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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman
DJAGFAR TARIHI
(THE ANNALS OF DJAGFAR)

Volume 2 Part 2
F.Nurutdinov
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS OF BULGARS

 

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Translator's Notes

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.

Volume 2 PART 2
F.Nurutdinov
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS OF BULGARS
FROM MYTH TO CELEBRATION
National holidays are one of the most important and bright sides of the culture for all peoples, including Bulgars. In turn, the culture is an important base for the national feelings. The knowledge of a name, culture and a history of the nation, as is well known, generates and supports the national consciousness, patriotism of a person. The national consciousness is the main ethnic marker of the people of the land. Take away from a human the knowledge of the name, history and culture of his people, and his national consciousness, national feelings, his patriotism, his national appellation will be gone, and he becomes completely blind and would undergo a fast assimilation by another nation.

Therefore the Moscow assimilators, who tried to Russify the Bulgarian nation, strained to tear it off first of all from the knowledge of the national name, history and culture. They did it mainly by the destruction of the Bulgarian culture, prohibition and concealment of the Bulgarian history, and subsequent imposition on our, deprived of it all, people of the medieval Mongolian alias, "Tatars". Also in every possible way was concealed the historical name of the Idel-Ural, Bulgar il, Bulgaria.

For the first time the official imposition by the Russian Tsarism on the Bulgars of the term "Tatars" took place early in the 15 - 16th centuries, when the Moscow autocracy presented Bulgaria and Bulgars as the "Tatar Khanate" and "Tatars". That allowed the autocracy to give the bloody capture (annexation) of the Bulgarian state in 1552 - 1584 a "justificatory" flair of the "just punishment to the Tatars for the Tatar yoke" above Rus.

Those Bulgars who submitted or even served the antibulgarian policy of Moscow, received the name "Tatarists", and the active participants of Bulgarian emancipating movement received the name "Bulgarists". However, the Tsarism did not succed to destroy the national consciousness of the Bulgarian people.
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In fundamental work on a history of Kazan it is emphasized: "inhabitants of Kazan and its{her} edge{territory} down to October revolution did not stop nggzyvat themselves Bulgars" (the History of Kazan, the first book. Kazan, 1988, with. 40). But on arena of a history the Bolshevism has left...

Red Moscow not only has apprehended a colonial policy of Khanism, but also has toughened her{it}. In 1918 - 1930th bolshevistskie authorities have crushed Bulgarian national-liberation movement, have formed in the central part of Bulgars silt independent "the Tatar republic (Tatarstan)", have improved imperial "a history of Tatars" for Bulgars and have violently renamed Bulgars and all Bulgarian into "Tatars" "Tatar". With 1920 g, "Tatar" began to name officially Bulgarian language, a Bulgarian history, Bulgarian culture (switching and holidays), Bulgarian poets, etc. M. 3. Zakiev and - authors of the newest work on a history of Bulgarian ethnos mark J.F.KuzmshJumanadi: "The summer of 1917 in Kazan formed "a party{set} of disposal" Bulgars, named the movement "Advice{Council} Volgobulgarmus" and putting by the purpose disposal of oppression and national revival of the Bulgarian nation. The head of a party{set} became well-known figure S.G.Vajsov. On lead{carried out} in the first years of the Soviet authority three congresses this party{set} developed the national and political program... To This has prevented... Come{stepped} then Stalin political reaction which opposed freedom in general. In " 1930 h years... bulgaristy have been declared by " bourgeois nationalists", and their heads and active workers have been arrested and rasstreljany as "enemies of people". Since then even the simple mention of them almost half-centuries was under the strict interdiction". (M. 3. Zakiev, J.F.Kuzmin - JUmanadi. The Itil Bulgars and their descendants. Kazan, 1993, with. 6).

At last, red velikoderjavnikam and it it seemed a little, and they in 20 - 30th in general have forbidden all Bulgarian holidays during notorious antireligious campaign though national celebrations of Bulgars were not Islamic by origin, Bulgarian national holidays kept elements of the customs which have arisen for many hundreds and thousand of years till a birth of the prophet Mohammed - in Indoarian surrounding, Hunnish and other Turkic ancestors of Bulgars. Everything, that the reader will read in this book, is acknowledgement{confirmation} of it.

Bolshevistskomu to an interdiction have undergone not only Bulgarian holidays, but also researches in the field of their history. In fact the history of a celebration is a key to understanding and perception{recognition} of his{its} national essence and the tool for a reconstruction of a holiday. Data on Bulgarian holidays contain various sources. However / foreign news are very sketchy, and only actually the Bulgarian data in detail enough describe Bulgarian traditions and can form a basis for creation of a history of holidays of our people. The greatest value from Bulgarian products

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Represents the collection of the most ancient Bulgarian annals bahshi Imana "Djagfar Tarihi" of 1680. From all annals including in the collection, most in detail describes Bulgarian holidays "the Hon of a Kitaby" ("the Book about gunnah") the Bulgarian poet Mohammed-Gali ibn Mirhu-dji (more known under the literary pseudonym Kul Gali), therefore the data of this work are put by us in a basis of our brief sketch of a history Bulgarian national holidays.

The history of Bulgarian national holidays originates in an extreme antiquity. Then our ancestors also believed in the God, personifying it{him} with the Sky. Simultaneously with it, they have been subject to influence of superstitions and occupied world around various spirits (the concept "spirit" of Bulgarian language is transferred by words "expert", "Alp" ("alyp"), "diu" - divines, "ija", etc.), personified forces and natural phenomena (a thunder-storm, water elements, a drought, plants, animal and so forth). Spirits kind (Alps) and malicious (joregi, djinny), man's and female (to the name of female spirit the word "bika" was added, for example the Alp - bika), etc. differed.

Spirits did not die from an old age and could be lost only from hands of other Alps or weapon Hursy.

The most known Bulgarian names of the God and mythical spirits were:

1) Abi - the Alp - bika water animal (fishes, seals, whales, etc.),

The daughter of the Storm and Su Anasy, the foremother of a sort of Bulgars. Accepted shape

Fine fish. Other Bulgarian name of this the Alp - biki-

Bojgal - Baj a rumble (the Big Fish),

2) Ajdaha - djinn pohoti and debauch. Became huge

mednobokogo the bull - a unicorn.

3) Albastyj - djinn the underground world, the Visir djinnov, a symbol

Evil. Other Bulgarian name of it djinna - Tama the Tarkhan (Vla

dyka Preispodnej, the Hell).,

4) The Audan - the Alp of knights, heroism and craft, the son Samara and

Ashny. It was represented as the fine horseman - a bogatyr,

Mighty oak. Other Bulgarian names of this Alp - Enkej

(Bychok), the Boyan, Madji - Mishe - Meshe (Oak), Gurogly (Son Mogi

ly), Uzi (Beautiful), Tjurgesh - Tjurkut - Targiz (Similar

To the turki).

5) Ashna (Ashnan) - the Alp - bika of plants, the wife Samara. Accepted

Shape of plants. Other Bulgarian names of this the Alp - biki - Gjul-

djihan (the Flower Wreath), Ana Korsak (the Patroness to the Physiognomy

nits).

 

6) Fight Terek - the Alp of woods and goods. Became huge

Green poplar.

7) Storms - the Alp of the moon, hunting, military success, a victory, glory,

The patron of Bulgarian people. Accepted shape of the wolf and a leopard. It was sometimes represented one-eyed. Other Bulgarian names of this Alp - the Chin{Grade} (Khin), the Hon, Sindiu, Sjanbi, the Barys, the Baryn (Military and Imperial Glory), the Magician (the Poppy, Mek), Mamil (Mamli), Ajchin (Afshin), Hens (Gur), Ajburi, Bulg (Black), Selytchy (Founder), etc.

8) Djil - " the Alp of a wind.

9) Djir the Kagan - the Alp songs. Other Bulgarian name of it

The Alp ~ - Sandugach (Nightingale).?

10) Idjik (Adj'ak, Azak) - the first Bulgars, the ancestor

Bulgarian imperial dynasty the Barrel, the son of the Audan and Bojgal. Another

Them Idjika - Hishdek (Changing the Place of Dwelling, *

shchi and, Wandering). "!" l-

11) The Kubar - the Alp of a lightning, a thunder-storm and a rain, son Mara and the Turan. Wad Dra

gie Bulgarian names of this Alp - Babaj, Binjache, JAndyraj-

Lighting (lightning). In myths it is marked, that it{he} liked to go for a drive

pa the bull.

12) Kujan - the Alp of trade. Accepted shape of a hare. In Bulgarian

Art was a symbol of transitoriness and sinfulness terrestrial jiz

, vainly trying to escape from death, Other names it

go the Alp - Cook Kujan (the Heavenly Hare), Tash Bash (the Stone Head).

13) Mar (Nar) - the Alp of the sun, the Visir of kind spirits. Accepted about

Face of a white horse, the cock. Other Bulgarian names of this Alp '-

Ut (Uten), Ur, May, Etech (Cock).:::

14) Mardukan (Nardugan) - ' the Alp of light, son Mara and the Turan. Prini

The shape of a dragon, rook - raven is small. Other Bulgarian names of it

The Alp - the Hag, Simbir (Sember), Kungoj, Atrjach (the Dragon with a head

Horses and a tail of the snake), Leugen (a coiled Dragon). Item "...

15) The mouse - djinn-bika female - eshbojy and independence. In

Islamsko-Bulgarian art became a symbol female -1

lija and levity.

16) Samaras (Chumar) - Alps - herbivores, an issue, -1

jaja and abundance, son Mara and " to Rounds, Accepted shape of a dragon, a deer

(Lamb), a horse, the bull, the ram, a goat. It was frequently represented as vsadni

ka - bogatyrja'ili the fine young man with kosami (kosy meant to

losja - symbols of force abundance) and with the Flower (also a symbol

Abundance) in a hand. In Bulgarian art was a symbol pokor

nosti to will of the Tantra. Other Bulgarian names of this Alp - Ba-

radj (the Dragon as winged the snake), Elbegen (mnogogolovyj Wad Dra

kon with the main eagle head and a snake tail), the Turki (Great

The bull), Alabuga (the Spotty Bull), Olker (the Spotty Bull), Saban

(Shepherd), Bolan the Hudja (the Owner of Deers), Gjuldjimesh (TSvetushche-

PlodonosjaSHCHjj), Djimchachak (TSvetushche-fructifying), Subash, etc.

17) Su Anasy - the Alp - bika of the rivers, flat lakes and natatorial

 

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Birds, the wife of the Storm. Accepted shape of a duck, the goose, a swan, a crane. Its{her} other names - Uranus, Balaten - Transparent (it is literally - "Malotemnaja").

18) Tajgas - the Alp of winter, frosts and mountain passes, I protect

shchy sacred mountain of spirits and storing{keeping} their wisdom (bo, mo).

Accepted shape odnogorbogo a camel. Has transferred Idjiku wisdom

Alps which to them informed the Tangra that has allowed Idjiku to create

The powerful state with the perfect laws. Another Bulgarian

The name of this Alp - Kysh the Tarkhan (the Lord of Winter).

19) The Tangra - the Bulgarian name of the God and the Sky, Others of Bulgars

skie names of the God ~~ the Expert, Ersu, Egbi, Hodaj, Tejre, etc.

20) The Turan - the Alp - bika of love, a guessing, springs, underground and

Underwater riches, miners, islands, mountain lakes,

The patroness of wild animals, wife Mara. Very much frequently

Acted in shape of the snake. Has tried to create to Idel - Urale edi

noe the perfect state for all people - the Turan - and

Has headed it{him}. The capital of the Turan referred to Ergi - in honour

Patronesses of the city of Chakchak why the arms of the Turan was

The image of a two-headed bird. But then spirits have fenced off the Turan from

The sun a wall also there has come{stepped} a strong cold. The majority of people ube

The sting from the Turan, and this state has ceased to exist. Others

Bulgarian names the Alp - biki the Turan - Ural (Aral), Abi Armaj

(Ramaj), Ban, Badjni (Love).

21) Hursa - the Alp of a forge - weapon affair and the Divine message (about

To forthcoming death or Kara), son Mara and the Turan. At will Tangry

Delivered souls died from the Earth to the Sky. Became grifona,

Eagle, a golden eagle, a falcon, etc. predatory birds, In Bulgarian art

Was a symbol of inevitability of the Divine court and punishment for

Sins. Hursa has transferred Idjiku bunchuk (bajrak, horug, chel-

bir) - a bunch{beam} the horsehair (tail) of a sacrificial horse, is attached

nyj to a staff (to a spear, a staff) - a symbol of imperial authority. Others

Bulgarian names Hursy - Sain (Kind, Happy), Aspar

(Severe).

22) Chakchak - the Alp - bika of a dawn, family well-being and

Home, the wife of the Alp of the Hag. Sometimes accepted shape

Two-headed bird (a signature stamp, an eagle, etc.). Other Bulgarian names

This the Alp - bikn - Tevet, Ergi, Alat (Ilyat) - "the Happy Center"

(in sense - "Granting happiness to the house, the country").

23) Shurale - djinn deserts, a drought and death. It was represented in

Kind the fox, a huge dried up tree with copper leaves and

duplom - a mouth with a terrible copper teeth (canines). Another

The Bulgarian name of it djinna - Kuvysh (Dupelnyj, in smys

le - Dup lopastnyj).

The superstitions connected to spirits, speak strong dependence of the primitive person on the surrounding nature owing to his{its} backwardness and weakness. Ancient people believed, that the belief in Tangru and spirits will rescue them from misfortunes and troubles.

The maintenance{contents} of primitive superstitions was made with myths and their transfer.

Myths were the first samples of folklore (oral national creativity) in which the power of spirits and weakness and dependence on them of the person of the period of a primitive-communal system was sung. And the maintenance{contents} of myths by means of the dramatized actions with use of songs, dances, karnavalnyh processions, competitions, game on the musical instruments, special suits was transferred, etc. The Dramatized representation on motives of any myth refers to as a ceremony.

Bulgars have widely carried the mythology all over the world. An ancestral home of Bulgars is Idel - Ural (Volgo-Ural) which named in an extreme antiquity of "Ur" or the "Turan" (later - "the Old Turan"). Ancestors of Bulgars were rescueed from a cold - during an epoch of a congelation - in the Ural caves, and on this ground there was a reverence of mountains and caves. The god and spirits, thought prabulgary, are at tops of mountains and in caves, from here - names "expert", the "Alp", meaning "high". Therefore primitive temples and tombs of leaders and Khans built Bulgars in the form of pyramids - symbols of sacred mountains - and cave chapels. Bulgarian doislamskie temples as earthen pyramids referred to "barrow" or the "Balkans", as stone gladkostoroshshh pyramids - "eg kene", as pyramids with step slopes - "teme", tombs - "bulemer" ("buljumar") or "May july" (from here - a word "mausoleum"), architectural complexes from the pyramidal temples constructed by a number{line} and tombs of Khans and heroes - "expert - keleu" ("the highest chapel"), etc.

In the beginning Bulgars referred to "Idel", that is "seven (ide) sorts (ale)" as the basis of our people was made with association seven Turkic and indoarijskih sorts. Turkic ancestors of Bulgars came in Volgo-Ural from Altai. About{near} 15 thousand years ago ideltsy have formed in Volgo-Ural the state and gave it{him} the name - Idel (his{its} other forms - Atil, Itil, Tel, etc.) then the new name is fixed to them - "Bulgars" ("burgar"). "Bulgars" - ' wolf (bulg, burg) a head (Arian) ' - was the name of a banner ideltsev on which just and there was an image of the wolf head. As the word "bulg" in starobulgarskom language meant both "black", and "wolf" Bulgars named as "volchjegolovymi", and "black-headed". Bulgars spoke both in Turkic, and in indoarijekom an adverb, but gradually Turkic language became for them the main language.
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Separate groups of Bulgars owing to various disorders in the state Idel sometimes left{abandoned} the ancestral home and settled in other ends of the world. Especially big groups of Bulgars have left from Itil-Ural 10 - 25 millenia ago. One part of Bulgars has moved, before the invention of a wheel, to America, and the Indians began to build pyramids and use Türko-Bulgarian words. Other part of Bulgars has located in the Central Asia where it became known under a name of Hons (Huns, with is young well) and Syanbiyansev and also has erected earthen pyramids and cave temples in mountains (sjanbij-skaja culture of Northern China). The third part of Bulgars has reached up to Katana (the Bulgarian name of the territory made between Aralom - Balhashem and Pakistan), and already from here its{her} two groups have passed to Northern India and to the Near East. In the Near East Bulgars have created the well-known power and have named her{it} in honour of spirit of a crop of Samaras (in Russian pronunciation - Sumer). She{It} has captured territory from the Balkans and Asia Minor (Turkey) up to the Western Iran and from Transcaucasia up to Northern Egypt and Persian gulf.

The first capital of Bulgarian Early Sumer (it{him} it is not necessary to frighten with afrazijskim Late Sumer in Iraq, bulgaro-shumerskuju culture) the city the At-Alan in Southern Iraq (Bulgars named Iraq "Suvar" - 'Entre Rios', and this Bulgarian tradition has kept the latest Greek name of Iraq - "Mesopotamia" - 'Entre Rios') was inherited. After terrible flooding of 3182 BC, the Flood which has received the name (the Flood the At-Alan has destroyed Bulgarian capital, by name which all flooded part Samara began to name "Atlantidoj"), the Balkans have been won by ancient greek tribes, and other Sumer has broken up to a number{line} of independent empires. Almost in all these empires (Egypt, Kresh - Crete, poslepotopnyj the Iraq Sumer, etc.) The custom has preserved to build a pyramid and other Bulgarian traditions, but Bulgars were dissolved among the population surrounding them - egejian, indoarijian, afrazijian(ancient Egyptians, akkadtsev, vavilonjan, arabs, assyrians, ancient Jews), etc. Only in Asia Minor and Transcaucasia Bulgarian princedoms have preserved, Bulgarian which population of a part called itself "turkis", and the area - Turkey (in honour of the patron of cattlemen Samara - the Turki). But then Eastern and the Central Turkey has grasped come of Northern Black Sea Coast (through Caucasus) a part of Cimmerians - hettov (ancestors of some the German tribes - tevtonov, kimvrov, it is ready, etc., the name "Cimmerian" occurs from starobulgariannicknames hettov "kum the Arian" - ' yellow or light

Head ', and "tevton" - from other Bulgarian nickname hettov "dout an ion" - ' four tribes '), and to the Western Turkey have fallen ancient greek conquerors. About 1200 BC Ancient Greeks have attacked on main zapadnoturetsky the city of Atrjach (in the West-European pronunciation - Troy). Area of the city of Atrjacha Bulgars - atrjachtsy named Yana Idel (New Idel) - in memory of the left{abandoned} ancestral home. Greeks have distributed this name to all Turkey in "Anatoly's" form.

After 10-years osady ancient Greeks have taken and have destroyed Troy. However and after that Bulgars not only have kept in Turkey the ethnos (before clearing the country by a Bulgarian dynasty of Seljukids in XI century), but also assimilated the Near East Cimmerians - hettov. Only the part of Bulgars - atrjachtsev after falling of the city has moved on Apennines and has created here the new state Idel. From "Idel" there was a word "Italy", and from the Bulgarian name of aboriginals of Apennines - "altynbash" - a word "latinjane". The name atrjachtsev in Europe took the form "Etrusks".

It is interesting, that in Italy and Greece the custom has preserved to name Bulgars and Bulgaria of Bodies, Til (from "Idel"), Tula (from "Idel" or from the name of a Bulgarian imperial dynasty the Barrel), at Slavs - tula, duleby (from the name of a dynasty the Barrel), at indijtsev - have put (from "Idel"). Besides late afrazijtsy (arabs, Jews) name ruins of old Bulgarian settlements "tel" (from "Idel") and on some from them have erected the cities (Tel Aviv, for example), and Russian all old monuments call "idol" (also from "Idel").

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As if to the Bulgarian volgo-Ural state Idel. The Alp of Audan Djam-Idjikom based by the son after death of it reigning malicious spirits have brought to him{it} in spirit of civil strife. According to myths, Djam veins on the river Ermen and consequently it{him} called as well Ermenom. At him{it} was five sons (the Burtas, Bulgars, Alan, the Chirmysh - Sarmatian, Beser) which it{he} bequeathed to be amicable and krepit unity of Bulgarian power. But after death of the father sons peressorilis because of beauty Chulman who was brought to Idel across Kama with the malicious spirits afraid of power of the Bulgarian state. These brothers have begun 5 at enmity and smenjajushchim each other to Bulgarian imperial dynasties. Not casually multithousand-year epoch of reigns of m of interstine struggle of these of 5 dynasties Bulgars metko named time "bish kalpak" - "five wreaths" (in sense "five dynasties"). With accession of the Burtas concerned to a dynasty the Sarmatian, civil strifes, at last, have abated. At it{him} Idel has seized territory from Danube up to Balkhash (Bulgarsianlakes). It{he} has tried to attach to Idel and all of Samaras (Near East) from the Balkans up to Persian gulf. This war began that jujnosakskoe the tribe of Massagets has attacked on severosakskih the nomads of Kazakhstan submitting Idel. According to data Kul Gali, northern Saks have apprehended at Bulgars a myth about the Gazan and have transformed it{him} into the following legend: once May - eagety have interrupted all northern Saks, and only one son saksko-go the leader was rescued by mother, having hidden the baby in duple a tree. This boy has grown and has renewed a sort of northern Saks. Therefore Bulgars also named northern Saks "Kypchaks" ("dulelnymi"). These Kypchaks have been broken by Massagets and have asked idolianKhan of Burtas (Partatua) to give them quieter ground for a residence. The Burtas has asked that part of Cimmerians which still remained in Northern Black Sea Coast and has received a Bulgarian nickname "alman" ("seaside"), to move and concede a part of the steppes kypchakam. But Cimmerians have refused. Then the Burtas has transferred the rate on a place of the rate of ancestor Chelbeka (Chal-ly) which tried to help right after the Flood shumerskim to Bulgars to keep Samaras under the authority, and to son Madji-Idjiku ordered to expel Cimmerians force. For enthusiasm of the son the Burtas has promised, that in case of his{its} victory will name rate Chally-Madji. Madj and (Mada)- (Azak) has completely broken Cimmerians, and the majority of them ran through Caucasus to the Near East Cimmerians - hettam. Madji has placed families Kypchaks in Northern Black Sea Coast, and Greeks living by a number{line} have apprehended their Bulgarian nickname "kypchak" in the form "Scythians". Now, it appears, the reader will understand, why customs and precious products of Scythians () so remind "Scythian gold" Bulgarian...

And old Kazakhstan pastures have been Kypchaks borrowed{occupied} with Tyurkic language nomads on whom therefore has passed a nickname of northern Saks - Kypchaks.

However on it business was not terminated. Inspired with victory Madji with bulgaro-kypchakskim an army has gone to the Near East ("Samaras" in Bulgarian) to attach Samaras to Idel. The Near East Bulgars - turkis and assirijsky Khan - test the Burtas - have joined Idelian Bulgars which have crushed the Western Iran, possession afrazijtsev in Urartu, Syria and Palestine. The panic fear caused in ancient Semites by powerful Bulgarian intrusion, in "Bible" hebrew preacher Ieremija forever has embodied: "there is people from Northern country... Holds a bow{an onions} and a short spear, it{he} is severe, they not sjaljatsja! The voice of them roars, as the sea, skip on horses, were built, as one person... Only we shall hear a message about them as hands will be lowered{omitted} at us... The enemy sword directs horror from different directions".

In 625 up to and. e., after 28-years Bulgarian domination above the Near East, the authority was put Also by me in Samara have fallen. The West noiranskik the Khan submitting Idel, has perfidiously interrupted at itself on a feast kypchakskih biys (Bulgarian garrisons in Samara have consisted mainly from Kypchaks), and Madji has deduced{removed} upset kypchakskie groups back to Idel.

In VI century BC The part of the Near East and Transcaucasian Bulgars (ermi-germihionov and Sabans) has been moved by the Iranian Khan Give - em to the Central Asia, where in VI century n. e. Has formed the new turkish state the Turkic Kaganate and from here has distributed the Bulgarian name "turki" to all Tyurkic language peoples.

Later Bulgars not time tried to repeat success Madji - especially frequently in II - XIII centuries. In VII century n. e. The state Idel accepts, at last, etnonim gospodstvovavshego in it{him} of people - Bulgars (Bulgars silt, Bulgaria), and the word "Idel" becomes name Itil-Kamskoj of river system and enters into Türko-Bulgarian names of seven its{her} largest rivers (the Kara Idel - Itil, Kama Idel or Chulman Idel - Kama, Ak Idel or Adigel - White, Nukrat Idel or Botka Idel - Vyatka and t. d,). In beginning X of century from the territory of Russia which was being in Idel since VII century up to n Bulgar departs. e. For 1600 of stay in the Idel - Bulgarian state Russian Slavs and finno-ugry have apprehended about 2 thousand words and a lot of Bulgarian traditions and myths. Bulgarian groups moved from territory Idel have carried but to all world Bulgarian myths, customs, knowledge, skills.

Among those myths, which Bulgars have presented the world, the myth about the Mardukane-hag was, destroyed a wall divov and the sun which has returned to people, is warm also a life. In the form of a legend about the raven which has brought to the Earth it is warm (and "hag" in Bulgarian means both "rook", and "raven"), this myth has preserved even at Indians of America. The Near East Bulgars - turkis gave one of names of the Alp of the Hag to the city of Atrjachu (from here - "Troy", "Etrusks"), and another - Mardukan - became (in the form "Mordechai") a name at Jews. The myth how wife Mardukana Chakchak has rescued once Samara, having made for him{it} water of life - buzu, also became widely known. For the rescue of Samaras has presented Chakchak a ring with the it is familiar - a swastika (a swastika in Bulgarian - "subash" or "sarman") - oberegom and a symbol of a potentiality and immortality. From that time the swastika became also a symbol of family happiness, and this sign was necessarily embroidered ma Bulgarian wedding towels. In honour of itself Chakchak the wedding dish of Bulgars has been named "chakchak".

And the Bulgarian myth about an empire the Turan which operated the Alp - bika, has generated all over the world legends about the certain empire of women - amazons...

 

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In the world Bulgarian myths about the Alp of the Storm became rather popular. The wolf was totemnym an animal of Bulgars and one of the spirits most powerful and loved{liked} by people. The image of the wolf head decorated a banner of Bulgars, and men - Bulgars tried to carry In quality oberega a cap from the wolf skin "burek" (from "drill" - 'wolf'). It is interesting, that a dog Bulgars originally named "emek" or "oimek" - "the domestic wolf", and a lion - "ulug a poppy" ("the big wolf"). Only much later the dog has received the name "et", and a lion - "Arslan" (originally this word at Bulgars was meant by "monster", "dragon").

The Alp the Storm - Barys was the kind Alp. The Bulgarian myth about the Gazan says, that once ubyry (so Bulgars named humanoid monkeys) have completely exterminated an Idelian sort elbirov (bogatyrs), former the main defenders of all other weaker idolskih sorts. One elbir-baby, the son of the leader ideltsev has escaped only. It{him} called Ajser - "Moonlight" or it is simple Ajim - "Lunar" as it{he} was born in a moonlight night. Winners - cannibals have decided to eat the boy and have thrown it{him} in the boiler - the Gazan (Kazan).

But the Alp of the Storm has not admitted{allowed} destruction of the baby. It{he} has given forces of fatally wounded mother of the child, and she{it} last movement has pushed off the boiler with the son in the river. The river at will Su Anasy has attributed{related} the Gazan to the big and impassable bog. Here Su Anasy has turned back a swan (in other variants of a myth - the goose, a crane) and has called to the aid the husband - the Alp of the Storm. The wolf could not make the way itself to the boiler with the child, therefore has tired out{has driven} in a bog of a deer or the lamb (speak, in shape artiodactyl the spirit of Samaras was) and ordered to get to it{him} the baby. The deer has brought the boy, and one volchitsa at will of the Storm has brought up Ajsera which began to name in memory of it and the Gazan, and Maguly (the son of the Magician - wolf), and Burdjan (the Wolf Soul), and Chingiz (Tingiz) - Magis (Similar to the Wolf), and Biruly (the Unique Son)..,

The Gazan became a mighty bogatyr and has renewed an Idelian sort elbirov which began to name also Burdjan (berendeem), both bjruly, and nauburi - nevry (new wolves).

Due to the Alp of the Storm Bulgars the first on the ground have seized a secret of roasting of clay and melt of metals as about it the myth testifies to a bogatyr the Audan. Once malicious divines Tama the Tarkhan, former the lord of the underground world, has stolen and has carried away in a deep vault the wife of the Alp of the Storm - Su Anasy. Storms has gone behind it{her} and has lost the way in a underground labyrinth. Then on proceeds of Alps the Audan with friends has gone and has killed in a deep cave malicious divine Tama of the Tarkhan: the bogatyr has struck palitsej in the weakest place jeleznotelogo jorega - clay kolenjam. But huge extinguishing it djinna has filled up an output{exit} from the underground world. Fortunately, the Alp of the Storm has come across here on

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Friends and the fiery sight has burnt and has fused a body jorega. It the Wolf has learned to burn Bulgars clay and to sucelt metals, and Bulgars gave Storms one more name - Selytchy (other forms of this name - Seldje, Djelytchy) - the Founder (from Bulgarian "se-lyt" or "djelyt" - "plavka metal", from him{it} there was a Russian word "iron".

It is interesting, that the Founder called .takje and the well-known Bulgarian prince Djakyna (Takina) of the Turki - the grandson of Khan of the Almysh of the Djafar. Later sort Djakyna, which began to name Seldjuk (that is the sort of the Founder), has become related with the family which has lodged in Bulgarias oguzianand has headed khan of Bulgarian Oguzes. One of Seldjukov with group of Bulgarian Oguzes has been directed to the Bulgarian governor Talib Muminom to a campaign on Samanids - skih of Oguzes even later and after the first successes has proclaimed itself the leader of the Central Asian Oguzes, and his{its} descendants in XI century have created independent empire Seldjukskuju...

But at all kindness the Alp of the Storm was also very terrible divom. The fiery sight it{he} could burn out, transform into a stone, frighten and destroy thieves and fornicators. Once at the Alp of the Storm malicious divines have stolen one eye, therefore this of divines in some myths acts one-eyed.

Bulgarian groups have distributed myths about the Storm and the Gazan on Altai, in China, Mongolia (where on their basis there were legends about Hunnish Khans and about Chingiz-khan), in India (where name Maguly has turned in "Moguls", "Maugli"), in Egypt (where Ajsera-Magisa have altered in Osirisa and Moiseja, and the boiler - in a chest and korzinku), in Italy (where Maguly has turned in Romula and Rema - founders of Rome) willows other countries.

Have apprehended many nations of the world names and other heroes of Bulgarian myths. So, in old indian religious hymns - "Vedah" - one of names of the Kubar - JAndyraj (in form "Indra") is mentioned. The name algt-biki Ban or Abi Armaj (Ramaj) has turned at late afrazijtsev (Jews) to the name of their patriarch - Avraama, and in the east of Asia Minor - in the name of lake Van (from Ban) and areas Ban-Ant (Vanand). By the way, the word "ant" (other forms - "Kan", "hant", "shan") in Bulgarian meant "mountain" and as mountains were sacred swore them. So the word "ant" began to mean at Bulgars and "oath". Everywhere, where groups of Bulgars settled, the word "ant" took roots: in America (mountains Andes), in Spain (from the Bulgarian name of Spain "Ant ulus" - "Mountain area" - there was name "Andaluzija"), in Ural (from Bulgarian "Ant" or "Hunt" - "Average Ural" - there was a name of his{its} inhabitants - "hanty"), etc. Bulgarian myth how Alp - bika Su Anasy rescues

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la once the tribe elbirov, was apprehended by Italians and Kazakhstan Ugry.-.. Bashkorts. In this myth the following was spoken. After renewal of a sort elbirov the Gazan the enemy again has tried to attack them unexpectedly. But Su Anasy ordered to flight of geese (under other version - cranes) to cry behind a back of the enemy, and villains, having accepted shout of birds for klich soldiers, have addressed in panic flight. Now the reader will guess, why geese and have rescued Rome, and Bulgars have named one of the most beautiful lakes of Europe Balaton (from Balaten)... Cost{Stand} holes grateful elbiry, and then and all Bulgars began to use a name of the rescuer - "Uranus" - as fighting klicha. And from "uranium" it was formed klich "hurrah".

Has been borrowed in Europe and a Bulgarian myth about island Kresh - Bortsovskom. On this island in case of destruction of the Alp others gathered aliy and arranged on mountain, near a mourning flag - alama pominalnye duels. Ancient Greeks have apprehended not only the name of competitions at alama (in the form "Olympic games"), but also the name of island Kresh (in the form "Crete"). The part of the Balkan Bulgars was part of an ancient greek nationality{national character} and even has kept the of Bulgars - rkie names: "aspar" - "severe" (in the form "Spartans"), "magician - idan" - "the wolf hole" (in the form "Macedonia"), etc. The Bulgarian word "aspar" became also a name of the leader of Roman slaves Spartaka and Bulgarian Khan VII in, Asparuha.

But less known symbolics in the world is connected to myths about the Audan and Idjike. According to one myth, the first white shaman - the "Boyan" supervised prayers of people the Sky - Tangre the Alp the Audan was. Kul Gali so tells about occurrence of a ceremony of worship the Tangre. Earlier people did not know true about the origin, but the Audan has told to them how the sort human was born due to the Creator. From that time people began .blagodarit Tangru. For this purpose they in June of each year rose on high mountain the Taiga. Slopes of her{it} have been covered with a wood, and at top the altar from stones ("ufa" or "Tagil") has been arranged and grew fight kazyn (kaen) - a sacred birch. The Boyan the Audan with a spear - staff in hands headed procession of people on mountain. Near fight kazyn cleaning fires were kindled and sacrificed the Tangre a white horse - idjik (adjak, Azak) and jagnjata. During the prayer people supervised by the Boyan, three times passed around of a sacred birch. The son of Audan Djam conducted on prayer sacrificial. A horse covered with a beautiful coverlet why has received name Idjik. Then Idjik itself began to supervise over prayers. When people have decided to select Djama-Idjika on this mountain emperor (a Kagan, kano.m) they have lifted it{him} on a coverlet idjika and three times have carried by around of a sacred birch then have handed over it{him} a sign imperial

Authorities - bunchuk - that is a lock of hair from a tail idjika, adhered to a spear - staff. Was considered, that the Tangra has enjoined to hand over it{him} this bunchuk, and Hursa has delivered it{him} from the Sky to the ground. The some people believe, that "Sign Iskandera" - Lch - means bunchuk and that "tamga Iskandera" this symbol has received the name later. And "sign Tangry" or, more precisely, the Tangre - a six-coal star - people deciphered a sign on humility so: the top triangle is a Will of the Creator, and the bottom triangle is obedient to Will of the Creator a Kagan with people. Six-single passage around of a sacred birch just represented this sign. "Uchpochma-ki "(" triangles ^) which prepare Bulgars, were in the beginning sacrificial food on ceremonies of prayer the Tangre. All these symbols together with groups of Bulgars were carried on huge space from India and Palestine up to Germany and Italy. The swastika became sacred is familiar indijtsev, a six-final star - the arms of Israel, and bunchuk - is familiar to authority of Italian duche (under the name "fashio" - a bunch{beam}, a sheaf), the Polish and Ukrainian hetmen, turkish leaders, atamans of Russian cossacks. From "fashio" there is a word "fascism". Except for "fashio" national socialists have selected the is familiar also a swastika. But who and how used Bulgarian symbolics, she{it} always will be with Bulgarian people. After acceptances of an islam "the sign on humility the Tangre" began for Bulgars to one of symbols of Moslem and was represented on fencings, walls and minarets of mosques, on namogilnyh stones, on some coins and imperial ornaments.

The half moon - other ancient Bulgarian symbol decorating navershija of staffs of Bulgarian banners from time immemorial and former one from elements of a sign of a Bulgarian imperial sort the Barrel - "Tamgi Iskandera" - became the most known symbol of an islam.

Prayers the Sky - Tangre referred to Maine Tejre. During vague time "bish kalpaju" Bulgars began to sacrifice to Maine Tejre in the beginning seven young men, and then - seven girls - from seven sorts. People believed, that for bringing in a victim of people of the Tangra will stop bloody civil strifes. Through 14 thousand years, at the Burtas, intestine wars have abated also Bulgars have ceased to sacrifice people.

Kul Gali marks also, that the part of Bulgars, left of Idel on the east, carried out{spent} Maine Tejre already in district of the Western Khin which named also "Idel". But there the name "Idel", it{he} wrote, has got value "Jeti-Su" - a place where seven rivers wash six mountains - that is Altai (from "alty" - "six"), Altai has been elected for prayers the Tangre because his{its} six mountains reminded of a six-final sign on humility to the God. And/as to district

 

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Khin, that, speak, there and there was a power of eastern Bulgars or ho-

It is new (Huns), formed{educated} by descendant Djam-Idjika - a Kagan

The Hon - Idjikom, the son of the Boyan - Imen.,,

In Europe a place of prayers of Bulgars the Tangre was Crete, and also the Alpes why these mountains and their main top Mont Blanc have received Bulgarian names: "Alpes" pobulgarski means. "High" (from "Alp", one of which values was "high"), and "Mont Blanc" - "Rich (men) meadows (bolyn)". Kul Gali, adds, that when Atille (Atilla) was in Italy (Altynbash), "has seen there go () y Alps, and in district Rich Meadows (Alpine, konechno - F. .) has made prayer the Tangre". Ancient Greeks have held in remembrance Bulgarian prayers the Tangre. Their storytellers have transformed the name "Maine Tejre" in spirit of the Minotaur, to which .prinosilis on Crete into a victim seven young men and seven girls.

In many place names of the world names of Bulgarian spirit of abundance Samara sound. To tell enough, that cities and the rivers with the name Samara - Samaria - Samarkand are in the Itil region, in Ukraine, in Palestine, Central Asia, Iraq, etc., and that in honour Samara Near-Eastern Bulgars have named the power of Samaras (Sumer). After disintegration of Ancient (Bulgarian) Sumer on a part, the Near East Bulgars - cattlemen have named themselves and the beylik (princedom) other, "bull" name of spirit of abundance more favourite by them - the Turki (from here - Turkey, turkis).

According to Bulgarian myths, Samaras was born on island Kresh - Crete (which in the beginning hung in the Sky, and it was then lowered{omitted} to the Earth). Ancient Greeks have apprehended one of names Samara - Subash - in form "Zevs" and have made his{its} main deity. After ancient Greeks have taken Crete, Bulgars began to call them "kreshen" - "kritjane" (from "kreshen" there is also a Russian word "Greek").

Bulgarian myths about the Audan have affected folklore of many nations of the world., for example, that was spoken in a myth about the Audan and Bojgal (by words Kul Gali).

Once, during hunting, the Audan has left to the river and has seen in it{her} Bojgal. The Alp without memory has fallen in love in alp~biku, but she{it} has indifferently looked at him{it} and left deeply under water. To win heart Bojgal, the Audan has made some feats, but an alibi ku and it has not excited. Then the Audan has gone to spirit songs Djir to the Kagan to be trained at him{it} in bewitching singing,

Djir of the Kagan for fine singing called Sandugachem (Nightingale), on it{he} could destroy extraordinary strong voice all around. Somehow inhabitants of one small town have doubted of force of a voice of this Alp and then it{he} the serditym a roar has tumbled down walls of a citadel. From that time that city named a name of the Alp - Djirka-

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gai. Later this name have deformed, and it has reached us in the form "Jericho". Kul has Gali visited this Palestinian city during time hadja. Djir the Kagan has come in Russian bylinas under a name of the Nightingale - robber, singing which ("singing") also broke all around...

The Alp songs has transferred some secrets of the skill to the Audan, but also singing of the Boyan has not touched heart Bojgal. In full despair the Audan has rushed to the river, but Bojgal has rescued it{him} and has asked, why it{he} so has acted{arrived}. Then the Audan has told to it{her} about the love to it{her} and has learned{has found out} from it{her}, that she{it} does not know, that such love.

The upset Alp of knights has gone to the Turan to learn{find out}, in what business, but she{it} has refused to meet it{him} on mountain Uraltau as allowed to see itself only to the senior divines - to spirits of 1 and 2 generations (the Audan was younger divom 3-rd generations). Then the Audan. To cajole eternally young grandmother, filled for it{her} a fine earthen pyramid (the Balkans or a barrow) with a cave (kepe) inside and the Alp - biku directly in a cave with a torch in a hand began to wait. Also has waited: the Turan has submitted a voice from darkness and has asked, that it is necessary for it{him}. The Audan has asked, why Bojgal cannot grow fond of it{him}. The Turan has answered, that female spirits of the third generation love that Alp whom will specify a lot thrown by her{it}. And if the Alp will seize the Alp - bikoj on the whim they will not have children. On all this the Audan did not agree and began to beg Abi Armaj to cause at Bojgal feeling of love to it{him} and ability to give birth from him{it}. The Turan has liked a gift of the Audan - a pyramid and consequently she{it} has appeared from darkness as the snake and has given it{him} a part of the snake leather{skin} which contact causes love. Thus the Turan has warned, that children of the Audan and Bojgal will be mortal people. The pleased Audan has left a cave, for stay in which has been nicknamed Gurogly - "the Son of the Tomb" (in fact Bulgars buried in kepe deceased), and has gone directly to Bojgal. It{he} has applied{put} on it{her} a rag of a magic leather{skin} - and Bojgal has fallen in love with the Audan. They have got married, and at them son Djam-Idjik - Hishdek was born. To tell the truth, and Su Anasy has unexpectedly fallen in love with the Audan and has persuaded Laisha - one of brothers of the Alp - to blind own daughter - the competitor. Laish, never seeing Bojgal, has shot from a bow{an onions} and has blinded the wife of the brother...

The myth about the Audan and the Turan which also has informed up to us Kul Gali is not less remarkable. His{its} maintenance{contents}. The Audan so strongly loved the son that has not wanted to go through it{him} and again has addressed to the Turan with the request to transform it{him} in mortal. In turn Abi Armaj loved the grandson and has decided to force it{him} to change the decision. And she{it} that the Audan has experienced nelegkost lives of people, has suggested it{him} to stay temporarily in the beginning in position of the person - slave and after his{its} consent to it has transformed the Alp into the slave. Au ~

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It is given, however, has passed this test. It{he} has perfectly served the owner in his{its} house, has collected for him{it} a good harvest and for it has been ahead of schedule released{exempted} by him{it} from slavery and V the leader of a tribe. On the basis of this plot there was a Near-Eastern legend about the fine Jusuf sold in slavery and becoming Khan of Egypt. The name <<) suf" obviously goes back to one of names Audaia - Uzi (Beautiful).

Then the Turan with the former purpose ordered to make to the Audan for it{her} copper and clay jugs. But the Audan has again executed the the task the Alp - biki and has not decided not to become the person. Then the Turan has thrown both jugs brought by the Alp on a floor. The clay vessel was broke, and copper has remained safe. Specifying them, Abi Arian - May has told: "Immortality of Alps is similar to a copper vessel, and the human life which you choose, is similar to a clay jug - she{it} is fragile. Whether so it is necessary to endow immortality for the sake of reception of a short human life?"

The Audan and here has not changed the decision, and only then an alibi ka, at last has made his{its} mortal. At parting she{it} has presented it{him} ear sergu in the form of the snake curtailed{turned} by a ring with a stone in the middle - has protected from human meanness{low act}. "It was last thirteenth feat of the Audan, - is noticed in a myth. - But people have not included it{him} in the list of feats of the Alp, not having estimated his{its} greatness". Other peoples, adopting this myth, transformed one of names of Audan, Gurogly, into "-" (Azerbaijanians), Gyor-ogly (Turkmens), Gur-ugli (Tadjiks), Herakles - Hercules (Greeks), etc.

Why we so much attention have given Bulgarian myths? And that is why.

Gradually the person becomes stronger, the level of his{its} aesthetic representations and spiritual needs grows. From weight of private soldiers obshchinnikov first sirs - priests and leaders with soldiers are allocated. Then leaders become Khans, and soldiers - biys or: bejami (rodo-ilemennymi Princes). To justify the domination above other people (peoples) and for amplification{strengthening} of influence of the ideology on people, sirs declare themselves descendants of human children of spirits (bogatyrs) and create heroic (powerful) songs (in which human descendants of Alps - bogatyrs gain for rescue of people of a victory over malicious spirits and win thus for itself and the descendants the right to be misters of the tribes) both larger and strong celebrations in honour Tangry (given a life to spirits), Alps and their descendants - bogatyrs.

These celebrations became breeding holidays.

Holidays were created on the basis of talented association of several ceremonies in one powerful hymn the Tangre, to Alps and rich

rjam - to founders of a dynasty of misters, Khans. Heroic songs executing on holidays are united in due course in breeding eposes - dastany (legends).

Struggle between governors for domination has caused to strengthen operation of people and centralization of management. But centralization of management was prevented by the biys leaning{basing} on old traditions. Therefore Khans employ on service a new nobility - slujilyh feudal lords, accept together with them true belief (world{global} religion) and declare old beliefs by superstitions, than deprive with biys of the right on reigning. Reign assert{approve} the right on continuation of domination by the blessing received from the maximum{supreme} attendants of true belief, Bulgarian Khans have accepted an islam, and mythology, ceremonies and holidays have declared superstitions. Erasing distinctions between tribes, the world{global} religion promotes folding of large nationalities - nationalities{national characters}. So the islam has played Bulgarias a main role during folding a Bulgarian nationality{national character}.

But people refuses to leave a part of the superstitions - legends and holidays as they the free spirit help it{him} to keep even a particle of the human advantage and give it{him} a curative drink of pleasure at poisonous ocean of social injustice surrounding it{him}. Tsars and their environment should reconcile (not without struggle) to this will of people and to adapt some legends and holidays for conditions of domination of true belief. So, dastany "are cleared" of songs in honour of the some people divov, hostile to world{global} religion and Khans, and heroes of legends - bogatyrs - accept true belief. At the same time elements of holidays become devout prays and toasts in honour of governors, and the ceremonies most contradicting to world{global} religion (for example, joint participation in a number of Bulgarian celebrations of men and the women, breaking norms of an islam) are excluded from the majority of holidays by centuries-old pressure of the mighties of this world.

Only such dominations of true belief adapted to new conditions dastany become already national dastany (eposes), and holidays - national holidays of nationalities{national characters} and one of the major elements of national culture as the true belief became the main element of national ideology and left in national culture only not details hostile to it{her}.

But change of holidays under influence of an islam cannot be compared with that accident which took place after capture of authority in Russia bolsheviks. For seven decades of interdictions and reireesy red commissioners have exsanguinated and obespamjatili a significant part of Bulgarian people. But the epoch of blindness and lawlessness passed. We should revive people, and to begin revival it is necessary from myself, from knowledge us for the history, from a pronunciation aloud forbidden before words: Bulgars, Bulgarian people, Bulgars silt...
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I shall remind in this connection words wise Petrarcas: "When people will address to the history, his{its} greatness ojivet".

In this noble business of revival of our ancient Turkic people of Bulgars considering{counting} in the spiritual attitude{relation} with a part of turkish superethnos, the great value will have restoration of all elements of the Bulgarian culture crushed by bolsheviks, and first of all musical art and holidays. In fact without musical art and holidays there is no strong national consciousness, so also the nation.

To new generation of Bulgarian turkis which the valid attitude{relation} to national values and indefatigable work for the blessing of a turkish generality will be restored with high authority of our people on the world, this book is dedicated.
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