Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
|Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Chapters 1-5 · Chapters 6-10 · Chapters 11-15 · Chapters 16-20 · Chapters 21-25 and Ghazi-Baradj · Appendix|
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The "mouse over" explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of its writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the "mouse over" explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.
Chapter 16. Reign of Khans Masgut, Ibragim, Baluk and Azgar (1004-1006, 1006-1025, 1025-1028, 1028-1061 AD respectively)
Masgut was raised to the throne, after which he immediately released Vasyl and approved Sal-Sal as the governor of the Kashan. The encouraged by it Ulugbek crushed the army of Bulymer and presented Ulubiy with a choice of the submission to the Bulgar, or to perish under the hoofs of the tulpars and the swords of the Bulgarian bakhadirs. Being on the verge of a full despair, Bulymer pleaded to Ibragim begging to immediately take the throne and stop the war, promising to triple the size of the Djir Tribute for it, abandon the claims for the Khazarian territories, and to open for the Bulgarian merchants all cities and roads of the Russ. Just at this time in the Bolgar flared disturbances led by Kul-Mohammed, the son of Nasyr. Hudja Ahmed, the young son of the sheikh Musa, directly addressed the Kan on the market square, on behalf of the participants of the disturbances, the nobles, with the demand to stop the war immediately and to lower the exactions. Masgut ordered to seize Hudja Ahmed and escort him out from the country by the Horys-yuly, but that only poured the oil in the flame. Masgut summoned the kursybai, but while it was drawing close, the people have already besieged him in the Bolgar citadel. Learning about these events, Ibragim immediately went, with the subashis, chirmyshes and the city militias, from the Bulyar to the capital. From the other side to the Bolgar from the Nur-Suvar went the kazanchis, desiring to get even with the murderer of the kind to them Timar. But Misha-Üsuf, the son of the 90 years old Kermek, expelled by Masgut from his own city, was ahead of them all. When he left to the capital and began to advance with his troops to the Baryndjar gate, Masgut did not wait and fled from the Bolgar to the Batysh. The kazanchis, who have came after that, wanted to drive into the citadel and to raise to the throne Tuktar, the grandson of Djakyn and the son of Abdallah, but Misha-Üsuf did not let them in, and handed over the Mumin-Kerman to Ibragim. He, the son of Mar Dju-Malik, the son of Bulat Hasan, and Sal-Sal, who came too, raised Ibragim to the throne of the State. And the tebir Masgut and the ulan Tuktar were distanced from him...
Bulymer immediately signed a peace with the Bulgar on the above-stated conditions, and Ibragim reduced the kursybai to one thousand persons, giving the rest allodials and privileges. He immediately returned Hudja Ahmed from the Russ,and when Hudja Ahmed went back, he took to educate and adopted his son Iskhak and was called Abu - Iskhak.
In our annals about the time of the Ibragim reign I gathered very little of the substance...
The Kan ruled according the laws of Almysh and Talib, therefore the State was calm and plentiful. What was occuring outside the State was of little interest for the Kan, and only once the delay with the payment of the " Djir" forced him to move a hand...
After the death of Bulymer, a war for the domination started in the Russ between his sons. Myshdauly, who was sitting in the Dima-Tarkhan, and was supported by the Rum, has won. Under his order the defeated Ar-Aslap had to treacherously kill one of the Bulymer's sons from Bozok-Khalib, and the servants of Myshdauly himself killed the other son of Bozok, Barys, as the main pretenders for the father’s throne... Myshdauly stopped paying the tribute for the Djir, which forced Ibragim to send the governor of the Mardan Gilas to the Kan. Gilas took the Kan on the run, and installed there one of the Khaddads, Kurdan, who was friendly to the State. Ar-Aslap, contrary to the Myshdauly orders, did not come to his aid, for what Ibragim helped him to cope with the strongest famine in the Balyn. Moreover: encouraging Ar-Aslap on the overthrow of the Myshdauly’s yoke, Ibragim sent him a Kan's hat, the copy of his. Only three such hats were made by the house of the master Atrak bine Musa. Shortly before his death Ibragim sent another cap, together with a copy of the "Notes" by Bakir, ornaments, and not a small sum of money for the construction of the mosques, to the Khurasan Sultan Mahmud. The Sultan was considered a descendant of the Prophet himself, and for the gifts the Kan hoped to receive from him a healing from the heavy disease. The gifts were brought by Hudja Ahmed, and he remained with the Sultan at his request. From the Khurasan he went to... Hudja Ahmed also sent medicines to Ibragim, but they did not reach him on time: the Kan died after several months of sufferings, and was buried in his castle Alamir-Sultan. And this castle Ibragim built right after the Bulymer’s wars. Then he was afraid of an attack by Timar and thought to hid in the strong and remote from the capital castle in case of a need. In addition to it under the order of Ibragim in the place of the menzel ("djam") at the mouth of the Àêà or Sain-Idel, in the 1021 was built the balik Djunne-Kala which also was called Djun. And it was named so by one of Djun’s descendants, Djunne, who was himself erecting the city...
During the Ibragim time the calm in the State was kept by the sardars of the kursybai, Vasyl, the son of Sal-Sal Amir, and his son Mardan. Before his death Ibragim declared Ashraf, the son of Timar, his successor, because Ashraf was looking after him, as he had no sons. But when Ashraf was raised to the throne, Vasyl demanded Bulyar from him, for the support of his kursybai. Ashraf refused, and the offended Vasyl helped Azgar, the son of Masgut, to take the throne. Ashraf-Kan retired, without a fight, from the Bolgar to the Bulyar and for that he received a moniker Baluk. And Vasyl kept the province Kashan and in addition received also the Dyau-Shir district of the Baytüba, from the Akhtay to the mouth of the Dyau-Shir or Shepshe. Due to that, the Bek’s herd of horses reached a 300 thousand heads. And all these were the excellent Bashkortian horses which in the Russ were called "Modjarian" and were valued above the others...
In the 1028 AD Myshdauly, who grew insolent, conceived to restore the Khazarian Khaganate, ordered the Galidjians and the hired Sadimians to capture the Bolgar and then sail down the river, while he himself decided to capture the Khin and join them in the Bekhtash. Our fleet crushed the enemy, but Myshdauly, with the help of the Rums seized the Khin. This loss incensed the merchants, and when Baluk advanced in the same year to the Bolgar, they refused to defend it. The kazanchis also armed against the Kan, as they were dissatisfied with his taxes and amity with the kursybai. But suddenly the capital’s lowly raised in a mutiny for the protection of Azgar, and went with the weapons in hands onto the walls of the Bolgar. Mardan with his kursybai was also approaching the city. In such circumstances the Kan, reflecting about the vicissitudes of the life, decided to pass voluntary the Kan’s hat to Baluk. For this he elicited a post of the Suvar il’s Ulugbek...
Eventually, Ashraf did not dare to ride into the Bolgar, but in retaliation declared Bulyar the capital, and ordered to call it "Bolgar", and renamed Bolgar to "Ibragim". The Mardan’s kursybai was sent to the Khin and quickly kicked Myshdauly out from it. The people of this restless Balynian Bek got to the Djurash, and in the 1032 AD grabbed the power there with the help of the Myshdauly’s son Ustabiy. Baluk had to send the kursybai and our fleet there, and to install there the loyal to our State Emir Timer-Kabak. In addition in a skirmish by an accident arrow was killed Ustabiy, a generally harmless Bek who most of all loved the crafts and was building churches in the province of his father. But he was excessively obedient to the whimsical Myshdauly, and that ruined him...
When the kursybai has returned, instead of the award for the labors it learned that it is subject to the immediate dissolution. Mardan was deprived of his former possessions, and in place of the 4 thousand kusyrbays the Kan hired the Kyrgyzes. In fact, shortly before these events the Oimek horde of the Kyrgyzes captured the Türkistan, but then it split into the Türkistan part, or the Kara-Oimeks, and the Eastern, or the Ak-Oimek part. Between them started the wars, and one of the Kara-Oimek khans, Kuman, with a part of his people, asked for a refuge in the State. Baluk avidly accepted the fugitives into the service, and they already were with him in a campaign against the Bolgar. The Kan installed Kuman as their leader, and consequently we began to call these Kyrgyzes as Kumans, though we also called them in the Persian "Kypchaks", and in the Sabanian "Kyrgyz". Azgar out of compassion gave Mardan the district Kermek, disputable with the Bellak. Gilas at first was indignant, but when Mardan promised to provide 2 thousand soldiers from his district to the kursybai instead of the Bellakians, he reconciled and together with Azgar assigned the district to the Amirs. The Kan, seeing again Mardan in the kursybai, now already in position of the Bellakian envoy, did not find objections and gave in. A part of the subashes and the dismissed kusyrbays of Mardan, , fled to the Kermek abandoning everything, and did not regret it, because the Kan ordered to turn everybody remaining in the Kashan and Dyau-Shir into the kara-chirmyshes. Many of them opposed it and preferred to leave to the lands of the Martüba between the Arsu and Misha. Being in the state of the extreme embitternment, the subashis expelled from there almost all the Ars and occupied their lands. After the subashis the run away chirmyshes from everywhere began to flock there, and they were becoming there the subashis without any sanction. The governor of the Martüba at that time was Alay, the son of Üsuf, the former Ulugbek of the Bolgar and Nur-Suvar. In the 970 AD Üsuf founded the balik Djably-Kala which, however, began to be called Simbir by the people. Alay in 1028 founded a balik on the Sura-su which began to be called by his name, Alay-Tura… But after the Kan learned about the favoritism of Alay toward the fugitives, he transferred him to the post of Vali in the Tukhchi, and appointed Kuman in his place. In the place of Kuman and his Kyrgyzes, who left with him, Baluk hired a new run away horde of the Kara-Oimeks, led by the Khan Ishim. It is said that on the advice of Kuman, who was dreaming of getting out from the Saksin deserts at any cost, and consequently was tirelessly searching for a replacement for himself, Ishim sent to Baluk his daughter Minlebika with a purpose to get, with the help of her charms, a better service. Khanysh completely charmed Ashraf, and the mad with love Kan ordered to sign Ishim up for the post of the sardar of the kursybai, and his people in the place of the bakhadirs of Mardan and the Kyrgyzes of Kuman. All this happened in the 1035 AD, just before a new attack by Myshdauly on the Khin. Like in the first time, this Ulubiy ordered the 16 thousand Sadimians and Galidjians, led by the Sadumian Bek Khin-Kubar to capture the Bolgar and after that to join him in the Bekhtash. He himself was intending again to capture the Khin. It became known to Ishim, and he asked his daughter to help him. Minlebika herself came to her father from the capital, and sent to Myshdauly the following letter: ”I want to be yours, the glorious warrior, come with your near friends and catch me...” Not knowing any limits in his debauchery passed to him by his Jewish mother, Myshdauly immediately galloped with a huge army to the appointed place at the Shir. But, having approached and seeing the wife of the Kan only with three djuras, he left the army and raced to her with a hundred of his servants. Chained in an armor, he was confident in his safety in any circumstances. The Balynians did not know about those iron arrows and the big bows which began to be produced in the Bulgar. At the approach of the Balynian Ulubiy, Sabir, the brother of Mardan, who rode next to the Bika, shot such an arrow, and sent Myshdauly to hell. While the Balynians were coming to their senses from the shock, Minlebika with her entourage trotted away. With the death of this Balynian his house crushed at once. The !!Saksin again obtained its peace. But Khin-Kubar with his people disembarked from 400 ships near the Bolgar and began to ravage its suburbs. The Kan sent toward him the bakhadirs of Mardan from the Bulyar, the Kyrgyzes of Kuman, and the fleet headed by Kaf-Urus and the son of Tuka Kadyl. Prior to that the fleet was at the Kashan, besieged by the subashis, who were indignant with the Kan’s decrees and actions, but Baluk decided that the city Ibragim was more important...
Our cavalry fell upon the enemy simultaneously with the fleet. The Galidjians treacherously left the Sadimians and sailed down the Idel, and we stomped and shot the army of Khin-Kubar. Mardan wanted to spare the Sadumian leader for his bravery, but the Kermeks already hung Khin-Kubar, covered with wounds, on a tree. The Galidjians were captured by the Mardanians by the menzel Timer-Kabak in the mouth of the Samar-su which later began to be called Samar. After that, having received the news about the capture of the Bashtu by the ally of Myshdauly, the Kan sent Gilas with a part of the Bellakian Badjinaks to the capital of the Russ. On the way he was joined by group of the Kashan Badjinaks, who at first helped him besiege the Bashtu, but then enticed his Badjinaks to go with them with the stories about their carefree life. The ally of Myshdauly fled from the Bashtu, but the leader of the Kashans at night warned the city that all the Badjanaks are leaving, and at the daybreak quietly took all of them to the Kashan. The Balynians immediately attacked the empty camp of Gilas. The fooled Ulugbek with 150 Arbugans began to retreat to Kharka, but there was surrounded by the Anchians and surrendered, because of his unwillingness to shed the blood of the Anchians. Ar-Aslap was not slow to come to Bashtu and offered to Gilas his service... Gilas, considering himself dishonored, agreed to remain in the Russ and was appointed the Anchian head. Ar-Aslap aspired to a peace everywhere. With this purpose he made a number of concessions to the Anchians in the Bashtu province, and immediately concluded a peace with Baluk, with an obligation to diligently pay him the Djir Tribute. The needy for the capital Ashraf was satisfied with it and even did not demand an extradition of Gilas, who irritated him by his refusal to double the Mardanian tribute, but he exchanged the body of Khin-Kubar for the gold of equal weight. The new Bellakian Ulugbek Balus, the son of Gilas, was forced to accept the demands of the Kan, but bore a grudge for this humiliation...
Meanwhile the war of Kuman with the risen subashis, and the kara-chirmyshes and kurmyshes who joined them, continued. Being mindful of being removed from his post, Kuman was running the war seriously, but did not achieve any success, and in the 1050 AD he was replaced by Akhad, the son of Azgar. The new Ulugbek quickly reckoned that it is impossible to win the war with his own people, and concluded with the leaders of the Subashes an armistice agreement. According to the agreement the Moslem subashis remained in a former status on the newly acquired lands, and the others remained in the former categories. This split the insurgents, and Akhad subdued the kara-chirmyshes and kurmyshes, who were left without support. So ended this revolt, which received the name "Five Axes", for it was headed by the five leaders armed with axes. After that the Kan made an unprecedented lapse, he cancelled the rule according to which the ingichi who accepted Islam could transfer to the category of the subashes or ak-chirmyshes...
After the death of Ar-Aslap the new Urus Ulubiy refused to pay the Djir Tribute. Angry Baluk ordered Mardanians to punish the prick, and to make the impact stronger, attached the Saksin again to the Bellak. Balus decided that time has come for the Shir Türkmens to go to the war. But those suddenly rose and with a shout: ”Let the Badjanaks go to war and wash down the shame of the betrayal their relatives!” they besieged the Khin. Balus with the help of the Kuman’s Kyrgyzes and the Ishim’s kursybai beat off the rebels from the city, and they retreated to the Russ. Balus, pursuing them, broke to the Batavyl and besieged it. But the Vali of the city, Rahman Gilas, did not hand over the fortress to his son, for his grievance with the Kan was still strong... In the 1060 AD Balus replicated the campaign and defeated Syb-Bulat near the Buri-Aslap. Besieging this city in retaliation for the sheltering by its inhabitants f the run away Türkmens, the Mardanians and Kumans plundered all province between it and the Bashtu. The Bek of the Uruses had to restart the payment of the Djir Tribute, gave the ransome for himself and promised together with Bulgars expel the Türkmens from the limits of the Russ. But at that time Akhad suddenly besieged the Bulyar with the forces of the kazanchis, the Kumans of Azan, the son of Ishim-Khan, and Tamta's Bulgars... Azan barely managed to save from the carnage even his sister with her son Adam from the Kan...
The unwillingness of Baluk to recognize the igenchis of the Katan and Martüba as subashis repelled from the Kan a significant part of people. The kazanchis, sent to suppress the subashi disturbances in the Martüba and Kashan, after the initial fierce skirmishes with despaired ingichis preferred to accede with them about a division of the inflamed provinces. As a part of the deal, the Moslems agreed that kazanchis would enslave the igenchis- heathens, for those were much smaller minority.
The Kan did not recognize this conspiracy... and ordered the kursybai to transfer by force of Bulgars-subashes to the status of the ak-chirmyshes. And the ak-chirmyshes paid twice larger taxes and had heavier duties than the subashis, as I already wrote. The kursybai decided that it is already too much, and came into a conspiracy with the kazanchis, who resolved to overthrow the Kan and to replace with the aged Azgar. Akhad, mindful of the responsibility for the conspiracy of the kazanchis with the subashis, talked Balus, who came back from the vicinity of the Bashtu, into the plot. He achieved that by telling him that the Kan plans to conquer the Russ using the forces of the Mardanians. The Mardanians were not impressed by the perspective to cover with their bones the dirty roads of the Russ, and the Ulugbek opted to support the conspirators. Not to break the custom prohibiting Bulgars to shed the blood of Bulgars, they decided to send the Kumans of the Khan Asan against the Bulyar.
Before that, Asan was sent against the subashes, but he refused, for what the Kan’s groom beat him up wth a whip, and he was expelled from the service. The khan had nowhere to go, and he willingly agreed to assist the conspirators...
His units suddenly broke through to the Bulyar and besieged the capital. After the Kashan subashis pierced the wall of city in two places, the Kumans pushed through into it and killed the Kan and seid Nugman. Akhad, who was behind the Kumans, hastened to ride into the capital and to stop the bloodshed. It happened in the 1061 AD.
Chapter 17. War between Akhad and Adam and the reign of Adam (1118 - 1176) AD)
To the throne was raised Azgar, but soon he mysteriously died during a hunt near the Nur-Suvar. Akhad became the Kan, and he immediately ratified the arrangement between the kazanchis and the subashes of the Martüba and Kashan, and with that he calmed the country. After that he helped Asan to secure in the Shir area. The kursybai gladly took part in this campaign against local the Türks. Asan with the help of the Kan fought against the Rus for few years, but was defeated and enticed by the Rus to leave from the Bulgarian service.
In the 1076 AD the Kan had one more trouble, Emir Adam, the son of Baluk, escaped from the guards. The Khin Tarkhan Dugar sheltered the prince, married him to his daughter and, in exchange for a promise by the Emir to give him a bigger autonomy, agreed to help with winning the throne. Akhad too hasty declared the Ibragim city a capital, and Adam took Bulyar without any resistance and proclaimed himself the Kan. Bulyar became again the capital. Akhad recognized the new Kan and kept the Ibragim for himself...
As an excuse for the overthrow of Akhad was a refusal of the Rus to pay the Djir Tribute after the defeats of Asan, and the Kan’s acceptance of the refusal. Adam aimed to restore the tribute and the ways to the Artan and Bashtu.
In two years the Emir Akhad under his order made a campaign by the river Moskha, and defeated and killed the Galidjian Bek Khalib. Emir brought with him a big tribute collected near rivers Djuk, Moskha and in the Djir, and also brought many Djirian Biysuyans who wanted to return to the State. These Biysuyans were settled in the Chulman and included in the caste of the kara-chirmyshes.
The popularity of Akhad, nicknamed Moskha in honor of this victory, grew, and it frightened Adam. Casting on the Emir the fault for the death of Azgar, he, together with Dugar, went against the Bolgar. Akhad opted to flee to the Kan, where sat the grandson of Myshdauly, also Myshdauly. The Bashtu Bek Syb-Bulat who restarted paying the Djir Tribute and opened the roads after the Akhad’s campaign, wanted now to help the Emir to return the throne in exchange for the promise of ending the "rostovcschina" (“usury” in Russian - Translator’s Note). But the Emir Balus with the Mardanians, carrying out the order of the Kan, outpaced the Bek. In the beginning he defeated the son of Asan from the daughter of Baluk Sharafhan, who had captured the Khin from Dugar, and took that city. And then, supported by the kursybai, he crossed at night the river Sain-Idel and at the dawn attacked unexpectedly the camp of Syb-Bulat near the Kan. The head of the Urus army Ahmet had barely enough time to flee together with Akhad, and the panicked army raced to the Kan. Balus broke into city on the shoulders of the running, and took it. He wanted to spare Myshdauly, but when Myshdauly obediently came out to him with the words ”Allah akbar”, one Mukhshanian shot him in the back and killed him on the spot. This Mukhshanian was immediately chopped into bits and which were impaled on the stakes of the palisade.
Furious that he did not chance to save the Bek, Emir ordered all captured biys in the Kan to convert to Islam. The circumcision was done immediately, at the market square...
To annex the Kan to the State, in view of the love for freedom and multitude of the population, would be senseless, and Balus, having properly punished the participants of the resistance, and having taken their wives and children as hostages and into a captivity, returned to the Bandja.
The circumcised biys, not baring the sneers of the fellow tribesmen, left the Kan and founded upstream of it by the Sain river a new city Kisan... The Kisan soon have grown and subordinated the Kan...
Scared Syb-Bulat portrayed his actions as an attempt "to help" Adam to punish the Kanians, and deprived Amet of his village Amet by the Kara-Idel, on a road from the Djir to the Galidj. The demoted Amet was given a place in a wild province, a possessor of which was appointed Akhad Mosha, who transferred to the Batyshian service. The business-like Akhad immediately chose a place for his residence, and built there a fortress. In honor of him it began to be called " Moskha"... Here grew up his son, Emir Selim with a nickname Kolyn. The Kisanians made him their Bek. All this was not to the Adam’s liking, and he waited only for a chance to eradicate the Akhad’s nest in the Rus...
Adam was a real Kan, he did not tolerate any objections. Only the seid Yakub, son of Nugman, lived nicely with the Kan, because he knew how to please him.
Taking an advantage of the Adam’s horse falling, during his trip to the Bolgar, into a cave, which, it turned out, served as a school, the seid attracted the attention of the Kan to the miserable condition of the education in the State. I heard myself from my father that at that time many lost their conscience, and, for example, the inhabitants of the Tukhchi turned the main city mosque into a hayloft, and it was dubbed “Kiben”. This story of the seid gave creeps even to the usually cold-blooded Adam, and forced him to direct a significant part of his means for the rectification of the matter. For this money Yakub built five hundred new mosques and the main mosque of the capital. It had two minarets, and consequently people gave it the name of the two-headed Elbegen, Baradj. At the main mosque in 1080 the seid founded the ”House of Science” (university) "Mohammed-Bakiriya", which began to teach not only the Ilahiyat and the basics of the Arabian and Persian knowledge, but also the geography, ethics, the advanced arithmetics/linguistics, history. Yakub personally rewrote and completed the ”History of Bulgar”, called ”Kazyi kitaby”. My father knew it by heart and was repeatedly retelling it to me. It burned down in the Uchel together with all the library of my father, when the city fortress was burned by the order of the Bek Kantüryay.
All his life the father regretted the loss of the library, which was considered one of the largest in the State. It held the books of Bakir, dastan s of Michael and Gabdulla, and many others...
In the 1095 AD was the wedding of the son Shamgun of Adam from the daughter of Dugar, and the daughter of the Khan Ayübai. Ayübai was displeased with Dugar, who proclaimed himself a Kan of all the Kara-Saklanian Türks and Kumans, and therefore did not care to come, but Dugar-Kan joyfully set out with an army of 5 thousand daring swordsmen. And it should be said that in the world there were no people who loved the battering more than Kypchaks. At this time the Khan of the Kara-Oimeks Sham or Sam attacked the Bulyar. The Kan, not distinguished with a military talent, was confused at the arrival of the 100 thousand Oimeks in front of the walls of the capital. The Bulyar then did not have a third wall, and it could provide only 5 thousand militiamen. The situation was saved by Shamgun, who was the Ulugbek of the Bolgar. At the dawn, on Friday, he came to the capital with the Bolgarian kazanchis and from the run attacked the camp of the Oimeks. Many Kipchaks fled in a panic, but the Khan Sham managed to stop them and to lead into fight. The kazanchis had it rather tough, for though they highly surpassed Kypchaks in the armaments and the military art, there were too many nomads. At that time came Dugar-Kan and began to hinder the Oimeks with the attacks from the rear. When Sham was forced to deploy a part of his troops against the Kumans, followed a crushing blow from the third side, this time by the kursybai and Tamtais. The larger part of the Oimeks began to flee, but Sham in the head of the 20 thousand of the best troops remained in the place, surrounded with the arbas (wagons - Translator’s Note). The kursybai, which had the same medium arms, could not take it, and only the iron-clad kazanchis, with the help of the Bulyar infantry militiamen who came out from the city, managed to cut through the vehicles and a crowd of the sturdy Kypchaks, and to fatally wound the Khan. ”You, a boy, how dare you to defeat me, the great warrior?”, shouted dying Sham, choking with blood, to the approaching Shamgun. Customarily, Shamgun took the name of the famous enemy defeated by him. The running were killed all the way to Djaik...
And the Oimeks brought with them a few tribes with wives, children and belongings, telling them that the gained lands will be given to them. Men were wiped out by the raging warriors, and their wives, children and property fell prey to the Bulgars and Kumans. Especially many of women and children took the Tamtais, that’s why the language of the Bulgars of this province changed somewhat. And even in their customs and appearance emerged the Oymekian features of their Kypchak wives and the children adopted into the families.
A lot of goodies were also taken, for the Oimeks during the flight left in the space from the capital to the Djaik not less than 30 thousand of the wagons and yurts with the carpets, clothes, utensils and weapons. Among the rest, in the Khan’s arba was taken a surprisingly beautiful set of the vessels for the preparation of miraculous and fragrant mixes. The Kan took these vessels for himself, and they were called “sam-abar”...
Was made a magnificent wedding, after which Dugar went to the campaign against the Bashtu, and was killed there because of the betrayal by his Kumans, who colluded to switch to the side of Aübay, the son of Asan.
In the winter of the next, 1096 AD, chance came to Adam to expell the clan of Akhad from the Rus: there began a war of Alikay, the Bek of the Karadjar, with the other Urus Beks.
Securing the support of the Kan, he took the Kisan and went further. Kolyn fled to the Moskha, and the armies of Alikay and Shamgun closed in near the Kan. The Bek Kinzyaslap of the Kan, the son of the Bashtu Bek Bulymer with a nickname Altyn-Kalgan, tried to urge his people to resist, but those, as soon as they saw “chalmas” (turbans - Translator’s Note), i.e. the images of Baradj on the banners of the kursybai, chose to open the gate. Kinzyaslap came out from the palace with a sword, but, hearing the laughter of the iron chain mill clad kazanchis, surrendered to Shamgun. The Emir gave the Bek to Alikay with a condition that he would spare the life of the captured, who became blind in his youth from an illness. But Alikay ordered to execute him immediately. The unfortunate, who possessed a mighty power, broke off from the hands of the executioners, and threw himself into the Sain-Idel, but, not seeing anything, came back to the same bank, was seized again and ruthlessly killed... This strongly riled Shamgun...
Then they came to the Balyn, defended by the Emir Kolyn. The son of Akhad, who got caught in the trap, chose to surrender to Shamgun, who after the capture of the Kan-Sain was also called Sham-Sain. After that there was a dispute who should posess the city. As nobody would concede, the Emir ordered to conflagrate it. The Balyn burned down with the cries of Bonyak who was expecting the spoils. The upset Khan hired by Alikay, left the allies and went to his headquarters at the Audan Aktash.
Then the Djir, to which he promised a mercy, surrendered to Shamgun. However, contrary to the instructions of the Emir, Alikay as a last burlak (barge hauler - Translator’s Note), broke into the city and plundered it to a last thread. It overflowed the Shamgun’s cap of the patience, and he, under the intolerable for him screams of the tortured townspeople, left the Bek.
He had started to the Galidj, to burn it down in retaliation for the bandit raids of the Galidjians in the Biysu, but at the Amet he met with the son of Altyn-Kalgan Myshdauly and reconciled with him. Having received a promise to stringently pay the Djir Tribute to the State, and to forbid the Galidjian robberies, Shamgun went together with the Bek to the Djir, to end the ravaging of Alikay. The Karadjars, merely catching a sight of the imperial banner-chalmata, fled to the steppe in a panic...
The Emir returned to the Bulgar with a huge spoils, passing through the Chirmysh balik of the Mishar Bulgars in the Djunné-Kala at the Tukrantau in the estuary of the Sain, which was erected by the order of the Kan Ibragim by of the one of of the descendants of Barys. After that the Kan engaged in of the reinforcement of of the eastern border of the State, which continued to be harassed by of the Kara-Oimeks. Between of the Bulyar and the river Baradj-Chishma were built eight earthen ramparts with moats, watchtowers and abattises. They were populated by the Baytübans and impoverished Tamtaians, re-listed to the category of ak-chirmyshes and relieved from the taxes for the purpose of carrying the sentry service and repair work. The fortifications were beginning to be built also in the south of the Suvar province, for the Kumans of Aübay concluded a union with Rus against Bonyak and Sharafkhan began threatening the situation in the State. The staffs of the banners of his horde were capped with a half moon, which especially irked the Kan, for the half moon and the axe were the symbols of the Khans’s line for the Bulgars.
The Rus, encouraged by the union, stopped paying the "rostovschina", closed the roads, and the Kisanian Bek even dared to break into the Martüba and plunder the Misharian Ars...
Adam was all upset and sent Shamgun to rectify the matter. In the winter the Emir with the kursybai invaded the Kisan and defeated the local army with an active support of the injured Ars. When he came again the next year, the Kisan Bek sued for peace and paid him a huge tribute.
The Emir knew what to act against the Djir through the Deber is inconvenient. Therefore he ordered, right after the Kisanian invasion, to build for this purpose a new city at the Arsu river. In the 1103 the city has been built in the presence of the Emir, and named Uchel (“Three Cities”), as it consisted of the three parts. Two of them were on the mountain Bogyltau and were called Ügary Kerman and Kalgan, and the third one was located down the mountain near the lake Akbi-kül and consequently was called Akbikül. Kalgan was connected with Akbikül, but was separated from the Ügary Kerman by the Sain moat and by a part of the mountain without any buildings...
The name Ügary Kerman was because it was located on the highest point of the mountain that dropped abruptly to the Arsu. The separation came about because in the big haste Ügary Kerman could not be extended to the Sain moat, and the money difficulties that arose. This space began to be used as a place for the parking of the Muslim merchant caravans and as a market square. The Ars coming for the trade were placed in the Bish Balta, whose honey was considered the most tasty in the State, and the Uruses stayed behind the channel Bulak, which connected the Kaban lake with the Arsu.
The first viceroy of the city, Subash, with his kursybai, endured here for a few years, while the Three-Year War with Rus was going on. He collected a tribute from the Undj province, crushing a few of the Balynian detachments, and the next winter attacked with Shamgun the Balyn. The siege was raised only after Altyn-Kalgaí agreed to restart the payment of the Djir Tribute...
Subash left Uchel with a great pleasure, and there was appointed Selim, who attained the pronouncement of the Uchel as the capital of the Martüba. The Debers took it with a big pleasure, as they hoped to ease the abuses of the officials...
Kolyn quickly understood the futility of collecting the tribute, from the Ars and the living among them on the Mountain side Serbiyans, with a force of only 30 djuras and 200 ak-chirmyshes. Therefore he attained a transfer into ak-chirmyshes of two Seber tribes living among the Ars, the Kukdjaks and Batliks. They were excellent soldiers, as all Bashkorts: Esegs, Modjars, Sebers...
However, Kolyn also was the Ulugbek not for long here...
Initially Ayübai was breaking through to the Suvar il along the edges of the Mardan, and then started raiding the Bukhara road through the Saksin.The Khan Sharafhan, expelled by Ayübai from the Shir, on his own occupied the Khin. The roads to the Saksin and Khoresm became unsafe, which could not be tolerated. Subash barely secured the situation. Having lost a third of the kursybai, he succeded in saving the Hins from the demise, and transfered Türkmens to the Mardanian Burtas district, and the Badjanaks to the Badjanak district. A part of the Badjanak district, settled with Badjanaks, was, at the request of the resettlers, separated into a new district Kinel...
The inability of Balus to stop the Kumanian buccaneering made the Kan upset. He ordered Kolyn to take the post of the Mardanian Ulugbek, and Balus to take the post of the governor of the Uchel. It was an unheard of violation of the rights of the Bellak and the Mardanians obeyed only after Shamgun drew near this il with the armies of the kazanchis and Subash. In two years after that, the cunning and inventive Kolyn managed to lure Ayübai into a trap. He convinced the Kan of the necessity to arrange a marriage of the senior son Arbat of Shamgun on the daughter of Bonjak, who was subordinated to Ayübai, and to invite Ayübai to the wedding. ”Ayübai could not miss the wedding of his grandson and the daughter of his main supporter, Bonyak, for it would be a terrible insult to the customs of steppe”, explained Selim to the Kan. “Open one road through the urs (border fortifications) to the Bulyar, and close it behind the Khan. He will be trapped, and you could do to him, in the capital, anything you want”...
Kan followed the advice of Kolyn, surprised by his wisdom and perfidy. Ayübai was allowed to pass through the portals of the earthen ramparts, together with 11 thousand of his best soldiers, so that he noticed nothing. Behind him these passes in all eight earthen ramparts were immediately tightly closed. Once in the Bulyar, one thousand of Ayübai soldiers stayed in the Hinuba, which was then protected only by an earthen rampart and had not too many buildings. Another thousand was with the Khan in another part of the city, Men Bulyar, where the wedding was taking place. Ayübai did not want to celebrate in the citadel, Martuan or Bulüm Kerman, seeing in it a mousetrap. The wedding was feasted in the best caravanserai in the Menbulyar, the ”Dyau Shir” (“Great Shir”)... In front of the caravanserai was a huge market square. The Kumans stayed there, and into the ”Dyau Shir” with the Khan went five hundred soldiers. In a heat of the feast, when the visitors were drunk enough, the wife of Shamgun brought to her father a cup of sudja (“sweet water”, the traditional drink, usually with honey, known from the Herodotian times - Translator’s Note) with the poison. She did not know about it, and Ayübai, not reading anything disturbing in her joyful face, calmly drank it for the young, and in a few instants fell on the carpet.
It was also Kolyn who advised to serve the poison, and when the Kan started objecting, he said: ”If you do not give the Khan sudja to drink, he will give you blood to drink”. When the Khan fell, the Kan’s warriors immediately jumped on the visitors with bared swords and chirkeses. Only Bonyak, who became mute seeing all this, was pulled up by his underarms and taken to a safe place... The sister of Shamgun, who was married to one of the Ayübai’s sons, braced her husband in an embrace and smothered like a baby mouse. Arbat, with a huge club, one by one dispatched nine more sons of the Khan.
All Kumans in the caravanserai, Men Bulyar and Hinuba were killed.
Simultaneously, the kazanchis also attacked the others, outside of city, in the
aul Karak burglarized by the Kumans. They too were fairly drunk from the
plentiful oblations, but instead of the expected gifts suddenly saw in front of
them the death in the form of the bakhadirs. When the kazanchis of the Shamgun
drove the Kumans, the kursybai entered into the action. The Kypchaks raced by
the old road to the steppe, but in their way rose barricades of the earthen
ramparts, moats, and abattises, protected by the Tamtaies and Baytübians
pitiless to the bandits. There was a great slaughter of the stunned by the
horror Kumans. The inhabitants of the neighboring auls came out from the houses
and beat Kypchaks with what they had on hand. Of the nine thousand of the
fleeing only one thousand, led by the eleventh son Manuk of the Khan, broke out
to the steppe. The people joked about this occasion that they lacked the ninth
rampart for the Kumans...
The Kan thanked the Emir by appointing as the Suvar Ulugbek his son Khisam Anbal, married to the Kafian Saklan girl, and therefore he received the nickname As. Anbal was immediately entangled by the kazanchis, whose clans grew and could not any more be sufficed with the ancestral lands. They were thirsty to receive the igenchis of the other provinces to gorge on them, and for this purpose they wanted to install the obedient to them Emir as a Kan. Such was Anbal, for whom, during the unfavorable times for his family, the main thing became the aspiration for a life of a continuous pleasure. He, like the Kan Mohammed Mumin, hated the state affairs and was ready to carry out any whim of his favorites, the kazanchis.
When the kazanchis told Kolyn about their desire to make his son their Kan, the Emir did not oppose and decided to become the leader of the plot to secure the position of his house. He conspired with the Mardanians that he would leave them alone, and will also respect their rights, with a condition of their support of the plot. Balus who was toiling in the Uchel, which after the huge Bandja seemed to him a miserable aul, eagerly joined the plot in hope to return to the Mardan.
Chapter 18. Bulgars in reign of Kolyn and Anbalà (1118-1163)
In the 1118 AD Adam unexpectedly died, and Shamgun became the Kan. Before the death of Adam, the subashis and small owners, impoverished by the Oymekian and Kumanian raids, were asking about a tax relief. Right after the death of Adam, the Baytübians began throwing out the bilemchi officials, and in the Bulyar itself flared up a revolt against the city magistrate. The magistrate in the capital and in other big cities was called “Suvar Yorty”, for the people called merchants and masters (ostalar), i.e. the, owners, the “suvari”. The protesters beat several of his suvarbashis and bilemchis. In spite of the warning by Yakub, Shamgun decided to suppress the discontent with force, and summoned the kursybai. Subash refused to play the role of the executioner, and then the irritated Kan dismissed the kursybai and ordered Subash to come with a repentance. Subash hid in the Mardan, which was not extraditing the fugitives. Then Shamgun summoned the Bulgarian and Suvarian kazanchis, and those gladly suppressed the revolt. And they boasted to also do the same in the Mardan. Out of a hatred to the Mardanians they called them, and the Bandja, and the whole Mardan-Bellak as “Burtas”. It irked the Mardanians, and in retaliation they began to call “Suvar” the tiniest city of the province, Razi-Suba...
After all this the Kan, not feeling secure in the Bulyar, moved the capital to the Bolgar...
In the 1120 AD Kolyn, conspiring with the Balyn Bek Djurgi, decided to overthrow with his hands Shamgun, who lost the love of the people. Under his order Balus let pass the fleet of the Balyns through the Martüba, and Djurgi suddenly besieged the Bolgar.
Nobody supported the Kan, and he had at hand near him only the remaining 50 djuras. He tried to prevent the disembarking of the Uruses even with them, but, however, lost half of his people and was forced to retreat to the “Mumin”. Bulyarians and Mardanians did not send any help, and the kazanchis coolly waited out for the capture of the citadel by the Uruses. Djurgi, however, was slow, because he lost 1250 troops, in the fight with the djuras and with the plundered by the Uruses inhabitants of the Bolgar baliks. Then Shamgun, who by his character was simple and not arrogant, though quick-tempered as his father, declared to people his decision for tax relief. The lay townspeople immediately collected a militia and took positions on the walls, and those not injured by the punishment Bulyarians quickly sent a company to the Bolgar. This forced Kolyn to come to the citadel and declare to Shamgun: “Kan! You see, that is happening! Give me, with my loyalty to you, the Bolgar, and you yourself go to reign in the Bulyar!”
Understanding, that joint kazanchis with the Uruses will be disastrous for him, Shamgun followed the advice of the sympathetic Selim, and left to the Bulyar. So Bulyar again became the capital. And Kolyn, to prevent the Kan from suspecting him, attacked the camp of Djurgi with the Suvars and the fleet, with a pretext of punishing him for the sluggishness and cowardice. Seven out of eight thousand Uruses were slashed, stomped and drowned by the kazanchis and salchis. Djurgi had barely time to flee with the last thousand, and never more in his life thought of a campaign against the State.
His father Altyn-Kalgan wanted to execute Djurgi for the loss of the army, but, learning about he captured 25 djura's armors, said: “Let it pass! The armors are excellent, and if the Bulgars were selling them to us, I would give them in exchange and even more of these lousy mujiks!” Nevertheless, my father saw once at the Balynian Bek the Urus book, in which it was written about a victory of Djurgi in this Kolyn war. When he told the Bek that it was untrue, and told him how it was as witnessed by Yakub, the Bek burst out laughing and noted: “We have different concepts of the victory. For us is important, that Djurgi defeated Shamgun and hauled off valuable for us spoils, and how many people the Kan had, and how many mujiks we lost in fight is not important for us”.
And my father, and I, when we were in the Rus, did not stop being astonished of the contempt and indifference with which the Urus Beks took their people. And we also noticed, that the Balynian books did not write about the events in the neighboring, Urus Beilyks, unless only it was a concern for them...
And the Uruses are very diverse people, and they are strongly subject to pursuits, bad and good. So any one writing about this people on a short acquaintance can write about them as very bad and very good, but thus both this and that will be truthful.
Generally to know them well, one has to live for a long time among them... Their nobleness to you can run along with treachery and inhumanity to others. The insults from the stronger neighbors made the Uruses inclined to inconstancy, insidiousness and a deceit.
And the Bek Kushtandin told my father that disaster of his people was the drunkenness, and that some people are inclined to blame for the spread of it the “nasraniyat”. But their false doctrine has nothing to do with it. Actually it comes from the old heathen custom. Once the Ulchians were most kind people, unable to spill anybody’s blood, even of the criminal. But then they experienced terrible attacks of the enemies, and they had to fight. Their Kakhins (volkhves) ( Slavic term for pre-Christian clergy, spiritual leader, magic and medicine men - Translator’s Note), who were called boyars by the Hons, began giving the soldiers inebriates before the fight for bravery. Drinks also were given to the people after the fights, so that they could live through those awful losses which they had. So people got used to the drunkenness, and then this heathen custom also corrupted many of their clerics, the priests. Such papazes should be executed, but it was not possible, as they were an only force resisting to the even more wild heathen customs. Besides, the priests were also drinking to earn the love of their drinking flock. Also it comes out that sometimes papazes drink more than parishioners. So, I saw in Balyn a drunk priest who choked to death with a soup, which he drank directly from the kettle after blessings the fishermen for the fishing...
And when the Urus drinks, he becomes either very kind, or very spiteful and bloodthirsty. And a kind can become malicious, and a malicious become kind. This, by the way, is also used by our merchants when they want to buy something from the Urus dealer cheaper, and more often they win...
It is said that Djurgi, returning from the campaign, heavily drank and, coming into a fury, ordered to execute immediately the aged Akhad. And he compelled the Kisan Bek Ar-Aslap, one third of whose army was killed at the Bolgar, for the murder. Then, after the death of Altyn-Kalgan, who was afraid to irritate the Kan and who brought his apology to Shamgun for the unauthorized raid of his son, Ar-Aslap, also provoked by Djurgi, closed the Khorysdan road. The son of Ar-Aslap from a Kaubuy girl, Ryshtauly, objected to this and was thrown by his father into a dungeon. From the incarceration he was helped to flee by a Kaubuy servant. Ryshtauly came to Kolyn, was received fondly by the Emir and in the winter sent home with the kursybai of the Subash son, Khalik Kandjalyi, who transferred to the service of Selim.
Mukhshanians, who disliked Ar-Aslap for his servility to the Balyn, opened the gate of the Kisan, and the kursybai rode into city in a full order and without looting which usually accompany a war. The young Ryshtauly immediately sat on the father’s throne, and Ar-Aslap plunged into his own dungeon, where he soon died from affliction.
Pleased with a peaceful mood of Kandjalyi, the Kisans immediately freed the seized earlier Bulgarian merchants, and paid a huge tribute, an excellent squirrel pelt from a household. Though, the pleasure of the victory was clouded by the grief of the new Bek. He learned, that his heartless father, in retaliation for his flight, told his mother that Ryshtauly drowned in a river. The mother of the Bek died from the grief, and Ryshtauly vainly called for her at her tomb. The grief of the Bek had such a sorrow form that even the grievous Kandjalyi began to cry as a child.
Ryshtauly became a faithful ally of the State, despite of the temptations, instigations and threats coming from the neighboring Urus Beilyks. He was the first Urus Bek to whom, out of respect for him, the State gave a title of Emir, that is the Great Bek. With that, he was equated with the Great Beks of the Bashtu...
In the beginning he was quite annoyed by his brothers from other wives of his father. They fled to the Kumans of Bonyak, and warred with him against Ryshtauly, until in two years Kandjalyi came again, and squashed them all in the fortification Boryn. Only one of the Ar-Aslap’s offsprings could to flee and secure himself in the Kan-Mukhsh with the help of the Balyns. The other five were laid on the spot, as they attempted to resist, and were fouled by the murder of the merchants.
Kandjalyi caught up with the fleeing Bonyak in the field called “Khelek”. The unlucky Khan tried to fight off in the fortification made of the wagons on the bank of the Shir, but was caught and tied down...
Kandjalyi gave Bonyak to Ryshtauly, and Ryshtauly gave him to the Ulubiy of the Bashtu as a present. It is said that he was forced to accept the false faith of the nasrans and died in a monastery.
Kandjalyi received for this victory a nickname Boryn. The Khorysdan road has opened, which calmed the merchants...
Instead of Kolyn, the Mardanians elected the son Hajdar of Balus as the Ulugbek. When Balus expressed in this connection his complains to the Bellakians, they answered: “You forced us to be at war too much, and Hajdar is peaceloving. Besides Hajdar is your son, and you should be pleased by his advance”. The complaint of Balus also rejected Selim, with the words: “I can’t fail to consider the decree of the Kan and the will of the Mardanians, otherwise I will look like a criminal”.
Emir Kolyn-Selim was one of the
wisest men of the the
State, he put its interests higher than his own,
but with that he also knew his price. He could easily overthrow the Kan, but he saw the danger of the kazanchi’s domination
which was restrained only by his silent alliance with Shamgun...
The mullah, as is customary with the great preachers, refused to enter the palace of the Kan, and then the Emir honored him with a pleasant conversation in the Altyn-munch. Seid Yakub met the mullah with even greater courtesy. At his request, the descendant of Atrak ibn Musa, the owner of the big trade and craft house Abu Bekr ibn Ahmed, gave the mullah one of his houses for a residence.
In the conversation with the seid, the mullah admitted that what he had seen in the state surpasses anything that he have heard about it before. The son Idris of mullah remained in the Bulyar to study in the house of sciences “Mohammed-Bakiriya”, and the mullah, after making his acquaintance with the country, went by the Horys-yuly to the Rum on a business. On the way he visited the Kaubuy Beylik, where Yakub was successfully spreading the light of the true faith, and prayed in the mosque of the Kaubuyian capital Kyr-Kuba near the Batavyl. The mosque was called by the Kaubuys “Baryn”, in honor of the Alp of the Buri victories. Yakub had to take it so to repel the Kaubuys from the faith...
That campaign of Shamgun was the last for the Kan. His Baytübian militia was surrounded by the Oimeks of Manuk and only the arriving in time, under the order of Kolyn, kursybai Kandjalyi could overrun them. When Oimeks started to flee, the Kan angrily told to Khalik: “Why you did you disobey my decree and did not dismiss the corps?” And the kursybai was saved due to the means of Selim, The cautious Emir decided to ignore the will of the Khan, for the the state could not do without the kursybai.
From the difficult situation the sardar was saved by a poisoned Oimek’s arrow, shot by a fleeing Kypchak. It slightly scratched the face of the Kan which was open for the conversation, but the poison killed Shamgun soon.
Kandjalyi in a fury sent his arrow, which went through the head of Manuk, and then caught up and without any mercy exterminated all army of the Khan...
The underpinning of the Kolyn’s influence fell, and he did not dare to counteract the kazanchis who have raised Anbal to the throne. However soon he came to the Bulyar together with the Kandjalyi’s kursybai and offered the kazanchis to conclude an agreement with him in the presence of the Kan. And to ensure that ulans did not evade the negotiations and did not undertake any rash actions, he warned, that he gave Kandjalyi and Haidar an order to storm the capital in case of the failure of the meeting. Then Selim nonchalantly went alone to Suvar Yorty, right into the epicenter of the kazanchi’s gang, and declared there: “A good politician is a good merchant. So let's negotiate”.
It is said that in the Magistrate the shouts were flying higher than in the market. Not once the ulans moved against Kolyn with naked arms, but eventually they were forced to a deal with him.
The contract was the following: the kazanchis were exempted from the compulsory military service and from the tax from estates; the territories of the subashes’ provinces in the Northern Djebelstan, on the right bank of the Kara-Idel of the Martüba, Suvar and Bulgar ils were reduced in half in favor of the kazanchis, and all the lands on the river Alat in the Martüba district of Kukdjak also were transferred to the ulans; the means of the Kan’s court increased tenfold from the state treasury, and could grow only in a case of the income exceeding the level of the income in the 1135; Selim received the post of the Bolgar Ulugbek for life, the right to control the government officials and the treasury, the Suvar Yorty in the Bolgar, Nur-Suvar and Saksin, the foreign policy, Kashan, Saksin, Ur and Biysu provinces of the state; Mardan - Bellak kept its rights...
After the negotiations Kolyn went to the Bolgar, conceding what he yielded to the devouring kazanchis. The kursybai was permanently stationed in the areas handed to the ulans, so that they did not annihilate all subashes and each other during the reshuffle...
The Kan, having delegated the affairs to several of his favorites, engaged in the hunting, feasts, burdensome for the population trips in the Inner Bulgarian ils of the Baytüba, Tamta, Martüba, Suvar and Kashan, during which the events rarely went without robberies and murders of the subashes, without dishonoring the wives and daughters of the kara-chirmyshes and ak-chirmyshes. The seid Yakub, who contrived to contend in writing and orally with the Kan, was had his tongue cut and eyes gouged, and died soon. It is said that in his last days he, deprived of everything, earned a livelihood by playing a dombra at the market. And his house of sciences was transformed into a den where the Kan surrounded by the ulans and their mistresses drank quite often. A favorite entertainment for Ambal and his clique was a corruption of the chaste shakirds by forced drinking and forcing on them wanton women who were made to sit half-naked on the laps of the unfortunate pupils.
The grandson Kul-Daud of Yakub, who came back from the hadj (during which he fell into slavery and was ransomed by the Khondjakians in the province Tatyak for a silver jug), was so terrified with this situation that he organized a brotherhood of Sufis and dervishes at the mosque “El-Khum” in the Nur-Suvar and said to the brothers: “Allah deprived the Bulgars of his favor for the widespread of the faithlessness infection. Include in a circle of our brotherhood “El-Khum” the new members, and pray and devoutly have faith for two, three, five, ten of the common believers. When the force of our faith will be equal or surpass that which would be in case of all faithless in our State accepting the Islam, then the Merciful Creator will save us”.
Anyone entering the brotherhood endowed all his property, and lived on the received from the “El-Khum” means not richer than a kurmysh, and called for denouncing of the luxury, war, all kinds of oppression and slavery, hypocrisy and deceit. In the Bulyar the brothers, led by al-Garnati Idris, the son of Abu-Hamid, settled in a part of the Hinuba. Among the brothers were many subashes and ak-chirmyshes, who gave up all of their property under a threat of its capture by the kazanchis...
In 1153 the ulans, hating the brotherhood, seized Idris and martyred him. After that the brothers moved to external balik of the Saklan city, and there called their uram Tatyak, and in the capital the palaces of the kazanchis began one by one to go up in flames... No new trouncings of the dervish khanak could stop the arsons. When the raging kazanchis surrounded the mosque “El-Khum” in the Nur-Suvar, the Suvar Yorty went to protect the brotherhood, setting up a militia for the protection of the khanak. The cousin of the Kul-Daud father a Suleiman, who was the son of the Saksinian seid Daud, and himself the seid in the Nur-Suvar and Bulyar, called for Kolym to intervene immediately, and the Emir did not miss a chance to wound the kazanchis. He encircled the Nur-Suvar with the Bulgarian militia and the kursybai of Kurnay, the son of Kandjalyi, and also with Arbugians, who do not have any concept of a fear or a pity in the war, and declared: “Our state emerged and prospered by the will of Allah. Now some kyafirs are going to exterminate all the truest of the devout, to deprive her of the favor of the Creator. It can not be tolerated, and at the first new murder of a dervish I will trample the guilty into a dust”.
The kazanchis, clenching their teeth, retreated, though in the secluded places, given an opportunity, they secretly continued to revenge with the brothers.
In that year Abu-Hamid al-Garnati again came to the Bulyar, and met with an open hostility of the Kan and his spongers. Abu Bekr was not any more in the capital, he moved to the Bolgar because he was afraid of the pillages by the kazanchis,. Suleiman could barely find for him a pity dervish shed in the Tatyak where a corpse of his son was brought to him. We expected sad cries and moanings, but the mullah only said: “He left this world by the will of Allah in the name of the best”, and began to pray eagerly. Abu-Hamid arrived by the Horys-yuly through the Bandja, which the Arabs were calling by the name of the local sacred creek Nut, and was immensely surprised with the changes in the State. His friend Emir Otyak was hiding from the kazanchis under a wing of Kolyn in the position of the Saksin Ulugbek, and the Moslems were sighing and secretly complaining to the Creator about their misfortunes...
However the external affairs, thanks to Salim, were good. The destruction of Manuk forced the Kara-Oimeks to be quiet, and, after negotiations with the envoy Kurnay of Kolyn they agreed to submit to the State and to form a Tubdjak province subject to the State. Only one Oimekian Khan Bashkort decided to remain independent and, with the help of Otyak, peacefully passed with the Oimeks through the !!Saksin to the Kumanian steppes. The Bukharian or the Khorasan road became quiet again...
The Balynian Bek of Djurgi tried to implant in the Kisan his viceroys, but it was repulsed every time.
In the 1140 AD just an appearance of Kurnay was enough for the Balynian armies to flee from the Kisan...
In 1150 the son of Djurgi Khan-Türyay dared to refuse paying the Djir Tribute. Simultaneously the Galidjians began to disturb the districts of the Biysu province with their raids: Nukrat... and even the vicinities of the slammer Tuymas-Artan on the river Biysu, where from the Chulman Sea came the Sadumian ships and for the trade gathered the hunters, fishermen and shepherds of the Tunay (North) tribes, the Tunians...
And the Tuymas-Artan established the Bulgarian merchant Tuymas,who was trading with Artan, at the time when Ugyr Bashtu closed the Artanian road through the Galidj. The guarding of the slammer was by slammer Shudian clan Kuyan, famous for the trade of the excellent hare pelts.
And Yakub wrote that during the Mar’s time these pelts served as money and were called “barmal”, i.e. how the Shuds called the Bulgar. And the first coins, minted with the Michael insisting during the Bat-Ugyr Shamsi-Malik time, were called “barmals” too...
Disturbed with the behavior of the Ulchians, Kolyn summoned Kurnay and told him: “I helped you and your people during a hard time for the sake of the well-being of the State. Now came the time for you to pay off and to make a big campaign against Tunay”...
They set out together in the winter of the 1150, heading the kursybai and ak-chirmyshes to the Tunay, where they established a new center for the Biysu, the city of Kolyn near the balik Nukrat on the Nukrat-su, crushed some slammers of the Galidjians on the river Tun, and in the end besieged the Ar-Aslan and left it, after receiving a squirrel pelt from each household.
After that Khan-Türyay invaded the Kara-Mukhsha and captured the Kisan, but escaping from him Ryshtauly, together with the arriving just in time Mardanians of the son Haidar of the Bek Baychura quickly righted the situation...
It is said that at a dawn Ryshtauly came again to the Kisan with a small group, and after a short exchange of fire run to retreat. The Khan-Türyay was celebrating the victory all night long, and could not get up from the bed, and sent his commanders in pursuit. Those got in an ambush of Baychura, and were mercilessly wiped out by the Arbugians.
A few of survivors rushed back to the city with awful cryes and brought in a confusion. Khan-Türyay, learning about the death of the commanders, barely had the time to ride back from the Kisan to the Balyn, half naked in one boot. The rest of his troops also rushed to follow. Baychura reinstated Bek Ryshtauly in the city, and then also kicked out the Balyns from the Kan. The Bek did not plunder, but took from the Kan a squirrel pelt from each household. In two years Balynians again took the Kisan from Ryshtauly and robbed the Bulgarian merchants. In response Kurnay and Baychura in the winter burnt the provinces of the Kisan, Kan and Bulymer.
In the same year died Emir Kolyn, and the State for ten years plunged into a gloom of the kazanchis’ despoilings. The kursybai was disbanded. The kazanchis, as hungry wolves, broke in into the subashi areas and began to press ingichis into the wilderness. The ulans settled the seized lands with the Serbiyans and Ars, who they captured in open raids on the treasury lands.
The Martüba Ulugbek Os-Ladj did not interfere, afraid for his life. Seid Suleiman, in horror from the happenings, fled to the Emir Otyak to the Saksin, but soon he too had to seek safety in a flight to his father-in-law Bashkort. Kul-Daud, installed as a seid of the Bulyar by the demand of the suvarchis, barely held the pushy kazanchis from the pillaging the suvarchis’ homes. Everywhere the tax collectors committed unruly roguery collecting taxes increased in two-three times. When the representatives of the Kan came to the Bandja with the message that the tribute from the Mardan is increased twofold, Baychura exclaimed: “No overseas enemy oppress us more, than our own Kan!” Though the Bek paid the tribute, these words of his were not forgotten...
In the 1117 the son Sarychin of the Khan Sharafhan flew to Saksin. Not trusting anybody from his own, the Kan appointed the Sarychin,s son As to the vacated post of the Saksin Tarkhan. And here and in the provinces Biysu, Mardan-Bellak, Ur, Tubdjak the governors were called Tarkhans, and in other ils they were called Ulugbeks (or, sometimes, Ulubiys). As the Saksinians looked upon the new Tarkhan as at the pillager, most of the time he stayed in the aul Bekhtash, where began the road from the Idel to the Shir. Later, nevertheless, the inhabitants of the Saksinian Suvar had pity on him, and he transferred his court to this city...
Offended by Bashkort, the
Khan was afraid of attempts from the side of the
Oimeks and consequently called from the
Gurgjans his brother Atrak who was serving
there. Atrak, however, not for long suffered in the service to the
fled under the wing of Bashkort.
Deciding to build up the Ügarykerman wasteland, he prepared stones and asked the son Aslan of Kuchak-Kachkyn to erect some beautiful buildings. Aslan with the pupils erected the palace of the Bek, amazingly decorated with stone leopards, lions and other images, and the big portal for the Ulugbek Court, however an attack by Otyak stopped the construction. Envying the craftsmen, the Balynian Biy for the huge money hired Aslan and his assistants, and they erected for him precisely the same buildings. And a part of the stones which became not needed, tracked to Balyn and built a few churches from them...
Otyak, exhausted by the inconveniences of the wild steppe life, left his father-in-law and moved to the Bashtu, where in the 1159 his wife gave birth to his son Gabdulla... He was a small copy of the grandfather Khan, and Bashkort adored him and frequently visited his son-in-law in the Bashtu to see his grandson. The Uruses not only did not interfere with this, but were even pleased, as at that time there was a peace between them and the Kypchaks of the Saklan, headed by Bashkort.
Having lived for some time in the Bashtu, Otyak moved to the Balyn, to the Khan-Türyay, who promised to help him to take the father’s throne...
Meanwhile Anbal did everything to lose the throne. The plunders of the kazanchis and officials, impacting everybody, except for them, caused a popular hatred of the Kan... The ak-chirmyshes of Kukdjak and the subashis of Arsu united with the Ars and began to repulse the brutes. Simultaneously the former kursybays of Kermek and now the subashis, finished off the tax collectors. In the Kermek auls the bilemchis tried their abuses as they did in the auls of the other provinces, but the severe bakhadirs who were not used to the abuses, mangled then on the spot. Baychura immediately declared, that he will stand united with Kurnay, and the scared Kan decided to overcome him by entrapment. But in the beginning he sent the son of Sarychin to the Martüba. Well knowing the situation, Arbat invited the Tarkhan, and suggested to him to go round the auls of the subashes and ak-chirmyshes. As-Tarkhan did that, using the kara-chirmyshes. He sold some captured Ars to the kazanchis, and the others tied to the bulls and, flogging them with knouts, drove to Bulyar...
After that the
Kan wooed the daughter Samar-bi of Baychura and invited him to
the wedding. The unfortunate Tarkhan could not refuse to come to the wedding of
his own daughter and arrived in the Bulyar. Right at the entrance to the capital
he was chopped up into pieces by the kazanchis. Samar, learning about it, fled
Bandja and there she was proclaimed the Ulugbika...
And during the reign of Khisam the stone construction gradually stopped, and in
the stone quarries accumulated plenty of the slabs. Kul-Daud ordered “El-Khum”
to buy them and put on the tombs of the devout Moslems with a corresponding
inscriptions, so that Allmighty could distinguish the righteous from the
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"