Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali Biography
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
|Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Chapters 1-5 · Chapters 6-10 · Chapters 11-15 · Chapters 16-20 · Chapters 21-25 and Ghazi-Baradj · Appendix|
|Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3|
In the statement of the author and publisher Fargat Gabdul-Khamitovich Nurutdinov, he wrote the annalistic contents of the Volume 3 as a conspectus. Per F.Nurutdinov, the conspectus renders the annalistic information in the “Djagfar Tarihi“ of the snatched original translation of collection. While studying in the IYALI KFAN USSR (Language and Literature Institute of the Kazan Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences) graduate school, F.Nurutdinov reportedly tried to initiate publication of the translation of the annals, but that led to an opposite result, in 1982 all Nigmatullin original notebooks with the text of the translation were snatched from the summer cabin of his father. F.Nurutdinov retained only a portion of “Djagfar's“ translation that was located at his Kazan home, apparently none of then were Nigmatullin's original notebooks. However, F.Nurutdinov's notes in the text indicate that some portions are of the original Nigmatullin translation.Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication.
The offered copy of the printed edition has not been properly proofread, and still contains typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time.
The “mouse over“ explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of its writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, in blue italics, with additional comments by the translator from Russian to English denoted with a marker “- Translator's Note“ .
|What we know about Kul Gali and his works|
Kul Gali Biography here
Conspectus of “Djagfar Tarihi“ fragments
HON KITABY (BOOK OF HUNS)
Fragments from the Chapter
“DESCRIPTION OF SAKSIN“
1. KHIN KERMAN (Hunnish Fort - Translator's Note)
... The word “Saksin“, as some explained to me, is used both in this form, and also in the forms “Saksi“ and “Sain“, and it means “bottom“ (“lower“). Some others asserted that this name comes from the word “Sakchi“ - “guard“...
Khin Kerman [Sarkel] - is one of the most nice cities of the Saksin province and the center of its Azak sandjak [viceroyalty] which Azakians themselves call Khazar with pride, like many of us call the Ur province also Turan El, and the Urians themselves call Turum El... Since the time of the Kan Otyak, the Khinian sandjakbeys submit reports separately from the Saksin, which makes Azak almost a province. But the Saksin Ulugbeks possess a seniority in military questions, and, it seems, only because of that Azak is considered to be subordinated to Saksin...
Khin Kerman is located on the river the Shir [Don] named so because it abounds with shirs, the coastal reeds thickets... In the estuary of Shir is the city Shirdan [present Azov], almost all inhabitants of which are frontier guards and seamen...
Sometimes the border of the Azak sandjak reaches the lower flow of the river Kalka, and then there are sent Chirkes (mercenary soldier - Translator's Note) patrols. In its mouth are many “kalka“, the places where the tops of the semi-submerged bushes raise above the water, and we thus named the whole river. (See Bakhshi Iman “Djagfar Tarihi“ Part 3. Articles and Notes for alternate version - Translator's Note) That border is called “kyran“ or “kyr“. By the way, I recalled that one island on Kara-Idel, where are our and Suzdal officials hold regular meetings, is also called Kyran...
In the city, I got into conversation with the chief of the border guards Djambek, whose clan was founded by one of the Khazar biys. According to the Bek, the Khazars were those Samara Bulgars whom the Bardjians [Persians] relocated from Arman to Kashan. As there was one thousand of these exiles, Bardjians called them “Khazars“, which in their language means “thousand“. And other Bulgars called Khazars in our way, “Men“ or “Min“, and also “Sart“... As the Khazars were skilful merchants, their name “Sart“ in some places began to also mean “merchant“... Mens headed some Türkic tribes in the Kashan and gave all of them their Bardjanian nickname... In his opinion, from the word “Sir“ (“Syr“), meaning “seven“, came the name of the most ancient Türkic ancestors of the Bulgars, Sirbi or Serbi, which means “Seven Clans“. Only later the name “Serbi“, like the word “Chirmysh“, began to mean the Türks of Bulgaria who remained in the error of paganism. Besides it, our ulans quite often called their Igencheys “Serbi“ ...
A part of Sir-Bulgars on their way halted on the river of Masguts, giving it the name “Syr-Daria“, that is
the “Sir's River“. Later that name
was given a meaning of “Seven Rivers“ (“Jeti-Su“). It is
told, that precisely in the Syr-Daria area prince Gazan grew up...
Djambek opened for me some meanings of some of our words, forgotten in Echke Bulgar. So... the word “sary“ (“sara“, “shara“, “sir“) meant not only the ancestors of Bulgars, not only the “white“ and “yellow“, but also “southern“, “free“, “proud“, “wild“... He also gave me the names “Sary Ishtyak“, as the Bashkortian Bulgars call the Echke Bulgar Bulgars, “Sarychin“, as the Echkebulgars call the southern Bulgars, usually the Saksinians...
Djambek was born in Bish-Balta, about which the following is told. This menzel was founded in 1004 by Kan Masgut Baltavar, who in Türkic was called Bish or Bel, and the station received the name Bish Baltavar. Kan Ibragim, however, ordered to rename this menzel to Bish-Balta because its inhabitants sheltered Masgut after his flight from Bolgar...
Djambek's father Karamysh, who headed the station, wrote a book about the Khazar and Idelian antiquities... The book themselves burned down during an attack by the Kukdjak Ars on Bish-Baltu, but kyranbashy passed to me many records from it. It told a lot about the blunders of our djulars as were called previously our pagans - fire worshippers... And they called the God and all universe created by him by a word “Yyama“ or “Gima“ (“Yima“). From that word came the other name for the God - “Yyamal“, which means “Lord of Universe“. And the name “Djam“ or “Sham“ also goes back to this ancient word, and it means “Noted or Saved by God“. The old name for the priest, “imche“, also comes from it, and it means “Server of God“. One more name connected to this word, “Yyamak“, was understood as the myth and the story of imche about his imaginary travel to the sky...
From the myths the most interesting seemed to me the dastan about Tagmyr or Taymyr, as the the Alp-Bika Quail was called there. In accordance to it, she gave birth to the first people, and then also desired to rule over them. Turan did not allow her to reign in the state of Turan, and then Taymyr persuaded evil spirits to build the “Wall of Divines“, and to destroy people. For that, Tangra turned her into a big mouse or a rat. After that she began to be called Alp-Bika Mouse or Kyrgyz-Kyrkyz [Wild or Free Girl], and was considered a spirit of female narcissism and obstinacy. Some believed that it was she who came to the Kandom Idel in an image of a beatiful girl and caused centuries of troubles in the state. In the beginning she charmed all Bulgarian princes and even persuaded them to be her husbands, and then, favoring one, and then the other, quarrelled the brothers. When she was expelled from Idel, she left to Kashan, where she became an object of worship by Masguts. For that Tangra punished that tribe, which began to also be called Kyrgyzes, by the name of Kyrgyz. The tribe vanished, and even a small group of the surviving Masguts began to carry the name of the Bulgarian dynasty Alan, some representatives of which escaped to that tribe. The steppes of the Masguts were occupied by the Kypchaks, who because of that also began to be called Kyrgyzes...
Masguts were one of Sindian tribes whom Sirs also called Saklans. After a part of Saklans united with the Türks into one people of Bulgars, Bulgars also began to be frequently called Saklans... One more part of Saklans and Bulgars, as I already wrote, left through the mountains we called Kara Korym, that is “Great or High Wall“, to the Great Khin [India]. The Hons also called the wall, by which the Chins fenced off from them, Kara Korym. And the word “korym“ meant, besides that, also “moat“, and “rampart“, and “camp“...
Karamysh also remembered many word meanings “kagan“ or “khakan“. It was a “heavenly thunder“, a “Divine Voice“, a “song by priest with accompaniment of tambourine and a drum“, a “melody in honour of the God, Alps (at a pagan feast) and raisings of a Khan to the throne“, a “cleric - cantor of pagan songs“... As Audan was the cantor of priestly songs, he was called “Kagan“. The descendants of the Alp, the Bulgarian Kans, gave this word the meaning of an imperial title, after which the word “Kagan“ (“Khakan“) began to also mean “Kagan“, “Kan“...
I was interested to learn also what Karamysh-türe wrote about the ancient Türks... It turned out that in antiquity the word “eight“ was pronounced in the form “agyz“, and the Hon Bulgars called “agyz“ the eight-clan federation of the Kara-Kytays [western Mongols], but many Kwarezmian writers frequently transformed it into “Oguz“ and consequently confused the Oguzes-Uzes [Uzi] with Kytays [Mongols]. And these lost scientists are called “observant“, though what would we say about a person who takes a donkey for a camel! [...]
Türe gave me much information also about Kypchaks. So, he wrote that Kypchaks or, more precisely, Kyrgyzes, divided into western and eastern parts. The western part, intermixed with the remains of the Sakklanian Kypchaks [Scythians], had a look of light-eyed and fair-haired people, and the eastern part, mixed with Kytays, Imens [Manchurians] and Chins [Chinese], had appearance of black-eyed and dark-haired people...
In the beginning the Kays [ pagan Uigurs] expelled from Altai to Idjim the western Kypchaks, whom we called Kumans, that is “southern“ or “light“, to differentiate them from the eastern branch. And then Kytays captured the whole Khin and slaughtered a lot of eastern Kypchaks or Oimeks...
The word “Khin“ originally meant “wolf“, later it received
meaning “dog“ and
since the time of the first preachers [8-th century] was applied in this
sense in relation to all Kypchaks. Therefore to designate a wolf started to be
used the expression “ulug khin“...
The Kumans, who originally hammered a wedge between Bulgar and Seldjuk's possessions in Syr-Daria or Faruba area, and then switched to the service of our State, liked to call themselves “Sarychins“... And the Oimeks liked to call themselves by the old name of the eastern Bulgars, “Hons“, because they lived in the former Khinian possessions...
Under a pressure of Kumans, Seldjuks left their beylik and moved through Khurasan to the sacred for the Bulgars lakes Ban [Van] and the Saban [Sevan] in the primeval Bulgarian area Arman, to clear that land from infidels infecting her ...
Then came the time for Kumans to flee, pressed by the Oimeks expelled by the Kytays. For that the Kumans, thrown to the banks of Djaik, which is the “River with Desolated Banks“, began to call Oimeks “Saryes“, meaning “vicious“...
In conversation with me Djambek frequently called his father “ugyr“. When I took an interest in the meaning of this term, he explained that the word “ugyr“ (with forms “uger“, “ügur“, “ugur“ and others) in antiquity meant “literate person“ (“grammarian“), “scribe“, “official“, “vicereine“, and also “storyteller“. Then I understood why Karadjarian Bulymer [Vladimir Svyatoslavich Chernigovsky] called himself “Ugyr“ and loved that name of his more than the other names ...
Describing Tamjan, he mentioned the name “Tamiya kül“ with which they called Azak dingeze... The word “tumyrlyk“ [shipyard] is pronounced as “tumyrtyk“...
He also noted that the word “chally“ they sometimes use with a meaning “island“ and “coastal rocks“ (“cliffs“, “reefs“), and “kuban“ or “kuman“ they use in the sense “south“ (“southern“)...
Djambek was telling me with aspiration about the life on the border...
It turns out, the merchant caravans now prefer to travel from the Kuba-Bulgar [Southern Bulgaria between Caucasus and lower Don and Itil] to Bashtu (present Kyiv - Translator's Note) through Djalda by Savysh road, instead of through Kalka by the Salt Road, as the Salt road became very dangerous. After the death of Khan Khondjak the union of the Kypchak tribes he headed fell apart into 30 possessions, many of which not only warred with each other and attacked their neighbours because of the disputed lands, but also lived by the robberies. In such conditions the caravans went by the Salt road only if all Kypchak tübas, through which it would pass, agreed to allow safe passage to them, and sent hostages to Khin Kerman. In addition, to improve the safety of the merchants, from Khin are sent detachments with waggons to set up tabyrs, the barriers of one or several lines of waggons inside which are piled the goods and hide the merchants. These tabyrs were set up on the way from Shir to Kalka, and then the caravans proceeded only with their own guards. The local Khan also was obligated to give them people while they crossed through his tüba. It was a little bit easier when the caravan was carrying salt and other Saksinian goods to Rus. The Rus Princes, extremely interested in these goods, also ware arranging with the khans of the Kypchak tübas, and these arrangements were observed better than others. On my question about the reason of that, Djambek frankly told me that in the steppe the wild Kypchaks are afraid less of our soldiers than of the Karabulgars-Kaubuyes, Baryndjars, Kyrkumans and Turbiys serving Bashtu and Karadjar. They knew the steppe better, had the armor and horses suitable for the steppe war, and could overtake the uncatchable Kypchaks. In case of plundering of the Rus caravans, detachments of Karabulgars would set out to the steppe without sparing the enemy, which forced a number of Kypchaks to avoid conflicts with Bashtu and Karadjar...
But even with such protection of caravans, in the Kirgiz tübas were always some willing to capture the merchant goodies, as the authority of the Khans in many of them is very weak. Once near the aul Kharka [present Kharkiv], which was once the city of Atille's sister Kharka (name akin to “Swanie“) and consequently has received her name, in a skirmish we captured a son of one Kypchak Khan. On Djambek's remark that with his robbery he doomed to death two of his hostage younger brothers, he answered: “And in this case I would win, as the inheritance and authority of the father would go to me“. But more often not only the hostages, but also such thug robbers are not executed, but held in Saksin to frighten the khans with a prospect of releasing their contending relatives. In fact, everybody knows that two ram's heads do not fit in one boiler. So that was also in this case...
I did not restrain myself from a meeting with the younger brother of that robber, who then was in Khin Kerman. He appeared to be very lively and affable, strikingly differing from his ugly and gloomy sibling. After a conversation with me he accepted the true faith and tool my name Gali. Later with his Djurs he went into the service of Mardan, and participated in the attack on the Kisan Princes and in the Western campaign, all that in the Tatar armour which he received from the hands of Chelbir for his skilful observation of the advance by the army of Subyatai toward Kermek...
Especially interested in the arrival of our caravans are the inhabitants
of Kyr Kuman [in the notebook of I.M.-Kh.Nigmatullin against the name
of this city is marked: “Old Uman?“], as the trade in the Saksin goods
brings them a big profit. And
this city, being the largest fortress on the southern boundary of the Bashtu Princedom,
founded Gilas Caen on the river Kuksu [Slavic “Sinüha“ or its tributary]
after his switch to the Rus service. In the beginning this city
was occupied exclusively by Bulgars and Bulgarian Uzi-Türks who
were called Kubans or Kumans, and the city received their name.
The western Kypchaks began to be called Kumans only later. This city is the last which our caravans from Saksin reach by the Salt road. Most frequently, our merchants do not wish to endanger themselves twice and return by the Savysh road through Djalda...
After unsuccessful sailing to Kara-Burdjan (Balkans, present Macedonia? - Translator's Note), I visited that well-known city visited by sheikhs Hudja Ahmed, Hudja Omar, Abu Hamid and where for a long time lived Kan Otyak, Ugyr Bulymer, Djan Chirkes...
The way from Djalda to Kyr Kuman by the Savysh road seemed to me to be safe. Along it mainly lay the possessions of the Badjanak beyliks, but also happen the tübas of both Kypchaks and Anchians. The most dangerous section of the road is from Djalda to Buri-Chay..., but the Bashkortian Badjanaks quite reliably protected us. And after the crossing of the Buri-Chay at Ulush, which belongs to Anchians, it became much safer. The local biys tresure the glory Savysh road as a reliable way that they ruthlessly catch and execute anyone guilty of robberies there...
We kept constantly close to the banks of the Bug-Inesh, as the coastal thickets and groves, in the beliefs of the owners of the local tübas, could serve as refuge, and consequently bring us a pleasant feeling of safety... And at Kuksu we were already met by a detachment of Kyrkumans sent towards us, which I took for the guards of Chelbir... During a recent conflict of the Bashtu Princes one of them carelessly offended Kyrkumans, and for that reason they, together with his challenger Er-Üruk, set off to Bashtu. The offender prince with their approach fled to his ürtluk (aka yurtluk - Translator's Note) [demesne, domain], and the Bashtuans calmly opened the gates of the city, thinking that through them would enter their Kyrkumans. However Er-Üruk unexpectedly for everyone deceitfully let his hungry Kypchak and Balyn mercenaries to enter the defenceless city, and they began ravaging the old capital of the Kara-Bulgar. Then, at the request of a frightened Bashtu head, Kyrkumans also rode into the city and kicked out the robbers from it. From that time, at the request of the Bashtuans, platoons of Kyrkumans frequently come to the city to ensure safety for its inhabitants during the princely bouts...
About 20 thousand person live in Kyr Kuman, but the majority of its inhabitants are engaged in trade, border service and cattle raising, coming to the city only for the winter... For more than twenty years, since 1160, the vali [town governor] of city was Arslanbek, a descendant of Kan Masgut, whose daughter married Ugyr Bulymer... And the grand daughter of this Arslan Bek is the wife of Bay Kazyk... [According to the annals “Acts of Kaubuyan Beks“ by Agish ibn Hasan, preserved in the book of his descendant Kultasi, during the son of Bay Kazyk, Arslan, the Kyr Kuman became a main center of the Ukrainian Cossack army, but in the 1279 it was destroyed for the refusal of Arslan to participate in the Tatar's attack on Bulgar. Kultasi himself notes that cossacks showed to the Bulgarian ambassadors in 1506-1507 the ruins of this city, which they called Kuksu. Near Kuksu was the Cossack post Kuman] ...
Sheikh Omar, who lives there, has shown me all eight city mosques, of which the stone mosque Kuksu near the spring Kuksu was the biggest and most beautiful...
Earlier Djambek served as the chief of guard for the caravans going to Artan. Once, beating off an attack by the Galidj robbers on a caravan in the Artan territory, he killed their leader, who turned out to be a son of a Galidjian Boyar. When the merchants passed through the Galidjian territory, another Boyar approached Djambeku and told him about an attack on them organized with the purpose of his murder. This Boyar gave guards for the protection of the caravan, and persuaded Djambek to go with him around the place of the ambush dressed in clothes of one of his servants, to save the merchants. Due to these measures, everything ended safely, and our merchants have got off with only a payment for the killed, but Chelbir still transferred Djambek to the service in Saksin. Before sending him to a new place he was told abouth the words of the Kan: “I did it because I appreciate such swankies and I do not want him to perish in vain from an arrow of a hidden in a thicket lousy Galidjian thief“...
Djambek told me that he went with caravans to such areas of Artan as Elgauba, that is the “Land of Rivers“, Taukuba, that is “Chicken Land“, Artan, that is the area by the river Artan ... In the north of Artan he visited a small town Kalbagan, that is “Town or Trading Post of Kalbiys“. Kalbiys or Kalbags we called the people of the most aggressive Shudian tribes of the Artan, which eagerly enlisted to the Bulgarian service since the times of Kan Kubrat (the distorted name of Khan Kurbat indicates that either the translator to Russian used the distorted name common in Russian historiography, or that the text is a later compilation. Kul Gali himself would not make such a mistake - Translator's Note). They served not for long, two or three years, to allow to serve and profit to other fellow tribesmen. The gathering place of their troops which they gether for us is called by us Brig [present Riga], and is in the mouth of the river Tauksu. There they are divided into groups and from there they are sent to serve in different places as decided by their biys. A part of them makes the garrison of Kalbagan [present Tallinn], this small town was called by this name by us. Our merchants established Kalbagan with a help of the prince of the city Balada Baltavar [Vseslav Polotsky] who for some time served in Bulgaria valorously and received there this name.
From this small town starts the southern, much shorter than northern, sea way
to Sadum... However many burlaks [pirates]
from different countries are in wait here for the merchants...
And Shumbuyans gather their troops for us in a place on the river Kum-Inesh [Neman], which is called after the river Kuminesh [present Kaunas]. Many Shumbuyans come to us or protect our caravans. Earlier, in days of the Kans Kubrat and Aydar, Shumbuyans also served us in the area of Sary Balyn [Belarus], which is south from Artan. We called so this most favorable for the life area because there are many birches which then also were called “sary agach“ (pale tree - Translator's Note). Here the main cities are the fortresses Men-Balik [present Minsk], Shamlyn [present Smolensk], Sary-Balik, i.e. “Birch City“ [present Brest] and Balad [present Polotsk], founded by Kurbat and Aydar. Men-Balik received its name in memory of the fact that after submission of this territory to the State there was placed our garrison of a thousand Shumbuyans and Kalbiys... In the beginning in Shamlyn was placed a garrison headed by Shambat (Kurbat's brother? - Translator's Note), in Sary-Balik was a Shumbuyan garrison, in Balad wasa Kalbiyan garrison... Balad was built under Aydar's (819-855 - Translator's Note) order, and he also named it “city“ (“balad“) in Arabian, in memory of his converting to the true faith...
And the inhabitants of Elgauba, Elgaubiys (Elgaubilyar) or Elgabiys [Latvians] are timider than Kalbiys and consequently our Kans did not take them for service. However at the same time Elgabiys are very diligent workers, and Emir Chalmati once invited to his demesne a few hundred Elgabiys. They were resettled on the bank of Dyau-Shir, as they had a habit to live by the river, and called their aul Elga. Their land and their name are these because they live by the tributary of the big river Tauksu, and the tributary our in our language is “elga“. It is said that the mother of Salahbi's wife was Elgabika, and so she [wife] was nicknamed Elga. Salahbi too had a nickname, Yolyg, meaning “divinator“ (“prophet“). This is a very ancient word, like “Adam“, meaning “summoned“. Kan Adam loved his name very much and said that he took it in memory of how the Bulgarian people called him for the throne. Very close to it is our another word, “ataman“, meaning “elected to head prayers to Tangra and to spirits“. Atille has given to this word a meaning “senior“ as he began to appoint the heads of the subject tribes not the biys, but the priests-atamans because of his greater trust to the “God's servants“. However after his death this custom was cancelled, and the word would were forgotten if the Karaims (Karaims in the 5th century? - Translator's Note) did not remember it. They preserved some of our very old words, for example, “Kagan“ which they call the priests. And they continue to call “ataman“ their deans. This word was borrowed from them by the Anchians-Chirkeses and they began to call by it their deans and leaders, though we more often prefer to call deans and seniors “duvan“. It is said that the first to call himself “ataman“ was Djan Chirkes...
I have written all this from the words of Djambek in whose house I stayed happily for a full two weeks. Soon after his accession, Gazi-Baradj summoned Djambek and appointed him an ilchibek of the Artan settlements in the Echke Bulgar, because he knew well their languages and customs. The Bek also was with Gazi-Baradj in the Western campaign, after which he visited me and told about the resettlement of our Artanians, who fell under an attack of the Tatars and retreated with the Gazan army. The inhabitants of the Elga moved from Dyau-Shir to the right bank of Adigel [Kama], the other Artanians were placed along the Adigel river, and along the Misha [Mesha] river, where they founded auls Shali and Tuban. [Per Kultasi, Bek Laish, whose mother was an Artanian, transferred a part of Tubanians to the city of Laish founded by him]...
Djambek sang me many of our songs, and with such a fine voice that it was impossible to listen to his singing without arousal and tears...
Some songs are devoted to the old rituals, so they are named by the names of the Alps, and the others tell about jobs, express a mood, prase different settlements and districts. In this connection is enough to remind of the songs “Baygul“ or “Red (Gold) fish“, “Archa“ [Alp-Bika], “Chakchak“ [record in the M.-Kh.Nigmatullin's notebook: “Nowadays - “Sarman“], “Saban“, “ Sak Sok“... “ Waves of Agidel “ or “Farewell“, “Traveller's Song“ or “Merchant's“ [record in the M.-Kh.Nigmatullin's notebook: “Nowadays - “Miner's“], “Uran“ or “Military“..., “Karabag“ or “Kara Urman“ (black forest - Translator's Note)... In some songs there are simultaneously few themes at once...
Like, the song “Baygul“ sings how many tried to force Alp-Bika to forget Audan-Boyan, but nevertheless she had not forgotten her beloved...
“Archa“ is very frequently sung during Soren... Its words are simple and touching...
Why are you burning down?...
The song “Chakchak“ is sung both during Kargatuy, and during Chumar botkasy... The “Traveller's Song“ sings about an event with the Bulgarian merchant Azan, when his caravan with huge difficulties crossed a waterless desert, and then had to defend in the tabyr from an attack by the robbers. In addition to it, it reflects about Azan's longing for his native city and friends...
Djambek said that on the “Karabag“ motive in the beginning were sung the funeral and
remembrance songs, but then the mullah Bakir forbade them, and this melody only held up by the
pagans in Dyau-Khondjak and Echke Bulgar. As a proof of that he
sung me one such song, called “Kurgan“. His father sang it after burying of his father... He
[father] was a Muslim
(aka Moslem in Eng. - Translator's Note), but his mother came from a
pagan clan, and learned to sing this song...
Anywhere on my way in the Saksin, I did not meet any turuns [fiefs, demesnes], turunchis [feudal lords, landowners], nor their misfortunate kurmyshes [serf igenchians]. Instead of that, I saw there free lands and free people, a poorest of whom was not less full of pride than their Ulugbek. This prominent mark made the travel in this province especially pleasant and unforgettable...
2. DJALDA (Crimea - - Translator's Note)
Djalda [Crimea] is the biggest part of Kara Saklan [Ukraine], it remained under the authority of our Akbulgarian Kans (White, or Eastern Bulgarian - Translator's Note) after the split of the Kara-Bulgar or Urus-Bulgar State into the Kara-Burdjan [Danube Bulgaria], Urus [Rus] and Ak-Bulgarian [Itil-Ural] parts, therefore our Emir s always treasured this area so much. The governorship of Djalda, which is included in the Azak sandjak, is in the Agardja [present Kerch] city...
The most safe entrance to this province is through Khin, which sandjak-beys she is subjected to. As I already wrote, during my travel the sandjakbey of Azak was my old comrade, the son of Lachyn Hisami, Badretdin with a nickname Ablas-Khin (who was just a youth when his father first time brought him to me), therefore the stay in his possessions was extremely easy and pleasant...
Some of our cities are outside Djalda, they are also subordinated to Agardja. These are Birman [present Odessa], Ulush [Oleshie], Ulag-Kashan [present Kishinev] and Azi Ulag [present Yassy]. Birman is on the bank of Azi-Ilman at the mouth of Buri-Chay (estuary of river Dnieper, where present Kherson is located, not Odessa - Translator's Note), on the opposite bank from the mouth of ilman [bay](now called “liman“ in Ukrainian, Russian, Rumanian, Turkish etc - Translator's Note). Its garrison, like that of Ulush alay, consist of Badjanaks (Besenyos - Translator's Note) and Anchians... “Birman“ is a Hon's word, it means “sea bay at estuary of a big river“...
And “Azi-Ilman“ means “Bulgarian Bay“ as “As“ or “Az“ in Kumanian means “Bulgar“... The city of Ulush... near the mouth of Buri-Chay is famous first of all for its ferry... The name “ulush“, which nowadays in our language means an almost forgotten ritual of koumiss drinking by all participants of a Djien on the first day of the meeting in the djien suba, as a sign of a kinship, also carries an aul near the Djalda city...
Ulag-Kashan is on the river Kichi-Bug (“calf“, lit. “small-ox“, present Bychok, i.e. “calf“ in Moldavian and Russian - Translator's Note)... “Azi-Ulag“ means “Bulgarian city in the land of Ulags“... Our merchants go from Djalda to Birman, and from there, by the rivers Tyr-lesy [Dniestr] and Burat [Prut] to the Ulag-Kashan and Azi-Ulag... These cities are extremely important for State, for they support our trade with Kara-Burdjan, Ulag [Romania], Kryash [Greece], Madjar (Magyar?- Translator's Note) and Baylak (Poland- Translator's Note). Between these cities are a few of Anchian, Ulagian and Kumanian beyliks. They change their borders, territories and names every day, so that even to list their names is senseless. Our cities pay them a tribute, and in the rest they are free. In the lands of these beyliks are pitiful remains of several cities from the times of Burtas (legendary Khan Burtas of the 7th century BC? - Translator's Note) and Kara-Bulgar, but they are not of any importance any more. Among them I would mention Sary-Kerman, Ak-Kerman, Chirmysh, Bigar... Ulagians explained to me that “Chirmyshes“ were called the Bulgars of the Burtas times, and that now they call Bulgars “Bigars“...
The Madjarian, Urusian, Kryashian and Kara-Burdjanian rulers also pay tribute to these beyliks, so that they would not ravage their possessions...
I could not reach Kara-Burdjan (Balkans, present Macedonia? - Translator's Note) because of a sea storm, but from there to Djalda came my pupil and tovarich Fazyl of the Kermek clan, and told me a few things about that land. It consists of five large parts, of which the western part is called Mag-Idan, that is the “Wolf's Lowland or Valley“, the northern part is Kichi-Ulag, the central part is Baradj Keleu, in honour of the prayers for a crop holiday, the southern part is Buyrak, and the eastern part is Deberdjay [area of Pliska]... And Deberdjay (present Dobrudja? - Translator's Note), that means “Thunderer“, is one of the names of Alp Kubar or Babai (babai “progenitor“, Papaeus of Herodotus 4.59 - Translator's Note) under whose protection, as is widely believed, is this land. There, many locations carry his names. Fazyl himself lives in the aul that also carries one of the names of Kubar, Sary Saltyk, which is “Thunderboltian“ in Honnish. Closeby are a hill and a lake carrying the name of Babai, as it is believed that sometimes he likes to rest there... All those Kara-Burdjanian (Balkanian - Translator's Note) Bulgars who have did not want to be christened fled to Deberdjay, and there the Moslems always were a majority. Abdallah ibn Bashtu was setting up the mosques and schools every time when came there. He took many Kara-Burdjanian books from there, because of a threat of burning, as they were written in our ancient “samra“ alphabet, or by6 the Muslims. Some people even believe that his nickname “Deberzi“ means “Deberdjayan“... In Deberdjay also found refuge the followers of Hudayar heresy (hudayar from huday - “god“ and yar - “adore“, known as “Bogomil“ in Slavic, from bog - “god“ and mil - “adore“, a 10 c. Manichaean theological movement in Balkans - Translator's Note)... The most known city of this blessed land is Djurash, called so because there were held military feasts in honour of the Alp Audan-Djurash. The first such feast held Alyp-biy (Atilla's grandfather, reign 378-402 - Translator's Note), and in this place seid Abdallah erected a mosque “Djurash“...
With the view that the narrow landstrip connecting
Djalda with the Kara-Saklanian steppe
it is blocked by a moat and a rampart near our fortress Korym, it can be looked
at as an island... The travel through Korym is forbidden to everybody, except
for our troop formations and the caravans of acknowledged merchants, who are
given special letters for this purpose. It is guarded by mercenary Badjanaks of
the Bashkortian Horde, and they receive for it payments from the merchants and
Djalda authorities. The children and
close relatives of the sardars of the Korym garrison are hostages in Khin Kerman
and Sakchi-Bolgar, and in the Korym our representatives
(ilchibeks) supervise them. However even then these descendants of
the Khan Bashkort sometimes betray the State and let the bribing them Kypchaks
accross the moat... In 1223, when to the Korym through the Kuba-Bulgar broke the
Tatars, the sardar Togrul of the fortress garrison at that time also let them
Djalda, even though for another reason.
He was forced to it because the Tatars threatened in case of his refusal... to
kill his younger brother Mamli, who was captured by them together with several
other Bachman's soldiers in the battle at Madjara Suba.
Mamli's story (the following is the story by Mamli himself about it, taken from another chapter of the “Hon Kitaby“: “Before the attack of the Tatars, a few Daglyks [Dagestanians] were seized by the vali of Yana Djurash for an armed assault on the merchants, and thrown in zindan of the fortress. However a majority of the Daglyk [Dagestan] biys came to Yana Djurash with their weapons and with their retinues, and demanded the release of the prisoners, who were close relatives of some of them. The real reason for such a unanimous discontent was that Bachman called Daglyks to go with him to Dyau-Khondjak, threatening to otherwise cancel the custom of giving gifts to the biys. The biys did not want to go to a campaign, and they started a riot, falsely accusing vali for senselessness. The town governor sent to Bachman a letter with a request: “Either cancel the campaign and keep giving gifts, or leave Yana Djurash“. But the Ulugbek, in his turn indignant of the boundless impudence of the biys, went to Yana Djurash with a small group of Kumyks [eastern part of the Burdjan, or N.Caucasian Bulgars, who also were called Djurash Bulgars]... The Daglyks called Masguts [Osset](the comment equalling Masguts of the text with the Ossets indicate a late, 20-eth century mindset of the commentator - Translator's Note) to the aid, had time to join and ally with Tatars in Gurdja, and suddenly appeared in the rear of Bachman with a part of the Tatars they guided through the mountains. At the same time to Yana Djurash promptly came from the south the major forces of the Tatars, who have left from the Gurdja and Midan [Azerbaijan]. The biys who were beseiging the city, immediately switched over to of their side, and only the courage and fidelity of the Djurashian [Vaynakhian] (Presently known under exoethnonyms Chechen and Ingush - Translator's Note) and Kumykian parts of the garrison forced the enemy to give up the idea of storming the citadel, vali's residence. However through another part of the city the infidels went further, and Bachman found himself between them and the platoon of Masguts and Tatars. He managed to be saved only due to an unexpected for the infidels strike of the mountain Djurashians [Vaynakhians], who swamped the Masguts and Tatars and cleared a way for the retreat of the Ulugbek. The vali with his soldiers was later taken from the Yana Djurash by our seamen, who threatened to drop on the city, in case of the Daglyks' resistance, the sheredjirs (incendiary projectiles, called in Rus “shereshirs“ or “Bessermen's Fire“ - Translator's Note), which they actually did not have. For the sheredjirs they portrayed the huge jugs with water, and for yau tagans (ballistic machine - Translator's Note) the remains of one ship crushed on the coastal reefs... At the same time Torsyn, the brother of Bachman on the run, hearing about his difficulties, came with Shir and Djurgi Kypchaks to the Madjara Suba... The break through border succeeded because he portrayed his army for our's, which was easy: the same Kyrgyzes lived on that and on this side of the Shir. To the aid of rebels immediately came the Masguts who, like the Shir's Kypchaks, were big fans of robbing their neighbors. The local garrison consisted of Djurashians and Burdjanian Bulgars [Karachayans, Balkars and Kumyks], and it refused to surrender. Torsyn surrounded the city and was waiting near it for his brother, to sort things out. Bachman, however, retreated to the Kumyk steppe [present Kalmykia], and instead of him to the Madjara Suba came the Tatars...
The the Subyatai's offer to switch to his side, Torsyn with an honor of a
Bulgarian ulan responded: “You helped me a little, for that I allow you to
follow your road, but I do not wish to know you, infidel, and din't linger in my
beylik“. The Tatars could not leave a strong army behind
their back and, consequently, Subyatai secretly offered Masguts and Shir
Kypchaks a huge compensation to switch to his side. Those agreed, and together
with Tatars fell upon the remains of the Torsyn's troops. The Kypchaks of the
Khan Djurgi very soon run away, and remaining alone troopers of the Khan
were slewed. The poor Torsyn in this fight was badly wounded and captured.
Subyatai decided to use him as a bait and sent to Bachman a messenger with the
following news: “We do not bear a malice toward you and are leaving your land,
but first at Madjara Suba we want to turn to you your contender brother, as a
compensation for our unintentional damage to you“. The temptation to catch his
troublemaker brother was so great that Bachman left the desert and approached
the city. Two armies stood against each other... But as soon as the Tatars
turned over Torsyn to Bachman and drove off, the infidels suddenly attacked from
two sides and surrounded his Saksinian Kypchaks and Kumyks. If Djambek did not
appear in time with a detachment of Kabars and Saklanian Bulgars
[Karachays and Balkars], the Ulugbek's
troops would be destroyed. The intervention of the Azakians forced Tatars to
stop fight with Bachman, and Ulugbek managed to leave through Djurash to
Dyau-Khondjak, which he should have seized before under an order of Chelbir. The
Daglyks and Midans [Azerbaijanians] did not
dare to obstruct his move, but in the Dyau-Khondjak he was surrounded by the
Gurdjan army and had to negotiate, and even pretend to agree to go into the
service of the Gurdjan malik. However, the Gurdjans were totally
non-conciliatory, and eventually there was an encounter that ended with a full
route of the infidels. We seized again not only the Martüba
[Northern Dyau-Khondjak], but also the
Karabag [Southern Dyau-Khondjak] and Tukchin
[Western Dyau-Khondjak] along the river
Horym [Hrami]. The Ariyaks resettled there
by the Gurdjans, whose relatives in the Echke Bulgar were resettled still by
Lachyn, this time met our warriors very hospitably and even helped Ulugbek with
people, and therefore Bachman did not touch them...42the 43
Tatars waited for him in Daglyk for about a year, thinking that the Gurdjans would push himour from Dyau-Khondjak. The Daglyks and Masguts fed and supplied with women their new friends, and were regretful about the loss of the rule of State which was easy for them. Before that, the Tatars a little longer rested in Bardjil and Gurdja, the kings of which they defeated and who have undertook to feed and supply with women their enemies. When the infidels moved from there to Djurash, some of them already had children from the Gurdjan, Ariyakian and Bardjian women, whom they abandoned without any regrets...
A reporrt to Chelbir about these events mentioned only the family quarrel of the brothers and the mutiny of the Daglyk biys. Contrary to the expectations, Gabdulla took this very easy. Probably, the mood of Kan was affected with the report of visier Fayzulla, the son of Gubajdulla, that Daglyk is the only and very unprofitable province of Saksin, the income from which does not even pay for the gifts to the local biys. “Daglyk asked us to guard it from the enemies. If it does not want it now, let them live their life“, - said the Kan and only ordered to improve the defense of the Kumyk and Khinian border and to give the post of the Saksin Ulugbek to Djambek, until the clarification of the reasons for the quarrel of the brothers. But soon there was nothing to investigate: Torsyn died of wounds in the hands of Bachman, telling him before death: “That you deprived me from my native land and yurtluk was worse than death for me, therefore I warred with you. But I am glad that I did not do anything bad to you, and am dying from the wounds received in a fight with infidels“... Bachman took heavily the death of his brother and repented for the actions against him. Immediately after returning he told the Kan about the courageous death of Torsyn, and Chelbir, pleased with his Dyau-Khondjak capture, returned to him the post of the Ulugbek, and gave the children of his brother a demesne... In 1223, giving up his wait for Bachman, Subyatai went around the Madjara Suba to the Shir. Djambek, learning from the captured about Tatars' intention to go to Buri-Chay, ordered to allow the infidels out of Saksin without a fight... I was taken a prisoner while covering the withdrawal of Bachman in the battle at Madjara Suba, and the Tatars, having learned who I am, did not kill me even though they were very angry with us... “) End of Mamli's story
Amazingly, however, the Tatar intrusion even helped us. The reason is that before the intrusion, a unit of karatuns [crusaders] captured Sagdak, which we transferred to the Uzian Sultan (Uzes-Oguzes, i.e. Seljuks? - Translator's Note). This unit was on the move to the aid of Gurdjans, but on the way it unexpectedly changed direction. The Rumians, who trusted the peace treaty with these most malicious enemies of the devout, fell victims to their trustfulness... Suddenly near the city appeared the Djaba's Tatar unit led by Togrul, and it easily handled the several hundred infidels who advanced toward them. The escaped karatuns run in horror to the ships and hasty sailed to the sea, where they fell prey to the Sasy-Tamiyanian burlaks...
Later Togrul and Mamil, together with Ablas-Khin, switched back to us during the battle at Kermek, and received a merciful pardon by Chelbir...
At the western coast of Djalda where two ilmans [bays] cut deeply inland..., are the cities Karga-Gezlyau and Sary Kerman, and on the way from the coast to the mountains are Dayr or Bay Dayr-Anbal [present Simferopol], Bagcha (present Ukr., Russ. “bakxcha“, water-malon field - Translator's Note) Bolgar and Yalama Bolgar...
The Karga-Gezlyau [present Evpatoria] is famous for its autumn fairs where come thousands of the Bashkortian Badjanaks and Kumanian merchants. Besides, here is a spring from which drunk Kan Djurash and which is considered to be sacred by the townspeople. From here Djurash was went to the city of Alpbiy and after its capture began to be also called Alp (Alyp)-Biy...
In Sary Kerman [present Sevastopol] live 10 families of Echkebulgar merchants, 15 Karaim families and about 200 families of Chirkess Kara-Burdjan and Anchians, professing the Hudajar error. This city was established by the immigrants from the ancient Kara-Bulgarian city Sary-Kerman, and so it received its name... One part of the wall of this fortress is of rough stone blocks, and another is of two weaved fences, with the space between filled with small stones, sand and dirt. No Kypchak or Kryash [Greek] is allowed there ...
In the middle of city is a big and beautiful white house serving as a
caravan-sarai and as a refuge for the inhabitants of the balik
[palisaded suburb]. The vali of the city, an
Anchian Aibat who accepted Islam and a name Mohammed, is marked by unusual
strength. When once the Kypchaks of the Khondjak's son Djurgi attacked the Sary
Kerman, after plundering unfortified baliks of the Anbal, Bagcha Bolgar and
Yalama Bolgar, Aibat in extreme irritation pulled out a huge pole from the gate
of the city and with one blow tumbled down three horsemen at once. The Kypchaks,
seeing it, fled in horror. After that Aibat has received a nickname Baj Kazyk
[Big Pole] and Sary Kerman began to be
sometimes called Baj Kazyk also. At the same time thus vali was quite
On the return way Kypchaks stayed for the night in the aul Djuan-Koiy [“Wild Onion Well“, present Jankoy], but at night were slaughtered by Badjanaks and hungry Sasytamiyans. The brother of Djurgi, Tarak, was killed on the spot, and Djurgi was seized and turned pver to Aibat. The Agardjian merchants were frightened by that news, for in the case of Djurgi's death the embittered Kyrgyzes could block the Savysh road to Bashtu. Their representatives hastily went to Sary Kerman to prevent an execution. But what was the amazement of the merchants when vali told them that he released Djurgi... After the capture of Istanbul by the Altynbashes (Italian crusaders? - Translator's Note) Mohammed wanted to seize the Kryashen [Chersonese and its vicinity], but the Aagardjians persuaded Chelbir to be satisfied with a only tribute from that city and its vicinity, for the sake of protecting the established trade with Tyrians [Greeks]...
The Aibat's unit on the way to join with the army of Gazi-Baradj was taken by the Tatars for enemy's, and perished fighting them, together with this comely vali... The sons of Aibat were with Gazi-Baradj on the Western campaign (Kara sugyshy), and one of them, Arslan, later came to see me... [According to the records of Agish, Arslan Gabdel Mumin, the son of Aibat Mohammed, has headed the first Cossack army, the tümen, in the Ukraine. The Anchian Cossacks altered his Muslim name Mumin to “Mamai“ and under this name sung of him in their songs. Arslan became a named brother of Khan Nogay, due to which he busted the invention of the Tatars to raze Bashtu to the ground. For his refusal to participate in the Mengu-Timur's invasion to Bulgaria, Arslan was stripped of his Cossacks' Sardar rank and seized, but he managed to flee to Sary Balyn, from which he moved over to Bolgar. The Emir Mohammed-Alam eventually wrestled from Khan Tohta a pardon for Arslan and allowed him to return to the Ukraine to the city Baradj Keleu (Pereyaslavl). About this city Kul Gali wrote in one of the chapters of “Hon Kitaby“ that it was founded by Bu Yurgan (605-607, Gr. Organa, Slavic “Gostun“, from Bulgarian/Chuvash “kushtan“ - “custodian“, for his role as Kurbat's Ilchibek -regent - Translator's Note), in the prayer place to the Alp Baradj-Samar, where the calfs-torboks were sacrificed. Therefore the city received the name of the prayer place (Baradj Keleu), and the river received the name of the calf-torbok, Torbokzay (Trubezh). For some time Baradj Keleu belonged to Asparuh, who loved this city so much that he named a city in Kara-Burdjan with its name].
Anbal is located in upper course of the river Salgyr, which flows into lake Savysh or Sibash (“heads of chiy - reed rising above water“), separated from the sea by a long stripe of sand Savysh at eastern coast of Djalda...
This lake... emits such fetidity that its shores were nicknamed Sasy Tüba... Our authorities supervise this part of Djalda rather poorly, as nobody of the Bulgars and Anchians-Chirkeses want to live there, and consequently the fugitives from the Urus [Ukrainian Rus] could mischievously build something like a city in the mouth of Salgyr. The first settlement there was founded still by the group of Barys (Slav. Svyatoslav, 945-972 - Translator's Note) after the State's army kicked him out from the Tamiya-Tarkhan (Rus' legendary Tmutarakan - Translator's Note). These fugitives began to also call the pity settlement Tamiya-Tarkhan, in commemorating the our city they lost, but we call this small town of refugees Sasy Tamiya... There settle the most maleficent robbers, coming there by small ships and boats... In the beginning they were at enmity with the population of Djalda, and a few times we, clamping the noses, destroyed their poor hovels. In spite of the fact that the tramps almost always managed to sail off in time into the sea, where nobody dared to confront them, and then were coming back and rebuilding Sasy Tamiya, they eventually recognized the authority of State and began paying tax and rendering various services. When their situation was adequate, their behavior was rather tolerable, but during hunger times they attacked the Kypchak posts and the Kryashian and Gurdjan boats and settlements, and not leaving anybody alive...
In the time of struggle with Sasy Tamiya, when its groups even attacked the Agardja, Kau Kerman and Tamiya-Tarkhan, the Agardjians hired from among the Sasytamiyans about two hundred tramps and posted them as a garrison in Urus Atil, our fortress at the estuary of the river Atil. That river also runs into the lake Savysh, only to the south of the Salgyr. The Agardjians did not spare the means to sustain the Urus Atil chirkeses well nourished, due to which the new garrison protected them from the wild Sasytamiyans more reliably than our armies, and by that forced them to obey our authorities...
At the southern shores of Djalda notable are the cities of Kau Kerman [present Feodosiya], Sagdak or Sultan [present Sudak], Artyk, Djalda [present Yalta], and Asparyk, where, as is written, was born Asparuh, the younger son of Kan Kubrat...
The control of Djalda, as I already wrote, is in the Agardja, separated from the Tamiya (Tamyan) Burun [Taman peninsula] by a passage (bulak) Urus Bulak [“Big Passage“, i.e. Kerch strait]. The narrowest part of this passage, opposite to the Agardja, carries the name Kamyr Bulak (Cymmerian strait? - Translator's Note) ... The most known place in the Agardja, except for its picturesque market, is Bandja Kepe where are located five esteemed hermit caves...
In Kau Kerman I saw an amazing performance of bylagay [theatre] (Ukr., Russ. “balagan“ - Translator's Note), in which costumed like for a masquerade boys with masks played scenes from the “Shan Kyzy Dastany“ and “Tale of Jusuf“. The leader spoke, sang and accompanied on a dombra, and the boys only danced and moved, and in the course of the performance at the proper time sighed, screamed and so forth... Such bylagay was at the court of Shambat (663-672 - Translator's Note), Aydar (819-855 - Translator's Note) and Anbal (1135-1164 - Translator's Note)...
3. TAMYAN AND DURTSU
Tamiya (Tamiyan) Burun is separated from the other part of Saksin by the sea and river Kuman or Kuban, and it also can be viewed as an island. Behind the river Kuban already begin the Saklan mountains...
The most known cities on the Tamiya coast of the Urus Bulak are Kamyr Bulak, Echke Bolgar or Echke Bandja, Urus Bulak and Tamiya-Tarkhan...
After the unsuccessful Dyau-Khondjak campaign of 1174, Otyak
(1164-1178 - Translator's Note)
decided to divide Saksin into two provinces, Saklan and Saksin. In the new
division, the Khin Kerman went as a regular city to the Saksin, the Karatayak
(or Karatay? - Translator's Note)
beylik of the Sarychin sandjak of Saksin went to Mardan, and the center of the Saklan
il became the city Madjara
Suba. The reorganization almost ended with a catastrophe, as has offended
everybody, the Karatayans, and Khinkermanians, and Azakians, and Kabars, and
Burdjans, and Aktübaes, and caused at once
contentions and apathy. For example, Karatayans began to allow the Shir robbers
into the Mardanian lands...
The Kryashes also decided to take advantage of this miscalculation. Earlier, they only occasionally and for a short time could capture the Tamiya Tarkhan, and even that with the help of Balyns and Gurdjans, but in the 1184 they prepared a strong invasion in alliance with Balynians and Gurdjans, and with Masguts, and with Shir Kypchaks...
While Kypchaks were besieging Khin Kerman, and Masguts were besieging Iske Tash, our main fortress on the approaches to Madjara Suba from the south, the Kryashes, Gurdjans and Balynians took the Tamiya-Tarkhan. The success of the infidels was helped by that the Kryashes fought from the big ships, counteracting which in the sea the ships of the Sasytamiyans, Challykumans and Shirdans could not yet then. Chelbir sent Lachyn Hisami to fix the situation, for which he received and used to the fullest the emergency rights. First of all he declared in the Saksin-Bolgar and Madjara Suba that in case of a route of the infidels, he would immediately restore the former united Saksin province and its beyliks and sandjaks. That at once installed the hopes and calm into the hearts of all Saksinians, and they quickly gathered the needed militia and went with enthusiasm to the Tamiya-Tarkhan. The infidels' 8 thousand people had already felt to be the winners when upon them suddenly fell 5 thousand of the Saksin gazis. Not used to retreat without a fight, the Kryashes, Gurdjans and Balynians sabered desperately, but only had cut off their way to safety and were all felled. Not a single infidel ship left the Tamiya-Tarkhan, as the significant part of their seamen disembarked ashore, and the rest were pounded down by the Sasytamiyans. Hearing about the doom of the allies, the Shirs and Masguts fled right away from the Khin Kerman and Iske Tash... Among a few captured alive were a bashdaftardar of the Gurdja and a favourite son of the Masguts' biy. Chelbir requested in exchange for their release to install Lachyn as malik of Gurdjà, and released the captured at once after fulfillment of this requirement...
Khin Kerman not always had the means to pay for the service of the soldiers in the Tamiyanian cities, and during these financial difficulties the chirkeses were discontented and was a danger of their abandoning the service or even switching to the enemy side. The Agardjians, whose well-being was based on the safety of their trade and settlements, could not afford it and wrestled from the Kan Anbal a sanction to administratively put the Tamiya-Tarkhan and other cities on the Tamiyanian coast of the Urus Bulak to Agardja, in exchange for the acceptance by the Agardjians of the burden to maintain their garrisons...
It is interesting, that Klych Rumi during his visits to Uchel always lodged
in the city's Karaim uram “Djahud-katau“
(Jewish katau, possibly from kat “alien“ + tau “hill“,
i.e. “stranger's hill“ - Translator's Note)
on the Djuketau mountain, set up with a sanction of Kan Anbal. When I asked him
about the reason for it, the Djalda Beklerbek
(Bek of Beks, akin to “Shakhinshakh“, an interesting
parallel - Translator's Note)
replied that even far from his native city he likes to guest with his fellow
Near the mouth of the river Kuman which we also call Kuban and Kuba, is the city Chally Kuman, the most fortified and safe out of all Tamiyanian settlements. Not accidentally, the magistrate of the Tamiya tüba in the Azak ilchibeklik of the Saksin province moved there from the Tamiya-Tarkhan. In Chally Kuman is also a largest shipyard (tumyrlyk) in the State, headed by the descendants of the master Tumash...
If in Djalda live many Tyrians, in the Tamiyan are almost none of them, and in the garrisons of its cities many Kabars [Adyges] serve as chirkeses... The Kabarian troups also protect the southern border of the Tamiyan, which is separating Saksin from the Gurdjan possessions...
The Tamiyatarhanians are very unhappy that the Djalda Uruses call Sasy Tamiya with the name of their city. Untill now they have not forgotten the assault by Barys (Slav. Svyatoslav, 945-972 - Translator's Note) who executed all captured Tamiyanians, mostly Kabars, and also the other Urus assaults. The founders of many Kabarian clans fell in the battles with infidels, and the hearts of their descendants burn with vengeance... Therefore the Uruses in the Tamiyan are not loved very much, and very few of them are there...
One of the Kabarian biys, Simez, especially came to the Tamiya-Tarkhan to meet with me, and arranged a big feast in my honour. He learned about my arrival from his senior son, who was the Sardar of the city garrison... In the feast were many musicians playing various drums, kubyzes, dombras, sybyzgy [windpipe], sure [flute], surnay [bagpipe], dyngyr [tambourine], djiz dyngyr [gong], cheltyrs [handbells], gidjak [stringed bow instrument] and other instruments... Simezbiy sang for me the songs of Michael Bashtu and Kabars... I, in turn, sang for him my songs. The biy was so touched by the meeting with me that he told me: “ I see that you not only a decent, but also a sacred man. And consequently I would like, as a token my supreme respect, accomplish now for you your strongest desire“. I answered him: “I Want you to say: “There is no God except for the God“, and he did it... He... accepted the true faith...
And as by their laws his subjects should be unifidian with the biy, Islam was also accepted by all his 400 soldiers. They immediately established two mosques, one in the Tamiya-Tarkhan, and another in an aul on the seacoast, at the foot of the Saklanian mountains...
The founder of the Simez clan, Abrag, of the most aggressive Kabar tribes, was biy Abrag. His great-grandson, also carrying the name Abrag, helped Kan Aydar in crushing the Khazar Kypchaks. The descendants of Abrag helped to join Saksin to the Bulgar, and went into the service to our Kans, and Talib (Kan/Emir in 976-981 - Translator's Note) allowed them to form a Kabarian beylik in the Saksin. It is told that when Emir offered the oldest Abrag, Sabitu, to name his beylik “Four tübas“ (Durt tübalar - Translator's Note)..., the Bek asked: “Let us better call it “Durtsu“ [“Four Rivers“], as we call our tübas by the names of the rivers. In fact, the tübas change their borders and disappear at all, but the rivers flow eternally“. Talib liked the suggestion of the biy, and ratified it...
The daughter of Bozok, Sudju-bika, who was also called Shirin, was a wife of one of the Abrags, Er-Dada. He received this name [“Father of Heroism“] from us, who admired his military valor. Sudju-bika fled to him from Bashtu in search of a relieve from the molestations of Myshdauly [Mstislav], and in the Tamiya she became the wife of Er-Dada. The Kabarian people loved her and called her Tamiyabika, meaning something like the “Mother of Tamiyan people“. Myshdauly used the flight of Sudju-bika as a pretext for an attack on the Tamiya-Tarkhan, to capture which he was helped by the Tyrians... Er-Dada decided to take back the city, with which protection Kan Ibragim (1006-1025 - Translator's Note) charged him, and then Myshdauly offered him a wrestling match, the winner of which would get the then center of Azak... Er-Dada has easily fell down Myshdauly to the ground and won a full victory, but when he bent to help Myshdauly to rise, Myshdauly suddenly stuck him with a knife he hid beforehand, and perfidiously, killed our bogatyr (mighty hero - Translator's Note). After that the people of Myshdauly attacked Kabars from an ambush and pushed them from the city... Simez said that when Tamiyabika learned about it she turned to stone from agony. Near this stone the Kabars set up an altar and called it “Anauba“ [“Mother's Sacrificial Altar“].
The son of Er-Dada and Tamiyabika received from Baluk (1028-1061 - Translator's Note) a title inal and so was proud of that rank that he made it his name...
Myshdauly pushed Inal far from Anauba, but Kabars could not take it, as theyconsider a greatest shame to lose the tombs and relics of the ancestors. After Myshdauly was killed in our ambush, Kabars quickly kicked out the enemy from their beylik, and then Inal set up his stan near Tamiyabika stone and also called it “Anauba“ [present Anapa]. Later the biy Simez transferred his quarters to an aul which he called by his Muslim name Ibragim [present Abrau-Dürso]. And he called himself Ibragim in honour of the Kan who was especially esteemed by the Abrags. Ibragim stayed for some time in the Khin, and prevented an attempt by some Kabarian biys to remove the clan Abrag from the power in the Durtsu by firmly siding with the biy Sabit. For that, Sabit helped Ibragim in his struggle against Timar...
And in the Durtsu, the rule in which was forever given by Kan Ibragim to the clan Abrag, are four cities. About one of them, Anauba, I already wrote, the second city is called Tamiya Madji [present Novorossisk] in honour of the son of Kan Burtas (legendary Idelian Khan, Gr. “Partatua“, 683 — 633 BC, married to the daughter of the Assyrian Malik Asarhaddon Samara-bi - Translator's Note), Madji-Idjik (legendary Idelian Khan still ruling in 625 BC - Translator's Note), who wrestle the Durtsu land from the Kamyrts [Cimmerians] and founded the city. It is near the aul Ibragim. And the city was called Tamiya because there was the wedding between Er-Dada and Tamiyabika... The Third city was also founded by Madji, and he called it Turgan, i.e. “Bride“ [present Gelendjik], as there Chypchyk, the daughter of Abrag, the founder of Abrag clan, became his bride. And the word “turgan“ is a seldom nowadays form of the Alp-Bika Turan name, who was considered a patroness of the brides... Also seldom is nowadays used the name “Kurmysh“, which meant “Monkey“ and was given to the restless or very artful children... The fourth city was founded by Inal and he called it with his name [present town Novomihaylovsky]...
And behind this city is aul Durtsu or Doutsu [“Four Rivers“, present Tuapse], the limit of the beylik Durtsu, Saksin and the State. Between this aul and the Abases [abhazes] are the lands of those Kabarian clans that Talib granted independence in exchange for their friendship with the State...
In the Turgan for some time hid the Emir Lachyn Hisami, expelled from the Gurdja by the Beks of his wife Taymyr-bika. It was said that she reached the limits of the debauchery and perished of it. Bachman told me from the words of many Khondjakians that once, to satisfy the lust, she has spread on the bear pelt and tried to copulate with a dog. But the dog, which once took this bear, immediately bit her to death, thinking that the bear came to life... On the side of Lachyn of the strong Beks was only Ablas, whose foster daughter Asmabika fled together with Emir and gave birth to his son Badri. Ablas died in a skirmish with Lachyn's opponents, and the grateful malik gave Badri a second name Ablas...
From the Turgan Emir Lachyn, together with a fleet of Sasytamiyans and detachments of the Saksin Kumans and Kabars went to the city Kagyray [present Gagry]. This city in the land of Abases was also founded by Madji, who gave it one of the names of the Alp Kubar. The fact was that the Abases, joined with Madji, especially esteemed the Alp of the sea whom they considered was the Alp Kubar... Here always possible to meet the merchants of the State. Our people, considering that the more a person or a city has names, the more it is luckier, called Kagyraw by one more name of Kubar, Nadjigay...
From here Lachyn went to the city Djebsu [present
Pitsunda], on the river Djebsu [“Pine
River“] and also established by Madji. The road here is safe, for the
living here Abasian tribe Shan always was a friend of the State... But suddenly
at the city appeared a number of unseen before large Tyrian ships, and attacked
the small ships of Sasytamiyans and the boats of Kabars and Shans, even though
the Kryashes were at peace with us. Later it turned out, that Taymyr-bika
persuaded Tyrians to sacrifice the peace with the State in order to save Gurdja from the Bulgarian dominance, scaring
them with a possibility of acceptance by the people of her country of the true faith. Our fleet, despite of the reckless
bravery of its seamen, lost a few ships and boats and retreated, however on the
land our army defeated the allied army of the Tyrians and Gurdjans and occupied
the city. Nevertheless the majority of the Kabarian biys, learning from the
captured Tyrians about their attack on the coast of their beylik, turned back.
Though a part of the Shans remained with Lachyn, his forces were severely weakened, and he also has decided to retreat, but here to him broken up the messangers from the Mosha-Khondjak [Bulgarian area in Adjaria and Meshetia] with the news about the Khondjakians setting out against Taymyr-bika. It forced Lachyn to go further with few people, to join the Khondjakians. As the Gurdjans and the Tyrians, shocked by their losses, did not dare for a long time to enter into the act, we peacefully passed again the districts Hoday Uty [“God's Grass“]... and Gumu [“Burials“]... And all these names are Bulgarian and were given by the son of Burtas, Madji, who also passed there with an army... Hodaj Uty [present Gudauta] is the best pasture in the country of Shans. But the Shans do not dare to pasture there their cattle, for in their beliefs, the sea horse of Kubar is grazing there. One shepherd, nevertheless, disregarded the ban and when the horse came out of the sea, has hidden and caught it. The horse with a human voice started to beg the shepherd to release it voluntarily, but the thief was too greedy to let such a good catch out. He mounted the horse and began to force it from the beach, as suddenly a huge wave has risen in the sea and swallowed up the shepherd with all his herd...
In Gumu many Madji's soldiers fell ill and died, which has forced the son of Burtas to turn back. In Gumu untill now are stones and dürbe, installed by Madji on the tombs of the warriors. In memory of the burial of the big number of his soldiers Madji called this area “Gumu“...
Eventually Madji was able to pass to the Samar through the lands of Kara-Masguts [Ossetians and Albanians] (the comment equalling Masguts of the text with the Ossetians and Albanians again indicates a late, 20-eth century mindset of the commentator - Translator's Note) and Bardjians. Defeating the Bardjians and Dyagraev [Semites], Madji relieved of their yoke the Bulgars of the Mosha and Dyau-Khondjak [the Bulgarian area covering areas of the Karabah, Gyandja and other adjoining lands], called Sabans. The Sabans of the Mosha-Khondjak were so are pleased that they named their main city Bachman [present Batumi], which is “Proud“ (“Freedom-loving“). The mother of the Ulugbek Bachman was from that city, and he received its name...
Lachyn knew well the history of the Samara war and was inexpressibly proud that he dared to pass by the Kamyr road further than the armies of Madji himself...
To the Djuhman [present Sukhumi] the detachment of Lachyn went without any skirmishes, only raising from the settlements on the way the necessary provisions. However it was happening as voluntary presents, instead of the collection of a tribute, as the majority of the local biys sympathized with him... The envoy of Emir usually approached a settlement and announced to its inhabitants: “The army of your Lord Djurgi, consisting of the Kan's own retinue and his allies, follows to Tabyl-Katau [present Tbilisi] to punishment the local traitor Beks. We shall not harm you, and the Kan wants to reassure your biy“. After that the biy rode to meet Lachyn, expressed his respect and asked, whether his army in needs anything. Anything required usually was immediately delivered, and in addition the biys arranged a feast in honour of the Malik and his soldiers...
Only in the Djuhman the huge army of Taymyr-bika consisting of Gurdjans, Ariyaks, Kara-Masguts [Ossetians] and Tyrians waited for our group... Our soldiers for a long time could not reach the enemy, as on the land it covered behind the bottomless and wide gorge Diu Chokyr (“Div's Gorge“), and the sea was blocked off by the big Tyrian ships... The daughter of one of local biys was a mother of the Bulgarian prince Djuhman... About the fate of the Abasian biy Djuhman told the sheikhs Abdallah and Yakub... The Abasian biys were seized by the Gurdjans, as they did not trust them. But one of biys called Bashlyk (hat - Translator's Note) managed to slip to the mountains and make his way to the Lachyn's camp. He lead half of the detachment of the Emir through Div's Gorge over a secret bridge, due to which our soldiers managed to strike the enemy from the rear and to force it to retreat...
Having passed peacefully some auls, the Lachyn's group approached a settlement near a tumyrlyk [shipyard]. The shipyard was on the island formed by the channel of the river and a canal running from the river to the sea. Besides that, tumyrlyk was fenced off with a hefty tyn (fence - Translator's Note)... It is said that this shipyard was established by our ship builders, seized by Myshdauly in the Echke Bandja and sold to Abases...
Abases suggested to Lachyn to take tumyrlyk to deprive Gurdjans and Tyrians of all the ships hiding there, but Emir did not want to irritate with such actions the Gurdjan Beks, and therefore peacefully proceeded by. But when near the city Batysh [present Poti] we began to cross the river Batysh [present Fasis, Rioni], where Lachyn had to join with the Mosha-Khondjakians, the Tyrian and Gurdjan ships from the tumyrlyk sailed from the sea into the river and cut off from the Emir's group a part of the people who got across. The Mosha-Khondjakians could not help us as they did not get to this river yet... Before the arrival to the Bachman-Katau of the Khondjakian main forces from Moshi mountains, the Gurdjans and Tyrians displaced the small Khondjakian garrison from that city. When Khondjakians gathered their forces and began advancing from the mountains toward the Bachman, their way was blocked by the garrisons of the several stone towers built by the Gurdjans at the exits from the gorges. Similar towers prevented Khondjakians from breaking to the river Batysh...
So Lachyn did not manage to cut off Gurdja from the sea and to force the
rebellious Beks to surrender. To help his soldiers who were surrounded, he
agreed to conclude an armistice with the Gurdjans and Tyrians. Per the
sgreement with them he gave to the infidels all the captured enemies, instead of
which he was able to join with the surrounded and to depart from the Gurdji.
The Tyrians and Gurdjans in this war have not shown any special activity, as the Kryashes were afraid of retaliation by the State on the Krjash [Chersones], and the Gurdjans were scared from a prospect of direct collision with terrifying for them Chelbir. The calculations of the infidels turned out rather correct: the loss of 11 Khinian soldiers and 140 Tamiyanian and Kabarian militiamen did not especially upset the Kan and did not force him to begin a big war in the south. It is said that the Kan was also affected by the appeal of our slave dealer, very interested in the ties with the Tyrians and Gurdji, and consequently anteing up on big payments into the treasury for the preservation of the peace in the south.
However the Kan was not forgetting even the small insults, and therefore he ordered to build a few tens of the ships, capable to battle with the big Tyrian ships, and with their help interrupted communications between the Kryash and Gurdji. The Tyrians tried attacking our fleet, but unsuccessfully. They already did not have the Kryash fire, made of crude oil, as its supply to them was stopped after a ban by Chelbir and destruction by our seamen of the 15 Gurdjan ships. Therefore our Anchian and Sasytamiyanian salchis (seamen - Translator's Note) easily pulled to the Tyrian ships and after a fierce slaughter took 8 enemy ships. After that the Tyrians and Gurdjans chose to agree to pay the tribute to our State requested by Kan Gabdulla.
In addition to that, Chelbir forced the Bardjians to let Lachyn with 500 Saksinians [here: Kumyks and Terterians] through to the north of the Dyau-Khondjak, to the city Guzi-Khondjak [present Gyandja], for liberating the Southern and Western parts of Dyau-Khondjak...
Dyau-Khondjak is the primeval land of the Sabanian Bulgars. The northern part of this wondeful territory is called Martüba, the southern Karabag (Karabah), the western Tukchin, the eastern Agadjir. Among the Sabans are also prominent the northern Sabans - Terterians, the southern - Kabanians, the western - Tukchians, and the eastern - Agadjirians... “Terter“ in the language of the Khondjakian Sabans means “corncrake“... The largest cities in the territory are Guzi-Khondjak, Madji Kerman, Dyau-Khondjak, Cuba Kerman, Agadjir, Sabankül... When the Khan Atrak hired into the service to the State, Kan Adam (1076-1118 - Translator's Note) gave him for pastures the Dyau-Khondjak, which was under a pressure of the enemies. However Atrak, after taking possession of the Dyau-Khondjak, has very soon betrayed and switched to the service of the Gurdjans. Kan Adam, obviously, wanted to give an order to punish the thief, as his last words were: “Send to Dyau-Khondjak...“, but died before he could add anything to that. After a while the long hand of Emir Kolyn (Ilchibek of Kan Anbal and Visier, 1135-1154 - Translator's Note) reached the Dyau-Khondjak... About the death of Atrak were different rumours... The son of Atrak, Khan Khondjak chose to not tempt his fate and submitted to the State, but after that had to bear the attacks of the Gurdjan and Bardjian armies. The forces were unequal, and Khondjak retreated from the Dyau-Khondjak to Saksin, together with the majority of the Tukchians, Terterians, and Kabanians. If the Kypchaks were leaving Dyau-Khondjak with a big pleasure, the Sabans abandoned the native lands with a great sorrow and have sworn to return and to severely revenge the infidels for this disaster. Saying goodbye to their homesteads, the Sabans with tears in the eyes sang their song about the Dyau-Khondjak which they called “Karabag“ (“Karabah“). Very soon all Eechkebulgars learned it, but began to call it “Kara Urman“, translating the word “bug“ as “forest“...
After capturing a part of the Dyau-Khondjak, the Gurdjan Beks began to settle it with Ariyaks, who were forcefully moved from the Gurdji, and the remaining Sabans were driven from the land, curbed with intolerable arrogates, and sold into slavery.. In their hatred of the Islam the infidels excelled to a point that they had papazes (Christian priests - Translator's Note) to collect the tribute from the Sabans, which was not done in any country... When Emir Lachyn entered Dyau-Khondjak, the Gurdjans and Ariyaks self-confidently came out against him with 5 thousand people, but were completely crushed. Tertertsy, as they promised, did not allow the Kumyks to strain themselves, initiated the battle and gave the infidels a real slaughter... The first to flee from the field of battle, cussing their fate and the Gurdjans, were the Ariyaks... Without losing one man, our people have shot down and chopped up the greater part of the enemy, setting in all other Gurdjans and Ariyaks an inviolable horror. Nobody else dared to counteract the troops of Emir Lachyn, and he in 5 days occupied all Dyau-Khondjak, and then exchanged a crowd of the captured infidels for the Sabans suffering in the in the Gurdjan bondage. The leader of enemies with a nickname Jackal, distinguished by the greatest atrocities toward the Moslems and who burned alive the peaceful Sabans in the houses and mosques, has had the time to flee from the his perishing troops, but an arrow of a Bulgarian crossbow has had the time to lacerate his side. Later this wound has opened, and the disgusting life of this villain stopped there and then ... When our people reached the lake Saban, Lachyn stopped their movement and returned to his residence in the city of Dyau-Khondjak or Dyau Kerman... The simple Ariyaks, who were moved to Dyau-Khondjak by force, refused to return to the Gurdja because of their hatred of the Gurdjans, and happily agreed to relocate to the Echke Bulgar...
The enemy abandoned our Dyau-Khondjak so fast that many in
the Gurdja have not learned about what happened. Therefore in
a few days after our troops entered Karabag, there suddenly drove an Ariyakian papaz
to gather a tribute from the Sabans. The papaz was immediately
seized in the first aul and brought to the Dyau Kerman. The Terterians wanted to
burn him alive because he approved the atrocities of Jackal, but kind
Lachyn released the papaz for a ransom...
The scared Gurdjan Beks managed to bribe the Bardjians, and those treacherously cut off the Dyau-Khondjak from the Saksin with the forces of the Daglyk, Bardjian and Kara-Bardjian [Kurdish] units. The Uzians, who were promising to support our people after the entry of Lachyn into Dyau-Khondjak, did not come, and Chelbir, amazed with the stupidity of the Bardjians, ordered Lachyn to leave the Dyau-Khondjak and to return to the Saksin... Right after his departure the Gurdjans captured all Dyau-Khondjak, even though they promised earlier to give a half of it to the Bardjil, and together with Ariyaks expelled from this territory all the Bardjians. But other Bardjians were even pleased with that, as they turned the exiles into the slaves and enriched from the trade in them...
I talked to some Ariyakian immigrants, and they told me interesting details of the Lachyn's campaign to Dyau Khondjak, which the Emir has overlooked to mention... All the Ariyaks liked Lachyn very much and thought that he went to Dyau-Khondjak not at his own will, but under a strict order of Chelbir. They called us sometimes Hons, sometimes Kypchaks, but also sometimes Ilemians, remembering that the war cry of the Madji armies was a word “ilem“, i.e. “native land“. This sounds like a truth, really in fact Madji was recapturing the southern part of the native land of the Bulgars, the Samar [Near East]...
When the relatives of the Ariyaks who moved to the Echke Bulgar came to them and suggested to return again to the Gurdji, they flatly refused to do it because of their unwillingness to lose the rights and an opportunities given to them by Chelbir...
After the capture of the Istambul by the Altynbashians and Karatunians, our ships sailed up to several Tyrian cities and forced them without a fight to submit to the authority of the allied with the State Kara-Burdjanian Malik. At the same time our another strong unit defeated and pressed the Karatunians, Tyrians, Gurdjans and Ariyaks, threatening the possessions of the Seldjuk Sultans...
5. MADJARA SUBA
Madjara Suba is the capital of the Burdjan beylik and the largest city of the all Karatüba [western part] of the Saksin province. Only within the limits of its fortifications live 35 thousand inhabitants...
Some are saying that the city received its name in memory of a stop here by the army of Madji, caused by the necessity to repair the madjars [waggons, chariots] before crossing the Saklanian mountains. Others see in the name of the city the name of Madji himself ... As state the third, the city is called “Madjara“ because there and in its vicinities always can be seen a great variety of vehicles. The matter is that a good half of all the goods are transported there and are formed the biggest caravans of the Saksin which are going from there to the west and to the south... The same role of the trading center in the eastern part (Aktüba) of the Saksin plays the center of the province Saksin-Bolgar, only the majority of the formed there caravans goes to the east, to Tubdjak, Kurgan [E. of Caspian], Kashan, Kytai, Altai and Khin [here: Northern China]... And the name of the Burdjan beylik means “Folded Mountain Slope“...
In the city live many merchants who are also called there savardjiy and sarty, and not a smaller number of zargars [artisans] among which the kubedjies [gunmakers] have a special honour... Every zargar with the same pride shows his visitors the mosques, of which there are 16, and his karhané [workshop, factory].
I managed to devote to the sightseeing of the city much less time than I expected, as the rumour about my arrival in the Karatüba very soon spread everywhere, and almost each eminent city dweller, whether it is a Burdjan, Guzi-Ishtjak [Saksinian Oguz] and Djurash [Vainah] set up in my honour a splendid feast or a complete celebration. Really I, as says the proverb, have gone on a business, and have gotten on a Djien. So I almost did not have any free time in the Madjara Suba...
This city, the glory of which is spread worldwide, is so stringently protected that I did not see there any Masgut or Kypchak pagans, who may be capable to reconnoiter the approaches to the city and bring here the fellow tribesmen robbers. The Beklerbek [head] of the Burdjan beylik Bahtiyar told me, that he has a right, in a case of a need, to submit to the Kan his own report...
The Beks, beys and bakhadirs [enlisted knights] of the Burdjan are very proud and stately, but never show in public the haughtiness so typical to the ulans and all other turunchies of the Echke Bulgar. The Kanash [council, parliament] of the beylik supervised by the atabek [head, speaker of the feudal council, parliament] is a sample of the equal rights representation. I was kindly invited to a session of the Kanash and with satisfaction observed how sat beside and intermingle the Beks, beys, Tarkhans, chiefs of divans [departments, ministries], representatives of the bakhadirs, merchants, zargars, tarygchibashy [representatives of farmers]...
I sat between Beklerbek and zargarbashy Sadyk... The Kanash was called in connection with the Kan's decree about the increase of the tax from the sale of salt, and the gathering had to determine the share of the beylik in the total of the State Salt tax from the Saksin... Hearing from the lips of one of the speakers the name “Kurchak july“ [“Road of Idols“], I asked Sadyk, what road is that. The zargarbashy explained with a smile, that the Saksinians derisively call this the Horys-üly, abounding with the Kypchak idols. In addition they also call the city Hursa [present Kursk] “Kurchak“...
Here the size of the taxes is less than in Echke Bulgar, but however are
some kinds of taxes that are not paid any more by the Echke Bulgar Moslems. For
the Burdjanians pay “congratulatory mal“ [tax,
present to the Kan on a holiday] in the Nauruz, Djien and Chumar botkasy...
In the davathane [archive] I found with a surprise an appeal of the Sasytamiyans about rendering them a help in connection with the losses suffered by them in the Midanian war. When I asked Bahtiyar why in the Madjara Suba should be solve a problem of payment of additional salary to the Azakian Sasytamiyans, Beklerbek replied: “In the 1174 I received an order of the Kan Otyak to occupy the Dyau-Khondjak, and employed a few hundred of thr Sasytamiyanian seamen with the provision that I would generously reward them and compensate all their expenses. They dragged their ships from the Shir to Idel, and went with our army to Derbent. We have took that city and some other cities of the Midan [Northern Azerbaijan], but then the Daglykian and Kypchak militias switched over to the side of the enemy, and we had to retreat... The traitors intoxicated with drinks and slaughtered while they were asleep most of the Sasytamiyans and destroyed their ships, and the escaped seamen... submitted this appeal. I, like I promised, paid what I should have paid, to the alive, and to the families of the victims... “
The local territory with its beauty and fragrant air salutarily influences people, and everybody who visited Burdjan involuntarily compare it to the paradise. There are no beggars there, and everyone whoever he is, can enter any house and to find there a roof and a meal... I saw that Bashdaftardar [head of financial department of Bulgaria] drove to the Madjara Suba in the most bad mood. However, having met him in three days, I saw that he already does not differ from his cheerful and benevolent companion Burdjanians...
Everything in this land, the bakhadir, and the kunak-savardji [merchant], and the zargar, and tarygchi [farmer], and hishdek [nomad] looked so happy, that I thought: “Is this not a Djambul [legendary City of Happiness]?..“
The Saksinians keep our ancient name for the silk, “turgu“, which comes from the name of the Hon's city Turgu made famous by its manufacture of the silk fabrics. In the antiquity the pieces of silk were the most expensive goods circulating instead of the money, and therefore the Ulchians [Slavs], Artanians, Ulagians and Sadimians, who were buying the silk from the Bulgars, took our word “turgu“ as a word for trade, market and everything dear...
|Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3|
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali Biography
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"