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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman
DJAGFAR TARIHI
(THE ANNALS OF DJAGFAR)

Volume 2 PART 1
F.Nurutdinov
HISTORY of BULGAR
Chapter 4 BULGARIAN STATE OF THE 1st EMIRATE PERIOD  (865 - 1236)
Chapter  5. CULTURE OF BULGARIA DURING 1st EMIRATE PERIOD

 

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Translator's Notes

In the statement of the author and publisher Fargat Gabdul-Khamitovich Nurutdinov, he wrote the "History of Bulgar" in 1972 as a conspectus for his graduate work. Per F.Nurutdinov, the conspectus rests on the information in the Kul Gali book "Hon Kitaby" and "some other Ancient Bulgarian annals" of the lost part of the "Djagfar Tarihi".

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.

Volume 2 PART 1
F.Nurutdinov
HISTORY of BULGAR
(From most ancient times to the beginning of the 13 century)

CHAPTER 4 (Continued). BULGARIAN STATE OF THE 1st EMIRATE PERIOD  (865 - 1236)
42
43

Feudal reaction in the reign of Anbal and transfer of power to Otyak

First of all the Anbal has dismissed terrible for kazanchis kusyrbai and has engaged in entertainments. It{him} kazanchievskoe the environment to which it{he} has transferred management of the country, has forgotten about foreign policy and has begun to plunder treasury, to grasp the grounds state Igenchian and to ruin people introduction of new taxes. Severe prosecutions have fallen upon all dissatisfied or potential contenders of the Anbal. One of sons of the Shamgun - Arbat Os-Ladj - has acted{arrived} on service to the Anbal and became Martjubinskim the governor (it{he} has transferred the center silt I from Debera to Uchel), and other son of the Shamgun - Ulug-Mohammed Otjak Djangi - has decided to achieve a throne and ran in the beginning to the testju - kumanskomu to khan to the Bashkort, and then - to Russia. Having lived some time in Kiev, the Otyak has got over in capital of the Suzdal princedom city Vladimir as the Suzdal prince Andrey Bogolyubsky has promised to it{him} the help in struggle against the Anbal. In 1164. The Otyak with Andrey have intruded in Bulgars. Allies have taken and sojgli Ibragim - balik ("Brjahimov" Russian annals, the future Nijni Novgorod), and then when the Arbat has handed over to them without fight Uchel, sojgli strengthenings and this city. The Anbal nobody has supported, and his{its} hired kypchakskaja konnitsa, attacking allies at Bolgara.i killed son Andrey of prince Izjaslava, after short fight has receded. The Otyak has there and then come in Bulyar where the townspeople have given out to it{him} seized by them the Anbal, and became tsar of Bulgaria. In turn the Otyak (1164 - 1178) has given out to Andrey (as captives) the Anbal, his{its} daughter Bajpolbi, the Arbat and others the nearest spodvijnikov the Khisam.
44
45

The Otyak has cancelled there were emergency taxes of the Anbal, but then has entered new as has conceived heavy war with the Don Kumans and required means for its{her} conducting. Having restored the kusyrbai, it{he} is hard has stopped Bulgarian tjajelovoorujennyh alparov in Wide (Don) war with legkovoorujennoj kumanskoj konnitsej. Some years of steppe pursuits of faster Kumans have completely exhausted the kusyrbai. Having suppressed in 1172 revolt in province Eijsu (the center of her{it} was the city of Nukrat renamed then in honour of Emir It is lodged in Kolyn, and nowadays referring to as "Kirov"), caused by increase of a tribute Bolgar, tsar has planted{put} bijsujskogo the governor of Measures - CHuru with his{its} biys in buljarsky zindan and has begun to replace home guards okrainnyh provinces Bulgarian garrisons. The heavy service full of deprivations on surburbs Bulgar - both in deserts of the south, and in northern taiga jungle Biysu and Siberia has been intolerable even for severe, tempered alparov. In conditions of increasing general grumble the Otyak has gone to last campaign on SHir (Don) per 1178 and at returning from him{it} was lost.

Even earlier the Anbal was lost. To soften Andrey, former tsar has allowed it{him} to marry daughter Bajpolbi (against its{her} will) and has achieved an arrangement of prince of Suzdal. Position of the Anbal after Andrey's break with the Otyak has even more improved and unsuccessful attack of son Andrey Mstislava to Bulgaria in 1172 (itself Mstislav in this attack has been fatally wounded, and his{its} army in a panic ran at one approach{approximation} of group of Bulgarian Sardar Chelmati) as Andrey has wanted to use eks-tsarja in struggle against the Bulgarian governor. But when the group of the Suzdal Boyars has suggested the Anbal to overthrow prince and to erect on the Suzdal throne of son Andrey and Bajgjulbi - Lachyn Hisami ("Yury") the Anbal has there and then adjoined plot together with the daughter hating the husband for his{its} cruelty to it{her} and an antiBulgarian policy{politics}. In 1174 conspirators have killed Andrey, but his{its} brother Vsevolod has suppressed revolt and has subjected the Anbal and Bajgjulbi to severe execution. Lachyn Hisami has escaped only - it{he} ran to new Bulgarian I reign to the Gabdulla to the Chelbir (1178 - 1225) - to the senior son of the Otyak. The Arbat has got accustomed in Russia, began voevodoj Moscow and his{its} palace has begun the main area of the Moscow which has kept his{its} name - to the Arbat.

Bulgaria in the beginning of reign of Gabdulla Chelbnra

The Chelbir in the beginning carried out the same policy, as his{its} father. But in 1182 the population of capital driven to despair by imperial requisitions has risen. Become impoverished from the low salary alpary and igencheys Bajtjubinskogo ilja have joined insurgents, izbravshim the tsar of the son of the Anbal of Bek Chelmati. CHelmati was the brave and skilful commander (we shall recollect his{its} attack of 1172, and also what it{he} in 1178 - has crushed 1181 and has subordinated Bulgar wide Kypchaks), did not oppress subject to it{him} Igenchian and was the supporter of restoration of the law of the Talib about translation Igenchian in the category Subashes in case of acceptance of an islam by them (this law after death of tsar of the Ibragim has ceased to be carried out and it was restored only temporarily at the Adam, Shampoo and Kolyma - and that only in some areas Bulgar). It CHelmati has deserved popularity in people.

Insurgents have expelled the Chelbir from Bulyar and have released{exempted} from imperial prisons of Measures - CHuru and others nukrattsev, there and then adjoined to revolt. Attempt of the Gabdulla to suppress revolt with the help of retaliatory group from tubdjakskih oimeks has failed - have Bulyarians beaten off oj-meksky storm and have killed tubdjakskogo the governor - ojmekskogo khan Turgenja.

Having heard about disorder in Bulgaria, the Suzdal prince Vsevolod the Big Jack has decided to put in this opportunity to Bulgarian power powerful impact and to put in Bulyar tsar of the son of the Arbat of the Bek of the Azan serving to Russia (it{he} promised to relieve Russia of a Djirian tribute and to concede to Suzdal a part of Bulgarian territory). To operate so actively Vsevoloda has forced that a Bulgarian army in 1182 (in reply to robberies of the Novgorod group on Volga and Kama in 1181 g..) Has crushed vicinities Radjilja (Radilova), Murom and Ryazan and threatened already to Vladimir. All Russian princedoms gave Suzdal the strongest armies, and in 1183. Vsevolod and other 11 Russian Princes with a 60-thousand army have intruded Bulgaria. Being in desperate position, the Chelbir declares increase of the salary alpars and it the kusyrbai wins round. Vsevolod has besieged{halted} Bulyar, but insurgents have beaten off also his{its} storm, having killed in fight perejaslavskogo prince Izjaslava and having lost loved{liked;favourite} CHelmati. Appeared in time to Bulyar imperial kusyrbai under command of Bek Guzy, under command Lachyn Hisami and hired Kypchaks have surrounded the Bulgarian home guard and have together crushed army Vsevoloda (from 60 thousand Russian soldiers and 12 Princes to Russia 10 thousand soldiers and 3 Princes could make the way ' through a ring of a Bulgarian environment only) and then have forced the exsanguinated insurgents to surrender. The Azan has been beaten off at suzdalydev and began to serve CHellbiru.
47
46

The Suzdal prince has been compelled to conclude with Bulgarom the world on which Northeast Russia became a princedom dependent on Bulgaria, has admitted{allowed} trade of Bulgars on Russian villages, the tribute has undertaken to pay still Bulgarias, and also to help Bulgarian power armies. Except for it Suzdal has refused collection of trading duties from the Bulgarian merchants passing through his{its} territory in other countries.

So war which named Vsevolodovoj or Bulymerskoj (Bulymerom Bulgars named Vladimir) has ended. Tsar has taken some lessons from Buljarskogo revolts 1182-1183. In particular it{he} has a little weakened the taxes raised from Igenchian - moslems, and also has stopped parcels{sendings} alparov on service in the remote provinces of Bulgaria and has returned on service in these ils local civil guardsmen. The Udmurt civil guardsmen together with the leader-* Measures - CHuroj - have been forgiven and have accepted an islam. They it is strong bulgarizirovalis and were consolidated in special ethno-group "besermen".

Attempt of the Chelbir to make the way to the Near East and to India

Very soon the Chelbir began large-scale operations in the south with the purpose of submission of all Black Sea Coast, Ukraine, Caucasus, the Near East and India.

In the winter 1183 - 1184 the kusyrbai has returned under authority Bulgar Azak seized before it by byzantines, and in the spring a Bulgarian army together with the ally Bulgar kumanskim khan Khondjak (Konchagyobm) attacked the Kiev possession. However Konchak shamefully ran right at the beginning of fight, and Bulgars also had to recede. Kievljanam Bulgarian incendiary shells - sheredjiry have got. In the same year the Chelbir by means of the Ossetian relatives (the father of one of wives of tsar was Crimean Gotha, and mother - Ossetian knjajna) has erected on the Georgian throne Lachyn Hisami, former before some time the Bulgarian deputy of Azak. Lachyn Hisami, pravivshy in Georgia under George's name, married the Georgian princess Tamar and in every possible way promoted strengthening cultural and economic relations between Gurdjej (Georgia) and Bulgarom. So, under his{its} request the Chelbir has allowed to organize in a number of Bulgarian cities the Georgian colonies in which have lodged Georgian, Armenian, tatjakskie (men-grelskie) both Ossetian merchants and handicraftsmen. But in 1189 of Lachyn Hisami has been accused by the own wife and supporting se the Georgian nobility of century attempt musulmanizirovat Georgia with the help seldjukskih neighbours and Bulgarian princedoms of Georgia (Bulgarian princedoms in all countries of Transcaucasia referred to "Khondjak" ami) and will overthrow from a throne. Two attempts of the Chelbir to return Lachyiu Georgia have not crowned success.
48

In 1185 the Bulgarian army of the Bek Tatra mountains with group Konchaka has moved to Ryazan, but should turn on the West, whence there was on capture of Azak for byzantines a prince jujnorusskogo Novgo-rod-Severskogo princedoms Igor. At a meeting of two armies on the river Suurly ("the Dry End face") the Chernigov Bulgars - kovui, making konnitsu Igor, came over to of the side{party} Tatra mountains, and Igor's army has been captivated together with the prince. After this Bulgars attack Pereyaslavl and take storm the city of Rimov (in otmestku for participation perejaslavlskogo prince in a campaign on Bulyar), but Konchak suddenly declares the deviation in steppe and breaks it approach to Kiev. It appears, this prichernomorsky the Kuman - sky khan actually only wanted to use a Bulgarian army for easing Russian neighbours, but at all did not wish consolidation of Bulgarian authority in Black Sea Coast. In completion of treachery Konchak with people organizes runaway of prince Igor from Bulgarian camp on the river of Torahs, Kiev scared by Bulgarian activity near to the borders, finances the Novgorod and Ryazan attacks to Bulgaria. In 1186 the Bulgarian army forces Ryazan to obey will of the Chelbir and to renew payment of a tribute Bulgar, and restored in the rank of the governor Biysu Measures - CHura gromit the Novgorod groups. In 1193 Bulgars managed to destroy the main forces of Novgorod, and this severorusskaja seignioral area after Ryazan also began to render tribute Bulgar and to send to Bulgaria children of the Boyars as hostages.

Simultaneously the Chelbir tries to be fixed in Afghanistan, Pakistan and India for what sends at the end of XII century of the Bek of the Elaur with group of Bulgars - Mardanians (them named also "Burtases") and tubas - djaktsev to Afghanistan for participation in campaigns Guridov in India. However Mohammed Guri to whom Bulgars have helped to take the Indian cities, has not fulfiled the promise to found Bulgarian colonies in India (though has generously renumerated Bulgars and has confirmed privileges which they used in Afghanistan since times Gaznevidov). Therefore in 1206. The Chelbir has directed the son of Elaur Sindja with Mardanians and tubdjaktsami to the aid horezmijtsam, also promising to found Bulgarian colonies in India. Horezmijtsy by means of Bulgars have broken a Kara-kytaev and Guridov, but then liquidated Bulgarian colonies even in Afghanistan. The Chelbir has been very much offended by it, but a kind has not submitted and in 1216 has again sent Sindja to the aid Horezmshaham. Allies have beaten off then the first invasion of Mongols of CHingiz-khan on the countries of an islam. But hardly the son of CHingiz-khan has promised Juchis to accept an islam, and in case of route by him{it} Ho'rezmsha-hov - to give Bulgars some cities of Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India as the Chelbir "has recollected" the insult and bezu-: chastno observed of destruction of empire Horezmshahov during invasion of Mongols.
49

The special thousand Bulgarian group also has been sent by the Chelbir to the Near East (under the request seldjukskogo the sultan) where in 1204 - battled for Seljukids against Georgian 1216, kilikijskih, krestonosnyh and the Byzantian armies. So, in 1209 Bulgars under city of Kalatom (Hlatom) have taken prisoner the Georgian commander-in-chief, in 1214 have provided mastering; Darbazanom (Trabzon), in 1216 ^nagolovu have crushed kilikijskie armies and on a return way in ulgar have taken away from byzantines in Crimea the ancient Bulgarian city of Sagdak ("Pike perch"). Together with the cities of Agardja or Bandja - Kepe ("Kerch"), Bungar or Echke - Bulgars ("Fanagorija"), Tamja-Tarkhan ("Tmutarakan"), SHirdan "(" Tana"), etc. Sagdak Azak entered into primordially Bulgarian possession. The Chelbir has presented Sagdak seldjukskomu to the sultan to have with the brotherly and allied Turkic state the general{common} border in; to Djalda (Crimea).

Amplification{Strengthening} of authority of the Chelbir inside Bulgar and in Northeast Russia

Vszir Gubajdulla in searches of means for the southern enterprises of tsar again began to raise with Muslim Igenchian and handicraftsmen surtaxes. The small part of the richest craft houses was united with the powerful trading houses engaging in superprofitable trade (for example, rabotorgovlej), and has found the way out, but the majority podatnogo the Muslim population began to experience financial difficulties and discontent. Therefore in 1193 new plot against the Chelbir, headed by the future great Bulgarian poet Mohammed-Gali (Kul Gali) has ripened. But this time conspirators who named "rooks" (why also called plot "Grachinym"), were predany the traitor and are punished. Nevertheless the Chelbir disturbed with fermentation{unrest} of Muslim weight - bases of the state, has been compelled to displace true Visir Gubajdullu and to cancel increase of taxes in the central areas Bulgar. But on surburbs of the country the tax burden has remained very heavy and caused numerous revolts not Muslim Igenchian, it is severe podavljaemye imperial armies.
50

Except for a tax concession, the Chelbir has made also another - has restored the world with Kiev and Smolensk on demand of the richest Bulgarian trading - craft houses - the corporations connected to functioning of major in Europe of trading way Tortosa - Narbon - Lyons - Verdun - Mainz - Regensburg - Prague - Krakow - Peremyshl - Kiev - Bolgar. But other Russian princedoms have remained in a vice of tough policy of the Chelbir. For amplification{strengthening} of Bulgarian influence on Northeast Russia uchelsky the Bek the Azan has restored in 1204 of strengthening Uchelja on mountain Bogyltau. In 1216. The Azan under the order of tsar has crushed the Suzdal prince Yury (5 Lipitskoj to fight and has ratified on the Suzdal throne of his{its} brother - the protege of Chelbir Konstantin. Then tsar has tried to attach to Bulgar and Ryazan. Proteges of tsar at support of Mardanian group in 1216 have interrupted almost all Ryazan Princes, but the enterprise was broke because of nepribytija to the aid of Mardanians of group Bulgarian and nur-suvarskih kazanchis. Tsar has come to fury and ordered kazapchijam to act on all wars level with alpara-mi (earlier, since times of the Anbal more often, kazanchis paid off from military service).

But in 1218, after Konstantin's death, the situation in Severo-Vos-tochnoj Russia has changed. The Suzdal prince became Yury expressing interests of a part of Boyars, razorjaemyh a Bulgarian tribute and trade and ready on mortal fight for the sake of overthrow of a Bulgarian yoke. Under Yury's order Suzdalians have interrupted the Bulgarian merchants who were coming back from Artana. Many merchants were especial is killed in Ustyug.

The attack on merchants was considered as the most terrible crime in Bulgaria. In 1218 - 1219 the Bulgarian army in the chapter with the Chelbir has taken Ustyug and Radjil (Radilov) and has seized infinite extraction. The reciprocal attack Suzdalians to Uchel in 1220 has been beaten off by the Sardar of the kusyrbai the Gazan, and the Chelbir ordered to rename Uchel into memory of it in the Gazan. This name has got the modern form "Kazan" - "Kazan" later. So our city began to refer to as Kazan, Then and the river Arsu also have named Kazan - su ("Kazanka").

In the winter 1220 - 1221. The Chelbir ordered to liquidate in general to the Gazan the Suzdal princedom. The kusyrbai of this Sardar has destroyed a fortress which Suzdalians have constructed in 1220 on a place of the Ibragim - balik destroyed by them (Djune-Kala), and then Vladimir (Bulymer) has moved on capital of a princedom. On a way the kusyrbai has taken Gorohrvets and some more the Suzdal fortresses which garrisons have run up on woods at one priblijeny ^ alparov. Yury also ran in northern woods and therefrom begged CHejb^ra to spare it{him}, promising to satisfy any conditions and to be to death true ra ~ bom Bulgar. Suddenly tsar returns the army back and orders to conclude to Yury the contract with the following provisions: Suzdal gives Bulgar all Suzdal Zavoljje and Nijneokovje with 14 cities (Ustyug, Gorohovets, Kostroma, JAropolch, Unja, Radilov, etc.), snosit all strengthenings and fortresses on suzdalsko-Bulgarian and suzdal-sko-Ryazan borders and on a way from Bulgar up to Vladimir, are provided with gathering a Bulgarian tribute from Novgorod, gives Bulgar the army under the order of tsar, doubles a Djirian tribute, divides{shares} Suzdal on two parts - Vladimir - Yury and Rostov - the Cornflower (the son! Konstantin, the true vassal Bulgar), cancels all duties with bul-garskih merchants and opens him{it} for travel and trade all cities, villages and roads, etc.
51

Yury did not delay - is hard was in already Bulgarian Radjil and has signed the contract with Bulgarom on humiliating even for dependent; princedoms conditions. In fact the main thing for fatally scared Yury was preservation of own life and even any corner for existence...

Son Yury Vladimir has gone in Bulgars the hostage. The Murom prince also has obeyed Bulgar on the same conditions, has demolished walls of Murom and other Murom fortresses and also has sent the son in Bolgar as the hostage. One part of the Ryazan princedom has obeyed Bulgar still in 1186., another after a campaign of 1209, and the third - after intrusions of Mardanians into 1224 In Bulgar as the Ryazan hostage there was a grandson of the well-known and omnipotent Ryazan boyar Matveja Andreevicha Aibat ("Evnaty") as in a princedom actually corrected{ruled} not the Prince, and his{its} father - boyar.

However the Chelbir has postponed the plan of full liquidation Suzdal, skogo princedoms at all with pity to Yury or Suzdalians that is why, that has received a disturbing message: the army of the Mongolian emperor of the CHingiz-khan, headed invincible hitherto bagaturom (military leader) Subede, has crushed power Horezmshahov and dvi-, jetsja through Iran, Georgia and Azerbaijan to the Caucasian border Bulgar.
52

The first collision of Bulgars with Mongols of CHingiz-khan

The Bulgarian army began to prepare for reflection of invasion from the east - in fact the Mongolian empire was the serious opponent. Formed{educated} in 1206. CHingiz-khan, she{it} has won already significant part of Asia. CHingiz-khan by means of improbable cruelty has forced to rally and carry out his{its} plan of a gain of the world set raznojazykih and raznokulturnyh areas of the Central Asia. In 1204 on a way to the triumph - to formation{education} of the Mongolian empire - it{he} forces of Mongolian tribes subject to it{him} has exterminated also the Mongolian tribe of the Tatars, refused to obey his{its} authorities. To subordinate other countries, it{he} has begun to destroy other, already not Mongolian tribes.

CHingiz-khan ordered to refer to to all Mongolian tribes as Mongols, and to the Mongolian mercenaries from not Mongolian peoples (Uigurs, the Turkmen, Chinese, Iranians, Russian, etc.) - "Tatars". In fact after their name began to mean destructions of a tribe of Tatars in the Mongolian language (besides other) and "condemned man", and mercenaries just and have been doomed for death in fight ahead and for Mongols. But neighbours of Mongols - Chinese long before CHingiz-khan have got used to call all Mongolian tribes under the name of a tribe of Tatars - "Tatars"" a hook as Tatars were once the strongest Mongolian tribe. This Chinese tradition to name Mongols a nickname "Tatars" have apprehended other nations of the world, including Bulgars and Russian. Therefore invasions of armies of the Mongolian empire on other countries nations of the world were named Tatar, and by the modern scientists uniting a this name and a nickname of Mongols - "mongolo-tatar" (or "tataro-Mongolian").

Mongols professed christianity (nestorianskogo sense), the Buddhism and shamanizm, why counted all Christians (and also iudeev) the allies, and moslems ~~ the most malicious enemies.

The Mongolian empire shared on area - ulusy (destinies) in which chapter there were khans - descendants of CHingiz-khan. These ulusnye khans submitted to the emperor of Mongolia carrying a title of " great khan". To descendants of the senior son of CHingiz-khan Juchis - Juchis - ladies - has got ulus, located on territory of Kazakhstan. Steppes of Kazakhstan and the south of the East Europe referred to Desht-i Kyp-chakom, therefore so began to name and Kazakhstan ulus Djuchidov. Juchis has established a good-neighbourhood with Bulgarom and secretly informed the Chelbir on plans of Mongols, including about the plan of route Bulgar. Under this plan Subede should break through the Caucasian border of Bulgaria and in the union with Christian Russia to strike on the center Bulgar from the West, and Juchis with the ulusom - to break through Djaik (Ural) and to attack the center Bulgar from the east. CHingiz-khan expected, that these both parts of the Mongolian army will incorporate in the center Bulgar, rassekut on two parts and will destroy the power Bulgarsku facing on a way of his{its} aggressive plans.
53

The Chelbir warned Juchis watched closely movement of army Subede. Bagatur has passed through Iran, Georgia, Azerbaijan and has met on Northern Caucasus forces of governor Saksinskogo ilja the Bachman in structure of which all preCaucasian tribes and the Don half-sheeps have acted. However in a heat of fight the Don Kumans from an army of the Bachman come over to the side{party} of Mongols and together with them strike on Ossetian group eaksinskogo home guards. The Bachman has come to the aid of ossets with last reserve, but eventually under a pressure of superior forces of the enemy has been compelled to run with a part of the army to Georgia as the way of deviation on the north has been Bulgar cut already off. After that Subede sends ambassadors to Russia and suggests it{her} in the union with Mongolia to act against Bulgar. But Ukrainian - Russian the Prince have killed the Mongolian ambassadors and together with the allies - nijnedneprovskimi Kumans have gone on the enemy. In fight on Kalka has Subede destroyed Russian army and together with the Don Kumans in the summer of 1223. Has moved to the Central Bulgaria. However Juchis has assured the Chelbir that will not attack from the east on Bulgars, and tsar has prepared bagaturu for an ambush near bulgar-cattle of the city of Kermek (in territory zavoljskoj to a part of present Simbirsk area). The army Subede was straight off forwarded through Volga.ugodilo in this ambush and has been destroyed by Bulgarian army.: Itself Subede with gorstkoj soldiers ran from a field of fight, but has been all the same surrounded. The pleased Chelbir did not begin to kill Subede to not burden position Juchis (CHingiz-khan could kill the son in case of destruction on his{its} fault of the best commander), and has allowed; to the disarmed and pity rests of army Subede (only to it{him} osta-; twisted a sword) to return through Bulgarian possession to Mongolia. People Has nicknamed Kermekskuju fight Mutton because the Gabdulla has arranged humiliating delivery Subede thousand captivated Mongols in exchange for rams and a cheerful victorious junket with poedaniem these rams on eyes surrounded bagatura. The peace life has been quickly restored, and the Bachman has returned to the Saksin.

But also the Chelbir helped Juchis. When in 1225 from ulusa Juchis to borders one Bulgar ran ojmekskoe a tribe tuk-suba and has asked for the Gabdulla of a refuge tsar has given up to it{him}. Then tuk-subajtsy without the permission went on the right coast Djaika to wait here a thunder-storm. The angry Chelbir has fallen upon fugitives and has crushed them. The rests tuk-subajtsev were prijaty to coast Djaika and destruction or delivery Juchis as suddenly the Chelbir has died expected, and tsar have proclaimed his{its} younger brother the World - Gazi (1225 - 1229), popular in people.
54

Struggle Bulgarni against mongolo-tatar invasions and impact vostochnorusskih feudal lords

The world - Gazi tried to put into practice plans of friend Kul Gali which should improve position Muslim Igenchian, fine and average handicraftsmen, slujilyh knights - alparov. So, tsar has immediately restored the law of the Talib on translation Igenchian, accepted an islam, in the category Subashes But to realize all reforms Kul Gali it was not possible. Right after death of Chelbir Yury with others it is eastern Russian and Princes has attacked the western areas Bulgar, and tubdjaksky the governor the Mergen has traitorously passed with the ilem on the side{party} of Mongols and attacked Bulgars from the east. In the beginning the Mergen attacked by own strength as Juchis the world with Bulgarom in every possible way tried to keep. But in 1227. CHingiz-khan, having learned about secret communication{connection} of the son with Bulgaria, has killed it{him}, and Mongols began to help the Mergen. In these conditions the World - Gazi was necessary to be engaged in almost exclusively reflection of enemy attacks.

In January, 1229. The world - Gazi has died, and on a throne the younger son of the Otyak and Ryazan knjajny Vysheljuby Glebovny Djelaletdin the Altynbek (1229, 1230 - 1236) has been lifted. New tsar has immediately acted to Djaiku where the same has broken with new Mongolian army all Subede, had time to crush Saksin. Opponents have met in March near Bulgarian fortress Kargaly, on a place of modern Orenburg. In the inflamed fight in the beginning Mongols began to take top, but then on proceeds of the Altynbek surrounded with them the home guard from Bashkortskogo ilja (so since 1193 il Tamta began to refer to) has appeared in time and has helped I reign to escape from an enemy ring.

The Altynbek has departed a little to the north, but the army Subede, completely exsanguinated, did not begin to pursue it{him} and has receded to Mongolia.

At this time in Bulyar opponents of the Altynbek have distributed hearing about his{its} defeat and destruction, and kazanchis have lifted on a throne of the son of the Azan of Emir of the Gazi-Baradj (1229 - 1230, 1236 - 1242). Kazanchis hoped, that the Gazi-Baradj, some time being in emigrations in Russia, can conclude the world with Russia, but Yury has continued the attacks, and kazanchis have turned away from tsar. Having taken advantage of it the Altynbek in 1230 has overthrown the Gazi-Baradj and has taken hold of a throne.

Have Bulyarians helped Djelaletdinu as divided{shared} his{its} desire to develop{unwrap} jihad against the Mongolian conquerors. But the major provinces of Internal (Central) Bulgaria - Bulgarian and Suvarsky or - have not supported the Altynbek and began to submit to the Bulgarian Ulugbek - to the son of Chelbir Iljasu of the Yaldau. Bulgars has broken up into two parts, and the Altynbek have recognized as tsar only Bajtjubin-sky, Kashansky and Mardanian or. To the Vengero-papal ambassador Julianu who has arrived in Bulyar in 1235, the Altynbek has bragged, that has a 50-thousand knightly army. But so much knights were in all Bulgaria. Actually at the Altynbek was twice less forces - 20 thousand knights - alparov (not considering 20 thousand chirmyshskih civil guardsmen). Nevertheless and with such army tsar in 1232 near Bugulma has completely broken a horde of the son Juchis of khan to Bath, vtorgnuvshujusja in buljarskie possession.
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His{Its} opponent - the Gazi-Baradj - per 1232 has gone to Mongolia and has persuaded great Mongolian khan Ugedeja to help it{him} to win a throne from the Altynbek in exchange for jujiobulgarskie the grounds. Bashkortsky governor Ishtjak has come over to of the side{party} of the Gazi-Baradj, and in August, 1236 Emir the Gazi-Baradj has led Mongols on Bulyar. After 45-day's osady, on November, 5, 1236, has been Bulyar taken by Mongols. The part of defenders of capital led by the Bachman and the daughter of Altynbek Altynchach could make the way in the center Mardanian ilja - the hundred-thousandth city of Bandja. But tsar the Altynbek was lost together with all 200-thousand population of capital. The Mongols who have lost at storm of the son of CHingiz-khan Kulkana, have destroyed Bulyar up to the basis.

The majority of Bulgarian Beks has obeyed the Gazi-Baradj and has recognized as his{its} tsar.

CHAPTER 5. CULTURE OF BULGARIA OF PERIOD I OF EMIRATE

After route of the Khazarian horde and inclusion of its{her} territory in structure of the Bulgarian state Bulgars take under the control the major trading ways from Europe to Asia, arrange in the cities the largest evropejsko-Asian fairs, there are main in Eurasia exporters of furs and bread, wax and honey, woods and fishes, iron-wares, copper and leather{skin}, slaves and mamontovyh tusks. In X - XVI centuries Bulgars have constructed about 300 cities, in most significant of which (Bolgar, Bulyar, Bandja, etc.) lived from 20 up to 200 thousand person, towered belokamennye and brick mosques, palaces, caravans - sheds and a bath, worked stale-chuguno-medeplavilnye factories both the potter's and brick enterprises. The country of Bulgars has the best in Eurasia masters - architects (making eyes on Ukraine, in Kazakhstan, in Crimea, on Caucasus, in Turkey, in Northeast Russia, etc.), To gunmakers ^ jewellers, tanners (in languages of many nations of the world-: Hungarians, the manchurian, Uigurs, Iranians, Kirghiz, etc. the best grades of leather{skin} and leather footwear have received the name "bulgari"), the founders, the most advanced agricultural production. Bulgars the first in the East Europe have mastered the Volga way, the most northern in the world a sea way from nizovjev Pechora and Ob up to Scandinavia and England and other roads from Europe to Asia, have begun melt of pig-iron and brick construction, stamping of a coin and mass production of leather footwear (words "pig-iron", "brick", "money", "ichigi", etc. have been borrowed Russian at Bulgars), began to develop the legislation and a science (geography, astronomy, ethnography, medicine, logic, linguistics, ethics, a history, etc.) And the literature, many areas of Northeast Europe and Northern Asia have opened to the world, have applied incendiary oil shells - sheredjiry ("besermensky fire"). Bulgars did not know to themselves equal Eurasia on scope of kirpichno-stone construction, on skill to erect the most complicated strengthenings, by quantity{amount} of cities and on fighting power.

In 865 - 882 the Bulgarian writer and policies{politics} the Michael of Bashtu ibn the Shams (a pseudonym - "SHamsi Bashtu") Shang kyzy dastany" ("the Legend on daughter Shang") has written on a Bulgarian literary language "turkis" and on motives drevnebulgarskih myths and heroic legends a poem ". In 931 already the son of Bashtu of the Abdallah (the pseudonym - "SHamsi Teberzi") creates also on Bulgarian turkis the well-known poem "Kisekbash *. Bulgarian seid Ahmed ibn the Fadlan writes to 922 in the Arabian language the first in a history of Bulgaria geografo-ethnographic work "the Note about seen" and enters the Arabian language in Bulgarian culture as language of a science. In 1080 the Bulgarian scientific Yakub ibn Nugman opens in Bulyar first Bulgarian university (gift al-uljum "Muhammad - Baki-rija"), and in 1135 g, finishes the huge collection drevnebulgarskih annals "the History of Bulgaria". To XIII century of Lachyn Hisami writes the composition first in Eurasia but to sports - "Gift mujam, competing on majdane". To science names and hundreds other oustanding Bulgarian scientists and writers are known. The facts of training testify to a high level of development of Bulgarian culture in Buljarskom university of students from Iraq and Iran and purpose{assignment} of the Bulgarian philosopher Hudja Ahmed al~Bulgari on a post of the teacher of the most powerful monarch of the world - Mahmuda Gaznevi (970 - 1030).

The Bulgarian literature reaches{achieves} the best blossoming in the beginning of XIII century. During this epoch the Jusuf" - "the Legend on the Jusuf" (1203) and the annalistic collection "the Hon of a Kitaby" (1242) the Bulgarian poet Mohammed-Gali ibn Mirhudzka (a pseudonym - "Kul Gali") creates the ingenious poem "Kyssa-i.

The deep humanism and the valid attitude{relation} to other peoples and cultures distinguishes the Bulgarian literature. So, the Michael of Bashtu with the big sympathy writes about "brave russah", and Mohammed-Gali makes use of experience of the Persian and Arabian literatures.
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