In English
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline

Djagfar Tarihi Contents Djagfar Tarihi Preface Chapters 1-5 Chapters 6-10 Chapters 11-15 Chapters 16-20 Chapters 21-25 and Ghazi-Baradj Appendix

Bakhshi Iman

 1229-1246 AD


(Based on the extracts from the complete text of the "Djagfar Tarihi",
also contains records of the lost parts of the Annals)

Translator's Notes

Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication.

The compiler(s) of the "Brief Dictionary", composed in Russian, and intended for a Russian-fluent reader, used a multitude of the Rusizms and Russian renderings of the terms, for the Bulgarian terminology. The Dictionary has a definite mark of recent, i.e. Soviet period, placenames, but also has a few references to the old, 18-th century, placenames. To avoid a reverse translation, these Rusizms are given in English transcription or in a literal translation, explained by an added translation of the meaning, denoted as the Translator's Note. A few new entries, frequently used in the text without explanations, were added to the translation and denoted as the Translator's Note. The dates in the Dictionary were given exclusively in contemporary secular format. The use of the term "Iran" and its derivatives, which came into being after the name "Iran" was adopted in 1934 for the country of Persia, is replaced in the translation by its contemporary historical terms.

For spelling conventions, refer to Chapters 1-5. In the translation, the alphabetical sequence of the entries is in the order of Latin alphabet, which is different from the Cyrillic alphabet of the original.


Avars - Manju tribe.
Aga Bazar - see Aka Basar.
Agidel -1) Bulgarian name of the rivers White (Russ. 'Belaya'), Kama (from the mouth of the White to its influence to Itil (Volga), and Itil (below the Kama's mouth). It means "Silver River", so the Bulgars were sometimes called "Silver Bulgars"
2) Bulgarian province of the 3-rd Emirate epoch.
Azak dingize - Azov Sea.
Azanids (Azanlylar) - dynasty of the Bulgarian Emirs, the descendents of Emir Azan and his son Gazi-Baradj.
Azerbaijan - 1) Northwestern Iran, Midia
2) Azerbaijan.
Ak - 1) divine, mourning;
2) east;
3) silver;
4) white.
Aka - a large river with a strong current.
Aka (Aka-Idel) - river Oka.
Aka Basar - 1) river quay, port;
2) name of the pier in the Bolgar city, later changed to "Aga Bazar".
Akadjirs - 1) Bulgarian etnic group, also called "Agathirs, Agachirs";
2) senior part of the Bulgarian feudal lord's brigade or army.
Ak-Balyn - Northeastern Rus.
Ak-Balynians - Rusians (as opposed to Russians - Translator's Note).
Akbikül - fortified balik of Kazan city.
Akbi-kül - lake in Kazan.
Ak Bulgar Yorty ("Bulgarian State") - the name of the Bulgarian state.
Ak dingez - the White Sea.
Ak Yort - state.
Ak-Masguts - Massagets of Kazakhstan.
Ak-chirmyshes - Moslem chirmyshes.
Alabuga - 1) tower of the "Alamir-Sultan" castle, in honor of which was named the balik Alabuga;
2) see Alamir-Sultan.
Alamir-Sultan - the castle built by the Bulgarian Khan Ibragim on the place of the legendary tomb of Alamir-Sultan (Alexander the Great "Macedonian") in the 985 AD. Later it was a balik named Alabuga. Nowadays it is the city Elabuga.
Ala-Tura - see Kazan.
Albat - Bulgarian menzel, founded by Alyp-biy (Albat) between estuaries of Itil and Djaik.
Alp (Alyp) - spirit, obedient to God.
Altyn Bash - Rome, Italy.
Altynbashians - Romans, Italians.
Altysh - Bulgarian city. Was formed after merging of six villages, for which was built a common fortress Altysh.
Alman - Germany.
Almanians - 1) Germans; 2) Nemets (Germanic tribe, is used for the Germans in Russian - Translator's Note)
Anar - king (from Sumerian En - Lord).
Anatysh - Denmark.
Anatyshes - Danes.
Ang - water, inundating river.
Angly - the name of the coast guard units, meaning: "guards stationed by the water".
Anchians (Anchylar) - 1) originally, the Hun's detachments of Farsi-speakers, Slavs and Bulgars of Ukraine guarding Ukrainian borders and participating in the campaigns together with the Huns;
2) Ukrainians.
Apas - Abkhasian.
Arabs - 1) Afro Asian peoples;
2) Arabs.
Ar-Kala - Russified name of Echke-Kazan city (Archa-Kala, Archa-balik etc.), applied by the interpreter of the "Djagfar Tarihy" (From the Bulgarian/Tatar to Russian - Translator's Note).
Arkoch - Bulgarian city built in the winter - spring of the 1171 at the request of Kochubiy, the son of the Ukrainian-Moldavian Prince Ivan Berladnik ("Djan Kashan", "Djan Burdjan", "Buril-Day"). After the death of the father, Kochubiy, whose mother Ardjan was a Bulgarian Besenyo, enlisted with three thousand Anchians into the Bulgarian service. Khan Otyak settled the Kochubians in the Arkoch and its district, where they engaged in shipbuilding, boat piloting, protection of river ways and caravans, and served in the Bulgarian fleet. In the 1174 the Tarkhan of the Kumyk Bulgars, the father of Bek Elbek Markas, complained to Otyak about the unfriendly actions of the Shirvan Bek, who put his father-in-law, the Khondjak Bek Sadretdin in zindan. The Kan sent Kumans of the Khan Bashkort, and the Kochubiy's fleet to the help of Markas. Markas with Bashkort and a part of salchies (seamen) occupied Derbent, and Kochubiy with most of his fleet tried to break by the river Kura to the Azerbaijanian Khondjak with the purpose of joining with the Khondjakians. But the Georgian troops attacked the Georgian and Azerbaijanian Khondjaks, and the Khondjakian Bulgars could not join the Bulgarian fleet.  Kochubiy himself was surrounded and could barely escape from the enemy encirclement. Defending from the enemy arrows, the salchies held boats above their heads. The Arkochians become agitated from the increase of the taxes by Chelbir, and (in the beginning of 1181) the Kan threw Kochubiy into zindan. In retaliation the Arkochians let through by their city a company of the Novgorodian robbers. When a retaliatory army arrived to the Arkoch, Kochubiyans ran into the depth of the Vetluga woods and stayed there until the summer of 1183. After the attack by Vsevolod of Suzdal, Chelbir, in need of the fleet, forgave Kochubiy and his people, and promised them a reduction in taxes. However very soon the Kan has broken his promise, and the Arkochians in 1186 revolted again. The Kan's army, and the Suzdal fleet that was assisting Chelbir, besieged the Arkoch, and the Arkochians surrendered. Chelbir turned over to Vsevolod the run-away Ruses found there. The Arkochians took part in the campaign of 1219 to Radjil (Radilov), but in the spring of 1220 they revolted again against the Kan's arrogations. The intercession of Gazan, married on the Kochubiy daughter, saved the Arkochians from the punishment after the Suzdal's attack on Uchel, but Arkoch was renamed to Mamysh, in memory of a riot suppression trooper killed by the rebels. The Kochubiy's son also took this name. In 1242, Gazi-Baradj invited a major part of the Arkochians to serve the Kypchak. Later the Mamyshians participated in ravaging the Sarai, Nijni Novgorod, Vladimir, Ustüg (1446) and other campaigns. Only in 1556 the Rus armies finally managed to destroy the Arkoch-Mamysh, whose Ulugbek was Mamysh-Birde.
Ar Il - Bulgarian province Ar of the 3-rd Emirate epoch.
Artan - 1) Baltics;
2) Lithuania.
Artans - 1) Balts;
2) Lithuanians.
Archa - Bulgarian city, modern city Arsk. Initially also called "New Archa".
Archa-Kala - one of the names of the city Echke-Kazan ("Inner Kazan"), which entered into Russian in the forms "Arsky Gorodok" or "Arsky Ostrog" (Russ. for 'Ar Town' or 'Ar Dungeon' - Translator's Note). It was also called "Iske Archa" (" Stary Arsk") (Russ. for 'Old Archa' - Translator's Note), and was the centre of the Ar Il.
Ars - Finnish speaking tribes.
Ariak - Armenian.
As - one of the Old Arian names of the Supreme God. It also had the form "Has".
As Bagana ("Divine Pole") - 1) beacon in Spain;
2) Spain.
Askal - see "Esegel".
Astarkhan - Bulgarian city founded by As-Tarkhan in 1122 (Musa ibn Halil); nowadays the city Astrakhan.
Ases - Murdasian name the for the Sindians-Urs (Arians), that's why the descendents of the Ura-Arians: Bulgars, Massagets, Alans, Burtases and others were also called by the name 'Ases'.
Atalyk-muncha - the bath house in Kazan, erected in 1509 near the Dair-muncha on the money of Atalyk and destroyed by the Russian army in the 1530. It had a cone roof, and was also called "Cone-baths" by the people.
Atbuga (asbuga) - bison, zubr.
Atryach - 1) Troy;
2) city in the Mountain Bulgaria, in 931 renamed to "Shongyt", and then returned to the name "Atryach".
Ashrafids - Bulgarian Emir's dynasty of the descendents of the Kan Gabdulla Chelbir, named in honor of the Kan Ashraf Baluk.
Badjanaks - 1) union of the Türkic tribes, headed by Sabans and called in the Kievan Rus "Pechenegs" (known to us from Lat./Gr. as Besenyos - Translator's Note)
2) one of the Sabans' names.
Bay - prominent, rich man.
Baygul - Bulgarian province in Siberia of the 1st Emirate epoch .
Bayguls - 1) Khants and Mansis of Siberia;
2) inhabitants of the Baygul province.
Baylak - Poland.
Baylaks - Poles.
Baytüba - Bulgarian province of the 1st Emirate epoch with the centre in the Bulyar city .
Baytübas - inhabitants of the province Baytüba; they were also called "Bulyarians".
Bak (Bek) - feudal retinue of a high rank, prince, great prince.
Bakalda (Bakaltay) - 1) gulf;
2) harbor, port, pier.
Bak-su - river Southern Buh.
Bal (Bul) - 1) free man, master;
2) one of the names of the Supreme God.
Balik - 1) small fortress, fort;
2) small city;
3) fortified suburb, area of a large city.
Balikbashi - commander of a small city and its district, and also fortified suburb or area of a large city.
Balistan - Palestine.

Balkan - the fortifications built by the Russians in the Bolgar city on the bank of the rivulet Balkan-su, for the protection of the local possessions of the Kazan's Savoir monastery. Before the Razin (Razi-Kazak) revolt, the Russian garrison of the fortress was composed of the kazaks (also spelled Cossacks - Translator's Note), Misharian and Bashkortian Bulgars, Nogays and Kalmyks. Once, one Bulgarian noticed that the monks converted the mausoleum (türbe) of Mohammed into a pig shed and requested the monks to remove the unclean animals from the territory of the sacred city. However, the Russian commander seized and executed him. Then the head of the Misharian Bulgars, Aybulat, made a deal with the kazaks, Kalmyks and Nogays, and together with them killed the commander, after which they booted out the monks together with their pigs, burnt the Balkan and dispersed in different directions. Aybulat himself, with his Bulgars, set off to the Bashkortstan, to seid Djagfar, the grandson of Djan-Gali. On the way he stopped near Bulyar, and the Bulgars from the Russian garrison there switched to him at night... Under the order of the seid Djagfar, Aybulat did not give the Russian commanders and their enlisted Tatars in the Cheremshan any food, nor any drinks, for seven years before the Razin revolt. At the same time he never offended peaceful people. So, it was said that before the capture of the Yar Chally, he allowed all willing Russians to leave to the other bank of the Kama. And the reverence also never leave him . When he saw that the infidels have broken some stones of the old Chally cemetery , and used the others in the foundations of the houses and sheds, he burnt the houses of the desecrators and took away the surviving gravestones. All this he has nonchalantly done under the fire of the enemy, which suddenly appeared from the other bank of the Chulman. At the request of the inhabitants of the aul Muslim the gravestones were left there. And this aul was founded near the tomb of the shekhid Muslim, who came here after a fight with Timur Khan in 1278 and died here from heavy wounds... In that aul everyone was a daredevil hothead, and the infidels seldom ventured to come there. Many Muslimians and Aznakayins joined Aybulat. And the aul Aznakay was founded by the descendent of Karmek, Azamat, who also came here after a battle with Timur Khan... The leader of kazaks Razin has heard about Aybulat and went to connect with him, but was late... In one of the skirmishes, the Russians wounded Aybulat, and the enlisted Tatars caught up and seized him by the river Baradj-Chishma. The Russian commander told Aybulat that for his bravery he would carry Aybulat's last request. Aybulat asked commander to execute him in the Bolgar, from where the souls of the Bulgarian shekhids went directly to paradise, and that was done. Mullah Ishbulat buried Aybulat in the Kan's türbe... From that time the Russians never had a fortress in the Bolgar, considering this place unlucky for them... Mullah Sayfetdin, descendent of mullah Ishbulat, wrote that "during the seid Fazyl time, in Bolgar were 90 mosques and 24 thousand houses" (P.Karashev).
Baltavar Balyn - 1) the name of the coat of arms of the Dulo clan - Ψ;
2) leader, governor;
3) Bulgarian city, the modern Ukrainian city Poltava.
Balyn - 1) Land of the Byelorussians and Greatrussians;
2) Northeast Rus, Moscow Rus (Moscow-Rus state);
3) city Suzdal founded by in the place of the Bulgarian balik Balyn.
Bandja - 1) Bulgarian name of the city Phanagoria (Gr. Phanagoria, distorted from 'Hunogur/Onogur' - Translator's Note) on the Azov Sea;
2) city Bandja, the centre of the Bulgarian province Mardan-Bellak, founded in 925 AD. It had 15 baliks and 15 towers, five of which had gates (Musa ibn Halil).
Baradj - Bulgarian Islamian (Massagetian-Burdjanian in origin) name of the Sumerian-Bulgarian Alp-Khan Mardukan, who looked as a winged and sometimes snake-tailed dragon. Mardukan Baradj was considered a guardian of the vitality and safety of the Bulgarian people and the Bulgarian state. Bulgars also used the Hunno-Manjurian names for Baradj, "Ley" and "Elbegen".
Baradj-Chishma - river Sheshma.
Bardjil - Persian empire, Iran.
Baryn - 1) Alp of a victory; he was also called Buri;
2) Ukrainian Group of several Bulgarian clans in Ukraine, called in the Kievan Rus "Berendeys".
Baryndjar - 1) Bulgarian clan; 2) see Nur-Suvar.
Baryntu - see Nur-Suvar.
Basma - certificate, pass, ID, protection letter, permit, given by the Khans and officials and certified by special markings.
Bat (Bata) - governor, chief, prince, khan, head of a group.
Batavyl - 1) Princely headquarters;
2) see Khorysdan.
Batlik- river Vetluga.
Batyr - 1) head of a clan;
2) winner;
3) prince of a small fief;
4) head of a district.
Batysh - 1) "west" in Old Bulgarian;
2) Slavic-speaking tribe, formed by merging of some Bulgars with Iranians and Slavs and called "Vyatichi" in the Kievan Rus. Vyatiches were ancestors of the Don and Voronej (Ryazan) kazaks.
Bakhadir - 1) knight;
2) retinue feudal;
3) hero, strongman (bogatyr).
Bashkort - 1) Bulgarian province in the Urals of the 1st Emirate epoch, called "Tamta" untill 1193;
2) Bulgarian province of the 3-rd Emirate epoch, in the southern part of the Bashkort province of the 1st Emirate epoch.
Bashkorts - 1) initially - Farsi-speaking tribe, which was included later in the Ugr's union of the Kazakhstan and passed to it its Farsi name;
2) common name of the Ugrs of Kazakhstan;
3) since 1193 the regional name for the Bulgars of the Bashkort province (Bashkorts).
Bashtu - official Bulgarian name of the city of Kiev, founded in the 620 AD under an order of the Kan Kurbat (Kubrat). Besides, the Bulgars called the city "Kyi" (from that comes its Slavic name "Kiev"), and its citadel "Shambat".
Beylik - princedom, province; to designate a province was also applied the term "tüba".
Bek - see Bak.
Bellak - see Mardan-Bellak,
Bellaks - see Mardans.
Berdjuls - 1) Sumerian Afro-Asians;
2) Sumerian population that adopted Afro-Asian languages (Akkadians, Babilonians, Assirians and others);
3) population of Itil-Ural and Sumer subordinated to the Bulgars.

Bershud - Bulgarian Princedom in the Kama area. In 865 AD it was included in the Bulgarian state as an allodial Princedom, and was obliterated in the 922 AD.
Besermens - 1) one of the names for those Bulgars who always remaine in the Ura (Itil-Ural);
2) Massagetian-Turkmenian nickname of the Bulgars, later adopted by the Ruses, Kypchaks and Mongols;
3) as the Bulgars were Moslems, the name "Besermen" received one more meaning - "Moslem".
Bi (Bu) - 1) prince or princess of a clan or a tribe;
2) elder (in a village or a group - Translator's Note).
Biy - the way the term "Bi" ("Bu") is rendered in the text.
Biysu - Bulgarian province of the 1st Emirate epoch in the northeastern Europe.
Biy-su - river Pechora.
Biysuans - 1) Komi;
2) inhabitants of the province Biysu.
Bika - lady, princess.
Bilemche - tax (tribute) collector official.
Biste Sadum - Sweden.
Bish-Balta Church - was on the right bank of the Kazanka river, near its mouth.
Bish Kalpak - Bulgarian city. Was formed after merging of five villages of the Bulgarian clan Kalpak, for whom was built a common fortress Bish Kalpak.
Bogyl - heap (of hay).
Bogyltau ("Heap Mountain") - a hill on the right bank of the channel "through" Bulak in Kazan, nowadays called "Kremlin's".
Boygal - 1) lake made by Alp-Bika Boygal (Baygal) which received her name; modern lake Baikal;
2) large fish, seal, whale.
Bolgar - city, first capital of the  Bulgarian state, center of the Bulgarian province, carrying the following names: in the 8-th century - 820 AD "Mardukan", in the 820 - 1028 AD "Bolgar", in the 1028 - 1183 "Ibragim", in the 1183 - 1361 "Bolgar", in the 1361 - 1431 " Ulug Bolgar", in the 1431 - 1557 "Bolgar", in 1557 - 1957 "Bolgary", in the 1957 - 1991 - "Kuibyshev", since 1991 - again "Bolgar". Musa ibn Halil writes that in the centre of Bolgar was citadel "Mumin" or "Tash-Balik", the main mosque of which, "Ismaildan", was built on the place of the Khasan mosque (it has burned down in the 1214). Around the citadel were baliks Kaves rabat, Baryn, Burdjan (here was Kazyi Yorty, built on the place of the Marduan mosque), Altyn rabat (Altyn- muncha built of stone), Komesh rabat, Appak Yorty, Bally rabat, Ibragim, Tazik Yorty (stone caravan-saray, later also called "Men Bulyar"), Tar, Men Oyle, Chire, Bakyr, Sain (named in honor of Emir Shamgun), Shalkan, Gülistan. Some parts of the last three baliks were designated for the Bashkak Yorty ("Ambassadorial Quarter") of the Kypchak ambassador. All these baliks were surrounded by a powerful wall. Between the citadel and Tazik Yorty was a huge bazaar plaza Kyzyl Maydan, and on it was the Kyzyl Djami (Red Mosque - Translator's Note). Except for the balik Gülistan, every balik had towers or gates in the wall which carried the names of the baliks. Opposite the Kaves rabat was the external balik Kukre with a church "Gurdji Emir". Between these parts of the city and Idel were baliks Suvar (there was a stone Suvar- muncha), Khaldja or Khorezm, Tashayak, Kura, Balchuk, Kyshlak. Separately from the other baliks were the city pier Aka Basar and the balik Uylak. Half of all it during the time of Musa ibn Halil already laid in ruins, but nevertheless the number of the inhabitants reached 10 thousand people, to whom in the summer joined another 15 to 20 thousand pilgrims and visiting merchants.
The city was barbarously ravaged and turned into ruins by the Rus Itil fleet in the 1431 and 1487 - when the Bulgarian fleet was beating off the attack of the Rus' Cherdyn (Kama's) fleet at the Tashbash in the estuary of Vyatka river. 12 thousand Rus' seamen took part in an attack on the Bolgar in the 1487. Then were lost 15 thousand townspeople and pilgrims and one thousand of the Bulgarian kazaks. The plunder of the Rus' caravan in the Kazan in the 1505 began when a few Bolgars found in it some participants of the Bolgar's destruction and have requested compensation for the damage, but received a refusal (Musa ibn Halil).
Bolgar al-Djadid ("New Bolgar") - see Kazan.
Bolgar ile - Middle Itil Bulgarian province of the 1st Emirate epoch .
Bolgars - the city dwellers of the Bolgar city and the Bolgar province.
Great Rum - modern Asia Minor, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine.
Boryn - Bulgarian balik, modern city of Lipetsk. Bulgars also called this balik "Boryn-Inesh" and "Yauchy".
Boryn-Inesh - 1) river Voronej;
2) see Boryn.
Boyar - 1) priest; 2) representative, leader.
Brig (birik) - regional militia.
Bu - see Bi.
Bul - see Bal.
Bula-Idel - first name of the modern river Kichi-Cheremshan (Small Cheremshan). After the "War of Biys" Almysh renamed Bula-Idel to Dyau-Shir. In the 948 AD the Khan Mohammed, enraged by the break of the Turkmens to the Bulyar, expelled Dyau-Shir chirmyshes and subashes to the river Bakhta and ordered to call Dyau-Shir "Kichi-Cheremshan", and Bakhta - "Dyau-Shir" (Musa ibn Halil).
Bulgar - Bulgaria.
Bulgar dingeze ("Bulgarian Sea") - a medieval name of the Caspian sea.
Bulgaria - see Bulgar Yorty.
Bulgar Yorty - the name of the Bulgarian state in the 9-th - 16-th centuries. Bulgarian state also was called Ürt, Khaganate and Bolgar Land, Great Bulgaria, Great Bolgars, Volga, Kama or Volga-Kama Bolgaria or Bulgaria, and also simply Bulgaria. The history of the Bulgarian State is divided into three epochs:
1) 1-st Emirate epoch (865 - 1236 AD);
2) 2-nd Emirate epoch (1236 - 1437);
3) 3-rd Emirate epoch (1437 - 1584).
Bulgars - 1) tribe, evolved in the Itil-Ural more than 15 thousand years ago as a result of unification of the seven Oguzo-Türkic and Saklanian (Northern-Farsi) clans, and initially called "Idel", i.e. "Seven Clans". The Bulgars' tribe is also called in the literature "Bolgars" and "Proto-Bolgars". The Bulgars of the Europe were composed of the Ukraine Bulgars, called "Kara-Bulgar" ("Western" or "Black Bulgars"), Trans Caucasus Bulgars, called "Burdjans", and the Bulgars of the Itil-Ural. In the 737 AD a mass of the Burdjans, and in the 820 Kara Bulgars accept Islam. It is essentially explained by that the Islam views grew on the base of the Bulgar-Sumerian traditions.
The Bulgars' tribe participated in composition and is the main ancestor of the following modern nations and ethnoses: Bulgars (including a part of the Siberian Türks), Turks, Karachais, Balkars, Kumyks, Crimean Türks, Karakalpaks, Azeris, Chuvashes, Ukrainians, Danube Bolgars, Hungarians, Gagauzes;
2) part of the Bulgar tribe, which left 12 thousand years ago from the Itil-Ural to the Near East, and founded the Sumer State. One part of the Sumerian Bulgars joined the composition of other middle Eastern neighbors, and another one, which lived in the territory of Turkey, became the basis of the Turkish nation;
3) ethnicity, agglomerated by merging of the mainly Bulgarian, Hunno-Manjurian, Finno-Ugrian and Oguzo-Sabanian groups of the Itil-Ural in the 2nd - 9th centuries AD, and which acquired the name, the Oguz language and ideology of the Bulgars, and the cultural traditions of the Bulgars, Hunno-Manjurs and Sabans.
Bulymer - Rus' city Vladimir.
Bulyar - 1) the name of the 1st Hunnish dynasty and of the territory of the Ancient Bulgarian Khaganate in the 2nd - 4th centuries AD ("Bulyar Yorty");
2) city, the centre of the Bulgarian Trans-Kama province Baytüba and the capital of the Bulgarian state of the 1st Emirate epoch. In the 1028 - 1183 it was also called "Bolgar", in the 1183 - 1236, "Ulug Bolgar" ("Great Bolgar") or "Men Bulyar". Bulyar had 30 baliks and towers, so it was said: "The Bulyarian wall is thirty towers" (Musa ibn Halil).
Bulyarians - 1) name of the citizens of the 1st Hunnish state;
2) see Bay-Tübians.
Burdjan - 1) Bulgarian lands in the Trans Caucasus; 2) see Ulak-Bolgar.
Burdjans - 1) common ancestors of the N. Caucasian peoples - Karachais, Balkars and Kumyks. A part of Burdjans took part and in the formation of the Bulgarian ethnos;
2) Karachais and Balkars;
3) Balkars.
Burdjan tele - the caste Türkic language of the Bulgarian mullahs in the 8-th - 14th centuries, saturated with Türkic-Hunnish words. On the threshold of the 14th - 15th centuries it went out of the use.
Buri-chay- river Dnieper.
Burtas - 1) one of the regions in the province Mardan-Bellak;
2) the large city, centre of the Burtas region in the Mardan-Bellak province.
Burtases - 1) part of the Massagetian tribe of Ruses (Uruses), which became a part of the Bulgarian people;
2) Bulgars of the Burtas region.
Burunda - see Nur-Suvar.

Chalap-Kerman - Bulgarian balik at the confluence of the rivers Djaik (Ural) and Illak (Ilek), which was also called Djaik, Illak, Orda-Bazar and was in the 960 - 1236 the centre of the Illak district of the Badjanak region in the Mardan-Bellak province. The Bukhara trade road from the Horezm to the Bulgar passed through it. Unhappy with the  Altynbek's transfer of the part of the Illak district, with the city Kargaly, to the Bashkort province, Illaks in the 1235 switched to the side of Gazi-Baradj. In the 1278 Illak was included in the Kypchak Horde, but with the rights of an independent Bulgarian Princedom Illak-Bulgar. Here was held the famous Kipchakkhanidian-Bulgarian Orda-Bazar Fair. During the reign of the Bulgarian Emir Fazyl (Vasyl) -Bulüm (14th century), Chalap-Kerman returns under the authority of the Bulgarian state as an autonomous region, in honor of which Bulüm takes himself the name Ordu. In the 1437, per a compact with the Nogay Horde, Illak is proclaimed a joint Bulgar-Nogay possession. There lived the Bulgarian merchants, customs officials and the nobility of the local cattle-ranchers, but the city did not have fortifications or a garrison. The part of its lands was used free-of-charge by the Nogays for cattle pasturing, fishing, layover stans and transit. In the Mohammed-Amin and Shakh-Gali governorship it temporarily belonged to the Kazan Il of the Bulgar. In the winter of the 1550 - 1551 the "New Nogays" captured the Chalap-Kerman, because of which started the Bulgar-Nogay war.
When began the "Nogay Famine", Seid Husain permitted his kazak underlings to take the city. Mikail Pan was in charge there for some time. In the 1582 the Mir-Kula became the Bulgarian commander of the Chalap-Kerman. After a departure of Sheikh-Gali, Mir-Kula became a subject of the Russian Tsar Fedor Ivanovitch and accepted Christianity to preserve his ataman post. His Bulgarian kazaks (Cossacks), partly already Christians or accepting this faith, commenced the Yaik (Ural) kazakdom.
Chally-Kala - modern city of Belgorod.
Chally-Cheremshan - the name of an allodial Bulgarian Beylik-Princedom of the 2nd Emirate epoch, and a province of the 3rd Emirate epoch. Chally-Cheremshan was also called "Cheremshan" and " Jukotin Princedom".
Chalmatu - the name of one of kinds Bulgarian of banners having the form of a chalma-like (türban-like - Translator's Note) sphere on the pole, with multi-colored ribbons.
Chebaksa - Bulgarian city, one of the largest centers of the weapons production of the Bulgar in the epoch of the 3rd Emirate, alongside with Shaymardans (Iske Yort), Kebe Kuzy, Echke-Kazan, Baradj and Korym Chally (Yana Cheremshan).
Cheremshan - 1) Cheremshan river;
2) see Chally-Cheremshan.
Chjurchjeni - confederation of the Manjurian tribes.
Chin - Southern China.
Chirmyshes - 1) state peasants obligated to carry a military duty;
2) militiamen, soldiers;
3) see guzar;
4) "mujuks" (in the kazanchies' slang ).
Chuar - Bulgarian city, modern Pestretsy. It was founded by Yanchur and Galikay on the Mesha river in the 1553 and received its name in honor of its diverse (motley, Russ. 'pesrtry' - Translator's Note) peoples. It was destroyed by the Russian army in 1554.
Chuen - pig-iron; from this Bulgarian term came the Russian word "chugun" - "pig-iron".
Chulman - river Kama from the source to the mouth of the White (from the 14th century sometimes all the Kama).
Chulman dingeze ("Chulman Sea") - Arctic Ocean.

Damiya - see Tamiya.
Damiya Keshe - one of the Adyg's names (Abkhazians, Adygeians, Kabardinias, Cherkessians); they were also called Kasheks (generic 'people', like for the lowest cast - Translator's Note) and Apases.
Damiya-Tarkhan - see Tamiya-Tarkhan.
Danga (tanka) - 1) scales of the fish;
2) silver coin; from this Bulgarian word came the Russian word "dengi" (money - Translator's Note).
Dar-al-ulüm (house of sciences) - university.
State - the Bulgarian state during the 865 - 1584 AD.
Djalda - Crimea.
Djalmat - Bulgarian clan.
Djalmat (Almat) - the military balik, founded by Talib in the 956 under the name "Talib", which in the 957 has beaten off an attack by the Turkmens. Later the name "Djalmat" ("Almat") stuck to it. Nowadays it is the city Almetievsk.
Djam (Djamal) - the far northern part of Bulgaria (including the Yamal peninsula), named in honor of the first Arian-Idelian king Djam (Sham).
Djamail (shamail) - originally the image on various materials (wood, leather, metal, glass, stone, cloth and others) of the fantastical city or the palace of the first Ura's king Djam, and Baradj with magical signs or inscription. Bolgars hung this image in the ürts (yurts, homes) and believed that it safeguards against an evil and brings happiness to the settlement or the house. Djamail is the Sabanian name of this image, meaning "House (or a palace, city, khanaate) of Djam". The Sumero-Bulgars called these images "khaldja", as the most beautiful shamail was hanging in the palace, called "Khaldja", of the Sumerian kings (at the same time, Bulgars also called Horezm (also Khwarezm - Translator's Note) the "Khaldja", because in the Horezm, on the way from the Bolgar to the Bukhara, was a deserted castle that reminded the "Khaldja" palace, and after the acceptance of Islam the king Djam also began to be called by the Moslem name "Amin"). After the Islam settled in, the Djamails, which preserved the significance as the protectors, began to be decorated with the Islamic sacred sites and inscribed with the citations from the Koran (also Quran - Translator's Note). Musa ibn Halil remarked that the "El-Khum" brothers were actively engaged in manufacturing of the Djamails not only for the Bulgars, but also for the  Kyrgyzes, Crimeans, Rumian Türks, Russians, Ishtyaks, Tatarian Kypchaks, Ars and other peoples, and for the Bulgars specifically were depicted the sacred places of the  Garabstan, stone mosques and palaces of the main Bulgarian cities, and on the others were depicted the structures, habitual for the customers (yurts, wooden houses and other) .
Djandar - shield bearer, bodyguard.
Djegulytau ("Mountain with Steep Slopes") - a mountain ridge in the Samara Bend of Itil, also the modern city Jiguli.
Djek Edem - a famous balik-menzel, founded near an aul Sugym in the mouth of the river White (Belaya) during the time of the Khan Adam (Edem) and named in honor of him. The aul received its name "Sugym" during the time of the Khan Anbal. A song was jokingly sang about this balik: "I have lost my love, will I find her in the Djek Edem? "
Djgit - brave, fearless warrior (Translator's Note)
Djir - 1) Bulgarian province in the Upper Itil area, later annexed to the Kievan Rus, which received the name "the Rostov land";
2) Bulgarian city, the centre of the Djir province;
3) modern city of Rostov.
Djogen - 1) bridle;
2) string with attached seal (with the Kan's or official's tamga), affixed to the Kan's or governmental epistle. Therefore this Bulgarian word entered the Russian language in the form and with the meaning of the 'law' (Russ. "zakon" - Translator's Note). The double meaning of the word "djogen" in the Bulgarian language resulted in creation of the expressions "To keep people in a bridle" (i.e., within the frame of the law) and "unbridled" (go beyond the law, beyond the allowed).
Djoz - district (i.e., county - Translator's Note).
Djoz-Uba ("Hundred Cliffs") - river Chusovaya.
Djok - pray, offering.
Djuk - river Üg (Russ. 'south' - Translator's Note).
Djuketau - see Tukhchi.
Djuketun - 1) modern city Ustüg;
2) see Tukhchi.
Djun-Kala - see Djunne-Kala.
Djunne-Kala - Bulgarian balik, founded in 922 AD (Musa ibn Halil), modern city of Nizhni Novgorod. It also was called Ibragim-Balik. The Ruses called Djunne-Kala "Djun-Kala", and in the 1220 they built in its place the fortress of Nizhny Novgorod. In the 1221 - 1225 the balik was again under the authority of the Bulgaria, in the 1226 - 1237 - it was annexed to the Suzdal land, in the 1237 - 1262 it again accedes to Bulgaria, in the 1262 it is seized by the Suzdalians, in the 1237 - 1445 it is a constituent of the Bulgaria, and in the autumn of the 1445 it is again seized by the Ruses.
Djura - 1) mercenary, militiaman;
2) member of feudal retinue.
Djurash (Surej) - 1) Dagestan and Vaynakhstan ("Checheno-Ingushetia");
2) eastern part of the Northern Caucasus.
Djurashes (Surejes) - Dagestanis, Vaynakhis ("Chechens" and "Ingushes"), Vaynakhis were always the Bulgarian State's allies and participated in all Caucasian campaigns of the Bulgars (against Tamiya-Tarkhan, Derbent, Azerbaijan and other lands), and Bulgaria, in turn, respected the Vaynakhstan-Djurash independence. The Bulgarian Kans gladly accepted Vaynakhian warriors to the service inside Bulgaria, and Vaynakhian shakirds were trained in the Bulgarian medrese together with the shakirds of the Kumykian Beylik, Kiev and Chernigov princedoms (Kovuys, Berendeys, Torks, Kara-Kalpaks), Azerbaijan, Georgia (Khondjaks), Kypchak hordes, Saklan, Iran, Rum, Afghanistan, Horezm and other lands. In accordance with the tradition, the sons of the Vaynakhian Beks served in the Bulgarian city Madjara Suba ("Majar's Yurt"), where there were two fortifications (with Burdjanian and Djurashian garrisons) and three baliks (Burdjanian, Djurashian and Saklanian). The Vaynakhian Bek Nasyr, who commanded the Djurashian garrison and participated in the campaign against the Derbent, helped Emir Otyak to flee from Bulgaria, for which Djangi, upon becoming the Kan, gave his daughter in marriage for his son Djumat. Djumat also served in the Madjara Suba, participated in the campaign of 1184 on Tamiya-Tarkhan, guided Lachyn Khisamito the Georgia through his capital Sundja (it was also called Djumat-Kala). In the 1223, being already at an advanced age, Djumat left with all his sons and grandsons to fight Subyatay at Madjara Suba, and perished in ithe battle, covering with Ablas-Khin the retreat of Bachman. Under the authority of the Djumat's grandson Kambar were 11 cities. In the 1278 he tried to help Bulgaria and with Kumyks and Burdjanian Bulgars attacked the Tatar garrison in the Madjara Suba, for which the Kypchaks and Ruses destroyed five of the eleven Vaynakhian cities. The Kambar's descendent Husain helped Mohammed-Amin to annex the Astrakhan Khanate to the Bulgaria, and the Husain's grandson Malik ibn Mamli, together with the Tarki's Bek Kasym, helped to forward the Bulgarian state archive to the Azak (Tuk-Mohammed; he himself was in the Vaynakhstan and Tarki).
Divan - Kan's office, government.
Dima-Tarkhan - see Tamiya-Tarkhan.
House of Sciences - see Dar-al-ulüm.
Duloba - the state of the Bek Shambat, which existed (from 623 until 658 AD) in the territory of Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania and Trans Carpatian Ukraine. Shambat in the Western Europe was called "Samo", and therefore his state was also called "Samo State". The Slavs called the Shambat's state "Duleby".
Deber-su - river Sviyaga, also called Zuya by the Bulgars.
Dyau (dau, diü) - 1) great, vast;
2) divine, heathen spirit, Alyp (Alp).
E (like'e' in 'elk')
Eg Sadum - Norway
Elbegen - see Baradj.
"Endowed" ("directed") - official.
Erdim - Bulgarian clan, called also by the Bulgars "Ermi", and in the Kievan Rus called "Radimichies".
Ersubulem - the most ancient Bulgarian name for the Jerusalem.

E (like'e' in 'stem')
Elbek - the initial name of the Bulgarian city Tarki, built in the 1030 by the Bulgarian merchant Elbek bine Burdjan bine Bulat Mizan for his son-in-law Tarak, the leader of the Kumykian Bulgars, for his joining the Bulgarian State. The Tarak's laxury palace in city centre received the name "Tarak-iy". One of the Tarak's descendents in the end of the 12-th century renamed "Elbek" to "Tarak-iy", but himself took the old name of city, "Elbek", as a name. From the name "Tarak-iy" it turned into "Tarki". Elbek participated in the Lachyn Khisami's campaign against the Tmytarakan in 1184, in installing this Emir onto the Georgian throne, in routing the prince Igor of Novgorod-Seversky in the 1185, he has gone through the Tatars' invasion and died in 1228. In the 1223 Subyatay crushed Bachman near Tarki, but could not take the city and was forced to bypass it. In the 1229 Subyatay attacked Tarki again, and this time he demolished the city. The Elbek's cousin Yadkar, who ruled after him, was killed by the Tatars. The Elbek's son Djura was kept as a hostage in the Sarai for some time. Here he wrote a song on the motives of the "Shan kyzy dastany" and "Kyssa-i Üsuf". He devoted this song to the Yadkar's daughter Altynbu, with whom he was in love:

In a mountain cave
Might hide from the sun,
But could not hide from your love.
From here the dawn is not seen -
But I am waiting for you, as nobody else, and here.
The current of Idel so is strong,
As the love of Üsuf and Zuleykha,
As my love to you.
You are beautiful, with dark eyebrows, and stately,
Will the Almighty connect us?
When I napped under a blossoming tree -
I saw you in a dream.
You are so beautiful, that it seems,
That you are not terrestrial,
Buta gift of the heavens.
You are brighter than the sun and moon,
And only the gurias of paradise can
Be compared with you.
Only the Almighty knows,
How I love you,
But what is endowed to you
By the will of Almighty?

During the Djura's absence, the Tatars wanted to take Altynbu to the Mongolian Khan's harem, but she committed suicide.
Elbir - warrior of the "second line". That was also called 'bakhadir', from the 13th century - 'kazak'.
Emir - leader, ruler, prince, member of the Bulgar's ruling house, a Bek close to the throne. The title "Emir" was also used in Bulgaria in the meaning "Great Khan".
Esegel - 1) "temple city" in Sumer;
2) the serving caste of the "temple city", priests;
3) priest. This term also existed in the form "askal".
Esegel - Bulgarian allodial Beylik in Trans Kama region. The Beylik was obliterated in the 922 reorganization.
Etesch - Kazan mosque, built in the place where at one time stood Syntau or Syntash idol, on the Kan's meadow, between the Kuraish balik and Itil in the 567 of hidjra . Officially it was called "Iman Shakhar". Its minaret doubled as a beacon. As it was brightly painted, it was also named "Tesle" - "Multi-colored" (Musa ibn Halil). In it was the tombstone of Kul-Ashraf (Bakhshi Iman), later transferred to the mosque "Iske Tash", which was built nearby (owner of the copy of the Annals Karashev, record of 1837).
Echke Bulgar ("Inner Bulgaria") - the central part of the Bulgarian state, located between Sviyaga and Sheshma, Mesha and Samara Bend. Sometimes the Echke Bulgar was called "Mardukan" ("Marduan") that included only the Bolgar and Suvar provinces.
Echke-Kazan - see Archa-Kala.


Farang (Frang) - 1) Bulgarian name of the river Rhine and the Rhine Germans;
2) Western European;
3) French, France.
Farang dingeze (Frank's Sea) - Atlantic Ocean.
Farangstan (Frangistan) - 1) Western Europe;
2) France.

Gazan - see Kazan.
Galidj - 1) city Ladoga;
2) city of Novgorod the Great;
3) Bulgarian balik, modern city Galich (Mersky).
Galidjians - 1) originally - one of the names of the Scandinavians;
2) Novgorodians, who in the 1111 managed to pluck from the Bulgaria the Northern Shud, located between the White (Belozero) Lake and the Sukhona river.
Garnat - 1) Spain; 2) city Grenada.
Mountain Bulgaria (Tauly Bulgar) - Ante-Itil part of the Bulgaria, called by the Russians "Gorna Storona", the "Mountain Side".
Guzar - lightly armed warrior of the third line, also called "chirmysh" and "aydar".
Gurdja - Georgia.
Gurdjian uram - one of quarters of the Kasim balik (district) of the Kazan populated immigrants from the Georgia (mainly by the Armenians). P. Karashev tells that in the beginning it was located on the mountain. Once a pregnant wife of the elder of the quarter, descending for water, fell and lost her child. Upset by it, the elder in 1552 pointed to the Russian armies a weak place in the fortifications of the balik, and they took the Kasim. For this help Ivan the Terrible permitted the Armenians to settle down from the mountain, on the very bank of the Kaban, and to occupy the houses of the Moslems. When the Russian army was storming Kazan, this elder with his sons killed the wives, old men and children of the Moslems, and marauded even the dead. The other Armenians condemned them and refused to take the property of the Moslems, so only the elder and his sons did it . When Mamysh-Birde once came to Kazan, the Armenians seized the elder with his sons and turned him over to the Emir, as criminals. But he said that the Bulgarian Khans granted the Armenians a right to judge the members of their community themselves. Then the Armenians locked the villains in the house and, putting under it a barrel of gunpowder, blew them up...
Gurdjians - Georgians.
Gül-Asma - see Kul-Asma.

Iber - 1) metal;
2) Bulgarian name of the metal rich areas.
Iber - river Pur in Siberia.
Ibers - Nenets, whom Bulgars also called Urs.
Ibn (bine) - son.
Ibragim - see Bolgar
Ibragim-Balik - see Djunne-Kala.
Idel - 1) originally the name of the union of seven clans;
2) first name of the Bulgarian state;
3) Itil (Volga) from the mouth of the Kama to its influence into the Caspian sea.
Idjim - 1) river Ishim;
2) area included into Bulgaria in 1141.
Il - province.
Ilche - 1) regent;
2) representative of the ruler.
Imen - an island in Konchygysh dingeze, where the Imenian bogatyrs continued the tradition of the Crete wrestling tournaments; modern Japan.
Imens - 1) the most ancient Manjuro-Japanese common ancestors;
2) Manjurs.
Irdan - depression, valley.
Ishtyak - Bulgarian province of the 3-rd Emirate epoch.
Ishtyaks - 1) one of the Bulgar's nicknames;
2) Kypchak nickname for the Bashkorts;
3) Khantys.

Jukotin - see Tukhchi.
Jukotin Princedom - see Cheremshan Bekdom.

Kabak - 1) gate;
2) inn with a store just outside the city gate;
3) caravanserai;
4) store with a diner.
Kaban - haystack.
Kaban-kül ("Haystack Lake") - modern lake Kaban in Kazan.
Kaves ("archer") - 1) urban militiaman;
2) soldier of a garrison reporting to a Magistrate;
3) a selected infantryman, armed with a crossbow or myltyk;
4) baliks in the Bolgar and Kazan.
Kazak - 1) originally - a brave knight fighting without armors out of neglect to death, and the one who vowed not to marry until he fulfils a number of military feats;
2) retinue feudal;
3) see elbir
Kazanka - see Arsu
Kazan Il - Middle Itil Bulgarian province of the 3-rd Emirate epoch.
Kazan Bekdom - Bulgarian Princedom dominion of the 2nd Emirate epoch, ruled by Azanids.
Kazanchi - a large feudal dominion lord, sometimes also called 'ulan'.
Kazan - Bulgarian city, capital of the Bulgarian state in the 3-rd Emirate epoch, officially called in the 1103 - 1220 "Uchel" ("Three Cities"), in the 1220 - 1361 - "Gazan" or "Kazan", in the 1361 - 1431 - " Bolgar al-Djadid " ("New Bolgar"), and since 1431 until the present time, "Kazan". The Meadow Maris called Kazan "Komola" (also meaning in the Meadow Maris' language " Three Cities"), the Ruses - "Tri Goroda" (Russ. "Three Cities" - Translator's Note), "Oshel", "Ochela", "Ashla", "Bolgar", "Kazan", the Chuvashes - "Khuzan", the Türks of Siberia - "Ala-Tura", the Kyrgyzes - " Uch Tirme" ("Three Cities").

See insert below for geography and toponimy of Kazan


Kazgyn - Bulgarian station on Ob (east of Omek), founded in the 1137; modern city of Novosibirsk.
Kala - 1) city;
2) tower.
Kalgan - fortified balik of the city of Kazan.
Kama-Bulak - the old name of the canal in Kazan, connected to the Itil from the 12th c. by the "through" Bulak and the river Kazanka.
Kamysh-Samar - city, the centre of the Bulgar's Samara province of the 2nd Emirate epoch, the native land of the Bulgarian poet Sayfa Saray.
Kan - Kagan, Emperor.
Kan (Kan-Kerman, Kan-Mardan) - 1) city of Murom, originally in the Bulgarian province Mardan-Bellak;
2) Murom Princedom.
Kangly - one of the Türkic peoples exterminated by the Mongolian Khans. The Farsi-Sabans, who populated in the beginning the lands between Balkhash and Issyk-kül, in the northeast bordered with Uzi (Oguzes), and in the southeast - with Kangly. Under the influence of these Türkic neighbors the Sabanian tribe Türkisized, and in it developed a new Türkic language, "Türko-Sabanian" or "Badjanakian", from which developed all Kypchak languages. A part of the Kangly integrated with Sabans after a defeat from the Oguzes.
Kara - 1) west;
2) black;
3) large, large, strong, mighty.
Kara Aral - Ireland.
Kara baltachy - executioner (Russ. 'palach'- Translator's Note).
Kara-Balyn - Belarus.
Kara-Balyns - the Belaruses.
Kara-Bulgar - 1) ancient name of the Bulgarian State, meaning "Great Bulgaria";
2) Ukraine;
3) territory of the Kara-Bulgarian Beylik.
Karadjar - Bulgarian city, modern Ukrainian city of Chernigov.
Karadjeya - 1) crossbow;
2) one of the types of the catapult machine.
Kara dingez - Laptevykh Sea, Eastern-Siberian Sea and Chukotskoe Sea.
Kara-Idel - Idel from the source to the mouth of Kama river.
Kara-Masgut - Massagets who wagonered to the Scythian steppes of the Europe.
Kara-Muslims - Bulgars of Rus' origin.
Kara-Musha - one of the names of the river Beautiful Mecha (Russ. 'Krasivaya Mecha'- Translator's Note).
Kara Sadum - England.
Karatayak - 1) area of the Bulgaria;
2) Bulgarian fortress; it was erected in the place, where the Khon's leader Alyp-biy hammered, with a huge bat ("Karatayak"), a hundred enemies into the ground. During the attack of Berke the population of area fled to the Inner Bulgaria and received the name "Karatays".
Karatun - 1) crusader;
2) christian fanatic.
Karaul - patrol, guard (Russ. 'Karaul'=Sentry - Translator's Note)
Kara-Ulag - Romania.
Karachaies - N. Caucasian-Kuban group of some Bulgarian clans, the ancestors of the Karachais.
Kara-chirmyshes - the state's heathen peasants, obligated to pay increased tax to the Kan's house or to the state.
Kar dingeze - Karskoe Sea.
Katau - 1) bulwark of fallen trees;
2) fortified camp;
3) fortress.
Kaubuys (Kaubiys) - Ukrainian group of several Bulgarian clans called in the Kievan Rus "Kovuys".
Kaftau - 1) mountain in Sumer;
2) Caucasian mountains.
Kakhin - priest, shaman.
Kashan - 1) Kashgaria;
2) city, the centre of the Kashan province;
3) Bulgarian province of the 1st Emirate epoch.
Kashans - 1) Kushans, one of the Ura's tribes ;
2) Kashgarians;
3) population of the Bulgar's Kashan city and Kashan province of the 1st Emirate epoch .
Kasheks - see damiya keshe.


Khazar - Bulgarian military balik, founded by Gilas-Khan in 1035 and settled by the Saksin Turkmens, which the Mardanians called "Khazars" (from here also came the name of the city); modern city Voronej. In the end of the 9th century Kolyn Rumi and other Bulgarian merchants were expelled by the Greeks and Prince Oleg from the Tamiya-Tarkhan and Agardja. A detachment from the Khazar raided against the Tamiya-Tarkhan, defeated and captured Oleg and turned him over to the Greeks after they returned to the Bulgarian merchants their rights, houses and property (the Judean merchants almost had gotten hold of it).
At that time the Oleg's enemy, Prince Vsevolod has bribed the Greeks, and they have sent Oleg in exile to the island Artysh. Then the Greeks released Oleg. The Judean merchants thought that Oleg again would give them the property of the Bulgarian merchants, and killed Kolyn, but the Prince executed the murderers.
Khakan (Kagan) - Great Khan, Emperor.
Khan - the elective head, leader, chief, commander.
Khan-Kerman - Bulgarian city, modern Kasimov. Per Musa ibn Halil, it was founded in the 926 as a menzel, but quickly became a Mardanian balik. Originally it was called "Modjar", "Modjar-Kala". In the 985 it suffered an assault of the Kiev Prince Vladimir, and in the 1010 it was conceded, together with Kan-Mardan (Murom) by the Kan Ibragim to the Kievan Rus. But the Bulgars did not left Modjar, and in the 11-th - 16-th centuries were the overwhelming and dominating majority of the population. In the 1437 the "banished by all" Khan Ulug-Mohammed (in his time he studied in the Kazan medrese "Mir-Gali", also called "Nur-Gali") took the Modjar, offered by the Modjarians, and renamed the city to "Khan-Kerman", and offered the Emir Gali-bey to recognize him as the Khan (head of the union) of the Kypchak and Bulgar. Gali-bey refused. Then Ulug-Mohammed addressed with the same request to Yabyk-Mohammed, as to a Seid, and he agreed, in exchange for the Khan's consent to serve him secretly and to support the claims of the Seid-Emir to the Bulgarian throne. In the same year Yabyk-Mohammed proclaimed Ulug-Mohammed as the Khan of Kypchak and Bulgar, and named the allied state Ulug Bulgar ("Great Bulgaria"), and the Khan recognized him as the Seid of the Ulug Bulgar and the Emir of the Echke Bulgar, and sent to him his sons, Makhmudtek and Yakub. In the autumn of the 1437 Yabyk-Mohammed, together with the sons of Khan, took Kazan. Gali-bey ended up in zindan, and Yabyk-Mohammed became an Emir of the Echke-Bulgarian state, a part of the Kypchako-Bulgarian State Ulug Bulgar Yorty. In the 1438 Yabyk-Mohammed sent to the Khan-Kerman, at the request of the Khan, the best builders, and they built up the city, capital of the Ulug Bulgar, with magnificent stone buildings. In 1445 in the Khan-Kerman were 20 mosques. In 1439 the Bulgarian army besieged Moscow and forced it to renew the tax payments to the Ulug Bulgar, and in 1445, when the Moscow Prince has refused to pay tax again, defeated it and captured him. However, Kara-Yakub, the younger brother of Ulug-Mohammed, together with Kasim, the son of Ulug-Mohammed, in the same 1445 killed Ulug-Mohammed, proclaimed himself the Kypchak Khan  and released the captured Moscow Prince from the zindan. After that Kara-Yakub took "Kurmysh", the right bank part of the Khan-Kerman. Makhmudtek tried to render resistance to the rebels, but the army of the Khan Kara-Yakub, Kasim and Ulug Bulgar vassal Princes of Murom and Ryazan took "Tash-Balik", the left bank part of the Khan-Kerman, and subjected it to a horrifying devastation. Makhmudtek and the Bulgarian detachment of Gabdel -Mumin, who were defending "Tash-Balik", in a fierce fight near the city zirat "Yafrak-Tun" fatally wounded Khan Kara-Yakub, but eventually had to retreat to the Echke Bulgar. The son of Ulug-Mohammed, Yakub, who was in Kazan, also joined the rebelious uncle Kara-Yakub, let out Gali-bey from the zindan, and expelled Yabyk-Mohammed. But in the same autumn Makhmudtek and Gabdel-Mumin, under an order of the Yabyk-Mohammed, took Kazan again, and Gali-bey, who just proclaimed himself the Emir of Bulgar, was killed. After that Yabyk-Mohammed united effectively the Bulgarian state under the rule of the Ashrafid dynasty.
Khanate (Khanlyk) - republic, state with elected government, union of tribes or states.
Kharam - a place for "sinful" (non-Moslem) prayers; from this Bulgarian term came the Russian word "khram" - "temple".
Kharka - 1) Bulgarian clan;
2) Bulgarian balik; nowadays the Ukrainian city of Kharkov.
Khatyn (also Hatyn, Hatun - 1) spouse of the governor, governor; empress;
2) wife.
Khin - Northern China, Mongolia and Baykal area.
Khin-Kerman (Khin) - Bulgarian city, also called Sarkel and White Tower (Russ. Belaya Veja).
Khishdek - 1) one that "frequently changes residence, much traveling";
2) bogatyr, hero;
3) nickname for the Bulgars of the Echke Bulgar and Kazan area.
Khons - Huns, the Manjurs who adopted the archaic Türkic language ( Hunnish language).
Khorasan - 1) Khorasan, Eastern Persia, Afghanistan and the south of the Central Asia;
2) Samanid state.
Horezmian Sea - Aral Sea.
Khorymiy ("Soot House") - Bulgarian name of the Rus' dwelling (open fire heated), from which took place the Russian word "khoromy" - "house".
Khorysdan - Bulgarian city in the Ukraine, modern city Putivl. Bulgars also called it  "Batavyl", that is "Prince's Quarters", from which came the modern name of the city "Putivl". It was also called "Korosten" (distorted "Khorysdan").
Khot - Hun's tribe.
Khud-Imen - settlements of the Balts on the river Bakhta near the oak "Khud-Imen".
Khuds - Goths.
Khumyks - N Caucasus group of some Bulgarian clans, ancestors of Kumyks.
Khursa - 1) Alp of the fire and smith craft;
2) Bulgarian balik, the centre of the iron ore production in the Kara-Bolgar; modern city of Kursk.

Kisan - 1) city Ryazan; 2) Ryazan Princedom.
Kisans - Ryazanians.
Kichi Shir - Sever's Donets.
Kogul - emerald (from this comes the name of the city Kagul etc.).
Kogul dingez ("Emerald Sea") - Indian ocean.
Kolysh - horse, stallion.
Kolyn - Bulgarian city, the centre of the Biysu and Nukrat provinces, founded in the place of the Bulgarian menzel Botuk (established, per Musa ibn Halil, in the 866 AD), modern regional city Kirov. Bulgars also called Kolyn "Nukrat", and the Ruses - "Khlynov" and "Vyatka".
Konchygysh dingeze ("Eastern Sea") - Pacific Ocean.
Kortdjak - Bulgarian province (with the centre in the Balyn-Balik) of the 1st Emirate epoch in the territory of the modern Moscow, Vladimir and Ivanovo oblasts of Russia.
Koryk - a banner of a part of the army used by the Bulgars during battles.
Korym-Chally - Bulgarian city, the centre of the Chally-Cheremshan Bekdom (Beylik) and the Chally-Cheremshan province. In the 1556 it was taken and destroyed by the Russian troops.
Kresh (Kirish) - 1) Crete island;
2) the place in the Kievan fortress where the Bulgarian bogatyrs liked to wrestle .
Kresh (kuresh) - Bulgarian national wrestling which arose from the of variety of the Imenian wrestlings (djuma kuresh, berket kuresh, belak kuresh, elanach kuresh and others); in the olden time it was also called "kesh" or "khesh".
Kuban-su - river Khuankhe (also 'Huanhe' - Translator's Note).
Kubar - the island of Cyprus, the native land of the Alp Kubar.
Kubar-su - river Euphrates.
Kuba-su - river Kuban (also 'Cuban' - Translator's Note).
Kuk - 1) divine, sacred;
2) sky, heavenly;
3) north;
4) light-blue.
Kukdjak - 1) Kokshaga river;
2) Meadow Maris' province.
Kukdjak chirmysh - Meadow Mari.
Kuk dingez - Barents Sea.
Kuk-Kuyantau - the mountains where the city Bashtu - Kyi - Kiev was built. They were also called "Kuyantau". From "Kuyan" came the Arabian "Kuyab".
Kul-Asma - Bulgarian river, also called Gül-Asma, nowadays it carries the name Klyazma. (Kul-Asma yuly is the southern branch of the Ar's road to the Baltic, sometimes called "Gerebe ül" ("Amber Way").
Kumans - nomadic western Kypchaks, called by the Ruses "Polovetses".
Kunig - book. From this Old Bulgarian term came the Russian word "book" (Russ. 'khiga'- Translator's Note).
Kuper-Kubar - the river Khoper.
Kurgash - Arabia.
Kurpeshch - 1) furnace for firing of clay;
2) brick; from this Old Bulgarian word came the Russian word "brick" (Russ. 'kirpich'- Translator's Note).
Kursybay - standing Bulgarian army. Before a battle the Bulgarian army formed three lines, and in the first were ulans, in the second were medium armed knights, in the third were guzars.
Kush-Urma - Bulgarian balik, modern city Kostroma.
Kuyantau - see Kuk-Kuyantau.
Kyzyl - 1) red;
2) beautiful.
Kyzyl Kashanly ("Beautiful Kashanian") - Kashgarian.
Kyzyl Yar - Bulgarian menzel, founded in the 1096; nowadays (i.e. at the time of composing this Glossary - Translator's Note) city Petropavlovsk (Kazakhstan) ('Petropavl' in Khazakh - Translator's Note).
Kyi - see Bashtu.
Kypchaks (Kipchaks) - 1) Farsi name for the nomadic tribes, speaking in the languages of the Kypchak group of the Türkic languages;
2) one of the Kypchak tribes.
Kyrgyzes - 1) Bulgarian name for the nomadic Kypchak tribes;
2) one of the Kypchak tribes;
3) nomadic ancestors of the Kazakhs and Kyrgyzes.
Kysh-Tarkhan - fantastic Lord of Winter, son of Alp-Bika Ashna (Atna), the patroness of the farmers, and the nephew of Bulyar, the patron of the shepherds. His first name was Elaur. Once she-wolf killed a ram of one shepherd, and he complained to Bulyar. The Alp made that the wolf fell in a trap, but Elaur with his brother freed her. The angry Bulyar took the boys to a deserted place and wanted to kill them there, but cranes, who loved Ashna, by a sudden cry frightened the Alp and turned him to flight. They informed the wolf of the abandoned boys, and she picked up and fed her rescuers together with her pups. When the brothers grew up, one of them fell in love with a crow and asked Tangra to turn him into a crow Kozgyn, and the other, Elaur, became the Lord of Winter, Kysh-Tarkhan. The crows (Kozgyn with his girlfriend) and the grown-up wolfs began to serve Kysh-Tarkhan. Kysh-Tarkhan was depicted with a high pointed hat of the wolf pelt (burek) on his head, in a fur coat of dark blue color.. .. and with a staff in hand, topped with a silver half moon. The man playing the role of Kysh-Tarkhan during nardugan, supervised over collection of the gifts, - "donations for Kysh-Tarkhan". It was considered that Kysh-Tarkhan saves from death and brings a good luck on the road, on the hunt and in the war (if he is given offerings), that he drives about on the wolves. The Crows inform Kysh-Tarkhan about the offerings, and he, if he likes them, sends to the aid of the offerers wolves and crows.


Bulgarian toponymy of the Kazan per "Djagfar Tarihy"

Arsu (later, after the 1220 - Kazan-su) - river Kazanka.
Archa kyry - Ar's field (Russ. 'Arskoe Pole').
Baltau - a hill, later called Zilanian.
Bish-Balta - balik, arisen in 1003.
Bogyltau ("Heap Mountain") - the hill on top of which stand the Kazan Kremlin, Lenin Street, and university.
Iske-Shakhar - the place, later called "Fedor's Knoll".
Kabantau ("Haystack Mountain") - the hill on the bank of the Kaban, from which the lake received its name (Kaban-kül).
Kama-Bulak - east sleeve of the Kazanka's eastuary.
Patsha khider or Patsha kyry - the Kazan meadow, which was located between the Bulak and Itil and called by the Russians "Tsar's meadow".
Tazik - moat in the fortress and the island called "Trader's" (Russ. "Kupetcheskie"- Translator's Note).
Tashyak - a place below the modern Kremlin on the right bank of Bulak, by which name the fair on the left bank of the Bulak also began to be called Tashyak.
Berry wood - in the Kirov district of Kazan.

Lakes in the depression between Bogyltau and Archa kyry

Akbi-kül - later called "White Lake".
Bagcha-kül -?
Karga-kül - was called later "Black lake" (and "Bath?).
Men-Chokyr - a hollow between Bogyltau and Archa kyry.

Streets (üly) and squares (maydans)

Ar's - " To pass from the Ar's gates to Ügary Kerman by the Ar's street they were prevented... " - K.Marks str.
Astarkhan (Astrakhan) - "... along Astrakhan str., which connects the Lower Nogay and Korym towers, the rebels broke to the Astarkhan Court... " - University str.
Atalyk - "... through the Atalyk a gate by the Atalyk street... to the Lower Nogay gates... From this street run the streets to the tarses of the Bulak wall... " - Bauman str.
Balyk maydany - "...On this square, against the Nogay gates, the fishermen sold their catch, that's why it received its name, 'Balyk maydany'... " - Kuibyshev square, Kuibyshev str.
Bukhara - "... the Bukhara street, which passed from the Bukhar Yorty to the Sain moat a little below the Shekhid-üly... " - Trade-union str. (Russ. "Profsoyuznaya" - Translator's Note).
Djilyak (Berry) - "they set off from Bish-Balta to Shakhri Gazan by the edge of the Djilyak (Berry) wood by the Djilyak (Berry) street... " - Gladilov str.
Isbel - "... from Bogyltau to the Lower Isbel gates by the Isbel street... " - Baturin str.
Iske-Shakhar - "... Iske-shakhar street leads from the Kara-Muslim and Kaves baliks (to the Iske-shakhar) ... " - Kasatkin str.
Kaves str. - "... To get from the Kaves balik to the Ügary Kerman by the Kaves street, it was necessary to traverse the Rooks' bridge..." - Krasin str.
Korym (Crimean) - "... From the Korym gates by the Korym street to the Big taras (Bulak wall) - Pravobulochnaya str.
Nogay - "... by the Nogay street, which run between Atalyk and Korym streets, they galloped from the Big taras street to the Astarkhan Court.:. " - Ostrovskogo str.
Pechen (Hay) - "... From this caravan-serai to the Djilka bazaar run the Pechen street..." - Kirov str.
Subashi - "from the Balyk maydany he proceeded to the Kasim balik by the Subashi street..." - Sverdlova str.
Syntau - "... from the Kara-Idel to the aul Pechen he rode by the Syntau road. It passed by a perfect meadow with pure lakes and small groves, and in the summer seem to be the road to paradise..." - Tatarstan str.
Tashayak - "...through the Mir-Gali gates to the Dair bridge through the Bulak by the Tashayak street..." - Kremlin str.
Teke - "... this road later began to be called Alatian..." (record of P.Karashev)- Dekabristov str.
Tümen - "...from the Tümen street one could ride to the Ügary Kerman towers, located between the Ulug and Tazik moats..." - Sheykman passage in the Kremlin.
Ulak maydany - "...the meadow on the right bank of the Kazan-su, accross from the city, and the road running by it to the Oly-katau with a ferry across the Kazan-su in three verstas from the city... Here during the military meets were various competitions, including the [target] shooting "ulak", and this meadow and the street were named this..." - Kh.Yamasheva avenue.
Kan's - "... he chose to ride from the Ügary Kerman to the Lower Kan's gates by the Kan's street... " - Dzerjinsky str .
Shekhid-üly - "...from the BukharYorty they rushed to the Ügary Kerman along the street which later began to be called Shekhid-üly... " - Lenina str.


Laish - Bulgarian city founded in 1278 by the Bek Laish, the son of the Emir Boyan-Mohammed; modern city Laishev. In the 1554 it was converted into a support point for the Russian troops, but in the winter of the 1555 - 1556 yr. the Yarchallyans re-took it and destroyed the city and, together with Korymchallyans joined the army of Mamysh-Birde in the Echke-Kazan.
Lachyk (Alachyk)-Uba - Bulgarian balik, nowadays - Nizhniy Novgorod settlement Lyskovo
Lachyk (alachyk) - 1) smith shop;
2) workshop.
Ley - see Baradj.
Lok - river Lukh; was also called Lokyr.
May-üly (May-chuly) - sepulture for a noble man, "following the way of May, (Mardukan)".
Small Rum - Balkan peninsula and Crete island.
Mamil - Ancient Bulgarian name of the Egypt, the native land of the Alp Baryn-Mamil.
Manara - 1) tower; 2) mosque minaret.
Mardan - see Mardan-Bellak.
Mardan-Bellak - Bulgarian Itil-area province of the 1st Emirate epoch. Bulgars also called it "Mardan" and "Bellak", and the Oka Ars called it  "Muroma" (from it was derived the name of the city Murom).
Mardans - Bulgars of the Mardan-Bellak province, also called Bellaks.
Mardukan - see Bolgar.
Martuan - internal citadel of the Bulyar city.
Martüba - Bulgarian Middle Itil province of the 1st Emirate epoch, forerunner of the Kazan Bekdom (Beylik) and il; from the "Martüba" name came the Russian "Mordva".
Martübians - the inhabitants of the Martüba province.
Maruba - Czechia and Moravia.
Masguts - eastern Scythians-Massagets, one of the Ura tribes. Massagets were also called Dakhs, Dayks, Tüku, Türks, and from these names came the name of city Tukhchi, river Djaik, the general term for the Türks (as the Türks occupied the territory of the Massagets). The first to take the name "Türk" were the Kytays, a part of whom mixed up with Imens and passed on to them the archaic Türkic language (Türkic-Hunnish language).
Manchin - Southeast Asia.
Menzel - road station with caravan-serai (caravansarai, caravanserai, caravansary, road inn- Translator's Note)
Mosque Gabdel-Mumin - Kazan mosque in Ügary Kerman.
Mosque "Gülli" - According to the one of the owners of the Petropavlovsk copy of the "Djagfar tarihi" Peter Karashev, it "was built in the place of the Gazan mausoleum as the Shekhid's mausoleum - "bulümer". It was topped with an octagon, decorated with a flower ornament, and consequently it was also called "Gülli"... The Church of Peter and Paul was decorated with equally fine octagonal upper floor with multi-coloured glass and skilful carvings, like those of the Shekhid's mausoleum... At the same time has decayed and fell four-corner belltower, and the wooden Church of Introduction also collapsed... At the same time mullah Ibray announced that the images of the barses and lions in the carvings of the mosque "Tesle" were made by the Russians to desecrate the mosque after the capture of Kazan by them, and with his own hand he has brought them down... After that our Kryashens ceased to talk with a grin about this mosque: "Iman Shakhre - Barys oyasy". Kara-Tun, learning about it, ordered to knock down the plates with wonderful carvings from the gates of the Süümbika tower and to arrange in the Shekhid's mausoleum a new Church of Introduction. Under his order... was broken the top of the Shekhid's mausoleum and was built a square one instead, to deprive the mosque and the church of the similarity and to make the mausoleum by more like the church... My ancestor Georgy participated in the construction of this cathedral. And his ancestor Fasyl from the Chebaks was a schoolboy of the Mir-Gali himself and was sent with him to the construction of the church in Moscow, where he accepted Christianity and took the name Vasily... My father and I were afraid to show anybody the book of Bakhshi Iman, as to prevent it from the sad fate of the octagon on the top of the Shekhid's mausoleum and the bars of the "Iman Shakhar".
Mosque "Mohammed-Alam" ("Kul-Ashraf") - main mosque of Kazan. Peter Karashev kept its sketch and noted that shortly before the capture of Kazan by the Russian troops, Kul-Ashraf ordered to build up the main dome of the mosque, also with a small tower with a dome, so that it would equal in height with the Ulug Manara (30 sajens).
"Otuz" - mosque in Kazan, which mullah Shekh-Mohammed, the son of Ish-Mohammed, showed to a foreigner. The Russian official, excorting the foreigner, was not allowed into the mosque courtyard, for which he was punished. Near the mosque was a zirat.
Mizan - river Mezan.
Min (Men) - one of the unions of the Oguzian clans.
Misr - Egypt.
Misha - see Musha.
Mishars - 1) Bulgars of the Misha area;
2) see Modjars;
3) generally, all western Bulgars in the chirmysh category.
Modja - see Musha.
Modjar -Hungary.
Modjars - 1) group of a part of the ancient Hungarian (Ugrian) tribes of Kazakhstan, separated from the Ugrs-Bashkorts;
2) one of the Ugrs-Magyars (Hungarians) names;
3) Bulgars of area Musha (Modja, Misha), located between the rivers Ok and Sur; this name had also form "Mishar".
Moskha - 1) "cow" in Bulgarian;
2) river Sukhona;
3) Bulgarian name of the city of Moscow, founded by Kan Akhad Moskha in the 1088; later it received the form "Moscow". The Moscow rivers originally carried Bulgarian names: Ulen-su (Neglinnaya), Avyz-Elga - "Waxen rivulet " (Yauza), Yavysh-Idel (Moscow-river).
Moskhatau - Meskhetia area, where was one of the Hunno-Bulgarian allodial beyliks of Georgia.
Mumin - an internal citadel of the Bolgar city.
Mukhsha - name of the part of the Ugrs, living between the rivers Seim and Sura.
Musha (Musha-Idel) - Bulgarian river, also called "Modja" and "Musha"; nowadays called Isas (right tributary of the river Moksha).
Myltyk - gun.
Menhols (Menhuls, Manguls) - by the data of the 15th c. Bulgarian historian Mohammed-Amin,
1) name of a part of the Mongolian-speaking tribes;
2) general name for the Mongolian-speaking tribes. Besides it, in the Mddle Ages the Mongols were also called "Tatars" (from the Manjuro-Hunnish "Tatars" - "foreigner", "stranger", "enemy").
At one time the Imens-Manjurs defeated and subjugated the ancestors of the Mongols, and they in punishment had to call themselves "Imen-kul" ("Manjur slaves"). Gradually, this name took the forms "Menhul", "Menhol", "Mangul" (the modern form is "Mongol"). Then a part of the Mongols voluntary went to serve the Huns, and it began to be called "Biryagan". In a due course it became a separate Mongolian tribe, headed by the father of Chingiz-Khan. From the Huns, the Biryagans adopted many words, including initially Manjurian name Tingiz - Chingiz. All other Mongols, who were not serving the Khons, the Huns called "Tatars". As the Biryagans were at war on the side of the Huns against Tatars, between Biryagans and Tatars were most hostile relations. When the father of Chingiz-Khan tried to subordinate Tatars, they defeated and killed him. The young Chingiz-Khan has sworn that in retaliation for the murder of his father he would destroy all Tatars, and he did it. After the destruction of the Tatars their name in the Mongolian language began to mean "dead", "doomed", and all other Mongolian tribes had to be called only "Manguls" ("Mongols"). In a few years Chingiz-Khan ordered to form, for the Mongolian army, units of the mercenary non-Mongols, because the forces of the Mongols were not sufficient for the conquering wars. These mercenaries would fight and die for the Mongolian army in the first line of an attack, therefore they began to be called "Tatars" ("doomed"). Subyatay was the first to do so, and Chingiz, who highly respected the Khan, but hated the name "Tatars", closed his eyes on it.
When the Kypchak steppe separated in the 1260 from the Mongolian empire, and almost all Mongols left from the Kypchak to Mongolia, instead of them Djuchids hired  Kypchak nomads to the service, and also began to call them "Tatars". But the Kypchaks kept the names of their tribes and in a circle of the kins preferred to call themselves by the Kypchak names. Khan Uzbek tried to implant to the Kypchaks, instead of the word "Tatar" (which the Bulgars and others Moslems used as a bad curse and meant "godless", "damned") the word "Türk".
When the Kypchak Horde ceased to exist, many Tatarian Kypchaks came to the service of the Balyn (Rus-Moscow state) and received from the Uruses (Russians) the name "Enlisted Tatars" (Russ. "Slujilye Tatary"- Translator's Note). In the Bulgaria the hired Tatarian Kypchaks were called "Tatars", "Tatarchiks" ("Tatarchyklar") ", "Khan's people " etc.

Narat-Chishma - large Bulgarian city producing everything needed in a cattleman's household. Therefore it was said: "If you want to get a good horse - go to Sulchi-Tardjis, if you want to buy armors - ride to Djambli-Simbir, if you want to horseshoe a horse - go to Narat-Chishma".
Nardugan (Marduan, Mardukan, Narduan) - Bulgarian national holiday "Mardukan's Nascence". According to the attestations of Hadji-Omar, the participants of the holiday put on masks and were divided into two groups. One would protect a snow town with the walls as ice mounds, where was an effigy of the vicious deity "Tama-Tarkhan", and the others had to break into the town with a huge effigy of a horse, bull or camel made of a white cloth, and doing it they had to overcome obstacles: swords stuck upward in the snow, fires, water as ice mounds and the resistance of the defenders of the snow town. During a procession with the effigy, which was carried on high poles or on a cart, everybody sang, danced and played tamburines. The town was always taken, and the effigy of the vicious deity was hung up on a tree, which was sometimes replaced with a pole. From a tree, decorated priory with multi-colored ribbons, baskets with eggs and images of the cock, the eggs were removed. Many wisher were to climb the tree for the eggs. After that followed animal sacrifices, feasts, entertainments, evening and night fortune telling. Youth and children gathered gifts as "tribute collection for Kysh-Tarkhan in honor of the Mardukan's (Mar's) birth", the gathered food was given t the poor as a feast treat. In this holiday everybody had to taste eggs, honey, oil and a barley drink. Bakir, powerless to forbid the holiday, only achieved that it was consecrated with a reading of a pray. "It is said that asking the Almighty for a pardon to the people for the celebration of the Nardugan, the seid was praying for ten days". The ribbons on a tree meant fruitfulness, and on the banners a multitude of the warriors tied by fidelity to the leader and discipline in an indestructible army. The custom of the Bulgarian girls to put on during Nardugan headdresses with multi-colored ribbons to have many children still preserve the Ukraine girls. Nardugan was celebrated during the December solstice, it was borrowed by the Christians and converted into the "Christmas".(See Mercani "Kazan and Bulgar Tarihi" (History of Kazan and Bulgaria), 1885 - Translator's Note).
Nugays (Nugaylar) - Nogays. Tuk-Mohammed noted that Nogays were divided into "old" ("Boryngy"), that is "indigenous" or "real", and the "new Nogays". Bulgars considered the old Nogays as their own, and frequently called them Illak (Illek) Bulgars. Tuk-Mohammed directly writes that Bulgars not only were never at war with indigenous Nogays, but also, in a mark of the respect to them, named two gates and one of the urams of the Kazan as "Nogay's". The "New Nogays " actually were not the Nogay ethnically, and were assembled by the Nogay Murzas of the hired "homeless" Kyrgyzes for the wars with Bulgars and to settle the Bulgarian lands, as the Nogays themselves refused to fight their co-sanguine Bulgars. All those collisions described by the historians as the Bulgaro-Nogays wars occurred, actually, between the Bulgars and the "New Nogays". So, the Idegey's army was made almost entirely of the "New Nogays", and the defeated at Ufa in the 1552 "Nogays" actually were the robbers of the Kazakh Biy Tumak, expelled from the Kazakhstan by the Kazakh people. During the Nogay famine the "New Nogays" switched to the side of the Russians and began slaughtering the "Old Nogays", however, eventually, they were destroyed "without any remains" by the indigenous Nogays.
Nukrat - see Kolyn.
Nukrat-su - river Vyatka.
Nur-Suvar - city, the centre of the Itil Bulgarian province of the 1st Emirate epoch; Bulgars also called it "Baryndjar", "Sham-Suar", "Baryntu", the Mongols called it "Burunda", the Arabs, Persians, Indians and Türks called it "Suvar". In the Nur-Suvar were 4 baliks: Baryndjar (Baryntu), Sakchy, Gazan and Djamail. In the Djamail lived the poor, and the kazanchis derisively called it "Shillyk". At the same time, in the Shillyk-balik were 11 of the 22 mosques of the city and lived the best carvers. The mosque "Üzum" with eight sides and the "Dugar-Kan" with three minarets (built on the donation of the Khan Dugar) were the most outstanding buildings of the balik. The Suvar Yorty was also here, and the balik Sakchy separated it from the rest of the city.
Nerle-su ("Beautiful River") - Bulgarian name of the left tributary of the river Klyazma, from which came its Russian name, "Nerl".

Oymeks - nomadic Eastern Kypchaks, the main ancestors of Kazakhs.
Omek - originally a Bulgarian menzel, founded in the 1136, then, since the the 1140 - Bulgarian balik; nowadays - city of Omsk.
Okta ("master") - an independent craftsman, owner of a workshop.
"Otuz" - see "Utyz".
Oshel - see Kazan.

Pinyache (Binedje) - Türkic tribe, one of the Bulgar ancestors. Only Shams writes about them. It was subjugated by the Uras, and later one half of it left with a part of the Bulgars to the Sumer, and another remained in the Itil-Ural. The tribe was called "Pinyache" in honor of the Alp of the rain Pinyache (Binedje), who was worshipped during their life in the waterless Khinian desert. The neighbours, Ura - Dayks, called Pinyache "Tun". Then this tribe also began to be called "Pirüli", because after the annihilation by the Türks of the biys, Pinyaches left alive only a small son of the biy, which later headed the tribe under the names of "Pirüli" ("One son") and Ural-Batyr.
After the departure of the part of the Bulgar to the Mesopatamia some 12 thousand years ago, the Pirülis, together with stayed behind Ura-Dayks, founded in the Itil-Ural an allodial Princedom "Esegel", that meant a "Salty Country". It was that Ural-Batyr taught his tribesmen to extract the salt, and it made their land famous as abounding with salt. Dayks called Esegel also in their own way, "Esetun", as Ural-Batyr was called by the name "Esetun". In this Princedom also were a part of the Ugrs. Some 900 years prior to the Aydar's time, a few of the Masgutian clans from the Turkestan, defeated by the Khons, waggonered to the Djaik and began to press Esegel with the raids. One part of the Pirüli then left to the Saklans-Scythians, and the remaining began to be also named as Besermens. When came the Khons, Pirüli-Besermens proclaimed their leader Kama-Batyr their head... Kama-Batyr ordered to call the Idel the Bulyar. Even before that the Bulgars came from the Samar, and even while still in the Scythia, a part of them united in one tribe with the Scyhian Pirülis, and in the Esegel they united with Besermens and Khons. Both of these parts were also called Bulgars. A part of the Pirülis, during the campaign of Aybat (Atilla) on Altyn Bash (Italy), so weakened from the diseases that they remained there. Later some more Bulgar groups moved to them. "As far as I know, they were baptized and they consider their duty to baptize their co-tribesmen..., for which they continuously send preachers to the East". Is that why Gabdulla ibn Mikail Bashtu "missed" this message, noting: " I am omitting much that was told to mine trusting grandfather the Rumiam informers"? Only Gazi-Baradj saved the story of Shams about "Pinyache" - "Pirüli"  .
Pelmek - Bulgarian national dish.

- 1) Byzantian empire (till 1453);
2) Turkish empire, Turkey (since 1453).
Rums - 1) originally, the Greeks, Byzantians;
2) since 1453 - Turks.
Ruses (Russes, Uruses) - see Uruses.

Saban - a version of a plough, a heavy plough.
Saban-kül ("Sabanian lake") - Bulgarian name of the lake Balkhash.
Sabans - originally one of Farsi-speaking tribes (the word "Saban" in Farsi means "shepherd"), which later Türkisized and became one of the main predecessor of the Bulgars. Türkic nickname for the Sabans is Sabars, Badjanaks (Russ 'Pechenegs").
Sabars - see Sabans.
Sably - Khon's name for the sabre (Ibragim Bakhshi...).
Sadum - Scandinavian peninsula.
Sadumians - 1) all Scandinavs;
2) Norwegians and Swedes.
Saz-Idel - river Pine (Russ. "Sosna"), it also was called "Sasy-Idel".
Saz-Idelian kazaks (Cossaks) - Bulgarian name of the Don and Voronezh (Ryazan) kazaks.
Sain-Idel - the lower flow of the river Oka.
Saklan - 1) Scythian steppe in the south of the Eastern Europe;
2) Eastern Europe;
3) territory of the Trans Caucasus included in the Bulgarian state.
Saklan dingeze ("Saklanian Sea") - Black Sea.
Saklantau - - 1) Caucasus mountains;
2) central part of Northern Caucasus.
Saklans - 1) general name for a number of the N.Farsi nomads;
2) Scyhians;
3) one of the Ura's tribes.
Saksin (Sakchy) - Bulgarian Lower Itil province of the 1st Emirate epoch, sometimes a part of the Mardan-Bellak.
Saksin-Bolgar (Sakchy-Bolgar) - city, centre of the Saksin province, founded in 970 AD (Musa ibn Halil).
Salchi - seaman.
Sam (Sham)-abar - "vessel for making medical concoctions".
Samar - 1) Sumer or Sumerstan;
2) river Samara;
3) Bulgarian province of the 2nd Emirate epoch ;
4) Bulgarian balik, founded in 912 year (Musa ibn Halil); modern city Samara,
Samarians - 1) one of the Ura's tribes;
2) Sumerians;
3) population of the Samara province of the Bulgaria.
Sara - white.
Sarai al-Djadid - capital of the Kypchak Horde, built by Gazi-Baradj in the place of the Saksin-Bolgar. It also was simply called "Sarai".
Saratau - Bulgarian balik, founded in the 922 (Musa ibn Halil); modern city of Saratov.
Sarkel - 1) Bulgarian name of the Babylon;
2) see Khin-Kerman.
Sarsazy - famous balik, also carrying the names "Bashkort" and "Kosh küle". It suffered so many disasters that it was said about: "Tired of quiet life - go to Sarsazy".
Sary - 1) south;
2) yellow, red, light, golden.
Sary Kapka - huge three-story gates of the Khan's Court in Kazan (Opposite the Khan's palace), the lower tier of which was square, had four large entries, and a source of water. The gates repeated the forms of the "Sary Kapka" in the Bulyar, Bolgar and other large cities (Musa ibn Halil).
Sarychin - Bulgarian balik, founded in 970 year (Musa ibn Halil); modern city Tsaritsyn (Russ. "Quin's- Translator's Note) (Volgograd).
Sasy-Idel - see Saz-Idel.
Sepulture Gazan (Kazan)-Bek - was built in Ügary Kerman in the 1236. In its place later was built a large mosque "Güli" with the top floor as an octagon tower (Bakhshi Iman) .
Serbi (Sürbi) - 1) Hun's tribe;
2) Chuvashes

Sham - Syria.
Shambat - see Bashtu.
Shamlyn - Bulgarian balik, modern city of Smolensk.
Sham-Suar - see Nur-Suvar.
Sheredjir - incendiary Bulgarian projectiles, called in the Kievan Rus "shereshirs" or "Besermen's (Bulgarian) Fire".
Shillyk - 1) Bulgarian holiday;
2) land tax.
Shir - 1) river Tigris;
2) river Don.
Shud - Bulgarian province of the 1st Emirate epoch in the land of Vepses and Meri.
Shuds - Vepses, Meris.
Simbir - 1) Bulgarian balik, founded in the 866 (Musa ibn Halil); modern city of Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk);
2) Bulgarian province of the 3-rd Emirate epoch.
Sinds - 1) general name of the Indo-Farsian ancestors ;
2) Arians of India;
3) Indians.
Soldat (üldash) - mercenary ( this Hunnish word made its way to German and then on to English - Translator's Note).
Subashes - privileged state Moslem ingecheis.
Suvarbashy - member and the head of the merchant-artizan magistrate of a city.
Suvari - class of independent merchants-suvarchies and craftsmen ("owners", "masters"), who received their name in honor of the Alp Suvar. Gazi-Baradj notices that the names "Khursa" and "Kubar" were the names of not two different Alps, but of one Alp Suvar, who was simultaneously the Alp of lightning, and of smith craft, and of trade. The Alp Kuk-Kuyan was the assistant of the Alp Suvar, watching over the honesty of the trade operations and the safety of the roads.
Suvar Yorty - the name for the merchant-artizan magistrates of the Bulgarian cities: Bulyar, Bolgar, Nur-Suvar, Bandja, Kazan, Deber (Kazan-Deber), Altysh, Narat-Chishma, Bish-Kalpak, Simbir-Kabak, Djabli-Simbir, Sulchi-Tardjis, Sakchy-Bolgar, Urnash, Sün-Kala, Burtas, Kashan, Echke-Kazan, Tukhchi and others.
Suz-Uryny - Bulgarian balik; modern city Syzran.
Suka - a plough; from this Bulgarian word came the Russian word "sokha"-"plough".
Sula - river Danube.
Sürly (Sürlamysh) - 1) river with drying riverbed;
2) river Dry Torets (Sukhoy Torets). In the 1185 on this river, the prince Igor of Novgorod- Seversky defeated the Kumanian women, who, in the absence of the men, were protecting the stan of the Kuman Khan Kara Tuzy.
Seber - 1) general name of the ancient Hungarians (Ugrs);
2) group of the Ugrian tribes of Siberia, common ancestors of the Khanty and Mansi;
3) Bulgarian clan, called in the Kievan Rus "Severyans".
Seber (Urus-Seber) - city of Novgorod-Seversky.
Seber-su - river Desna.
Sebers - 1) inhabitants of the forest-steppe;
2) Bulgarian nickname for the Hungarians;
3) one of the Bulgarian clans.
Stan - stopover, layover, post, military camp, headquarters, settlement, country(Translator's Note)
Sün-Kala - Bulgarian city founded in the 807 near a sentry tower of the Sabanian clan Sün in the place of the of trade of theBurdjanian, Sabanian, Bershudian and Ar's traders. From the tower watched for the alarm fires (smokes), warning about the Khazar's and Burtasian Modjar's attacks.
Sürbi - see Serbi.
Süüm-Idel - river Seym (also Seim - Translator's Note).
Tabyl-Katau - 1) city of Tbilisi;
2) Bulgarian city on the river Shemsha. In the beginning it was called Chishma-Saban, and then was renamed by the Emir Lachyn Khisami to Tabyl-Katau.
Tavysh - a large division of the Bulgarian army of the Khon's epoch, where were so many warriors as how many could hear a shout (tavysh) of their commander; the leader of the tavysh was called tavyshchi or tuchi ("Khon Kitaby"),
Tamta - Bulgarian Uralian province of the 1st Emirate epoch, renamed in the 1193 to Bashkort,
Tamtazay - river Zay.
Tamiya - western part of the Trans Caucasus; this name had also the forms "Damiya", "Temen".
Tamiya-Tarkhan - city Tmutarakhan (Russ. distorted name - Translator's Note); its name also had the forms "Dima-Tarkhan","Damiya-Tarkhan". Through this city went the direct contacts of the Bulgar with Byzantium and Uzi Yorty (Seldjuk, or Seljuk Sultanate). In the 982, 1015, 1032, 1115, 1140, 1184 and other years, together with the city Agardja (Kerch) and all Saklan for some time was included into Bulgaria. Last time it was in Bulgaria in the 1184 - 1229, in charge of the Khin-Kerman Bek Badretdin (Ablas-Khin). By largest Bulgarian clan of the citiy, supervising the Suvar Yorty of the Tamiya-Tarkhan and Agardja (Kerch), and the owner of the number of the trade posts in the Kashan province was the clan Rumi. The founder of this clan was the Greek Rumi, married to a Crimean Goth woman. Their son was Khudus, named in honor of the tribe of his mother (Bulgars called the Goths Sadumians, Galidjians, Almanians, Khuds and Khuduses). The son of Khudus was Askal, son of Askal was Chirkeshe (Chirkes), son of Chirkeshe was Masgut, son of Masgut was Kolyn, son of Kolyn was Alyp, son of Alyp was Abdrazak Rumi. Rumi was already a Bulgarian merchant and was going from the Bulgar through the Khazaria, Tamiya-Tarkhan and Tatiyak to the Byzantium and Bagdad. Suleyman ibn Daud (Solomon son of David - Translator's Note) himself gave the name to the son of Abdrazak Rumi. However, Suleyman ibn Abdrazak Binachy, his son Abbas Manarachy and his grandson Suleyman Agardja became not the merchants, but magnificent architects, who were building in the Bulyar, Bolgar, Bandja and in the Seldjuk possessions. The trading business of Abdrazak Rumi continued Said-Mohammed ibn Abdrazak, the younger brother of Suleyman Binachy, the son of Said-Mohammed Kylych-Tarkhan, the son of Kylych-Tarkhan Alyp-Suleyman.
As early as the 985 Chirkeshe (Chirkes) Rumi with a sanction of the Emir Ibragim formed an Agardja-Tamiyanian army from the Goth's, Karachay's, Ukrainian's, Western Georgian's and Adygian's mercenaries, to which he gave his name in the form "Chirkes" ("Chirkeshe" in the Bulgarian means "vagrant, i.e. free man"). The warriors of this army began to be called Chirkeses. The Western Georgia, which Bulgars called Tatiyak (Tatyak), gave into the Chirkeses not only the Mingrels, Georgians and Apases (Abkhases), but also the local Bulgars. The majority among the Chirkeses were the Anchians, who also started to call themselves Chirkeses.
In the 1220 the Rusian and Byzantian rulers organized an armed assault of the Kumanian Christian Khans on the Seldjuk merchants near Agardja, which almost cased a conflict of the Bulgaria with the Seldjuk sultan. Kylych-Tarkhan, who ruled then the Tamiya-Tarkhan and Agardja,  managed to settle the problem: he crushed the robbers and executed the captured Kumans in the presence of the Seldjuk Sultan's representatives, and besides that he persuaded Suleyman Agardja to build as a gift to the Sultan a few mosques.
After the Subyatay's raid in the 1229 the Rumi clan moved to the Inner Bulgaria. A descendent of Suleyman Agardja, Ismail, repaired the mosque "Ismaildan" in the Bolgar, and his son Urum-Mohammed erected buildings not only in the Bolgar, but also in Uzi Yorty and Sarai (at the request of the Khan Uzbek).
Tangra - Bulgarian name of the God.
Tartanly - overland pass, channel.
Tatar (Russ. "Tatarin") - 1) "stranger", "enemy";
2) nickname of the Medieval Mongolian conquerors and serving them Kypchak nomads;
3) "godless man", "enemy of Islam, faith", "atheist";
4) "bad", "damned".
Tatyak - 1) Western Georgia, Mingrelia and one of Hunno-Bulgarian Khanaates in it;
2) balik - suburb in the Bulyar, founded by the immigtants from the Georgia and also settled by representatives of the other Caucasian peoples.
Tiganak - Bulgarian balik, built in the place of the stan of the legendary Khon's Khan Erdim or Ermi (7th c. BC), father of the Bulgarian Khan Burtas. He took from the Suvar a group of the Bulgars. He was also called "Khondjak". The Beks Askal and Kermek were considered to be the descendents of Khon (10-th century).
Tiptyar - refugee.
Tyreans - Ancient Greek tribes.
Trok - Baltic name of the Bulgaria and Bulgars. The Balts participated in the Gazi-Baradj campaign against the Western Europe.
Tubdjak - N.Kazakhstan and S.Siberian Bulgarian provinces of the 1st Emirate epoch .
Tudjun - ambassador, official for special assignments.
Tuy - wedding.
Tun - river Northern Dvina.
Tura - 1) city;
2) artisan-mercantile part of a city, outskirts.
Turan dingeze ("Turanian Sea") - one of the Bulgarian names for the Aral Sea.
Turanian state ("Turan Yorty") - Bulgarian Medieval name for the Türkic Khakanate of the 6-th - beginning of the 8-th centuries.
Turan tele - Bulgarian Medieval name of the common Türkic literary language "Türki".
Turgen - breed of a falcon.
Tufang - cannon; from this Bulgarian word came the Russian word "tüfyak" - "pushka"
Tukhchi - Bulgarian city, modern city Chistopol. Per Musa ibn Halil, it was founded in the 922. In the beginning it carried a name "Tukhchi", and then, in 1219, in honor of the capture of the Ustüg, was renamed to Djuketun. The name "Djuketun" very soon received the national form "Djuketau". The Russian annals in the beginning call Tukhchi "Tukhchin", and later - "Jukotin".
Tuchi - military leader of several clans, elected in the time of war by the people; a leader.
Tychkan - aul, founded by the Bulgars in the 1141. In the 1140 under the protection of the Kyzyl Yar came all Kyrgyzes of the Turan, as the Kytays 'ruler resolved to slaughter all Kypchaks to the last and to seize the Tubdjak State. The Emir of Horezm supported Kytays, and together they defeated Kara-Khan, an ally of the State, extremely upsetting Emir Kolyn. He sent Alyp and Abdrazak Rumi to the Sultan of the Uzes Sandjar, with the offer to jointly finish with the threat, coming from the Kytays. Kolyn prodded the Sultan to this by ordering to name one of the baliks and a tower of the Bulyar by his name, and also by presenting him with many treasures and giving the Uzian merchants privileges in trade with the State. Sacrificing his dream of transforming Balyn to a province of the State, Kolyn sent to Kyzyl Yar a 20-thousand army led by sardar Khalik. The attack on the balik of 80 thousand Kytays, in the 1141, was repulsed. When the garrison of the balik, beefed up by five thousand archers and 70 thousand Oymeks and Kypchaks, held the Kytays down, from an ambush came out the bakhadirs of the Emir and forced the opponent to retreat hastily. Kursybay did not pursue the Kytays, but advanced following them to the upper flow of the Idjim-su and founded there the aul Tychkan. Kyrgyzes told Gazi-Baradj that this aul became a sacred place for the Kyr-Kypchaks. They were coming to the mosque, built by the bakhadirs, and brought to it sacrifices to Tangre. And if someone tried to pass the mosque without bringing sacrifices, the horses would stop and would not go further (in the place of the Tychkan arose Tselinograd, and in the place of the "stop of the horses " arose Atbasar).
Sandjar did not use the convenient chance, was late with the intrusion into Kytays' lands and eventually was beaten. But Kytays' Khan, also frightened by the union of the State with the Uzes, decided to conclude a peace with it. He recognized its right on the Tubdjak, and in the East settled a fortunate peace. Kolyn named this peace as the best that he has done for the State. At the conclusion of the agreement Emir was represented by the vizier sheikh Daud, who received therefore a nickname "Kytays". By his words, he went to the quarters of the khan through a 30 versts' double line of 300 thousand waddling Kytay djigits, "with whom all over the world nobody, except for the Bulgars, could be compared in the military art. The Menkhols learned to fight from them, and later barely overcame them, and only because half of the Kytays joined them because of the internal infighting".
Temen - 1) division, 10 thousand soldiers;
2) see Tamiya.
Tüba (oba) - 1) territory, country, province;
2) territory of a clan.
Tümen - city Tümen, founded by the Bulgars in 1036 as trading center of the Tubdjak province (Musa ibn Halil). In the 1532 the Bulgarian army took Tümen and forced the Siberian Khan to renew the payment of the tribute to the Bulgar. Then, fell into captivity the Siberian Prince Takhtagul, the brother of the Safa-Giray's wife. At the request of Safa-Giray the Prince was released by the Seid-Emir Kul Ashraf and became the head of the guard for the Khan's Court. The captured Alashay wrote in the captivity, by the example of his teacher Mohammedyar, "Shakhri Gazan dastany".

"Türki" - see Turan tele.
Türkistan - Turkestan.
Türkmen - Turkmens.
(like'u' in 'uh-huh' or 'oo' in 'cook')
Uchag - stove; from this Bulgarian word came the Russian word "ochag" - "stove, fireplace".
Uchel - see Kazan.
Uchuly ("Three Sons") - Bulgarian name of the Carpatian mountains, from which came the nickname for the local Ukranians "Uchuly". Initially this was the name for the mountain with three peaks.
Ugek - Bulgarian city on the Itil, also called "Uvek" and "Ukek".
Ugil - Bulgarian clan. From this name came the Russian word "Uglichi" in the annals.
Ugyr - a nickname for the ancient Hungarians, which in the Ukraine received the form "Ugrs".
Ulag-Bulgar - Danube Bulgaria, also called "Burdjan".
Ulag-Kashan - Moldova.
Ulags - 1) Romanian peoples;
2) Romanians.
Ulak - nickname of the Slavs used after the Tataro-Mongolian invasion only in relation to the Greatrussians.
Ulan - 1) heavily armed knight "of the first line";
2) large feudal lord - kazanchiy. Ulugbek - governor ('ulug'='great' - Translator's Note).
Ulug Bolgar - see Bolgar.
Ulug Saklan - the Euroasian steppe from Danube to Altai, also called Desht-i-Kypchak ("Kypchakian steppe"). The Bulgarian Kans carried titles of Saklan Kans and Desht-i-Kypchak Kans.
Ulchians (Ulchilar) - Slavs; from this Bulgarian word came the Russian name "Ulichi" in the annals.
Ura - 1) first name of the Itil-Ural; from here comes the Bulgarian "uran" - "relative, kin" and the battle cry ('Hurrah', which made its way to English - Translator's Note), and also the name "Aria" - "Arians", "Ural" and "Turan";
2) Bulgarian N.Uralian province of the 1st Emirate epoch .
Uram - quarter.
Urma - general mobilization.
Uruses (Ruses, Russes) - 1) Massagetian clan, one of the ancestors of the Ukrainian people;
2) Ruses-Ukranians;
3) Greatrussians.
Urs - 1) inhabitants of the Ur province;
2) see Ibers.
Utig - Hun's tribe.
"Utyz" - mosque in the Kuraish balik of Kazan. After the balik was ravaged in the 1530, the mosque ended up outside of its new walls (together with the bazaar and "Pechen" Court.
Ufa - Bulgarian city, one of the Bulgarian capitals of the 3-rd Emirate epoch. Here was the residence, called Vasyl Balik ("Fazyl Balik"), of the Seids-Ashrafids. Bakhshi Iman, citing his ancestor and predecessor Musa ibn Halil (60-es of the 15-th century), tells about the cause of the confusion in the information about foundation of the Ufa. Gazi-Baradj disliked the clan of Masgut-Insan, and consequently did not note its participation in the campaign against Ryam-Ufa in the 1185, and attributed the glory of the Ufa founder only to Aybalyk-Masgut, the son of Akbalyk. Actually, Ufa was built by Insan together with Masgut (Akbalyk was be-brother of Insan, and gave his son the Moslem name Masgut). Moreover, it was Insan who gave the Kan an idea to found Ufa, so that he would transfer Insan from the Mountain bank to the Tamta. In the Mountain bank instead of Insan remained one of his sons, Asyl.
Uzi (Oguz) - Turk-Seldjuk. The ancestors of the Oguzes were defeated by the Kytays and lost their lands, but in turn took the Kangly lands. The Sabans tried to shield the  Kangly, but were defeated and moved to the north, to the Yaik. The Oguzes occupied Sabanian lands, but then, when the Huns came here, left to the south of the Caspian Sea.
Uzi Yorty - Seldjuk, or Seljuk Sultanate
(like'u' in 'U-boat')
Ügary Kerman - the Inner citadel of Kazan.
Ül - 1) street;
2) road. In the Kazan the streets, running from the gates to the Ugary Kerman, frequently carried the names of the gates.

Vesier - head of central government, prime minister.
Great Hin - India.
(like 'i' in 'sit')

Ystambul ("Marble City or Strait") - Bulgarian name of Istanbul.
Ya (like'ya' in 'yacht')

Yar Chally - Bulgarian city, originally - a military balik; presently called city Naberejnye Chelny. Was famous by its fair "Satuk Yar" that occupied the place of the "Yar Djieny". In 1181 its garrison fought for the first time and completely crushed a large unit of Novgorodians, who previously ravaged the "Alamir-Sultan".
Yau tagan (tagan) - Bulgarian catapulting machine.
Yauchy - see Boryn.
Zindan - jail, dungeon (Translator's Note)
Zirat (ziarat) - place for laying in peace, cemetery; this Bulgarian word comes from the Sumerian word "zikkurat", "mauzoleum tower of the Mardukan spirit".
References in the text
"Shan kyzy dastany"
"Kyssa-i Üsuf"
Musa ibn Halil (60-es of the 15-th century)
Ibragim Bakhshi
Khon Kitaby
Takhtagul - "Shakhri Gazan dastany"
Petr Karashev

In Russian

Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases

Alan Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Sabir Dateline

In English
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
TurkicWorld 2003