Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The apparent comments of the Translator from the Tatar (Bulgar) to the Russian are highlighted by blue italics.
The table Western Hun's Khan Dynasties gives a list of the supreme Khans.
Table of contents
VOLUME 3, PAGES 80-101
BULGARIAN KHANS OF ALL DYNASTIES
1. LIST OF BULGARIAN KHANS OF ALL DYNASTIES
I compiled the list of the Bulgarian khans of all dynasties even before the loss (in the 1982) of the “Nigmatullin's text “ (The Russian translation of the annals “Djagfar Tarihi“, preserved by I.M.-K.Nigmatullin) on the basis of the Kul Gali and Gazi-Baba data. For Gazi-Baba the main sources were the documents of Ilchi Yorty (Ambassadorial Department), for Kul Gali served the book of Gabdallah Ibn Bashtu “Khazar Tarihi“. Kul Gali cites the data of Gabdallah because he considered his data the fullest of all seen by him, though they were contradicting in some cases with the other lists of Bulgarian khans. The time count in the book went from the reign of Burtas (we have translated these dates into the Gregorian calendar).
Kul Gali gives the poetic lines about the first Idel-Bulgarian khans:
Their deeds and customs were simple,
Ergi or Chakchak. The legendary Khanum who tried, with the help of Turan, to form the female “Empire of Turan“ before the Khan Djam's time.
BULGARIAN KHANS OF IMEN DYNASTY
Djam-Idji or Idjik (14 953-14 653 BC). The first Bulgarian khan of Idel from the Imen dynasty. In his honour all representatives of Imen and Sarmatian dynasties were called “idjibak“, i.e. “ruler from Idji clan“. For simple people the word “idjibak“ began to mean “khan“, “master“, “ruler“, and for the nobles it meant “the most august“. Later the word “djabgu“ - “glorious“ began to be added to the khan's title, but eventually the word “djabgu“ superseded the word “idjibak“. The wife of Djam was called Tanbit, but some sources assert that she and Ergi-Chakchak are the same person. Seven tribes (peoples) were joined in the Djam state, a part of them created the ruling Bulgar people. Therefore the Djam state received the name Idel, i.e. the “Seven (ide) Tribes (el)“.
Al or Bal (14th millenium BC). The word al(bal) meant “head“, “leader“, “main“, “sacred“, “saint“, “master“.
Kan (13th millenium BC). In his reign a part of Idelians left to the East.
It (12th millenium BC). He named Ural mountains “Balkan“ in honor of his ancestors .
Kar (11th millenium BC). In his reign the tribes of Kars (Finns) came to Idel, and he gave them for settlement the land which began to be called “Karel“, i.e. “the Country (el) of Kar's“.
Ulyat or Lug (10th millenium BC). He was named so because in the Idel at the time of his birth raged a plaque. He expelled from Idel a part of Bulgars headed by the tribe Deber (Seber). One part of the exiles settled in the Kara-Saklan (Ukraine), another settled in the Meken or Makidan (Balkans), the third settled in Suvar (Mesopotamia) where they established the state of Samar (Sumer). Very soon in the Samar (Sumer) were also included Midan (Iran), Angly-Samar (Palestine, Lebanon, Syria), Meken (Balkans), Kresh (Crete), Kubar (Crete), Mamil (Egypt), Atryach (Troy, Asia Minor, Turkey), Karkash or Kafkash (Caucasus). They had “cossack“ (“trident“) as the symbol of Tangra and light. The weapon of their two main Alps, Nardugan (Karga-Mardukan, Saban, Samar, Simbir...) and Kubar Bozidan (lord of “blue valley“, i.e. the world's ocean), also looked like a trident, but was called “sanak“ (“spear“, “pitchfork“). “ The old Bulgarian kam-boyans (shamans) (kam - “diviner“ + boyan - “prist“ - Translatorr's Note) called the sanak sign “cossack“. The main Alps were called “aka (aga)“, “subash“, “baradj“ (the last, in addition to other meanings, also meant “fortune“, “oracle“). After the Bulgarian imperial dynasty perished in the Flood, and a majority of the Samar soldiers died, this state split into Mamil (Egypt), Kresh (Crete empire with subordinated Meken, Atryach and Angly-Samar), Midan and Suvar (Mesopotamia), and in Suvar the power was captured by the former slaves, garabs (Arabs). The word “garab“ was formed from the Bulgarian “kara-aba“, i.e. the “black clan“. But then, the Bulgars more often called the Arabs “sarkans“, and the “sarkan“ meant “dune“, “desert“, “desert dweller“. Kresh (Crete) was a big island where the kineshes (councils of leaders) and the “kresh“ (from this Bulgarian word also came the name Kresh - “Crete“) wrestling duels were taking place, winners of which were elected Khans. Later this Bulgarian state also broke up, and eventually it was seized by the Tyrians (ancestors of Greeks), who also began to be called by the name of Kresh as “Kreshians“ or “Kryashians“ (from here comes the “Grecian“, “Greek“). Then the “en“ , in the old Bulgarian language, meant “land“, but later the “en“ or “an“ began to mean only a peripheral or a coastal territory.
Luk (9th millenium BC). The word “Luk“ in some cases served as a version of the word Ulyat-Lut (Ulyat, Uran, etc. are the names of the powerful Alp-Bika Turan), and in other cases it meant a “dragon“, “guardian from troubles“, “great“.
Sakal (8th millenium BC). He received a nickname “At“ for his love for horses.
Aka or Buga (7th millenium BC). In his reign a part of the Idelian Bulgars, led by Atryach, reached on horses Suvar (Mesopotamia), and reached the lands which then began to be called Atryach (Turkey). He surrounded himself with courtiers of the Türkic Aka-Imen clan, because he trusted them. He settled Aka-Imens in his royal camps on the rivers Sain-Idel (Oka) and Buga (Southern Bug).
Kahyl (6th millenium BC). His name meant “hair braid“.
Balkan (4 550-4 490 BC). He united all tribes living on both sides of the Urals, whence comes his name.
Bish (brother of Balkan). In the Idel, in his reign, started troubles and wars between the Balkan's descendants.
Kubar (son of Balkan). He was overthrown and took his people to the West, where he settled in the Makidan mountains (Balkan peninsula).
Tauk (son of Kubar). He was overthrown and took his people to Suvar (Mesopotamia) and Atryach. Very soon he became a Khan of all Samar (the ancient Sumerian state founded by the Idelian Bulgars). Later Samar broke up into Mamil (Egypt), Suvar (Mesopotamia, Iraq), Atryach (Troy state), and Makidan (Balkans).
Ishtyak (son of Kubar). He took his people, who began to be called Ishtyaks (Ugrs, Ugors), to Jeti-Su (Altai).
Idjim (son of Kubar). He remained in the Idel. He campaigned in the East and gave the name Idjim (Ishim) to the border river.
Er or Ural (4th millenium BC). He united again all the Idelian peoples on the both sides of the Balkans, and in memory of that these mountains began to be called by his name, Ural.
Bish (3rd millenium BC). In his reign many Bulgars from the tribe Bilsag or Bishatar left Idel. One part of them settled in the Kara-Saklan, another in Meken where they built a city of Bilsag, the third part in the Caucasus, where the neighbors began calling them “Huts“ or “Utigs“, the fourth part in the Kashan (Central Asia), where they later split into Tugars, Sagdaks, Masguts and Kashans, the fifth part in Ulug Khin (India). Huts formed a big empire which for a while subordinated almost all Samar, except for Mamil.
Saklan (daughter of Kar). In her reign Bulgars-Ishtyaks led by Askal returned from the Jeti-Su, but she allowed only to the people of his son Boyan (Mayan), to whom she married, to settle in the Idel. Then the other son of Askal, Kresh or Baluan, went further and settled on the island of Kresh (Crete). The Makidan (Balkanian) Bulgars, unhappy with the rule of the Atryachian Bulgars, submitted to him. After the death of the old Askal, Saklan repented her actions and set up in the place of his tomb a sanctuary Er-Aba. The word “Saklan“ in the Old Bulgarian language has a few meanings: “Eurasia“, “Arian (Indo-Arian)“, “Ukraine“, “East Europe“,“ Sarmatian“, “Bulgar “.
Mar (2nd millenium BC). In his reign the part Idelian Bulgar-Aksaga from the area Mishen, who were also called Agatars (Agachirs), Mishens and Kimers (“boatmen“, “shipbuilders“) - for their skill to build ships and to sail in them, left to the south. One part of the Agatar-Kimers settled in the Kara- Saklan (Ukraine), another subjugated Sebers and Bilsaga of the Meken (Balkans), the third tried to restore the Samar (Sumer) state, but was defeated by the Mamils, the Mekenian Agatars conquered Kresh, and then the Atryach, Mamil and Angly-Samar, but suffered big losses and were themselves defeated by Tyrians who came from the Galidj.
Aspar. He crushed the Tyrians (Protogreeks) and forced them to flee from the Galidj to the Makidanian Bulgars-Agatars, who turned them into slaves, “serbiys“. But when the Agatars weakened in wars, these slaves called the fellow tribesmen from the Galidj and together with them have seized the Meken. After the death of Aslar, Idel began to lose its power, and Agatars of the Kara- Saklan ceased to submit to the Idelian khans. For this the Idelian Bulgars began to call them not Kimerams, but kamyrs.
Burun. In his reign a part of the Idelian Bulgars again left to Jeti-Su and Kashan (Central Asia), where they settled by the Kashan (Aral) sea and the Saban (Balkhash) lake. In their place settled the Saklanian (Ukrainian) Bulgars which began to be pressed by the Kimers.
Dyngyr. He become famous for his playing dyngyr. He also was a kelbir, i.e. he was leading public prayers to Tangra in the Nardugan and Akatuy days.
Nukrat. Son-in-law of Dyngyr. He seized the power with the help of his Ishtyak (Ugrs, Ugors) people, who also began to be called Nukratians.
Balta (1200-1180 BC). A son of of Nukrat and a daughter of Dyngyr. In his reign the Tyrians-Serbiyans (i.e. Greeks - Translator's Note) revolted against the Makidanian Bulgars and defeated them with the help of the Galidjian Tyrians (i.e. Danubian Greeks - Translator's Note)... When the wooded part of the Idel separated from the steppe, he remained to rule in the forested part, and received a nickname Balta, i.e. Axe (the axe was a symbol of the Idelian wooded territory, and a dagger or a sword was a symbol of the steppe territory, later a bow became the symbol of the steppe).
Kama or Burma (9th century BC). In his reign the intestine wars reached unimaginable proportions. Ignoring them, Burma initiated construction of a huge sanctuary for Alyp Kapa, “Tall Gates“, where after his death he was buried.
BULGARIAN KHANS OF SARMATIAN, ALANIAN, KON AND BALTAVAR DYNASTIES
Alabuga-Bulgar (808-775 BC). A son of of Burma. Ruled for 33 years. He united again the forest and steppe lands of Idel, and received a nickname “Chirem-Misha (Chirmysh) idjibak“, i.e “Ruler of Steppe (Chirem) and Forests (Misha)“. His descendants added this nickname to the title, so their dynasty received the name “Chirmyshian“ (“Sarmatian“). In the Bulgarian legend, Tangra after his death gave his soul a form of a winged snake-like dragon (Baradj), and ordered him to be a patron of the Bulgar lands. His favorite residence was the city of Idjibak in the Kuban province, its name was also pronounced Aspak and Uzbak. Kagan Kurbat in the 630 wrestled this city from the Serbiys (Türküts), and gave it to his son At-Teles, who was therefore nicknamed Asparuh (i.e. “Royal quarter Aspak“). The image of Alabuga-Bulgar was carved on a stone installed on his tomb near Alabuga (Elabuga).
Samar. A son of of Tuymas.
Kanakbal. A son of of Samar.
Tuhcha. A son of of Kanakbal.
Burtas Burdjan or Burdjantay, Berendey (683-633 BC). A son of Tukhcha. His reign started the epoch of “strong reigns“ or “Tazbash“, i.e. “shaved heads“. He defeated Kamyrs and received a nickname “Kamyr Batyr“, i.e. “Victor of Kimers, Cimmerians“. Most of the Cimmerians fled to Atryach (Turkey), and on their lands Burtas resettled Asian Sakas, the Kypchaks. In the Near East he was called “Partatua“ (Assyrian and Greek references to Partatua - Translator's Note). He tried to restore the Bulgarian domination in the territory of the former Samar (Sumer) state, and for some time captured the most part of it in the Burtas War (started in 653 BC).
Soren, the wife of the Burtas' younger son Katrag, who was ruling the steppe part of Idel. She succeded in conquering Azerbaijan for some time.
Ulyat or Lug.
Bulut or Kresh-Bulut. A son of of Ulyat. Ruled for 10 years, but before that was the governor of the Saklanian area of Idel. He was known for his good nature and love for peace. He allowed the Kreshes (Greeks) build a few cities in the Saklan (Black Sea Coast), for which they paid him a big tribute. He introduced a rule to correspond with the foreign states in the Greek language and the Greek letters, for which he received a nickname Kresh, i.e. “Greek“.
Leu-Askal or Lek-Alyp. A son of of Bulug and a Greek woman. He was famous by his gift of foresight. He declined the offer of his brother Aiyar (Avar) for an attack on the Greek colonies in the Saklan, since the fortunetelling pointed the danger of the Divine punishment for it. Outraged by that Aiyar killed Leu-Askal (they were only paternal brothers).
Baryn. A son of of Leu-Askal.
Torgan or Asparyk (558-530 BC). Was born in 580 BC. Bardjilian (Persian) king (Kir) captured him in one of the battles, and executed him, though he warned the king about the (Asparyk's mother) prophecy: “Your fate is to meet a double with whom you will die in one year“. And really, both were born and ruled in the same years, and soon after the execution the Persian king died, falling from a horse.
Kunduz Baltavar (530-494 BC). Younger son of Torgan. Was born in 530 BC. His mother Tamyr-bika ruled in Idel in his name up to his maturity. He defeated the Persian king Targiz (Dariy). His senior brother Kolyn (555-486 BC) was helping him, he was then and later the echerge bail (commander of the center of the army) and idjik-kosh (head of imperial council).
Moskha (494-488 BC). Senior son of Kunduz. Faught with Bardjil (Persia), he received a nickname “Timer“ for his frequent attacks on Timer Kapa (“Iron Gate“). His wife was Simbirbika, a daughter of Elbir, the leader of the Idelian tribe Shirak (or Shirin). Simbirbika's mother was called Shan-kyzy, her clan was called Shan.
Alvar Magiz or Askal (488-486 BC). Younger son of Kunduz; after the death of Moskha he marryed his widow Simbirbika. He died after a feast in honor of the Greek ambassadors, so the rumor went that he was poisoned by the middle son of Kunduz, Avar Deber, for a marriage to Simbirbika. Avar stole Simbirbika, but was killed by a lightning on the bank of the river Deber-Inesh (Dnestr), after which his people moved from that place to the mouth of the Sula (Danube).
Barys (486-475 BC). A son of of Kolyn. Was born in 530 BC.
Audan (Djurash)-Barys. A son of of Alvar. Was born in 486. Grew in the Barys family. Some legends of him were included in the Ancient Bulgarian epos “Shan talgau“.
Bak-Shirak (475-? BC). Younger son of Kolyn. Was born in 525 BC. He forced Audan to flee from his native aul and to wander in the steppe.
Saumak (son of Bak-Shirak).
Boyar or Boerak (4th century BC). He attacked Makidan (here - the Macedonian empire) and destroyed its capital Balbal (Pella) which was also called Baldiu (“King of Elfs“). But on his return, in one gorge, the squad of his second cousin Etey (Kam-Etey) fell into an ambush. Etey was killed. Before the campaign, Etey saw in a dream the Wolf Alp, who told him: “If you go to this campaign, you will die, but the Bulgars will get big spoils, and if you don't, you will stay alive and live for a long time, but the Bulgars will be defeated.“. Etey went to the campaign only for his native people to win. In memory of his heroism, the Bulgars began to call this gorge “Kam“.
Tigan, Etey or At, Atay, Ati (380-339 BC). A descendant of Ufa, a grandson of Kam-Etey. He did not believe the forecast of a kam (shaman) that he would die, as did his grandfather, attacking the possessions of Balbal (i.e. Macedonia), and without justification, out of curiosity, raided Makidan (Balkans). He died (in 339 BC) in a battle with the khan of Baldiu Balbal (Phillip the Makedonian). In memory of his heroism (and also the heroism of his grandfather) the Bulgars gave the Saklan a second name, Atil (“Land of Etey“), and Baldiu himself married the son of Etey, Balamir, to his adopted daughter Uran - bika.
Balamir (339-320 BC). A son of of Etey. He helped Alamir-Sultan (Alexander the Great) whom he survived by 3 years, to conquer Persia. In the “language of Kams“ his name means “Small (bala) Ruler (mir, pir)“. And the nickname “Sultan“ comes from “Cheldan“, which in the “language of Kams“ means “Universally Glorious“.
Alabuga Sygerkan (339-310 BC), brother and co-ruler of Balamir. His quarters was on the river Sygerkan or Bug (Southern Buh), therefore he was called by its name. He defeated the army of the Alexander the Great (in 331 BC), who has broken the peace terms with Idel. In 310 BC he became the ruler of the eastern part of Idel, where he died in his Alabuga camp. he was buried near the tomb of his ancestor Alabuga-Bulgar. On his tombstone he ordered to carve only an image of an axe and a dagger (the symbols of the forest and the steppe), saying: “I already look like my ancestor, why would I have myself portrayed?“
Targiz (320-314 BC). A son of of Balamir and Uran-bika. His father named him Targiz in memory of trouncing the Persian king Targiz (Darius III). He suppressed a revolt by the Kara-Saklanian Kypchaks, composed of the tribes Nukrat (Nauburi), ishtyak (Esegs), and others. After six years of reign he voluntary gave up the rule, declaring that since people ceased to respect the authority, he does not have to support it. He died at the age of 120 years, in 236 BC.
Arbat. A son of of Targiz
Balak. A son of of Arbat
Chybyk. A son of of Balak
Timer. A son of of Chybyk
Askal. In his reign died Targiz
Kashan (Azan) Kandjal. A descendant of Alabuga Sygerkan, the son of Kandjal. One of the most powerful Idelian khans. His mother was Kashanian (Massagetian) bika (princess). As a youth he campaigned in the east and reached the river Khin (Indus) in the Ulug Khin (India).
In the West he crushed and subordinated the Ulagians (Dacians). In the south he made a victorious raid to the Caucasus and Asia Minor, crushing the Midia (Azerbaijan), Ariak (Armenia), Bardjil (Persia) and subordinated Chilyar (Seleukid's state), Kavyl (Cappadocia and Cilicia) and Atryach (Western Turkey). Some believe that it is he who developed Kashanian alphabet used by the Kamboyans (kam - “diviner“ + boyan - “prist“ - Translator's Note) and the palace officials. In his memory, the Bulgars called ed the Eastern Walachia “Kashan“.
Kuban. A son of of Kashan. The great Bulgarian musician and storyteller, a Khan of Idel. He created a number of song-poems, in which he reflected the mythology and the history of the Bulgars. Kul Gali preserved these of his words: “Dyam-Idjik gathered under his rule seven tribes, creating one great people of Bulgars. Targiz made all to reflect about the necessity of the unity by resigning from his rule. Azan decided to expand Kashan from Jeti-Su to Sula, and succeded. All these actions are so non-comprehensible, that it is clear that they are inspired by Tangra. I, Kuban, living on the banks of the Saklanian river (Kuban), I am a descendant of Idjik, Targiz and Azan, and therefore I ask Tangra: teach me also as you [taught] my ancestors“.
Chilyar (152-146 BC). A son of of Kuban. Was overthrown from the throne by the tribal leaders, Tarkhans, and was coaching near Saksin and Sarychin. The Kypchak biy Urazman, to whose sister Chilyar was married, supported him. The younger son of Chilyar, Kelbir (Kylbur, Elaur) left with a part of his people to Kara-Bershud (Crimea) to his uncle Urazman where he began independent rule over the baklan (steppes of Ukraine and N Caucasus).
Alan (140-107 BC) . Grandson of Kuban, the son of Suvar-Madji, a Tarkhan. Pushed from the power by the other relatives, he allied with Kelbir, and Kelbir helped Alan to become, in 140 BC, the Idel Khan, and Alan proclaimed Kelbir and his descendants as Tarkhans (independent governors) of the Saklan. Kelbir married the daughter of Alan Uzbika. During the wedding on the bank of the river Kuban, the army of Bershud (Bospor Kingdom), led by Tama-Diu, surprisingly attacked the selebrants and captured Sakmar or Saumak (“Savmak“ of the Roman-Greek sources), the juvenile son of Alan. Because of that flared a war between Idel and Bershud. In this war the Bulgarian armies, in the beginning headed by Kelbir, and then by Balak (the son of Kelbir and Uzbika). The son of Urazman, Tash-Bash, supported them. Eventually, the Bershudians were defeated, and Saumak was freed. But then the khan of Darbazan (Pontc Kingdom) came to the Bershudian aid, and with the support of the same Tama-Diu captured Saumak again (in 107 BC, according to the Roman-Greek sources). Founding out about it, Alan died of distress. And Saumak died in captivity in the Darbazan. His body was ransomed for a lot of gold and silver, and buried in the native land, on the coast of the river Sakmak or Sakmar (Sakmara). Alan is the founder of the Alanian dynasty.
Sarychin (107-65 BC). A son of of Balak, grandson of Alan. In his reign the Bershud fell into vassalage of the Aaltynbashes or Ulak-Rumians (Romans). When Sarychin moved against them, the Bershudians unexpectedly went over to the side of the Ulak-Rumians, and the brother of Tash-Bash Djien refused to support him. After the capture by the Ulak-Rumians of the Tamya-Burun (Kuban and Taman), Sarychin chose to recognize the superiority of the Ulak-Uruma over the Bershud. Djien was famous for his performance of the talgau (dastan, epos).
Bershud Katrag (65-21 BC). A son of of Sarychin. He was born in the year of the Bershud's annexation to the Ulak-Urum, and his father gave him the name Bershud so that he would try to return the loss (once Bershud was rendering tribute to Idel). For the war with Ulak-Urum he hgired to the Bulgarian service the Katrag tribe, that's why he received a nickname Katrag. He ravaged many Ulak-Rumian cities in the Saklan (Alabuga, Tyr, etc.). During his reign the governor of the western part of the Idel was the descendant of Ytlar, Alabuga Inesh (Inesh is one of the Bulgarian names of the river Dniestr).
Bardjil (21 BC - 5). A son of of Bershud.
Suvar (5-23 AD). A son of of Bardjil.
Kumuk (23-46 AD). A son of of Suvar.
Baryn (46-106 AD). A son of of Kumuk. He dreamed of a revenge to the Darbazan for the death of his ancestor Saumak. By a suggestion of his father-in law, Shan Bek, he besieged Kryashen (Khersoness) and left only after the Kryashenians turned over to him the sculpture of Tam, the Brshudian commander who captured his ancestor Saumak. Baryn beheaded the sculpture and threw it in a pit at the tomb of Saumak. In addition he attacked Darbazan and ravaged it.
Tash-Bash or Er-Tash Artan (7-150 AD). The son of Kubar. His reign was cruel and pillaging, which caused many to dislike him. He forbade the trade with Kashan (Central Asia: Khoresm, Sogdiana, Bactria, Uiguriya, Khurasan), and oppressed merchants in general. He died in 150 in a battle fight with Agardja, and this duel took place because his sister Boyar (Bulyar)-Kyz and many Bulgarian Tarkhans, dissatisfied with Tash-Bash reign, insisted on it . After the death of Er - Tash his son Shada Banant “left with a part of his people to the Caucasus.“Banant“ meant “commander of a thousand (ban) horsemen (ant or ünt)“.
Agardja (150-189 AD). The first Idel - Bulgarian Khan from the Honish clan Dulo. He was hired by Er-Tash to the service together with his Honish troops, and assigned a rank of the Saban-Tarkhan (commander of lightly armed, inexperienced soldiers, and also militiamen and mercenaries). He married the sister of Er-Tash Boyar-Kyz. In several places in the “Djagfar Tarihi“ his name was given, as “Aga-Ruja“.
Tukhchi-Barys (189-210). A son of of Agardja and Boyar-Kyz.
Barak (210-235). A son of of Barys.
Baryndjar (235-271). A son of of Barrack. The most glorified Idel-Bulgarian Khan of the 1st Honish (Hunnish) dynasty. Together with Katrags, who were serving Idel, defeated (in 251 AD) an army of the Urumian (Roman) emperor (Decii). This Emperor has fallen in this battle. After that the army of Baryndjar plundered the Urumian possessions on the Black sea, and took by storm Darbazan, in retaliation for the non-payment by the Rumians of the tribute to Idel.
Kermes (the end of the 3rd century AD). A son of of Baryndjar.
Kishet-Baradj (turn of the 3-4th centuries AD). A son of of Kermes.
Altysh (the beginning of 4th century AD). A son of of Kishet-Baradj. In his reign Idel already fell apart into six parts.
Takanysh (2-n a quarter of 4 century). A son of of Altysh.
Kama-Batyr Madjar (middle of the 4th century). A son of of Altysh. His son Karadan headed the western part of Idel.
Bulümar-Sheke, Shek-Alyp Budimir, Bashimir, Balamir, Balamber (363-378). He reunited again all Idel under his rule, becoming the first Khan of the 2nd Honish dynasty. Originally a Honish military leader from the Dulo clan, hired into the Bulgarian service by Kama-Batyr. The Bulgars sometimes called the Merv oasis or even all the modern Turkmenia “Bulümar“. He married a daughter of Kama-Batyr Turan-bika, who in the beginning did not like him too much because of his strongly pronounced Mongoloidness (the basic features of the Bulgarian Khans were Caucasoid, and the infrequently appearing Mongoloid features were very moderate). This Turan-bika has served as a prototype of the legendary heroine, Princess Turandot, and Bulümar entered into the legends of the Rusins' ancestors under a name “Budimir“. These military ranks were during his reign:
Saban - lightly armed soldier, militiaman, mercenary;
Buri (“wolf“) - elite trooper (later, the elite troopers began also to be called by the name “ulans“);
Baganin - middle officer, commanding about tens soldiers;
Shad Baganin (“Prince (i.e. Highest) Baganin“) - senior officer, commanding about a hundred and even a few hundreds soldiers (Baganins could wear helmets with bull horns);
Tarkhan - a major military leader, aristocrat, leading hundreds and thousands soldiers;
Saban Tarkhan - commander of lightly armed, inexperienced, and mercenary soldiers, militiamen;
Djuri Tarkhan - commander of skilled medium armed soldiers;
Buri Tarkhan - commander of heavily armed elite troops;
Bagyl (“large detachment “, “large company“) - the head of a district, province, a general commanding a large group of an army (from 100 to 1000);
Bakhadir, Kermek - honorary titles for heroism and bravery, meaning “bold“, “champ“, “hero“;
Ak - “left wing of a group or an army“;
Buri - “right wing of a group or an army“;
Urus Saban - the part of an army starting an attack (like the Bulgarian army turned facing to the south );
Kuren Tarkhan - the head of a palace housekeeping;
Kapagan - the head of the military department and, as a rule, of the government.
Bulümar transferred the capital of Idel from the Itil region to the Kara-Saklan (Ukraine), to the newly established Kan-Balyn (future Kyiv) stan, in which he ended his days. The Kyiv hill, where he was buried, received his nickname Scheke (“Schek“, “Schekovitsa“ in Ruthenian).
Alyp-biy or Alp-abay Arbat (378-402 AD). A senior son of Bulümar and Turan-bika, which gave him the pedigree for continuance of the Idelian dynasty of Idjibaks, and the 1st Honish Dulo dynasty, at the same time being also a successor in the 2nd Honish Dulo dynasty. He was born in 361AD. He ruled Idel for 24 years. In the Ruthenian's legends he is presented under the name “Svyatogor“ and “Solovey Budimirovich“ (akin to “Holly Mountain“ and “Nightingale of Budimirs' “ - Translator's Note) . In 378 he crushed the Byzantian emperor Valent in a battle near Adrianople (“Déré“ in Bulgarian), “near the Arbat mountains“ (Rhodopes), in memory of which he received a nickname “Khalib“ - “Winner“, and the Kan-Balyn was renamed into “Kan-Déré“. Later the Kan-Déré was renamed “Askal“ (“Eastern Fort“ - Translator's Note). Alyp-biy declared the steppes between Danube and Dniepr to be a “State Ulus“ (“Angyl“ or “Atalyk“) (literary, “the Fathers' “ - Translator's Note) and the “pasture for battle horses“. In memory of Alyp-biy, the fathers of the Danube-Bulgarian Khans Shamil (Samuil) and Azan (Asen I) carried the name “Khalib“.
Karaten or Karaton (402-414). A senior son of Alyp-biy. He was born in 380. He possessed a huge physical strength, repeatedly winning wrestling matches in the Kan-Déré, in the place of “Kresataké“ (in Bulgarian this name means “Place of Wrestling Glory“ and was preserved to us in the form “Kreschatik“) (“Kreschatic“ is the main historical street in Kyiv - Translator's Note). His brother Muenchak Aibat (Mundjuk, Monzuk, Bunchuk) was Urus-Tarkhan (i.e. “Great Tarkhan“ - the head of the government) during his reign. Muenchak is buried next to his grandfather on the Kyiv mountain Sheké (Shek-Alyp).
Urus-Ruja Burgas (414-434). A son of Alyp-biy and the Urus-Ruja (Rosomons) tribe Princess . He was named Burgas in memory of the place “Burgas“, which Alyp-biy reached during the 378 AD campaign. He ruled for 20 years. He died in the place of the future Danube city which received his name Urus-Burgas (modern Ruse). Diring the reign of the Danube-Bulgarian Khan Bardjil (Boril), many Danube Bulgars (especially Hudajyares-Bogomils) (Türkic “Huday (God) yar (adoring)“ translated into Ruthenian (Slavic) as “Bogo (God) mil (adoring) “ - Translator's Note) moved from this city to the Volga Bulgaria.
Bulut or Bleda (434-445). Senior son of Muenchak.
Tuki, Atillé, Aybat, Tukal, Tohol, Attila, Atila, Ettsel, Atilla (434-453). A son of of Muenchak, the most famous Bulgarian Khan and conqueror. He was born in the year of Horse, in 406, was co-ruler (in 434-445), and then the ruler of Idel. During his reign Idel became the largest empire in the history of mankind, from China to France. During the reign of his son Tingiz, Idel fell apart into Kara-Bershud (Danube-Ukrainian part of Idel), Ak-Bershud or Echke Idel - the “Inner Idel“ (Itil-Yaik part of Idel) and Eskel - the “Siberian part of Idel“ (the N.Caucasia was alternately recorded by the Bulgarian chronists to Kara-Bershud and to Ak-Bershud). The Bulgarian Beks from the clan Khin-Seber seized the Ak-Bershud and Eskel. The other Bulgars called the Khin-Seberian Bulgars Eskels, Khins, Burtases, Kashans, Bashkorts, Sebers.
Illak Aby-Dulo Birüli (453-454). Senior son of Atilla, ruler of Idel. Most of all he liked a horse gallop. His son Chalap-biy (Chally-biy) became a governor of the Ak-Bershud.
Tingiz (Tanysh) Hursa (454-469). The middle son of Atilla, a ruler of Idel. He refused to carry out the Kermek's demand to equate the rights of the old Hunno-Bulgarian aristocracy and the nobles of the Oguz-speaking Agachirs and Burtases (Sarmatians), and because of that he was overthrown by the supporters of Kermek. Kermek included Agachirs and Burtases into the domineering Bulgarian ethnos, and magnanimously left Galidj or Ulak (Romania) to Tingiz, but the small horde of Tingiz, without a help of the Kermek's Bulgars, had perished. Tingiz loved very much the arms-forging work, and many believed that after his death in battle he was transformed by Tangra into the Alp of arms-forging Hursa.
Kermek, Kernek or Bel-Kermek, Irnik, Hernah, Irna (463-489). The younger son of Atilla who carried on his branch of the Dulo dynasty. He was co-ruler of Idel and the ruler of Kara-Bershud. After the split of the Idel into segments (463), Kermek, keeping the highest title of Kagan or Kan (Emperor, Khan), declared Kara-Bershud a Bulgarian Bejlik (Princedom). He explained it in this way: “I declared my part of the Idel Empire a Bulgarian Bejlik so that our people, who lost unity and are gloomy, would not forget the name of the fathers and grandfathers, a great name of Bulgars“. In the legends he is frequently called Madjar, “Sacrificer“, because he did not start a fratricidal war with the Bulgars-Sebers to restore the unity of Idel, though he dreamed about restoration of the unity in the whole Empire. Kermek raised and brought up the son of Illak, Chalap-biy, and at the request of the Khin-Seberian Beks he let him to go to them.
Chalap (Chally)-biy or Baygu, Khin, Iber-Seber, Afrasiab, Audan (463-532). A son of Illak, he was the ruler of the eastern parts of Idel. He was born in 442 and lived for 90 years. He loved the falconry very much. The Seberian Beks in the beginning proclaimed him a ruler of Ak-Bershud, and then also of the Eskel (Siberia). After unification of these two eastern parts of the Idel, Chalap-biy began to call them Iber-Seber (this name in the Iranian sources changed into the form “Afrasiab“). Very soon Chalap-biy also subordinated Kashan (Central Asia) to the Iber-Seber. He fought successful wars with the Bardjilian (Iranian) Shakh Baradj (Peroz) and was married to the Baradj's sister Samar-bi. After Baradj died in a battle with the Seberian Bulgars (484), Chalap-biy installed Balus on the Bardjilian throne, and after the overthrow of Balus (Vlas, Balash) by the anti-Bulgarian leaning Bardjilian nobles, he installed the son of Baradj, Kurbat (Kubrat)-Kavad (488). Chalap-biy helped Kurbat to crush the Arjaks (Armenians) and Urums (Byzantines). From the 463 to the 520 Iber-Seber, where the Seberian Beks were in control, ruled the Kara-Bershud, but Chalap-biy did everything to make their submission not offensive and easy for his Kara-Bershudian relatives. In the 520es the power of Chalap-biy and the authority of Iber-Seber weakened because of the conflicts among the Seberian Beks. At the request of Samar-bi, Chalap-bi married Kurbat to his daughter Minli-bika. The brother of Chalap-biy, Kuryazbashi, who was his viceroy in the Khoresm, murdered the son of Kurbat and Minli-bika, Seberdjan, because in the Bardjil the other son of Kurbat, Husrau (Hosroj), executed Subash. Subash, a Bardjilian noble, together with Kurbat was a hostage in the Iber-Seber for some time, and has accepted Tengrianism (“Madjarianism“). Together with Kurbat, Subash tried to introduce Madjarianism in the Bardjil, but Husrau broke his plans. The Subash's movement received a name “Mazdakizm“. Chalap-biy was already at that time fatally sick and could not prevent the murder of Seberdjan. But at the request of the Chalap-biy one of his sons, Burdjan, saved the son of Seberdjan, Iber, who established the dynasty of the Horezmian Khans.
Ruja-Djurash Masgut (489-505). A son of Kermek from the daughter of the Masgutian
Bek Ruji, the reason for him being named Ruja. He was the governor of
Kara-Bershud, and ruled for 16
years. With the help of the Seberian Beks, he could expand the possession in the West
after successful wars with Byzantium. In 492, in the year of the monkey, he
occupied all western part of the Danube Bulgaria from the Danube to the Kuba-Dar
(Vardar, Macedonia), and in memory of that
he founded the city of Bichin - “Monkey“ (Vidin). For
his successes in the wars he has received a nickname Djurash-“Warrior, Spirit of War“.
He has become famous as a wise and fair ruler.
He knew his native, Oguzo-Bulgarian language, German, Latin, Greek,
Hungarian, Iranian languages and the “Kam Tele“
(the language of the Bulgarian shamans).
He had five famous sons: Bulyak-Bolgar, Kushtan (Birman), Aiyar, Moger, and
Bandja - Tatra.
Bandja-Tatra Banant or “Mundo“ (505-520). The son of Ruja-Djurash was the governor of the Bulgarian bejlik (Kara-Bershud) for 15 years. He always recognized Chalap-biy as the Supreme Bulgarian ruler and was very amicable with him. He has become famous for his bellicosity and extraordinary bravery in fight. In a decisive battle in the war against Byzantium his one thousand horse company (“banant“) attacked and overturned a 15-thousand Byzantium army, after which he also received a nickname “Banant“. The crushed Byzantium agreed to pay Kara-Bershud a huge tribute, and conceded to it most of the Balkan peninsula. After that, Tatra restored the unity of the Idel, taking under his rule the Ak-Bershud and Eskel. Under the name Tat-Yran, he was sang in the Bulgarian national epos “Shan Talgau“.
Bulyak-Bolgar Djilki or “Boloh“ (520-522). The senior son of Bandja- Tatra, he was a ruler of the Chally-Burdjanian (N.Caucasian) part of the Iber-Seber. He was born in the year of a horse (in 490), and received the name Djilki (“Horse“). In the beginning he was collecting tribute from the Byzantium and Bardjil (Persia) only for Chalap-biy, but later he began to collect an additional tribute for himself from the Bardjil (under insistance of the wife, Boyar-Kyz). Aspiring to get rid of this additional tribute, the Bardjilian Shakh Kurbat (Kavad) invited him to Persia to participate in a campaign against Ariyaks (Armenians) and for that he promised to transfer to Djilki area Dyau-Khondjak (Karabah). Djilki entrusted him, and was treacherously killed, together with most of his retinue, by the Kurbat's people. Before his death, Djilki bequeathed to his relatives to revenge the Bardjians (Persians) for their insidiousness. Two Djilki's cousins Shirak Hazar (with one thousand) and Kolyn (with 3 thousand soldiers) hired into the Persian service, and after a while were dismissed...
Kushtan or Birman, Elbir (Alvar), Ugez, Uger, “Gostun“, “Gordi“ (527-528). A son of Ruja-Djurash and bika (Princess) from the Bulgarian clan Ermi (Birman), and that is why he received the nickname “Birman“. He was the governor of the Bulgarian bejlik (Kara-Bershud), and for 2 years he ruled in the position of Ilchibek (regent) for the juvenile Khan, the younger son of Bandja-Tatra Boyan-Chelbir. He tried to spread Christianity, which displeased the Bulgarian nobles, who rallied around his brother Aiyar. He died during an attack of the Moger's people on his stan. The son of Kushtan, Saba-Yurgan (Su-Bürgan), in memory of his father, founded on the place of that quarters the city of Birman (the modern city Odessa in the Ukraine).
Moger or Mugel, Muageris (528). A son of Ruja-Djurash. In 528 he overthrew Kushtan, but ruled not for long, and soon he himself was overthrown by his brother Aiyar.
Aiyar or Avar (528-531). A son of Ruja-Djurash. In 528 he overthrew Moger and for three years ruled the Bulgarian bejlik. In accordance with the legend, he was damned, with all his posterity, by the wife of Kushtan (who believed that Aiyar was an accomplice to the murder of her husband), and this damnation hung over his family for a long time.
Boyarkyz (520-535). The wife of Bulyak-Bolgar, from the Bulgarian clan Seber. After the death of Djilki, she was a ruler of Chally-Burdjan (as an Ilchibika, a regentress, for her juvenile Khan son), and in the 535 she became the actual ruler of the Iber-Seber. She was allied with Byzantium. When in the 528 the Aiyar's sons Kolyn and Shirak-Khazar have crossed into her territory on the way to the aid of the Persians, she killed Kolyn, and captured Chirac and his son Dugar and turned them over to the Urum (Byzantium). Since the Byzantines were afraid of both Aiyar, and Saba-Yurgan, they were held captive in an honorable captivity, without constraining them in anything. Such captives were called “ak hum“, “white hostage (or slave)“. The sons of Bulyak-Bolgar from Boyarkyz, Barys and Mar (Mardukan) established a princely Echke dynasty of Idel.
Saba-Yurgan or Su-Bürgan, Zabergan, Katrag (531-563). A son of Kushtan-Birman. He was a governor of the Bulgarian bejlik, and ruled there for more than 30 years. He conducted frequent wars (especially with Byzantium), and was nicknamed Katrag, “Restless“. He founded the city of Birman, which he made his capital. To reunite both parts of Idel, in 563 he voluntary relinquish the rule in the Bulgarian bejlik to Kelbir-Askal Tubdjak (the son of Boyan-Chelbir, who was serving to Saba-Yurgan).
Boyan-Chelbir or Sandugach, Shan Talgau, Sindilh, Utrik (535-590).
A son of Bandja-Tatra. He was invited by Boyarkyz to serve in the Iber-Seber
(where he received Chally-Burdjan to govern), and soon after her death
he became the head of the Iber-Seber. He was famous for his peaceful disposition,
and that's why he received
the nickname “Utrik“ - “Quiet“. He lived 80 years. He
entered the Bulgarian history as the great poet, musician and music player . He
assembled the Ancient Bulgarian
myths and legends (including the songs of Kuban) in one legend “Shan Talgau“
(“Tale about Shan“), on the basis
of which Michael Bashtu created in the 882 the epic poem “Shan kyzy dastany“
(he gave the legend an Islamic
tint and partially changed its text and contents).
For this great feat (Bulgars valued poetic creativity above
everything other, since it was believed that Tangra speaks through the mouthes of
the poets) people
nicknamed Boyan-Chelbir and “Sandugach“
(“Nightingale“) and “Shan Talgau“ (“Sandilh“
in Greek). He was leading the people prayers to Tangra. In the 563 he became
the Khan of all Idel, but in the 565 he had to recognize his dependence from
the Türkic Kagante and began to pay it a tribute,
“a sable pelt from
each house“. At that time he carried out the census of the taxed
population. It was done in the Kashanian writing and with the help of the Kashans,
plenty of whom were always in the service and in the capitals of the Idelian Khans
(especially in the days of Alan, Agardja, Bulümar, etc.) .
The Idelian Bulgars viewed the Kashanian rulers as Bulgarian, and those did not deny it, and
they were relatives of the Idelian Khans. The Idelian rulers in many respects imitated
the Kashanian rulers. The influential and advanced Bulgarian bureaucracy of the
or “Horezmiyan“) descent has prevented, in the 4-8
centuries, an acceptance of Christianity by the Bulgars,
and of the Byzantian bureaucratic system. In the 9 century, in order to accept
Christianity, the Khan of the Danube Bulgars exterminated many members of the 30 Bulgarian
bureaucratic clans of the Kashanian origins. Thousands of the pursued Kashans
managed to flee to the Black Bulgaria, from where later a part of them, together
with Arbat, moved to the Avaria (Hungary), and there also
it was heading the bureaucratic
apparatus. The favorite encampment capital of Boyan-Chelbir on the river Kuban, “Sandugach“,
was destroyed in 640 by the Arabian invaders.
Askal Kelbir (“Alvar“) or Tubdjak (563-593). The son of Boyan-Chelbir. Being in the service of Echke-Idel where ruled his father, he governed Eskel and campained in Tubdjak (Kazakhstan), in an union with Avars against the armies of the Türkic Kagante. When the Türks have advanced to the borders of Echke Idel, his father, afraid for his life, sent him to the Bulgarian bejlik. Even earlier, Askal was visiting repeatedly Saba-Yurgan, as the envoy of Echke Idel, In the 559, Saba-Yurgan transferred to him, as a gift to Boyan-Chelbir, a part of the Byzantian booty, but Boyan-Chelbir returned the treasures to the Byzantines, since he needed a union with Byzantium to fight against the transient in their friendships Avars and Türks. In 565 he recognized his dependence from the Avarian Kagante and began to pay them a tribute (because of his unwillingness to recognize a heavier dependency from the Türks), at the same time receiving even bigger tribute from the Byzantium (which wanted that Tubdjak, with which the Byzantine was getting along, further continued to cover Byzantine's border from the Avars).
Alburi Aspar Askal (593-602). A senior son of Askal-Kelbir, whom some chronists confused with his father (remark by Kul Gali). In the 602 his capital stan Azi-Ulag was on the river Aspar in the area of the modern Romanian city Iasi (also Jassy/Yassi/Yash/Yassy/Yosser/Tirgu-Yasski/Pacurari/Socola - Translator's Note). In the same 602 the head of the Avaria Bulgars Yalchek or “Apsih“ (a son of Boyan-Chelbir, Atrak, was his father, who was also heading the Avaria's Bulgars), under an order of the Avarian Kagan (who desired to subordinate the Bulgarian bejlik), attacked the Alburi's stan. During this attack the blind Alburi Askal accidentally got under a horse and was killed.. The Avars did not succeed in installing obedient Yalchek at the head of the Bulgarian bejlik. When in the 630 in Avaria began a civil war, the son of Yalchek, Kabar, has took a part of his Bulgars to the Altynbash (Italy). The wife of Alvar, Akjan, was the mother of his two famous sons, Kurbat (“Kubrat“) and Shambat, she was from the Küngrat clan (her ancestors were the Kashanian rulers and the Türkic Kagan Idjim - “Istemi“).
Kurbat Küngrat or “Kubrat“, Kurt, Chorus (593-653) . The senior son of Alburi. At the time of his father's death he was still very young. Before his maturity, the Bulgarian bejlik was ruled in his name by the brother of the Alburi's wife, Yurgan (Bürgan) Teles. Yurgan had to re-create anew the Bulgarian bejlik, which broke up after the death of Alburi “into 60 divisions (tübs)“. When Kurbat matured, Yurgan voluntary transferred to him the authority over the recreated bejlik. The life of Yurgan has come into the Bulgarian history as an example of the selfless service to his own people, to the native land. In his memory and his sister, the Kurbat's mother, he named himself with the name of their clan Küngrat, which the Byzantines altered into “Kubrat“. After the death of Yurgan Teles, Kurbat retained in service the Yurgan's son, Bilig. In one of the battles Bilig, while saving Kurbat, died, and Kurbat adopted Bilig's two sons, Lachyn and Kyzyl-Kubar. Kurbat had his own three children: Atryach Katrag, Bat-Boyan and Atille-Asparuh. In the Kurbat's Khandom, the post of the head of the “Grand Council“ of the Great Bulyar-Sgelesa occupied the representatives of clan Küngrat...
The head of the government was called Kapagan or Karagan...
Teles was also a main judge (“idjik“ or “idik“)...
The most noble clan was considered Baryn, and all the nobles were related to it. It was also called “Bishermen“...
After it the most noble were three clans: Küngrat, Chirac or Shirin and Khin...
The Badjanaks were considered to be Khinians...
And all the population was divided into three classes: bagyls (aristocrats), baganins (medium) and chirmyshes or sabans (simple people, the lowest)...
[Here I stopped my work on the “List of Bulgarian Khans of all Dynasties“ and started to copy the text of the “Djagfar Tarihi“, since the “Nigmatullin's text“ has decayed strongly and it became difficult to work with it. In addition, my records preserved a small part of the news of Gazi-Baba about the genealogy of the Danube-Bulgarian Khans and fragments of the genealogy of the Bulgarian Khans, which I have made (while copying the text of the “Djagfar Tarihi“) based on the data of the collection, to write the comments].
2. LINEAGE OF BULGARIAN KHANS (FRAGMENTS)
Atille Asparuh or Atilkuse (Atilkeses), Madjar, Maday, Batyr, Batay. A son of of Kurbat Küngrat (“Kubrat“). He was born in the Year of a Horse, in 634, and received the name of his well-known ancestor Atilla. He tried to resemble Atilla in everything, and amazed all around him with his energy, ambition and resolve, for which he was nicknamed “Atilkuse“, i.e “Beardless Atilla“. In reply to the spread of this nickname, he began to call himself “Madjar“, i.e. “Sacrificer, Self-sacrificing“.
(Avar). A son of of Asparuh,
Teles. A son of Korymdjes. His wife was a daughter Dilyarek
Kermes. A son of Tarvil.
[Here my record breaks. Survived only this record from Gazi-Baba:
“Korym had one more famous son, Budim, who was born in the city Bichin or, in the Saklanian, Budim (now Vidin), and therefore was called by its name. He, under a decision of his father, came to the service of Kan-Karadjar...
A son of Budim was Djir Azan or Djir-As.
My master (Gazi-Baradj) forbade me mentioning the service of Budim and his descendants to the Khans of Kara-Bulgar and Ak-Bulgar (Itil Bulgaria) out of fear that the Tatars, on this basis, would demand a submission from the Ulag-Bulgar (Danube Bulgaria) ...
Barys was married to the daughter of the Khan Shamgun (Simeon)... and repeatedly visited the Ulag-Bulgar... “]
LINEAGE OF THE BILIG CLAN
Bilig. A son of Yurgan (Bürgan) Teles, grandson
Tarkhan. A son of Bir-Eget and his Byzantian wife. Kul Gali and Gazi-Baba remark that Tarkhan had two sons, Bandja (Mefody) and Kushtan (Constantine)-Baksan (or Cyril). Bandja and Baksan created a new alphabet to replace the Kashanian alphabet destroyed by the Greeks. In the beginning, the Byzantines tried to destroy it also, burning the books written with this new alphabet and pursuing the brothers. From the Greek threats the brothers were rescued by the Roman Pope and by the refusal of the Danube-Bulgarian Khan to use their alphabet. But the other Khan, Shamgun (Simeon), defeated the Byzantines, and sanctioned the use of the brothers' alphabet in the Danube Bulgaria. After that Chelbik or Salahbi (“Oleg the Seer“), who was serving to Almysh Djafar, introduced the alphabet of the brothers in the Rus, rationalizing it in the letter to Almysh: “Here (in Bashtu - Kyiv) after your departure (to the Itil Bulgaria in the 894-895) no jurists or a literate persons (for Arabic script) remained, but plenty of those able to write in the Bersulian (“Bersula“ is the Bulgarian name for the Dobrudja, and also of the northeastern part and of the capital [“Preslava“] of the Danube Bulgaria), and also Shamgun is our friend... “
According to the legend which recorded by Kul Gali in the Crimea, once
there came two Christian preachers, brothers Bandja and Baksan. They explained that the Balynian
(Byzantian) ruler learned about the desire
of Lachyn (the son of Kara Bulgaria Khan Aydar, an
uncle of Almysh Djafar) to accept Christianity, and he sent
them to baptize him. But just at that time in the Kara Bulgar
(Black Bulgaria) flashed a severe
war between the Bulgarian rulers Lachyn and Djilki (the senior son
of Aydar, father of Almysh Djafar) for the throne, and the brothers had to postpone
their trip to Bashtu (Kyiv). They went to the Khazar Kagan-Bek
in hope to convince him to accept Christianity. The Kagan-Bek Iljas received them
very well, as they were from the noble Bulgarian clan Bilig, and allowed them to
preach freely. “The sun of Khazar fortune at that time already began to
sink, and the Khazar tribes turned their faces away from the idols the of old
fallacy“. The Khazar Bulgars received the brothers as new divine saviors,
called them Barys' sons (they called so Alp Kubar), “Khalibs“
(messangers of victory), and heeded them with
a greatest faith, “but
suddenly the Balynians (i.e. the Byzantian emperor) withdrew them... “
Djalmat Ulushkan. A son of Bir-Eget and his Khazaro-Bulgarian
Khalib-Batyr. A son of Gabdulla Karamat.
Baradj or Gavril-Radomir, Roman. A son of Shamil. He became the Khan of the Danube Bulgaria after the death of his father. He visited the Volga Bulgaria multiple times, and was later killed because he was accused in sympathies to Islam. Because of that, the Itil-Bulgarian Khan Ibragim (1006-1025) stopped helping the Danube Bulgaria and withdrew his armies from it .
Djilan. A son of Baradj. He received his name in memory of being born in the
Year of Snake.
[Here my record breaks. I remember that the Bilig's dynasty especially made me interested, since khan Shamil-Samuil was my ancestor].
INFORMATION ON THE KABAN CLAN
Kaban was a soldier in the retinue of Lachyn. When Lachyn was invited to head
the Altynbashian Bulgars, he agreed out of despare (since
his love, a Saklanian Princess, chose to
marry his brother Kubar), and then...Kaban followed him.
But then he returned to Makidan. His descendant Yana-Kaban died serving in Ulag.
A son of Yana-Kaban Yran-Diu Sakchi distinguished himself by protection of the border,
and he squashed a rebellion of the Urum's friends,
and he passed his rule to Amurtag. During his reign he beat off an attack of
the Rum's King. His son Batyr also, as his grandfather, was a viceroy in the
Ulag. A son of Batyr, Danysh, was in big honor at the court. A son of Danysh, Bagyl,
was married to the sister of Shamil Bek. A son of Bagyl was Markar Makidan,
who made visits to the Ak Bulgar (details about that
are in the extracts about Margbashi)...
KARA-BULGARIAN KHANS OF THE BAT-BOYAN BRANCH
Bat-Boyan or Khalib Ilyatbir. Senior son of Kurbat Küngrat (“Kubrat“). He was born in 617. In 643 Bat-Boyan accepted Islam, made a hadj and visited Caliph Omar, whose name he took for himself. From now on the people began to call him Bat-Umar or Kamyr-Batyr (Umar, Kamyr are the forms of the name “Omar“). After the attack by the Arabs on Bulgaria in 654, he rejects the Islam. In the same year he defeats the army of the Arabian commander (Abdurrahman) near Sharkel (Sarkel) and receives a nickname “Khalib“ (“Winner“). In the 682 he accepted Christianity. In the 674 his uncle Shambat-Kyj took the reign away from him for 3 years (Shambat died in the 677). In the 683 Bat-Boyan died and was buried in Kyiv. Later his remains were transferred to the Kyivo-Pecher Lavra (a sub-terrain possibly pre-Christian monastery in Kyiv in the hill facing Dniester, “Pecher“ is “cave“ in Slavic, “Lavra“ could be akin to laurels, accolades - Translator's Note). Bat-Boyan was included in the Kyiv legends under the names “Budimir“ and “Iliya Muromets“.
Djurash Bat-Umar. A son of Bat-Boyan.
Tat-Ugek. A son of Aiyar (Avar). From his descendants are famous his son Tamiyan and the son of Tamiyan, Iliyas (he was the Kagan-Bek of Khazaria).
Tat-Utyak. A son of Aiyar (Avar). He was married to Kanbika, a daughter of Urus-Buga and Zuhra (the Danube-Bulgarian Princess).
Kan-Karadjar. A son of Tat-Utyak and Kanbika. He was married to Ariya-Uslan, the daughter of Azan-Tukta.
Urus Ugyr Aydar. A son of Kan-Karadjar and Ariya-Uslan.
Lachyn. A son of Ugyr Aydar. Khan of the Kara Bulgaria. The ancestor of the dynasty of the Rus rulers. In the Rus legends he is called “Rürik“, and his son Ugyr Lachyni is called “Igor Rürikovich“, and his branch of the Bulgarian rulers received the name “Rürikovich dynasty“ (Slavic for “Rürik's dynasty“ - Translator's Note).
Gabdulla Djilki. A son of Ugyr Aydar. Khan of Kara and Great Bulgarias. The ancestor of the branch of the Itil-Bulgarian khans which received a name “Saklanian“.
Almysh Djafar. A senior son of Gabdulla Djilki, Khan of
Kara and Itil Bulgaria.
Arbat (Arpad) Madjar. A senior son of Almysh Djafar. In union with Khazars and his cousin Ugyr Lachyni had hostile relations with his father and in the 895, together with his subject Bulgars and Ugors, left from Angyl to Avaria, and founded there a Hungarian state. The Arbat's descendants, “Arpadids“, ruled in the Hungary until the 14th century.
Turchi-Ilman or Birman. A senior son of Arbat.
Djakyn. A son of Arbat. He came to Bolgar with Bakir (Ahmed Ibn Fadlan)...
Cheldan. A son of Arbat. He came tp the Ak-Bulgar as an Hungarian envoy. His son Tukhchi served for some time for the Itil-Bulgarian khans. [Here my record breaks].
3. GAZI-BABA RECORDS ON GENEALOGY OF DANUBE-BULGARIAN KHANS
“... In the documents of my master (Gazi-Baradj Khan) I saw the list of the Ulag-Bulgarian (Danube-Bulgarian) khans brought by Arslan Terter, an ambassador of Azan... The whole archive of the Visirs, who were in charge of the relations with other countries, burned down..., together with the original of this list...
This kingdom (Danube Bulgaria) is a part of Idel and Ulug Bulgar, like the Urus (Rusia), Karel (Finland), Madjar (Hungary), Kypchak....
Most of its territory is occupied by the mountains Makidan or Kara-Burdjan, and therefore it is also called Burdjan or Kara-Burdjan...
The ambassadors who were coming from there were hidden from the people in the capital citadel... The Citadel (in the Bulyar) was called Djurdize or Mardjikan, which meant “Knight's Citadel“, though the word “dize“ also meant “royal quarters, camp“ in the folk's slang. Humorists and ignorant people were distorting the name of the citadel and called it sometimes “Mardukan“, sometimes “Tirsase“ and other similar epithets...
In a citadel was a large building Kolyne, a part of which Emir even during his lifetime was giving to the ambassadors of those countries in relations with which he was more interested... It is in this house that were hidden the Burdjanian (Danube-Bulgarian) ambassadors, so that the Burdjan's stories about the prosperous life in the Ulag-Bulgar would not excite in our people a desire to move there. But nevertheless that was happening, and not once...
The rulers of Burdjan did the same... Their present capital carries the name “Tornaba“ (“Crane Sanctuary“) (present Tyrnovo - Translator's Note) and is situated near an old pagan sanctuary, where sacrifices were made and prayers to the spirits of the heroic ancestors. Once late at night, in this place, the Byzantian army crept from an unprotected side into the Asparuh camp, but the cranes cried, and the Bulgars, alarmed by them, discovered and crushed the enemy...
According to the “Listing“, in the beginning reigned Asparuh... [all his names and nicknames are listed and explained]... Before that he possessed Ak Bulgar (Itil Bulgaria) and Echke Burdjan (Northern Caucasus)... To his brothers Lachyn and Kyzyl-Kubar he granted the western part of the Makidan (Balkan peninsula)... He died in the year 692 AD...
After him reigned his son Tarvil ... He died in the year 719 AD .
After him reigned his brother Aiyar, who was installed by Asparuh himself as a Tarvil's co-ruler to prevent clashes for the throne. Tarvil sent him with a group of soldiers to the aid of the Khazar Kagan Kuk-Kuyan, who was fighting with the Arabs. The daughter of Aiyar, Chakchak, was given to marry the Kara-Bulgarian Baltavar Sulabi, who also distinguished himself in the war with the Arabs. Aiyar (Avar) was a son of Sulabi and Chakchak ...
The Burdjanian Aiyar made Kermes, the son of Tarvil, who was named in honor of the Tangry's envoy Alp Kermes, his co-ruler . After one of the battles with the Arabs, Aiyar was struck with a paralysis, and instead of him reigned the loyal to him Kermes. He liked Aiyar so much that he dropped by his tent at the moment of his death. When he stepped out with a message about the death of Aiyar, bürgans declared that Ulyat (here: Alp-Bika Turan, somehow associated with plaque - Translator's Note) entered into his body and he cannot rule the country. Then the reign was passed to his son Suvar. That happened in the Year of the Hare in the year 727 AD... Suvar died in the Year of a Horse, in the year 742 AD, out of distress because Shada-Idik (chief judge) overthrew him... from the throne... in 740 AD... The bagyls and baganins... were told that Ulyat struck the whole Kermes' clan ...
After Bi-Hatyn's two-year regency... they elected Korymdjes a Khan, the son of Uranus (from the Ugil clan) and Aiyar's daughter . He reigned happily until... 755 AD, when the military luck left him and he... transferred the reign to Bunek, a son of his sister ... He passed away in.... 761 AD...
In the Year of the Tiger, in 762 AD, to the throne was raised a co-ruler of Bunek, the son of Korymdjes and his wife from the Ugyr-Teles clan... Teles, who was an ally of the Khazar Kagan...
A descendant of Idjik, Shady-Sain... took the reign away from the Ugil clan... In the.. 764 AD, in a battle, his people accidentally killed Teles, but soon Sain was himself overthrown in the... 765 AD by the Teles' father-in law, by the name Ümart. The old Ümart, however, soon passed away, and Azan Tukta, the son of Kermek and a daughter of the Aiyarian (Avarian) Kagan Ulaga from the Magunti clan (here the Russian text can be understood as “Kagan Ulag“ or “Kagan's daughter Ulaga“, and then respectively “Kagan of the clan Magunti“ or “daughter of the clan Magunti“ - Translator's Note), was raised to the throne. His enemies, however, gossiped that the real father of Azan was one Aiyarian Bek, and that Kermek adopted him after a marriage. The spread of this gossip was helped by the fact that for the most of his carrier Azan was in the service of the Aiyarian Kagans... Azan was very weak in the childhood, and Kam-Boyan gave him a conjured name... Azan was the father of Korym and the grandfather of Amurtag, and all Ulag-Bulgarian (Danube-Bulgarian) khans with the names “Azan“ are his descendants....
The wife of Azan was a Bika from the Bulgarian clan Urus-Alan. Their daughter Ariya-Uslan was given in marriage to Kan-Karadjar and... brought into the world Ugyr-Ajdar or Urus-Ajdar...
The son of Bunek, Boyan, succeeded to expel Sain... After the death of Boyan the reign passed to the son of Teles Dilyarek...
After Diljarek reigned a grandson of Suvar, the son of Kermek Karadjam or Karadjar, the brother of Azan Tukta ... The mother of the middle son of Amurtag, Djan-Arbat, was a Madjarian Bika... [Here my record breaks]
VOL. 3, PAGES 167, 168
RULING YEARS OF ITIL BULGARIA KHANS
Gabdulla Djilka, son of Urus-Ajdar (865-882 AD)
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali Biography
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"