doors before his{its} returning. This interdiction spoke extreme jealousy Samara. But after a victory above Shurale Samaras has drunk the poisoned water and has fallen asleep. Having learned{having found out} by means of a guessing about destiny of the husband, Ashna has not sustained and has gone to rescue it{him}, but on a way it has been stolen malicious divom Ajdahoj - by the brother of the lord of underground world Albastyja Tama of the Tarkhan.

Ajdaha through seven gate the Alp - biku has lead{has carried out} to the vault and wanted to seize immediately her{it}, but Supreme has made so, that seven days of divines should remove from it{her} oberegi-ornaments, on an ornament in day. The Audan, the son Samara and Ashny, has seen abduction of mother in dream and informed about it to the father when has brought it{him} round water of life, But Samaras has refused to go on proceeds of the wife, having declared: "she{It} has dared to break my order and has left{abandoned} the house - for it I cannot forgive her{it}".

Then for Ashnoj the Audan has gone. The bogatyr managed to overcome in time Ajdahu and to release{exempt} Gjuldjihan, but she{it}, having learned{having found out} about behaviour of the husband, has become angry and has decided: "Samaras, this saban (shepherd) of fighters of vegetation (that is kopytnyh the animals eating grasses), wished my death to begin and the patron of plants, but I shall not admit{allow} it and horoshenko I shall teach a good lesson it{him}!" The Alp - bika of plants has asked the Alp of the Barys - storm to turn its{her} husband into a stone the sight. The Tangra has not admitted{allowed} destruction Samara. The Audan, at will Supreme, could warn the father, and that has left instead of itself(himself) in the house of a kid (under other versions - the ram) and has hidden. And at the Barys that day the unique eye has been closed by the century which has been swollen from a sting of a bee (the sting has taken place also at will Supreme), and it{he} to not show the nemoshchi, has simply eaten a kid and zame-

nil his{its} ordinary stone. Ashna has taken a stone and has put it{him} in a court yard with words: "Let you, even stone, seven days are wetted with a cold rain and blows in an ice wind, in fact I seven days was hoarfrost in a gloomy vault".

But very soon anger Gjuldjihan has passed, and she{it} has again addressed to the Storm for the help. But this time the Barys should return again the same magic sight to a stone a former life. Confused Storms in the beginning has tried to lay the blame for eating up Samara on Albastyja, but then nevertheless has told Gjuldjihan the truth. Ashnu has captured to mountain. She{it} has decided to follow in other world the husband and has disposed to hammer together for itself a cave from a tree. When the cave - and speaking simply, the big box - was ready, she{it} has come in it{her} with a stock of food and ordered to close tightly a cave and to suspend a box to three columns in a secluded place.

The Audan, having learned{having found out} about happened, has told about it to the father. Samaras, in the beginning was delighted to disposal of anger of the spouse, but has then begun to miss and has rushed her{it} .iskat. Only in seven days by means of the Alp of the Hag it{he} has found the box hidden in a thicket and has opened it{him}. In the beginning Gjuldjimesh has thought, that the wife is already dead and began to mourn over her{it}. But appeared, that Ashna slept, and the first lamentations of the husband have woken her{it}. The spouse again became happy, and the plants, withered was during their quarrel, again have come to life.

Playing of this myth also was main moment Chachak of a baj-frame.

The holiday began with games, songs, dances and guljany which arrange guys and girls in a wood. It is a lot of having enjoyed to the full, they addressed, at last, to a myth. The youth with pleasure selected the most beautiful girl who should play role Gjuldjihan, and the story-teller, under explanatory songs and which verses the main game action of a holiday - search Ashny was developed{unwrapped}.

For Gjuldjihan girls weaved its{her} wreath - a wreath from colors and adhered to it{him} multi-coloured lentochki - symbols of desire to have children. Then participants of game became pairs and represented a gate through which passed Ashia in the underground world. After passages through "seven gate" the heroine of a holiday disappeared. Girls hid her{it} in wood "cave", adaGrni were sent on searches of the patroness rastenijG ~~ During searches approach of night and Djigits with words was dramatized: "Ascend, ascend star Olk.er! Let more likely the bull will enter water!" Lit seven torches (symbolizing Samara in shape of Alabuga or Olkera - the Bull with six pjatnami) - and searches proceeded at light of fires and with klichem "the Audan! The Audan!"

At last, not without the help of girls, somebody from guys (it{he} was, certainly, "Audan") is{find} Gjuldjihan. Game came to an end douche on coast of the river and throwing of flower wreath Ashny (together with tapes - wishes) in water...

This holiday from which 1917 to revolution have remained only simple May guljanija, games, some songs and dances in a wood (and, at Bulgars - moslems from the end XVI - XIX century guys and girls had fun separately), should provide good and safe growth of plants. But thus Chachak bajramy carried strongly pronounced features of a youth celebration.

The wreath with tapes Gjuldjihan became a celebratory headdress, descendants a Kara-bulgarok - the Ukrainian girls. And at Idel • Ural bulgarok Islamic traditions have allowed to leave tapes and flowers only as embroideries on a female headdress - kalfake.

It is thought, that this holiday does not deserve oblivion which has come{stepped} after bolshevistskih interdictions. Why to not restore in full his{its} ceremonies? And certainly quite pertinently on this celebration to celebrate the most beautiful girl of an aul and city, ispolnjavshuju role Gjuldjihan. Let this girl does not carry an alien title "Ms. of beauty...", and and refers to - Gjuldjihan an aul, city, Bulgars silt...



To this Bulgarian holiday named in the beginning Ak-su, it is a lot of thousand years. It{he} has arisen on the basis of custom indoarijskih ancestors of Bulgars to ask blessing at the Supreme sort for continuation. Naked men and women in day "Ak-su" - "silver water" - together entered into waters of the river and songs - spells asked Tangru to grant to them love and children. Why this pray was made in water? - the reader will ask. That is why, that on poverjam Bulgars, in water was zachat the first Bulgars - Idjik (Adjak, Azak) - the son of female spirit (Alp - biki) of water essences Abi or Bojgal (Baygul) and the Alp of the Audan - Boyan. And in day of " silver water" - on June, 23 immemorial year - Idjik has left belly Bojgal - the nice{famous} foremother of a sort of Bulgars, a big fish accepting shape. Besides people trusted, what exactly this day the Tangra gives in water (by means of solar beams) force of love and fertilisation and that therefore is necessary to enter into such water for reception of this force. Bulgars considered, that this force of love and fertilisation causes game and silvering of water, which are observed on June, 23. Owing to this silvering water granted Supreme, a holiday also named Ak-su.

The fragment from the most ancient Bulgarian the songs - spells, executing in time Subasha, has preserved in a poem Michael Bashtu "Shang kyzy dastany" (865 - 882) and in the dictionary of Turkic linguist Mahmuda Kashgari (1072 - 1074):

Etil suy aka turur,
Kyja tebi kaka turur,
the Balyk telim a tank turur,
Kulets tekyj kusharur.

Struitsja afar the Idel - river,
Also beats a wave about coast.
And in it{her} - • frogs, fishes of herd -
In floods of waters she{it} is free...

After a ceremony of bathing with songs - spells the feast at water which main moment was ritual eating up of hens (symbols of spirit Mara given force of fertilisation) and a fish - in memory about praroditelnitse Bulgars Abi followed. Being descendants of fish Bojgal, Bulgars counted scales of fishes sacred oberegom from all troubles. As imitation of scales coins served. Not casually Bulgarian word of "tank" - "scales" means simultaneously and "coin". Bulgarian women carried headdresses and ornaments with the coins attached to them, a newly-married couple on weddings and even (the important visitors and members of imperial family on imperial receptions Bulgars necessarily showered with gold and silver coins "fortunately". And holiday Subash came to an end throwing in water of silver coins for umilostivlenija foremothers Bojgal.

Why word "Subash" became the main name of a holiday? The myth says the following. Once one Bulgarian sort has caused anger Tangry that in day "Ak-su" not only has not noted a holiday, but also has poisoned water of the river nechistotami. It the given sort wanted to vex other sort living below on a watercourse i/at enmity with it{him}. Supreme has decided to punish church robbers/nasl and l on them the Flood. From all sort it was rescued only semjaiodnogo the rithteous person. It{he} has noted Ak-su and has condemned defilement of water. For what Samaras - Subash has warned it{him} about a forthcoming Flood, and that was rescued with the members of household and pets by the ship. The ship for a long time floated on boundless sea of water, has not stuck yet to island. When water has subsided, the island appeared top of mountain which have named "Uraltu" or "Aralhat" (Uralhat) - "Island - mountain or top". So have received a name the Ural mountains.

Second time for the same crime and in the same way has punished the Tangra in 3182 up to n. e. The originator appeared other Bulgarian sort living in Southern Suvar (Sumer, nowadays Iraq) in the city of At-Ala-ne. And here the Alp of Samaras has helped one rithteous person, and that was rescued by the same way. This time the ship has moored to the island which has appeared top of other mountain. But also its{her} Bulgars have named in an old fashion: Uraltu or Aralhat. From Bulgarian Aralhat there was a modern name of this mountain - Ararat, and from Uraltu - a name of the state formed in area of this mountain - Urartu. The second flood has gone down to history as the Flood, and the Bulgarian city destroyed by him{it} the At-Alan with area - as island Atlantida.

For that Samaras - Subash helped Bulgarian sorts to survive during Floods in day Ak-su twice, people has named this holiday one of names of spirit of terrestrial happiness and a crop - Subash,

Mullahs many years tried to achieve the termination{discontinuance} "sramnogo bathing" though any preljubodejanija during this rather serious ceremony it was never supposed. But firstly these efforts in anything have not resulted - in fact all Bulgars were afraid of anger Tangry, wished itself of good luck and children that is why could not celebrate Subash in any way. Arrived in 922 to Bulgaria as the Arabian diplomat and Muslim preacher Ahmed ibn the Fadlan has been shocked seen on Subashe and so has reflected the impressions in "Note": "Men and women go down in the river and wash together naked, not closed one from another and do not make preljubodejanija somehow, and for this purpose there is no opportunity. And who from them has made preljubodejanie who it{he} was, for him{it} zakolachivajut four lemeha, adhere to them his{its} both hands and his{its} both legs{foots} and dissect his{its} axe... I did not cease to apply diligence that women were closed from men, 110 it to me was not possible to correct" (Travel of the Ibn - Fadlan to Volga. Л., 1939, with. 74).

Severe execution of fornicators was not casually made on four lemehah. In fact a symbol of terrestrial happiness (including fertility and fertilisation) and holiday Subash Bulgars had swastika (tamga Samara) in which people saw connection of four lemehov. Therefore, by the way, ancient indoarijsky Bulgars named a symbol "subash" (from here already - "swastika") or "sarman". ("lemeh").

As the swastika occured in the environment of Bulgars as a sign on human happiness on long Bulgarian wedding towels from time immemorial and till XX century the signs on a swastika forming a unique pattern on beauty were necessarily embroidered. Testifies to popularity of a word "subash" also that him{it} in

To Bulgarian power IX - the whole category state Igenchian (farmers) XVI centuries referred to. That German or Jewish policies{politics} used or use Bulgarian, religious and national signs (a six-final star-, "bil-gese" - "Sign Tangry" - and a swastika) does not change the Tangra and cannot change the love attitude{relation} of Bulgars to the historical symbols.

However, gradually, with the statement of an islam, in a life of people Moslem customs under which influence the great bulk of Bulgars by XII century has stopped joint ritual bathings in day Ak-su have come also. At the end of XII - the beginning of XIII century as marked Kul Gali, these bathings were carried out{spent} secretly in secluded places only, a small part of Bulgars.

But the holiday was kept by people up to bolshevistskoj revolutions, only a ceremony of bathing in it{him} have changed to a ceremony of douche by water. And from the end XVI - XIX century when norms of an islam have amplified, men and women celebrated Subash separately.


Djien is the most important national holiday of Bulgars. It{he} has arisen on the basis of multithousand-year custom - • prayers of ancestors of Bulgars to the Sky and the subsequent detour their tsars of all communal centers at the end of May - June of each year. After distributions of an islam in VIII - the beginning IX in, from this custom there was only a tradition of Bulgarian tsars at the end of May - June to go round the country. During this detour tsars stopped in subah - the patrimonial (communal), breeding and regional centers - in which made prayers the Tangre, new purposes{assignments} for local administrative posts, court, gathering of a tribute, fighting reviewes. As for the period of a stop of tsar in subu collected all people of a community and area (also referred to "suba") that this event has received the name "djien" - "gathering, shod^sezd, people".

The members of a sort living in subah, have been obliged in Djien to accept and to treat generously not only tsar and his{its} retinue, but also relatives from neighboring auls (villages). Taking a case, obshchinniki selected for the daughters of grooms, and for sons - brides and allowed young to get acquainted and together to have fun.

Besides Djieny were always accompanied by trade fairs. Merchants involved on these congresses of the sanction of tsars on duty-free trade on Djienah and the big gathering of people.

While the territory of Ukraine was part of the Bulgarian empire (prior to the beginning X century), custom Djiena was distributed and to it{her}. A word "djien" here have transferred{translated} in sense "ljud" - that is "people", and nazy-Bring down djiennye detours "poljudjem". Only after acceptances of christianity "poljudja" have been cancelled.

In Bulgaria where the islam was ratified, the rule djiennogo a detour tsar of the country has become obsolete in middle X of century. But tradition patrimonial / congresses (for meetings obshchinnikov with each other and decisions the major family and communal has put), merged with fair, an entertainment of visitors both joint guljanijami and amusements of guys and girls has preserved and has turned to holiday Djien.

Celebrated Djieny (frequently named by a name of the center suby) all the same communal districts, and the celebration in everyone sube 3-4 days proceeded. At everyone djiennogo districts were the traditional term of celebrating Djiena (under the schedule old imperial djiennyh detours), and celebrating subami Djiena still from the middle of May on the end of June, but not less than 7 weeks proceeded. The most known in medieval Bulgaria Kazan Djien occured in XVI century 22 - on June, 25. But till XII century. Djieny did not grasp day Ak-su to not interrupt other holiday - Subash,

Began Djien with congress of all Bulgars given djiennoj okrugi in the center suby (the centers could be both cities, and the big auls). * Where you would not live, where you would be not not deserted with destiny - you have been obliged to arrive on Djien communities. To Djienu in the center suby fair on which it was possible to buy everything, everything was developed{unwrapped} also. At fair rich obshchinniki arranged at own expense / for notable visitors (as once for tsars) indicative gallop, struggle and other entertainments. After the first day of meetings and exhibition joys in the center suby participants of a celebration have parted on the auls and the holiday proceeded there. Distant and close relatives gathered, solved the problems and sanctions to weddings which harvesting occured after allowed. All peasants have been obliged to show the kindliness: to invite on ash (dinner) or "medjlio (that is on a visit) and horoshenko to feed the visitors of relatives. And all duty arrived consist in distribution of gifts to peasants - relatives and in circulation on visitors.

Djiennye ashi were the present holiday of national kitchen{cuisine} (hardly probable not the richest in the world) and the present test for stomaches of visitors. In fact as a rule, visitors of relatives in an aul had great variety, and all should to have time be bypassed and at all otkushat.

To this add that each owner fed the visitor up to otvala...

Besides other miracles of Bulgarian kitchen{cuisine} on Djiene it is necessary

The fish was eaten. It was done{made} in memory of the foremother of a sort of Bulgars - Abi (Bojgal). On djiennyh ashah and medjlisah it was accepted to arrange competitions of storytellers - .chichenov which charmed hearing feasting by wonderful game on musical instruments and singing.

Feasts on Djiene were, certainly, fantastic, but the youth more all was involved in it{him} with his{its} other feature: only on it{him} once century year to guys and girls was authorized to meet, get acquainted, walk and have fun together and from anybody not being thawn. The matter is that after amplifications{strengthenings} of norms of an islam in a Bulgarian society at the end of XVI - XIX century in other days of year open meetings of young men and girls were not supposed and were immediately stopped under the instruction of mullahs by any elderly person. Old men could punish the young man and the girl even for an exchange of several words or direct sights against each other. But on Djiene grown-ups pretended, that do not notice joint guljany young people. Therefore for Djigits and girls Djien was the best holiday from all...

On djiennoj to fair the guy should buy the podrujke everything, that she{it} will wish. This tradition was a weak echo of that independence and authoritativeness which the Bulgarian woman before acceptance of an islam had...

Till the late evening proceeded youth guljanija, which

In all breadth were developed{unwrapped} behind a village fence to not jar on serd

tsa excessive adherents of Muslim morals. Guys and

Girls played on musical instruments, sang love pes

, danced. "Vyhvaljajas" before beauties, Djigits arranged

Playful competitions on. To struggle, caracoled on horses, etc.

Friendship of guys and the girls, arisen on Djiene, frequently pererastala in love..../

As we see, Djien carried vt! e " features of a holiday of a community and continuation of a sort: on it{him} the community gathered and solved questions of formation{education} of new families... Well how to not count such holiday the most favourite?

How Bulgars valued a holiday, such case in the best way testifies. When in 1506 the Kazan governor - khan Mohammed - Amin has disposed to arrange djiennuju fair before the approach{approximation} of the Moscow armies his{its} approached have specified danger to lose because of a holiday a victory. But the governor has insisted to the and has made catchwords: "Djien victories are more dear{expensive}". Above this phrase and now not bad to think to some policies{politics} who in the activity put the ambitions above national interests.

About that far from us 1506 Kazan Djien has preserved  detailed enough news of " the Kazan history": "On a great meadow, on Arskom about city khan has put a field up to 1000 tents in which his{its} grandees and it{he} with them of saws feasted and amused itself various imperial funs, saluting the holiday. As also the townspeople everything, men and women, walked... Make purchases in imperial shops... Also idled. To many{a lot of;much} people gathered for such holidays from distant places, and they traded with city people... So in those tents khan both his{its} grandees and all other Kazan people were treated and had fun..." (the Kazan history. М. - Л., 1954, with. 61).

And the description Bulgarian Djiena already the end of XIX century, made by the Russian researcher A.Dudkin: "Among lines of the trading tents forming street, go in pairs, having joined hands, dressed up on celebratory young guys with girls and tighten to musicians. The guy, the bought unit of sweets, withdraws the girlfriend to a meadow, sits with it{her} on breakage and wastes courtesies. The custom allows to open to the girl the person beloved, that neither in any other place, nor under any conditions it is not authorized by Sheriyat, and, it is necessary to notice, this prohibition still till now is strictly observed by village...> ("Northern bulletin", N8 - 9, 1890, with. 27 - 28).

But even ' Bulgars did not tear off the patrimonial holiday from neighbours. On Djien freely there came Russian, Chuvashs, Bulgarian Tatars (Kalmyks), Volga region Germans and other neighbours of Bulgars. The professor of the Kazan imperial university German Charles Fuks was not too lazy to go round a number{line} of Bulgarian auls during period Djiena and to write down the following: "Djien... Triumph... In continuation of seven weeks, every Friday, poseljane many villages of the Kazan province, and at that under different names, that in 1834 was the following order: 8~го June festival occured under name SHenbera, in village of the same name; 15~го, under name Kazal-djar, in village Uljasah; 22-nd, Sarda and Verezga, in villages of the same name: 29-th, the Birch and Karakudja, in villages of the same name: on 6-th of June, Mukshi, in village Atna, and together with sim Kushkabka, in village Big Bitaman; 13-th, Biktau, in village Sae, and, at last, on 20-th of June, the Tavern, in Mendel's village and in village Inze.

... The purpose of this holiday is, that women / removed... From any message with men to make more known the last.

Wishing to learn{find out}, how... Celebrate this time, I went in... Village Saju, otstojashchuju from Kazan almost on 30 versts...

Soon after a bath I have been invited by a dinner... About two hours from poludni prayer was terminated, and the extreme set of people on a field which this day has been appointed by a place for festival where has gathered more than 6000 peoples who have come this day from sixteen surrounded villages and from the Kazan. Here hastily it has been constructed also a little lavok with gingerbreads, nuts and so forth, but anywhere there was no on sale a fault. A little kurajchiev..., playing on self-made skripkah, invited to dancing... I was surprised, hearing here German and French dancing plays, and looking at dancing kozachka... In places were audible prostonarodnye... Songs...

-from different directions began to be flown down


One kurajchy started singing: I a violin build also strings are not torn; to you I have felt love... Lovely sung in the answer: it is flexible and beautiful stan yours; as month, your eyebrowes are bent, light your person in a twilight of evening shines..

Even more to ennoble pleasure at so great holiday... Shot from pistols; often shots, being prevented with noise of conversations and songs, with/ржанием horses, with plaintive... Singing... And with pilikaniem kurajchiev, made strange action... Girls were odetg.v the best of a dress; their persons are polished densely with blush and ulepleny; front sights: a teeth, veki and eyebrowes nacherneny: a word, all have been used, that prigojestvo, to their taste to show in full shine...> (Charles Fuks. The Kazan Tatars. Kazan, 1991, with. 122 ~~ 126).

About a characteristic case djiennogo goodwill has told To me my father, Gabdel-is rude Nuretdin uly Amir Bulgari: "During an epoch of the Bulgarian empire the center of ours djiennoj okrugi was Big aul Jozon (nowadays - village 3 juz ido area Rybnoslobodskogo Republics Tatarstans), Here on Djien gathered Kazan Bulgars from many, the auls located on space from Shawles Up to Kama. Came here from Zak^mja as well misharskie Bulgars, Tatars - Kalmyks and nogajtsy, t^kak jozonsky Djien were very much was known.

During Ivan Groznogo's arrival the majority of inhabitants Jozona was perebito and is expelled, and escaped are christened and became Russian peasants (that is Christians). Thought, to a holiday the end will come - in fact it was necessary to collect the general{common} congress necessarily in Jozone, on an old place. However peasants Jozona not only did not begin to prevent carrying out of ours Djiena in their aul, but even celebrated and had fun together with us: were treated, played on accordions, sang and danced".

Customs of peoples always prevented conquerors to assimilate subject tribes. Therefore absolutely all Bulgarian traditions irritated the Moscow colonialism and his{its} henchmen - slujilyh Tatars. Pjatidesjatitysjachnyj the case slujilyh Tatars has been created by Moscow in XIV century from representatives of various Turkic peoples, pereshedshih on Russian service, and in every way tried to help the owners, the Russian colonizers and missionaries, in business of a gain and oppression of Turkic peoples as slujilyh Tatars the autocracy appointed to profitable posts of muftis, mullahs and local officials of colonial administration.

If Bulgarian mullahs with understanding concerned to problems of the fellow tribesmen, have reconciled to desire of people to keep joint celebrating by men and women even one Bulgarian holiday - Djiena and even consecrated with his{its} pray mullahs and muftis from slujilyh Tatars at the end of XIX century have developed{unwrapped} together with colonizers this approach on Djien .'Vsledstvie these circumstances struggle of people for rescue Djiena became a part of Bulgarian national-liberation movement. Some moments of this struggle.

In 1861 and 1885 the loyal to the Russian Tsarism Orenburg mohammedan spiritual assembly declares the decision to achieve the terminations{discontinuances} of celebrating Djiena by means of police measures. This decree has caused pleasure of all slujilyh obscurantists. So, some mullahs of district Malmyjskogo have decided: "we, mullahs iijeupominaemyh villages Malmyjskogo of district... Have received... A copy of the decree Orenburg muhamedanskogo spiritual assembly from June, 19, 1861 for N 2132 also have solved... To forbid holiday Djien. If " our diligence will not bring advantage{benefit} at the same o'clock have decided to put ^ in popularity stanovogo police officer about negjudchinivshihsja. To put it briefly, have decided to finish business how it is ordered in that copy".

A wave of  colonizer interdictions Djiena has swept across all Bulgaria. Have been forbidden Djieny in auls Big Kurguzi, Rich Saba, Big Atnja, Kuperbash and. Other.

People rendered tyrants fierce resistance. A number{line} bulgarskjh mullahs has called moslems to not recognize at all serve - Tatar muftiat and all his{its} decision. Have begun djiennye fights of people with observers of the colonial order. So, in aul Kuperbash the policeman was izbit, trying to disperse djnennyj shod. Celebrating Djiena quickly found forms of a call to colonizers and their serve - Tatar henchmen in chalmah and bajskih dressing gownes. Those days Bulgarian people has combined well-known "the Legend about Djienah". In which sang:

Does not honour Djien rich a host -
she{It} bypasses it{him}!
But all ljud masterovoj
On ours Djien comes.

The democratic part of intelligency of a Bulgarian and Russian society has supported national struggle for a favourite holiday. The oustanding tjurko-Bulgarian democrat and educator Ismail Gasprinsky has in a pointed manner placed benevolent clause{article} about Djiene in first tjurko-Bulgarian newspaper "Tardjiman".

Then, on boundary XIX-of XX centuries, people has won and has composed about this "Djieshjuj to war" such song:

Djien we for a long time
Is favourite in the country native.
And from interdictions of mullahs there
Is no advantage{benefit} any.

Before bolshevistskoj revolution people again marked Djien in a constant kind and in quiet conditions as about it Kazan regional specialist N.A.Spassky wrote: "Djien it is celebrated on villages in the summer... Also passes from a place to a place. Having begun in one of Fridays at the end of May or the beginning of June in one village, it{he} on the next Friday passes in another, then in a third and. t. d., everywhere proceeding for 3 days. For celebrating village incorporate districts, on 8 or 9 together. Amusements are arranged in a field and will consist of games, struggle, begov, songs and music kurajchiev which in all of a violin najarivajut any polku or kamarinskogo and force youth to be started up in pljas... The Wives / tsiny, painted and unloaded to the utmost, settle down around in tilt carts and on a meadow and vzapuski eat sweeten. The youth looks out between them brides as they at this time are more open ordinary. Djien... A holiday of youth - mullahs and people solid seldom are on a field. On another and for the third day on all houses there are feasts and songs, and the youth perambulates with songs and skripkami on streets or goes in all power with shout and whooping.. .. On... Horses". (N.A.Spassky. Sketches on rodinovedeniju. Kazan, 1912, with. 72 - 73).

However after 1917 the Soviet bolshevik authorities of the Russia who apprehending and has toughened a colonial policy of autocracy, outlaw national holidays of Bulgars. Force unprecedented in a history of mankind of reprisals of the Stalin device forces 30th years which have escaped from executions of people even for a kind to forget about traditions and udovolstvovatsja official carrying out in djiennye days of Soviet "Sabantuy" invented by communists - кг\u1079зенно~пьяного "a holiday of socialist work".

Russian Version needs a translation


Saga on the murder of Djien in the Tsarist and Soviet Russia`

Дамир Шарафутдинов
«Прекратить вредный магометанской религии мусульманский праздник “Зиен”»

Народные праздники никогда не были в чести у светских и духовных властей, претендующих на монополию в культурно-идеологической сфере. Джиен — праздник татарского народа, бытовавший с древних времен, в этом отношении не является исключением1.
Татары изначально придерживались ханафитского мазхаба, признававшего, исходя из категории «адат» (обычай), народные обычаи и праздники, существовавшие в доисламское время. Поэтому, начиная с периода Волжской Булгарии, такие праздники, как Джиен, Сабантуй, Науруз праздновались и почитались татарским народом наряду с религиозными. Однако отношение служителей культа к народным праздникам было неоднозначным. Негативно их оценивало Оренбургское магометанское духовное собрание, образованное в конце XVIII в.2 Соответствие шариату домусульманских праздников стало одной из дискутируемых тем в татарской прессе начала XX в. Так, по мнению оренбургского муллы Абу Сагита аш-Шодави, «у мусульман существуют национальные праздники Сабантуй и Джиен. […] Запрещение подобных праздников, служащих порочной нравственности, является задачей отцов нашей нации»3. Напротив, теолог, редактор журнала «Шура» Р. Фахретдин полагал: «Шариат не имеет права решать проводить светские праздники или нет, оставлять их или переносить на другой срок. Это должен решать сам народ. Если проведение праздника не связано с совершением запретного, то в его проведении нет никакого вреда. Самая вредная вещь — когда религию путают с обычаем, а обычай отождествляют с верой»4.
Татарские календарные праздники не оставались без внимания православной церкви. Еще в середине XIX в. значительной частью православных миссионеров отмечалось, что соблюдение домусульманских обрядов и праздников «совращает» крещеных татар в мусульманство5. Такая оценка базировалась на утверждении крещеных татар о том, что эти обряды они исполняют под влиянием татар-мусульман6.
Церковь боролась с «совращением» разными методами7. В ряде случаев правительство было вынуждено сдерживать особо ретивых миссионеров8. Вместе с прямым запретом христианское духовенство прибегало и к испытанному приему, когда в дни празднования Сабантуя и Джиена отмечались церковные праздники со службами и проповедями в церквах9. «Нам и приходится, — признавал один из миссионеров на состоявшемся в Казани в июне 1910 г. миссионерском съезде, — в силу необходимости приспосабливаться в своих действиях к их племенному характеру и, как бы щадя традиционный их (инородцев) склад быта, постепенно, шаг за шагом, при христианском воздействии на них, облекать своеобразные их обряды и обычаи в чисто христианскую форму»10. С остатками и пережитками язычества у крещеных «инородцев» в постановлении съезда рекомендовалось поступать следующим образом: «В отношении обрядов, за которыми язычники признают как бы догматическое исповедное значение, не допускать никаких сделок; что же касается обрядов, имеющих лишь одно внешнее значение или значение национальное, стараться придавать им значение христианское, освящать молитвой»11. Подобная методика приносила свои плоды.
У народов, живших в непосредственной близости друг от друга, ряд обычаев не воспринимался как чужеродное явление. На том же съезде профессор Казанской духовной академии М. Машанов в докладе «Современное состояние татар-мухаммедан и их отношение к другим инородцам» отмечал: «В Свияжском уезде жители деревни Утяк празднуют день Тихвинской Божией Матери. В селе Индырчах мусульмане празднуют Петровки. Деревень 20-30 Тетюшского уезда празднуют Покров. В Елабужском уезде в д. Биктау в рождественские праздники мусульмане ходят друг к другу в гости, пользуясь взаимным угощением»12. Объяснение подобного совместного празднования заключалось в том, что в эти престольные праздники в указанных местностях были ярмарки, на которые собирались все — и православные, и мусульмане.
С Джиеном дело обстояло иначе. «Праздник общения» был зачастую и местом обсуждения проблем, касающихся экономического и правового положения татарского крестьянства. Именно несоответствие господствующей идеологии являлось основной причиной его преследования, а доводы противников о значительном экономическом уроне, наносимом Джиеном татарским крестьянам, являлись надуманными.
В Казанской губернии ХIХ в. с джиенами боролись и путем администрирования, зачастую инициированного мусульманским духовенством. Так, указом Казанского губернского правления от 5 сентября 1861 г. полицейским управлениям было предписано прекратить «вредный магометанской религии мусульманский праздник Зиен»13. Указу предшествовало обращение к казанскому губернатору с просьбой о запрете этого праздника Оренбургского магометанского духовного собрания, уже выпустившего свой указ о непозволительности празднования Джиена14. Но так как праздник продолжали справлять, губернские власти в марте 1885 г. циркулярным письмом всем уездным исправникам Казанской губернии напомнили об указе 24-летней давности и подтвердили «иметь строгое наблюдение за неисполнением магометанами вверенного всем уезда не установленного Шариатом праздника Зиен и виновных в нарушении сего распоряжения подвергать законной ответственности»15. О подзабытом указе вспомнили после письменного заявления крестьянина д. Мендели Казанского уезда Хасана Галеева, и губернское начальство обратилось в Оренбургское магометанское духовное собрание с просьбой о содействии «к уничтожению такого обычая». Ответ муфтия С. Тевкелева был следующим: «Вполне разделяя мнение Его превосходительства г. Черкасова (речь идет о казанском губернаторе Л. Черкасове. — Д. Ш.) и имея в виду, что об уничтожении празднества Зиена между мусульман[ами] Казанской губернии как вредного в нравственном отношении и разорительного в благосостоянии крестьян, в особенности при неурожаях, Магометанское духовное собрание уже ходатайствовало у казанского губернского начальства. И мое содействие в этом случае может быть только через духовных лиц в слове убеждения, что не может в этом иметь успеха, когда для прекращения сего требуются строгие административные меры. Ввиду всего этого я имею честь покорнейше просить Ваше Превосходительство сделать распоряжение к прекращению введенного между мусульман[ами] в обычай такого вредного для них празднества в административном порядке, как будет признано удобным по всей Казанской губернии»16. Однако запреты не принесли должного результата. Джиен по-прежнему был популярен среди татар, хотя административные меры и влияли на размах праздника. Не последнюю роль играло также экономическое положение татарских крестьян. Миссионер Е. Малов в 1865 г. писал: «Гуляние на Джиене ныне продолжалось недолго, да и отправлялись туда не очень многие. Вообще, Джиен праздновался ныне, по словам самих татар, хуже прошлых годов. Гостей как в Улуязе [Казанского уезда], так и в других деревнях было немного. «Год ныне тяжелый», — говорили мусульмане»17.
Джиены отмечались до 1930-х гг., а в ряде районов Татарстана, например, в Малой Буинке и других селах Буинского района — до 50-х гг. ХХ в. Д. Исхаков упоминает о проведении джиенов в Закамье вплоть до начала 70-х гг., и причину прекращения джиена как праздника сельской общины он связывает с массовой коллективизацией на селе18. В исчезновении Джиена свою роль сыграли и политические, и социально-экономические факторы: жесткий контроль со стороны партийных органов, процессы урбанизации, развитие транспорта, связи и т. п. Богатые традиции Джиена воспринял Сабантуй, празднование которого было перенесено на лето, примерно на то же время, когда проводились джиены.
В 90-е гг. ХХ в. интерес к Джиену возрос. Праздник, благодаря усилиям энтузиастов, стал возрождаться, но уже, естественно, в ином виде. Джиен как праздник общения, где обсуждаются актуальные для всех проблемы, завязываются знакомства, где всех объединяет веселье, праздничное действо, несет в себе огромный положительный заряд, пробуждает чувство сопричастности к истории Родины, к истории своего народа.

1. Татары Среднего Поволжья и Приуралья / Отв. ред. Н. И. Воробьев, Г. М. Хисамутдинов. – М., 1967. – С. 199-200; Бурганова Н. Б. О системе народного праздника Джиен у казанских татар (исследование и приложение) // Исследования по исторической диалектологии татарского языка. – Казань, 1982. – С. 21.
2. Захидуллин И. Жыеннар тарихыннан // Казан утлары. – 1991. – № 4. – Б. 174-176.
3. Эш-Шодавый Эбу Сэгыйть. Зарурияте Диния вэ мэгълумате мохиммэ. – Оренбург, 1908. – Б. 28.
4. Шура. – Оренбург. – 1910. – № 12. – 380 б.
5. Тимофеев В. Дневник старокрещеного татарина // Материалы для истории христианского просвещения крещеных татар. – Казань, 1887. – С. 121-122.
6. Там же. – С. 138-139, 152-155.
7. Ахмеров Г. Тарихи-документаль жыентык. – Казан, 2000. – Б. 200.
8. Казан мохбире. – 1906. – 7 май.
9. Тимофеев В. Указ. соч. – С. 122.
10. НА РТ, ф. 967, оп. 1, д. 174, л. 659.
11. Там же, л. 28.
12. Там же, л. 308.
13. Там же, ф. 1, оп. 3, д. 6030, л. 41.
14. Захидуллин И. Жыеннар тарихыннан... – Б. 174.
15. НА РТ, ф. 1, оп. 3, д. 6030. л. 1.
16. Там же, л. 6 об.
17. Малов Е. А. Миссионерство среди мухаммедан и крещеных татар. – Казань, 1892. – С. 137.
18. Исхаков Д. Кама аръягы жыеннары // Идел. – 1995. – № 6. – Б. 55.

№ 1. Заявление крестьянина дер. Миндели Ковалинской волости Казанского уезда Хасана Галеева начальнику Казанской губернии о запрещении «народного гуляния» Джиен

29 апреля 1884 г.

Имею честь заявить Вашему Превосходительству о том, что дознано мною относительно бедствия нашего мусульманского населения Казанского уезда в четырех волостях, а именно: в 1-й — Никольской, 2-й — Алатской, 3-й — Студено-Ключищинской и 4-й — Ковалинской. В вышеупомянутых волостях есть мусульманский обычай, который не относится к «шариату». Этот обычай называется «Зиен», т. е. народное гуляние. Бывает почти в продолжение пяти недель во время страдовой работы, во время паровой, сенокоса и жатвы хлеба. Приблизительно начинается «Зиен» с 15-го июня и продолжается по 15-е июля каждого года. Первый «Зиен» должен начаться в нынешнем году в Никольской волости, называемый «Упса» — с 22 июня, т. е. народное гуляние, 2-й, Алатской волости — с 29 июня, называемый «Куш-капка», 3-й, в Студено-Ключищинской волости — 6 июля, называемый «Биик таф» и 4-й, Ковалинской волости — с 13 июля, называемый «Кабак». К этому народному гулянию все мусульмане приготавливаются заранее, за неделю, и начинают ездить в гости из одной волости в другую по недельно, где и производят пировство. А на этот предмет гулянья употребляют последние свои средства, а у некоторых нет денежных средств, закладывают свои вещи и берут провизию за дорогую цену с тем, чтобы уплачивать этот долг по урожаю хлеба, и долги платят хлебом за ничтожную цену или же сеном тоже за ничтожную цену, в случае же недостачи на уплату долгов хлебом или сеном, то в таком случае продают своих домашних животных или же отдают в аренду свою землю другим лицам, более состоятельным мусульманам, а сами остаются без земли. В таком случае все эти мусульмане делаются неимущими и не в состоянии уплачивать государственных повинностей. Еще некоторые берут продукты за дорогую цену и обязуются уплачивать своими заработками во время полевой работы. Когда поспевает жать хлеб, то он должен прежде заработать свой долг, а свой хлеб остается на корню, который от ветров и зрелости зерна осыпается, то уже ему приходится жать колос, в котором зерна бывает много неполным. В таком случае почти все мусульмане начинают бедствовать и не имеют возможности приобретать для пропитания своих семейств. По моему мнению, я считаю, что народ бедствует чрез свои лишние расходы, а именно вышеупомянутые для народного гуляния, чрез что и не могут уплачивать государственные повинности, а также и пропитывать свои семейства.
Вследствие всего вышеизложенного имею честь заявить Вашему Превосходительству и покорнейше прошу обратить внимание на вредное для общества мусульманского гуляния. Примите меры об уничтожении оного гуляния через кого следует, так как это гуляние есть необязательное по нашему «шариату», без которого можно обойтись.
По-татарски подписал Хасан Галеев (подпись на татарском языке: Хасан Мухаммад-Гали углы).
Помета: Г[-ну] Орен[бургскому] муфтию[:] просить о содействии.
НА РТ, ф. 1, оп. 3, д. 6030, л. 1-1 об., 3.

№ 2. Циркуляр казанского губернатора исправникам Казанской губернии

14 марта 1885 г.
№ 16.

Указом Казанского губернского правления от 5-го сентября 1861 г. за № 6142 было предписано всем полицейским управлениям прекратить существовавший в Казанской губернии вредный магометанской религии мусульманский праздник «Зиен»; между тем из отношения оренбургского муфтия за № 1505 видно, что сказанный праздник исполняется многими татарами и по настоящее время. Праздник этот продолжается пять недель, во все это время мусульмане пируют, тратят последние средства на угощение гостей; кто не имеет денег, тот продает свое имущество и скот за ничтожную сумму.
Находя таковое празднество вредным в нравственном отношении и разорительным в благосостоянии крестьян, я, согласно ходатайства Магометанского духовного собрания, подтверждаю Вашему высокоблагородию иметь строгое наблюдение за неисполнением магометанами вверенного вам уезда не установленного Шариатом праздника «Зиен» и виновных в нарушении сего распоряжения подвергать законной ответственности.
Подписал: губернатор Н. Андреевский.
Скрепил: правитель канцелярии Орлов.
Верно: Исполняющий дела помощника правителя канцелярии В. Львов.
НА РТ, ф. 1, оп. 3, д. 6030, л. 41.


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Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3
In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
Ogur and Oguz
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
V.Taskin Eastern Huns 3 c. BC - 2 c. AD
V.Taskin Eastern Huns 3 c. AD - 5 c. AD
V.Taskin Kiyan Huns 3 c. AD - 5 c. AD
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Updated on: 9/17/2010