Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
|Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Chapters 1-5 · Chapters 6-10 · Chapters 11-15 · Chapters 16-20 · Chapters 21-25 and Ghazi-Baradj · Appendix|
|Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3|
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In the statement of the author and publisher Fargat Gabdul-Khamitovich Nurutdinov, he wrote the annalistic contents of the Volume 3 as a conspectus. Per F.Nurutdinov, the conspectus renders the annalistic information in the “Djagfar Tarihi“ of the snatched original translation of collection. While studying in the IYALI KFAN USSR (Language and Literature Institute of the Kazan Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences) graduate school, F.Nurutdinov reportedly tried to initiate publication of the translation of the annals, but that led to an opposite result, in 1982 all Nigmatullin original notebooks with the text of the translation were snatched from the summer cabin of his father. F.Nurutdinov retained only a portion of “Djagfar's“ translation that was located at his Kazan home, apparently none of then were Nigmatullin's original notebooks. However, F.Nurutdinov's notes in the text indicate that some portions are of the original Nigmatullin translation.
Page numbers, where shown, indicate pages in the book publication. The offered copy of the printed edition contains typos and misspellings, for which I apologize and intend to correct them with time. Until then, the posting is representative of the general scope and the detail of the annals.
The “mouse over“ explanations basically follow the definitions found in the Annals and represent the views of its writers, which may be different from the known or accepted conditions of the present time. They are the best guess and some of them may be incorrect because of incorrect interpretation of the text by the translator. The translator of the Annals to Russian left a multitude of the Türkisms in his translation, and they are preserved in the English translation, with the “mouse over“ explanations where available. The dates in the chapter headings are added during translation and are imprecise indicators of the period covered.
1. Kul-Ashraf letter to Turkish sultan Suleiman Kanuni (1552).
Recently I was present at a meeting of a known archeologist F.Sh.Khuzin with the public of the Kazan, where the scientist told the audience about a sensational find made during excavations in the Kazan Kremlin: a finding of a Czech coin of the 10th century. By a number of signs, pointed F.Sh.Khuzin, it can be attributed to time of the Czech king St. Vaclav (924-935 or 936). Unfortunately, noted the scientist, the Tatar historian experts cannot explain yet, when and how such a rare, even in Czechia, coin slipped into the territory of the Kazan.
However, some historical facts, shedding a ray of light over the veil of this enigma, were preserved. And not any less, but in the records of the Bulgarian chronicler of the 13th century Gazi-Baba, which reached us within the collection of the Bahshi Iman's Bulgarian annals “Djagfar Tarihi“ of the 1680 period (one part of that collection was published, and another part is waiting for its publisher) (since the time of that writing, all three parts were published- Translator's Note).
Gazi-Baba writes (I give the necessary explanations in brackets):
“Bulymer (Kyiv prince Vladimir I)
(980-1015- Translator's Note) , trying to
soften the bad impression inflicted on Timar (Bulgarian Kan)
(981-1004- Translator's Note) by his breaching
of promises, the Bashtu (Kyiv) Bek allowed a passage to the Bulgar city of
a large Ulag-Bulgarian (Danube-Bulgarian)
embassy of the Biy (Lord) Markar Makidan (Macedonian). This Biy Markar was a son
of the Biy Bagyl and sister of the Burdjanian (Danube-Bulgarian) Bek
Shamil (Samuil) (aka Simeon I, 893-927- Translator's
Markar-Biy set out to the Bulgar together with a bride of the Emir Ibragim (Bulgarian prince, a brother of Timar), a daughter of the Burdjanian Bek(Danube-Bulgarian prince) Shamil (Samuil) Djan-Bika (djan is “soul“ in Türkic - Translator's Note)... On the way, in the city Azi-Ulag (Yasses), to the embassy joined Madjarian Biy Sain, a son of Biy Khasan. This Biy Khasan, together with two other Biys Balak and Bakhta, and also with a merchant Sain, left in the 970 from the Bulgar (Bulgaria) to the Madjar (Hungary), where they met a hearty welcome. The matter was that Balak and Bahta were the sons of Djakyn (a son of the founder of the Hungarian state Arbat-Arpad (896-c. 900- Translator's Note), and a grandson of the Bulgarian Kan Almysh Djafar (895-925- Translator's Note)), who was remembered in the Madjar as a saint... Khasan was married to the daughter of merchant Sain... and named his son after him... Sain wanted to visit the motherland of his father, and he, with a sanction of the Madjarian Kanar (ruler), with a light heart set out to the Bulgar...
Markar-Biy was an unusually majestic man, and bore with a great dignity, as
is proper for a descendant of Teles Bürgan (the uncle of the Bulgarian Kan
of the 7th century Kurbat “Kubrat“). On his way
he overcame many obstacles and dangers, and consequently the ours... nicknamed
him Barys, which meant “Brave“. He... relayed a request from the Bek Shamil for assistance
to the Ulag-Bulgar (Danube Bulgaria) in a war
against Rum (Constantinople). And that city,
fortified by several lines of stone walls, stood as enchanted... Our
Kam-Boyans (shamans) called it “Istanbul“...
The Mumin (a honorable title of Timar and other Bulgarian Kans, meaning “leader“) asked to respond to the Bek Shamil that he would render a necessary help, and even presented the ambassador four Badjanak Biys, whom he already gave an order to set out on a campaign against the Urumians (Byzantines)...
The Mumin (i.e. Timar) was not any less merciful to Sain-Biy, and after he... accepted the true belief, presented him a plot of land near Arsu (modern river Kazanka)... At the request of Mumin, the Ulugbek (governor) Margbashi, also called Mar, took the ambassador Markar and Sain-Biy to the estate of the Khasan's son ... And it was done because at that time in that tuba (district) were riots and fights between the subashes (state peasants- Translator's Note), who fled from Kashan (Kashan-Ulag = Moldova, or Kashan = Kashgaria, or ?- Translator's Note), and the Areans (Finno-Ugrian ancestors of Udmurts- Translator's Note)... In the archive was preserved a petition of the descendants of the one of the Margbashi troopers, who were pretending for a disputable land parcel near the r. Arsu... That petition said that their ancestor Hakim died together with Markar, protecting his caravan, and was buried next to him on that very site... Undoubtedly, they confused Markar-Biy with another person, and probably with Margbashi, because the ambassador Markar safely returned to the Ulag-Bulgar..., and the tomb of Margbashi is really located on that site.. .. Maybe that mix-up happened because the Areans thought that Markar was a sorcerer, and were saying this about him: he died in battle with the Baradj (dragon) when he wanted to destroy a sanctuary... The Sardars (commanders) of the first army, sent to the help of the Bek Shamil, were met at Bashtu (Kyiv) by Bulymer himself... With various promises this Uluby (Kyiv Prince) persuaded Sardars to accept the... Christian belief and to switch to his service... Bulymer was then an ally of the Rum, and he sent thenewly hired Badjinaks against the Bek Shamil. It is rumored that this treacherous act of Bulymer so offended... Timar, that in anger he started a war against Bashtu... “
We do not have serious reasons not to trust the story of Gazi-Baba. The Bulgarian chronicler does not point where was the demesne of Biy Sain, but from the other sources we know that he settled down in the territory of the Kazan. So, Ivan Glazatyi, the author of the well-known Russian annalistic story “Kazan History“ (1565) wrote directly, citing the Bulgarian Chronicles, that before the construction in the 12th century of the Kazan city, its territory was called “Sain's Yurt“, i.e. the “possession (yurt) of Sain“ (“Kazan history“. M.-L., 1954, p. 48).
There are also no reasons to doubt that Margbashi was buried in the demesne of Sain. How he died, either killed by the insurgents or by a natural death (he really was already very old at the time) is another question. So, Margbashi died, and undoubtedly was buried by his co-travelers, Markar and Sain. It seems to me that the archeologists excavated precisely the place of the Margbashi tomb: the Czech coin testifies to it.
Placing the coins in the grave was one of the most ancient pre-Islamic customs of the Bulgars, which also lasted for some time after the spread of Muslimism. But it seems that the Bulgars adopted this custom from their Finno-Ugrian ancestors. A Kazanian archeologist E.P.Kazakov noted that in the Finno-Ugrian burials of the Mari Itil region were found coins minted in the Bulgarian cities in the second half of the 10th century (E.P.Kazakov. Culture of the early Volga Bulgaria. Ì., 1992, a p. 233).
But who could put a Czech coin in the Ulugbek tomb? Most likely, it
Not only that he was a son of the Bulgarian Biy, he also came from
Hungary, a country of the Arpad Bulgars and Finno-Ugrians, neghboring Czechia. At the end of
the 9th - middle of the 10th century attacks of the Hungarian
Bulgars and Ugrs overwhelmed the whole Europe. The Hungarian calvary was cutting through
and plundering the whole territory of Czechia. Then, obviously, our Czech coin
fell as a booty into the hands of the Hungarians. Together with Sain it
came to the territory of Itil Bulgaria, and then was placed by him into the tomb of
the Ulugbek Margbashi. Earlier, the Kremlin hill was called Bogyl-Tau
(Bogyl-Tau = “Heap Mountain“, or “Prince, Grandee, Royal
Mountain“- Translator's Note).
This word was interpreted in the 15th-16th centuries, as a “Heap-mountain“. However,
the word “bogyl“ most likely is a local or distorted form of the ancient
Bulgarian word “bail“-“bagyl“-“grandee, prince“. This name
could quite get stuck to the hill because it was visited by the ambassador of the Danube Bulgaria Markar, the son of Biy Bagyl (Bail)
(It should be noted that the letter “ĝ“
in various Türkic languages varies from silent to pronounced to
disappearing to aspirated, and Bagyl-Bail would be absolutely synonymic for the
listener who makes a subliminal correction for the accent of the speaker. For
example, the Shegor = Cow of the Bulgarian Khan's Nominalia is rendered by these
contemporary spellings: sıgır syjyr sygyr syer syyr- Translator's
By the way, a comparison of the Gazi-Baba records with the data of the Rus annals allows to conclude that Markar Makidan (Macedonian) is nothing else as a well-known Danube-Bulgarian philosopher Mark Makedonian. The Nikonov Chronicle, which preserved many of unique entries about the Itil Bulgaria, informs that in the 990 the Kyiv Prince Vladimir I sent to the Itil Bulgaria a philosopher Mark Makedonian with missionary purposes (PSRL, vol.9, Ì., 1965, p. 58-59). About this same embassy wrote the known historians of the 18th-20th centuries: V.N.Tatishchev (“Russian History since the most ancient times“), N.M.Karamzin (“History of the Russian state“), M.D.Poluboyarinova (“Rus and Itil Bulgaria in the 10th-15th centuries“ Ì., 1993), etc.
In the same 990, as notes the chronicler, Mark Makedonian returned to Kyiv. Thus, if to believe the date of the Rus chronicler, the Czech coin got in the Bagyl (Bail)-òàó (i.e. “Kremlin hill“) in the year 990.
To the above I shall only add that a book of Mark Makedonian “Tale About
Scripts“ reached us (see Bojidar Dimitrov. Áúëãàðè-òå öèâèëèçàòîðû íà ñëàâÿíñêèÿ ñâÿò“, Sofia, 1993) which he signed
with his literary
pseudonym: “Black-robe Brave“ (“Cherorizets Khrabr“-
The Mongolo-Tatar conquerors of the 13th-14th centuries were careful to hide their history from the people. The spiritual descendants of the Mongolo-Tatars, the service Tatars of the 16th-20th centuries continued and continue to assiduously hide till now the history from the people, but only now not their, but the Bulgarian history, substituting falsifications for the historical truth. Everybody remembers a scandalous, purely serving Tatar-type only, ban by the RT authorities of the Bulgarian school history textbook, “Motherland Science“, in the 1995 (that school textbook was compiled by the author of this article, Mr. Fargat Nurutdinov - Translator's Note).
That's why the biography of the great Bulgarian poet Mohammedyar Bu-Yurgan is not widely known. Taking advantage of it, the service-Tatar falsifiers invented in the 1997 an imaginary anniversary, the 500-year anniversary of Mohammedyar. However, we did not begin to voice right away expositing the forgery, in order not to disrupt the publication of some poetic works of the Bulgarian poet (the publication was closely linked with the false anniversary). Now, when the collection of the poetic works of Mohammedyar was published (unfortunately, with a vile article of a certain Tatarologist M.Usmanov), time has come to remove a pile of the service-Tatar lies about Mohammedyar.
The real, instead of the invented by the Tatarists, Mohammedyar was born in
the 1502. His
father was an outstanding Bulgarian aristocrat and Khan Mohammed-Amin, who served
the rulers of the Itil-Bulgarian Khanlyk (i.e. to the Seids-Emirs of the Ashrafid dynasty ) as the Ulugbek (Governor)
of the Kazan Il (il is province, land) of
the Itil Bulgaria, and his mother was
Sauliya-Bika, a sister of Seid-Emir Sain-Yusuf.
Sauliya-Bika first was given in marriage to another Kazan governor, Ilham (a brother
of Mohammed-Amin), but together with
him she got captured by the Russians and was a Russian galley-slave. The noble Mohammed-Amin
bailed the unfortunate from the awful Russian prison and married her. Having
grown sincerely fond of her new husband,
Sauliya wrestled from her ruling brother Sain-Yusuf a consent for appointment of Mohammed-Amin
to the post of the Kazan governor. On her maternal line Sauliya-Bika was a
relative of a famous Shakh Zakireddin
Mohammed, a descendant of the Tamerlan himself, better known under a name of Babur. It is interesting that Babur also become famous for
his literary talent. May be it is the Uzbek blood of the Babur and Mohammedyar mothers
that made them the poets? Or the Turkmen blood of the famous
ancestor of Mohammed-Amin, Khan Tokhtamysh of the Turkmen and Deshti-Kypchak (in fact,
the Turkmens are not any less song people, than the Uzbeks!).
But it is not worth it to guess and delay indefinitely our story, in fact the Bulgars from the begining were the children of the seven tribes of Itil-Ural(Bulgars called Itil-Ural either Turan, or Imen, which means “Divine Land“), and then thousands and thousands representatives of dosens of other peoples of the Great Bulgaria-Turan joined the Bulgarian ethnos. Is not it better to agree with our medieval ancestors who thought that the poetic talent is given by the Creator...
Ulugbek Mohammed-Amin was happy when in the 1502, in the Kazan, Sauliya-Bika gave birth to his son Mohammedyar. As an Ashrafid by the maternal line, Mohammedyar could rise to the Bulgarian throne, and as a Chingizid (Tahtamysh belonged to the Khan dynasty of the Chingizhan) to the Khan-rate post of the Kazan Ulugbek. It made him a dangerous contender of many other pretenders for the Bulgarian throne and the post of the Kazan governor, and therefore they tried to get rid of him as soon as possible. Sain-Yusuf ordered Mohammed-Amin to even hide the fact of the birth of his son. Under a name “Sheikh-Gali“, Mohammedyar was given for care to the house of Musa ibn Mohammed, where he grew up. Officially, Musa was considered the father of Mohammedyar. Musa gave his own son Ibragim, and also the adopted son Mohammedyar a brilliant education. The tales of Musa about the heroes of the Bulgarian history made an enormous impression upon the young Mohammedyar, and he even began to be called by the name of the outstanding figure in the Bulgarian history, that of Bu-Yurgan (Bürgan, Yurgan). Why did Mohammedyar chose the name of Bu-Yurgan(sometimes it was written in the form “Abu-Yurgan“)? Bu-Yurgan succeeded in uniting in the 7th century of the Bulgarian princedom, which broke onto 60 fragments, and passed it under the power of his nephew, Kagan Kurbat Küngrat (“Kubrat“). And Mohammedyar was dreaming to unite the contemporary to him Itil Bulgaria, which actually broke up onto two hostile sections: Echke-Kazan (where ruled the descendants of Burash Ashrafid, the senior brother of Sain-Yusuf) and Korym-Challynian (where ruled Sain-Yusuf Ashrafid and his son Yadkar Kul-Ashraf ). The Kazanian Il in this fight was intermittently falling under the authority of the Echke-Kazanian, or under the authority of the Korym-Challynian Ashrafids (the centers of these parts were the cities Echke-Kazan and Korym-Chally, whish were considered, alongside with the Kazan, to be the capitals of the Bulgaria).
Mohammedyar very seldomly saw his own father and mother, since Sain-Yusuf was forbidding frequent meetings. This tragedy forced Mohammedyar to suffer all his life, but it made the future poet to be compassionate to other's pain and people's calamities. He loved very much his father and mother, but also was very much attached to the Musa family, which did everything that the orphan of the alive parents did not feel a stranger in his house.
In the September of the 1510 the mother of Mohammed-Amin and
the grandmother of Mohammedyar, Malika-Khatyn (Quinn) Nur-Saltan, who was a wife
(in a second marriage) of the the Crimean Khan Mengli-Garay, arrived to Kazan. Together with
the main capital of Bulgaria came the son of Mengli-Garay and his
first wife, Sahib-Garay. Sauliya-Bika, afraid that the enemies would kill her
boy, managed to elicit from Sain-Yusuf a sanction for Mohammedyar's departure to
the Crimea, together with Nur-Saltan.
In June of the 1511 Nur-Saltan, Sahib-Garay, the aged Bulgarian ambassador to the Crimea Akchura Ayaz (with this Akchura started the Bulgarian clan of Akchurins, and his senior brother Yaush started the Bulgarian clan of Yaushevs, from which came a well-known Bulgarian writer of the 20th century Ayaz-Gayaz Ishaki), the tebir (secretary) of the Bulgarian embassy in the Crimea Baybek Azan, the Crimean ambassador in Bulgaria Mohammed Chelebi, and Mohammedyar departed to the capital of the Crimean Khanaate Bagchasaray through the Moskovia. They stayed for a while in the Moscow with the favorite son of Nur-Saltan, the younger brother of Mohammed-Amin Gabdul-Latyf, Mohammedyar's uncle. From the Moscow to the Crimea Nur-Saltan, Mohammedyar and the others went already by the sled road. To the southern Russian border the Bulgarian caravan was accompanied by a Russian detachment consisting by a half of the Kasimov Bulgars, and further, toward the first Crimean patrols, by the ataman (something akin to “main father“, from “ata“ = “father“ - Translator's Note) Bylgak's (“troublesome, restless“ - Translator's Note) cossacks (freelance community enlisted into a military service - Translator's Note), who also were perfectly fluent in the Bulgarian language (Bylgak was a descendant of Uzi-Kalga, a son of the Crimean Khan Aza-Garay and a concubine from the Ukrainian princely clan of Danila, and Bogdan Khmelnitskiy was a descendant of Bylgak). And the Bagchasaray was an ancient Bulgarian city that in the beginning was called Bagcha-Bulgar (“bagcha/bakhcha“ is a melon or watermelon plantation - Translator's Note), so Mohammedyar did not feel any isolation from his native land neither on the road, nor in the Crimea.
Mohammedyar lived for four years in the capital of the Crimean Khanaate,
which covered the whole south of the Ukraine, probably, these were the most serene and happy
his life. By a concord with Sain-Yusuf, Nur-Saltan could not hold Mohammedyar
close to herself in order not to jeopardize his secret, and consequently the future
poet was accepted into the Mohammed Chelebi's family.
Mohammed-aga was one of the most brilliant aristocrats of the Türkic world, and
he turned his house into a real palace of poets. There were
visiting the best Crimean, Turkish, Caucasian, Persian and Bulgarian poets, writers
and musicians (from the Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia and other Bulgarian provinces). The
Bulgarian Siberian writer and poet Takhtagul wrote: “ When I saw the
Mohammed-aga palace, with its ground floor decorated by blue stripes, and the
second floor surrounded by a gallery with amazing gilt carvings, I thought: this
is an entrance to paradise. And when I came to the beautiful blossoming garden of
that house, where the nightingales [poets, writers and musicians - F.N.] were
singing their Arabian, Persian and Türkic songs, I was convinced that that is
There, in that “garden of poets“, Mohammedyar for the first time felt
an aspiration for poetry. The first lessons of poetry the boy received from Baybek,
who was a talented poet. Baybek always looked carefree and cheerful, but
actually he was very sensitive and observant. He noticed that Mohammedyar ached
from the separation with his parents and uncle Gabdul-Latyf (with whom Bu-Yurgan became friends during
his stay in Moskovia). Therefore the kind Baybek dedicated to Mohammedyar these
When the Tears of the grief fill
The son of Mohammed-aga, Arslan, also a future ambassador of the Crimea to the Bulgaria, became the best boy friend of Mohammedyar. Arslan studied in the Bagchasaray medrese “Shahiniya“, and Mohammedyar was visiting that medrese, partly to keep Arslan a company, and partly because a renown history expert Sheikh Kasim, a pupil of the well-known Bulgarian historian Sheikh Mohammed-Amin (the Mohammedyar's father was named Mohammed-Amin in honor of him) was teaching there...
A few happy years, spent by Bu-Yurgan in the Crimea, flew by very quickly. In the 1515 Mohammedyar unexpectedly received an order of the Seid-Emir Sain-Yusuf to return to the Bulgaria immediately. To get the boy, Emir Shakh-Husain, a brother of Seid-Emir Sain-Yusuf, came to the Crimea. Shakh-Husain had a strong influence on Sain-Yusuf, he squeezed from him a post of the Kazanian Seid, and was the ruler of Kazan. Shakh-Husain treated Mohammedyar so severely that subsequently Bu-Yurgan in his “Kazan History“ never mentioned that person. Shakh-Husain wanted to chain Mohammedyar in shackles, as a criminal, and only a firm refusal of the old Akchura to execute his order forced Emir to rescind. But for that Akchura paid with his diplomatic career.
In the Kazan Shakh-Husain acted bolder, and immediately incarcerated Mohammedyar in
a zindan (jail - Translator's Note) in the Seid Court, accusing him in
writing verses ridiculing the Seid-Emir. Only the intervention of Sauliya-Bika
saved Mohammedyar from execution. But mother could not save her son from
an isolation from his parents. Under an order of Seid-Emir Sain-Yusuf, Mohammedyar
was exiled for life to the Persia, under a pretense of appointing him a Bulgarian ambassador
to the Persia. Outraged by it, Mohammedyar took a vow of chastity. He never saw
his parents and the uncle again. In the 1517 the Moscovan Prince
(i.e. Basil VI, or Vasily IIIrd in the Moscovite count,
1502-1533 - Translator's Note) poisoned Gabdul-Latyf at a feast, and in
the 1518 the Khan Mohammed-Amin
died from a heavy illness (perhaps artificially caused and aggravated
by the separation from his son). In the same 1518 year Sauliya-Bika was poisoned.
Bakhshi Iman noted, citing Ish-Mohammed's account, that all these deaths were
caused by Shakh-Husain and his mistress Gauharshad-Bika
(a sister of Mohammed-Amin). Shakh-Husain conceived to destroy all Bulgarian
pretenders for the post of the Kazanian Ulugbek, and install as the Kazan governor
an obedient person from a side, to undividedly control the richest Kazanian il of
By the demand of Shakh-Husain, the Moscow Prince Vasily III forced Gabdul-Latyf, who had figured this out, to drink a cup with poison, and even earlier one of the servants bribed by Shakh-Husain poisoned (but not to a death) the Khan Mohammed-Amin. And Gauharshad-Bika in cold blood participated in poisoning Sauliya-Bika. But Mohammedyar never learned about it, and retained good relations with his aunt Gauharshad-Bika, who was pretending to be his friend and was spying on him.
Shakh-Husain achieved the destruction of the hated by him family of the Kazan governor Mohammed-Amin, and in the 1519 installed as the Kazan governor an entirely dependent on him Kasimov's Khan Shakh-Gali (the Bulgarian Kasimov Khanaate was in alliance with the Moscow Princedom). In the 1521 Shakh-Husain died, and his protégé Shakh-Gali (who was forced to serve in the Kazan by the Moscow Prince, by the demand of Shakh-Husain) (and I hope this plot makes sense to you - Translator's Note) with left the Kazan a pleasure, because to serve the cruel Kazanian Seid “was unpleasant to him“...
In Persia, that magic “country of poets“, Mohammedyar stayed up to the end of the 1530. In his memoirs he wrote that a significant part of his time he had to play a boring role of the Bulgarian ambassador “Sheikh-Gali“, and in his spare time he was collecting ancient books with pleasure, and studied the Persian, Arabian and Türkic poetry, improving his own poetry writing. Annually, with the caravans of the Persian, Central Asian, Chinese, and Indian pilgrims performed hadj and visited various Arabian countries, and the states neighboring Persia. Gauharshad, who supervised the spying on Mohammedyar, very soon was satisfied that Bu-Yurgan does not aspire to occupy the Bulgarian throne or the post of the Kazan governor, and consequently did not limit the travels of “Sheikh-Gali“ in the East.
Once Mohammedyar chanced to visit his well-known relative, Shakh Zakireddin (Babur). “When I
visited Shakh Babur, recollected
Mohammedyar, I reminded him of our relationship. In response he embraced me and ordered to
call him uncle, at once dispelling the rumors about his usual harshness... He approved
of my verses, and one
gazelle (stanza - Translator's Note) about my wanderings
away from my native Kazan, which I wrote under
an influence of the sheikh Kamal, and the poetic letter of my father to his brother Gabdel-Latyf “A force of
kinship“ caused his tears... “.
Meanwhile in the Bulgaria, the Echke-Kazan Seids-Ashrafids kept struggling with the Korym-Challynian Seids-Emirs Ashrafids for a control of the Kazan and the whole Bulgaria. In the 1521 the son of Echke-Kazanian Seid Burash, the Seid Mansur, managed to seize the Kazan and install there Sahib-Garay as a governor. In the 1524 the Mansur's people kill Sain-Yusuf, and Yadkar Kul-Ashraf Artan, the son of Sain-Yusuf, became a new Seid-Emir of Bulgaria. Under a pressure of Kul-Ashraf, the Kazanian governor Safa-Garay (a nephew of the Crimean Khan Sahib-Garay), who was in the beginning going to serve Mansur, switched to the service of Kul-Ashraf. In the 1531 Gauharshad switched over to the side of the Seid Mansur son, Echke-Kazanian Seid Mamed, and helped him to overthrow Safa-Garay and take the power in the Kazan. Mamed installed as a new Kazan governor, following the advice of Gauharshad, the Kasimov's Khan Djan-Gali, a younger brother of Shakh-Gali. Shakh-Gali offered Mamed himself as a nominee for the post of the Kazanian governor, promising in case of him attaining that post he would bring the Kasimov's Khanaate into the Bulgaria. Mamed was pleased with the offer, and he began preparing a replacement of Djan-Gali with Shakh-Gali.
Gauharshad, who was preferring to see in the Kazan a dependent from her Djan-Gali, decided to destroy the unloved by her Shakh-Gali (he was, unlike his brother, too independent). Intercepting some letters of Shakh-Gali to Mamed, Gauharshad turned them to the Moscow government, and that, learning about the plot, threw the rebellious Kasimov's Khan into a prison. But in the 1535, when the army of Kul-Ashraf moved to the Kazan, Gauharshad betrayed Djan-Gali and, to save her life, switched over to the side of the Seid-Emir. The Kul-Ashraf's people hung Djan-Gali and occupied Kazan. Kul-Ashraf again installed Safa-Garay a Kazan governor in his service. Gauharshad tried to get Safa-Garay to her influence through Süünbika, but failed, because Süün-bika refused to deal with her. Gauharshad was afflicted after being exposed in her attempt to poison Süünbika, and died in the 1536.
Süünbika, who was saved miraculously from a death, decided to make a hadj, to thank the Almighty for his mercy. The realization of that pious intention led unexpectedly the hero of our story, the unfortunate exile Mohammedyar, into her life...
In the 1536 Mohammedyar, taking advantage Süünbika's inquiry about a
possibility of fulfillment the hadj through the territory of the Persia, send to
the Kazan his
poetic request for a permit to return to the “Shahri Bulgar“ (Bulgaria).
Conquered by the tender verses in her honor, Süünbika persuaded Safa-Garay
to obtain a permission from Kul-Ashraf. Seid-Emir began delaying the response to
the Safa-Garay's request “about a favor for Mohammedyar“. At this turning point
Bu-Yurgan was helped by his old friend-Sahib-Garay: he helped
to organize a trip of “Sheikh-Gali“ from the Persia to the Crimea through
(Azov), and Kul-Ashraf, frightened that the Turkish Sultan could
use Mohammedyar in his diplomatic games, immediately agreed to return
the exile to the Kazan. In the 1538-1539 Mohammedyar came to the Kazan from the Crimea with
a huge library, collected by him in Persia, of one thousand bundles of books, and
gave them to the Kazan Islamic University “Muhammad-Alamiya“. When the book
caravan arrived to the eight-minaret building of the University, from its doors
towards Mohammedyar stepped out a gray-haired old man with a noble appearance.
It was imam-hatyb (rector) of the University, in whom Bu-Yurgan recognized with pleasure
his favorite teacher of the history Sheikh Kasim...
Overflown with pleasure from being in the motherland, Mohammedyar created the well-known poetic works: “Tuhvai mardan“ - “Gift to Men“(1540) and “Nury sodur“ - “Light of Hearts“ (1542). The first composition Mohammedyar dedicated to Safa-Garay, and the second to his best friend and admirer Sahib-Garay. Mohammedyar wanted to also dedicate his brilliant historical work, the annals “Kazan History“ to Sahib-Garay, but did not have time to finish it... In the 1532-1551 Sahib-Garay occupied the throne of the Crimean Khanaate. In the 1551 the enemies slandered him before the Turkish Sultan, falsely accusing, among others, in the connection with the Turkey opponent, the Shakh of Persia. The enemies were proving the existence of this connection by the help Sahib-Garay could give to Mohammedyar for his move from the Persia to the Crimea. The Turkish Sultan believed that slander, and in the 1551 with his authorization Bulük-Garay (a son of Safa-Garay) strangled Sahib-Garay...
In the Kazan, Mohammedyar met Ibragim after a long break, and met his son Kuba-Kasim. Kuba-Kasim without hesitation presented to Mohammedyar his right to collect the tax from the igenchians (farmers) of one of the mountain auls (this aul received a name of the poet, Bürgan, which reached us in the form “Bürgany“).
Kul-Ashraf tried to undermine the autonomy of the Kazan Il by trying to
weaken in every possible way the positions of the controlling Kazan landed feudal aristocrats (ulans or kazanchis).
With the approval of Kul-Ashraf the governor Safa-Garay was distributing the Kazan
lands to the nomadic mercenary feudals of the
Kypchak hordes, called “Tatars“ in Bulgaria. Kul-Ashraf wanted to use these mercenaries in
his struggle against the ulans. But chartered feudals began oppressing their igenchis
worse than did the Bulgarian feudal ulans. Kuba-Kasim and
Mohammedyar, seeing that, began to oppose
the distribution of the Kazan lands to the “Tatars“, and with that
voiced against the policy of Kul-Ashraf and Safa-Garay. For some time Mohammedyar
became the allies of the enemy of Kul-Ashraf, Echke-Kazanian Seid Mamed Ashraf (a
nephew of Kul-Ashraf), who aspired to occupy the Bulgarian throne and declared
himself a supporter of the Kazan Il autonomy and landed feudals. In the 1546 the Echke-Kazan ulanian
militia, created by Mamed occupied Kazan for a short time time and expelled Kul-Ashraf's protege Khan Safa-Garay.
Mamed installed as a new Kazan Ulugbek the Khan-Kermanian (Kasimov's) Khan Shakh-Gali, and offered the post of the Kazan Bahshi (prime minister) to Kuba-Kasim. Kuba-Kasim accepted this offer, but only after Mamed carried out his request: he agreed to appoint Mohammedyar a Kazanian Seid. The Bulgarian patriotism and the fine knowledge of the Bulgarian culture by Shakh-Gali apealed to Mohammedyar and Kuba-Kasim, and between them started friendly relations. Shakh-Gali succeded in convincing Mohammedyar and Kuba-Kasim that, in the conditions when the Turkey cant give any help to Bulgaria, and the Moskovia does not threaten the Bulgarian statehood, for the Bulgaria or her western part, the Kazan Il, the most favorable is to be in a foreign policy union (aliance) with Moscow under the aegis of the Moscow ruler (i.e. John IV the Terrible, 1533-1574 d. 1584 - Translator's Note)... A similar aliance, not impacting the statehood and internal independence of Bulgaria, and obligating the Bulgarian Kans only to coordinate with their ally the foreign policy, the Bulgarian kingdom already concluded in the 1238-1278 with the Mongolikingdom, and in the 1278-1437 with the Deshti-Kypchak (i.e. Kypchak Khanaate - Translator's Note).
With the help of Shakh-Gali and Mohammedyar, Kuba-Kasim begun confiscating from the Kazan Kypchaks, “Tatars“, the illegally obtained state and ulanian tlands. In response the mercenaries revolted against Kazan provincial authorities, and began threatening the city of Kazan. In the head of the mercenaries stood a Bulgarian aristocrat Bibars Ryshtau, who wanted to show off before Kul-Ashraf. Shakh-Gali, Mohammedyar and Kuba-Kasim together abandoned Kazan and sailed down the Itil. On the way, in the Tetesh (Tetüshy) Mohammedyar and Kuba-Kasim disembarked and separated to go to their estates nearby, and Shakh-Gali sailed further south, and meets his saviors, the Kasimov border patrol near Saratau (Saratov)...
The Kazanian mercantile-artizan magistrate “Tümen“ (self-government institution of the Kazan townspeople), mindful of a slaughter, refused to let the “Tatars“ and Safa-Gara into the city a until Mohammedyar would return to the post of the Kazan Seid. Kul-Ashraf, who personally came to the Kazan from the Korym-Chally, reluctantly consented to that. Mohammedyar was summoned from the Bürgan to the Kazan, and he (these are the rules!) approves Safa-Garay as the Kazan governor (the Seids-Emirs, and sometimes also the Echke-Kazan Seids-Ashrafids, were appointing the regional Seids, and those then confirmed the feudals in the position of the governors for the provinces or khanaates; the Echke-Kazan Seids, who were the main guarantors of the Kazan Il autonomy, were appointed not by the Seids-Emirs, but elected, from the members of the Ashrafid clan, by the Bulgarian feudals). In his turn, Mohammedyar agreed to become the Kazanian Seid only after Kul-Ashraf and Safa-Garay promised to not revenge the Kazan townspeople and Kuba-Kasim.
Soon after taking the office, Safa-Garay, with Kul-Ashraf approval, executed
some Kazan aristocrats, the friends of Shakh-Gali, also including Baybek, the old friend
of Mohammedyar . Only the entreaty by the “Tümen“ forced Mohammedyar,
who was shocked
by the cruelty of Safa-Garay, to remain in the position of the Seid.
In the 1548 Safa-Garay mutinied against Kul-Ashraf, and Mohammedyar received an order of Seid-Emir to leave Kazan. However Mohammedyar again, under a request from “Tümen“ and Süünbeka, remains on his post...
When Mohammedyar met Süünbika for the first time, he fell in love
with her at a first sight. She was very beautiful and good with the people, not
accidentally the Bulgarian people gave her the name-Süümbika (“Loved
Lady“). Out of love to her, Bu-Yurgan tried to protect her power and authority
in the Kazan, even though he frequently and very sharply criticized
actions of Safa-Garay. The authority of Mohammedyar himself sharply grew after
a petition of sheikh Kasim he was elected the head of the Bulgarian Sufi
brotherhood “El-Hum“. That brotherhood owned the city of Bolgar, it was
democratic party. It tried to weaken the feudal oppression, demanded confiscation of
the lands and expulsion from the Bulgaria of the “Tatars“, planned a creation
in the Bulgarian state of a commonwealth kingdom (the word “hum“ in
the language of the Tengrian Kams-Shamans meant “good fortune“, “prosperity“).
The activity of the “El-Hum“ flowed in a riverbed of the Tengrian (pre-Islam Bulgarian national
religion) ideas about the necessity of preserving the original equality of all
the people, and
of the fair distribution of the vital (material) goods, confirmed by the Koran.
A sacred center of “El-Hum“ was a grove of the Muslim (Islamic) martyrs in
the Bolgar, which earlier was a place for the Tengrian prayers (karamat). In its
territory were the Tengrian tower “El-Hum“ (which the scholars called
“small pillar or a minaret“), and a sepulture of the Islamic martyrs (also
called “Royal Tomb“). As we see, the Bulgarian Sufi ideology preserved a number of
the democratic ideas of the Tengrianism, and consequently became the base
of the Bulgarian Islam which was appreciably different from the Islam of the other
countries of the world. Changing its names, the brotherhood “El-Hum“
survived until the 1923, when it was abolished by the bolsheviks and went to
underground position. The well-known heads of the “El-Hum“ at different stages of
history were Kul Gali, Mahmud Bulgari (14th century), Jabyk-Mohammed Ashrafid
(15th century), Bakhshi Iman, who was a descendant of Kuba-Kasim, mullah
Murad (18th century), Seid Djagfar (the beginning of the 19th century), Bagautdin, Sardar, Gazizan and Gayan
Vaisovs (Bagautdin was killed by the tsarist guards in the 1893, Sardar was killed
by the Tatar Black-Hundreds in the 1918, Gazizan the most part of his life spent in
the Stalin camps, Gayan
was killed by the operatives of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs in
Poland in the 1939)...
In the 1549 the agents of Kul-Ashraf poisoned Safa-Garay, and the army of Seid-Emir occupied Kazan. Kul-Ashraf appointed Kuba-Kasim a Kazan Bahshi, and Mohammedyar courageously went to the Korym-Chally to the Seid-Emir with a request for appointment as the new Kazan Ulugbek of the son of Safa-Garay and Süünbika, the two-years old Utyamysh-Garay.
Afraid for the life of his friend, Kuba-Kasim gave him a letter for Kul-Ashraf, in which he asked Seid-Emir to forgive Mohammedjar and to leave him in the rank of the Kazanian Seid “for the benefit of the situation“. At a personal meeting with Mohammedyar, Kul-Ashraf was struck by the courage of the poet, and decided to leave him in the rank of the Seid and allowed him to ratify Utyamysh-Garay as the new Kazan governor, and Süünbika as a regent for him. Undoubtedly, this decision of Seid-Emir was influenced by the opinion of Kuba-Kasim, the Kul-Ashraf's trust in whom was accelerating.
In February of the 1550 a huge Moscovite army besieged the Kazan. Officially it was led by the Moscow Tsar Ivan IV (future “the Terrible“), but actually he was not a sovereign ruler yet, and had to carry out the orders of the influential in Moscow Christian-extremist party headed by the Prince Vladimir Staritsky, a priest Silvestr and by the Kostroma landowners Adashevs. This party was called in Bulgaria “stinking burlaks (bandits)“. These “stinking burlaks“ wanted, in a union with the Christian Western Europe, to break the Islam all over the world, and, first of all, to destroy the Islamic Bulgaria and the Islamic Bulgarian people. During a fierce bombardment of the Kazan by the Moskovites died Mohammedyar's friends, the son of Safa-Garay Gazi-Garay and the Crimean ambassador Arslan Chelebi. At a turning point of the Moscovite storm, Mohammedyar and Süünbika came on the city wall with a green banner. Inspired by the appearance of their favorites, the citizens of Kazan beat off the Moscovite attack and on February 25 forced the Moscow army to retreat.
Counteracting the plans of the “stinking burlaks“, with the help of Shakh-Gali and Kuba-Kasim Mohammedyar wanted to strike a deal with the Ivan IV about an alliance of the Moscow and Kazan, since the Moscow Tsar was not a hater of Islam. Mohammedyar saw that Bulgaria was torn apart by the internal conflicts and was not capable to retain the Kazan Il, and wanted, by a conclusion of an alliance between Moscow and Kazan to preserve the Bulgarian statehood in the Kazan land. In the Eastern Bulgaria (with the center in the Korym-Chally) Mohammedyar was planning to maintain the independent Bulgarian statehood led by Kul-Ashraf.
The “stinking burlaks“ did not stop the war against Bulgaria, and by the summer of
the 1551 the army of Kul-Ashraf was completely defeated. Bulgaria lost the
north of the Mountain Side, where the Moscow army built a powerful
military base for the capture of the Kazan, a fortress Ivangorod(later it received
“Sviyajsk“). During that moment the Echke-Kazan Seid Mamed decided to
switch to the side of the “stinking burlaks“, who promised him, in
exchange for him surrendering of the Kazan Il to the Moscow, a post of the main mullah.
It was a false promise, since the “stinking burlaks“ wanted to totally slaughter all Muslim population, but Mamed, blinded by his hatred of Kul-Ashraf, believed the promises of the enemies of Islam. When the Echke-Kazan militia of Mamed advanced to the Kazan, the “Tatars“ of Bibarys also joined him, because they were unhappy with the Kul-Ashraf's transferring of the power in the Kazan to their enemies, Mohammedyar and Kuba-Kasim. And really, during the period of Süümbika regency Mohammedyar and Kuba-Kasim were absolute rulers in the Kazan, and at their prodding Süümbika carried out the democratic reforms for the benefit of the middle class of the townspeople and igenchies, and she also confiscated the lands from the “Tatars“. When the army of Mamed began surrounding Kazan, come an order of Kul-Ashraf for the Korym-Chally division, Kuba-Kasim, Mohammedyar, Süünbika, and Utyamysh-Garay to depart from the city. Süünbika refused to leave the city (that would be her political death), and Mohammedyar remained in the Kazan to protect her and her son. Following a direction of the “Tümen“, he concluded a deal with Mamed: Mamed promised to let out from the Kazan Korym-Challyans and Kuba-Kasim, and to leave Utyamysh-Garay in the rank of the governor, and Mohammedyar agreed to let into Kazan his ulans and a small part of the “Tatars“. But when Kuba-Kasim and the Korym-Challynian troops barely left to the Korym-Chally, Mamed arrested Süünbika and Utyamysh-Garay by the demand of the “Tatars“. Mohammedyar tried to prevent the arrest, and also was thrown in prison.
Immediately begun the very complex and separate from each other negotiations
of the Ivan IV, “stinking burlaks“, Mamed and Kul-Ashraf. Kul-Ashraf, with the advice
of Kuba-Kasim, understood that
only with the realization of the Mohammedyar's plan about an alliance of Moscow and Kazan
would save the
independence of the Eastern Bulgaria, and put forward this plan in the negotiations
with the representative of the Ivan IV, the Kasimov's Khan Shakh-Gali. Mamed, hoping to
strike a deal with the “stinking burlaks“, turned over to the Moscovites
her son, but then suddenly one of the “stinking burlaks“, the Prince Semen Mikulinsky,
switched over to the side of Ivan's IV and Shakh-Gali, which gave Ivan IV an
advantage over the “stinking burlaks“, and ensured the acceptance by
Moscow of the Mohammedyar's plan about an alliance of the Kazan with the Moscow
(as a “Kazan Kingdom“ under the control of the Muslim Khans). Ivan IV
was leaving independence for the Eastern Bulgaria. The first Khan of the“Kazan
Kingdom“, by the suggestion of Mohammedyar, Kuba-Kasim and Kul-Ashraf, was
elected Shakh-Gali. As soon as Shakh-Gali in the August of the 1551 drove to the Kazan,
he executed Mamed and the leaders of
the “Tatars“. But waiting till a certain time the head of the Russian
metropolitan Makary in the beginning of the 1552 joined the “stinking burlaks“,
which forced Ivan IV to again submit to the Christian-extremist
party and to accept their plan of anexation of the Kazan Kingdom directly
to the Moskovia as a regular Russian province with the subsequent annihilation of the Muslim
In the March of the 1552 Moscow had broken off the alliance with the Kazan Khanate and forced Shakh-Gali to leave to the Moskovia, after which the Moscow army together with some ulans and “Tatars“ advanced to the Kazan to occupy her. Realizing that the “stinking burlaks“ in any case would slaughter the Muslim population, Mohammedyar, as a Kazan Seid, called upon “Tümen“ to join the Eastern Bulgaria of Kul-Ashraf, and to repulse the treacherous enemy. “Tümen“ quickly called the militia who, under an order of Mohammedyar, closed the gates of the Kazan and called for the aid the army of Kul-Ashraf. The Moscow army, seeng the determination of the citizens of the Kazan to fight, retreated, and a division of Kul-Ashraf entered Kazan.
In May of the 1552 Mohammedyar went unarmed by a ship to the Bolgar city to pray the Almighty for the saving of the Bulgarian State, but near the city he fell into an ambush of a Moscovite division of Severga Baskakov, and was hacked down into pieces by the enemies. The Bulgarian army, thrown after a while to search for Mohammedyar, crushed the Moscovite division, and Severga Baskakov with 30 other soldiers was executed in Kazan for their crime. But that already could not return to life the great Bulgarian patriot and the poet.
In his life he experienced many oppressions, griefs and deprivations, but he did not become hateful and was always helping not only his people, but also the other peoples, including also the Russian people. Long before his death, Mohammedyar became, in the opinion of the Bulgars, a national hero. His remains, as say the legends, were buried in the Royal Ttomb in the Grove of Muslim martyrs in the Bolgar city, next to the tombs of Kul Gali, his descendant Khan Gabdulla, Emir Azan, Khan Tahtamysh, Khan Ulug-Mohammed...
It is thought, that in the 2002, when the Bulgars of all the world will mark the
500-anniversary of the Mohammedyar birthday, to his tomb would come many thousands
of the great Bulgarian poet and citizen.
Until recent times, the history of the mankind famous symbols, “trident“, “swastika“ and “six-point star“ was covered by a veil. What was officially said about these signs was a purest invention (the author is undermining his premises by not allowing for the existence of independent thought, implying that the only state of science is the extension of the government apparatus, i.e. the “official“ science - Translator's Note). That had to do not with the magic force of these signs, but with their national origin. The matter is that in the 20th century the “swastika“ was adopted by national socialists in Germany, and the “six-point star“ (under an invented recently name “David's Sheild“) by the state of Israel, a child of the bolshevik leaders of the USSR. The attempts to Germanize “swastika“ and Hebraize the “six-point star“ silenced all those who knew the real history of these symbols (presumably, “silenced all“ in Russia only - Translator's Note). Now this truth can be told: the “trident“, “swastika“ and “six-point star“ were born in the Itil-Ural area and were originally the Bulgarian symbols (“now“ must be after the disintegration of the USSR and “thawing“ of the global thought control - Translator's Note).
The Bulgar people (its name is also written “Bolgar“, “B'lgar“, “Balkar“, “Burgar“, etc.) emerged in the Itil-Ural area after merging of seven Aryan and Uralo-Altay (Finno-Ugric, Samodian, Tunguso-Manchurian) tribes, therefore Bulgars can be called Uralo-Aryan people. One of the Türkified Ugrian tribes, which came to the Itil-Ural from the depths of Asia, gave the Bulgars a specific Türkic language (“Turanian language“ or “language of Kams, Kam-Boyans“) many features of which were preserved in the modern Chuvash language. In the 2nd-4th centuries the main language of the Bulgars becomes the Oguzo-Türkic language (“Bulgarian Türki“), a close relative of the Turkish language. The physical type of the Bulgars was basically Aryan (supposedly, Caucasian in the terminology of the author - Translator's Note), the clothes were Ugrian, the customs were mixed, Uralo-Aryan. The self-name of the “Bulgars“ is purely Aryan, meaning “black or wolf (bulg) head (ar, djar)“. And the Bulgars called their native land in the Türkic “Idel“, which meant “Seven (ide) tribes (el)“.
In the 15 millennium BC Bulgars create in the Itil-Ural their state Idel, which
included almost all of the Eastern Europe, Siberia, and Kazakhstan. In the beginning of
the 7th century the Bulgarian state Idel received the name of Bulgaria (Great
Bulgaria), and the former name becomes a part of the names of the seven largest rivers
in the Itil-Ural: the Kara Idel (Volga), Ag Idel (White), Chulman Idel (Kama),
Nukrat Idel (Vyatka), Aka or Sain Idel(Oka), Burtas or Sura Idel (Sura),
Djaik Idel (Yaik, Ural). The name Idel is clear: in
it the Bulgars preserved their memory of their ancestors, the seven differently
speaking tribes. And the name of the Bulgars
came from their banner with an imaged of the head of the wolf, which was one of main totems
of the Bulgars (the main totem of the Bulgars, in addition to the wolf, was a deer-bull, a rook or raven,
a crane, a swan or duck, a tiger or bars-leopard, a snake or coiled dragon, a fish,
an eagle or falcon, a cock or a hen-quail). The wolf could not be
called by its name “mak“ (“mek“, “mag“), and therefore
the Bulgars called
it “kara“, i.e. “black“ (because the wolf is a protector of night), “bure“,
i.e. “grey“, “sin“(“chin“), i.e. “moon“(since the wolf is the patron of the
Moon and howl at it), “kur“ (“kurt“), etc. According to an ancient
Bulgarian legend, a wolf rescued a child son of the Bulgarian leader
(Kan). During an unexpected attack of the enemies the wife of the leader laid the
boy in the big kazan (basket), and sent it downstream. Then a
wolf took the boy from the river and brought him up.
Bulgarian people revered mountains: they prayed on them to the Almighty God-Tangra (Tengre), and also created their imitations, the pyramids (earthen, stone, brick, etc. kurgans) with special caves for burial of their heroes and leaders.
Simple people were buried in catacombs-caves dug in the side wall of the burial pits. Over such tombs were erected stone or wooden monuments, symbolizing the mountain (sometimes instead of a wooden monument was planted a tree).
The most sacred numbers for the Bulgars became the numbers 3 and 7, and therefore often the pyramids for the heroes burial (mausoleums) were three-tiered, and the pyramids in honor of the spirits and the God were seven-story.
Already 11-15 thousand years ago some groups of the Bulgars for different reasons began leaving Idel (Itil-Ural), carrying along other tribes of Idel. For the Bulgarian chroniclers of the Middle Ages all tribes of Idel were Bulgars, and they did not divide them by language or other individual attributes.
The first immigrant was a tribe Arkeshe (“argipei“ of the Greek sources), which especially revered the spirit of rain, thunder and lightning, and for that was also called by the names of that spirit: Samar-Seber, Deber (from that come the Taur, Taurs), Atryach (from that come the Troy). Not later than 10 millennium BC one part of the Debers moved from the Idel to the Ukraine, where they existed for a long time under a name of “Taurs“ (especially in the Crimea), and another part went to the Near East, where the formed the Samar State (Sumer), originally including the territories of the Northern Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Balkan peninsula, Western Persia, and S. Caucasia. The Debers liked to call themselves “Arkeshe“, i.e. “pure people“ (in the sense: pure Bulgars), from where came the Greek name for the ancient Bulgars, “Argipei“.
At the boundary of the 4th-3rd
millaneum BC the Samar fragmented into:
A catastrophic flood (biblical “Flood“) destroyed the Bulgarian royal dynasty of the Suvar (the late Sumer), together with a significant part of the Bulgarian population, and allowed the Bulgarian subject ancient Arabian tribes of Sarkans (in the Bulgarian “sarkan“ meant “barkhan“ (i.e. dune in Türkic - Translator's Note), “inhabitant of desert“) to subjugate in the 24 century BC the Akkad, Tangra-Kapa (Babylon) and other Bulgarian cities of Mesopotamia.
Not later than in the 3rd millennium BC to the south moved a second wave of the Bulgarian migrants from the Idel, Bilsaga or Bishatar (“five clans“ in the Bulgarian). A part of Bilsaga settled in the Ukraine (where the neighbours called the Bishatars “Bastarn“), another one settled in the Balkans(where they subordinated to the Krit kingdom and later became known under a name “Pelasges“), the third one settled in the Caucasus (where their neighbours calld them “Kuties“, “Guties“, “Uties“, “Albans“, Hetts), and the fourth one settled in the Central Asia (under a name of Sakas, Massagets and Kushans). The Central Asian Balsaga then passed through the Afghanistan and Pakistan to the India and conquered it (The Bilsaga remained there in the memory of the Indians under a name “five brothers-Pandavs“). The Caucasian Bilsaga at the boundary of the 3rd millennium BC controlled most part of the Asia Minor, and established there a Hettikingdom, and about the 2200 BC they attacked the Suvar-Shumer and for a some time returned it under the control of the Bulgars. But then Sarkanian dynasties (of the Akkadians, Babilonians, Assyrians) again repossessed the Suvar-Shumer, even though they continued developing the Bulgaro-Shumerian culture. The Balkan Bilsaga, the Pelasges, established the Makan (Mycenae), Bilsaga (later Pliska) and other cities.
In the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC to the south from the Idel went a third big
wave of the Idelian immigrant Bulgars, headed by a Bulgarian tribe Eksaga or
Agatar (“Rivermen“ or “Watermen“ in the Bulgarian).
For their skill in shipbuilding and sailing, the Agatars (that name then accepted
the forms “Aydar“, “Agathyrs“, “Agachirs“) were nicknamed “Kimers“
(“Boatmen“, “Vesselmen“, “Ferrier“ in the Bulgarian). One part of
the Agatars occupied the Ukraine, where their neighbours called them “Drevlyans“
“Cimmerians“, another one through the Moldova went to the Balkans and
subjugated the Sebers (“Severs“) and Bilsaga, the third- at about 1700
BC broke through the Suvar to the Mamil-Egypt and for a 100 years ruled there
(the Egyptians called the Eksaga “Gikses“). In the middle of the 2nd
millennium BC an
earthquake, the volcanic ashes, and the huge waves caused by a catastrophic eruption of
a volcano on the island Fera (near the Crete) decimated the most of the Bulgaro-Kreshian population of
the Kresha-Crete. This catastrophe was included in the world history under a name of
the “End of Atlantida“. The Atryach
(Troy), which was before in the Krit kingdom, declared itself a Bulgarian Atryach (Trojan)
kingdom and a successor of the Kresh (Crete ) kingdom.
But the Bulgars-Agatars (whom the Greeks called “Acheans“ or “Argivans“, i.e.
the “Uralians“) captured the Makan (Mycenae), the weakened Crete and Cyprus and
established their own Mikenian or Argossian kingdom.
The Atryachian (Trojanian) Bulgars, whose royal dynasty was established still by the Bulgars-Tebers, tried to stop the expansion of the Mikenian Bulgars, but about 1200 BC the Makanian Bulgars, the Acheans took and crushed the Atryach-Troy. Approximately at the same time the Bulgars-Mikenians captured the territory of the Hettian kingdom (where they established their princedoms), and attacked the Egypt (where they were called “Sea Peoples“) and Balistan.
“Frightened by these attacks some Karamuens (Africans) fled from their area to the Shim (Sinai) country, and there, hidden for many years, saved. In memory of that salvation they have called themselves Shimba and established a day for celebrating it. In 40 years, when the attacks of the Kimerians ended, the Shimbaes... hired onto the service of the Balistan rulers... Seeng that the Balistanians are fighting among themselves, the Shimbaes... captured from them a part of the Balistan and settled in it... Ftom the name of the “Yahood“ sect, all the Shimbaes began to be called Yahoods (Jews)...“ (Kul Gali from the story of a Karaim).
A part of the Atryaches at the same time left from the Troy to the Apennine peninsula, where they established a new kingdom called after the ancestral home of all Bulgars: Idel (from there comes “Italy“). The neighbors called the Italian Bulgars-Atryaches “Etrusks“. When in the 8th century BC the Bulgars-Etrusks established the “eternal city“ of Rome, in the Idel began a next large movement of the tribes, caused by a war between two Bulgarian tribes in the Kazakhstan, the Sakas and Massagets (both of those were the descendants of the Bilsaga). With the Bulgars-Massagets fought not all the Sakas, who also were called “Kypchaks“ (“Hollowers“ in the Bulgarian), but only a part of Sakas dominated by the Bulgarian tribe “Nukrat“ (or the “Eshtyak“-“Ishtyak“, Eshegel-Ésegel, Eshkuz). The Sakas-Nukrats or Ishtyaks were Bulgarified Ugro-Samodians from the north, who decided to move to the more convenient southern lands. First they settled among the Sakas, and joined their union, and then decided to invade the territory of the Massagets, where they were defeated.
The Idelian-Bulgarian Kan Burtas Barandjar (Berendey), to restore the peace among the Bulgarian tribes of the Kazakhstan, decided in the 7th century BC to move the Kypchaks (Nukrats-Ishtyaks) -Sakas to the Kara-Saklan (Ukraine). However, a part of the Bulgars-Kimers (Cimmerians), who were living in the Kara-Saklan, refused to share their land with the Ishtyaks, for which they were defeated by Burtas and fled through the Caucasus into the Hettian possessions of their relatives. The Idelian armies, pursuing them, broke to the Near East and subordinated the lands from the Caucasus to the Egypt.
“Because the Ariyaks (the ancestors of the Armenians who were living in the territory of the modern Ossetia) helped Bulgars to conquer the Caucasus, Burtas allowed them settle in a part of the Arman (S. Caucasia), and then they were called Armanians (Armenians)...“(Kul Gali).
Burtas remembered that all Near East at the
time was under the power of the Bulgars.
Soon, however, the main Idelian armies were withdrawn to Idel (where began a next civil strife), and the troops of the Ishtyaks-Eshkuzes that stayed in the Near East underwent a treacherous attack by the former allies-Midanians (Medeans) and retreated. Since then in the Kara-Sakpane were settled and began dominating the Bulgars of the Kypchako-Ishtyak clans, divided into the groups: Nukrats (“Nevrs“), Ishtyak (Yazygs), etc. The Greeks distorted the Bulgarian “Kypchak“ into the “Scythians“, adding to the Bulgarian name “s“ and dropping its Türkic ending “chak“.
The Bulgarian immigrants spread the achievements and features of Bulgarian culture worldwide.
The Greeks, who came to the Balkans at the boundary of the 2nd-1st millennium
BC in animal skins (from there comes their Bulgarian nickname “Tyrians“ - “hide-wearers“)
adopted the high culture of the native Bulgarian population of the Balkans, and
renamed it “Greek“. Therefore in the base of the Greek mythology we see
the Bulgarian legends. It is remarkable that the Greeks, who conquered the Makanian
kingdom of the Acheans (after the Bulgars-Argivans weakened in the fratricidal war with
the Bulgars-Trojans), made theirs the main Bulgarian hero bogatyr Gurugly, “Son of the Tomb“, and
had only a little deformed his name (Greeks pronounced
“Gurugly“ in form “Herakl(es)“). From the names of the Bulgarian tribes came the names of
the Greek provinces: from the name of the tribe Seber (nicknamed “Kresh“ - “wrestling“,
and “paluan“-“wrestler“ for their special love of the Bulgarian
wrestling “kresh“) came the “Greek“ names “Sparta“, “Greek“, “Greece“, “Peloponnes(us)“. From the
Bulgarian name of the main mountains in Greece came the name Taiga (in the
Bulgarian “taiga“ means “woody mountains“), the Greek version of them is “Tayget“.
And with a purely Bulgarian word “ellat“, i.e. “rich, prosperous country“,
Greeks began to call their country (“Hellada“). Exactly the same the indigenous population of Italy
adopted the high culture of the Bulgars-Atryachians (Etrusks), who fled in the 1200
BC from the Troy and established in the Apennines the first cities-states (which
also includes Rome), the Bulgarian word “rem“, i.e. “sacred hill“, became the name of
the city of Rome and Roman Empire. From the Bulgarian name “Idel“ came the name “Italy“,
and from the Bulgarian name of for the indigenous population of the Apennines, “Altynbash“
(“Golden-headed“) came the name “Latins“, “Latin“, etc.
The direct descendants of the Bulgars (Debers-Sebers, Bilsaga and KimerS),
the Thracians (Moesians, Sebers-“Severs“, Macedonians, etc.), have
preserved the Bulgarian culture until the 7th century,
when a new migration wave of the Bulgars (headed by Asparuh) reached the
Balkans. The most famous Thracian, the Prince Sebertek
(Spartak) was enslaved by the Romans, but he raised a grandiose revolt of
the slaves and almost destroyed the Roman Empire.
The Bulgarian myths grew into the eposes of many nations of the world. So, a myth about a miraculous salvation of a young Bulgarian prince Maguly(“Son of Wolf“ in the Bulgarian) or Magiz (“Wolf-like“ in the Bulgarian) in a kazan (basket) sent down the river was included in the legends of the Egyptian, Indian (with the name “Maguly“ taking the form “Maugli“), Italian (brothers Romul and Rem were thrown into a basket in the river and were rescued by a she-wulf), Arabian, Jewish (there the name “Magiz“ took a form “Mose(s)“), etc.
As relayed by the Bulgarian poet and historian Kul Gali, the trident was a favorite symbol for the Bulgars-Bilsaga. That means that already in the 3rd millennium BC, when the Bilsaga came to the Kara-Saklan, this symbol appeared in the Ukraine. What the trident means for the Bulgars? (in the monarchial historiography of Rus/Russia, the trident is proclaimed to be a family coat-of-arms of Rürik (855-882) and his descendents. Rürik, in turn, in the Normanist theory of the Rus monarchy is derived from the Viking princely line. But in the prospective lines of the Viking ascendancy, the trident is nowhere to be found. The Slavonic theory of the Rus monarchy does not extend beyond possibilities and speculations at best, with no trident in sight. The Türkic theory, carefully circumvented by any who-is-who of the Rus historiography, has however a clear documented trail, since the trident was the coat-of-arms of the royal clan Dulo, including better known personalities like Bulümar, Attila, Kurbat, Bel-Kermek, Asparukh, Djilki and Chelbir - Translator's Note).
In the beginning it was a symbol of Tangra (Tengri) himself, the God who frequently had an image of the Sun (Bulgars said: “Sun is eye of Tangra“). So, the trident originally symbolized not any other, as the beams of the rising sun.
In the Tengrian (pre-Islam) myths of the Bulgars, the trident was a most terrible thunderbolt weapon: in the beginning of the first spirit (Alp, As)Birgün, then (when Birgün had grown old and “retired from important business“, only occasionally manifesting in different acts of nature and a bad weather) of his sons, the Alp of light and heat of the Karga-Nardugan (Mardukan) and the Alp of lightning, water and world ocean (“boz idan“, i.e. “blue valley“ in the Bulgarian) Kubar. The name of Nardugan, “Born of Light“ (or “Giving Light“ in the Bulgarian) in the late Sumerian sources took a form “Marduk“, and the name of Kubar in the Greek myths, “Poseidon“, was formed from the word “boz idan“ (the name Poseidon is first found in the scratched notes in Linear B at Mycenaean Pylos, where it appears as POS-EDA-WO-NE/POS-EDA-O. There is no meaningful water-related Indo-European etymology, or for that matter other etymology, for the name, while the Türkic “ocean“ => Poseidon is semantically a really close match. See the Statistical Linguistics page, taking the Türkic form “boz idan“ and calculating the probability that this phonetical combination would accidentally meet the semantics of the “Water Deity“ would be in the order of 1/250,000 X 1/1000, or one in 250,000,000. The 1/1000 reflects a conditional breakdown of the language into 1,000 semantical fields, to reflect the specificity of the term “Water Deity“. The chances that a similar word would independently emerge in, say, Greek language, are astronomically small, in the order of 1/62,500,000,000,000,000, which tells us that Poseidon has indeed a Türkic origin - Translator's Note). Karga could take an appearance of a rook, snake-like dragon, and Kubar could take an appearance of the bull. In the Tengrian believes, Tangra-the Creator of the universe could take a form of Karga and Kubar, and also of some other powerful Alps. There were a total 33 (from there come the 33 years of the Christ life, 33 bogatyrs of the Russian fairy tales, etc.) of the powerful Alps-Ases in Tengrian pantheon. The Kimers-Agatars kept Kubar as their the most favorite spirit.
It is thought that the reader perceives clearer mane other phenomens: why on the Achean island Kubar (its name Greeks later modified to “Kipr“ (Cyprus) ) was spread the cult of the Bull (i.e. Kubar), and why Marduk and Poseidon are depicted with a trident in hand...
As though asserting the power of Tangra, of the Alps-spirits and their own,
the Bulgarian Kam-Boyans (“shamans“) Tengrian priests always held
close clubs or staffs in a form of a “trident“. Kam-Boyans were explaining
that the club (staff)-“trident“
means the authority of Tangra and his Alps over three worlds: Heavenly,
Terrestrial, and Underground, and allows them to travel there for a meeting
with the Alps and the souls of the ancestors. But inattentive European artists transformed
the staffs-tridents... into witches' brooms!
It is a luck that Kul Gali happened to tell us about that, or until now we would be guessing: how and why that the witches fly on brooms?
The trident, as a symbol of Tangra and strongest Alps, was also depicted on the tambourines of the Bulgarian shamans.
The simple Bulgars called a trident “berendjar“ (“ram's head“) “, éshték “ (“ishtyak“) or “baysanak“ (“big spear“), “khazar“ (“leader of herd“), etc. The saw in a trident an image of a bow and arrow, horns of a khazar, half moon, bunchuk (horsehair pennon - Translator's Note) and so forth.
Shamànñ had their own name for the trident, “kazak“ (“goose leg“), forbidden for the simple people to be said under a fear of heavenly retribution. This name arose because the most powerful Alps Mardukan and Kubar were turning into the dragons with goose legs. By the way, Mardukan, who by the will of Tangra created the Earth, for that reason was transformed by the folklore storytellers into a goose (duck).
The Bulgarian royal dynasty Dulo, founded by a shaman, made the trident their coat of arms called “Baltavar“, i.e. “axe (balta) - bow (var)“. In the Bulgarian state the axe and bow were the attributes of the royal power, and in addition they symbolized forest territories (axe) and steppe (bow). The arms of the Bulgarian Kans emphasized that they are rulers of the boundless forest-steppe of the Eurasia. During the reign of the Bulgarian Kagan from the Dulo dynasty Kurbat Küngrat (“Kurbat“) the territory of the Idel really spread from the Balkans to the Altai, and it received a name of Bulgaria (Great Bulgaria). At the end of the 7th century the Great Bulgaria split into the Northern Bulgaria (Black Bulgaria with the center in the Bashtu-Kyiv), Southern Bulgaria (Khazaria) and Western Bulgaria (Danube or Balkan Bulgaria). But in the Black Bulgaria, and in the Khazaria, where ruled the representatives of the Dulo dynasty, the Dulo coat of arms, trident, remained a State Emblem.
In the 9th century the Black Bulgaria was also split in two Bulgarian states: the Ukrainian Bulgaria with the center
in Kyiv (which received the name Urus-Rus, the Kyiv Rus) and the Itil Bulgaria (which was called Ak Bulgar) with
the centers in the cities Bolgar, Bulyar and Kazan. After the Itil Bulgaria in the 922
adopted Islam as a state religion, the Muslim jurists advocated a
full prohibition of the old state symbols, the vestiges of the pagan times. For some time
the Bulgarian Kans were managing to keep the “Baltavar“ trident, under a pretext
that it, ostensibly, symbolizes the Arabian letter ﭒ “B“ and means “Bulgaria“.
But by end of the 10th century the trident “Baltavar“ ceased to be the official arms
of the Itil Bulgaria, and later it was given, as a tamga, to the one of the 12 provinces of
the Bulgaria, to the Tubdjak (modern Kazakhstan). However,
the Bulgarian rulers continued to hold the “Baltavar“ as their dynastic tamga.
The Ukraine (Kara-Saklan) was a part of the Idel State for at least from the 3rd millennium BC. Soon after renaming in the 7th century Idel into Bulgaria, the center of the Bulgarian State was transferred to the Ukraine, to the Bashtu-Kyiv. Therefore, since the 7th century in the consciousness of the Ukraine Bulgarian population the trident became a symbol of that part of the Great Bulgaria. After the disintegration of the Black Bulgaria in the middle of the 9th century the Bulgarian Kan Gabdulla Djilka retained its eastern part (Itil Bulgaria), and his younger brother Lachyn hold on to its western part (Ukrainian Bulgaria), which received the name of the Bulgarian Kan of the beginning of the 9th century Urus Aydar, “Urus“ (“Rus“, “Kyiv Rus“) If in the Itil Bulgaria dominated the Moslem Bulgarian feudals (Bulyars), in the Ukraine-Rus dominated the Tengrian Bulgarian Bulyars(Bolyars-Boyars), who revered the Alp Birgün (“Perun“ of the Russian annals). The Grand Prince dynasty of Rus was established by Lachyn, and it also held the trident “Baltavar“ as their coat-of-arms. Unlike the Itil Bulgaria, the Bulgarian rulers of the Rus preserved the trident as their coat-of-arms and as the state coat-of-arms until the12th century. For example, The Grand Prince Vladimir (a great-grandson of Lachyn) minted a trident on his coins also after the acceptance of the Christianity as the state religion by the Rus (988). Only in the beginning of the12th century the Grand Prince Vladimir Monomah inflicted a complete pogrom of the Bulgarian culture in the Kyiv Rus in a desire to reorient Rus to the affiliation with the Christian West, and tried to strip the trident from the status of the Kyiv Rus coat-of-arms. Vladimir Monomah not only forbade the Bulgarian trident, but also forged the Rus annals. Under his order the monks-chroniclers refurbished Lachyn into “Rürik“, the Lachyn's son Ugera into “Igor“, etc.
Fortunately, other Ukrainian sources of that time also reached us, there the
Kyiv rulers of the 9th-11th centuries are directly called by their Bulgarian title “Kagan“
(“Kan“, “Emperor“): Kagan Vladimir
(980-1015 - Translator's Note), Kagan Yaroslav (the Wise)
(1016-1017 d. 1054 - Translator's Note), etc. And the steppe
(southern) part of the Ukraine, solidly populated by the Bulgarian tribes of the
Berendjars-Berendeys, Badjinaks-Pechenegs (their name some medieval authors
deduced from the name of the trident: “bay sanak“)
(“bay sanak“ a 1000 thousand years later in the modern Russian language sounds
as “Bayskiy Znak“, almost indistinguishable from its Türkic form - Translator's
Note), Karakalpaks-Black Klobuks,
Khazars, Kharkas (from their name came the name of the Kharkov),
Sebers-Severs-“Sevrüks“, Uzes-Torks, etc., preserved the trident as their
symbol. Not accidentally the S. Rus (Chernigov) prince
Vladimir Svyatoslavich (i.e. in one version ascribed to
the Galician Prince Vladimir son of Yaroslav from the Svyatoslaviches clan, ca
1151 - ca 1198 or 1202, see graph below - Translator's Note), the author of the Ukrainian poem “Tale
about Igor's Campaign“ (1180) (campaign is dated
1185 - Translator's Note) brought to us two ancient Ukrainian names:
a “troyan“ for the trident, and “Troyan's Land“ for the S. Rus (the steppe part
of the Ukraine). In his poem Vladimir Svyatoslavich condemns Vladimir Monomakh
(1113-1125 - Translator's Note) (he was a grandson of the Yaroslav the Wise,
whom the Bulgars nicknamed “Tazbash“ - “Cunning“) for his struggles with the S. Ukrainian
Bulgarian tribes (These tribes in all Russian
historical works and textbooks, staring from the budding days of the
royal Russian historiography in the 18th century, are referred to only in a
conglomerate form: “nomads“, “steppe barbarians“ , or even
“nomadic predators“, etc., exclusively with a
negative connotation along the divider “us vs. them“, even when these “them“ are
“our allies, our defenders, and our rulers, husbands, wives and children,
and even when it is we who are colonizers and predators. And
because of the IE orientation of the western science, and its exclusive reliance
on the claustrophobic, manipulative, and contorted Russian studies, the same
distorted picture propagates into the western science. Poor country that robbed
itself of its history. For a quotation from an insider
Vladimir Svjatoslavich was not too lazy to also remind that all Chernigov nobility consisted entirely of the noble Bulgarian clans: Mogutov (Masgutov, Masautov), Tatranov, Shelbirov (Chelbirov), Topchakov (Tubdjakov), Revugov (Arbugintsev), Olberov (Elbirov), etc. Vladimir Svjatoslavich was a representative of the Ukrainian branch of the Bulgarian dynasty Dulo-“Rurikoviches“ (the descendants of Lachyn) and, quite naturally, he regarded the 6th century as a beginning of the Ukrainian (old Rus) statehood, when the Bulgarian Kans from the Dulo dynasty relocated the capital of Idel State from the Itil region to the Kyiv, and begun advancing against the Easter Roman empire (Byzantium).
In the 12th - beginning of the 13th century, the Bulgarian nomads of Ukraine en mass accepted Christianity, because Kyiv and Chernigov allowed them large privileges (lands, Tarkhanlyk and so forth) for it.
In the 1242, when the Ukraine was controlled by the Mongolian Horde, the Bulgarian Kan Gazi-Baradj offered his Mongolian ally, Khan Batu, to create a special force from the Bulgarian nomads of the Ukraine, for the protection of the trading road from the Kyiv to the Bolgar, and to give this force the “kazak“ (trident) tamga and the name “kazaks“. Batu agreed, and such a unit was organized and operated under a common Bulgaro-Mongolian command until the middle of the 14th century. The Mongolian Khan Uzbek disbanded the Kazak corps, because it mostly consisted of the Christian Bulgars, and the idling Kazaks joined the Chirkes units.
As far as back as in the 10th century, the Bulgarian rulers began to form the mercenary troops to protect their southern lands (the parts of the Crimea, the territory between the Don, Caucasus and Itil). Bulgars called these mercenaries “chirkes“, which in the Bulgarian meant a “wandering, free (chir) person (keshe)“. The Rusins translated this word as “Brodnik“. A majority of the chirkeses were Christian Ukrainians. After the Itil Bulgaria ceded the southern lands to the Mongolian Horde (in the 1242), chirkeses entered the service of the Mongolian Khan Nogay. When Nogay died, chirkeses remained in the Mongolian service: they were protecting the roads, borders, ferries, Mongolian merchants, officials, ambassadors, etc. They lived on the border of the forest and steppe, in small communities, and they warmly accepted their siblings Ukrainian Kazaks. Gradually, for the chirkeses the name of the Kazaks became a second, and then a main name, and the Kazak's “trident“ became their coat-of-arms.
When in the 1362 the Lithuania annexed Kyiv, and its possessions came close to
the border of the forest and steppe, the Ukrainian Kazaks-chirkeses immediately
declared their independence of the Mongolian Horde
(i.e. from the Kipchak Khanaate - Translator's Note). The island Hortitsa
became a center of the independent
Ukrainian Kazaks, who in essence restored the Kyiv-Rusinian state (Rus). The name Hortitsa
came from the Bulgarian name of island
“Kurtash“ (“Island of Kagan Kurt-Kurbat“) or Hordize (“Kurbat's
then on, the Bulgaro-Kazak trident returned again back to the Ukrainian people
as an all-Ukrainian symbol.
This was prevented by the conflict with the fact that the Kans of the Itil Bulgaria
until the 16th century
continued to hold the trident as their ancestral arms, and displayed it on
the Bulgarian coins (i.e. Itil Bulgarian - Translator's
Note). After the ravage of the Bulgarian capital Kazan in the 1552 by the Moscovite-Tatar
army, the Bulgarian people took as their
national arms the tamga of Kazan
, in memory of their lost independence.
Conspectus of “Djagfar Tarihi“ fragments
ABSTRACT OF SOME RECORDS FROM “DJAGFAR TARIHI“
1. About his ancestors Tug (Tuk)-Mohammed writes...
The son of Adam-Amin (Kan, 1076-1118 - Translator's Note) was Shamgun Shirdag (Kan, 1118-1135 - Translator's Note), his son was Arbat Gabderrazak, his son was Azan with a nickname Bayda-Bagyl, his son was Baradj married to Amina, a daughter of Shambat (Subédé), their son was Yamash, his son was Seber-Hudja, who was a viceroy of the Seber, his son was Tug-Mohammed, his son was Garay-Baradj (“Garay“ means “Finno-Ugric“), who rebuilt in the 1358 the city Baradj on the river Abi-Dara (Ob), his son was Suleiman Biyaga (“biyaga“ or “yaga“ means “sacred tree“, and also stands for its symbol, a column with images of a cock and other totem animals) who managed to escape from the Bolgar during the siege of the city by Idegey, and who established a small town Yaga, his son was Ish-Mohammed with a nickname Tamlyk, his son was Balta, who owned the aul Balta. Balta become related with the house of Balus, by marrying his daughter Altynay to Nariman. The family of Musa Ibn Halil was related with the clan of Balus; the uncle of Musa, Seid-Ahmed, was married to the daughter of Nariman and Altynay, by the name Chulpan. The son of Nariman and Altynay was Shehid-Bulat, his son was Baradj, his son was Ish-Mohammed, who wrote the annals in which he preserved the records from the books of the sheikhs Mohammed-Amin and Tash-Mohammed. And Tash-Mohammed was his teacher. The son of Ish-Mohammed was Sheikh-Gali, born in the 1603, the son of Sheikh-Galiwas Tug-Mohammed, who also have written the annals...
2. Kurbat in his youth for some time was a Bek of one of the Saklanian tribes. These Saklans loved him so much that they began to be called after his name - “Kurbates“ (Khorvates) (English “Croates“; Croats/Hrvati is a Slavicized form of the former Besenyo tribe Charaboi - Translator's Note)...
3. As is known, The Bardjilian (Persian) Kan Kubrat lost his kingdom, and won it back with the help of Chalap-Biy (Afrasiab). Yurgan gave the young Kurbat the name Kubrat, so that the Bulgarian beylik would be returned to him, as the Bardjil was returned to the Bardjian Kubrat...
4. Descendants of Chalap-Biy ruled the Burtas...
5. Azak-Bandja (Methodius) and Kushtan-Baksan (Cyril) were born in the Tamiya-Tarkhan, where served their father, and received their nicknames after the names of their native places (Kul Gali).
6. Katrag died in the Baltavar (Bolgar), Bat-Boyan died in Kyiv, Kyzyl Kubar
died in Kyzyl (Ohrid), Lachyn died in Italy. Asparuh, feeling
an approach of his death, ordered to transport him from the Bilsaga (Pliska)
to the main sanctuary Torna-Uba (Tyrnovo), where
he asked for a pardon from the spirits of the ancestors for dying from an old age, instead of
a battlefield. Before his death, Asparuh, like Kurbat, and Katrag, and
Bat-Boyan, said the words “There is no god except for the God“ in Arabic and in Türkic (“Bir Tangra“).
This was told by Arslan Terter (Gazi-Baba).
Conspectus of “Djagfar Tarihi“ fragments
Miniatures from the Djagfar Tarihi Annals
Situation with the publication of the Djagfar Tarihi parallels the situation with the famous (maybe infamous) Zelenchuk Inscription, the original Zelenchuk tombstone was prtofessionally searched for a number of times, but was never found, the claimed original independent records are nowhere to be found, the “witnesses“ or “participants“ are long gone without leaving any corroborating traces, and all facts in our disposal came from a single individual engaged in the subject for which the record of artifacts was produced. The Zelenchuk Inscription became a foundation for the Scytho-Iranian paradigm that was enthusiastically embraced by many Western scientists. This posting does not vouch for the authencity of the graphical illustrations, and would compare politization involved in the stern denunciation of their authencity with the willing forgivingness of the elements in the Western science afforded to the Zelenchuk Inscription. The posting of the graphic illustrations reproduced by Mr. F.Nurutdinov does not carry either endorsement nor repudiation of their value for the history of the Eastern Europe peoples.
The Bulgar miniatures of the 10th-16th centuries from the “Djagfar Tarihi“ annals reached our century with copies by P. Karashev. In the 1930's new copies (reproductions of the P. Karashev's copies) made I.M-K.Nigmatullin. In the early 1970's I managed to copy some drawings and their fragments. P. Karashev copies were lost at the end of 1930's together with the manuscript of the annals, and I. Nigmatullin's copy in 1982, together with a part of the “Nigmatullin text“ (a Russian translation kept by I. Nigmatullin). Only my copy survived, though incomplete. I offer it to the attention of scientists and all lovers of history.
Miniatures from the Djagfar Tarihi Annals
1. View of Bulyar from the Bull or Cow tower (gate). King Almysh Jafar built this city in 922 and named it in honor of his ancestor, the king of Great Bulgaria in the 7th c. Kurbat Kungrat (Kurt, Kubrat), who bore the titular name “Bulyar“ (equivalent of the Byzantine title “patrician“, also meant “wise“) (in Oguz Türkic “wise“ is “Bilge“). Bulyar citadel was called Djurdize or Mardjikan, meaning “Knight's mansion or citadel“. This citadel housed ambassadors of the Danube Bulgaria, including Markar Makidan (“Blackrobed Brave“), who came to Bulyar in 990 with a bride for the Itil/Volga-Bulgar Prince Ibrahim, a daughter of Bek (Prince) Shamil (Samuil, the future king of Danube Bulgaria).
This drawing was made by Gazi Baba at the request of the Bulgar King Ghazi Baradj in 1236, but reproduces situation in the late 12th c. Sam Gazi Baba said:
“My master (Ghazi Baradj) told me to portray Bulyar as he remembered it from his childhood ... Jay Shirme (“Shallow River“) runs along western wall of the city, and Aksu (“White River“) runs along the eastern side... . The Northern Tower of the city was called “Elbegen“, the Eastern “Bull“ or “Cow“, the Southern “Rooks“, the Western “Burma“... The “Red Tower“ was located between towers“ Elbegen“ and “Bull“... The “Chirmysh“ forest reached the city on the side of the “Burma“ tower, so people often called it “Urman“... [...] hill “Hinuba“ (Hun Oba = Hun's Habitat) with a tomb of Abdullah Hazari (A Great Itil/Volga-Bulgar poet who was an Ambassador of Itil/Volga Bulgaria to the Danube Bulgaria, Caliphate, and Khazaria)...
The “Inner City“ of Bulyar was called “Bishermen“ which meant “5,000“, in memory of the first five thousand Bulyar inhabitants of the Baryndjar clan... The Badjanaks (Petchenegs) called with the word “Bishermen“ at first the Bulyars, and then all Bulgars ... In the “Bishermen“ stood baliks (districts) and homes of merchants and “Djilyan“ craftsmen (the Bulgar pronunciation of the Persian Gilan province and textiles brought from it) (Djilyan is an Ogur pronunciation of the the Oguz Türkic “yilyan“ = “snake, gragon“; in the 6th c. BC Herodotus transmitted this word as Scythian “Gilyan“, it was popping up throughout the centuries in the forms Gilyan/Djilayan/Uran/Uryankhai = Uran-Kai = Kai from the Central Mongolia to Balkans, Kai is its Mongolic synonym; the last Uryankhaies were divvied up between Mongolia, China, and USSR in the 20th. century, the USSR occupied the last fraction of the Uryankhai Tuba in 1944, renamed to Tuva, it was its last colonial conquest before disintegration; in the Chinese records Djilyans/Urans show up in the 3rd c. BC under their Mongolic name Kai as Si and Hi subjugated by the Eastern Huns. In the ancient world, Gilyans were noted in Ukraine, Caucasus, and Northern Persia), “Sabuk“ (i.e., manufacturers and sellers of “sabuks“ - boots) (this Ogur Türkic word spread with the boots to most of the European languages: Spanish “zapata“, Slavic “sapog“, English “boot“),“ Tastar “(with this word, among other things, Bulgars called the Persian city Tustar) ... The Bulyar “Outer city“ was founded by the Khazarian Bulgars and Daglyks (Dagestanians), who obtained a permission form Talib (a Bulgar ruler of the 10th c.) to settle in the “Bishermen“ or near it. These settlers gave the “Outer city“ the name of the Khazarian capital “Azil“ or “Atil,“ and to its baliks and uramas (city blocks) the names of the Khazar tribes: “Tuzla“, “Tama“, “Saklan“, “Tatyak“ ... Among them were many skilled craftsmen, and even their balik and uramas they called “Bakyrchi“, “Kubachi“, “Yapanchi“ (from the names of the trades, making bakyrs, kubas, yapans) ... [...] There was .... a “Yashel Uba“ grove, where grew an apple tree. It was believed that if a woman unable to get pregnant tastes its apple, she would get pregnant ... This grove was burned during a Bulyar War (1183), when the Ruses managed to burn the southern part of the “Azil“ ... The rest of the “Outer city“ the Bulyars defended against infidels and fire with the help of “subakalas“ (carts with attached wooden shields) and a wind that suddenly started blowing towards the enemy ...
I drew the view of Bulyar from the side of the “Bull“ or “Cow“ tower, in front of which was located caravanserai “Dyau Shir“. At the gate of the caravanserai was depicted a tiger with two torsos ... It was said that there, and in “Tazik Yorty“ (Tazik - Arab tribe, the word became an early nominal for Moslems in general, Yorty = Yurt, here - land, area, own place) in the Bulgar city, stopped a caravan of Baqir (Ahmed Ibn Fadlan in 922) ...
During the Rus attack (in 1183), to protect “Bishermen“, the Bulyars surrounded the “Dyau Shir“ and the Bull tower with “subakala “... The Rus Bek (Knyaz) Kinzyaslap (Izyaslav) broke through “subakala“, but at the tower was mortally wounded by Mer-Chur-Biy of Nukrat clan Ilyat ...
Behind “Dyau Shir“, on the banks of the river Aksu, was a beautiful meadow, King's field, where tents were set up for the holidays ...
2. Chirkes. Chirkeses (Kazaks/Cossacks) guarded Bulgar caravans.
3. Khan's court in the city of Kazan during 16th c.
4. Caravanserai “Tazik Yorty“ (“Men Bulyar“), through which was entered the city of Bolgar from the south (The mosque of the caravanserai was called “Camel mosque“ and Karamat).
5. Daughter of the king Almysh Jafar, Zohra, and her tomb near the caravanserai “Tazik Yorty“.
6. A palace of a Bulgarian Bek.
7. One of the towers and a section of the city wall in the Bulgar city.
8. Kabak (hotel) of merchant Salih in the city of Kazan.
9. Mosque “Tuba“ in the city of Kazan.
10. Mosque “Kalansubba“ in the city Nur Suvar.
11. Baths “Kuk Muncha“ in Bulyar (in the 14th c it was dismantled and re-built in the city Bulgar)
12. The “King's Tower“ (Gate) in Bulyar. Initially it was called “Rooks Tower“. In 1183 near it the Rus Prince Vsevolod of Suzdal established his camp. After suppression in Bulyar of the Aiyar uprising in the 1182-1183, the king Gadulla Chelbir (1178-1225) entered the capital through that gate, in memory of that he ordered to call them “Kagan's Gate“ (“Royal Gate“) and to add a tent-type superstructure on the top. Near the “Rooks Gate“ (“Royal Gate“) of the tower were located large craft shops and city blocks “Chulmakchi“, “Timerchi“ and others. The Kazan “Royal Gates“ were a copy of this gate ...
13. Eastern “Tangra-kapa“ gate of the Bulgar city.
14. Bascule bridge.
15. Muncha (Bath) “Dair“ in the city of Kazan.
16. The ancient Bulgar banner with an image of a wolf's head.
17. Artisan quarter near “Bakyr“ mosque. Are visible a cellar and a stone tower, where people hid during fires and was kept a store of water.
18. Mosque “Ismaildan“ in the Bulgar city. The chronicler noted that in the construction of the mosque participated architects from Danube Bulgaria.
19. Some musical instruments of Bulgars.
20. Bunchuk of Bulgar king.
21. Caravanserai “Bukhara Yorty“ in the city of Kazan.
22. “Takiya“ mosque in Bulyar.
23. Feast hosted by Bulgar king Almysh Jafar (895-925) in honor of Oguz ambassadors.
24. Bulgar feudal lord.
25. Bulgarian heavily armed rider - guarsman.
26. Bulgarian heavily armed horseman wearing “burek“ headdress.
27. Lightly armed Bulgarian rider wearing “kalansubba“ headdress.
28. Bulgar ruler Seid-Emir Yadkar Kul-Ashraf, whom Rus chroniclers called “Kulsherif“ (1524-1552).
35,36. Large Bulgar ships - “Sibashi“.
37. Bulgar king Gabdulla Chelbir is sitting on a throne in a portable field tent.
|Djagfar Tarihi Preface · Chapters 1-5 · Chapters 6-10 · Chapters 11-15 · Chapters 16-20 · Chapters 21-25 and Ghazi-Baradj · Appendix|
|Djagfar Tarihi Contents · Volume 1 · Volume 1 Appendix · Volume 2 · Volume 3|
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Ogur and Oguz
M.Bashtu "Shan Kyzy Dastany"
Kul Gali Biography
Kul Gali "Book of Huns"
Kul Gali "Tale of Joseph"
Kul Ashraf "Letter to Turkish Sultan"
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