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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman
DJAGFAR TARIHI
(THE ANNALS OF DJAGFAR)

Volume 2
Chapter 4 (Beginning)
BULGARIAN STATE OF THE 1st EMIRATE PERIOD  (865 - 1236)

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Translator's Notes

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.

PART 1
F.Nurutdinov
HISTORY of BULGAR
(From most ancient times to the beginning of the 13 century)

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CHAPTER 4. BULGARIAN STATE OF THE 1st EMIRATE PERIOD  (865 - 1236)

Struggle of Bulgaria and Khazarian horde for hegemony in the East Europe

 After Kara-Bulgar period, the history of the Bulgarian state is conditionally divided into three periods, the Emirate periods. In fact, during these periods the Bulgarian rulers titled themselves Emirs. At the same time, each of these periods had specific distinctions.

During the 1st Emirate Bulgas reached a level of superpower (large world power) dominating in the Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, and from time to time attemptig increase its dominion in the world. During the 2nd Emirate the policies of the Bulgarian state were formed under a strong pressure of the Juchid khans (Chingizids) of the Desht-i Kipchak, whom Bulgars had to pay tribute. During the 3rd Emirate the Bulgars again became a state and freed herself of the oppression by the Juchid khans, but did not regain a level of superpower: that was prevented by the rise of the Muscovite-Russian state, a rivalry with which effected the politics and fate of (Itil) Bulgaria.

During that period, Bulgar remained a feudal state. A king (Kan, Emir) was a dispenser of the land, he was assigning lands to his hired subordinates, feudal lords in service, for military, administrative, and other services. If an esquire, alpar, was leaving the service, his land was taken and transferred to another alpar. Alpar did not work the land, it was tended by igencheis, who under orders of Emir were paying him a part of their income as a payment for service. The igencheis were free state igencheis (chirmyshes) and biy igencheis. Chirmyshes paid taxes to alpars or to the state treasury, and the  biy igencheis paid taxes to the biys. The biys paid a part of their income as a tribute from the beiliks to the state treasury.

The handicraftsmen and merchants also paid taxes to the state treasury. A part of the taxes went on the support of the royal family and court, another part went on the wars, and building of cities, fortresses, roads, etc.

The foreign policy of Bulgaria in 9 - the middle of 10 century was defined{determined} with rivalry with the Khazarian horde which aspired to take away at Bulgar Ukraine. In 870 Askold has risen to Kiev with hired vAryajskoj a team. Kievljane have preferred to accept it{him} in quality sopravitelja chapters Kiev beilika Djir and to liquidate a post of the deputy of Bulgarian tsar at governors of it beilika. The deputy - the great Bulgarian poet the Michael of Bashtu has left in Bolgar where became the Visir (the chapter of the imperial government) Bulgar. Djilkas it was necessary to recognize the decision kievljan and by that to confirm an autonomy Kiev beilika in structure of Bulgaria - so that kievljane have not gone over on the side{party} of Khazars.

But thus Kiev paid Bolgar a tribute, and sons Askolda were in Bolgar as hostages. When in the winter 872 - 873. Askold has precipitately refused to act under the order of the Gabdulla in a campaign to Polotsk (ottorgnutyj from Bulgar Danes) tsar immediately executed his{its} one son and has forced Askolda to obey for the sake of rescue of a life of other sons.

In 875. Askold has lifted in Kiev antiBulgarian mutiny and has killed true Bolgar the biy of Djir. The biy Kara-Bulgarian beilika the Almysh could not suppress this mutiny even by means of sent the Djilka badjanakskogo group as Askolda have supported Khazars.
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Then Djilkas began to prepare big to a campaign to Kiev. Badjanaks have been involved in participation in this campaign, Bulgars Mardanian specific beilika Bulgarias (settled down between Simbirsk and Saratov) and vAryajsky otrad the Scandinavian Bek of Salahbi (Slagvi) serving Bulgar. In 881. The Salahbi has beaten out from the Bulgarian city of Yana Galidj (Novgorod) group of the Danish conquerors that allowed to expect Djilkas for a capture of Kiev by means of simultaneous impacts on city from the north (Novgorod) and from the east (Kara-Bulgarian beilik).

In 882. The Gabdulla the order has suddenly died also to start{begin} the campaign planned by him{it} to Kiev already new Bulgarian tsar - the younger son of the Djilka of Bat-Ugyr Mumin (882 - 895) has given. The Salahbi with group vAryagov from the north and the Almysh with karabulgartsami, Mardanians, and Badjanaks simultaneously came to Kiev. Rebel Askold has been seized and executed, and kievljane without any resistance have accepted the Salahbi. Appointed Bath - Ugyrom the new Bulgarian biy Kiev beilika. Anchians have nicknamed the Salahbi Prophetic Oleg as it{he} could guess and has foreseen a victory over wars.

The Bat-Ugyr would like was to develop{unwrap} after the Kiev success approach and to the Khazarian horde hostile Bulgar, but his{its} contender - the biy Mardanian beilika, the average son of the Djilka Mardan - has broken a planned campaign to Itil. Scared by these at

gotovlenijami Khazars have gone on the conclusion of the world with Bulgarom and even have refused a Bulgarian tribute, but secretly prepared for an attack to Bulgaria. In 890 Khazars have helped the senior son of the Almysh - tengriantsu to the Arbat to overthrow his{its} father - moslem and to seize power in Kara-Bulgarian beilike. To the Arbat have helped not only Bulgars - tengiantsy, but also ugry as his{its} mother was magyar knjajna. The Djafar ran to Kiev where began sopravitelem the biy Kiev beilika the Salahbi. In turn the Arbat with ugrami has taken part in Khazarian campaigns on Badjanakskuju a horde in 891 - 893. In 894. The Arbat with a part of penalties - Bulgars and ugrov has gone war to Bulgaria at the request of the ally - the Byzantian emperor. At the same time guzy and Kazakhstan ugry - Bashkorts - at the request of Khazarian kagana - have attacked on Badjanakskuju a horde and have crushed her{it}. One part broken Badjinaks was covered in Bulgar, and another ran on the West through Khazarian possession and has borrowed{occupied} attracted with him{it} in 875 the Ugrian lands in Priazovye. The Arbat, having learned{having found out} about it, has tried to return back, but has been beaten off by Badjanaks and has left with the Kara-Bulgarian and magyar soldiers in Failure. Here it{him} have joined local avarian ugry, and it{he} could create the own Hungarian state (Hungary). Descendants of the Arbat (magyars called it{him} 'Arpadom') were vengerekimi kings till 1301. Bulgarian approached the Arbat was held with key posts in his{its} Hungarian state, and some from them thus kept the Islamic belief (even till 14 century) and supported active communication{connection} with Bulgaria up to the end of 10 century. The history of these communications{connections} has not been forgotten. In 12 century Bulgarian ambassadors visit{attend} Hungary (together with the Spanish traveller al-Garnati), and in 13 century already Hungarian ambassadors arrive to Bulgaria, thus a state language of Hungary becomes Ugrian language - language of the majority of the population of this state.
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Accession and policy{politics} of the Almysh of the Djafar

The part of penalties - Bulgars was frightened, that Badjanaks will pogrom also their possession, and began to ask to withdraw the Almysh them in the Itil-Yaik part of Bulgaria - far away from danger (in fact the Almysh was Bulgarian prince and moving under his{its} guidance would not find for autocratic and punishable resettlement). It was a pity to Almysh (Kievljane called it{him} 'Olmoj') to throw quiet Kiev in which center his{its} biggest settled down in city a palace (this palace - ' Olmin the Court yard ' and in 12 in, was the main sight of Kiev), but nevertheless it{he} has dared to head immigrants with the purpose to have an opportunity for employment{occupation} of a treasured imperial throne. It{he} has arrived to the Bulgarian city of Sulcha on the river Sulche during that moment when guzy have broken through Bulgarian border and Mardanian garrison of city has left{abandoned} it{him}: Guzy, not paying any attention on Sulchu, went on Bolgar. From capital of them have beaten off, but at Sulchi guzsky khan has concluded the union with the Almysh. Scared by invasion guzov Bulgarian to know in 895. Has overthrown hostile guzskim to conquerors Bat-Ugyr and has lifted on a Bulgarian throne of the Almysh (895 - 925), promising to protect Bulgaria from attacks guzov.
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In the beginning the Almysh continued a policy{politics} of the previous Bulgarian tsars - attacked not the main enemy Bulgar - the Khazarian horde, and on its{her} allies, trying to force them to break off communications{connections} with Khazars, it Was done{made} to not give Khazarian kaganam an occasion for closing important for Bulgar trading ways to Asia through their territory. In 907. The Salahbi under the order of the Almysh has made successful attack on capitals of Byzantium and has forced her{it} to refuse support of the Khazarian horde. But then Khazarian kagan has hastened to recognize the horde specific beilikom the Central Asian Islamic state Samanidskogo. Samanidskie Emirs ordered subject to them Central Asian oguzam - to Turkmens to break Bulgars. In reply to an attack samanidskih the Turkmen the Almysh in 910 has ordered Bulgarian vAryagam to make an attack on prikaspijskie possession Samanidov. Khazars, wishing it is even more to adjust Samanidov against Bulgar, have purposely passed{missed} Bulgarian fleet to Caspian sea, and it{he} has pogromed samanidskie prikaspijskie areas. Then in 911 a huge army of Khazars and the Turkmen have in common attacked on Bulgars. The Almysh has beaten off this invasion - but with huge work. It became clear, that that of Bulgars which has got to the Almysh by right of succession, it is rather fragile and can collapse at one more serious collision.

And then the Almysh the Djafar has decided to transform the Bulgarian state into a superstate for what, in his{its} opinion, " it was required to strengthen{become stronger} unity of the country (by means of association of all tribes Bulgar uniform ideology and destructions specific beiliks which could leave easily from structure of Bulgaria and disorganize the state) and to grasp extremely profitable control over the main trading ways from Europe to Asia, taking place through the Khazarian horde (by means of liquidation of this horde and connection of its{her} possession to Bulgar).

Tsar has defined{determined} that only the islam can become uniform ideologoej the majority of tribes of Bulgaria (ispovedyvavshego various pagan beliefs) and simultaneously will help to destroy institute pagan specific beiliks and becomes a banner of victorious sacred war against not Muslim Khazarian horde. The Almysh and earlier in every possible way promoted distribution of an islam. So it{he} has helped Mikailju to develop{unwrap} Bashtu in Bulgaria a powerful network of Islamic schools.

But to ratify an islam in Bulgaria, it was necessary to declare his{its} state religion, and it was possible only from approval religious chapters of moslems of all world - caliph Arabian Baghdad halifata (that is the states with the chapter - caliph). Similar approval was usually expressed in letters of caliph which were delivered by proxy ('Great') embassies.

Arrival of Great embassy

On a way of realization of plans of the Almysh there was a Central Asian Islamic state Samanidskoe. Using that fact, that the Bulgarian fleet has crushed in 910 prikaspijskie areas of the Islamic state Samanidskogo, samanidskaja propagation has presented Bulgars the state hostile to an islam, and the parcel{sending} in Bolgar some times for this reason was broken by caliph of letters and Great embassy.
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But in 921 the oustanding Bulgarian diplomat, the son Michael Bashtu of the Abdallah ibn Bashtu, could achieve, at last, from the Baghdad caliph of approval of the plan of route of the Khazarian horde in exchange for the firm promise of the Almysh to declare an islam the state religion of Bulgaria. Namalovajnuju a role in this business that the Abdallah has shown importance of a parcel{sending} of Great embassy for increase of authority of the Bagdad has played and could present the Khazarian horde hostile to an islam ' iudejskim beilikom ' (though actually overwhelming majority Khazarian kaganov were tengriantsami and after destruction Obadii with all his{its} family iudaizm never to the Khazarian horde some an appreciable role any more did not play). Has inspired caliph and the message Abdallah that the Almysh has planned for 922 a deciding{solving} campaign to Itil and that Bulgarian armies will act at once after receptions of the letter of caliph with approval of this jihad (sacred war). Caliph was weighed upon some dependence from Samanidov and would like was to moderate - with the help Bulgar - power of these governors.

In the same 921 from Bagdad in the Arian - Rasi for the help in business of introduction of Islamic legislative norms long-awaited caliphal embassy Susana has Bolgar gone to all state structures Bulgar and for transfer to the Almysh pshsma caliph with approval of jihad against the Khazarian horde. In a huge ambassadorial caravan it was totaled by 3 thousand person and 3 thousand horses (not including camels). The secretary of this embassy which Bulgarian sources by the right name Great, large Baghdad aristocrat Ahmed ibn Fadlam was. The Abdallah ibn Bashtu conducted embassy through possession Samanidov (repeatedly trying to prevent travel of embassy, but eventually decided{solved} to finish with ambassadors hands oguzov). Promises and bribes have Abdallah allowed it{him} to get support of the most influential oguzskih biys and safely to lead{carry out} an ambassadorial caravan to bulgarekoj to border.

The part bulgareknh the biys - pagans heading specific beiliki, has heard about negotiations in Bagdad and has decided to not admit{allow} the statement of an islam as the state religion for the sake of rescue of the authority and beiliks. For this purpose biys have made plot with the purpose of overthrow of the Almysh and have suggested the average son of Almysh Mikailju-Jalkau to borrow{occupy} a fatherly throne. JAlkau has agreed to participate in revolution. Then conspirators have gathered in Bulyar, as if for celebrating a drinking bout, and have lifted here revolt against the Almysh. Idle time ljud has supported the biys as the Almysh has strengthened feudal operation of people: has increased taxes (under the pretext of necessity to pay the raised{increased} tribute oguzam and to Khazars. Though this tribute did not exceed a former tribute to Khazars and Badjanaks), has entered the laws humiliating pagans (in particular, the law on which pagans should remove caps before moslems though at Bulgars public removal of a cap by the man was considered as an improbable shame), etc.
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Rebellious biys hoped, that JAlkau will immediately arrive to them and they can develop{unwrap} under his{its} banner approach on Bolgar. But JAlkau was frightened and has not arrived in Bulyar. Failure of the initial plan has caused confusion in the ranks of insurgents. Not knowing what to do{make} further without JAlkau, they have become stronger in Bulyar and have limited the actions by only separate sorties. During this moment - on May, 12 922 - Great embassy, miracle avoided a meeting with travels of insurgents, has driven in Bolgar 16 May of 922 solemn ceremony of declaration of an islam gosudarsvennoj religion Bulgar has taken place, that provided purpose{assignment} for the state posts only moslems. It was an oustanding victory of the Bulgarian diplomacy headed Abdallahom ibn Bashtu.

Then the revolt of the biys which have received in people name Sabanskoj of war or War of biys has been suppressed also. There was it so. In the beginning the Almysh has suggested one of leaders of insurgents Kermeku Askalu to marry on the imperial daughter and thus to become related with it{him}. Kermek, flattered with it, has left{abandoned} Bulyar and together with a part of the insurgents has come over to of the side{party} of tsar. Ahmed ibn the Fadlan, soon after the arrival in Bolgar pereshedshy on Bulgarian service, has suggested the Almysh to punish rebels severely. The son of the Almysh the Gazan (Kazan) Hasan has supported Ibn the Fadlan. The imperial army has surrounded Bulyar. Just about it could be shed blood. During this moment humane and far-sighted policies{politics} of the Abdallah ibn Bashtu, using force of the authority, has convinced tsar to grant to insurgents amnesty, and the leader of rebels of the Byrak - to surrender. Having received assurance of tsar, the Byrak and his{its} insurgents have stopped resistance.

Reforms of the Almysh

Bloodless end of the conflict promoted the further growth of influence of an islam and his{its} transformation into a basis of ideology of Bulgarian people. In gratitude for support the Almysh has appointed Ahmed ibn the Fadlan the seid (the seid - religious the chapter of moslems of city, area, the country) Bulgar.

However rigid and resolute, but thus and very prudent Almysh has spared insurgents not so much from humane promptings, how many behind military necessity: to wage war with Khazars without home guards of the rebellious biys making a basis of a Bulgarian army, it was impossible. With jihad against Khazars the Almysh to hesitate did not gather. In May in has Bolgar arrived from Yana of Galidj (Novgorod) - for participation in war against Khazars - fleet of the Salahbi.

In the winter of 922. The Salahbi have been expelled by the son Lachyn Ugyrom from Kiev. The Almysh has given the Salahbi a post of the Bulgarian deputy Yana of Galidj, and Ugyr (Russian chroniclers called him Igor Rurikovich) proclaimed Kiev beilik a Rus princedom independent of Bulgaria (as the dynasty the Urus - Ajdara to which the Ugyr belonged also, was called 'Urus' - 'Rus' in Slavic and consequently the majority of the Kiev Bulgars called themselves since the Hunnic times 'Uruses - Bulgars') with the center in Kiev. So in the western part of the Bulgarian lands there was the third (after Bulgarian and Hungarian) the state conditionally named in a science Old russian or the Kiev Russia.

In Bolgar, some days prior to a campaign to Itil, the Salahbi dies under mysterious circumstances. The death of it{him} favourable for Ugyr and hazaro-samanidskogo of camp, has upset a preparing campaign. The fleet of the Salahbi has sailed back in Yana Galidj (as there has come a message about movement Ugyr to Novgorod), and without him{it} to attack Khazars only forces konnitsy was risky. The Ugyr has really moved to Yana to Galidj and has seized this city. In these conditions the Almysh has decided to postpone war with Khazars.

At the Almysh in Bulgar began active construction of fortresses and cities. Their number has reached{achieved} to 13 century about{near} 200. The basic construction material thus were a tree, a white stone (limestone) and a brick (Russian word 'brick' occurs from Bulgarian 'kurpeshch' as Bulgars the first began to use it{him}).

Also at the Almysh stamping of a Bulgarian metal coin began. She{it} has replaced the leather money, being in the reference{manipulation} since epoch Idelskogo of an empire. Silver coins named Bulgars 'danga'. From that term came a Russian word 'money' ('money') as Bulgarian coins went as money to territories of the Kiev Russia, and also in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany. To Poland, Baltic, Finland, Moldova, Central Asia and in other countries.

But the most important achievement in reign of the Almysh - after announcements of an islam the state religion Bulgar - was liquidation of the most dangerous to unity of the state specific beiliks Bershud (Bersula) and Esegel (Askal) due to what the Bulgarian state was protected from disintegration. This liquidation has taken place soon after suppression of War of biys as biys of these beiliks have been involved in revolt. Certainly, inside Bulgaria have remained some more specific beiliks, but the autonomy of them has been cut down also they did not threaten unity of the country.
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The state from now on began to share on or (provinces, provinces) in which chapter became Ulugbeks (governors) appointed tsar. Only in several iljah, the Tarkhanlyks which have received name, Ulugbeks were selected local znatju (Tarkhans), but also they affirmed the governor.

Islamizatsija many pagan tribes (the madjar-Mishar, baryndjar-berendeev, bersultsev, esegeltsev, Badjinaks, terterov-teptjar, etc.) has led to to their merge in a Bulgarian nationality{national character} which basis of ideology became an islam. The islam has so deeply come in a life and consciousness of Bulgarian people, that in Bulgar word 'moslem' became a synonym etnonima 'Bulgars'.

The Almysh has made much for razvjtjja Bulgarian merchant class and did not hesitate personally to penetrate into trading problems. At it{him} to Bulgarian merchants in Bulgaria concessionary terms dli trade have been created much more, than overseas due to what Bulgarian dealers have kept domination in the market of own country and have actively penetrated on the markets of other countries.

But at all thus time of the Almysh is time of amplification{strengthening} of feudal operation of people. Surtaxes have lain on shoulders state Igenchian - Chirmyshes and a duty. Them the big taxes forced to pay twice - three times and sent for heavy works on construction of cities, fortresses, protective boundary strengthenings, roads, bridges, etc. Rich handicraftsmen and dealers oppressed less rich colleagues. And all nemusulmane should pay except for usual taxes also a surtax - haradj, raised with nemusulman. Thus in the Bulgarian state toleration always dominated and the person could profess any belief freely. In Bulgar, alongside with the Muslim majority, lived tens thousand the citizens professing various Christian, iudejskie, buddistskie and pagan beliefs.

Was to Bulgarias and slavery, however after years of working off the slave (slaves bought in other countries, or grasped during wars) became the free citizen of Bulgaria. And if it{he} accepted an islam - that was released{exempted} immediately as under Islamic laws to moslems it was forbidden to hold in slavery of moslems.

Amplification{Strengthening} of feudal operation in reign ' weak tsars '

During the period between reigns of the Almysh and the Talib tsars whom Kul Gali named ' weak tsars ' corrected{ruled}. Right after the Almysh of rules his{its} son the Gazan (925 - 930) which always was the friend and admirer Samanidov. It{he} has there and then concluded the union with Emirate Samanidskim, having given the Central Asian merchants the big privileges in Bulgar, and has buried fatherly plans about destruction of the Khazarian horde. Inside the country the Gazan has even more strengthened a tax burden Igenchian and besides has transferred a part igencheevskih the lands in hereditary possession to the combatants (Djurs). So in the aristocratic caste of large feudal lords - votchinnikov (that is owners of the lands transmitted by right of succession) which began to be called kazanchis (that is people of the Gazan - Kazana, it is obvious) has Bulgar appeared. Igenchej could leave from kazanchija, but in that case lost the land which got to the feudal lord.

Seid Ahmed ibn the Fadlan becoming at the Gazan also the Visir, entirely supported the favourite - Hasana. At this time sons of Mardan, the deprived authorities in fatherly beilike, tear off from Mardanian ilja Bulgar the lands across the Top and Average Oka and found{establish} here at support of Khazars own bulgaro-anchijsky beilik Batysh 'Western' (in Russia the Bulgarian name of it beilika said in form 'Vjatichi').

People has answered a robbery of mode Hasana with the big revolt in the winter 930 - 931. This winter was especially severe and hungry, but tsar has not given igenchejam any indulgence and has personally gone to collect taxes from the population of the Mountain side{party} of Bulgaria (Predvoljje or Mountain Bulgaria), the Angry Chirmyshes at whom tsar has selected last foodstuffs and a forage, have attacked the Gazan and have killed it{him} in the city of Atrjach. The head of the governor has been thrust on a spear in center Atrjacha.

New tsar Bulgar - JAlkau the Michael (931 - 944) has managed various promises to tear off from insurgents of Chirmyshes - moslems and has severely crushed the weakened army of insurgents. Atrjach has been renamed in SHongyt. But soon after that Ahmed ibn the Fadlan - the personal enemy Michael - has been seized and thrown in zindan (underland prison) where has died. In national legends Ibn the Fadlan has preserved in an image of mullah Bakira, at enmity with winged zmeem the Baradj - a symbol of well-being of the country and people.
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The Visir became the teacher and instructor Jalkau - the Abdallah ibn Bashtu written in honour of a victory of tsar above insurgents - pagans of dastany (a heroic poem) ' Kisekbash a Kitaby ' (931). Under the insisting Abdallah JAlkau has allocated Chirmyshes - moslems into an exclusive category state Igenchian which has received the name 'subash'. Subashis paid to the state rather tolerable and strictly certain taxes and consequently have been interested in development of the grain and cattle-breeding facilities{economy} (Bulgars - cattlemen named hishdekami). The part of taxes has been removed{has been taken off} with Subashes and assigned to Chirmyshes - pagans. However tsar has not dared to select an ancestral lands at aristocrats as kazanchis made the main shock force of a Bulgarian army - konnitsu tjajelovoorujennyh knights - ulans.

In foreign policy JAlkau was engaged mainly in conflicts with Ugyrom Lachyni because of Kara-Bulgarian beilika and some other territories. In general, these lands Jalkau - by means of the younger son of the Almysh, the Kara-Bulgarian biy It is small - it was possible to defend.

In, 943. JAlkau has fallen from a horse during ritual gallop and it was broke to death. Tsar of Bulgaria became his{its} son Mohammed (Ahmed) - the protege kazanchis which has surrounded itself with aristocrats and devoted combatants and has filled in the life one favourite entertainments (hunting, feasts, pleasure trips, etc.). Being weighed upon affairs of the government, it{he} has transferred them in hands of the Visir - son Ahmed ibn the Fadlan of the seid of the Nasyr and has established in the country dictatorship kazanchis. The Nasyr tried to satisfy maximum whims of tsar and his{its} friends. But the maintenance{contents} of a magnificent imperial court, his{its} huge harem and imperial retinue, on entertainments and whims of tsar were spent enormous means. Approached Mohammed presented all an ancestral lands, hundreds wives and nalojnits - palaces and manors. The state treasury has been quickly devastated and plundered, the New taxes assigned on Igenchian for the maintenance{contents} of an imperial court and is unreasonable razdutogo chinovnogo the device of the Nasyr, ruined people.

To foreign policy it was not given due attention, than Kievsko-Russian princedom has taken advantage. In 945 the Kiev prince of the Ugyr has attacked on Kara-Bulgarian beilik, submitting Bulgar. To tell the truth, at osade the center beilika - cities of Khorysdan ('Korostel', 'Putivl') the Ugyr have been broken and killed, but in some years his{its} wife - datchanka Olga could by means of byzantines and Khazars (and also parts of penalties - Bulgars - kovuev) to subordinate Kara-Bulgarian beilik the Kiev Russia. It is small was taken prisoner, but has passed on the Kiev service. Olga has given it{him} and parts of the penalties - Bulgars which have followed behind it{him} which have received the name 'berendeev', the lands in Right-bank Ukraine where It is small were based with the new city of Khorysdan - 'Korosten' (and former Khorysdan began to be called Iské Khorysdan or Batavyl - 'Putivl'). The rest in territory abolished beilika penalties - Bulgars from competing with berendejami groupings kaubujtsev (kovuev) have kept the lands and an autonomy. Later, after disintegration of the Kiev Russia, they began to submit Chernigov knjazjam, and berendei - Kiev. When in 13 in, in Ukraine began to be formed kazacheskie parts the weight kovuev and berendeev was included in them - in structure of Ukrainian people.

Samanidy, having learned{having found out} about weakness of reign, have demanded to give to the Central Asian merchants the big rights, than Bulgarian merchants had. It threatened Bulgar with full ruin. Even the Nasyr - admirer Samanidrv - has refused to go on it. Then Samanidy ordered to oguzam-Turkmens subject to them and Khazars in common to break Bulgars and to subordinate it{him} samanidskim to Emirs.

The Ulugbek Bulgarian tarhannoj provinces Mardan (Mardan - Bellak) has beaten off Khazarian attacks and has asked to lower Bolgar an imperial tribute from it{him} ilja for a direction of the means liberated from this decrease{reduction} on struggle against Turkmens. However the Nasyr has given up, and then Mardanians have ceased to protect the roads gone from oguzskih of steppes in the center of Bulgaria and began to protect from the Turkmen only own province. In result tjurkmenskie attacks have overflowed half of territory of the Central Bulgaria and have received the name ' Tjurkmenskogo a flood '. The national home guards made from ruined requisitions and badly armed Igenchian, battled to a reluctance and suffered{bore} defeats, and kazanchis in general were removed from participation in business of protection of the country.

Only when one group the Turkmen hardly has not captured the tsar, Mohammed has comprehended the sizes of accident approaching to the country and ordered reigning Hasana to head to the son to Talib Muminu defense of territories Bajtjubinskoj (area of city Bulyar) and Tamtajskoj (Bashkiria) of provinces.
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Bulgarnja in reign of the Talib

The choice appeared successful - the Talib has proved the oustanding politician, the commander and the manager. Having achieved from the scared tsar of emergency powers, the Talib has put into practice a number{line} of the important reforms.

First of all it{he} has achieved from governor Kashanskogo ilja (Predkamje), protected from attacks the Turkmen bajtjubintsami, payments Bulyar a tribute for bezrlaenost. On this money the Talib has created powerful 6-thousand regular army 'kusyrbai' from volunteers - moslems, whose native have been killed by Turkmens, and also army of builders from completely ruined accidently Igenchian. In 50th these builders under the decree of the Talib create on the most dangerous sites of border a circuit of strengthenings from shaft, rvov, has marked also fortresses, having left the opponent some 'corridors'. But at the end of these 'corridors' for the enemy ambushes have been arranged, But the most important - the Talib has entered into a life the law necessary for the state on Subashis (it{him} began to be called later and the law of the Talib) on which all accepting an islam igenchei were translated in the category Subashes. The overwhelming majority Igenchian provinces Bajtjubinskoj has accepted then an islam and became Subashis. Protected by army of the Talib Subashis have quickly transformed the lands into prospering territory, became prosperous and could pay off without damage to the facilities{economy} with the state.

Except for amplification{strengthening} of the category Muslim Subashes the Talib has created the new category exclusive Igenchian - a category of the state militarians Igenchian - 'Al-Chirmyshes'. These Al-Chirmyshes should bear{carry} protection of internal territory, border or to participate in wars, and in peace years paid the same tax as Subashis, As against Subashes, in Al-Chirmyshes wrote down not only moslems, but also Igenchian - nemusulman from tribes with centuries-old fighting traditions, Subashis and Al-Chirmyshes - moslems have been ranked as knightly estate.

The others igenchei have got in not knightly categories Igenchian - the average category of penalties - Chirmyshes (state igenchei-nemusulmane, paying rather high taxes to the state and slujilym to feudal lords and carrying out heaviest duties on construction of roads, bridges, strengthenings, etc.) and the lowest category kurmyshej (igenchei, paying big taxes to feudal lords - votchinnikam). Slaves would fulfil the years in facilities{economy} of those who bought them: the states, an imperial court, feudal lords (including merchants, handicraftsmen and Igenchian - moslems) and even Al-Chirmyshes - nemusulman and family - related associations (communities - tjuba) penalties - Chirmyshes.

Taxes with amplified Igenchian have allowed the Talib to arm even better army and to strengthen border. Already at the end of 50th the main forces samanidskih the Turkmen have been completely crushed by the kusyrbai. Tjurkmenskaja war has ended with a full victory Bulgar.

Popularity of the Talib in people after that became so high, that Mohammed has been compelled to appoint his{its} Visir. The talib has immediately limited kazanchievskoe landed property to some areas Predvoljja, and the most part central - Bulgarian (zakamskih) the lands has transferred Subashis and Al-Chirmyshes. From now on igenchei-moslems (Subashis and Al-Chirmyshes) become the main support of the Bulgarian state.

But the Talib has not stopped on it is to it{him} it would be desirable to finish the plan of the Almysh on liquidation of the Khazarian horde and a gain of all main trading ways from Europe to Asia as only it could make Bulgars the owner of fabulously profitable evropejsko-Asian trade - so, and world power.

In 964. The talib agrees with the Kiev prince - the son Ugyr the Barys (slavjanojazychnye Anchians called it{him} Svjatoslavom) about a joint attack on the Khazarian horde and its{her} ally - Byzantium. Before Svjatoslav has grasped Bulgarian province Djir (with districts Djirs - 'Rostov', Kortdjak - 'Moscow suburbs' and Balyn - 'Suzdal'), but the Visir has closed on it eyes for the sake of the main thing - involving of Russia in Khazarian war on the side{party} Bulgar.

In the summer of 965 Russian army has attacked the Bulgarian cities of Azaka (seized earlier at Bulgar and divided{shared} between the Khazarian horde and Byzantium) and has subordinated this area. Agents Khazarian kagana that possorit allies, have set a rumour afloat about the slaughter of the Bulgarian population ostensibly made in the cities of Azaka Russian (though slaughter actually was not). But from this hearing in loss appeared, Khazars. The inhabitants of Bulgarian cities of the Khazarian horde scared by terrible hearing have sent in Bolgar representatives and of the sanction to move to Bulgaria have asked. The talib has sent in northern part of the Khazarian horde the kusyrbai, which has deduced{removed} the most part of the population of Bulgarian cities (mainly merchants and handicraftsmen with their property) in the central part of Bulgaria (' Internal Bulgars ' or 'Mardukan'). Khazarian garrisons of these cities under threat of a Bulgarian attack have not dared to prevent resettlement. When army Svjatoslava has broken to cities of northern part of the Khazarian horde and with huge work has taken them. That has not found in them any extraction. Angry Svjatoslav without any finding-out of circumstances of an affair has sent half of army to Bulgaria, wishing to revenge to it{her}, but Mardanians have destroyed his{its} this group. Then Svjatoslav has decided to compensate the losses by plunder of a southern part of the Khazarian horde. The center of this part - the city of Samandar and its{her} other Bulgarian cities have been ruthlessly crushed by Russian army. A lot of Bulgarian and hazaro-iudejskih merchants and handicraftsmen ran from this area in the cities of Samanidskogo of the state. They have soon adjusted communication{connection} with Bulgarom and became a support of Bulgarian trade and influence in Asia.

In 968. Svjatoslav, having left in the cities of the Khazarian horde won by him{it} Russian garrisons, has gone on war with Bulgaria. The talib, having taken advantage of it, has entered into business obeyed Bulgar former samanidskih the Turkmen, and those at support of the kusyrbai following them, have seized territory of the Khazarian horde.
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In 969. The talib, having taken advantage of difficulties Svjatoslava in the Bulgarian war (which has very soon resulted and to war with Byzantium), has beaten off at Russia Djir and has declared connection of territory of the crushed Khazarian horde to the Bulgarian state under name Saksinskogo ilja. But the Talib did not want to break off with Russia as has put forward the new grandiose plan of connection to Bulgar all Bulgarian lands - from Average up to Asia Minor. And as Asia Minor has been seized by Byzantium, that, in opinion of the Talib, Bulgar it was necessary to help Svjatoslavu with war against byzantines with the purpose of clearing Asia Minor. Ambassadors of the Visir have gone to Kiev where Bulgaria for a meeting with them has left and Svjatoslav. Olga even before arrival of the son has tried to break negotiations, but about - bulgarski the adjusted Kiev tops have poisoned her{it}.

Result of a meeting was that Svjatoslav has reconciled to connection of territory of the Khazarian horde to Bulgar and in the same year has concluded the new peace treaty with Bolgarom. Under this contract Russia recognized the dependence from Bulgar, returned to it{him} beaten off at byzantines Azak, undertook to protect Bulgarian possession in Black Sea Coast and sent sons of the princes and Bolgar as hostages, and the Bulgarian fleet should together with Svjatoslavom be at war against Byzantium and in case of success (on the Balkans) to develop{unwrap} approach and to Asia Minor.

The Bulgarian ships (commands{teams} of them have been made mainly from vAryagov) have really helped Svjatoslavu, and after defeats of prince and his{its} leaving{care} from the Balkans were directed in Bulgars through Azak. But Azak again appeared temporarily seized by Byzantium, and the Bulgarian ships have preferred to make the way in Bulgars in navigation around of the Old World. In the beginning the Bulgarian fleet has broken by capital of Byzantium Ystambula in Rumskoe (Mediterranean); the sea also has moored to coast of the Arabian Africa (Misr, Maghrib). Here it{he} has received the invitation of moslems to take part in war gaziev against crusaders in Spain, for what arabs promised Bulgars huge compensation over extraction. Bulgarian seamen have broken crusaders and then on northern seas, through England, Scandinavia and severobulgarskuju province have Biysu returned in Bolgar.

Failure with submission of Asia Minor by means of Russia not obesku rajila the Talib. It{he} charges to the notable Bulgarian feudal lord oguzskogo origins Seldjuku, former bring down (voevodoj) bajtjubinskogo the cities of Suldji and okrugi Suldjak (from here - his{its} name Seldjuk), with group from Bulgarian uzov and the Turkmen to seize oguzskimi the lands Samanidskogo of the state and then to develop{unwrap} approach through Iran to Asia Minor from the east. The kusyrbai was ready at output{exit} Seldjuka to Asia Minor to help it{him} impact from the north through Caucasus. Group Seldjuka has grasped a part oguzskih possession Samanidov. However, as it and earlier happened with other Bulgarian commanders, Seldjuk was satisfied with it and has formed own Seldjuksky beilik on border with Central Asia.

The talib, however, in any way has not expressed indignation of it, and noble Seldjuk has declared itself the vassal of the Talib. Later descendants Seldjuka all the same attacked Central Asia and Iran and under command of the most glorified from Seldjukidov - the Alp-Arslan - have broken to the desired purpose - Bulgarian Asia Minor...

When the territory of the Khazarian horde again was part Bulgar and Bulgars, thus, became owners of all main trading ways from Europe to Asia the Talib has carried out one more important reform - reform of trading system. Under his{its} decree prodrivings on trading affairs from one country in another through territory Bulgar and trade of foreign merchants with each other in Bulgarian possession have been forbidden. Now foreigners have been compelled to sell the goods not each other, and to Bulgarian merchants. Using it, Bulgars sold the Asian goods to Europeans, and the European - pairs - to asians under strongly overestimated prices and received from it the big profit. The part of this superprofit was received as taxes with the state. Enormous incomes of trade promoted amplification{strengthening} of Bulgarian merchant class (which began to leave more actively for native boundaries and has won many the trading markets in territory from Danube up to Huang He) and blossoming of Bulgaria. In fact active trade - main .d The engine of economic progress - stimulated development and Bulgarian craft and an agriculture which have achieved in 10 - 13 centuries of oustanding successes.

In 976, after Mohammed's death, on a throne have been lifted the Talib (976 - 981) - and without that pravivshy Bulgarom since 960 At the Talib folding original Bulgarian feudal system which supposed acceptance in knights, alongside with soldiers, both merchants, and handicraftsmen, and Igenchian - moslems has come to the end and was, therefore, the most democratic feudal system of the world. Reforms and successes of a policy{politics} of the Talib have transformed Bulgars into the largest, advanced and powerful power of the world which foreigners validly named not differently as Great Bulgaria. And Maloazijsky the pulse given by the Talib, has stirred up almost all Türkic world and has allowed to begin general Türkic jihad for clearing of the lands jujnoaziatskih Bulgars.
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' Time of reigns of three brothers '

After the Talib senior son Mohammed Timar Badja-nak (981 - 1004) reigned. But younger brothers of the Timar - the Ibragim and Masrut were dissatisfied with his{its} accession and have begun against him{it} struggle. In 985. The Ibragim has concluded the union with the Kiev prince Vladimir and together with it{him} has attacked the Timar. During time vezirstva and reigns of the Talib children Svjatoslava - the future Russian knjazja JAropolk and Vladimir were in Bolgar as hostages. Once son Mohammed Timar hardly did not execute Vladimir, having accused it{him} in larceny, but other son reigning the Ibragim has protected the hostage '. From that time Vladimir unfriendly concerned to the Timar, and with heat - to the Ibragim.

Vladimir moving with Russian fleet to Bolgar from the West, has seized Djir and balik Djunne Kapa (nowadays - Nijni Novgorod), and the Ibragim gone from the south - Buljarom. The Timar has managed to achieve the world with the Ibragim by a concession to it{him} Bulyar. Vladimir, in ignorance landed at Bolgar, has been surrounded with kazanchis of the Timar and has preferred to conclude without fight with tsar the third (after contracts of 964 and 969) the bulgaro-Russian contract about the world and friendship. Under this contract Russia has returned Bulgar the city of Djunne (Ibragim) Kala and area Djir, and for seized by her{it} Kara-Bulgarian beilik began to pay Bolgar an annual tribute. Besides for fastening the contract, Vladimir married the daughter of Timar Boz-bi and is oath promised to ratify in Russia an islam.

However in 989. Vladimir concludes the union with Byzantium, declares the state religion of Russia christianity of the Byzantian sense and refuses to observe the contract of 985. Default the of promises by him{it} has caused war between Russia and Bulgaria, in which shock force of a Bulgarian army on southern front there was a kusyrbai and hired Badjanaks (pechenegi). Vladimir has lost for some fights. But after that the Timar has quarrelled with the commander (Sardar) of the kusyrbai and has dismissed this main Bulgarian army. Thereof in the south Bulgarian armies could not seize Kiev, and on northern front Russian army managed to break Bulgarian groups from Finno-Ugric civil guardsmen and to seize Djir.

Under the new peace treaty Vladimir has agreed to pay Bulgarias an annual tribute for the Djir seized by him{it} (' a Djirian tribute ' in which the former Kara-Bulgarian tribute has come also), but also the Timar has refused the plan islamizirovat Russia. In one year of the most often diplomatic negotiations between Russia and Bulgaria - in 1003 - the post station (menzel) Bnsh-Balta has been based. From this station the history of Kazan began.

In 1004. The Timar was will overthrow the Masgut and was lost. Kazanchis the Timar put interests above interests of other knights, as has led to to the sad end. But also new tsar the Masgut (1004 - 1006) did not use enough broad support of the population why in 1006 itself was will overthrow the Ibragim and Mardan ('Murom') seized before it Batyshskim beilikom ran in the Bulgarian city of Caen.

Becoming{Beginning} tsar, the Ibragim (1006 - 1025) has even more strengthened old friendship with Vladimir. It{he} in the same 1006 has immediately concluded the contract on which Bulgarian merchants have lost the right with Vladimir to conduct preferential trade in rural areas of Russia and have kept is only right on preferential trade in Russian cities. Except for it Bulgaria at the Ibragim rendered Russia prince Vladimir and his{its} son Jaroslav the enormous help bread during development Russian wood areas of Djir and in lean years (1024, etc.). Vladimir has not remained in a duty and has transferred Bulgarias Azak. In 101.0 it{he}, at the request of the Ibragim, has grasped at batyshtsev Murom taken by them and has returned it{him} Bulgar, and captivated in city ' Maeguta has stopped in the Kiev dungeon. Descendants of the Masgut named Masgutovichami.

In 1014. The Ibragim again declines Vladimir to acceptance of an islam by the promise to recognize it{him} for it tsar and to refuse a Djirian tribute. But son Vladimir Mstislav, having learned about it, has killed the father and ran to Byzantium. Byzantium has again grasped at Bulgar Azak and has transferred it{him} Mstislavu, and Gotha at its{her} support began to wage war with Bulgarom with the purpose of restoration under protectorate of byzantines of the Khazarian horde (mother Mstislava was from a sort of one Khazarian prince who moved to Kiev and has accepted there iudaizm).

. New Kiev prince Jaroslav was in this war with Mstislavom the ally Bulgar, for what also has received favour from the Ibragim. When in 1024 the master of the Ibragim the Atrak ibn Musa has made three Bulgarian imperial caps tsar has left one of them to itself, the second has presented the well-known Central Asian sultan (emperor) - to the ally Bulgar Mahmudu Gaznevi, and a third - to Jaroslav. In Russia this Bulgarian imperial cap has received the name ' caps of the Monomove ' as grandson Jaroslav Vladimir Monomah the first has dressed her{it} at the introduction on a princely throne as Russian crown.

Inside the country the Ibragim has restored and kept order, established by the Talib that provided to it{him} quiet reign. It{he} has given city of Djunne Kala the second name - the Ibragim - Bal and to, but built also new cities. So, still in 985 g, it{he} has constructed for itself(himself) the stone lock the Alamir-sultan (nowadays - the city of Elabuga) in which was pogreben after the death. After that also the Alamir-sultan began to be called Sometimes - Ibragim-Kermanom.
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The beginning of struggle Masgugovichej with Ashrafndami

After the Ibragim on a throne in 1025 the son of Timar Ash ~ raf (SHaraf) Baluk (1025, 1028 - 1061) has been lifted, but in the same year the son May - guta the Azgar has seized capital and has forced Baluka to leave from Volga - ra in Bulyar. But in 1028. Baluk has displaced the Azgar (1025 - 1028, 1061) and again became tsar. Descendants Baluka named Ashrafidami (SHarafidami).

Baluk carried out{spent} rigid internal and foreign policy. In 1032 g, his{its} fleet under Buratom (nowadays - city the Zelenodolsk) has destroyed the novgorodsko-Swedish squadron of prince Ingvara. Baluk has defeated Mstislavu, and in 1036 this Russian prince has been killed in skirmish with Bulgarian group. Azak again became Bulgarian. But simultaneously Ashraf has conceived heavy war with Kiev (for the sake of submission of the Kiev Russia Bulgar) and with eastern kyrgyzami-oimeks (for the sake of protection against them of several tribes western kyrgy-zov-kumanov, recognized the dependence from Bulgar). And when tired of continuous military actions alpary began to grumble, tsar has disbanded the kusyrbai and has curtailed rights slujilyh feudal lords. Instead of Bulgarian feudal lords in an imperial army have been employed badja-paki and Kyrgyzes - Kumans (Russian named all Kyrgyzes half-sheeps, and Persians - starobulgarskim by the name Kazakhstan indoarij-tsev - 'Kypchaks'). Mercenaries were unstable. So in 1036. They near Kiev ran from Bulgarian Sardar Gilasa of Caen, and Gotha was taken prisoner (later it{he} has become famous on Russian service under Ilya Muromtsa's name). Besides for the maintenance{contents} of huge hired army from all Igenchian began to collect surtaxes.! All this has caused the strongest discontent of the population. In the beginning of 1050th the part saksinskih oguzov ('torkov') has refused to give a part of the lands for settlement ' hired Kumans. In answer Baduk ordered to suppress this revolt severely. Rebellious torki ran to Russia, but the retaliatory Bulgarian army from Kumans under command of the Bek of the Balus has reached{achieved} Russia and has forced Russian princes to give out leaders of revolt. Leaders of revolt have been executed, but the great bulk torkov managed to escape from Russia in Black Sea Coast. In 1060 Russian knjazja together with a Bulgarian army of the Balus tried to catch fugitives, but unsuccessfully. It was soon found out, that the part tor-kov appeared on Russian service and in 1061. Bal the moustache again attacked and has broken prince of left-bank Russian city of Pereyaslavl Vsevoloda guilty of it. But torki were again covered in right-bank Russia, and Ashraf has given an order on gathering new taxes for payment of continuation of expensive war with Kiev.
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Break of traditional and important trading communications{connections} with Ukraine and gathering of new emergency taxes has exhaust all patienced people. In 1061 against Baluka has risen Bolgar, and behind it{him} - the neighboring cities. Insurgents were supported by the Azgar, ' and has been there and then proclaimed nobody by them .1 has supported the Ashraf-Kan (' SHarukana 'poems' of the Word about shelf Igoreve '). Baluk has caused to the aid the mercenaries, but the majority of Kumans has preferred to not get involved in civil war and ran in Black Sea Coast. Having remained in loneliness. Baluk it was locked in Bulyar, but the army of the Azgar has seized Buljarom and has killed Ashrafa. Soon after that was lost on hunting and the Azgar, and on a throne the son of the Azgar Akhad Mosha (1061 - 1076) has been lifted.

Son Baluka and daughters karahanida Kadyr-khan of Jusuf Turan-biki the Adam - Jusuf ran to Saksin which governor SHaryk-khan has refused to obey the Akhad. But in 1068. The Akhad has suppressed this mutiny. " SHaryk-khan with the last saksinskimi Kumans ran in Black Sea Coast where has united under the authority of other Kumans. Then this horde khan Ayubai ('Aepa') has seized. And the Adam with group saksiiskih oguzov has left in possession Seldjukidov. Per 1071 in fight at ancient Bulgarian city of Men~Chokyr ('Mantsikert') attack of Bulgarian group of the Adam has turned into flight Byzantian arkgjju and has brought a victory to an army seldjukskogo sultan Alp-Arsla-na. After this fight the most part of Asia Minor at last has passed iod authority Bulgarian by origin dynasties Seldjukidov. Local maloaziatskoe the Bulgarian population named by turkis, was united with come with Seldjukidami Bulgarian and tjurkmenskimi oguzami in one turkish nationality{national character}. Possession Seldjukidov covered huge territory from Asia Minor up to Khoresm and in the Central Kazakhstan bordered on territory Bulgar.

In turn Seldjuki have helped the Adam marrying to the daughter of Alp-Arslan Ajsylu, With 1076. The Adam by means of strong seldjukskogo group has passed through Derbent to Bulgaria, has overthrown the Akhad and became tsar. The Akhad pursued a policy of support kazanchis and has allowed them to amplify due to lines of the lands already on a left bank of Volga, in pool Arsu (the future river Kazanka). However kazanchis have not helped it{him}.

The Akhad tried to deserve favour of the Adam good service and in 1078 has broken and has killed in fight on the river Mosha (Sukhona) the Novgorod prince Gleb who has attacked a Bulgarian province Biysu (it{she} included the lands Komis, nentsev, verhovjev Kama and Vyatka, Pechora). But all was vain. Then the Akhad ran in Bulgarian city the Kan - Mardan and has transferred his{its} allies - batyshtsam, but in 1088 the army of the Adam has taken Murom.
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The Akhad again ran and in the same year has based for itself in batyshskih possession fortress Mosha. She{it} quickly became city which Russian began to be called 'Moskov' and 'Moscow'. In 1091 batyshtsy have again borrowed{occupied} Murom, but later at them the Kan - Mardan have beaten off Russian and Bul garija has lost this important fortress. To tell the truth, Russian knjazja have agreed to pay Bulgar a tribute for possession of Murom - she{it} has come in a Djirian tribute.

Struggle of tsar of the Adam and his{its} son of the Shamgun against an impact of nomads to Bulgaria

At the Adam powerful intrusions of oimeks and Kumans into Bulgaria have begun. The Euroasian steppes from Danube up to Altai in the world named ' Desht-i Kypchak ' - Kypchakskoj (Polovetskoj) steppe. The central part of this Steppe - from Azaka up to Djaika (Ural) was under authority Bulgar, and Bulgarian tsars (since Baluka) added to the title expression ' the Kan Kypchak '. Therefore ' the Word about a shelf Igor in names Bulgaria ' the Middle of the land Polovetskoj '. But similar Position was rather vulnerable as nomads of Steppe attacked on Bulgars from two sides{parties}: from the West (Kumans - half-sheeps) and with! The east (bjmeki).

In the beginning of 1090th through Saksin in Black Sea Coast with fight; have broken kumanskie hordes Kydana and Ytlara, earlier also slujivshje Bulgar and protecting eastern borders of the country. SSHCHjJBremenno through Saksin to the Western Kazakhstan also with fight one has broken oguzskaja the horde which has come off from Seldjukidov. Having taken advantage of break of eastern border, Ojmekskaja the horde has attacked Bulgaria and has besieged{halted} Bulyar. In fierce I fight under city in 1095 a Bulgarian army led by the son of Adam Sham-Gunom ShCham (Himself)- completely has crushed the enemy. After this Russian knjazja have refused was to pay a Djirian tribute, and the Shamgun, under the order of the Adam, has lead{has carried out} strengthening the western border. In 1103 the Shamgun Has based in a mouth Arsu, near to Bish-Baltoj, a powerful fortress 'Uchel' - ' Three Fortresses (or Cities) '. This fortress consisted of three strengthenings, has soon turned to city of average size as was on the important way to Russia and in the Arian, tan (Baltic). Leaning{Basing} to Uchel ('Oshel' or 'Ochela' in Russian). The Shamgun in Three-year war 1104 - has broken the muromo-Ryazan and Suzdal princes of Russia 1107 and has forced them to renew payment of a Djirian tribute (in it{her}, except for Djirian and Murom parts, the Ryazan part has come also).

Scared by a Bulgarian impact Russian knjazja have lifted against Bulgar Novgorod and the kumanskogo the ally - a powerful Don horde of khan of the Ayubai. In 1111 Bulgars have completely crushed the Novgorod prince Mstislava, trying to grasp Uchel. But the horde of the Ayubai then began to break deep into Bulgarias through southern border which protective lines since times of the Talib came in full unsuitability. The Bulgarian government had to strengthen southern boundaries hastily.

In the beginning of 12 century on Bulgarian service from Russia the son of the Akhad the Bek Kolyn-is lodged{-lodge} as Suzdal knjazja have grasped Batysh-sky beilik in which there were his{its} possession has passed. Kolyn has played an oustanding role in struggle of Bulgaria against Steppe. According to Kolyn a horde of the Ayubai in 1117 have artfully trapped under Buljarom and have destroyed together with khan. After that one part of the escaped Don Kumans ran to Georgia, and another has obeyed Bulgar.

The internal policy of the Adam and pravivshego after him{it} the Shamgun (1118-1135) was characterized by amplification{strengthening} of feudal operation with which help the government tried to defray all growing charges on struggle against nomads and Russian knjazjami. The new taxes assigned to Igenchian - moslems, have caused their strongest indignation. But also kazanchis were dissatisfied with reign of the Adam and the Shamgun as they again have limited growth of patrimonial landed property. In completion to all tsar the Shamgun has quarrelled with slujilymi feudal lords. In 1118 it{he}, being already tsar, has sent the kusyrbai on suppression of revolt Muslim Igenchian in province Martjuba (the center of it ilja was in the beginning in fortress Deber, and then has been transferred to Uchel). But the Sardar of this army alparov has refused to participate in fratricidal war: in fact alpary the kusyrbai were also Muslim igenchejami by origin. The angry tsar then ordered to disband the kusyrbai and has employed instead of him{it} on service a horde kumanskogo khan Sarychina.

Vezirstvo Emir of Kolyn

Having taken advantage of misses of the Shamgun, Kolyn has decided to put in the chapter of Bulgaria of the son Anbala of the Khisam and to correct the country from his{its} name. The Bek has secretly employed on service to itself the dismissed kusyrbays. And in 1120 has organized plot against tsar in whom has involved also the Suzdal prince Yury Dolgorukogo. On a signal of Kolyn, at - .voljskie a fortress (including and Uchel) have passed{missed} to Yury's Bolgar fleet, and Suzdalians suddenly for the Shamgun have landed at capital.

Nobody has supported abrupt tsar, and it{he} was locked with 50 soldiers in a citadel Bolgar - ' Mummies Kerman '. Sarychin, appeared in time hardly later, attacked Yury, and both sides{parties} have mutually and strongly exsanguinated each other. When it happened, Kolyn has approached{has dropped in} on a citadel and has suggested the Shamgun to concede Anbalu Bolgar, and itself to leave in Bulyar. Tsar has preferred to accept this requirement and has transferred capital of the country in Bulyar, and Yury not only has not received promised compensation, but has been again attacked Sarychinom and hasty ver-zero to Suzdal.
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Kazanchis with pleasure have supported Anbala, becoming Emir as that has promised him{it} the new lands. However Kolyn also appropriated a title of Emir, has not allowed kazanchis to grasp the main levers of authority in western provinces subject to it{him} Bulgar. Having taken itself a rank ilchibeka ('regent'), Kolyn carried out{spent} weighed puto internal and foreign policy. In foreign policy ilchibeka the main thing was aspiration as it is possible to pull together more closely Bulgars with Seldjukskim sultanatom and as required to merge these powers in one tjurko-Bulgarian empire for achievement of domination above all world. With this purpose Kolyn supported with Seldjukami postojam-nuju allied communication{connection}, and in 1135 married Anbala to the daughter seldjukskogo sultan Sandjara Tadj-bike.

Per 1135 tsar the Shamgun under which authority actually Remained only Bajtjubinskaja and provinces Tamtajskaja of Bulgaria, has gone to reflect new powerful intrusion of oimeks. In the grandiose fight happened in territory from the river Baradj - CHishma ('SHeshma') up to Manukova of a field (on a place of Nijnekamsk), oimeks have been completely crushed bajtjubinsko-tamtajskim -* cheniem and kusyrbai Kolsha who has come to it{him} to the aid. After etbj fights oimeks of Northern Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia have finally obeyed Bolgar and their possession have made new Bulgarian province - Tubdjaksky il. But in this fight a neck of the Shamgun who has precipitately removed{who has precipitately taken off} right at the end of fight a helmet, has slightly scratched poisoned ojmekskaja strela, and tsar from it has died. On troi has been lifted Anbal (1135 - 1164), but capital has remained Bulyar. The Visir and the sovereign governor of Bulgaria became father of tsar - ilchibek Kolyn.

While was alive It is lodged, in the private world was Bulgar kept. Kazanchis. Making environment Aibala, behaved cautiously from fear before the kusyrbai Kolyma. The Visir has cancelled extreme requisitions with Muslim Igenchian, has raised{increased} the salary alpars and patronized trade that has provided Selimu support of the main layers of the population. Did not forget Kolyn and about the union with Seldjukami.

In 1137. We lodge has directed a part of the kusyrbai to the aid of other ally Bulgar - Karahanidam, undergone to an attack of the Mongolian horde a Kara-kytaev. But Bulgars had not time - Kar.ahani-dy have been completely broken a Kara-kytajami. After this the Kara-Chinese armies have fallen on the kusyrbai, but alpary together with oimeks during lines of battles have exhausted and have rejected Mongols. In 1141 the kusyrbai has moved to the aid Sandjaru, but the sultan did not begin to wait Bulgarian allies and alone attacked the enemy. A Kara-kytai have broken Sandjara, but because of fear of Bulgarian approach did not begin to pursue seldjukov and have preferred to conclude with Bulgarom the world. On conditions of this world a Kara-kytai recognized Anbala as tsar Bulgar and Desht-i Kypchak and have undertaken to not break borders Bulgar and Seldjukskogo sultanata. As tsar a Kara-kytaev - 'gur-khan' was the Christian - manihejtsem war against Mongols was considered{examined} in Bulgar and Seldjukskom sultanate as jihad - war for belief.

Having established a peace in the east, Kolyn has thrown main forces of the kusyrbai to the western border where he stopped attempts of Russian Suzdal princedom to expand their control to the Ryazan-Murom princedom, which was recognizing its dependence from Bulgar. In the 1154, Yury Dolgoruky occupied Murom and Ryazan, and installed a son of Andrey Bogolyubsky to head the princedom, but the Bulgarian army immediately attacked Suzdalians near Ryazan, and send them into a panic flight. Bulgars took Ryazan and Murom, and gave it to the Bolgar vassal, prince Rostislav. A Rus chronicler (obviously, a Ryazanian, sympathetic to Bulgars) remarked that prince Andrey lost all his army and 'barely escaped wearing only his boots '.

In that same year Kolyn died, and in Bulgar has changed everything.
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