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Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Volume 1 Volume 1 Appendix Volume 2 Volume 3

Bakhshi Iman
DJAGFAR TARIHI
(THE ANNALS OF DJAGFAR)

Volume 2 Part 3
DICTIONARY OF BULGARIAN WORDS

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Translator's Notes

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition may and contain typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.

The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of the writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text  by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the " mouse over" explanations where available. For spelling conventions, refer to the Chapters 1-5 Vol.1 page. In the translation, the alphabetical sequence of the entries was changed to the order of Latin alphabet, which is a little different from the Cyrillic alphabet of the original.

PART 3. ARTICLES AND COMMENTS

 

DICTIONARY OF BulgarIAN WORDS,
EXPLAINED BY KUL GALI,
MOHAMMED - AMIN, MOHAMMEDIYAR, AND. KULTASI

124

A

Agardja - Kerch. Kul Gali wrote: malicious tongs asserted that the name of our city Agardja in Crimea comes from a word "agyrdje" - "changer", as the significant part of the local Karaims is engaged in that business. The ancestors of the Karaims were a part of the Samar Bulgars, which Aksak-Shariy (Darius) gave to the relatives of the Persians who died in his raid against Idel. The misfortunates, to save themselves, accepted the Karaism, which is similar to the superstition of the Yahuds (Jews - Translator's Note), and they had really avoided the death, because Aksak-Shariy loved Jews and was releasing them from slavery. Besides, out of his hatred of the Bulgars, he settled the native land of the Sabans, Arman, with the Ariyakans, who lived before in the mountains near the river Ariyak (Uruh).

Agach - a tree, a boat hollowed from a solid tree trunk.

Aybulat - "crescent - sword", a popular name for the "Baltavar" coat  of arms ψ.
124
125

Akkaz (White Mount - Translator's Note) - ancient Bulgarian name for the Altai highest mountain Belukha (Russian translation meaning "White" - Translator's Note).

Aksak-Timer - an expression was used as one of the nicknames for Tama-Tarkhan (Lord of Underworld - Translator's Note), and also with the meaning "worst enemy", "worst robber, murderer, bandit".

Aladji (Alashi) - "butcher", a Bulgarian nickname for the Moscow Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible - Translator's Note).

Alans - a part of the Bulgars who fled from Idel, together with surviving members of the disposed Bulgarian dynasty Alan (or As), to the N.Caucasus-Don steppes and received a nickname "Alans" and "Ases". The N.Caucasian Iranians recognized the power of the Alan  dynasty, and its names were also carried to them, "Alan" and "As" (in the form "Osset").

Anda - mountains, highland (this word is preserved in the name Andaluzia, from Anda Ulus, "Highland Province" and others) (in the American Indian Quechua/Inca andi is "high crest", therefore "Andes and Andean Mountains. The agglutinative structure of the  Quechua language, with various interfixes and suffixes is much like Türkic lnguages - Translator's Note).

Aran - a light structure covered by straw or cane, a village (this word is preserved in the name of Sus Aran, now Syzran).

Ariyak - river Uruh (tributary of the Terek-Su), by which name the Bulgars started to call the Armenians.

As (Yas) - one of the medieval names of Bulgars. The Mongols adopted it and called Ases (Yases) the Bulgars of ther Desht-i Kypchak (Mohammediyar).

Atar - winter stan, a manor.

Aul - a circle, a circle of an encampment, a settlement with a layout in a form of a circle, village.

Aulau - to surround, to overcome.

B

Bay (Boy) agach - a large tree, ship.

Baygul (Baykul) - one of Bulgarian names of the river Ob.

Bajdar - Bulgarian pronunciation of the Christian name "Theodor" (Russian spelling Feodor/Fedor - Translator's Note).

Bajdar Chuar - Feodor Pestryi, Russian commander, a participant in the Kazan campaign in 1431. Then, according to the sheikh Mohammed-Amin, the Rus army had never reached Kazan: it was lost on the way in the dense Kukdjak (Mari) forests, and partly perished, and partly was taken prisoner. Bajdar Chuar cowardly fled at night from his army and managed to return to Rus. Per some data, the captured soldiers of precisely this commander were resettled by the Bulgarian ruler along the river Mesha, and they established there the aul Chuar (modern Pestretsy). The inhabitants of that aul distinguished themselves by their heroism in the fight against Moscow subÜgators, and fought more unrelenting than the others against the Ivan's IV armies in the 1552 - 1557.

Besermen (bisermyan, busurman, etc.) - "silvery", That was one of names of the river Kama and Itil (below the mouth of Kama) and the Itil-Ural Bulgars. From this word came the Finno-Ugric and Anglo-Scandinavian names for Bulgars and Bulgaria: Beger - Biarmland - Biarmia. The northern part of Bulgaria, seized by the Russian armies in the 15th century, preserved this name in the form "Perm".

Bidja - a pastoral stan of a Biy (leader).

Bileu (bilyau) - any patent document, a patent (for trade, for a type of a craft, for Tarkhanlyk and so forth), the special rights. This word is preserved in the name of the city Belev.

Bir - a lake (applied mostly for a "small lake in the river meadow"), a paradise pond, a source of life.

Birne - a Bulgarian name for the Swedish city Birka.

Bista (from "bidja") - a suburb (the stan of a Kan or his viceroy was considered a city, and surrounding it lay the stans of the Biys).

Bichik (bitig) - any book, a knowledge, learning.

Boyar (Bulyar, Boyan) - a white shaman, later - very noble person, aristocrat, viceroy.

Bungar or Echke (Iske) Bulgar - Phanagoria.
126
127

Burma - a polygon, a polygonal structure, a line of folds on clothes, etc.

C

Chag() -a sacrificial girl whom (after a cease of the human sacrifices the chags still were selected, but had to serve priests or biys); slave.

Chakchak - a spirit of family happiness, a dish symbolizing a wall divines broken by the husband of Chakchak, the Alp Karga.

Chelbir -reigns, bridle, bunchuk, an emblem on royal authority or autocracy.

Cheremshan (djeremsan) - a meadow side (from "cherem - djerem", a meadow).

Chigendek - "humility", an emblem as a six-point star; cookie of square, rhombic or star-like shape prepared for remembrance  celebrations before a new year.

Chulman - one of the meanings of this word is "silver".

Cossacks - see Kazaks

D

Doud (tout) - a quadrangle, a sign of a cross (in the 13th - 16th centuries the Bulgars allso called this sign "Tatar bilgese").

Dulu (Dulo) - a hemisphere, a hill with hemispherical top, a hemispherical cap, in the beginning a shaman's cap, and later  a Khan's cap, the name of the royal clan of Bulgars, which came from the name of a large yurt "dulu" ("dulo"); a large pavilion (yurt) with a hemispherical top (from the name of this top came the yurt's name "dulu"), which could house the leader (Khan) and his retinue (up to a thousand and more persons). Before a campaign, dulu was set up to conduct in it military councils and prayers for a victory. After the word "dulu" (dulo) became a royal clan name, the large yurt has received a name "turma" (from it came the words "terem" (Engl. "tower"), "türma" (Engl. "prison")). The large tent, the wall of which looked like a polygon, was also called "burma". Because to set it up was especially difficult, and it looked very attractive, very skilled architects sometimes were called by the word "burma".
128

Dj

Djam - good, pleasant.

È

Èrgiby (Ürgan )- soothsayer, an expert on customs and laws.

Èreg (yryg)- divination, truth revealed during divination, wisdom, law.

G

Garach - a Bulgarian name for Merya people, a part of whom fled from their lands (after their annexation to Russia) to Bulgaria. The name "Garach" comes from the Old Bulgarian name for Finno-Ugrs "Gar" ("Kar") (like Karelia, i.e. Kar-El, the "Kar's Land", and the Carbones, Careots, Carsots of Ptolemy - Translator's Note).

Gubadiya - a multilayered Bulgarian pie which symbolized the multi-tier Bulgarian Pre-Islamic temples and mausoleums (pyramids), and which was a remembrance and sacrificial food (including in the (Moslem - Translator's Note) brotherhood "El-Hum").

Golden Throne - a Bulgarian folding armchair decorated with gold and silver, presented by Khan Ulug-Mohammed Otyak (1164-1178 - Translator's Note) to the Kiev prince for his anti-Suzdal policy. In Rus it has received a name of "Golden Throne".

H

Hudayar - a son of Mal, a head of one of the schisms of the tore. Kul Gali writes that Hudajar left his father and went to the Kashan (Moldova) Akkerman city, where he met an elder hiding there. The elder was a Bulgarian cleric and one of the heads of the Kara-Burdjanian Bulgars' revolt against the spread of Christianity by the Khan Barys (Boris). Learning that Hudajar descends from the clan Dulo, the elder told him about his descendency from that  clan, and about the main precepts (bo, mo) of the by then half-forgotten tore. Hudajar joined the precepts of the tore with some Christian ideas, and declared this concatenation a new faith. His sermons were successful in the Kara-Burdjan, Rum (Byzantium), among the Anchians and Chirkeses. Pursued by the Byzantians, he fled to the Madjar (Hungary), and from there returned to Akkerman. Masgut was in close contact with Hudajar, which allowed his enemies to spread rumors about his adoption of the "Hudajar heresies". On the tomb of Hudajar in the Kashan was erected a mausoleum.

Hum - a category of concubines of the especially noble persons and their children. The slave-girls of the noble persons (including Emirs), who bore them children, were transferred into a category of concubines, "Hum", and they were receiving from the possessor a house and property for economically independent life. Their children were also receiving the title "Hum", which was aristocratic and consequently very honorable.

I

Iber (abar, ibir) - a Bulgarian name for mountains rich in metals: Ural, Caucasus, Altai, Pyrenees, etc.

Im - a magical spell, pagan prayer, superstition.

Iseti - a "floating island", i.e. an island surrounded with deep waters.

K

Kazaks (Cossacks) - Ahmetzyan  Kultasi writes that the first-ever Cossack group, assembled for the protection of the royal palace, was formed in the 1229 under an order of the Kan Gazi-Baradj (1229-1246 - Translator's Note) only from the Garach (Merya) pagans from beyond Kazan (presumably, east if Kazan - Translator's Note). After the overthrow of Gazi-Baradj (in the 1230 - Translator's Note), Altynbek was prosecuting the Cossacks, and they fled from beyond Kazan to the Nukrat (Vyatka), where they founded the city of Garjya (Karino) and a number of other settlements. Then the Garach Cossacks participated in the western campaigns of Gazi-Baradj in the 1238 - 1241. After Mengu-Timur's invasions (1273) a part of the Nukrat Garaches accepted Orthodox Christianyty and began to predominate in the Nukrat. The Garaches who chose Islam began to be called Besermens (i.e. Bulgars). All Garaches, the pagans, and the Moslems, and the Christians were noted by their fanatical fidelity to Bulgaria. Per the Bulgar-Kypchak agreement concluded during Mengu-Timur in the 1280, a few hundreds of the Nukratian and beyond Kazan Christian Garaches occupied a part of the former lands of the Nimruy corps, and began serving there as the Bulgarian border guards. Mengu-Timur consented to that because he himself was a Christian and he trusted Christians only. In the 16th century the majority of these Cossacks accepted Islam (Kultasi).

Kalynsubba - a headdress, a cap.

Kalyn Teke - sacrificial baran (ram, tup - Translator's Note) (lamb).

Kanak - per Kul Gali sources, this word was used with meanings of "cream", "sour cream" and "butter". In the Old Bulgarian expression "kanak-bal" (later replaced by an expression "bal-may") (bal = honey - Translator's Note), "kanak" was used in a sense "butter". The term "kanak-bal" meant sacrificial food and was given to children as a protective name. In common usage the name Kanakbal was frequently reduced, therefore it was taking sometimes the form "Anbal" (semantically connected, a baby of a royal concubine was also called "Anbal". Anbal, in addition to being a Türkic royal name for Kan Khisam Anbal, 1135-1164, has found a wide distribution in the Türkic world: Google search returned me 7,600 entries, most of which can be traced to Türkic roots - Translator's Note).
129

Kara Bershud- N.Pontic area.

Karaim - Karaimism, "black superstition" is a kind non-orthodox Üdaism, acquired during the Persian Khan Darius by a part of the Near-Eastern Bulgars and later brought by them to the Khazarian horde; also the Bulgars who are professing Karaimism. Kul Gali (1172 - 1240 - Translator's Note) writes that of the all Khazarian Khakans only Aibat (ca 695-715 - Translator's Note) professed Karaimism, and that the information about the Üdaism of the Khazarian Khakans dynasties is a lie. After Aibat only one other member of the Khazarian dynasty, the prince Üsuf, accepted Karaimism, but that happened already in Bashtu (Kiev), after his flight from Khazaria. Thus, Kul Gali remarks that the Karaims had big rights in the Khazarian horde, due to the Aibat's friendship with the Karaim biy Urus. Aibat made Urus a Tarkhan. The Karaims from the clan Urus already after annexation of the Khazarian horde to Bulgaria were split into three branches: Urus, Urum and Kara-Urum. The Kara-Urumians lived in Bandja, Saksin-Bolgar and Agardja and participated actively in the Bulgarian trade on the Ürgan Üly. The Uruses  traded with the Central Asia, where lived their Khazarian relatives (Khoresm, Khurasan, and other countries), and the Urumians traded with southern countries.

Karbatau - "Mountain Lord of Snows", the Bulgarian name for the Carpathian mountains (I.E etymology for the Carpathians is "from Thracian Gk. Karpates oros, lit. "Rocky Mountain;" related to Albanian karpe "rock". What other I.E. language, out of the 449 accounted for, uses a cognate of "karpe" for a rock? - Translator's Note). Bulgars called one of the peaks of these mountains Uchuly, and sometimes all the Carpathian mountains were also called Uchuly (like the Kazbeg, a Türkic name ca "Beg-Peak", was sometimes was used for the whole Caucasian range: Kazbeg Mountains. Stalin's favorite papiroce brand, Kazbeg, had a Türkic name, an ironic fact for that primitive racist Türkic hater - Translator's Note).

Kargaly- a Bulgarian city. In the 1278 it was seized by Kypchaks, but in the 1312 Khan Uzbek returned it to Bulgaria. In the 2-nd half of the 13th - beginning of the 14th century it was also called Kichi-Bolgar. The ancestors of the Emir Tamerlan (Emir-Timur, Shakh-Timur) were coaching near the city and  lived in it. In the 15th-16th centuries the Bulgarian rulers allowed the allied Nogays to coach in a number of N Kama and Djaik areas, also including the Kargala area, resulting that the daughter Süümbika of Üsuf biy was born in that city (Ahmetzyan  Kultasi).

Kashan - the Bulgarian name for the territory between Aral and Balhash, and the upper course of the river Ind, and also Tyan Shan. Kul Gali writes that that name originated from the ancient name "Kuk Shan", i.e. "Heavenly Mountains", but then, not later than 8th century there appeared a version about its origin from an expression "Kaz Shan", i.e. "Swan (Goose) Mountains". From that time the Bulgars called Katan also "Kazak", i.e. "Swan (Goose) land". Mohammediyar noted that Bulgars called Kashan and Kazak the Tengrian-Christian Djagatay Ulus (aka Chagatay Ulus - Translator's Note), but by the beginning of the 15th century Bulgars began to almost always call that ulus "Kazak" (aka Kazakh - Translator's Note). The Uzbeks adopted this tradition, and consequently called a part of the Djagatay Kypchaks who joined them in the 14th-15th centuries "Kazaks" (meaning "people from Kazak"). The Kazaks were in the Uzbek horde for about 100 years, and during that time they adopted Islam and the Bulgaro-Uzbek name "Kazaklar", i.e. "Kazaks" (in Russian pronunciation "Kazakhs") from the Uzbeks. For other Djagatay Kypchaks was retained the name "Kyrgyz", i.e. "Kirgyzes".

Kerman- a city citadel.

Koralta- an arsenal building.

Koraltay - a military council, gathering, parade (aka Kuraltay, Curaltai, etc - Translator's Note).

Kryash- the Bulgarian name for the Greeks (comes from the Bulgarian name for the island Crete, the Kresh).

Kunig- a book written on leather.

Kunchag() - a girl given to slavery as a ransom, a slave-maid. Their sons from the owners were frequently called "Kunchag" or "Kunbala". The second form of the name in common use was frequently reduced, taking the form "Kunbal" or even "Anbal".

Kuraychy (kuraychiy) - a kuraist, musician.

Kyr - steppe, free (adj., as unbound - Translator's Note), wild.

Kyrgyz - a Bulgarian name for all Türkic Kypchaks.

Kyshlak - winter quarters, a place to stay in the winter, cattlemen settlement

Kelmer (kylmyr) - a ballad.
130

L

Leu - a dragon, a seal. Kul Gali writes that because on the Hunno-Bulgarian seals bore an image of a dragon, "leu" also all the seals started to be called "leu".

Loyal Tatars - Ahmetzyan Kultasi writes that to the 50 thousand of the Russian service Tatars from Nogays and Kyrgyzes, brought to Bulgaria by Moscow after the capture of Kazan, joined our 150 thousand (out of approximately 1,400,000 survivers). "These unfortunates, noptes Kultasi, chose at the will of infidels to be called "Loyal Tatars", to obtain an improvement of their distressful position and a good service". In addition to it about 100 thousand Bulgars, as he writes, were baptized forcefully.

M

Mar (var)- a water meadow, a meadow, a valley of a river (from this word comes the Bulgarian name for the Kukdjak Finno-Ugrians "Mari", meaning "meadow people").

Murma (Kara-Burtas, Mardan, etc.) - Murom, the ancient Bulgarian city. In the 1091 Batyshians allied with Novgorodians took the Murom. Bulgars could not immediately regain the city because the main forces of the Mardanians were thrown against the Kyrgyz-Chinese hordes of Ytlar and Kydan, who broke through into the Saksin on the Black Sea.

N

Nazar- son of the Mongolian commander Djebe, who was heading the mountain unit of the Nimruy's corps. He was better known under his nickname "Burunday". His headquarters was in the Bulgarian city of Nurshad, given to him by Gazi-Baradj for his service to Bulgaria. In Bolgar he accepted Islam. He was amicable with Emir Timer-Khisam (the son of Gazi-Baradj), and in honor of him in the 1242 he named his son Timer. During the time of Khan Berke Timer for some time was a Bashkak of the Sain Yorty. (The part of the Bolgar city and Internal Bulgaria surrende by Gazi-Baradj to the Mongolia. Under the agreement of the 1278 with Mengu-Timur, that area was transferred under the control of Kypchak). In the Bolgar, Timer accepted Islam, began to call himself "Bulgari", and married a Bulgarian bika, a daughter of Bek Mohammed (Ahmed) from the Elaur clan. Therefore he named one son from bika Elaurtay-Gali (Elortay), and the other Ahmed (Ahmat). Burunday was an ally and a friend of Khan Nugay (Nogay), and in the 1278 Nugay came to the aid of Galimbek through his possessions. The clan of Burunday, under an agreement with Gazi-Baradj, became a co-owner and guardian of the Horys (Khorysdan) Üly, a trading road from Bolgar to Ukraine, which belonged to Bulgaria. Nugay, whose horde coached in the south of the Ukraine and in the Crimea, was extremely interested in the operation of the Horys Üly, and supported its owners, the Bulgarian trading companies, and the Bulgarified clan of Burunday. Ahmat possessed the city of Hursa (Kursk), and Timer and Elaurtay possessed Nurshada (Naruchad, Mukhsha). Later, Elaurtay became a known Bulgarian linguist and a poet who was signing his poetry by the name "Mukhsha-Gali", and Ahmat became an eminent Bulgarian scientist who made a detailed geographical map of Bulgaria and Ukraine (before him similar maps were composed by Ahmed ibn Fadlan, Talib, Shamgun, Belebey, Gazi-Baradj, and others.).

The attempt by Ahmat to fortify the Horys Üly with new Bulgarian Cossack  fortresses and garrisons caused an alarm and counteraction by the Kypchak Khan Telebuga. Then the angry Nogay began acting against Telebuga and achieved his overthrow. At the end of the 14th century the Horys Üly was decimated by Biy Idegey (Aksak-Timer) and came into decline.
132

Nogayans (Nugaylar) - one of the nicknames for all Kypchaks, after the death of Khan Uzbek "Nogays" began to be called only the Tengrian and Christian Kypchaks, including the nomads of the Nogay Ulus.

Nugaybak (Nagaybak) - the "History of Kazan" by Ahmetzyan Kultasi sais that the word "Nugaybak" is Bulgarian and it meant "looking at the Nogays (in a sense: at the Nogay's side)". In Bulgaria "Nugaybaks" were called the Cossacks who were settled on the Bulgaro-Nogay border for the protection of the Bulgarian State from the Kypchak attacks. The estate of the Bulgarian Cossacks- Nugaybaks developed at the boundary of the 13th-14th centuries, when the horde of the Khan Nugay was displaced from the Black Sea steppes to the  Djaik (Ural) steppe. In the 1570-1580es a part of Nugaybaks accepted Orthodox Christianity and germinated the Russian Ural Cossacks.

O

Oimeklar (Oimeks) - "dogs", a Bulgarian nickname for Kyrgyzes (Kypchaks). Mongols adopted this Bulgarian nickname, but translated it to their language, and began to call Kypchaks "Nugays" ("nugay" in Mongolian means "dog"). The Kypchaks were perceiving the epithet Oimek-Nugay as an insult (Kul Gali, Mohammediyar).
133

S

Sabandjar - Sabandjar was a guard head in the Sain Yorty in the Bolgar. About his affair in detail tells Mohammed-Amin in his work "Some stories For instruction of young Ulugbek...", dedicated to the pupil of the sheikh, Khan Mohammed-Amin. As writes the scientist, Bulgars viewed the Desht-i Kypchak to be a den of Christianity, and consequently, in the 1278 under the banners of jihad fought against Mengu-Timur with a special persistence. Really, Batu, his children, Telebuga, Mengu-Timur, Djanibek and other Khans from the Djuchi dynasty were Christians, and did not hide it. In the Madjar (Hungary) Batu inquired the captured Madjars and Almans: "Is this the way you should meet your Christian sovereign?" Only Berke and Uzbek accepted Islam, and that only to finish with their contenders under a pretext of a fight against disbelief. That only Djuchids and their people were killed during the time of these Khans, and the other infidel clans not only did not suffer, but have remained at the throne, testifies to it. It was not an accident that the protection of the Sain Yorty in the Bolgar Uzbek entrusted to the Christian Garaches. Seeing that, to gain a sympathy of Uzbek, Kasim-Bulyak had also surrounded himself with the Christian Garach Cossacks. Therefore we labeled this Emir "Christian friend". That, however, did not prevent Kasim-Bulyak from plundering Christians of the Tuar-balik (Tver). The Bek of Tuar was secretly passing money to the Emir and the Bulgarian Bashkak Akmal for their support. He promised an especially large sum to both of them for his acclamation as a main Bek of the Balyn (Northeast Rus). When this appointment has happened, the Bek of Tuar as a payment of the debt gave the taxes from one city. there came Sabandjar, as a representative of Akmal, and Karaim Abram (from the Azak branch the Kara-Urum clan) as a representative of the Emir showed up there immediately, with a strong troop of the Garaches. They took from the townspeople much more than was due, knowing that the Tuar's Bek would keep silence. However, unexpectedly for both of them, the impoverished townspeople complained about the robbery to their Tsar, i.e. to the Khan. Uzbek came to a full fury, because Tuar was belonged to the Kypchak, and the Bulgars had no rights to it. The Bek of Tuar lost his seniority in the Balyn, and Akmal was threatened with the Khan's court. It seemed that nothing would save the caught Bashkak thief, but Akmal not for nothing was a most sly relative of Uzbek (they were cousins by female lines, and besides their wives were Turkmenian sisters). First of all the Bashkak frightened Sabandjar with an imminent danger, and he fled to Artan (Lithuania). Then Akmal has let know to the contender of Kasim, the Djuketau Bek Bulüm-Orda, that Uzbek and Emir fell out, and consequently the Bek was getting a convenient chance to capture Bolgar and the Bulgarian throne. Bulüm-Orda has immediately called the Cheremshan Cossacks and besieged the Bolgar city. In the city, the Bashkak's people managed to organize an assault by a mob on the Sain Yorty mint, which was easily beaten off. Using it, Akmal told Uzbek about the start of the war threatening the Sain Yorty. The Khan hurriedly arrived in the Sain Yorty of the Bolgar citiy, and that prevented a big collision.

Akmal met Uzbek in a khalat (outer robe - Translator's Note) stained with blood, and with a look of a person heavily wounded by the mob while protecting the Khan's property. Though no witnesses of his heroism was found, the Kypchak ruler believed his relative and forgave him. However, an investigation was done all the same. Akmal declared during investigation that he was not involved in the affair, and that only Sabandjar wasguilty in it all, that he secretly accepted Catholicism and on the direction of his spiritual instructor, Catholic missionary Pitryay (Peter) and on his own was exacting money from the people for the construction of a Christian cathedral in Bolgar. Bashkak also declared that the missionary wanted to bribe him, but he turned down his bribe.

All that was a lie. Actually Pitryay once asked Bashkak to sanction building a Catholic temple in Sain Yorty. Akmal responded that he would get a sanction, but asked a huge sum for the plot of the land for the temple. Pitryay asked for help the Altynbash (Italian) merchants, and those gave him the needed amount. But soon after that the missionary, slandered by Bashkak, was seized by the people of Uzbek. During a search of his house in Sain Yorty was found the money he collected for the construction of the temple, which gave credibility to the lie of Akmal. Bashkak immediately declared that that was the money stolen by Sabandjar in the Tver possessions. The missionary, during interrogation, stubbornly denied the accusations laid on him, and died not surviving the torture. Kasim, forewarned by Bashkak, refused to meet the Khan, and only sent him a letter where he denied participation of his people in the robbery of the Tver city. And Bulüm-Orda did not avoid meeting with Uzbek, and promised him to pay for the damage, in exchange for a Khan's promise not to interfere with the Bulgarian internal war on the either side. Uzbek promised, and the Bek immediately captured the Bulgarian throne and paid off to the Kypchaks the "Tver debt". Everybody ended very pleased (except for Kasim, naturally) and celebrated with pleasure, at the expense of the new Emir, in the Bulgarian part of the Bulgarian balik Polistan, the closure of the affair. Nobody was looking for the Karaim who remained unknown. Kasim-Bulyak seized him aiming to liquidate a dangerous witness, but Abram fled from under guard, together with bribed security guards, to Djuketau. Bulüm-Orda gave him protection, because Abram financed him to pay Uzbek off, and promised to attract (and did attract) Karaim merchants to the center of Cheremshan. The Djuketau branch of  the Kara-Urums (which Moslems called Azakian, and the Karaims called Azimian) from that time reoriented toward the north, and quickly gaiuned weight in a trade with the Galidj (Novgorod) and Artan (Baltic). In the Artan and Galidj the Azakians were involved in financing, sale of furs and grains, purchase of slaves and metal products. In the same 14th century a part of Azims moved to Artan (Lithuania). In the 1360 almost the whole population of the Djuketau Azims was annihilated by the Novgorodians, who hated them, during an attack on the city. In the attack were also lost 12 thousand of their slaves assembled for sale to the Tatars. The remaining Azims moved to Ametievo (Kazan), where some from them accepted Islam.

The Azims gave Emirs large funds to fight against the Novgorod's attacks, for the construction in the Bolgar of the fort Azak, and for the manning it by a Cossack garrison. One of the leaders of those Cossacks was an ancestor of merchant clan Kazakovs.
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Sadjin- fair.

Sam (sham) - an incantation etched on wood, stone, iron (from the Bulgarian word "sab" or "sam" - to cut, to ax, cut down, ax out).

Sam (sham)- - a vessel of the Bulgarian medicine man (for preparation of treatment, medication) with incantation inscription.

Samra- a first Bulgarian script invented by the Bulgars of Samar and adopted from them at the time of Khan Burtas by the Idelian Bulgars. "Samra" became a basis for the Türkic runic writing. Michael Bashtu personally re-read the texts written in "samra" and from their ancient words selected those which could be used by mullahs in their speeches and notes. Bakir (Ahmed ibn Fadlan) did not rescind that decision, and it remained standing, but at the same time Seid forbade the Moslems to use "samra".

Sarai - residence (court yard with buildings) of the Khan, Bek or Ulugbek (governor) in a city or in a city citadel.

Sarmat (Chirmysh) - the name of a dynasty of the Bulgarian Khans who ruled in Idel in the 8th - 2nd centuries BC. The names of Khans from the Sarmat (Chirmysh) dynasty are: Alabuga-Bulgar, Tuymas, Samar, Kanakbal, Tuhcha, Burtas-Burdjan (Burdjan-tai, Berendey), Madji-Azak, Ilyat (Lug), Bulut, Leu (Lek), Baryn, Torgam, Kunduz, Mosha (pronounced Mos-ha - Translator's Note), Magiz, Audan (Djurash)-Barys, Bak, Saumak, Bayt, Taiga, Nar, Sanar, Ufa, Kara, Ugyr, Boyar, Tigan, At, Balamir, Targiz, Arbat, Balak. Chybyk, Timer, Kur, Kubar, Askal, Aspar, Ytlar, Kuban, Chilyar. "Chiljar was a last Sarmatian Khan of the Idel. His son Kylbur left with a part of his people to the Kara Bershud, bordering the Urus or Kara Sea, and the local Kypchaks submitted to him and recognized him as their Khan".

Senek - "pitch-fork", a folk name for the coat-of-arms "Baltavar"- ψ.

Sermen (sarmam) - a sign of swastika. Kul Gali writes that with time the royal sign "Baltavar" - ψ began to be popularly called "sermen", and a seal also. Therefore a grant letter was called both "bileu" and "bisermen". The initial name of the Bulyar city, he noted, was Bullu or Bileu, i.e  "Tarhan's Place" or a "Place [where is given] Bileu" (in sense "capital city"), but our folks altered it to Bulyar or Bilyar. In addition, Bulyar was also called "Bisermen". All merchants who received patents also began to be called "Bisermen", because the  Moslems received special rights.
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Shakh-Timer, Emir-Timer - Bulgarian names for Tamerlan. The ancestors of Tamerlan, the Kytais or Kalmyks (so thought Kultasi) served Bulgaria in Djaik in a rank of Nagaybaks, and for forty years almost continuously repulsed the armed assaults of the Kypchak (Tatar) groups against the Bulgarian lands. From the family tradition of fighting against Tatars, wrote Kultasi, grew the dislike of Emir-Timer to Desht-i Kypchak.

After the death of Khan Berke, as noted Kultasi, in the steppe grew a harmful influence of those Kypchak clans who in their time suffered from a heavy hand of the Shakh-Timer's ancestors. Learning about these infidels threatening Bulgar with a war because of the presence in the Bulgarian service of the Emir-Timer clan, the grandfather of the Shakh, Ulanbek (a son of Uranbek) demonstrated his nobility and voluntary left to the lands of the Djagatay Turbiys. The Emir of Bulgar himself, with tears in his eyes saw off the cohort of his best Nagaybak to the Kargala crossing of the Djaik  (in the place of the modern Orenburg), where he joined to the expecting him Djagatay envoy under a pretense of being the ambassadorial escort. In memory of his Bulgarian possessions on the small river Birlya (it was also called Byrak), Ulan named his clan Byrlas, and the Bulgars from that time began to call Birlya by the name of Ulan. A brother of Ulan, Tobaj, also had to leave the Bulgarian service, but he was sheltered by a friend of Bolgar Khan Chapkun. One of the descendants of Tobay, Tagyl, was a Visir of the Bolgar friend Khan Berdibek, who was trying to save the Horde from the infection of unbelief. However, the Christian Tatars again gathered their forces and killed both of them. Subsequently, the descendants of Tagyl were Bulgarian viceroys of Seber... "Our historian Tahtagul also comes from this clan of Tobays..."

Shakmak - a carnival, a costumed procession.

Shud- Old Bulgarian name for ancient Celts of the Eastern Europe. This name was later applied to some Finno-Ugric tribes who assimilated Celts.

Sultan - one of the Bulgarian names for the Crimean city of Sagdak (Sudak), the name arose after its transfer by the Bulgaria to the Seldjuk Sultanate.

Sultanbak- a name of the Bulgarian Cossacks guarding and serving the convoys accross the Bulgaro-Crimean border. Its meaning was: "looking at the [city] Sultan (in a sense: at the Turkish-Crimean side)".
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T

Tal (chal)- a stone.

Tambul (Tanbul, Chanbul, Djambul, Djambal, Djamail) - a legendary capital of Idel founded by Khan Djam. Bulgarian biy Bichura from the clan Beser destroyed it during a civil war in Idel, for which, at the will of Almighty, he lost his power, all property, and became poor beggar and a tramp. In the folk legends Tambul was a symbol of gorgeous ideal city or empire. The name of the Turkish city Istanbul (Istambul), as writes Mohammediyar, in Bulgarian means  "Tambul-like".

Taskak- a small table.

Tikme(), shikme - stockade, palings.

Tore- "Righteous Life", a collection of ancient Bulgar laws and customs, which governed the Idel state since the epoch of Djam-Idjik (the ancient Jews adopted this word in the form "Torah" and called by it a collection of their laws and customs), it is a most ancient Bulgarian creed recognizing the spiritual world of Tangra as the world of goodness, and the material world of Shurale as the world of evil.

Trek-su- "Türk's River or Türks' River", aka Terek.

Turkmens - Oguz people. Oguzes were major ancestors of the Bulgars, so both the Turkmens and Bulgars held each other as tribesmen, and actively established and maintained family relations.

Turma (tirma) - a big tent with a hemispherical cover (see Dulo), portable field fortification, adjacent village, suburb, the semi-ironic name of the Kazan, Guzi Turma (Beautiful Village), used by Sayf Sarai, gained acceptance,  which forced Emir Azan to beautify the city with new buildings and a fortress.

Temen anda - "prayer (temen) mountain or mountains (anda)", a Bulgarian pre-Islamic temple complex consisting of a main tall pyramidal (if tiered, more often seven-stepped) building "Chek Yorty" (worship house) and a lower three-storied mausoleum for the Khans and heroes  "May Üly" or "Bulümer". "Temen anda" was also called "Askeleu" ("Askal"), i.e. "Prayer to the Almighty" or "God's House".

U

Uzbeks - a part former Bulgarian (Saksinian) and migrant Oguzes and Kypchaks, who accepted Islam from the Bulgars or during the Uzbek's reign. They stayed near Sarai. After the death of Uzbek, when in the western and central areas of the Desht~i Kypchak Christianity became stronger again, this group of the Islamized Kypchaks departed to Southern Siberia - Northern Kazakhstan, and idemonstratively took the name of Uzbek to distinguish themselves from Nogays (i.e. pagan and Christian Kypchaks). Uzbeksfought with all Nogay and Djuchid non-Moslem rulers (Mamay, Idegey , Djanibek, etc.) on the side of the devout Khans (Tahtamyshids, etc.), and in the beginning of the 15th century, under a pressure of the Idegey  Nogays, left from the Itil region to Kazakhstan. The Uzbeks gladly joined the Bulgarian group sent to capture Idegey. Between the Bulgars and Uzbeks always existed a closest connection, and, both those and those viewed each other as closely related peoples (even tribesmen). The Bulgaro-Uzbek marriages, like the Bulgaro-Turkmen marriages, were actively encouraged by both peoples. For the medieval Uzbek and Turkmen aristocrats was much more honorable to marry Bulgarians, than the Uzbeks and Turkmen girls (Mohammediyar). When the Uzbek Khan Ahmat in the 70es came to the Eastern Europe and has wanted to attack Bulgars, the Uzbek Beks did not allow him to do it. After a defeat of Ahmat by the Nogays the Uzbeks returned to Northern Kazakhstan.

Uzi (guzi) (accent on "i" - Translator's Note) - beautiful, Oguz, Türkic ancestors of Bulgars, "guzi Bulgars" is "real Bulgars".

Ulus - province.

Urus (urys) - big, great. This word preserved in the Bulgarian names of the Idelian and Hunnish shock brigades ("Urus"), in the name of the western Bulgars, "Kara-Bulgars" ("Urus Bulgars"), in the name of the 7th - 9th centuries Bulgarian state ("Urus Bulgar", i.e. "Great Bulgaria"), Black Sea ("Kara or Urus Dingez", i.e. "Great Sea"), in some terms ("Urus kapka"i.e. "big gate", "Urus Atna Kunu" i.e. "Big Weekday (Sunday)" and in others). From the name of the part of the Urus Bulgars, who merged with the Slavs of the Eastern Europe, came the name "Rusich" i.e. "Rusin" - "Russian", and from the name Urus Bulgars came the name  for the Rus state (Rus - Rossia), later the Bulgarian names Kara or Urus Dingez (Great Sea) began to mean the "Black Sea", though in this case the word "Kara" meant "Great", and was a synonym of the word "Urus".

Utlan (utlau, atlan) - armchair, throne, table, saddle.

Utlanchyk (atlanchyk) - chair, small table.

Ufa (aba, oba, etc.) - altar at a top of a hill or mountain.
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Ü

Üllyk- geographical map.

Ürgan  Üly - overland trading road from Bulgar to Spain. The road ran through Krakow, Kara-Balta (Prague), Ürgan (Regensburg), Bavyr (Bavaria), Albak and Alban (in Southern France).

Y

Yaga - sacred tree, symbol of a sacred tree: a column with an image of a cock or a hen on the top, and to the bottom was tied a sacrificial ram. Such columns were installed on the holidays Nardugan, Chumar Botkasy, and Djien.

Yagashlyk - Djien fair where was installed a "yaga" column.

Yalnyk - slave wet nurse. Upon termination of the period of slavery she was ranked as a close relative of the owner, and received from him a house and property for independent life.
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