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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman
DJAGFAR TARIHI
(THE ANNALS OF DJAGFAR)

Volume 2 Part 3
MAJOR SYMBOLS AND COATS OF  ARMS
OF BULGARIAN CLANS, CITIES AND PROVINCES

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Translator's Notes

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.

Part 3.
MAJOR SYMBOLS AND COATS OF  ARMS OF BULGARIAN CLANS, CITIES AND PROVINCES

142

At Bulgars, as well as other peoples, were the symbols, tamga or bilge (arms, signs) - patrimonial, city and provincial, however about them now very few people know. Therefore, it appears, it would not be too much to tell to the reader about the some people tamga which mentions the collection of Bulgarian annals bahshi Iman "Djagfar Tarihi".

Tamga of the clan Dulo

One of the most ancient annals of this collection - "the Hon of a Kitaby" - "the Book about gunnah" Kul Gali (1242) informs, that all tamgi a hook or otherwise are connected to heroes of Bulgarian myths - Alps (spirits). So the tamga of the Bulgarian Khans's clan, Dulo, was sign T. And originally this sign was the image of female spirit (Alp - biki) of love the Turan. As legends say, during very far times the Turan has tried to create for ancestors of Bulgars in Volgo-Ural the legendary state Turan and even itself began it{him} pravitelnitsej (therefore Volgo-Ural named in the beginning the Turan or the Claim the Turan - "the Old Turan"). Besides Khans from a clan Dulo counted themselves descendants the Turan. It is obvious, thereof tamga the Turan began Tamga sorts Dulo.

But later in a sign the Turan began to see the image "balta" (axe) - 1 and "ber" (bow{onions}).-l ~> also have named this tamgu "baltaber" (has taken the form "Baltavar" later), that is "Axen-Archen". As Bulgars selected leaders and Khans only from a clan Dulo the name tamgi - "Baltavar" - began to mean simultaneously as well "leader", "governor".

Why on tamge Dulo began to see an axe and a bow{an onions}? Yes because these subjects during an epoch of formation of statehood have received value of symbols of imperial authority from Bulgars, however in Bulgarian heraldry the sign 1 meant as well strelu and wings. Therefore the some people saw in a sign "Baltavar" the image of a bow{an onions} and strely, and also a falcon.

The sign "Baltavar" crowned staffs of Bulgarian banners and was represented on Bulgarian coins. By XV century this tamga has got more beautiful lira-like form (a sign 1 - see images of the arms in the Appendix). As the Kiev Russia is no time a part of the Bulgarian state, and the ruling dynasty of her{it} is "Rjurikovichi" - also was a branch of a Bulgarian clan Dulo tamga "Baltavar" became the arms of the Old russian state and Ukraine under the national name of "trident". And taking place under influence drevnekiev-skoj olden time bolshevistskie artists have developed the same Bulgarian sign "Baltavar" in the image "a sickle and molota" (a sign 2). It is interesting, that one of Bulgarian cities in Ukraine even nazy-'-a shaft with I "Baltavar", but by new time his{its} name has lost final "Ó" and has taken the form "Poltava".

143

Arms of Idel

Many now asked a question: and what was the arms of the state of Bulgars? As is known, the state of Bulgars (after legendary Turanianthe period) existed in the beginning, in 15 thousand BC - VII century n. e. Under the name Idel, and in VII - XVI centuries - under the name of Bulgars (Bulgaria). "The Djagfar Tarihi" informs, that arms Idel the sign 3 (his{its} variants - signs 4, 5) was. This sign referred to "Bulgars" - "the Wolf Head" ("bulg" - 'wolf', "Arian", "dyar" - 'head'), "Storms Bash" (also "the Wolf Head") and still "Baryn Dyar" ("the Head of the Baryn"). It{he} was the image of a head of the wolf (a sign 6), holding in a mouth strelu (variants of the image strely - signs 7, 8,9), the Wolf it was who other, as the powerful Alp the Magician or Storms - the Wolf named as well the Baryn. The Alp of the Storm was considered as the patron of Bulgarian people. Therefore, as writes Kul Gali, the image of the wolf head "Bul-g, the Arian" - "Storms Bash" were decorated not casually with a banner of ancestors of Bulgars. Therefore and the name of this image - "Bulgars" - became in due course the name of a Bulgarian banner and the most Bulgarian people. "Storms Bash" were also the first arms of the state of Bulgars.

Strela at Bulgars was a symbol of war and also it was represented on the arms completely not casually. In fact the Alp of the Storm was considered as spirit of military glory and a victory (from here - one of his{its} names the "Baryn", Meaning ' military glory ', 'victory').

In honour of the most well-known drevnebulgarianKhan of the Burtas, pravivshego in Idel in VII century BC, a sign on "Bulgars" - "Storms Bash" - "Baryn Dyar" has received one more name - "Tamga the Burtas". Even later Bulgarian Khans began to count themselves descendants Iskandera Zulkarnajna (Alexander the Great), and the sign "Storms * receives the fifth name "Tamga Iskandera". Besides as marks Kul Gali, in a sign the some people began to see "Storms Bash" strelu and an intense bow{onions} why in people popularity and such legend about an origin of " the arms of the Burtas" has received. It agrees to it{her}, once Idel was attacked by the enemy and has demanded capitulation of Bulgars. In the answer Bulgarian Khan has sent the opponent strelu - a symbol of war for independence. From that time, the legend says, the arms of the state became the image of a bow{an onions} and strely. Anyway, but "Storms Bash" (it{he} - "Bulgars", "Baryn Dyar", "Tamga the Burtas" and "Tamga Iskandera") became a symbol of independence and freedom-loving of the Bulgarian people.

144

The arms of the most ancient capitals of Bulgaria

In more later time as mark Bulgarian letopistsy, the arms of Bulgaria usually was the arms of capital. The most ancient capitals of Bulgaria were the following cities: in VII in, - Fanagoria (in Bulgarian Bandja, the Claim Bandja, Echke (Internal) Bolgar, the Claim Bolgar), in VII - IX centuries - Kiev (in Bulgarian Askal, Bashtu, Cook - Kujan, the Shambat, Kyj), in IX - XII, XIII - XIV centuries - Bolgar (Ulug Bolgar, the Ibragim), in XII - XIII centuries - Bulyar (Bilyar, Bolgar), in XIII century - Nur (Sham) Suvar. Kazan (Uchel, Apykjul, Bolgar al-Djadid, the Gazan, the Kazan) was capital of the Bulgarian state during rather recent time - in XIV - XVI.. (before the Moscow pogrom of 1552) and consequently in the honourable list of the most ancient capitals by us it is not included.

As the arms Bulgarian Fanagorii the image of legendary capital of the first idolianKhan Djam-Idjika (a sign 10) which and referred to served: Djamail (other variants - Djambal, There - bul, etc.), that is "City of Djama" (from here - gjuzdnebulgarskoe the name of colourful images of sacred cities - "shamail"). On this image the sign 11 meant city (besides it{he} meant mountain, the mausoleum, a temple, the country), and a sign 12 - prosperity. Thus, this tamga meant "Prospering City (or the Country)". Bulgarian Fanagorija (Internal Bolgar) varvarski it has been destroyed in 966 by an army of the Kiev prince Svjatoslava, and the most part of its{her} escaped Bulgarian population has moved to New Bandja in Jigulis.

The arms of Bulgarian Kiev the sign 13 - a sign on the Dragon or the Snake (curtailed{turned} by a ring) was. An echo of this fact are the Ukrainian legends about Zmee-Gorynyche and about destruction of one Kiev prince from a sting the snake.

The arms of city Bolgar the Winged Leopard (a sign 14 always was, his{its} other variants - signs 15, 16). It is uneasy to see in this tamge a flexible figure of a winged leopard (a sign 17). Under Bulgarian legends, this leopard was also the image of the Alp of the Storm which could turn and to a leopard and consequently frequently referred to also as the Barys (Leopard).

145

The explanation gives this Kul Gali, According to his{its} data, the part of Bulgars is a lot of millenia left from Idel to the Near East back and has based there power of Samaras (in Russian transfer - Sumer). In the south Bulgars have got acquainted with leopards, leopards, tigers and lions and in the beginning named them "ulug the magician" - "the big wolf". Representatives of family cat's, were the strongest animals of the south. To combine an image of the mythological hero of the north of the Storm with the cat's validity of the south, the Samara Bulgars have given Storms ability to turn and in the Barys - the Leopard (the Barys frequently named not only a leopard, but also a lion, a tiger, the leopard). A part of southern Bulgars in VII - II centuries up to n. e, and has returned to Idel later and has transferred the custom to represent the Alp of the Storm and as the Leopard the north. nym (volgo-Ural) Bulgars (northern Bulgars in memory of their Khan frequently named Burtases). Obviously, have Bolgar based descendants southern, shumerskih Bulgars why the arms of city and became the image of spirit of the Storm as a leopard.

In Bulgarian heraldry distinctive features of spirits - Alps were a horn and wings. Therefore the Storm - bar it is represented on Bulgarian tamge winged. Though we were reached also with images of the Leopard with .rogom. And associates of the Winged Leopard "shoots" (see a sign 14) are the schematic image of a six-final sign on the God - Tangry and mean, that the city Bolgar is Bogohranimym and the sacred (religious) center.

The arms Bulyar one of kinds of six-final sign Tangry (a sign 18) in the beginning was. The ring with the image of this symbol carried spirit of abundance and pastushestva Samaras (it{he} the Baradj) as a token of the submission Supreme why this tamga referred to also Tamga the Baradj. But later Tamga Bulyar there was an Idelian arms of " Storm Bash" under the name "Tamga Iskandera" (a sign 3).

The arms of city of Nur (Sham) Suvar was "Suvarskaja Tamga" (a sign 19) which was one of variants of the image alp~biki the Turan. This sign Bulgars named also "Hum" - "Jug", obviously, owing to some similarity of his{its} forms with outlines of a vessel. Kul Gali cites the data that this sign has been brought to Idel by southern Bulgars from territory of Iraq (named by Bulgars "Suvar" - 'Entre Rios') and that in the beginning the city referred to Nur, and only then when to it{him} granted "Suvarskuju Tamgu", it{he} began to refer to as Nur-Suvar.

Arms of the Bulgarian provinces

In Bulgaria were 9 - 12 provinces (ils, vilayets), and in 15 - 16 centuries - 8 XIII centuries totaled, and each of them had the coat of arms

146 (almost always conterminous to the arms of provincial capital). The annals of Gazi-Baradj (1246) has kept for us images of the arms of Bulgarian provinces IX - XIII centuries.

Provinces Tamga Biysu (received in XIII - XIV centuries the name of the center - the cities of Nukrat) were very similar to the arms Blew sign T, a meaning bow{onions} and strelu and named "Baluanskaja (Powerful) Tamga". This arms was granted to the city of Nukratu and Biysu by Bulgarian Khan the Gabdulla the Chelbir in 1183 - in memory of a neat shot of the governor of it il the Measures - Chury, saving Bulyar. As is known, the huge Russian army went to 1183 on storm of then capital of Bulgaria - Bulyar, but the Measures - Chura, taking place then in city, from a fortification has struck streloj the head of an attack - prince Izjaslava Glebovicha, and the enemy has receded. The measures - Chura, the accepted islam in Bulyarian mosques Besermen, ordered to represent Baluanskuju Tamgu on wall Besermenskoj of a mosque of the city of Nukrata.

Before the arms Biysu was old tamga Bulyar (a sign 18), recognizing simple people as the image of the Alp of abundance Samara. Really, in the severe north Bulgars so would like heat and sytosti the south...

It is interesting, that the Moscow regime, having grabbed in the1489 the western part of the Bulgarian province Nukrat (Vyatka in Russian), kept for the city of Nukrat (Vyatka, Stalinist Kirov) its old Bulgarian coat of arms, a bow with an arrow.

The arms of the Bulgarian il was the tamga of its main city Bolgar.

Tamga of the Suvarian il was the arms of its main city Nur-Suvar.

As arms Baytüba il (in the 13th century began to refer to Chally-Cheremshanskoj or province Kamskoj) served tamga his{its} main city Bulyar.

Tamga Mardan - Bellakianil and his{its} center - jigulevianthe cities of Bandjas (New Bandja) were fanagorijsky the arms (a sign 10) as in New Bandja the big role was played by natives of Old Bandja - Fanagorii.

Arms Saksinianil was tamga his{its} main city - Saksin - Bolgar on which there was an image of a rook as "chetyrehlepestkovogo a flower" in a circle (a sign 20). However it was the image not a usual rook, and the well-known Alp of light Mardukana (Nardugana) of the hag ("Kzrga" means in Bulgarian and Trach ', and 'Raven'). Kul Gali results a history about utigskom an origin of this image, and utigi were one of groupings of eastern Bulgars named also Hons (gunnami). The Alp the Hag was considered as the defender of simple people, therefore his{its} image was on banners of Bulgarian farmers and the handicraftsmen risen against feudal oppression.

147

Tamga il Tamta (renamed by Khan the Gabdulla the Chelbir in 1193 in the Bashkort or Bashkiria) served "Tamga Chakchak" (signs 21, 22) with the image Alp - biki Chakchak (its{her} other names - Kunp) sh, Ergi). Bulgars the Bashkort named this sign as well "Tamga the Golden eagle". Chakchak is spirit of a dawn, a home and family happiness and it was represented always as a two-headed bird, (more often an eagle or a golden eagle). Her{it} tamga, according to legends, was the arms of the state Turan which center was in territory YOashkorta. To tell the truth, Kul Gali gives more developed{unwrapped} explanation "Tamgi Chakchak" (a sign 22): on two Snakes (a sign 23, are Alps the Hag and Samaras) there is a tree of a life (a sign 24, - a symbol formed by connection two raznonapravlennyh of symbols the Alp - biki of plants Ashny - a sign 25), and on it{him} already sits two-headed Chakchak (a sign 26).

Bulgars so loved Alp - bnku Chakchak that represented its{her} sign on the products, coins, on walls of mosques (in particular, on walls Bulyarian mosques Kungosh and the Ufa mosque of the Golden eagle). In XV century the Moscow governors have accepted a title "grand dukes Bulgarian" and have declared Bulgarian Tamgu the Chakchak-golden eagle the arms of Moscow - Russian state (under the name of " Two-headed Orel").

It is interesting, that Ufa has been based by Bulgars near that place, gdeu believed, there was an altar ("ufa") inhabitants of ancient capital That a wound - the cities of Ergi. Therefore after constructions of city of Ufa in 1185 sign Chakchak began it{him} Tamga.

Tamga Bulgarian il Tubdjak, Northern Kazakhstan borrowing{occupying} territory and Southern Siberia, the image of spirit of abundance Samara as the horseman and under name "Ytlar" - "Horseman" (a sign 27) was. The matter is that Samaras (which frequently represented ^ as the horseman) acted not only in a role of the Alp of a crop, but also in a role of the patron pastushestva, and it was close tubdjakskim to cattlemen - kypchakam (to ancestors of Kazakhs). Kazakhs named this. Bulgarian tamgu "harrow", and she{it} remained in slightly changed form (a sign 28) the arms of Grown-up Juza of Kazakhs till XX century.

On the arms il Ur (Ural borrowing{occupying} in the beginning territory and Northern Siberia, and later - only Ural) the Alp of wisdom and winter Tajgas or Kysh the Tarkhan as a snowy owl (signs 29.30) has been embodied. Tajgas acted in shape of a white camel in the winter, and turned around a snowy owl in the summer and departed on the north. Tajgas under name JAbalaka (Owl) was considered as the patron of Ural and Siberia, and the old Siberian capital of a province of Ur on Irtysh therefore referred to JAbalakom. After the unit of Ur on two provinces - il of Ur and il Baygul (Northern Siberia) - the city of Jabalak appeared in territory of a province Baygul, has lost value of the center and has decayed (later on his{its} place again there was a city of Kashlyk), however il of Ur has kept old tamgu Alp Tajgasa-Jabalaka.

Tamga il Baygul which center city of Pelym (Balyn) was, the image of the foremother of a sort of Bulgars - the Alp - biki Baygul as a fish (signs 31, 32) served. It was not accident - in fact itself the Alp - bika as spoke, vplyvala in shape of a huge fish from ocean to Ob why this Siberian river Bulgars also named Baygul. Baygul liked to accept also shape of the snake and various amphibious (in particular, frogs) why has come in Russian fairy tales under a name of "Tsarevna - frog".

The arms il Martjuba (renamed in XIII century to the Kazan il), and also cities of Kazan were sign Aga (Big) Baradj (a sign 33), meaning a winged Dragon. Shape of the Dragon named by Bulgars by the Baradj, two Alps, brothers - twins the Hag and Samaras, and also the Alp - bika Baygul accepted. According to legends, Kazan Aga the Baradj had three heads - snake (shape of the snake could accept Baygul), bird's (the shape of a bird accepted the Hag) and bull (to address in the bull liked Samaras), Leaves, in the Baradj citizens of Kazan have combined features at once three spirits very much esteemed by Bulgars (there can be therefore it{he} and referred to Big). And artists were free to transform Kazan tamgu (a sign 33) that in zmeegolovogo, in ptichjegolovogo, in bychjegolovogo a dragon.

It is interesting, that a lot of Bulgarian sorts (djulut, batbaj, alban - the Alan, erdim, saban, the Elaur, bagil) had tamgi in which basis there were features of sign Aga of the Baradj. Obviously, representatives of these sorts dominated in Martjube and have based Kazan why their patrimonial arms and began Tamga il and cities.

Tamga Kashanianil (has been liquidated in XIII century, and his{its} territory has come in Kazan and Chally-Cheremshansky or) and his{its} center - cities of Kashan (signs 25, 34) - contains (a sign 34) the rare image the Alp - biki of plants Ashny (its{her} other names - Ka-shan-bika, Gjuldjihan). Ancient Bulgars represented Ashna-biku in image fine olenihi Kashan on which head the blossoming tree of a life the Tuba grows more often. The myth about Kashan - bike has penetrated even into Germany \ was reflected in fairy tales of baron Mjunhgauzena (a deer with a cherry tree in a head). On Bulgarian holidays the girl playing role Ashny, crowned with a wreath from colors - a symbol of a tree the Tuba in which very much frequently saw a birch (why her{it} also sometimes named a word "katan"). Kul Gali wrote, that a basis of the population of Kashan natives from Horezmijianbalik (posada) in the beginning have made the cities of Bolgare rather esteeming Ashnu, and that probably therefore the arms of city became tamga Kashan - biki.

In 1236 the part kashantssv, being afraid of an attack of Tatars, ran to Kazan where the Tuba djami - in memory about same kashanskoj mosques has based the well-known Kazan mosque.

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149

Symbols of Bulgarian mythology

From the most known Bulgarian symbols six-final star H^K which is for Bulgars is allocated, is familiar to humility to the God and refers to Is familiar Tantras. The triangle inverted by top upwards, means in this sign will of the God, and also sacred mountain (on which there are phenomena of the God), and a triangle inverted by top downwards - created Supreme and obedient to will of the Creator the world.

Bulgars minted this sign on coins, represented it{him} on walls, minarets and fencings of mosques, on namogilnyh stones, on imperial things. Sign Tangry such dish of Bulgars as uchpbchmak - symbolized also "triangle" (originally it was ritual food).

Another.. The well-known Bulgarian symbol was a swastika (a sign 35) which Bulgars named "subash" or "sarman" ('lemeh'). The second name speaks that ancient Bulgars see in subashe connection of four lemehov - sarmanov. The swastika - subash was in the beginning a symbol of a fruitful potentiality and guarding is familiar the Alp Samara (therefore one of his{its} names - Subash - and was received with a sign), but jotom this Alp has presented a ring with the image sarmana Alp - bike Chakchak - to spirit of family happiness. So the swastika became a symbol terrestrial family (and in general human) happiness and was necessarily embroidered bulgarkami on long wedding towels. In city Bulyar there was quarter mosque Subash, the input{entrance} in which has been decorated with patterns as interlacings of swastikas. Bulgarian rings with images of a swastika are found by archeologists and in city Bolgar.

To the most favourite symbols of Bulgars concerns and Tamga Archi (signs 36, 37, 38). Alp - bika Archa-Artysh (Juniper) was a symbol of cleanliness and virginity and protected from all misfortunes. Spoke, that the branch archi at approach{approximation} of evil spirits flashed cleaning fire, Kul has Gali retold such myth. Once Archa has learned{has found out}, that the Alp of a rain loved{liked} her{it} and a thunder the Kubar unjustly vozrevnoval to the Alp of the Storm (having seen them together) and has decided to kill her{it} his{its} impact of a lightning.

150

Having met the Alp of the Audan, she{it} has asked for him{it} his{its} fine raincoat from barsovoj a skin. "But in fact it - a special gift to me the Storm! - the Audan has exclaimed. - When I have struck Ajdahu - the murderer of the son of the Storm of the Kichi-Barys to the Storm has presented me barsovyj a raincoat of the Kichi-Barys and have told, that does{makes} it as a token of a recognition of me by the son. Whether I to another can transfer somebody this gift?" - "Just to rescue Storms from a trouble threatening to it{him}, I and ask your raincoat!" - Has told Archa. Here the Audan had to comply with the request alp~biki. However it{he} has immediately gone to the Storm and has told to it{him} about happened. Storms, having smelt a rat, has rushed with the Audan to Arche. Meanwhile the Kubar, as well as expected Archa, has accepted barsovyj a raincoat on branches Archi for the Alp of the Storm and has struck in him{it} a lightning. Archa has there and then flashed fire. When the Kubar has seen the mistake has repented of the act, but was already late. Before burning down, Archa has had time to tell about happened appeared in time the first the Storms. The wolf has rushed to flame, vainly trying to rescue alp~biku. Fire kind Archi has not caused it{him} harm. But from that time the look of the Storm became ognenno-cleaning and could incinerate and pay in a stone of malicious spirits and injust people. People trusted, that the Tangra were moved by the Alp - biku in another archu in which nobody can already find her{it}. But everyone archa from that time became a guarding and cleaning tree of Bulgars.

Variant shestilepestkovogo-"flower" sign Tangry - vos-milepestkovaja tamga (a sign 39) became the arms Bulgarian sufijsko-dervisheianbrotherhoods "Ale - Hum". Under Bulgarian national legends, the Tangra owns vosemju parts of the world created by him{it}. They are symbolized also with eight "petals". Also other variants of "flower" sign Tangry with other quantity{amount} of "petals" in due course have appeared, but always their number was even.

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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

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