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Alan Dateline
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Kipchak Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline

.


, (.), . 1, 2016, . 191-240
LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, Deutschland, ISBN 978-3-659-95130-5

:
Türkic Substrate in English
JOURNAL OF EURASIAN STUDIES, - 2013, V, 4
Mikes International, The Hague, Holland, 2013, ISSN 1877-4199
http://www.federatio.org/joes/EurasianStudies_0413s1.pdf 
http://www.federatio.org/joes/EurasianStudies_0413.pdf 
Copyright Mikes International 2001-2013,

. .
: http://www.tatarica.narod.ru/world/language/tat_eng.htm.
Valentyn Stetsyuk, 2003, Research of Prehistoric Ethnogenetical Processes in Eastern Europe
- :  http://www.ece.lsu.edu/kak/ary2.pdf 

.




     1. -


     2. --


     3. -

     4. -
( )
     1.
          5. -
     2.
     3.
     4.1
     4.2
     4.3
     4.4
     4.5
     4.6
     5.
     6.
-
     6. -

3

- , . , .

Alb. Albanian Flem. Flemish Latv. Latvian Pruss. Prussian
Ang. Anglian Fr. French Lett. Lettish Rum. Rumanian
Anglo-Sax. Anglo-Saxon Fris. Frisian Lith. Lithuanian Rus. Russian
Av. Avesta Gael. Gaelic Lat. Latin Sax. Saxon
Az. Azeri Gaul. Gaulic Luz. Luzian Scand. Scandinavia
Balt. Baltic Gk. Greek M Middle Serb. Serbian
Beng. Bengal Gmc. Germanic MHG Middle High German Skt. Sanskrit
Blr. Byelorussian Grm. German MLG Middle Low German Sl. Slavic
Boh. Bohemian Goth. Gothic MM Middle Mongol Sloven. Slovenian
Bosn. Bosnian Gujr. Gujrat Mod. modern Slvt. Slovak
Bulg. Bulgarian Slavic Hebr. Hebrew Mong. Mongol Sp. Spanish
Cat. Catalonian Hitt. Hittite N North Sum. Sumerian
Ch. Chinese Hu. Hungarian Norw. Norwegian Sw. Swedish
Chuv. Chuvash Icl. Icelandic O Old Tat. Tatar
Cimr. Cimbrian IE Indo-European OCS Old Church Slavonic Tr. Türkic
Croat. Croatian Ir. Irish OE Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Turk. Turkish
Dag. Dagur It. Italian OHG Old High German Turkm. Turkmen
Dan. Danish Khak. Khakass OT Old Türkic Tuv. Tuvinian
Du Dutch Khal. Khalka Mongol P Proto- Ukr. Ukrainian
Eng. English Kirg. Kirgiz Pers. Persian V vulgar
Est. Estonian Kor. Korean Phryg. Phrygian W West
Fin. Finnish L Late Pol. Polish Yak. Sakha

, , () . , , - . . , . , , , 1- . .., ( ) , , - () . , . - , , 30% . 63% - . -- , , - , - -.
4

, . , , .

Forrer (1934) , - , . . , 3- . .., -, . , 2- . .. , 1- . .. .  (Prokosch 1939). , , ; 5- - 1-. . .., , 1-. . .. , 2800 . .., - 6- - 5- . .. , 6- - 5- . .., - , , , .

, ( Wiik, 2002), ( Vennemann, 2003), (Steinbauer, 1999), - , . S.Feist, - - , . , , , , R1b, , I N.  I , 2300 , N . R1b , , .
5

, , . , 2010, , , , R1b1 16 . R1b , 16 , , , ( ) () - (8-6 ; R1b1 6775830 ), ( , 5700-5100 , ), (6000800 .. R1b1b2), (, 5300700 ..; , 5150620 ..) ( R1b, 3875670 ..) (3750520 .., 3625370 ..) ( 3800380 3350360 .. ) (, 4150500 .., 4225520 ..). , - -. . , (M. Gimbutas, 1994), , . , , : 1 . 4400-4300 .., 2 . 3500 .. , 3 3000 . ..; - . 2800 . .. , - . , , , , , , , . - , , .
6

()
( R.R.Sokal et al. 1992 M. Gimbutas 1994)

. , , . , 800 , ( ., 1998), 250 , . , , .

500,000 ; 30% , , ; , : 120 - 40 - . , , sin . , - :  I, do, this, my, make, talk, eat, write, tell, kill, earth, time, day, dawn, body (, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ), , . G.Doerfer   " ", . , , , . , , , -. - - . - 2200 . .., . 2200 . ..: Guties, Turuks, Komans, Kangars (, , , ); 1600 . .. Juns (Rongs) (, ) Jous (Zhou) (, ); . 800 . .. ; . 200 . .. , , (), , , , , 200-400  . .. , , , . , 1000 , .
7

3-2- . ..
Firidun Agasyoglu
. 20-23- . ..
Firidun Agasyoglu
.   9-8- . ..
Firidun Agasyoglu
QUTI = Gutii ()

- , . G.Shuke 2010, , . .. , 2011. (, , 1969), , - , , - , . , . , * ; * . - * .
8

, , , http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Frequency_lists/TV/2006/1-1000. 2000 450- , 129 , 26,9%. , 300 3.1% , , 30% , . ​​ , . , , 2,6376,342 , , , . - , , , , , , - , , " " .
9

1. -
; ɣ, ŋ, and x = kh
Rating Frequency
No . . No . . No . .
1 you -üŋ 1 4.63% 44 bad bäd 219 0.07% 87 bill bil 901 0.01%
2 I (arch. ic/ik) ič, es 4 3.99% 45 baby bebi 233 0.06% 88 short qïrt 942 0.01%
3 that şu 7 1.57% 46 mind ming 243 0.06% 89 Earth Yer 989 0.01%
4 not ne 8 1.57% 47 house kosh 255 0.05% 90 box boɣ 992 0.01%
5 me min 10 1.18% 48 jack cak- 256 0.05% 91 mama mamü 1012 0.01%
6 this şu 14 0.95% 49 money manat 268 0.05% 92 Adam adam 1023 0.01%
7 yes yea 15 0.90% 50 son song 275 0.05% 93 bag bag 1028 0.01%
8 my -m 20 0.80% 51 girl kyr 285 0.05% 94 key kirit 1053 0.01%
9 do tu- 24 0.74% 52 hurt sert 312 0.04% 95 crime krmshuhn 1056 0.01%
10 be buol- 25 0.73% 53 kill kelle 322 0.04% 96 joke elük 1068 0.01%
11 was var- 28 0.70% 54 car köl- 326 0.04% 97 boss bosh 1093 0.01%
12 we ös 29 0.69% 55 truth dürüst 352 0.04% 98 brain beini 1129 0.01%
13 so aša 32 0.64% 56 wife ebi 364 0.03% 99 hide quyqa 1130 0.01%
14 all alqu 34  0.60% 57 use tusu 366 0.03% 100 age aga 1141 0.01%
15 are -ar 36 0.58% 58 heart chäre 376 0.03% 101 faith vara 1154 0.01%
16 she şu 50 0.42% 59 case kečä 390 0.03% 102 yep yah 1223 0.01%
17 can kanata 51 0.41% 60 turn tön 393 0.03% 103 bunch buncha 1230 0.01%
18 think saq- 54 0.39% 61 trust dörs 397 0.03% 104 cash kečä 1257 0.01%
19 go git 57 0.38% 62 check chek 398 0.03% 105 king kengu 1290 0.01%
20 how qalï  60 0.33% 63 brother birader 413 0.03% 106 foot but 1379 0.01%
21 see süz 68 0.29% 64 question kushku 457  0.03% 107 tree terek 1391 0.01%
22 as aδïn 73 0.26% 65 hit it- 481 0.02% 108 butt büt 1417 0.01%
23 time timin 77 0.25% 66 cut kes- 539 0.02% 109 cry qïqïr- 1420 0.01%
24 mean many 82 0.23% 67 sick sök- 543 0.02% 110 guard qur- 1429 0.01%
25 tell tili 83 0.23% 68 eat ye 547 0.02% 111 cake kek 1434 0.01%
26 hey ay 84 0.22% 69 lie yalgan 598 0.02% 112 cup kap 1451 0.01%
27 yes yah 89 0.21% 70 body bod 620 0.02% 113 taste tat- 1454 0.01%
28 some kim 98 0.20% 71 worse uvy 625 0.02% 114 land elen < el 1460 0.01%
29 say söy 101 0.19% 72 touch toqï 680 0.01% 115 band ba- 1526 0.01%
30 take tut- 103 0.19% 73 cold xaltarä 692 0.01% 116 ought ötä 1544 0.01%
31 us ös 106 0.19% 74 food apat 696 0.01% 117 bastard bas + tard 1551 0.01%
32 make -mak 108 0.17% 75 act aqtar- 737 0.01% 118 guest göster 1563 0.01%
33 too de 111 0.16% 76 top töpü 741 0.01% 119 jerk jul- 1591 0.01%
34 man men 130 0.14% 77 swear  vara 748  0.01% 120 cousin qazïn 1603 0.01%
35 uh yah 130 0.14% 78 less es- 761 0.01% 121 skin saɣrï 1612 0.01%
36 much muncha 139 0.13% 79 till til- 773 0.01% 122 dumb dumur 1661 0.01%
37 talk tili 152 0.11% 80 till teg 773 0.01% 123 bear bori 1683 0.01%
38 God kut 154 0.11% 81 eye ög- 786 0.01% 124 scare qor 1703 0.01%
39 call qol 164 0.10% 82 court qur- 815 0.01% 125 tie taŋ 1723 0.01%
40 other ötürü 175 0.09% 83 wake vak 832 0.01% 126 sea si 1759 0.01%
41 day dün 185 0.08% 84 message mushtu 836 0.01% 127 coat gömlek 1799 0.00%
42 kind keŋ 209 0.07% 85 write 'rizan 865 0.01% 128 beg bag 1839 0.01%
43 care qorq 218 0.07% 86 early ertä- 867 0.01% 129 master bash+er 1884 0.01%

207, 113 55%, *, 31 15% IE *, 63 30%, -, -IE 94 45% Appendix:Proto-Indo-European Swadesh list . -IE . , " ", G.Doerfer 1981. , 70% , , , . , , , 2000 , , , , 1000 , . , 6,5% 129 2000- 26,9 % , , .

. . , . Swadesh () , ; G.Doerfer, 1981 , , M. Rosenfelder, 2002 , . , , aɣrïüt, aggravate aggravare, baiyar, boyar, (), Boyar. , , , - . , .
10

. 500 , 30% , , . - , , , (), .

.
.
.
Sl. >
to be or not to be this is the question
bul(mak) ya da bulma(mak) - işte alqu (gamu) kuşku bu
-
to be or not to be - is all (gamut) question be
I do argue, making others feel bad
Ötürü bäd hissettiren, ben arqu(mak)
,
Others bad feel making, I argue(make)

, -- . . , , . .

  to be or not to be this is the question I do argue, making others feel bad
. to be (be'd) or not to be is all (gamut) question be   others bad feel making I argue do
. ( ) bul(mak) ya da bulma(mak) ishte alqu (gamu) kushku bu   ötürü bäd hissettiren [mak] [Es] arqu() tu(mam)
, ()    
, byt ili ne byt est vse (gamma) somnenie vot   drugih ploxo chuvstvivat delat ya argumenty delat

  , , . , , .

(OE) - - , , . -, , 700- 1050- ., , . , ; , , , () ( ), . - .
11

(: , , , , 2005, ISBN 5-298-04057-8)
. - -. . - -.
а, ä о, и
č p
i s1
j1 - t1
l1 th -
m Tur. x1 -
n1          

. - , . , , , , . , , þ th (.), δ ), , () (Futhark). , , - þ, . , , , , , . , .

, , , - (OE) . , 70%. 450 - , , , , . , , 3- . .. , 3- . .. . .. . , , , , - Sprachbund . -- ; , - (127 ) - (400 ): 32% . , , . -- ; , , , , , .
12, 13, 14

, , . , , 3- . .., . . , , , .

2. --
No
1 abundant (adj.) abundantem abadan (adj.) glut gluttire oglït- (v.)
2 acid (n.& adj.) acidus аčï- (v.) guest hospes göster
3 act (v.) actus aqtar- (v.) hah ha ha qatur (v.)
4 age aetas aga hash ascia ash
5 aggravate aggravare aɣrï heap chupa kip
6 alms eleemosyne almak heart cor chäre
7 anger (v.) angustus özak (adj.) I (arch. ic) ego es
8 anguish angustus özak (adj.) joke iocus elük
9 apian apianus arï juice ius
10 aptitude aptus apt key clavis kirit
11 arch arcus arca kin gignere kun/kün
12 ardent ardens arzu (n.) leak libarе liš
13 argue (v.) argutare arqu- (v.) mama mater mamü
14 Arthur Arturius artur (v.) master magister bash+er
15 astute (adj.) astutus asurtɣuq (adj.) mental (adj.) mens meŋtä (adj.)
16 Augean Augeas aqür message missus muştu
17 augur (v.) augur ay- (v.) mind mens ming
18 bat (v.) battuere pata (v.) moisture mador mayi
19 be (v.) fui buol (v.) monastery monasterium manastar
20 bear ferus bori (ob)turate (v.) (ob)turare tiy- (v.)
21 bellow (v.) mugire belä (v.) ogle (v.) oculus ög- (v.)
22 belt balteus bel omen omen aman (adj.)
23 beetle vaboli bit onus onus önüs (adj.)
24 body tegus bod owl ulula aba(qulaq)
25 boil bullire bula- (v.) papa papa baba/babai
26 bore (v.) forare bur- (v.) ration (v.) ratio ruzi (v.)
27 brother frater birader quality qualitas qïlïɣ
28 bull bovis buqa quantity quantitas qalaŋɣur
29 bursary bursar bursaŋ quarrel querella qaršï
30 calamus Acorus igir sage sagax sag
31 calumny calumnia čulvu salary salarium salɣa (v)
32 candle candela kandil saliva saliva liš
33 cap cappa kap sanity sanitas san- (v.)
34 capture (v.&n.) captura hapset sanitary (adj.) sanus esan (adj.)
35 car carrus köl- (v.) sapient (adj.) sapientem savan (adj.)
36 carpus carpus qarï sapphire sapphirus sepahir
37 castigate (v.) castigare kast (v.) satisfy (v.) satisfacere satsa (v.)
38 castle castrum kishlak satyr satyrus satir
39 category categoria qatïɣ (adj.) savant sapere savčï (v.)
40 cavalry caballus qavčï (v.) say (v.) inseque söy (v.)
41 cemetery coemeterium semäklä- (v.) secede secedere ses- (v.)
42 chalk calx chol sector sector chektür
43 chip cippus čïp sever (v.) separare sevrä- (v.)
33 chisel (v.) caesellum (n.) čiz- (v.) sepia sepia sepi- (v.)
34 circle circulus sürkülä (v.) sin sons cin (jin)
35 collect (v.) collectus kolar (v.) sip (v.) suppa syp (v.)
36 cork cortex kairy so (adv.) suad aša (adv.)
37 crime crimen krmšuhn (v.) son sunus song
38 crow cornix karga suck (v.) sugere saɣ- (v.)
39 crust crusta kairy suave suavis šuvlaŋ
40 cry quiritare qïqïr- (v.) suture suere sač
41 cup ciphus kap swear (v.) verus vara (n.)
42 curt (adj.) curtus qïrt (adj.) take (v. & n.) tolle tut- (v. & n.)
43 day dies dün tariff tarifa tarïɣ
44 dementia dementare dumur taste (v. & n.) taxare tat- (v.)
45 derma derma deri tavern taberna tavar
46 durable durabilis dür- (v.) terrain terra ter (v.)
47 duration durationis dür- (v.) tend tueri taya
48 duress duriciam dür- (v.) testicles testiculis tasaq
49 ea (OE) aqua aq- (v.) theriacum theriacum tiryak
50 eat (v.) edi ye (v.) this that huius şu
51 elbow ulna el throne thronus tören
52 eligible (adj.) eligibilis elïg (v. & n.) toll telonium tol
53 elm ulmus ilm touch (v. & n.) tangere toqï (v.)
54 endure durare endür- (v.) tremble (v.) tremulus četre (v.)
55 enge (adj.) (OE) angustus özak (adj.) ululate (v.) ululatus ulï- (v.)
56 ether aether äsir unite (v.) unitus una- (v.)
57 exhaust exhaurire qoxša- (v.) us (pronoun) nos ös (pronoun)
58 eye oculus ög- (v.) use (v. & n.) uti tusu (v. & n.)
59 false falsus al- (v.) valerian Valeriana pultäran
60 fart bombulum burut- (v.) voe vае uvy (interj.)
61 flask vasculum baklaga vouch (v.) vocitare buč- (v.)
62 foot pes but we (pron.) nos ös (pron.)
63 faith fides vara worse (adj.) vае uvy (interj.)
64 frog varde baga      

, - , - . , . , , . . . , , , . , , . ,  , .

, . (Forrer, 1894-1986) (Forrer E., 1934, Neue Probleme zum Ursprung der indogermanichen Sprachen, ( - ). Mannus, B. 26).   (Sigmund Feist, 18651943), 1932, The Origin of the Germanic Languages and the Europeanization of North Europe ( ). Language (Linguistic Society of America) 8 (4): pages 245254. doi:10.2307/408831. http://jstor.org/stable/408831. . (John A. Hawkins, 1990), Germanic Languages, in The Major Languages of Western Europe ( , ), Bernard Comrie, ed. (Routledge). ISBN 0-415-04738-2. . (Edgar C. Polomé, 1990), Types of Linguistic Evidence for Early Contact: Indo-Europeans and Non-Indo-Europeans ( : -). : Markey-Greppin (eds.) When Worlds Collide 267-89. .

, , , : ( ) (), (.. , .. , 2008, , (In Defense of the Comparative Method, or The End of the Vovin Controversy)// 3, .139, , ). - . , , .
15

, , , , , . . , (u, ü, muse)) (u, mull) , --, : you, iou, ui, ull  u, ou, oo, oue, ul; (i, siamese) (y, sit): ea, ee, ei, ei  i, y. -- , , , , .

4. , ( ) HVS I
(Hatice Mergen et al., Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey)//Journal of Genetics, . 83, No. 1, 2004)


2004 Hatice Mergen et al., Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey) ( ()), . , , : - ( ) ( !). , [Hatice Mergen, Department of Molecular Biology, Science Faculty, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail: mergen@hacettepe.edu.tr]. Y- R1a R1b, , .

., , , - . , , . , , , , , , , , . , . , ; , - . , ?
16

.., 3500 . .. , 2, , 3000 . .., 3. , , , . , . , . , , . R1b, , , . . , , , ; . , , , . , , , , ; , . . , . , , .

- , , * , * ( , ) . , , , , : . * : , , , . , , . .. - , , 2000 , .

20- .   Ursprache -, , -. , - . , , , . , , Ursprache - 30-20,000 YBP. , ,   - (R1a R1b ) (R1b ) , . - (R1a R1b ) 10,000 . .., . 6000 . .., 4000 . .., 3,000-2,000 . ...   , .

, , SOV ( ). , . , - , , . , ​​ , , . , . , . 42 + ( , ), , . , , , .
17

. , , . . , - , , ​​ , (, 1974, . 39). . stand (., )   stand (., ., ),  sit (.) seat (.), sleep (.) and sleep (.), , . - , 13 ., , .

, , , . , : . (., , ) (, ) . ; , - , .

, 42+ , , . , - - ; ; , , - , . , . , , ; , . , .

- , : horsetail and horse tail, bluegrass and blue grass, .. , blackback, blackball, Blackbeard, .., qara ačı, qara baš - qarabaš, qara boɣuq, .. , , . ; , , : yer/earth , tili/talk , .. , , , . , .

  , () : - , - my uncle ( ) ; father loves her ( ), she loves her father ( ), she loves father ( ) she loves the father ( ) ~ ella ama a su padre ( ) ( ), ( ); - Huar-Ases (Suar-Ases) > Chorasm > Horesm = () ; -m - , my .

, 19- . (passival) , (. - ing, . - inç), (breakfast eating ~ being eaten (   ~ ), , Sprachbund, 3- . ..  y A., ., ., ., , ., .: self/sig/se/si/save/se/sie - ( .. öz , , ), , , . , 19 .; - , (bathing, .. ), (building, .. ~ ), (eating, .. ~ ), (kissing, .. ~ ). (passival)   -m/-ïm/-im/-um/-üm öz , , , , , . öz ,   -'s, , .
18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23

3 ; , . , . / . , . 76 , 48 63% , , .

, . , . -u -an, -isc, -e, -re, -an (.), -a, -ra, -na,  -as (.), -an, -ang  (), -m (.); 13- 89 () 61 (), 69%.

3. -
-a loanwords:
bandana
perceived as a part of the stem   -a, forms nouns of verbal stems for result of action named by the stem: yar - yara (cleave - wound)
-able enjoyable; lovable; suitable forms adjectives from verbs with sense of capable or susceptible of being" Lat. -abilis, -ibilis > Eng. -able, -ible, conflated with able (adj.) -bilä (ability) after -a/i forms adjectives expressing
1. likeness, reciprocity, proximity
2. instrumental(ity)
3. temporality
Ultimately from stem bil- know
-al (1) national; historical forms adjectives with sense of the kind of, pertaining to, having the form or character of Fr. -alis, Lat. -alis -al, ultimately fr.-alqu all: ulus - ulusal (nation - national); -al/-il  with
-al (2) refusal; denial; arrival forms nouns of action from verbs ME -aille, Fr. -aille, Lat. -alia Ditto
-an terranean, american forms adjectives from nouns Fr. -ain, -en, Lat. -anus -an instr. case
-ance appearance; clearance forms nouns from verbs with sense characterized by or serving in the capacity of Fr. -ance, -ence, Lat. -antia, -entia Ditto
-ant (1) contestant; servant forms nouns with a sense of being someone OFr., Fr. -ant, Lat. -antem Ditto
-ant (2) lubricant; deodorant forms nouns with a sense of being something Ditto Ditto
-ant (3) distant; dormant; pleasant with a sense of doing or being something Ditto Ditto
-ar (1) burglar; scholar forms various nouns including occupations Lat. -arem, -aris -ar/-er man
-ar (2) circular; singular forms adjectives with sense of the kind of, pertaining to, having the form or character of" Ditto -ar active voice
-ate (1) consulate (n); elaborate (adj) forms nouns & adjectives with various meanings OFr., MFr. -at, Lat. -atus, -atum -t abstract noun
-ate (2) populate (v) forms verbs with various meanings Ditto -t verb voice
-ce once; twice; thrice forms numeric terms indicating a multiplying effect OE -ce, adverbial genitive affix. -ča/-čä (-cha/-chə) adverbial genitive affix
-cy delicacy; piracy forms abstract nouns from adjectives Lat. -cia, -tia, Gk. -kia, -tia, from stem ending -c- or -t- + -ia abstract ending -č (-ch) abstract noun affix
-y/i - v. > n.
-cy Nancy, fancy forms diminutive-endearment nouns, adj. Ditto -kïya/-gïyä/-qïia/-qïna distinguishing-diminutive affix-particle
-ed (1) counted; worked forms past tense and past participle of verbs OE -ed, -ad, -od > ME -ed, ONorse -tha, Goth. -da, -ths, OHG -ta, Grm. -t; Lat. -tus, Gk. -tos, Skt. -tah -da/-δa/-ta(čï), dä/-δä/tä(či) (-də/-δə/-tə) participle affix
-ed (2) winged; bearded forms adjectives from nouns indicating attributes Ditto -da/-δa/-ta(kï), dä/-δä/tä(ki) (-də/-δə/-tə) adjective affix
-en (1) wooden forms adjectives from nouns indicating attributes OE -nian, ONorse -na, Lat. -ine, Sl.-an, Latv. -na, ne -an/-än (-ən) noun instrumental affix
-en (2) broken; rotten, written forms adjectives from verbs indicating attributes OE -nian, ONorse -na, Sl.-an, Latv. -na, ne -an/-än (-ən) verbal adjectival affix (passive voice)
-en (3) children; oxen forms plurals for some nouns OE -nian, ONorse -na -an/-än (-ən) obs. pl.
-ence abstinence; difference a noun suffix equivalent to -ance", corresponding to the suffix "-ent" in adjectives Fr. -ance, -ence, Lat. -antia, -entia -an/-än (-ən) instr. case
-ent (1) different; absorbent forms adjectives with a sense of doing or being something Fr. -ent, Lat. -entem -an/-än (-ən) obs. verbal adjectival affix
-ent (2) deterrent; adherent forms nouns with a sense of being something Ditto -an/-än (-ən) noun instrumental affix
-er (1) teacher; fisher forms adverbs & adjectives of comparison Grm. -er, Herr man, OE -ere, ONorthumbr. -are man who has to do with, Sw. -are, Dan. -ere -ar/-er man
-er (2) older; faster, better, elder forms adverbs & adjectives of comparison Anglo-Sax. -ra (masc.), -re (fem., neuter), Goth. -iza, OSax., OHG -iro, ONorse -ri, -iro, Grm. -er -raq/-räk high (absolute) or higher (relative) degree of quality in adj. and adv.
-er (3) soccer, primer   English innovation recycling -er (1), 1860s  
-ery fishery; perfumery; shrubbery forms abstract nouns from other nouns ME -erie, Lat. -arius Türkic yer, yeri (Eng. earth) place, location ~ fish place
-y/i - v. > n.
-ess stewardess; actress; waitress forms feminine nouns OE -icge, Fr. -esse, LLat. -issa, Gk. -issa  
-est oldest; hottest; sexiest forms superlatives Goth. -sts, Du. -st  
-ful (1) doubtful; peaceful; beautiful forms adjectives with a sense of characterized by" OE -full, -ful,full (adj.).  
-ful (2) cupful; spoonful forms nouns with a sense of fullness" Ditto  
-fy beautify; simplify forms verbs with a sense of to make, to become, cause to be" Fr. -fier, Lat. -ficare make  
-hood (1) neighborhood; brotherhood; falsehood forms nouns of things with sense of character, nature, condition, etc." OE -had, Grm. -heit, Du. -heid, from hade condition, position, manner, quality -qut/-ɣut/-gut/-qüt/-ɣït/-güt plural, alp shooter ~ alpaɣut retinue, bai rich person, sing. ~ baiaɣut rich (people, pl.)
-hood (2) priesthood; womanhood forms nouns of persons of a class or character Ditto Ditto
-hood (3) childhood; adulthood; boyhood forms nouns indicating a time period in life Ditto Ditto
-ible credible; horrible; contemptible forms adjectives (equivalent to -able" suffix) Lat. -abilis, -ibilis > Eng. -able, -ible, conflated with able (adj.) -bilä after -a/i adjectives expressing
1. likeness, reciprocity, proximity
2. instrumental(ity)
3. temporality
-ic poetic; scientific; artistic forms adjectives with sense of aptitude, characteristic of, in the style of Fr. -ique, Lat. -icus, Gk. -ikos -g/-ɣ/-ag/-aɣ/-ïg/-ïɣ/-ig/-iɣ/-ug/
-uɣ/-üg/-oɣ/-ög forms nouns, adj.
-ical electrical; historical forms adj similar to -ic" suffix, with sense of having ability or characteristic of or in the style of Ditto + -al  
-ile docile; volatile forms adjectives with sense of capability or characteristic Fr. -il, Lat. -ilis -ile with: with docility, with volatility
-ing (1) smiling; crying forms present participle verbs that may be used as adjectives OE -ende, Grm. -end, Goth. -and, Lat. -ans, Gk. -on, Skt. -ant -an instr. case
-ing (2) building; sewing forms nouns from verbs expressing the action of the verb or its result, product, etc. OE -ing, -ung, ONorse -ing, Du. -ing, Grm. -ung  
-ion contrition; suspicion; creation forms nouns denoting condition, process, action, etc. Fr. -ion, Lat. -ionem -ön/-öng space, in front of > -ion
-ish yellowish; childish, British forms adjectives with sense of somewhat, rather so, characteristic of" OE -isc, ONorse -iskr, Grm. -isch, Goth. -isks, Gk. -iskos (dimin.) -g/-ɣ/-ag/-aɣ/-ïg/-ïɣ/-ig/-iɣ/-ug/
-uɣ/-üg/-oɣ/-ög forms nouns, adj; -č/-čä (-cha/-che)
-ism consumerism; alcoholism forms nouns denoting action or practice, state or condition Fr. -isme, Lat. -isma, -ismus, Greek -isma  
-ist dentist; conformist; conservationist forms nouns that denote a person that is concerned with something or holds certain principles Fr. -iste, Lat. -ista, Gr -istes  
-ity capability; diversity; disability forms abstract nouns expressing ability, state or condition OFr. -ite, Lat. -itatem  
-ive active; corrective; restive forms adjectives & nouns expressing tendency, disposition, function, condition, etc. OFr. -if, Lat. -ivus  
-ize customize; fantasize forms verbs with a sense to make, convert into, subject to; give a special character or form Fr. -iser, Lat. -izare, Gr -izein  
-let booklet; droplet; eyelet forms nouns with a sense of smallness or triviality ?  
-ling duckling; hatchling; underling forms nouns with a sense of smallness or being diminutive OE -ol, -ul, -el; + -ing  
-ly (1) casually; carefully; gladly; hourly forms adverbs with sense of how done or when done" OE -lic, OFris. -lik, ONorse -ligr, Du. -lijk, OHG -lih, Grm. -lich -lig/-lan like
-ly (2) weekly; fully; locally forms adverbs with sense of similarity OE -lice, OFris. -like, ONorse -liga, OSax. -liko, Goth. -leiko, Du. -lijk, OHG -licho, Grm. -lich, cognate with like (adj.) -lig/-lan like
-ment agreement; judgment; ailment forms nouns denoting an action, condition, product, result, etc. Fr. -ment, Lat. -mentum  
-ness kindness; correctness forms abstract nouns denoting quality, state or condition OE -nes(s), OSax. -nissi, Goth. -inassus, MDu. -nisse, Du -nis, OHG -nissa, Grm. -nis  
-or (1) actor; creditor; juror forms nouns denoting a person who does something or who has some particular function OFr. -our, Fr. -eur, Lat. -orem, -atorem -ar/-er man
-or (2) error; pallor; squalor forms nouns denoting action, state or condition, quality or property OFr. -our, Fr. -eur, Lat. -orem, -atorem  
-ous dangerous; glorious forms adjectives with a sense of having a certain quality Fr. -ous, -eux, Lat. -osus  
-ry bravery; jewelry forms abstract nouns from other nouns & adjectives ME -erie, Lat. -arius.  
-ship friendship; censorship forms nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc. OE -sciepe, Ang. -scip state, condition of being", OFris. -skip, ONorse -skapr, Dan. -skab, Du. -schap, Grm. -schaft, cognate with shape  
-sion decision; invasion nouns denoting condition, process, action, etc. Lat. -s + -io -ta, -te (locatve in ) + ön/öng space, in front of > -taön, -taön, -taöng, -taöng ~ in space, in place > -sion
-t crept, slept, burnt forms past participle of weak verbs OE -ed, -ad, -od > ME -ed, ONorse -tha, Goth. -da, -ths, OHG -ta, Grm. -t; Lat. -tus, Gk. -tos, Skt. -tah; d/t alteration -da/-δa/-ta(čï), dä/-δä/tä(či) (-də/-δə/-tə) participle affix
Lat. -t/-te -ta, -te locatve in
-th (1) birth; death forms nouns of action OE -ðu, -ð, ~ Skt. -tati-, Gk. -tet-, Lat. -tati- -ta, -te locatve in
-th (2) length; depth; width forms abstract nouns denoting quality or condition OE -ðu, -ð, ~ Skt. -tati-, Gk. -tet-, Lat. -tati- Ditto
-th (3) fourth; sixth forms ordinal numbers OE -ða, ~ Skt. -thah, Gk. -tos, Lat. -tus Ditto
-tion alteration; location forms abstract nouns Lat. -t/-te + -io -ta, -te (locatve in ) + ön/öng space, in front of > -taön, -taön, -taöng, -taöng ~ in space, in place
-ty (1) loyalty; purity forms adjectives denoting quality, state, condition, etc. ME -tie, -te, OFr. -te, Lat. -tatem ~ Gk. -tes, Skt. -tati- -te, -ta (locatve) > Gk. -tes
-ty (2) twenty; sixty forms numerals denoting multiples of ten Goth. tigjus, ONorse tigir tens, decades; OE -tig, Du. -tig, OFris. -tich, ONorse -tigr, OHG -zug, Grm. -zig  
-ure departure; failure forms abstract nouns denoting action, result, agent, instrument or apparatus OFr. -ure, Lat. -ura -r/ur/ür/ir/ïr verbal analytical intrans. base > depart + ur > departure
-y cloudy; dreamy; juicy forms adjectives with sense of characterized by, inclination, condition" OE -ig, Grm. -ig) ~ Lat. -icus, Gk. -ikos -ig/-iɣ/-ik/-ïg/-ïɣ/-ïk - verbal adjectives
-y/i - v. > n.
Plurals
-an     OE -as -an (pl.)
-s books forming plural nouns OE -as, Du. -s plurals, Scand. -r plurals (rhotacism) -s (obs.)
-es ashes forms plural nouns
-ies armies forms plural nouns
-ves calves forms plural nouns
3rd Person Singular Verbs
-s makes; creates forms 3rd person singular verbs OE -es, -as, Northumbr. -eð (-eth, voiced) -sa/-sä (sə) predicate of subordinate clause
-es touches; finishes forms 3rd person singular verbs Ditto Ditto
-ies defies; cries forms 3rd person singular verbs Ditto Ditto

, , , (cockney), - köken - , , . , (Cockney) - ,   1305 .,   , , , . , , , 2- 3- .

- Ursprache, , 5 , . , , . , . , , - . , , , . , , , . , - , . , .

, . , . , . : , . , . , -, , . , , , , . . , , , . - . , (, ) , , , . .
24, 25, 26, 27, 28

, , -, . , , , , , . . .

4, ; ; , , , , 3-5 . V.Stetsyuk 2003. .

, , :  č = j (), y = i (), ü = u (), ä, ə = a (), ö = o (), š = sh (), ɣ = g (), ŋ = ng (),  δ = ð th.

4. -
 
1 abundant (adj.) abadan (adj.) cage (v.) qač -(v.) eat (v.) ye (v.) man men soak (v.) saɣ- (v.)
2 ache čï caginess qïjïm elbow el massif basɣuq sonjis (Goth.) truth čïn [chyn]
3 acid (n.& adj.) čï- (v.) calamus acor eligible (adj.) elïg- (v. & n.) master bash+er sorrel (adj.) sary (adj.)
4 acorn yaɣaq call qol ell el matt (adj.) mat (adj.) squeeze (v.) qis- [qys-] (v.)
5 act (v.) aqtar- (v.) calumny čulvu elm ilm me (pron.) min (pron.) stair šatu
6 ad öt cake kek endure endür- (v.) mead mir subliminal (adj.) sumlîm (adj.)
7 Adam adam can kanata enge (adj.) (OE) özak (adj.) mean (v.) many (mahny) suck (v.) saɣ- (v.)
8 again aga (adj.) candle kandil -er er (morph.) mental (adj.) meŋtä (adj.) suave šuvlaŋ
9 agaze ög- (v.) cap kap Erbse (Grm.) arpa mengir meŋgü sure (adj.) sürek (adj.)
10 age aga capture (v.&n.) hapset Erik erk message muştu surrender (v.) süründi- (v.)
11 ago (adj., adv.) aga (adj.) car köl- (v.) elite elit- (v.) mind ming suture sač
12 aggravate aɣrï caragana qaraqan essen (Grm.) ash Mohn (Grm.) poppy mäkän swear (v.) vara- (n.)
13 all (n.& adj.) alqu (n. & adj.) care qorq ether äsir moisture mayi tab tap- (v.)
14 Alban lban (n. & adj.) carnival kerme exhaust qoxša- (v.) monastery manastar tag toqu
15 alms almak carpus qarï eye ög- (v.) money manat take (v. & n.) tut- (v. & n.)
16 amen (adj.) ämin (adj.) carve (v.) kert- (v.) faith vara much munča (adv.) tale tili- (v. & n.)
17 amorous amran- case kečä false al- (v.) murky (adj.) mürki (adj.) talk (v. & n.) tili- (v. & n.)
18 -an (pl.) -an (morph.) cash kečä fare (v. & n.) faqr(lïq) my -m tambourine tambur
19 analogue anlayu (adv.) cast (v.) kus- (v.) fart burut- (v.) not (interj.) ne (part.) tariff tarïɣ
20 anger (v.) özak (adj.) castigate (v.) kast- (v.) flask baklaga oath ötä- (v.) tasse (Grm.) tas/taz
21 anguish özak (adj.) castle kishlak food apat obturate (v.) tiy- (v.) taste (v. & n.) tat- (v.)
22 antler anten category qatïɣ (adj.) foot but ofett (OE) apat tasty tati (adj.)
23 apian arï cavalry qavčï- (v.) frog baga ogle (v.) ög- (v.) tavern tavar
24 aptitude apt cave kaba gaffe ɣafillïq omen aman (adj.) tell (v.) tili (v. & n.)
25 arch arca Celt kel- (v.) gaggle (v.) qaɣ quɣ- (v.) once ön (adv.) terrain ter- (v.)
26 ard or cemetery semäklä- (v.) gain gänʒ onus önüs (adj.) tend taya
27 ardent arzu (n.) chagrin qadɣur gamut (adv.) qamit (adv.) other (adj.) ötürü (adj.) testicles tasaq
28 are (v.) -ar (v.&n.) chalant (adj.) čalaŋt (adj.) garden karta otter ätär that şu (pron.)
29 argue (v.) arqu- (v.) challenge (v.) čalïš- (v.) gaze (v.) giz- (v.) ought ötä theriacum tiryak
30 Arthur artur- (v.) chalk chol gird (v.) qur- (v.) owl aba(qulaq) thick sik
31 as (adv.) aδïn (adv.) chastise (v.) kast- (v.) girl kyr ox öküz thief tef
32 As Yazï champ (v.) čap- (v.) glut oglït- (v.) papa baba/babai think (v.) saq-
33 asp äväs Charlemagne Charla-mag go (v.) git peace barısh this şu (pron.)
34 asquint qïŋïr (n., adj.) chat (v.) satula- (v.) God kut penny peneg thread telu- (v. & n.)
35 assess asiɣ check chek Gorgon qörq- phlegm balgam throne tören
36 astute (adj.) asurtɣuq (adj.) cheek čaak guard qur- (v.) pour (v.) pür tick (v. & n.) tiki
37 Augean aqür cherub čebär guest göster quake četre- (v.) tie (v. & n.) taŋ- (v.)
38 augur (v.) ay- (v.) chintz čit gut kut quality qïlïɣ till (v.) til- (v.)
39 aurora   chip čïp hack (v.) kes- (v.) quantity qalaŋɣur till (adv.) teg (adv.)
40 awe (v.) ö- (v.) chirp (v.&n.) čïlra (v. & n.) hador (OE) xatär quarrel qaršï time timin (adv.)
41 awhile (adv.) äwwäl (adv.) chisel (v.) čiz- (v.) hah qatur (v.) question kuşku tit for tat (phr.) tite tit (phr.)
42 baby bebi chop (v., n.) čop- (v.) hag karga queue toll tol
43 bad (adj.) bäd (adj.) chute čüm- (v.) hash ash quaver (v.) četre (v.) too de (adv.)
44 bag bag circle sürkülä (v.) haze häzl quim em tool tolɣa- (v.)
45 baize bez clan oglan/ulan heap kip rate ruzi- (v.) tooth tiš
46 bald bül (adj.) clinch (v.) qïlinč (v.) heart chäre ration (v.) ruzi- (v.) top töpü
47 band (v. & n.) ba- (v.) coach (v.) köch (v.) Heimat (Grm.) xajmatläx regal (adj.) arïɣ (adj.) topple topul
48 bane < pata coagulate (v.) qoyul- (v.) herd kert robe rop tor tärä
49 barge (v.) bart (adv.) coal kül/köl hey (interj.) ay (interj.) -s (pl.) -z (morph.) touch (v. & n.) toqï (v.)
50 bark (v.) ver coat gömlek hide qujqa -'s (poss.) -si (morph.) tower türma
51 bark barq cockney köken hit (v. & n.) it- (v.) sack sak tree terek
52 barn ambar cold xaltarä homeland xajmatläx saga savag- (v) tremble (v.) četre (v.)
53 bastard bas + tard collect (v.) kolar (v.) hooligan qïčür- (v.) sagacity sag trust dörs (t)
54 bat (v.) pata (v.) colon kolon host göster sage sag truth dürüst
55 bath (v.) bat (v.) coney, cony kuyan house koš/quš/xüžə sail (v.) salla (v) tsk a click
56 battle pata- (v.) cork kairy how qalï salary salɣa (v) tuck (v.) takın- (v.)
57 bazaar baz corset qursa howl (v.) ulï- (v.) saldo salɣa (v) turkey turuhtan
58 be (v.) buol- (v.) count köni hue saliva liš turf ter- (v.)
59 bear bori courage kür (adj.) hurt sert sallow (adj.) sary (adj.) turn (v.) tön (v.)
60 beetle bit court qur- (v.) hut koš/quš/xüžə sane san- (v.) twat tat
61 beg (v.) bag- (v.) cousin qazïn I (arch. ic) sanity san- (v.) uh yah (interj.)
62 Belgi (adj.) Belgü (adj.) crime krmšuhn (v.) idle ytla sanitary (adj.) esan (adj.) ulan oglan/ulan
63 bellow (v.) belä- (v.) crow karga ilk ilk sapient (adj.) savan (adj.) ululate (v.) ulï- (v.)
64 belt bel crunch (v.) qurt (v.) -ish č/čä sapphire sepahir un- an- (morph.)
65 berm bürma crust kairy itch (v., n.) ichi (v.) sari sarïl (v.) unite (v.) una- (v.)
66 bill (v. & n.) bil- (v.) cry qïqïr- (v.) jack (v., adj.) cak- (v.) satisfy (v.) satsa (v.) undies andarak
67 blade baldu cuddle (v.) koy- (v.) jam jem satyr satir us (pronoun) ös (pronoun)
68 blend bulɣa- (v.) cue jag čak(k) savant savčï (v.) use (v. & n.) tusu (v. & n.)
69 bodega butïq culture kültür- (v.) jaggery yaɣïz (adj.) savory saɣur (v.) valerian pultäran
70 body bod cup kap jar jart say (v.) söy (v.) vat but
71 bog bog curdle (v.) qoyul- (v.) jar (v.) jar- (v.) scare qor Vesen (Grm.) bran pečen
72 bogus (adj.) bögüš (adj.) curt (adj.) qïrt (adj.) jaw jaŋaq schabracke (Grm.) cheprak voe uvy (interj.)
73 boil bula- (v.) curve qarvï (adj.) jeer (v.) jer- (v.) sea si vouch (v.) buč- (v.)
74 bold palt curse qur- (v.) jerk (v.) jul (v.) secede ses- (v.) voucher vučuŋ
75 bong böŋ curtain qur- (v.) jig (v.) jïq (v.) secret soqru wake vak
76 boot bot cut kes- (v.) jog (v.) jag (v.) sector chektür ware tavar
77 booze (v.) buz (v.) cytren (OE) xitren joke elük see süz- (v.) was var- (v.)
78 bore (v.) bur- (v.) damp (adj.) dymly (adj.) jolly (adj.) yol select seč- (v.) wax avus
79 Boris böri day dün journey jorï (v.) sepia sepi- (v.) we (pron.) ös (pron.)
80 boss boš (adj.) dawn tang (taŋ) juice sever (v.) sevrä- (v.) Wermut (Grm.) armuti
81 botch (v.) boδu (v.) dementia dumur key kirit shake silk- (v.) wife ebi
82 bouillon bula- (v.) derma deri kill (v.) kelle (v.) sharp (adj.) süvrä (adj.) wise vidya
83 boutique butïq diadem didim kilter kel- (v.) she (pron.) şu (shu) (pron.) wormwood armuti
84 bow boq- (v.) dick dik (v.) kin kun/kün shield čyt (chyt) worse (adj.) uvy (interj.)
85 box boɣ dip, deep dip kind (adj.) keŋ (adj.) shilling sheleg write (v.) 'rizan (v.)
86 brain beini do tu- king kengu short (adj.) qïrt (adj.) 'd (would) yu
87 brother birader don (v.) ton- (v. & n.) laber (OE) thistle läbär sick (v. & n.) sök- (v.) yacht yaɣ- (v.)
88 bucket but dumb (adj.) dumur land elen < el sicker (v.) sarq (v.) yah (interj.) yah (interj.)
89 bud buqüq dune dun language luɣat sin cin (jin) yard qur- (v.)
90 bull bola durable dür- (v.) leak liš sinew siŋir yeah yah (interj.)
91 bull buqa duration dür- (v.) less (adv.) es- (adv.) sip (v.) syp (v.) yep yah (interj.)
92 bunch (v. & n.) bunča (adv.) duress dür- (v.) lie (v.) yalgan (v.) skin saɣrï yes yah (interj.)
93 bundle (v.& n.) bunča (adv.) ea (OE) aq- (v.) lull (v.) ulï- (v.) skull kelle you (pron.) -üŋ (pron.)
94 burg balïq earl yarlïqa- (v.) lullaby balu baju so (adv.) aša (adv.) Yule yol
95 burl burnï early (adv.) ertä- (adv.) make -mak some kim (morph.) youth (n. & adj.) yaš (adj.)
96 bursary bursaŋ earn ar- (v.) mama mamü son song yummy (adj.) yemiš (adj.)
97 butt büt Earth Yer            
Σ = 482

( )

:
1. 2. 3. 4.1 5. 6.
      4.2    
      4.3    
      4.4    
      4.5    
      4.6    

Tatsiz türk bolmaz bašsïz börk bolmaz
No Türks without aliens as no hats without head
,

( II 281);

Some common linguistic terms:
anlaut - first sound of a word or syllable
auslaut - last sound of a word or syllable
inlaut - middle sound of a word or syllable
lexicon - a set of words in the language
lexis - all meaningful word forms and grammatical functions of the language
morphology - practice of forming words
syntax - arrangement of words in sentences

1. General (few salient words present in any language)

English dawn ~ Türkic tang from the Türkic root tang (and toɣ, taŋ) dawn. Sunrise had a primary role in Türkic societies, it was a morning prayer in a celestial dome. In Chinese, 旦 dan/dang is also sunrise, morning, and though for a 3-phoneme word this coincidence statistically may not be overly impressive, other then a chance coincidence, the only reasonable link connecting the Gmc. and Sino-Tibetan languages is the overreaching mobility of the Türkic languages, and even that would need a superb penetrating cultural capability to make that happen, aside from the Forrer's unstated surmisal about Türkic being a substrate component of the Grm. branch of the IE family. Considering that SE Asia had its own path of peopling, totally isolated from the Middle East path of peopling, this lexical continuity, complemented by a total absence of biologically genetic connections, should raise some loaded questions. The Chinese word is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language. The Türkic dün ~ Eng. day appear to ascend to the same stem tang/taŋ/toɣ dawn. See day.
29

English day ~ from Türkic dün yesterday, toɣ- sunrise. Cognates: OE dæg, OSw., MDu., Du. dag, OFris. dei, OHG tag, Grm. Tag, ONorse dagr, Goth. dags day; Balt. (Latv.) diena > Slavic den; Lat. dies. Transition from Türkic dün to Balt. diena and Slavic den is quite apparent; the Fris. and Eng. dei/day, and the Grm. dag/tag appear to ascend to different dialects. Notably, transition of the Türkic labial vowels to diphthongs in the Baltic languages is systemic, the transition ü => ie is one such systemic transition, with subsequent reduction of diphthongs in Slavic languages, which is one of the diagnostic parameters for the direction of the linguistic substrate process: Türkic > Baltic > Slavic. Another form for day in Türkic is kün, the word for sun, which is still active; the semantics of sun is preserved in Turkic south, midday; reflexes of the Türkic kün with dialectal k/d alteration are also preserved in Skt. dah to burn, Balt. (Lith.) dagas hot season, OPrus. dagis summer. The presence of the Skt. cognate, and the presence of both still active forms in Türkic indicates that the split into kün/dün versions happened before the eastward march of the Aryan agriculturists ca. 2000 BC. See dawn.

English -er ~ Türkic er/ir/ar man, English ending indicates a man: teacher, butcher etc., from the Türkic root er/ir man, Anglo-Sax wer man. But the link does not end there, in Chinese err is a male child, boy (as far as Chinese can articulate rr): N.Bichurin, Collection, Vol.1, p. 46, Note 3. Both in English and Türkic the word -er man serves as an affix forming a noun, as in worker, servicer. And Herodotus' time Scythians called their man er, cited in the word Eorpata, eor = man. The Sumerian form bir-, ber- and the Scythian pata = strike also survived in English as the word bat. The Scythian phonetic form eor reflects the Ogur yer/yir/yar, with prosthetic y-/j- in the anlaut, rather than the Oguz form er/ir/ar. The Sumerian form bir-/ber- is attested fr. the 3rd mill. BC. See bat.

English I  pronoun 1st pers. sing.~ Türkic ič (es) I, pronoun 1st pers. sing. (OTD p. 201). Cognates: English is a 12th c. contraction of OE ic, first person singular nominative pronoun, OFris. ik, ONorse ek, Norw. eg, Dan. jeg, OHG ih, Grm. ich, Goth. ik < Tr. ; Balt. (Lith.) , (Latv.) es < Tr. es; Sl. ja < Tr. ič; Lat. ego (source of Fr. Je), Gk. ego < Tr. ič; Skt. ah(am) < Tr. es; Hitt. uk < Tr. . The English form I is an allophone of the Gmc. ih without voicing and aspiration, ultimately derived from the Türkic forms of . The archaic Lith. and Latv. forms point to the Türkic forms of es of the original source, most of the European forms ascend to the form . Skt. form points to the s/h alteration in the Middle Asia area. The Hitt., Türk., and Gk. forms may point to the Nostratic origin, termed IE in radical linguistics. In agglutinative languages like Türkic and Sanskrit, the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd pers. is indicated by modifying verbs with corresponding affixes, and the use of the 1st pers. sing. pronoun is minimal. In Türkic, personal pronoun is morphologically an individual lexeme and an affix marker, used individually or in combination depending on the syntax of the sentence. With a switch to the syntax of the flexive languages arises a need to separate the agglutinated pronoun affixes into individual lexemes.

5. -
- ;
ikki () , ., . okkar/ugkara
b v w  ;
z, s þ, ð  ;
,
sen/sin - , 20 3-
l-
. -. -. -. -. -.-. -Norse .
. I ik (ic) ič (ich), es ik ic ic it ik (ihha) ek
. me min miniŋ, minüŋ meina min min min min min
. me me мiŋä mis me mi mi mir mer
. me mek, me mini, minig mik mec, me mic, mi mi mih mik
. . minigdin, miniŋtin
.. miniŋdä
. mintä
. . mindin, mindän, miniŋdin, mintin
. minin, minniŋ
. minin
. minigsiz, minsiz,
. wit biz (ikki) vit wit wit *wiz vit
. uncer biziŋ (ikkiiŋ) ugkara uncer uncero unchar okkar
. unc bizkä (ikkikä) ugkis unc unc *unch okkr
. unc bizni (ikkini) ugkis uncit, unc unc *unch okkr
. we git biz veis we wi, we wi wir ver
. us incer biziŋ ös/öz unsara user (ure) user user uncar Var (vor)
. us inc bizkä ös/öz unsis, uns us us us uns oss
. us inc bizni ös/öz unsis, uns Usic, us us us unsih oss
2nd Person
. thou þu (thu) sen þu (thu) þu (thu) thu thu du þu (thu )
. thou þin (thin) seniŋ, seniŋdä, seniŋdin Þeina þin thin thin din þin
. thou þe (the) saŋa, saŋar, seŋär þis þe thi thi dir þer
. thou þek (thek), þe (the) seni, sini þik Þec, Þe thic, thi thi dih þik
. ikki ös/öz *jut git git *jiz, iz it, þit
. ikki ös/öz igqara incer *incero *inchar ykkar
. ikki ös/öz igqis inc inc *inch ykkr
. ikkini ös/öz igqis incit, inc inc *inch ykkr
. ye   biz senlar jus ge gi, ge i, gi ier, ir er, þer
. ye   biziŋ seniŋ + pl. aff. izvara eower iwar iuwer iwar yðar
. eow   bizkä saŋa, saŋar, seŋär + pl. aff. izvis eow iu iu, io iu yðr
. eow   bizni seni, sini + pl. aff. izvis eowic, eow iu iu, io iwih yðr
3rd Person
. he, she   ol
. him, her   anuŋ seina sin sin sin sen/sin?
. him, her   aŋа sis (sig, sih, sic) ser sen/sin?
. him, her   anï, anïŋ sik (sig, sih, sic) sih sik sen/sin?
--
. they   olar
. them   anuŋlar scina sin sen/sin?
. them   aŋаlar sis (sig, sih, sic) ser sen/sin?
. them   olarnï, olarda sik (sig, sih, sic) sih sik sen/sin?

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English Earth ~ Türkic Yer. Cognates: Grm. Erde, from the Türkic root er (yer) which produced Grm. noun ertho, and ultimately Grm. erde, Du. aarde, Dan. and Sw. jord, and English earth. Related cognate forms include Gk. eraze on the ground; Welsh ddaear/daear earth, erw field, Bask lurra; Skr. thira, Lat. terra. The anlaut consonant common to the European reflexes in Welsh, Bask, and Lat. probably reflects the early form brought over to Iberia in Europe by the circum-Mediterranean Kurgan migrants from the Pontic steppes 4800 ybp, and the Skt. reflex brought over from the Pontic steppes to India 3600 ybp; the anlaut consonant probably was not prosthetic, but represents the original archaic form preserved in the Ogur languages with the consonants g- and d-, and semi-consonants j- and y-: ger/der/jer/yer, it was also recorded in the Scythian Oguric form Gerra; the Oguz branch lost the anlaut consonant: er and Gk. er. Another migration path from the Pontic steppes was direct to the Balkans and C. Europe connected with the Kurgan migrations. The word -er man must be an archaic semantical relative of the er earth; the forms with the anlaut t- ascend to the Türkic derivative ter pasture land. See -er, terrain, turf.

English land ~ Türkic elen < el. English land has nearly identical forms in all other Gmc. languages. PIE etymology for land does not exist, Tr. el = land, country > elen = smb's land, possession. The Grm. form land is semantically literal form of Tr. elen: a definite portion of the earth's surface owned by an individual or home of a nation, adopted as a compound of the root el and affix of possession en. Even more clear is the Tr. El in the expression Île-de-France, where the root El is used directly under its meaning land.

English language conventional system of sounds for verbal communication, dialect ~ Türkic luɣat language, dialect, vernacular, like in M.Kashgari Divanu luɣat at-Türk ~ Collection of Türkic languages (or dialects). Cognates: OE (13c.) langage words, statement, conversation, talk, OFr. (12c.) langage, Lat. lingua speech, language, tongue. No IE cognates, the language <=> tongue is a dead-end circular logic. Both Eng. and Türkic have 3 semantically close terms: langage <  luɣat language, say < söy to say, tell < tili speech, mutually confirming the unity of the origin. The stand-alone stance of English language vs. Gmc. languages points to a separate path, whether directly from Türkic, or via Lat. > Fr.

English -like like ~ Türkic affix -lig/-lan like. Like English -like, Türkic -lig is agglutinated to the stem to express a notion of similarity: alike, adultlike, ape-like, wave-like (gesture), etc. ~ Tr. artuqlan tresspass-like, tolquqlan blown-up-like, teŋlig measured-like (manner), tepizlig marsh-like. Another Tr. allophonic affix is -laju/-läjü (phonetically -laü) like adïɣlaju = bear-like. Apparently, in -laju the auslaut consonant was truncated, replaced with semi-consonant, typical for European Ogur languages. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. -lic, OE gelic like, similar, OSw. gilik, Du. gelijk, Grm. gleich, Goth. galeiks equally, like are built on the Türkic model with numerous synonymic expansions for the notion like: suɣluɣ, jölästürgülüg, ančulaju, munčulaju, and more, which can be viewed as the model for the Grm. anlaut g-, or it could be a reflex of the Ogur prosthetic anlaut consonant. The Anglo-Sax. affix -lic is an exact twin of the Tr. affix -lig. Both in Türkic and in English, the compound form serves as a noun- or verb-derived adjective. The phonetical, semantical, syntactical, and morphological similarity is persuasive, in contrast to the IE artificial and superficial attempts to derive the English -like from the similar but totally unrelated body, corpse.
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English man ~ Türkic men, from the Türkic root men/min = I, me, and postpositive pers. marker in nominal and participle compound predicates. In Chinese bĕn is I, myself, personally ~ Türkic ben/men I (m/b alteration). This is another English/Türkic/Chinese peculiar coincidence. In English, like a postposition in Türkic, man also serves as an affix of a noun, as in workmen, serviceman, with some peculiarities, for example alteration man/men to indicate plurality is impossible in Türkic agglutinative languages. A standing IE objection is that the man and I, me are semantically incongruent, but the actual practice of the IE etymology regularly allows much wider semantical fields than this (e.g., see above body, corpse for like).

English no (nah, nay, neither, nope, nor, not) (interj.) not ~ Türkic ne negative, negation (part.). Cognates: OE na (adv.) no, never, not at all, ONorse, OFris., OHG ne, Goth. ni, Grm. nein; Sl. net (); Romance no no, not; but Welsh eto, Sw. annu, Balt. (Lith.) dar, (Latv.) vel, Hu. meg, Fin. vielä, etc.; the demarcation line between allophones of the Türkic ne and a variety of differing stems is clearly visible. The English no is used as noun, adjective, adverb, and interjection; the Türkic ne is an universal intensifying negation particle for direct negation and for idioms like ne... ne... ~ neither... nor...; the flexive morphology of the IE languages freed the Türkic negation from the rigid structure of the agglutinative languages, allowing it to expand across the grammatical functions. English, like Türkic, has numerous allophones and spellings; in the usage frequency rating, these allophones occupy a very prominent place (Table 1, 2000 word list, rating and frequency are shown in parentheses): no (18, 0.81%), not (23, 0.74%), neither (948, 0.01%), nope (1496, 0.01%), for a total of 1.57% usage frequency, or about every 60th word of the daily language; in the frequency listing table, they are summarily shown under less frequent, but more formal entry not. For the English - Türkic pair ne - no, the semantic and phonetic equivalence are absolute, for the other allophones the common origin is perfectly clear. The IE etymological fantasy can't be called etymology, it goes in circular logics no < na < no +a, uses a compound of unattested PGmc. and PIE reconstructions to come up with natural allophonic variations, at the end still reverting to the basic Türkic stem ne.

English quality temperament, character, disposition ~ Türkic qïlïɣ behavior, character, temper. Cognates: Lat. form qualitas. The IE etymology passes on a folk etymology, connecting it with the Lat. qualis what kind of a? and then jumps to pronominal who, referring to the unattested PIE pronominal *kwo-, and cites Cicero as an inventor of the word, a most imaginative explanation. With the near-perfect phonetical and semantical concordance with the Türkic qïlïɣ, no farfetched patriotic concoctions are needed.

English quantity ~ Türkic qalaŋɣur increase, multiply, suffice. The IE etymology passes on a folk etymology, connecting it with the Lat. quantitas relative greatness or extent and Lat. interrogative adverb quantus of what size? how much? how great? what amount?, then jumps to pronominal who, referring to the unattested *PIE pronomial *kwo-, a most imaginative explanation. The closest semantical cognate to quantity is count, which has a corresponding Türkic noun köni measure (n.). The noun qalaŋɣur consists of the stem qal + abstraction affix an- + affix ɣur-/gür-/qur-/kür-/qïr- applied to nouns and verbs as descriptive and causative modifier; the whole contraption refers to quantity of something, and is phonetically and semantically consistent with the English form quantity and its European forms. Notably, the Tr. stem qal is found in the Tr. attested interrogative pronoun qaltï/ɣaltï = how?, which way? what extent? used substantively and adjectivally, conceptually matching the unattested nonsensical PIE pronomial who, and helping to visualize a complete etymological path without imaginative contrivances.
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English so (adv.) such, to such degree ~ Türkic aša (asha) (adv.) excessively, very . Cognates: OE swa, swæ in this way, OSax., MDu., OHG so, ONorse sva, Dan. saa, Sw. , OFris. sa, Du. zo, Grm. so, all so, Goth. swa as, like, such; OLat. suad so, Gk. hos as, like, such; Hindi accha (adj.) good. The Hindi word parallels other Turkisms: grhas house,  ghira encircle, sari wrap. Instead of explaining etymology, the IE etymology constructs an unattested phonetical proto-form. A colloquial interjection in Türkic form is preserved in Rumanian ot asha! like this!, like so!. Functionally, the adv. so/aša (asha) is mirrored in the ubiquitous Christian religious term amen like this!, like so!, so be it! of the Tr. stem amin of the same semantics. See amen, gird, sari.

English terrain ground for training horses ~ Türkic ter- (v.) to pasture. The origin of the verb ter- must ascend to pre-domestication times, when pasturing animals were a prime target of hunter-gatherers, and accordingly it is spread far and wide, and it became a focus of daily life in the pastoral economy and a most productive stem, with allophones based on interchangeability of back and middle vowels a-e-o-u > tar-ter-tor-tur. The semantic fields derived from to pasture and a noun derivative pasture develop into stop-over, stay over, dwelling (Eng. tower), land tract, flat land, land (terra, territory, terrain), dry land, valley, tarry, earthwork, soil-tilling, hard labor, and so on. Most of these derivatives have reflexes and innovations in Indo-European languages. Taken as a group, these Indo-European derivatives do not find a common etiological stem, they wonder like a tipsy sailor crew on the way to its ship, veering to posts and fences when a need arises. Cognates tend to congregate in the European languages, with few reflexes in the Asian area. The paths of the cognates and derivatives to English do not make etymologies easy; some came directly from the substrate language, and usually are denoted as of uncertain origin; others came from Lat. directly or via French, and thus stop at Lat.; some more are linked to unattested IE *word forms of dubious relevance. The English cluster includes numerous words with the t*r stem: tarry, terra, terrace, terracotta (earthenware), terracy, terrace. terrain, terrene, terrestrial, territory, tower, turf (surface of grassland, aka Turfan pastureland). See Earth, terrain, turf.

English till (prep.) up to, before the time, until ~ Türkic teg (postp.) up to, before the time, until. Cognates: OE (Northumbrian), ONorse, Dan., OFris.; possibly related to Grm. Ziel (n.) limit, end, goal and Sl. do () until; the attested distribution is limited to the Gmc.-Sl. family. Other Türkic forms include semantically identical tegi, tegïn, teginč, tegü, all obvious variations of teg; in Türkic languages the auslaut hard g tends to be dialectally articulated with semi-consonants y/j, which in Gmc. case apparently reverted to dialectal liquid l. The IE etymology for the time notion untill appeals to the phonetical allophones of convenient (Goth.), scope, death, end of life (Icl.), the case of last two is obvious the Icl. derivative form aldrtili of the Türkic noun öl death, with the part tili being either a reflex of the Türkic verb til- to scratch (See till (v.)), or the till until, which makes the Icl. noun compound aldrtili either a stroke of death or a phrase until death with the til to, until. In addition, the IE etymology attempts to confuse the time notion until with the notion to plow of the homophonic verb till to plow, which is an allophone of the Türkic verb til- to scratch, all these speculations are semantically dubious. See till (v.)

English time (n.), timely (adv.) ~ Türkic timin (adv.) just now, at a time, outright. Cognates: OE tima limited space of time, ONorse timi time, proper time, Sw. timme an hour. Türkic has numerous words to refer to the abstract continuous time, but except qolu none of them have an element of time measurement: čer season, period; čerig, čerlik suitable moment; oɣur period < timely; öδ period, moment; öδla choose, appoint moment, period; öδläk time period, time (generic); qačan when; qaju when; qolu 10 sec period; rüzgar epoch; tïδïn moment in time; turum r during (period, month, hour); tuš period, all time; vaqt defined period; zamana epoch, fate. It appears that the notion of certain time expressed by Türkic timin developed into adverb timely, and then expended to the notions of time duration (hours) and moment (10 o'clock) time (n.), and of time flow time (n.). The verbose IE etymology also employs that concept of development, but leads to nonsensical unattested IE root *da- cut up, divide << tide, suitable for anything divisible, like an apple pie. The time cognates have no relation to cutting anything or any tides, and do not lead to a generic word for time that undoubtedly existed in any human society from days immemorial. Türkic is a good example on antiquity of the notion of time, in the above example it developed 11 discrete references to time, and probably numerous others did not enter the dictionary. The semantics and phonetics of timely, time, and timin suggest etymology that does not venture to any long-range fishing expeditions and phantom conjectures. See awile.

English too (adv.) in addition, in excess, also ~ Türkic de (adv.) (da/dä (də)/de/deg/teg) in addition, in excess; lit. also, too (like in me too) serving as intensifying particle. Cognates: Du. te, Grm. zu; Lat. etiam, It. tanto, Sp. tam (in también), Port. tam (in também); Balt. (Lith.) taip (in taip pat); Hu. tul (in túlságosan); Cz. též, také, Bulg. i to, Bosn. isto; Alb. tepër. The bifurcated semantic, so apparent in the Türkic and English, is also retained in other linguistic families; the spread among diverse linguistic families and linguistic subfamilies, and the accidental appearance in the subfamilies are the hallmarks of linguistic borrowing. The IE etymology does not even attempt to address the origin to fancy some asterisked trace.
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English tree ~ Türkic terek. This must be among the oldest known words of shared vocabulary.

English truth (n.), true (adj.) ~ Türkic dürüst (n.) truth. Cognates: OE (n.) triewð (WSax.), treowð (Mercian) faithfulness, quality of being true, from triewe, treowe faithful (see true); OE (adj.) triewe (WSax.), treowe (Mercian) faithful, trustworthy, OFris. triuwi, Du. getrouw, OHG gatriuwu, Grm. treu, ONorse tryggr, Goth. triggws faithful, trusty; Balt. (Lith.) drutas firm, Welsh drud, OIr. dron strong, Welsh derw true, OIr. derb sure. The Balt. (Lith.), Welsh, OIr., Welsh, OIr. forms are all reflexes of the Türkic form of dürüst; the Celtic and Gmc. forms indicate two parallel independent paths. No sensible IE etymology.

English tsk utterance of disapproval ~ Türkic clicking sound expressing negative response. This Türkic negative utterance is an unvoiced click, non-phoneticized, and it is phoneticized in English as tsk, tut, and tut-tut, in both cases the written depiction does not relay the nearly invisible motion to the side, facial shrug, and the sound. This is exclusively Middle Asian areal Sprachbund, usually not understood by uninitiated outsiders who are waiting for an answer long after the answer was given. This non-verbal language could only be physically brought over from the Middle Asian steppes to the British islands, and passed from generation to generation by non-verbal example.

English turf grassland ~ Türkic ter- (v.) to pasture. Türkic noun forms center around pastoral semantics pasture and habitat ~stop-over, stay over, dwelling (Eng. tower): turaɣ. turuɣ, turaq. turuq dwelling, encampment, residence; pasture; shelter, refuge, den; tura fortified habitat, tower; Turan Pasturelands; taraɣ, tarïɣ grain, cereal, millet; agriculture, tillage; turmaq stay, staying. Cognates: OE turf, tyrf grassland, Dan. tørv, ONorse torf, OFris. turf, OHG zurba, Grm. Torf; Fr. tourbe turf; Skt. darbhah bale of grass. The root ter-  to pasture stands at the base of the family tree that produced a rich crop of the modern linguistic terms in a large geographical swath; hypothetically, it can ascend to the dawn of the producing animal husbandry in the 6th mill. BC. See Earth, terrain.

English wife ~ Türkic ebi- or ebe- engender, birth-giving woman (emi- or eme- with m/b dialectal variation); evenug is pregnant. Cognates: Grm. wib, Grm. Weib, Sw. viv, OE wif woman, OSw., OFris. wif, ONorse vif, Dan., MDu., Du. wijf. The Grm. and Sw. forms clearly show tracing to the original -b/-v form, and point to the source of the -f form. The initial prosthetic w-/v- is consistent with numerous other similar examples in the Northern European languages. The Türkic Ebe = foremother is a perfect match for the Biblical Eve, and a proper Türkic complement for the Türkic Adam man. Ultimately, ebi- or ebe- are derivatives of the stem eb-/em- that stands for female genitalia, pudenda, still preserved in the European Türkic languages and in Kashgar/Kucha kwipe, kip female pudenda (mislabeled Tocharian in Eurocentric scholarship), and cited in the dictionary of M.Kashgari. In Slavic languages, ebi/ebe retained its direct Türko-Slavic verbal meaning to fuck ebat/ibat, and is a most popular word in the Russian verbal lexicon. The IE unscholarly of uncertain origin is a most stupid or dishonest conclusion, given the abundance of the converging meanings and phonetical forms from Atlantic to Taklamakan. No IE parallels, and the geographical spread points to the movements of the specifically Türkic mounted nomadic tribes across Eurasia. Notably, the Northeastern Europe uses the word for wife originating from a synonymous Türkic word jena of apparently more eastern provenance, from the Turkic stem jeŋ- win, reflecting the ancient Turkic tradition of pre-marriage competitions, where the pretender is wrestling with his chosen maiden and must win to get her as a prize; Balt.: Lith. jmona, Pruss. genno Woman!; Slav.: Ukr. jona, jinka, Blr. jena, Bulg. jena, Croat jena, Sloven. žena, Czech., Slvt. žena woman, wife, Pol. żona, Luz. žona. Skt. janiṣ wife, woman, gna goddess, Av. gǝna-, ɣǝna, ɣna, ǰaini woman, wife; Goth. qino, qens wife, spouse; Ir. ben; Gk. gune ɣυνή; Arm. kin; Kashgar, Kucha sän, sana woman. Even more fascinating, the Latvian word for wife is sieva, which is a form of the Turkic sevig love, beloved, loving, darling, from sev/seb to love. These 3 forms are not random, in Türkic they carry quite different connotations: utility wife, statutory wife, and favorite wife respectively. Combining understanding of the three European forms for wife goes a long way in alleviating scientific myopia. Probably, our idiom prize wife is a calque of the Türkic jena. Try to calculate probability of 3 Türkic words, with their Türkic affixes, creating a constellation of European and Asian terms for wife, plus the above Slavic verb, by pure random coincidence; statistically it would be on the level of accidentally bouncing your wife from the bed to the moon. See Eve, quim.
34

English yeah (ay, aye, huh, uh, uh-huh, yah, yea, yeah, yes, yep, yup) (interj.) affirmative, affirmative response ~ Türkic yah, ye(h) (interj.) affirmative, affirmative response. Cognates: Eng., Grm., Dan., Norse, Sw., Sloven. ja, Serb., Croat, Russ., Ukr. da; Other European forms: Fin. kyllä, Hu. igen, Bask bai; Lat. imo, Fr. oui, Sp., It. si, Port. sim; Slovak ano, Lith. taip, etc. In the Europe, the Gmc. and Sl. are the only groups that follow the Türkic trail, the others each march to their own tune; there is no common IE yes. The English, like the Türkic, has numerous allophones and spellings; in the usage frequency rating, these allophones occupy a very prominent place (Table 1, 2000 word list, rating and frequency are shown in parentheses): yeah (47, 0.46%), yes (89, 0.21%), uh (130, 0.14%), huh (199, 0.08%), yep (1223, 0.01%), for a total of 0.9% usage frequency, or every 100th word in a daily language; in the frequency listing table, they are summarily shown under less frequent, but more formal entry yes. For the English - Türkic pair yeah - yah, the semantic and phonetic equivalence are absolute, for the other allophones the common origin is perfectly clear. The Sl. cognate da with the anlaut consonant betrays its Oguric origin. The IE etymology offers a preposterous origin (for the Eng. yes only, not for the IE yes) from a compound of so + to be > gea, ge + si > yea, a desperately unrealistic origin.

English you (pron.) ~ Türkic -üŋ, -uŋ (pron. affix). The Türkic affix -üŋ, -uŋ is used for 2nd pers. pl. and 2nd pers. sing. respectful, semantically exactly its usage in English, although in English 2nd pers. sing. respectful by 1450s became a general norm, and the form thou gained connotation of disrespect or intimacy. If not earlier as a dialectal norm, the loss of the nasal consonant and transition from an affix to a separate word occurred on transition to the IE phonetics and syntax. Cognates: ONorse yor, OSax. iu, ye, OFris. iuwe, MDu., Du. u, OHG iu, iuwih, German euch; Hu. ön, Fin. sinua; Sp. usted. Essentially, no citable IE cognates from other IE branches, in addition to the Türkic languages distribution is limited to the Gmc. zone and its vicinities. The influence of the Fr. vous probably affected the usage. Outside of the literary usage, the pronoun thou, a cognate of the Türkic ti, continued in dialectal daily use till present.

Phrases

English tit for tat equivalent pain given in return ~ Türkic tite tit, lit. pain for pain, a Türkic idiom. The IE etymology does not have a sensible answer for this mysterious English expression. See tooth for tooth.

English tooth for tooth equivalent given in return ~ Türkic tiše tiš (tishe tish, Turkish dişe diş (dishe dish)), lit. tooth for tooth, a Türkic idiom. In the literate era, these idioms are internationalized by the spread of literature. See tit for tat.

English eye for an eye equivalent given in return ~ calque of the Türkic közasa közas, lit. eye for an eye.

The English flea market street market ~ calque of the Türkic bit bazary flea market. Grm. der Lausemarkt, Fr. marché aux puces.

Anglo-Sax. eorðscrafu earth cave ~ easily recognizable Türkic compound yerkaba, lit. earth cave
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2. Morphology (comparing a few of English and Türkic morphological elements)

 English suffix -an (pl.) ~ Türkic suffix -an (pl.). Both Türkic and English denote plurality of objects or subjects, defined in English as weak nouns category because they used the -an suffix, with the affix -an. The  Anglo-Sax. (OE) plural affixes -u and -an are not active any more, victims of continued creolization, they were replaced with the plural marker -s, which has been extended to singulars in the old collective sense formerly modified with the suffix -an: babes, sweets. See -s.

English -er ~ Türkic er/ir/ar, English ending indicating a man: teacher, butcher etc., from the Türkic root er/ir = man. But the link does not end there, in Chinese err is a male child, boy (to a degree as the Chinese can articulate rr): N.Bichurin, Collection, Vol.1, p. 46, Note 3. Like the word man in English, likewise in Türkic, -er also serves as an affix of a noun, as in worker, servicer. And Herodotus' time Scythians called their man er, cited in the word Eorpata, with eor = man. The Scythian pata = strike also survived in English as the word bat. The phonetic form eor reflects the Ogur yer/yir/yar, with prosthetic y/j in the anlaut, rather than the Oguz form er/ir/ar. See bat.

English -ish ~ Türkic -č/-čä (-cha/-che), both Türkic and English affixes form adjectives, Eng. small > smallish, Tr. kičig (kichig) > kichigč, Eng. Turk > Turkish, Tr. Türk > Türkčä. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) -isc, ONorse -iskr, Grm. -isch, Goth. -isks; Gk. -iskos. The absence of this affix in other IE languages (except Slavic-Russian, which retained exactly both phonetical and morphological function of the Türkic -č/-čä) excludes Nostratic pedigree, and the Gk. form and function is just another Gk. adoption (or retention) of Türkic linguistic elements.

English suffix -s/-es (pl.) ~ Türkic suffix -z (pl.), Chuvash -sem. Both Türkic and English affixes denote plurality of objects or subjects; the Türkic -z is archaic and now is present only in some words, like I vs. we. Other archaic Türkic plural markers are -t/-ty, and -an (-lan) denoting collectivity, Türkic ogul = boy, oglan = boys; in English it is found in the cognate clan from the same Türkic stem used in ogul. Cognates: the OE form was -as, nominative and accusative plural for strong" masculine nouns: dæg day" ~ dagas days; Du. -s plurals and Scandinavian -r plurals (rhotacism): Sw. dagar days. In Türkic, rhotacism is connected with the Ogur (Western) languages: Scythian, Sarmatian, Hunnic, Bulgar, Tatar, Halaj/Alat, etc. Both Türkic and English also denote plurality of objects or subjects with the affix -an, defined in English as weak" nouns category because they used the -an suffix. The OE plural affixes -u and -an are not active any more, victims of continued creolization. The process is not over yet, the plural marker -s has been extended to singulars in the old collective sense formerly modified with the suffix -an: babes, sweets. Both Türkic and English did not use plural markers if plurality was conveyed by other means: 3 sheep, 6 o'clock, 2-pound note, 7-year period; the continued creolization tends to add plural marker -s to these plurals: 3 sheeps, 6 o'clocks, 2-pounds note, 7-years period. See -an.

English -'s ~ Türkic -si, both Türkic and English affixes indicate belonging of an object or subject to a 3rd person singular: Tr. annesi - Eng. mother's, Tr. baba - Eng. father's. The affix -'s is a contraction of OE -es < Tr. -si. Other OE affixes -e, -re, -an (gen.), -a, -ra, -na (pl.) etc. have vanished.

English un- ~ Türkic -an (ang), affix of negation (MK I 40). With the ancient English language speakers switching to the morphology of the new language(s), the old negation affix moved to become a prefix, and the original negation affix -an (ang) have vanished. The set of an and ma appear to have Nostratic pedigree, they appear as prefixes and affixes depending on the typology of the languages, and include uncounted allophones and transpositions. See me, my.
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English demonstrative pronoun this/that and she ~ Türkic şu (shu) = this/that. The English neuter demonstrative pronoun and adj. this/that, like the Türkic şu, is genderless. The English that reportedly emerged ca.1200. The Anglo-Sax. (OE) thæt (pronounced that), neuter sing. of the demonstrative pronoun and adj. (corresponding to masc. se, fem. seo, also cognates of the Türkic şu); Skt. ta-, Lith., OCS to, Gk. to the, Lat. talis such point to the Nostratic origin. Balt. (Latv.) preserved supposedly archaic form šis (shis).

English personal pronoun me ~ Türkic min = me. Cognates: OE oblique cases of I me (dative), me, mec (acc.), ON, Goth. mik, OHG mih, Grm. mich; Balt. (Latv.) me manis (gen.), man (dat.), mani (acc.). The Balt. (Latv.) forms match the modern Turkmen (Oguz) forms of the personal pronouns I = men: me = menin (gen.), mena (dat.) me, meni (acc.). Skt., Av. mam, Gk. eme, Lat. me, OIr. me, Welsh mi me. Dative agglutination is preserved in meseems, methinks. See my, un, us.

English personal pronoun my of me ~ Türkic possessive affix -m of me, mine. Semantically identical, both pronouns indicate belonging to the 1st person. The Türkic pronoun suffix -m moved to become a prefixed particle my, and the original pronoun suffix -m have vanished: čïm (achym) > my ache (my ayk). The old form is preserved in Grm. cognates: OFris., OSax. OHG min, MDu., Du. mijn, Grm. mein, ONorse minn, Goth. meins, identical to the Türkic pronoun min me. The form my is a contracted form of the Grm. mine; the Türkic affix -m is likely also a contracted form of the affix min. The semantical and phonetical parallels point to Nostratic origin. See me, un, us.

English some unspecified, unknown ~ Türkic kim (morph.) unspecified, unknown. Like some in English, the Türkic kim is a service word in constructions denoting indefinite pronouns as something does, somewhere is, and negative indefinite pronouns as no one did, nowhere does. Mostly known from eastern Türkic languages, kim still remains in some western Türkic languages that did not replace it with innovations: Karachai kim ese da, qaida ese da, Tatar ber-kem (de), (ber) kaida da someone, sometimes, etc. The phonetical differences between the forms some (sam) and kim are consistent with other differences between Ogur and Oguz languages: k/s alteration, i/a fluidity. The IE supposition equates some with same, semantically not credible. The compound somebody appears to be a dialectal version of the Türkic compound sam bod (unattested, Ogur) ~ kim bod (unattested, Oguz), ditto for compounds awesome, someday, somehow, someone, someplace, something, and paired compounds some number, some tea, some friends, some time, some distance, etc. Functionally, English some is equivalent to Spanish indefinite pronoun lo in phrases like Yo lo se I (this, whatever) know.

English personal pronoun us accusative and dative plural of we ~ Türkic ös/öz self (we, us, selves) (OTD p. 394). Cognates: OE us, OSax., OFris. us, ONorse, Sw. oss. The -n- form was active in Gmc., Celtic, Lat., Gk., Sl., Skt., and Hittite languages: Du. ons, Grm. uns; OIr. ni, Welsh ni we, us; Lat. nos we, us; Gk. no we two; OCS ny us," nasu our; Skt. nas, Av. na; Hittite nash us; the IE etymology conflates the -s- and -n- forms into an unattested phantom *ns. Distribution of the -s- and -n- form allophones in Europe, Asia and across Eurasia is consistent with N.Pontic serving as a refuge for European refugees from the carnage inflicted during the 3rd mill. BC on the old European farming populations marked by Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, E1b-V13, I1, I2, and R1a, from where started migration of the peculiar -n- form to the south-central Asia (Skt.) and back to Europe (Lat., Gk.). The OIr. and Welsh -n- form points to the presence of the -n- form in the N.Pontic as early as the start of the Celtic circum-Mediterranean migration in the 6th-5th mill. BC. See me, my, un.
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3. Verbs

English acidify (v., n. & adj.) turn sour, acid (n.) sour ~ Türkic čï- (achi-) (v.) turn sour. While the Türkic innumerable grammatical forms descend from the verbal stem čï-, in English the verb was apparently a derivative of the noun, or possibly from adjective. Both English and Türkic have uncounted number of derivatives with unbound semantics, extending to attitude, character, appearance, culinary, chemistry, and so on: acid, acetone, acete (oil), etc. In addition to the full complement of the Türkic languages, the word has widespread usage in the Middle East, Caucasus, and Central Asia as a noun derivative adjika, a staple hot spice in every household of all imaginable languages reached by the Türkic horses. The Türkic allophones and spellings for turn sour and derivatives come in a slew of forms: ajy, açıkh, ačy, aši, aččyk, ajyg, ahyy, aji, ačuu, and more, from the Mediterranean to the Pacific. Semantics of vinegar taste came to English fr. Fr. acide, Lat. acidus sour, hot (sharp), acere sour. Sorry, the IE unattested root *ak- sharp, pointed is a patented nonsense. See ache.

English act (v.) doing or done ~ Türkic aqtar- (v.) dunk, plunge. The IE etymology goes as far as Lat: Lat. actus a doing, a driving, impulse, pp. of agere, with a circular logics and a unattested PIE stem *ag-, derived from various derivatives in Lat., Gk., and Skt. Cognates: ONorse aka to drive, MIr. ag battle, OFr acte document etc., all obviously of derivational origin. In English, the derivative -act grew into a powerful affix: contract, impact, react, transact, etc., with a slew of their verbal and object derivatives, and in one or another form, the word gained universal acceptance in most languages of the modern world.

English age (v.) grow old, (n.) long indefinite period ~ Türkic aga (aɣa, akha, aha) aged, elder, older, older brother, also a respectful appellation implying a senior in position. Cognates: OFr. aage, edage, Fr. âge age; life, lifetime, lifespan; maturity; Spanish edad, Italian eta, Port. idade age; Fin. ikä, ikäinen age, aged; Du oud; Celtic forms oedran, oed, aois, daois, aldri, eldri, eldri, aldrinum, Bask adina, adintsua; Lat. aetatem (nom. aetas) period of life, age, lifetime, years, aevum lifetime, eternity, age; Bengali agraja elder, probably from aga raja; Sum. akka senior. The word has Eurasian distribution, from Pacific to Atlantic. Its allophones are found in nearly every language in the Eurasia, save for relatively few and remote from the Eurasian steppe belt. The onomastic footprint is as impressive as the geographical spread, from the Agamemnon to Achaemenid to the modern Aga Khan and the church, village, or society elders. The Celtic, Iberian, Italic, and Bask forms point to the circum-Mediterranean arrival of the word ca 2800 BC with the Bell Beaker Culture in the form ada, with later innovation alda (Gmc. languages), while the Asian forms retained the form aga, which was preserved in the English age and the Fr. âge. See old.

English aggravate make heavy, burden down (v.) ~ Türkic aɣrï- (v.) be sick, make sick. The Türkic stem is most productive, applied with anything unpleasant, and in that respect closely parallels the English sick. With the loss of the unaccented first vowel, in the European languages it produced a host of derivatives: grave, grief (~aggrieve), grim, grimace, grime, graveside, gravity, gravitate, gravel, and all their derivatives with semantical meaning of burden, pain, trouble. The Lat. immediate cognate is aggravatus, aggravare make worse, but the bulk of the cognates come from the Gmc. languages, pointing to two independent etymological paths, via Gk.-Lat., and from the Grm. vocabulary. Even the latest derivatives, like the modern noun gravity, carry an echo of the proto-root pain. The Türkic linguistic nest has aɣrïɣ pain, sickness, aɣrïɣlïɣ sick, painful, suffering from disease, aɣrïɣučï suffering person, aɣrïmaqlïɣ painful, aɣrïn suffer pain, and so on. The IE etymologies for the huge raster of the derivatives are few and far between, with imaginary *PIE reconstructions for some derivative forms, and without cited actual cognates in the Asian IE languages.
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English anger (v.) feeling toward some grievance, vex ~ Türkic özak (adj.) narrow. The attested link is Türkic özak narrow > Goth. aggwus narrow > OE enge narrow, painful > English anger (v.) to irritate, annoy, provoke. The semantic shift happened in front of our eyes, otherwise no etymologist would come up with such unruly phonetic transformation and disconnected semantic transformation. The Türkic özak (adj.) is a derivative of öz (n.) valley, pass between mountains, hence a narrow passage, narrows. The semantic of narrow is also preserved in MDu. enghe, Lith. ankshtas, Lat. angustus, Sl. uzkii, vuzkii, Arm. anjuk, Skt. aihus, aihas, Av. azah- need. Before undergoing semantic innovation in English, the word spread with its original meaning of the Türkic öz narrow pass to the South-Central Asia at about 1600 BC, and with the Kurgan or Sarmatian waves to the NE Europe and SC Europe (Lat. angustus narrow, tight). The syllable öz comes in numerous flavors, öd, öδ, öz, üz, making the Goth. form aggwus and Sl. uzkii, vuzkii just another attested dialectic forms, clearly of separate linguistic branches. The IE etymology does not dig to the base stem of the IE forms, stopping at a limited sampling of allophonic forms. The Lat. derivative angustia narrowness, tightness, straitness of the Türkic özak (adj.) produced the English anguish. See anguish, narrow.

English are (v.) present plural indicative of be ~ Türkic affix -ar (v. & n.) with meaning be, to be. The origin of are is supposed to be a puzzle, a screaming enigma in the IE paradigm; it does not fit any scholastic IE schemes; it is an irregular verb with all verbose conjectures befitting a great scientific conundrum. The origin, however, lays on the surface, it is the same process that created AD, and probably a few of other applications: an agglutinative affix that produced positive derivatives expressing a being of a property, action, or a trait, in flexive surroundings converted to a stand-alone application. In Türkic, the affix forms -ar-/-är-/-ur-/-ür-/-ir-/-ïr- produce derivatives of the type X-be, still preserved in English in the forms that be (e.g. powers that be), we be, us be, blessed be, boys be, and the like; the Türkic applications are tutar = caught be /be caught < from tut- catch, kelir = come be/bring/convey ~ came < from kel- to come, ketär = depart be/take away ~ remove < from ket- leave, depart. Cognates: OE earun (the form ear- may reflect dialectal variation of the vowel), aron, also ONorse cognates; and no IE cognates whatsoever. Apparently, be and are in OE were used interchangeably, depending on the analytical semantics of general vs. singular. The origin reliably points to the substrate language with incompatible grammatical structure. See be, make.

English argue (v.) make reasoned statements to prove or refute ~ Türkic arqu (v.) discord, disagreement, strife. Cognates: OFr. arguer maintain an opinion or view; harry, reproach, accuse, blame; Lat. argutare blabber; Türkic arqula to sow discord, the affix -la makes an instrumental verb; by now it is an international word via argument. Absence of cognates in the eastern IE languages indicates that the word is a local borrowing from a another language.

English augur (v.) predict ~ Türkic ay- (v.) tell, talk, explain, interpret. Cognates are limited to Lat. augur religious official foretelling events, and correspondingly IE etymology stops at the single instance, citing few nonsensical phonetical examples (avis bird, garrire talk, augos increase). The Türkic 3rd person form is ayur/aygur/ajar, semantically and phonetically a perfect match for the Lat. and Eng. augur.

English awe (v.) to be inspired ~ Türkic ö- (v.) think, reflect, delve, understand. Like in English, Türkic verb has a noun derivative ög (n.) mind, thought, understand, OE aghe, ege fear ONorse agi fright, OHG agiso fright, terror, Goth. agis fear, anguish. Although the early literary examples are connected with religious admiration and fright of God, the simple modern awesome has nothing to do with fear, awesome are kittens, shoes, and manners, anything worthy of admiration and inspiration to impress your mind. The standing IE etymology ignores mental inspiration and explores its fear utility, connecting awe with Gk. akhos αχος pain, grief, ally, which does not make sense in respect to kittens, shoes, and manners. The English spelling quite clearly attempts to render the labial ö in ö- and ög with available means (w is a labial voiceless phoneme), and the spellings with auslaut -g faithfully render the Türkic noun ög. Mind you, IE languages do not have single phoneme verbs and nouns, only some interjections and prepositions, and any self-respecting linguists in search for etymology should avail themselves of that unique for the western Eurasia fact. The Türkic has two single phoneme words, think and eat, which probably ascend to the very beginning of the human abstract thought. English has inherited and preserved both words, in less bigoted science that would be acknowledged and celebrated.
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English band (v. & n.) bind, tie, ring ~ Türkic ba- (v.) bind, tie, bound. A transitive form of the verb ba- is ban- (v.) bind, tie, to be bound, which produced the forms ONorse band tie strip, OHG binda, Goth. bandi, bandwa, Ang-Sax. bindan, MIr. bainna bracelet, OFr. bande, ONFr. bende, Fr. bander, Sp. bandana; Skt. bandhah. The absence of Lat. cognate indicates particular north-west and south-east paths, the Skt. form dates the word to the migratory split time before 1500 BC; the OFr. form allows to suggest Burgund-Provence source, the ONFr. form points to Alans (Amorican Alans) of the 5th c. AD, the MIr. distinct semantics suggests 2800 BC circum-Mediterranean route if not an acquisition. The intransitive form ba- of the verb have not survived in the European languages, but the transitive form of the verb ban- not only survived together with its agglutinated Türkic grapheme -n-, but blossomed into uncounted derivatives in numerous languages. The semantic and phonetical derivatives of the Türkic intransitive verbal stem ba- bind, tie, bound in English are extremely numerous, from band, bind, bound to military and social bands to the commodities like Band-Aid.

English barge (v.) suddenly break into, crash heavily into ~ Türkic bart (adv.) suddenly. The IE etymology on purely phonetical homophony confuses the verb barge with semantically incompatible noun barge small vessel and its verbal derivative barge travel by barge. The Türkic stem bart (adv.) with suitable affixes can be used as a verb, noun, and adjective, it is a perfect stem for English barge (v.) with the semantics sudden intervention.

English bark (of dogs) (v. and n.) ~ Türkic (Chuv.) ver- (v.) bark (of dogs). The Chuvash form, which is an allophone of Türkic forms üjrek, ürü, üjürge, örü, hur, eerer, ür, üre, ürüü, is the one that went westward to Atlantic; the other forms extend all the way to Pacific. No IE etymology, a supple stipulation is of echoic origin, which is as far from etymology as it gets. Chuvash belongs to the Ogur branch, which dominated Eastern and Central Europe for a millennia, from before the turn of the eras to beyond the 10th c. AD, and English dog bark is consistent with other Oguric traces in Gmc. and English languages.

English bat (v. and n.) to beat, a club~ Türkic and Scythian pata to strike, to kill was explained by Herodotus IV. 110 as Scythian word for kill in the compound eorpata - those who are killing their husbands (Türk. er = man, husband), Anglo-Sax. beot and (rarefy) beoft to beat, to strike, thrust, dash, hurt, injure, tramp, tread. It is incompatible in Avesta, where pada = heritage, offspring. Only Gmc. languages have cognates of this Türkic and Scythian word, among the cognates is bane ~ OE bana killer, slayer, murderer; devil, OFris. bona murderer, ONorse bani, OHG bana murder, OE benn wound, Goth. banja stroke, wound; Lat battuere strike repeatedly. The Scythian eorpata in Türkic is erpata, in Anglo-Sax. werbeot, clearly related reflexes. But... Sumerian badd is to thresh with sledge, it is the oldest record for bat (v. and n.), in this case to thresh is clearly to beat, and with sledge is clearly with bat. This word corroborates the Türkic Bulgar folklore story of their descent from Sumerians, linking Türkic with Sumerian > Scythian > Germanic > English. The Isfahan Codex in Erevan with Hunnic grammar and wordlist from the 5th century AD gives Hunnic batten = push, apparently with a semantic shift produced by ancient or modern Armenian translators, but still in the ballpark. See battle.
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English bath (v.& n.) ~ Türkic bat (v.) immerse in water. Cognates: OE bæð , mud, etc., also quantity of water, etc., for bathing, ONorse bað, MDu. bat, Grm. bad. No suitable IE parallels. Bathing was associated with hot water, especially with hot springs. The Somerset city in England, the Anglo-Sax. (OE) Baðun, called so for its hot springs, exhibits ancient Türkic-Celtic symbiosis. Another form is Grm. Baden.

English battle (v. and n.) open clash ~ a derivative ultimately from Türkic and Scythian pata to strike, to kill, explained by Herodotus IV 110 as a Scythian word for kill in the compound eorpata - those who are killing their husbands (Türk. er = husband). The word is incompatible in Avesta, where pada = heritage, offspring. Cognates: OFr. bataille, LLat battualia, battuere, Hunnic batten, all derivatives of bat-; the word is ultimately known from Sumerian, see bat. The Isfahan Codex in Erevan with Hunnic grammar and wordlist from the 5th century AD gives this Caucasian Hunnic batten = push, i.e. clash, apparently with semantic shift produced by ancient or modern Armenian translators, but still in the ballpark. See bat.

English be (v.) ~ Türkic buol-, bol- (v.) be. OE. beon, beom, bion be, exist, come to be, become, happen, OHG bim I am, bist thou art, Grm. bin, bist; OIr. bi'u I am; Lat. fui I was; Gk. phu- become; OCS. byti be; Balt. (Lith.) bu'ti to be, Rus. byt to be, etc.; Av. bu-; Pers. bu-; Skt. bhavah becoming, bhavati becomes, happens. In Türkic: OT bol-, Chuv. pol-, Tat. bul-, Yak. buol-, Kirghiz bol-, Khak. pol-, Yugur pol, Turkish bul- 'be, become', MM. bol-, Khal. bol-, Buriat bolo-, Dag. bol-, Mogol bolu. Historically, all non-Türkic ( IE and Mongolic) examples are contiguous with the Great Steppe, and either contain, or used to contain sizable Türkic component. In linguistic terms, the word points to Nostratic origin. In English, some paired compounds with be seem to preserve intact, cf. English be abundant ~ Türkic abadan bol = be (become) crowded, populous > OE beon, beom, bion abadan > be abundant. Another Türkic verb stem for being (v.) var-/bar-/par- is preserved in Goth. and daughter languages, incl. English, as var and was. See abundant, was.

English beg (v.) plead for something ~ Türkic bag/baɣ (v.) to look pleading, to plead, with numerous English derivatives: OE bedecian to beg, beggar, beg pardon, beg for mercy, possibly don't bug me for don't annoy me, beg the question. OFr. begart (beggar). No sound etymology, no viable Grm. connection, and no IE parallels. This could be an Alanian word of the Amorican Alans, who moved into Brittany in the 5th c. AD, or of the Brits of Brittany with Sarmatian, or Scythian, or even Cimmerian via Frisian connections. In the English lexicon beg is known from ca.1200. In the Middle Age society, pleading with the lord must have been a daily affair, keeping the word alive.

English bellow (v.) sound of an animal ~ Türkic belä- [belə] (v.) sound of a sheep. English has variations bawl cry loudly, yowl utter shrieks, holla sound of an animal, bylgan (OE) to bellow, pointing to ubiquity of the distribution, and different paths of acquisition. The IE etymology abstains from parallels, apparently suggesting echoic origin from numerous sources; in respect to echoic origin that apparently would be true and beyond our horizons, but the extant phonetic forms allow to suggest more specific sources: Celtic/Grm. bVl > bVr (Fr. beugler/hurler, Gael. berrar, ̱It. barrito, Grm. brüllen, Da. brøle, Norw. brøle, Sw. vrala, Balt. (Latv.) baurot/maut), Eastern European with m/b alteration (Latv. baurot/maut, Lat. mugire, Fin. mylviä (< myl/byl), Port. mugir), Middle Asian, specifically Turkmenistan area (Masguts/Massagets, Alans, Horezmians) with h- alteration (Fr. beugler/hurler, Bask behean, Lat. mugire (h- <=> g), Port. mugir, Eng. holla). The form bVl is faithfully reproduced in English bellow, bawl, bylgan; Balt. (Lith.) bliuti/baubti, Sl. bleyat, Du. blaten, Gk. velazo (βελάζω). Other cognates are Slov. bučat, Welsh beuo. Notably, the OE bylgan has preserved the Türkic affix -gan/-ɣan/-an (-än, -ın; -gän; -qan, -kän) that creates verbal noun from the verbal stems: belä- (v.) = to bellow > belägän (n.) = bellow (n.) > OE bylgan (n.), indicating a close temporal transition from the Türkic to the OE usage. The allophonic bellows (n.) from bag (n.) is genetically unconnected. See bag (v. & n.).
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English bill (v.) advertise, publicize ~ Türkic bil (v.) find out, learn. While Türkic, with its morphological mechanism for producing grammatical forms, has both active and passive voices, English has a preference for passive voice verbs: he is billed as an expert means he is said to be an expert; in Türkic billüg = found out, known, with extension to famous; the meaning of advertise, publicize in Türkic is formed with causative tense affix -dur > bildur = notify, inform. A derivative of bill (v.) is bill (n.), made quite famous with the Bill of Rights, and followed up with thousands bills approved annually by Congress; there is a billing system in each enterprise, we get daily, weekly, monthly, and annual bills, we used to billet militia and army, we carry bills of different denomination in our wallets, we are billed with billables, overbilled and underbilled. The learned, usually translated as wise, in the form Bilge, was a popular title of the Türkic Kagans, including the famous hero of the Bilge-Kagan inscription. With all these learning-based activities, there is not even a hint of IE cognates or a clue about the origins of this so dear to us existential and linguistic wealth.

English blend combine, add together ~ Türkic bulɣa- (v.) stir, mix; roil; vex, annoy, sadden, harm; stir discontent, stir unrest. On top of the bulɣa- polysemantic, numerous derivatives refer to the types of the mixing action, constituting independent verbs: bultas- shake, loose (integrity); mixture, blend (n.), slipslop; bulnuq- mix up, etc. Cognates: OE blandan, blondan, ONorse blanda, OSax., OHG blantan, OFris. blenda, Goth. blandan, MHG blenden; Grm. Blendling bastard, mongrel; Lith. blandus troubled, turbid, thick, OCS blesti go astray, bludit () get lost. The IE etymology is pure nonsense: to shine, flash, burn, bleach, blind, blunder, dazzle; in most generous assessment these suggestions are remote figurative derivatives or phonetical conflations of the base meaning: to blend two liquids. The PIE conjectures blend a pile of derivatives and truncate them to an unattested *b(h)lend-; the peculiar distribution of the phonetics and semantics in the Eurasian steppe belt and the Northern Europe goes unaddressed. The Orkneys bland buttermilk (kumis) diluted with water, ONorse blanda diluted hot whey (Türkic bulɣama), Sl. boltanka () soup or drink with suspended ingredients, burda () suspicious drink mixture, etc. relay the applications of the blending. Notably, the wide semantical field of the Türkic verb is semantically echoed in the numerous Northern European reflexes.

English boil (v.) boil, bubble up, seethe ~ Türkic bula- (v.) boil, steam, simmer (about food). The IE etymology ascends to bubble, of echoic origin, which clearly points to a circular logic and absence of sound etymology. Cognates: OFr. bolir boil, Fr. bouillir, Lat. bullire to seethe, which obviously are forms of the Türkic bula- boil. The phonetical and semantical concurrence of the Türkic substrate form is absolutely perfect. See bouillon.
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English booze (v. & n.) drink a lot (v.), strong drink (n.) ~ Türkic buz- (v.) misbehave, rampage, crush. Like all other Türkic words, it goes under of unknown origin, which in practice appears to be frequently synonymous with Türkic. A more specific synonym would state Anglo-Saxon or Sarmatian. Cognates: ME bouse, MDu. busen; Sl. buzit, drink heavily, plus in Sl. misbehave, rampage, amuck. The Sl. buzit (v.) < buza (n.) < Tr. buz (beer, alcoholic drink) points to another semantics of the same stem. Notably, in the eastern Türkic languages buz (v.) is attested as a verb, and in the western Türkic languages buz (v.) is attested as a noun; there are no obstacles in either branch to use the stem as a verb or a noun, just use an appropriate suffix. Apparently, booze is a late distribution, after 2nd c. AD, since it is unknown in the older Balto-Slavic languages.

English bore drill a hole (v.) ~ Türkic bur- (v.) drill a hole, a subset of a generic meaning twirl, spin, twist applicable in non-bore related sense, like twisted vines, etc. Various allophonic forms include ebir-, egir-, evir-, evür- with a front prosthetic vowel. Cognates: OE borian to perforate, ONorse bora, Sw. borra, OHG boron, MDu. boren, Grm. bohren, to drill; Lat. forare to drill, Russ. buravit () to drill; Bosn. buše-, Serb. bush- (-) to drill; Baltic languages have their own words; Sl. languages have their own words (e.g. allophones of vrt-); Celtic languages have their own words (e.g. allophones of drill); Fin. porata, Est. puurida, Hu. furni to drill; distribution of the term bore is very specific, limited to a specific selection of languages, consistent with distribution of other words of Türkic origin.

English botch (v.) destroy or ruin, botcher (n.) ~ Türkic boδu (v.) fasten, hook, stick, boδučï (boduchi) doer: fastening, hooking, sticking => "fastener, "hooker, "sticker". Alternative phonetics is with -d-: bodu, bodučï; the figurative meaning of bodu is to do something well, skillfully. Boδu/bodu is in turn a derivative of bod = body, with semantics embody, implement, make real, see body; other derivatives of bod = body also parallel usage in English, like the botched job parallel the sarcastic semantic of doer, Grm. Macher. The English form botcher may be a direct derivative of bodu, instead of deriving from its semantical twin boδučï, by first contraction of boδučï to botch (doer => deed), and then modifying botch by agglutinating -er in accordance with English morphology, see -er. In English the word bocchen is documented from late 14 c. with literal Türkic semantics to repair; the semantic shift occurred later to spoil by unskillful work (1520s), noun from ca.1600. The origin is claimed to be of unknown origin, there must be a dearth of dictionaries caused by extreme monetary poverty among the late and alive English linguists. No IE cognates whatsoever, no restored IE *bodhehwchiuwh to go around. See body, -er.

English bunch (v. & n.) gather into cluster (v.), large number (n.) ~ Türkic bunča (buncha, adv.) so many, so much, from Türkic stem bun-/mun- + equitive adverbial affix -ča fr. noun; a normative noun form of the stem is bunaz/munaz. Notably, the English word bunch, as well as the form much, have preserved the Türkic equitive adverbial affix -ča. The unity is perfect, except for expected grammatical shift (in Türkic, grammatical definition is done by agglutinating affixes, so any part of speech can be formed from a single stem; In English, affixes are dropped, and grammatical function is primarily defined by SVO structure, e.g. a store bunch flowers vs. a bunch store flowers) and minor semantical shift. Predictably, no IE etymology, and the only possible cognate is Flemish boud bundle, which would be a transparent derivative from the Türkic bunča (maybe its cognate of the form bun- + some affix), and a clone of English bundle. And again predictably, because of dialectal m/b alteration, bunča has twins munča (muncha, adv.) and mïnča (myncha, adv.), with about the same meanings: so/thus, such a number of, so many, which should have found their way into English and possibly earlier vernaculars; and surely, English has much, and Spanish has mucho, with as much IE etymology as for bunch. See bundle, much.

English bundle (v. & n.) gather into cluster (v.), cluster (n.) ~ Türkic bunča (buncha, adv.) so many, so much. Bundle is a predictable innovation, a derivative of the Türkic bunča via English bunch. See bunch, much.
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English cage (v.), cagey (adj.) evasive, reticent ~ Türkic qač (qach) (v.) avoid, shun, escape. Türkic qač has numerous derivatives, best recorded is escape from enemy, due to the character of surviving records. No IE parallels, no surviving Grm. parallels.

English call (v.) ~ Türkic qol- (v.) ask, call for, beg. OE ceallian to call, shout, Du. kallen to talk, ONorse kalla to cry loudly, OHG kallon to call, kalzen, kelzen talk, brag, klaga, Grm. Klage complaint, grievance, lament, accusation; OIr. kalla calling, singing, Welsh galw call; Cimr. galw calling; OCS glasit say glagolit speak; Skt. garhati bewail, criticize. English has an assembly of 25 of just the verbal semantic meanings. The Gemanic forms with -g in auslaut appear to be allophones of Türkic form qolɣ with affix -g-/ig/-yg to produce nouns. The Türkic stem qol- is apparently a derivative of the noun qulaq = ear. It is clear that the word has been around for quite a while: Cimmerians of the 10th c. BC look like kids against Skt. in 16th c. BC and Celtics in 28th c. BC. The Germans are just newborns against their dated counterparts. What unites these diverse people is that they all are living on the outskirts of the great steppe, bordering, occasionally including, and at times being the Türkic tribes. The word is clearly non-IE, most of the IE languages do not have parallels, and those that have have historically or biologically documented Türkic links. The IE etymology, both English and Slavic, using O. Maenchen-Helfen's favorite expression, is pure galimatia, piling up all allophones in one uncouth heap.

English capture (v., n.) take ~ Türkic qapsa- (v.) surround, encompass all sides from qap- (v.) seize, grab, hapset-/hapis capture (v. & n.). Cognates: Lat. sario, sariere, captura take, OE hæftling (n.) taken, hæft take, Sl. hapat- capture with dialectal variations. The Lat. captura and captus taking (especially of animals) attest to direct borrowing or inheritance from Türkic. Geographical distribution and ancient forms indicate ancient Turkic lexicon in the area of the Italic, Grm., and Slavic branch of Baltic languages, possibly of Hunnic period, with Lat. ascending to much older acquisition. The phonetical homophony is striking, and semantic match is perfect. The term ascends to the traditional Türkic encircling hunt methods. Türkic has numerous terms and derivatives related to encircling hunts, attesting to the ancient (hunter-gatherer society) origin and geographical spread of the terminology. An IE etymology is non-existent. Anlaut reflections h-, -(k-), h-, - indicate transmission of Turkic initial glottal h- (q-) with dialectal variations, and the Grm. -ft may reflect the original Turkic form hapset-/hapis presently spelled -pset in Romanized transcription. OSl. form hapyashte preserved Turkic verbal noun suffix -č. Only uncompromising Vasmer suggests invented unattested IE *-khar. The hunting word qapsa encircle, surround on all sides is etymologically connected with the English circle. See circle.

English carve (v.) cut by chipping away at a surface, engrave ~ Türkic kert (v.) incise, carve a mark, engrave. OE ceorfan, cearf, corfen to cut, cut down, slay; to carve, cut out, engrave, OFris. kerva, Du. kerven, Grm. kerben to cut, notch; Gk. graphein to write, originally to scratch on clay tablets with a stylus. All various forms are consistent with the Türkic kert phonetically, and perfectly consistent semantically. The auslaut consonant variously takes forms -t/-f/-v/-b/-ph, probably adopting a consonant to the local phonetic conditions. See cut, curt, short.

English cast (v.) send forth ~ Türkic kus- (v.) eject, disgorge, throw up. Cognates: ONorse kasta, NFris. kastin, Sw. kasta, Dan. kaste to throw. The IE etymology is of routine of uncertain origin. Both Türkic and English have applications for the sense send forth in all walks of life: cast off, throw off, throw up, cast dice, cast javelin, cast fate, cast to the wind, etc. The prominence of cast (v.) in Eng. is demonstrated by the OED's finding of 42 distinct noun meanings and 83 verbal meanings, with many sub-definitions, by far exceeding the universality of the pretty universal stem kus- and its derivatives in Türkic. Apparently, the Eng. cast is a compound of kus + Türkic auslaut affix -t, an agglutinative marker found in most of the dialectal forms, related to grammatical person and tense, and in particular forming adjectival participles: cast (iron, object).
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English castigate (v.) censure severely, chastise (v.) censure severely of the same root, from Lat. castigare ~ Türkic kast bad intention, spite, evil. Reference to Lat. may indicate that Lat. propagated the word, not necessarily that it is a Lat. loanword. The English cast aside is probably a calque of a Türkic form meaning cast aside (something bad).

English challenge (v.) confront ~ Türkic čalïš (chalish) (v.) = a call to fight, challenge to hand to hand match, from the stem čal- fight with affix -ïš. The ascribed etymology is unconvincing: challenge = a calling to fight is recorded in English from 1520s, accurately mirroring the Türkic čalïš that corresponds to bar-room invitation let's step outside; the etymology is ascribed to Lat. calumnia trickery via VLat. calumniare to accuse falsely to OFr. chalonge calumny, slander; accusation, claim, dispute, all with little semantical and phonetical connection to an invitation for a clash. No IE etymology, so the Fr. chalonge hangs up in the air and likely ascends to the same Türkic čalïš, with Gallic articulation. The preserved auslaut affix -ïš, reflected in English -enge and Fench -onge, in the substrate language could have had allophonic form -ïch/-ïj/-ïg/-ïk/-ïkh etc., it is an affix of reciprocity, transmitting the sense let's (go, fight, eat, etc.).

English champ (v.) chew noisily ~ Türkic čap- (chap-) (v.) chew noisily. The IE etymology is probably echoic, and it is likely true, but the absence of this champing echo in other IE languages points to the specifically Türkic echo: Romance mordendo, ronge, Kauen, etc. The Grm. Kauen is a form of the Türkic kev-, kevsa- = chew (v.) preserved with somewhat derisive meaning, nowadays supplanted by regular beißen. The origin of the Türkic čap-, which comes in the attested forms č-, čat-, čïb-, čub- and probably more, is to whip, lash, click, in the sound sense it means chat, click, and the champ corresponds to the original Türkic semantics of chatting and clicking associated with a whipping sound to control herds. The Balto-Slavic form chav- (chavkat), active in the Sl. languages, also descended from the same Türkic verb, likely brought over to the British Isles with the Anglo-Saxon invasion.

English  chastise (v.) censure severely, from Lat. castigare ~ Türkic kast bad intention, spite, evil. Reference to Lat. may indicate that Lat. propagated the word, not necessarily that it is a Lat. loanword. The English cast aside is probably a calque of a Türkic form meaning cast aside (something bad). See castigate.

English chat (v.& n.) small talk, gossip ~ Türkic satula (v.) talk non-stop. The alteration s/sh/ch is a regular dialectal event in Türkic languages, the s- <-> ch- transition likely occurred within Türkic dialects. Grm. cognates Du. koeteren jabber, Dan. kvidre twitter, chirp point to an original anlaut consonant that could develop into affricate or plosive.

English check (v. & n.) secure, verify ~ Türkic chek- (ček-) (v.) separate, identify, mark with markers (dots etc.). Routinely confused with chess check = threat, attack. Numerous derivatives semantically connected with secure, verify: bank check, hat check, checking account, hotel check in, checkup, raincheck, double-check, spell check, checkout, checklist, checkpoint, paycheck, unchecked, checker, etc, completely distinct from the Türkic check = threat, attack. Cognates are OFr. eschequier "chessboard," from MLat. scaccarium. No IE parallels.
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English chirp (v. & n.) high-pitched sounds ~ Türkic čïlra (v. & n.) = jingle, clink, ping. OE cearcian to creak, gnash, ME chirken chirp. The same word is in Slavic - chirikat (), pointing to a common, likely initially echoic, origin.

English chisel (v.) carve ~ Türkic čiz- (chiz-) (v.) draw, draw lines. Cognates: Sl. cher- (,) draw, draw lines, line, Chroat chr- (crtanje), Serb. tsr- () draw, draw lines, Slov. kre- (kresli), all Ogur-type with Ogur/Oguz r/s rhotacism. The path of forming English chisel (n.) is fairly clear: čiz- (v.) (Tr.) scratch > chisel (n.) (Eng.) scratcher > chisel (v.) (Eng.) to scratch. Reputedly fr. OFr. cisel, Mod. Fr. ciseau chisel (n.), cognate of scissors, shears, fr. Lat. caesellum, caesus, caedere to cut. The Lat. stops there, it did not borrow the word from the IE languages that have no cognates, the IE etymology is left high up in the air, while the Türkic etymology is consistent and rational.

English chop cut into pieces, (lamb) chop (v., n.) ~ Türkic čop (chop) piece (of meat). The OTD does not list čop as a verbal stem, but there is little doubt that čop- is a verbal stem that did not get recorded in the OTD sources, and even if it did not exist in the area and period literature of the OTD, like for all other Türkic stems, that does not preclude the verbal usage outside of the OTD purview area and period. Cognates: MDu. kappen, Dan. kappe, Sw. kappa to chop, cut, ONFr. choper, OFr. coper, Fr. couper to cut, cut off; the three somewhat different phonetic forms indicate three different paths to English, Germanic, and Romance groups; no IE links whatsoever, the IE etymology does not reach even the Lat. In Europe, this word is associated with the area populated by R1b Y-DNA-marked haplogroup, in the Eurasia this word is associated with the Türkic people marked with different mixtures of the R1b and R1b Y-DNA haplogroups. The English chap crack, split, burst open appears to be a dialectal allophone of the Türkic stem čop-.

English coach (v.) drive, ride a coach, coach (n.) carriage ~ Türkic köch (v.) ride a coach, coach (n.) carriage, wagon. In the nomadic society, coach must have been a most popular word that defined the economy and daily life, and included a most wide semantical spectrum, still found in most of the languages with former nomadic component or directly affected by steppe neighbors. For millennia, coach was a pinnacle of progress, a transportation, a home, a homely hearth, a focus of life, a way of life. IE cognates: MFr. coche, Gmn. kotsche, Hu. kocsi (Seker), from a name of a Hu. village. This IE etymology is most uncouth, not to say dishonest, for a word that still occupies a major place in the European vocabularies, from transportation to home furnishings to tending to home itself. Cognates of a single derivative driver include: Gmc. Eng. coachman, Dan. kusk, Du. koetsier, Gmn. Kutscher, Norse, Sw. kusk; Balt. Latv., Lith. kučieris; Fennic Est. kutsar, Fin. kuski; Sl. Bosn., Croat kočijaš, Sl. Bulg. kochiyash (), Czech kočí, Ru., Serb., Slov., Slovt., Ukr. kucher (), Romance Cat. cotxer, Fr. cocher, Galician, Port. cocheiro, It. cocchiere, Sp. cochero; Bask. kotxezainak, Ch. ganche 赶车. Another slew of the derivative driver include European and Asian derivatives of the Türkic köl-for the car. The Ch. form ganche ascends to the earliest known form kang, recorded in Sum., an allophone of the form köch known from Mesopotamia to the lake Balkhash and transported to the Far East; the Ch. kangchi stands for the coachman, adopted in Ch. complete with the instrumental suffix -chi. The Ch. name Gaoche for the northern nomads is also a form of the compound  köch + -chi meaning  coachman. The abundance of the unacknowledged cognates in all diverse Eurasian linguistic families attests to the grubbiness and manipulations within the IE linguistic cohort. Considering the depth of the attestations related to the carriage industry in the Eurasia, the distribution of the cognates and variety of the phonetic forms attests to the antiquity and the diversity of the borrowing paths.
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English crunch (v., n.) crackle ~ Türkic qurt (v.) produce crunching sound, crunch. Etymology: no original source, probably of imitative origin. Probably it is of imitative origin, and the Türkic qurt (ɣurt with glottal ɣ-) suggests the source of the imitation, further supported by numerous Sl. reflexes: khrust, chrąst, chrasc, Balt. (Lith.) skrudeti crack, flake, Balt. (Latv.) skraustet creak, rattle. The appearance of prosthetic anlaut s- in some forms is consistent with process of adaptation into Baltic family of other loanwords. The Pol. form chrasc (xrasch) is closest to the English crunch, probably it was an Anglo-Saxon form before it became a Pol. form.

English circle (v., n.) ring, encircle ~ Türkic sürkülä- (v.) (sürkïla-) pursuit from sür- (v.) lead, drive, pursuit. The phonetical allophony is striking, and the terms drive, pursuit are obvious terms of traditional Türkic encircling hunting methods, providing both phonetical and semantical unity. Türkic has numerous terms and derivatives related to encircling hunts, attesting to the ancient (hunter-gatherer society) origin and geographical spread of the terminology: abla-, avla-, er-, ir-, qačrus, qapsa, qov-, saɣïr, sür-, sürkïla-, sürkülä, sürus, and probably many more. Cognates: Lat. circulus small ring, Gk. kirkos ring, with no IE predecessors. The speculated IE derivation of circle from circus is unattainable, IE etymology is non-existent. The hunting word qapsa encircle, surround, surround on all sides is etymologically connected with the English capture. See capture.

English clinch (v.) clench ~ Türkic qïlinč (v.) = tie, link, brace, girdle, clinch, from a stem qïlïn- to come about, arise: be made, formed, appear, arise. The word fell from the blue sky in 1560s, with no IE or any other origins. The intellectual cultural influence of the Ottomans or Mongol-Tatars can be sensibly excluded, most likely it survived in its pristine form in the context of the wrestling matches, an eternal Türkic tradition along with the game of polo.

English coagulate (v.) turn from liquid to thickened or solid state ~ Türkic qoyul- (v.) thicken, inspissate (liquid); curdle, coagulate (of milk). Cognates: MFr. coaguler, Lat. cogere curdle, collect, coagule, coagulare cause to curdle, Gael. gruth; Icl. hlaupi; Grm. gerinnen; Azeri çürü- (chürü-). Coagulate became an international word in every European language, but many languages from different linguistic groups retained their own terms for thicken, curdle, pointing to the pre-historical usage of milk (Celtic, Fennic, Gk., Alb., etc). The English curd/curdle is such a relict. Türkic has allophonic forms that correspond to Lat. and Gmc. versions, qoyul- and çürü-. The semantical coincidence is perfect, the phonetical correlation is expected with liquid -r-/-l- alteration. Clearly, the paths from qoyul- (Ogur form qogul-) to Lat. cogere, and Eng./Gael./Grm. from çürü- to curd/curdle/gruth/gerinnen are separate in space and time. Like the Lat. form, the Icl. form hlaupi is connected with the Türkic qoyul-, but points to a separate path for historical reasons: sheep herding was a main Norman means of subsistence, they did not need a Lat. loanword to be borrowed, and the opportunities for such borrowing did not exist. See curd.

English collect (v.) gather together ~ Türkic kolar (v.) collect, accumulate. The Türkic verb is associated with water accumulating in lakes and depressions, the semantical extensions to payment collection and collective enterprises like collector, collective, and collection are mush later developments, and not on the Türkic soil. Lat. collectus, colligere gather together, albeit quite old, already constituted innovations spread around with the Roman culture. With no IE cognates, and excepting Lat. borrowing from the Ottoman Turks, this is just another Türkic word the Latins were endowed with during the Scythian times. In English, it may be just another Türkic word lurking in the local vernaculars that gained visibility under Roman influence.
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English cry (v., n.) shout sudden loud utterance ~ Türkic qïqïr- (v.) cry (utterance). Cognates: OSax. hragr, Gael. gairm a cry, theoretically one of candidates for Eng. cry, Cimr. rh, OIcl skríki; Romance group: OFr. crier, VLat. quiritare wail, shriek, It. gridare, OSp. cridar, Sp., Port. gritar; Gr. kríke (κρίκε); Balt. (Lith.) kryksti, Balt. (Latv.) krik, Sl. krik (). In spite of abundance of cognates clearly pointing in one direction, the IE etymology holds it of uncertain origin. The distribution traces the spread of the Celtic people from Iberia, their incursion to the Apennines, and an independent overland path from the steppe belt to the Baltic and on toward Albion, a distinct path of the Kurgan people. The sense of weeping is a much later innovation, probably on religious grounds. The OSax. and similar forms are distinct reflexes of the Türkic qïqïr- with its dialectal allophones.

English cuddle (v.) nuzzle, embrace for comfort, hug ~ Türkic koy- (v.) lay in embrace, from koy (n.) breast, bosom, embrace, hug. Türkic has dialectal allophones of koy (n.) in the forms qon, qoyïn, qoyun, Turkish has two forms, apparently coming from two dialectal groups, koynuna and kucak (kujak), originating from the same root, all with a meaning breast, bosom, embrace, hug. Cognates: OE cull, coll (v.) to embrace. No IE etymology, the best not too enlightening and not too insightful attempt suggests at first a nursery word; on closer inspection, the English pra-mothers had Türkic bosoms and gave Türkic hugs to their nestlings. As with other attempts to fancy up a pra-mother asterisked word, these linguistic exercises are nothing more than reconstructing potato from a choice of potato soups gathered from an arbitrarily defined linguistic territory.

English curd (n.), curdle (v.) coagulated liquid, milk ~ Türkic qoyul- (v.) thicken, inspissate (liquid); curdle, coagulate (of milk), Azeri çürü- (chürü-). The Azeri form points to its Ogur origin (r-/-l- alteration). Cognates: MFr. coaguler, Lat. cogere curdle, collect, coagule, coagulare cause to curdle, Gael. gruth; Icl. hlaupi; Grm. gerinnen. Many languages from different linguistic groups retained their own terms for thicken, curdle, pointing to the pre-historical usage of milk (Celtic, Fennic, Gk., Alb., etc). The English curd is such a relict, see coagulate. The Türkic allophonic forms correspond to the Lat. and Gmc. versions, qoyul- and çürü-, the semantical coincidence is perfect, the phonetical correlation is expected with liquid -r-/-l- alteration. The paths from qoyul- (Ogur form qogul-) to Lat. cogere, Icl. hlaupi, and the Eng./Gael./Grm. from çürü- to curd/curdle/gruth/gerinnen are separate in space and time. See coagulate.

English cut (v., n, adv., adj.) ~ Türkic kes- (v.) cut. The word fell from the blue sky, with no IE origins. Cognates: OE ceorfan (keorfan), Sw. dial. kuta cut. Cognates also include derivatives of cut: cutter, cutlery, ONorse kuti knife, OFr. couteau knife, Rum. kutsit knife; Türkic derivative kert (v.) incise, carve a mark, engrave ~ English carve (v.) cut by chipping away at a surface, engrave, OT kingirak (Gk. form akinak) knife, kezlik (dimin.) = small knife worn by women. The absence of cognates in Celtic languages attests the origin of the term is independent of the post-4800 ybp (2800 BC) arrival of the Neolithic Celtic carriers of the R1b Hg to Iberia via Near East and N.Africa; and is probably connected with the waves of the Kurgan nomads to the Central Europe starting 6300 ybp (4300 BC) with near-total population replacement, and continued addition of Kurgan nomads Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and Huns into the Central Europe from 2800 ybp (800 BC) to 1500 ybp (500 AD). The spread of sources in time and different ethnic groups indicates a wide variety of allophones and cognates. See carve, curt, short.

English dip (v.), deep (n.) ~ Türkic dip bottom, with a slew of derivatives that includes a verb submerge, go under water. OE diepan immerse, dip, and ultimately to deep. The word has cognates in all Gmc. languages, but an earnest etymology stops there.
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English do (v.) make, act, perform, cause; to put, to place ~ Türkic tu- (v.) act. Cognates: OSax. duan, OFris. dua, Du. doen, OHG tuon, Grm. tun; Chuv. tu. There are no actual IE cognates, a dreamed up *IE *root is a flight of fantasy derived solely from the Gmc. roots. The Türkic stem tö-/tü- serves in numerous derivatives expressing semantics of make, made: törü- happen to occur, emerge, be born, appear, give birth, törüt create, törči happen, occur, undertake, initiate, törči also serves as auxiliary verb exactly like English do, with a similar complement of functions: make, engage, carry out, carry on, get done, proceed, cause to happen, engage in, comport, execute, finish, complete action with idioms and nuances, tükät completeness, completion of action. Like the compound of the type hairdo, doable, do-gooder, English has a compound kindred related that appear to be a transposition of the Türkic compound törkün my clan, my tribe, house of blood relatives = tör + kün ~ do + kin > kin + dred > kindred; in this case the English and Türkic components in the compound are identical, tör ~ do and kün (like in the ethnonym Hun) ~ kin. Even wider range of Türkic derivatives is developed with the agglutinated affixes. See make, kin.

English don (v.) put clothes on ~ Türkic ton- (v. & n.) put clothes on (v.), clothes (n.). Cognates: Anglo-Sax (OE) (onscry)dan to clothe, (scry)dan vestry; taken from the church lingo, scrydan is sacral vestments. Nearly forgotten, the word is pretty much active in idiomatic expressions: it donned on me, why don't you don the evening dress, etc. The phonetical and semantical concurrence is perfect. No IE etymology; the offered folk-type etymology contraction of do on is spurious and laughable. The t- (OTD)/d- (Eng.) shift is strictly dialectal variation, both forms coexisted from early times. Curiously, like the Türkic generic agach = tree became the Gk. acacia for a specific type of trees, so the Türkic generic ton/toŋ = dress, clothing became Gk. toga for a specific type of dress.

English earn (v.) deserve by efforts or actions ~ Türkic ar- (v.) tire, weary, by agglutinated extension get tired, get weary, i.e. after hard labors. Cognates: OE earnian deserve, earn, get a reward for labor, OFris. esna reward, pay; Sum. ir, Hu. érni to be worth, deserving. By phonetic resemblance, the verb with the semantics garnered was etymologically confused with the noun harvest and its verbal version to harvest conflated with autumn: OE ern harvest, ONorse önn work in the field, OHG arnon to reap, aren harvest, crop, Grm. Ernte harvest, Goth. asans harvest, summer, OCS jeseni, Russ. osen, OPruss. assanis autumn, all unrelated to the notion deserve, garner, gain through efforts. The Sum. ir and Hu. érni, like the Türkic having labored hard, not only provide a direct semantical correspondence and phonetical match, but also take the word earn from the confines of peasant labor to the larger world of contracts, mercenaries, and obligations that reflect the substance of the word: earned salary, earned living, earned trust, profited from laborious activity. In the antiquity and middle ages, the literary examples of the notion earn regularly deal with politics and military affairs, and never refer to any harvests or autumns.

English eat (v.) to eat, devour, consume ~ Türkic ye, ash. Cognates: OE et (v.) eat, OFris. ita, OSw. etan, MDu. eten, Du. eten, OHG ezzan, Grm. essen, ONorse eta, Goth. itan; modern Türkic forms are ij-, či-, i-, e-, ije-,'im-, em-, em-, če-, cie-, či-. Baltic forms are êst, īst, ėmi, ę̄du; Slavic forms isti/ests/j/jėsti/jisti/jesc; OIndian atti, Arm. utem (1st pers. sing), Gk. edo (ἔδω), esthio (ἔσθίω), estho (ἔσθω); Lat. edi; Chinese 吃 (chi); Mong. asara. The Türkic prosthetic consonant ch-/j- in ye, či, če, cie, či, Slavic j/jėsti/jisti/jesc, and Chinese form 去 (shi), with Türkic transposed prosthetic in ij, ije points to Ogur form i/e > ye/chi/che, vs. Grm., Balt., Slavic, OIndian, and Arm. unadulterated i/e forms; the Türkic auslaut affix -ta/-tan/-ten/-zen/-sen is agglutinative marker related to grammatical person and tense. The Grm. form essen (v.) arises to the Türkic noun ash food, verb asha eat. The uniformity of forms across families points to Nostratic origin. The Chinese word is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language.
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English endure (v.) live through hardship, suffer ~ Türkic endür- (v.) lower, bend; suppress, oppress. The Türkic word is a compound of en + tür-/dür-, where en is bottom, downhill, and used in direct and numerous oblique senses indicating lower state; and tür-/dür- is a stand-alone polysemantic verb be, reside; dwell; stand; stay, stop; get up, rise; intention, willingness to do something, adverb for continuity of action or state, and an simulative affix; essentially the tür-/dür- semantics transmits prolonged state in various grammatical forms; the best rendition of the Türkic endür- (v.) is to endure. English has numerous cognates that are direct derivatives of endure and borrowings from the neighboring languages that are oblique versions of the same Türkic stems endur and dur: endurance, endurable, durance, duress, obdurate, etc. The word filtered through the Lat. and French, and their cognates Lat. durare to harden, durus hard, OF. endurer, and the derivatives that carry the same underlying Türkic semantics of prolonged sustainability in adverse (lower, depressed, oppressed) conditions. The speculation on unattested *PIE *deru for firm, solid, hard is utterly unnecessary. See duress, duration, durable.

English exhaust (v.) deplete, exhaustion (n.) depletion~ Türkic qoxša- (qokhsha) (v.) emasculate, languish, get exhausted. From emasculate and languish to depletion is a long way, and so the forms vary greatly, but they tend to retain a stem koC/goC/hoC/choC, with various prefixes and affixes, with C standing for the consonants found in: Welsh dihysbyddu, gwacáu, Bask agortu, agortzen, Grm. erschöpft, erschöpfen, Cat. esgotat, esgotar, Sp. agotado, agotar, Port. esgotado, esgotar exhausted, exhaustion. These forms do not necessarily originate in the Lat. exhaurire draw off, take away, use up, from ex- off + haurire to draw up (as water). Rather, the Lat. exhaurire neatly falls into the formation with the other forms with a prefix + stem + affix, which demonstrate a large latitude of independence. In the Türkic case, the consonant C is depicted as χch, with plenty of room for phonetical modifications. The Turkish egzoz exhaust could be either a reverse borrowing qoxša > exhaust > egzoz (Norse eksos), or a dialectal variation qoxša < > egzoz. The Sp. consado tired, exhausted also falls into the same derivative process from a stem koC. Notably, this Türkic stem does not cover the Asian IE languages, it is common only to the Europe and the steppe belt.

English fare (v.) getting along, status, state of affairs ~ Türkic c faqr(lïq) need, poverty. The English verb fare apparently conflated with derivatives of far, forward, that indicate travel and movement, and ended up as payment for transportation or regularly consumed food, semantically unrelated to the degree of affluence and needs of daily life. The Türkic cognate comes in Arabic transcription, which may include a prosthetic inlaut -q-, or semantical contamination; the Arabic record fa(q)rlïq is an adjectival derivative of the verbal stem far- with adjectival affix of possession -lïq => with need, with needs, needing (Eng. -like). The cognates of the verb fare are expressions like How you are faring? = How you are doing? and affairs = matters of personal concern, needs; the cognates of the Türkic needs ~ English fare state of affairs are unrelated to travel, they describe status: welfare, warfare, farewell. Contamination comes from OE faran to journey, with its derivative verbs and nouns for tickets and food. The IE etymology skips on the state of affairs side and instead dwells on the ticket-travel side.

English fart (v. & n.) expel intestinal gases through anus ~ Türkic burut- (v.) smell badly, expel intestinal gases through anus. Cognates: OE feortan, OHG ferzan, ONorse freta, Balt. (Lith.) perdzu, Russ. perdet, Gk. perdein, Skt. pard. The IE etymology gives imbecilic of imitative origin. The Türkic bu, bur is vapor, gas, hence the Sl. par = vapor, stream, gas; the verb burut- is a derivative of the stem bu, bur, no need for imitative origin. Phonetical modifications correspond to the recipient linguistic families, Gk. and Skt. spread the word southwest and southeast in the 2nd mill. BC, the Kurgans took it to Central and Western Europe. The Lat. bombulum also belongs to this lexical cluster derived from some 4th-3rd mill. BC forms of bu, bur, and burut-.
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English gaggle (v., n.) goose talk ~ Türkic qaɣ quɣ (v., n.) goose talk. Cognates: Middle English gaggle, ONorse gagl, Du. gagelen, OIcl. gagl, MHG gagen; Sl. gogotat, Balt. (Lith.) gageti, gagu, Ltv. gagat, all referring to geese and by extension to female talk. The IE etymology offers inconceivable one of the many artificial terms invented in the 15th c., an etymology even less convincing than that of unknown origin, given that the cognates are spread across Europe and congregated in area demarcated by particular historical distinctions. The notation possibly of imitative origin for gaggle is not any better, the question is not the highly enlightened news of the echoic origin, but where this echoic origin came from, and where it spread to.

English gain (v., n.) obtain something desirable ~ Türkic gänʒ (ganj, geinj) treasury, riches, booty, exemplified in modern Turkish with truncated semantical field as ganimet booty, loot, trophy, prize, plunder. Essentially, gain means harvest, it is not a result of production but rather of a collection. Cognates: ME gaignage profit from agriculture is a later semantical expansion in the agrarian environment; OFr. gaaigne gain, profit, advantage; booty, prey; arable land, gaaignier to gain; Chinese 獲 hou (Pyn.) = received with semantics of gain is also phonetically not too far off. The semantics of the word reflects the lifestyle of the Türkic mounted tribes in the pre-industrial age, sufficiently documented by historians and chroniclers from the incipiency of writing, and geographically from the Mediterranean to the Yellow Sea. Both the phonetical form and semantical nuance are well preserved from the earliest documented originals long predating the European records. The allophonic Chinese form ca. ge, gei > hou may reflect a form of Türkic gänʒ from the Zhou times.

English gird (girt) (v.) put a waistband on or around, girdle (n.) sash, waistcloth ~ Türkic qur- (v.) arrange, build, line up, gather, stretch, qur (n.) sash, belt. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) gyrdan put a waistband, belt on or around; encircle, surround, geard hedge, enclosure; ONorse gyrða, OSax. gurdian, OFris. gerda, Du. gorden, OHG gurtan, Goth. gards, garths, OIcl. gerði, Grm. gürten; Welsh gwregysa; all Gmc. and Sl. cognates of garden, court, yard, and curtain; Sl. grad (), gorod (), gorodit () (v.) enclose, surround, enclosed, surrounded; Chuv. karta fence; Alb. garth; Balt. (Lith.), OSax. enclosure; Gk. korthílai (κορθίλαι); cognates in OHindi grhas house,  ghira encircle, Av. gǝrǝδo cave, Arsi oasis (aka Tokhar B) kerciye palace, Phryg. gord, all related to enclosure; Türk. derivatives and allophones yarïndaq, qur, qursaɣ sash, belt, kurgan built tumulus, qurla-, qursa- to girdle, qursaɣïl be surrounded, enclosed, etc. The Anglo-Sax. (OE) begyrdan to gird, clothe is lit. a compound of 3 Türkic lexemes: be (bol) + gird (qur) + dan (don) ~ to don a gird. The widely shared and still active agglutinated Türkic affix -t forms abstract nouns; the distribution of the allophones and derivatives point to an origin of of the verb qur- to at least 5th mill BC (Celtic in Europe 2800 BC, departure from N.Pontic before 5th mill BC, migration to Indian Peninsula 1500 BC, Phrygian migration 1200 BC), and accordingly dates the Türkic abstract noun affix -t to at least 5th mill BC, i.e. to the early stages of nomadic expansions to Europe. The gird and belt are parallel constructions from their respective stems qur-/gur and bel waist respectively. See belt, court, curtain, garden, garland, guard, and yard.
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English go (v.) ~ Türkic git/kit/ket (v.) = go. Grm. cognates are OE gan to go, advance, depart; happen; conquer; observe, OE past tense eode and gaed, OSw., OFris. gan, MDu. gaen, Du. gaan, OHG gan, Grm. gehen, Goth. iddja; others suspicious are derivatives OIndian eti = goes, Skt. jihite goes away, Av. ēiti, OPers. aitiy, Gk. εἶμι/εἶσι/ἴμεν/ἴᾱσι. In modern English, be and go take past tenses from entirely different verbs. The Goth. iddja is identical with Sl. forms idya/ida/iti/idu/isi/issti and Balt. forms eĩti/eimì/iêt/eimu/iêmu/ēit/ēisei. The Türkic prosthetic consonant g-/k- points to Ogur form it > git, from which developed Grm., Skt. and Chinese 去 (shi) forms; the Türkic auslaut affix -t is is agglutinative marker found in most of the dialectal forms, related to grammatical person and tense. The Goth., OIndian, Av., OPers., and Gk. forms point to a Nostratic form i-/e-. Both Eng. and Tr. have preserved a semantics of intention: I am going to do something. The PIE speculation *ghe- to release, let go belongs to the ether theory. The uniformity of forms across families (Türkic, Skt. and Gk. forms) points to pre-2000 BC N.Pontic origin. The Chinese word is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the modern Chinese language.

English gaze (v.) stare ~ Türkic göz-/koz- (v.) look, giz- (gez-/giz-/kez-) (v.) walk, wander, roam, travel; the semantics of gezer/gizer/kezer, to gaze is quite natural, especially so since the prime meaning of the verb gez-/giz-/kez- is travel, wander, nowadays called tourism. Cognates: Norse, Sw. gasa to stare, Turkish gözünü to eye (look). No IE etymology whatsoever; the Türkic origin is quite obvious. Things like gazed, stargazing are later local innovations.

English hack (v.) chop, cut away ~ Türkic kes (v.) = cut. Türkic has numerous allophones, attesting to antiquity and geographic spread: kes, xas keserge, kisü, kesu, kestir, kys, kizerge, kesüü, and more. Cognates: OE haccian," OFris. hackia, ONorse höggva, OHG hacchon, Du. hakken, Grm. hacken, Ugric hache, Hu. hasit, Chuv. has (xas), Bashkir kicheü. The areal distribution clearly points to the central and northern belt of Europe, unrelated to Romance and Indo-Iranian branches. The conundrum is clear, either Northern European, or Southern European (Lat. trucidabunt), or Indo-Iranian version (Pers. boridan) can be held as IE, but not all three. The western Chuvash and Bashkir forms clearly are allophones of the kes with k/h/x and s/sh/ch transitions; these were the western Türkic branches, collectively called Sarmats, that carried the form hach/hack to the Northern Europe and to the Ugrian languages. The transition k/h is regular between the OT (Oguz) forms and Gmc./Eng. forms, e.g. gird ~ hilt.

English haze (v.& n.), hazing (v.) subject to cruel horseplay ~ Türkic häzl (n.) joke. Tradition of hazing must be older than cavalry horse riding, the word may be as old as organized armies, but the absence of its cognate in Celtic languages excludes its coming to England via circum-Mediterranean route in the 4th mill. BC. Absence of its cognate in Romance languages excludes its coming to England via Scythian or Etruscan route. That leaves Cimmerians, Sarmats/Alans/Ases, and Huns as possible source. The near perfect phonetical and perfect semantical concordance does not leave any room for doubts of its Türkic origin. The Old Türkic Dictionary (1969) gives only recorded form for the noun, but Türkic morphology allows to accept that with any verbal affix the word can be used as a verb. The OE form hawze terrify, frighten, confound; the MFr. form haser irritate, annoy may point specifically to Alans. Supposedly, English haze horseplay is of unknown origin, which is an euphemism for giving up on a default IE origin. The semantically distinct homophonic English haze = moisture, dust, or smoke in OT is ïs = haze, fog, murk with perfect semantics, which tentatively could allow etymological linkage with prosthetic h- and a shift of laryngeal vowel ï, but unless it can be demonstrated that some of 42+ Türkic languages have a form closer to haze, the phonetical link is too shaky; on the other hand the unknown origin of the English haze = fog leaves room to also suspect the Türkic origin. The stipulation that The English differentiation of haze, mist, fog (and other dialectal words) is unmatched in other tongues, where the same word generally covers all three and often cloud as well is false, Türkic also has three separate stems for these words, but only one of them is found in English. It could be that some forms of Türkic häzl and ïs conflated either in English or on the road to English.
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English hit (v. & n.) afflict suddenly ~ Türkic it- (v.) push, thrust. Cognates: Sw. hitta, Dan. hit, Grm. hauen; Icl. högg; Fr. heurter; Balt. (Lith.) atsitrenkti; Gk. epitychia/ktypi̱ma/chtypo̱/ktypo (επιτυχία/κτύπημα/χτυπώ/κτυπώ), all etymologically connected. The word apparently has no IE etymology, in spite of the Gk. forms, not even of unknown origin. The prosthetic h-/k-/ch- allows to suggest an Oguric origin, like Sarmat, Hunnic, and Bulgar for the northwestern European zone and Gk. forms, and Oguz for Lith. form; the prosthetic consonant in the northwestern European cognates of the Türkic lexicon is consistent with numerous other cognate forms. The perfect semantical match makes a random phonetical coincidence between the numerous European languages and even more numerous Türkic languages confidently impossible.

English howl (v.& n.) long loud crying, howling ~ Türkic ulï- (v.) wail, moan, bellow. See ululate, lull.

English itch (v., n.) dermal irritation ~ Türkic kichï- (v., n.) scratch, tickle; lichens, scabies. Other recorded OT forms are kashı/qashï, the allophones closely match the oldest recorded English and Grm. forms: OE giccan (v.) to itch, gicce (n.) itch; MDu. jöken, OHG jucchen, Grm. jucken to itch. No suggested *IE concoctions. The distribution points to Sarmatian origin: Vandals, Burgunds, Thurings, Alans, and the like Wonderers.

English jack (v., adj.) ~ Türkic cak- (jak-). The Türkic stem cag-/cak-/caɣ-/caq-, jag-/jak-/jaɣ-/jaq-/jaq- has innumerable derivatives connected with negative notions of masculinity, animosity, demonic nature, and assault: cak- (jak-) to hit, to beat, to hit out, to cut out; jaɣ-/jaq- to approach, to come, jaɣï enemy, jaɣïčï (adj., with personal affix -čï) militant, jaɣï (adj.) vile, despicable, jakšï (jakshy) something demonic; it is as hard to nail down the precise meaning of the Türkic jak- as is hard to clearly define the English jack: in both instances no precise meanings exist. Accordingly, the IE etymology beats all over the bushes, in each instance coming up with disparate and unconnected propositions. The vagueness and universality of the term served well in both languages, allowing versatile usage and innovations, especially fruitful at the junction of incompatible substrates and adstrates. The English derivatives signal a non-bookish origin, and pass the notions of masculinity, strength, surprise, and negativity or unpleasantness, mirroring the much older Türkic notions: jack-knife, jackass, jackanapes, jackboot, jack (hoist), Jack any common fellow, jack (cards), jack (signal flag), jackhammer, Jack-pudding, jacks, and other unexpected applications used in all grammatical functions. As a proper name, Jack common fellow conflated with Jacques, a Fr. version of Jacob, and before that still on the continent the Fr. Jacque probably conflated with the Lat. Jacobus. In both Türkic and English the stem and its notions remain active and productive.

English jag (v.) make jagged edge, cut teeth into ~ Türkic yaɣ-, čak(k) stick up (v.), jaɣïrla- scar (v.), jaɣïr scar, (torn) wound (n.). The Türkic stem yaɣ- (yag-) is polysemantic, e.g. covers numerous meanings: jaɣïrla- scar (v.), jaɣïr scar, torn wound (n.); come (rain), fall (luck), pour (sand); approach; sacrifice; yaɣï enemy, jaɣïčï militant (adj.), yaɣïla- to war, to fight; hostile. In the IE etymology jag- (v.) is confused with the assembly of its independent meanings, with the etymology of unknown origin and some wayward speculations:

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1. English jaeger predatory seabird, Gmc. jäger, jager type of troops < Tr. yaɣï enemy, yaɣïla- to war, to fight, which produced Gmc. jäger type of troops, and other related cognates: riflemen, sharpshooter
2. Gmc. jäger sharpshooter, huntsman < Türkic compound ya qur- tension a bow, with cognates in other Gmc. languages: OFris. jagia, Du. jagen to hunt; the compound ya qur- and yager/jäger are easily confused and conflated
3. ONorse jaga to drive, to move to and fro < Türkic yaɣ- come (rain), fall (luck), pour (sand), approach, the notion of movement (see yacht)
4. OE (ca1400) jaggen (v.) cut or tear unevenly, pierce (v.), slash (v.), cut (v.); notch (v.), nick (v.) < Türkic jaɣïrla- scar (v.), jaɣïr scar, torn wound (n.)
5. English jag smth. sticking out, like teeth, jag (n.) sharp projection on an edge or surface < Türkic jaɣïrla- scar (v.), jaɣïr scar, torn wound (n.), with extended semantics pile, heap, chunk.

English jar (v.) harsh, grating sound ~ Türkic jaru- (v.) illumine (as of dawn aurora), jaran- (v.) exultingly revere, truckle, holler, rasp, plea gratingly. The Türkic stem jar- is extremely productive, with uncounted semantics, of which illumine and eagerly revere are but spot derivatives, with semantical extensions of grace (i.e. Your Grace,  Illustrious Prince, etc.),  piety, and exulted emotions. No IE cognates, but jar-/yar- is widely used in Sl. languages: yarost () rage, fury, wrath, hence the historical personalities Yaropolk, Yaroslav, etc., zarevo () dawn aurora, etc.; curiously, Yaroslav almost perfectly matches the Türkic epithet jarašlaɣ honorable, respectable of the same stem jar-. In Lat. the form jaru- (v.) illumine turned into the allophone aurora, presently an international word. Semantical extension to the type of sound is a reflection of the Türkic religious practices. The anlaut semi-consonant j-/g- is a trait of the Ogur languages, while the Oguz languages start with the vowel ya-, hence the jar- vs. yar- forms. In religious application the word denotes exulted piety, illustrated by the Sl. adaptations Saintly Commander (Yaropolk), Saintly Slav (Yaroslav). The speculation on echoic or imitative origin is totally baseless. Relation to the words jar (n.) vessel and earl title is purely homonymic. See aurora, earl, jar (n.).

English jeer (v.) ridicule with contempt and derision ~ Türkic jer- (v.) deride, dismiss, reject, repel; slander, disparage. In some semantic meanings, it is synonymous with the stem hool- in the word hooligan. Cognates: OE gyr to deride, to mock, Grm. scheren to plague, vex. The anlaut consonant points to the Ogur subfamily, the Oguz counterparts do not use a consonant in the anlaut: er; the Oguric forms could have produced der/jer/ger/ɣer/her, and the like. Not a trace of IE etymology, even a most fanciful, the best is of uncertain origin. See hooligan.

English jerk (v.) abrupt movement ~ Türkic jul (v.) jerk, pull, in English with a connotation of slang, an illegitimate word, but first recorded in 1570s as sudden sharp pull. The Türkic verbal form, like the English variety, has numerous derivatives associated with abrupt move, unsteady affect, clinching action. The semantic coincidence is perfect, the phonetical correlation with liquid -r-/-l- is credible, the -k/-g suggest a version with Türkic affix -k/-g/-ɣ or their modifications. The Grm. Zuck and Ruck with various Grm. variations point to a wide phonetical dispersion of the verbal stem with numerous derivatives. The English derivatives perform male masturbation (jerk off), masturbator, tedious and ineffectual person (jerk, n.), adjectival inferior, insignificant have Slavic allophone droch with similar derivatives. IE rated of uncertain origin, perhaps echoic. No *IE concoctions offered . The geographical spread of the allophonic forms suggests an early scatter, pointing to the Kurgan Culture waves or the Sarmatian waves from the E.Europe; the initial consonant j-/z-/d- also points to the Ogur-type languages of the Sarmatians, Huns, and Alans.
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English jig (v.) jerking effort ~ Türkic jïq- (v.) fell, crush (by blow). No IE or any other etymology whatsoever. English spelling comes in two flavors, jig and gig, reflecting Ogur anlaut consonant; in Oguz version the word starts with semi-consonant or vowel yig-.

English jog (v., n.) walk or ride ~ Türkic jag (v.) go, fall, run ~ event goes, snow falls, time runs ~ related to movement. IE rated of uncertain origin, perhaps used in horsemanship. No *IE concoctions. See jag, yacht.

English journey (v., n.) travel (v., n.) ~ Türkic jor, jorï (v.) (yor, yorï, yürï, jürü, with semantical extensions) = go, walk, move ~ go this way, walk this way, move this way. The IE etymology from VLat. diurnum day does not fit the bill neither phonetically nor semantically. The verb came to light in 12th c., linked to OFr. journee (v., n.), if that is so, it became a European word fr. the  Alanian, Burgund, or Vandal lexicon. The prosthetic j- points to Scythian, Sarmatian or Hunnic origin; in the Oguz languages it is pronounced with anlaut y-: yor, yorï, Typically for lexemes coming from different sources, journey is synonymous with voyage from LLat. viaticum journey, traverse from Lat. transversare journey, pass across, and its contracted derivative travel journey. The noun journal daily ledger may have derived from the noun journey or from LLat. diurnalis daily (ledger) conflated with journey. The Türkic etymology is direct and straightforward, the IE etymology is artificial and tenuous.

English kill (v.) ~ Türkic kelle (v.), from the Türkic root kelle = head. The transition from the head to kill is via Türkic agglutinated negation, a la behead. Türkic kelle = head > general Scandinavian skulle/skult < Eng. kill. See skull.

English lie (v.), liar (n.) ~ Türkic yalgan (yalɣan) (adj. & n.) deceitful, false, deception, lie/lies. Cognates: OE leogere liar, false witness. The original form(s) of the word is indicated by Slavic form lgat (), Balt. (Lith.) luginaite, Goth. liugan, Grm. lugi, liogan, and Irish log-, all pointing to contraction yalg > lg, more typical to Oguz vs. Ogur languages. Türkic has a noun for lie, but not for liar, Türkic liar is an adjectival paired compound yalɣan ar ( lying man), hence the English contracted form liar. The -ie part of lie, in light of the Goth. and Grm. forms, is a modification of eo/u/iu/io rounded labial vowel ü. The word does not have IE parallels, and etymological speculations do not go too far; neither English nor Slavic etymologies deeper than Balt. and Goth., with a long list of etymologists offering some diverse nonsense instead. In the archaic Türkic culture, lying was among greatest human vices, so the word had grave connotations; vestiges of that attitude still survive in the British culture, to much lesser degree in the American culture, and fairly well in the modern Türkic cultures.

English lull (v.& n.) hush to sleep, hum a lullaby ~ Türkic ulï- (v.) wail, moan, bellow. The lull is an obvious derivative fr. ululate. Cognates: OE, MDu., Grm. lullen, lollen hush to sleep (actually, the same word with an affix), Sw. lulla, Skr. lolati (actually, the same word with an affix), Sl. lulukat, lyalya (, ). The semantics quiet period is English innovation. See ululate, howl.

English make (v.) ~ Türkic -mak (mek) = make (v.) = verb marker affix. In Türkic, any stem with affix -mak becomes a verb: stem-mak = stem-make, like abmak = hunt-make, ak-mak = white-make = stream. Cognates are Gmc.: OE makian, OSw. makon, OFris. makia to build, make, MDu. maken, OHG mahhon, Grm. machen; Korean -mida morphologically is used analogous to the Türkic -mak. IE does not have cognates; the suggested *IE cognates do not make sense, they obviously can't predate such basic word as make, and any idea of a semantic shift for make is clearly preposterous. The English word is probably of Sarmat origin, and Korean word is probably of Zhou origin; the linguistic traces of the Türkic-speaking Scythians are left on the opposite ends of the Eurasian steppe belt. See do.
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English obturate (v.) block (passage) ~ Türkic tiy- (tïd-) (v.) obstruct, hinder. The form obturate points to obvious passage via Lat. obturare = ob- + turare close up, but the Lat. borrowing undoubtedly ascends to the early antiquity, bringing another ancient Türkic word into English literary lexicon. Probably, the Lat. and English versions reflect the form tïd-, with -d > -r shift. That the Türkic has two parallel forms point to the Ogur-Oguz division, where the form tïd- belongs to the more westerly Ogur branch.

English ought should ~ Türkic ötä perform, fulfill (v.). The OE form aught transmits the initial rounded ö sound even better than the current spelling ought, it was conflated with the allophonic ot spelled aught little, nothing, something. No IE etymology, not even the standard refrain of unknown origin. See oath.

English pour (v.) spill, strew, fill ~ Türkic pür pour, full, fill, fully. Cognates: OFr. (Flanders) purer sift (grain), pour out (water); no cognates in the Gmc., Balto-Sl., and Sl. languages. Semantically it is unrelated to the homophonic Lat. purare to cleanse, a cognate of Engl. pure. the IE etymology notwithstanding. The word pour popped out from nowhere in the 1300s, like many other Türkic words in English. The recorded OTD Türkic form is semantically adjectival, related to the result of action, which only can be a derivative of a verb.

English quake (v. & n.), quaver (v.) vibrate, tremble (v.) ~ Türkic stem četre- (chetre-) (v.) = twitch (of body parts); the Chuv. form četre to tremble produced the Germ. zittern, quabbeln to tremble (tebrä- is eastern Oguz form, črtre- is western Ogur form) via cwavien to tremble, shake, which mirrors the Chuv. form četre. The IE onomatopoeic etymology is clear nonsense, given the Türkic forms and meanings, and the Türkic stem is a derivative that consists of a prime stem and agglutinated affix.

English quaver (v.) vibrate, tremble (v.), quake (v. & n.) ~ Türkic stem četre- (v.) = twitch (of body parts); the Chuv. form četre to tremble produced the Germ. zittern, quabbeln to tremble (tebrä- is eastern Oguz form, četre- is western Ogur form) via cwavien to tremble, shake, which mirrors the Chuv. form četre. The IE onomatopoeic etymology is clear nonsense, given the Türkic forms and meanings, and the Türkic stem is a derivative that consists of a prime stem and agglutinated affix.

English ration (v. & n.) fixed allowance; rate payment per unit ~ Türkic ruzi share, daily bread, daily subsistence, lot. The dictionary spelling transliterates Türkic word from Arabic transcription, which allows allophones rudi/ruδi/ruði/ruti/ruthi that are closer to the modern forms ration and rate. The stem is ra-/rat-, the -tion is a compound affix of -t- and -ion used in Romance languages, a form of the Türkic compound affix -taön/-taön/-taöng/-taöng ~ in space, in place. Likely, the word ration is a derivative of the English word rate, which is the same Türkic stem ruzi, either directly, or via the Lat. rata, ratio fixed (amount). The suggested IE etymology is convoluted, clearly dubious semantically, and deadlocks at Lat. No IE cognates. The Romans, Greeks, and Persians widely used Scythian, Sarmatian, etc. Türkic mercenaries paid by diem, so the word ruzi must have been well familiar to them, even if it does not come from the substrate language.

English sail (v.) travel on water ~ Türkic salla- (v) sail on a raft, cross on a raft. Cognates: OE segl (v.) segilan (n.), ONorse sigla (v.), segl (n.), OFris. seil, Du. zeil, OHG segal, MLG segelen, Grm. segeln, Sw. segel, Grm. Segel. The Ir. seol, Welsh hwyl sail are supposedly Gmc. loan-words, of obscure origin with no known cognates outside Gmc., which turns things upside down. The IE fantasy root *sek- to cut is unreal. The phonetics and semantics of sail - salla is nearly perfect, in a way closer than the other Gmc. cognates, and much closer than the Celtic cognates; the Celtic forms indicate an independent parallel development, consistent with trifurcate migration of the word: 2800 BC circum-Mediterranean route, 4000-1000 BC overland route, and 100BC overland route, all from the Eurasian steppe belt extending from Sayans to Pannonia. The difference between the Celtic form and the OT form is the result of the pra-form's bifurcated parallel development for about 3,800 years, for a genetic distance of 7,200 years, a calibrated gift to the glottochronological timing; the case between English and Celtic forms adds another millennium to the third leg of the fork, for 8.200 years of independent parallel development; and all three brunches of the fork passed through vast territories with innumerable unknown different people speaking numerous unknown languages, diffusing through the alien lands via divergent paths; the migration picture differs so much from the glottochronological model of internal development that it a priory rejects any oversimplified constructs.
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English satisfy (v.) meet requirements or expectations ~ Türkic satsa (v.) suitable, from Türkic stem sat-, stem for sell (v.), sale (n.), satɣa (satga) = satisfy payments, payoff. Lat. satisfacere discharge fully, comply with, make amends, lit. do enough, from satis enough. Both English satisfy and Lat. satis reflecting Türkic satsa likely are inherited from the same substrate language. See salary, saldo.

English say (v.) ~ Türkic söy/söjle/suj/söle/süle/sülä (v.) = say, with verbal and noun derivatives in English and Türkic. OE secgan to utter, say, OSw. seggian, ONorse segja, OFris. sedsa, MDu. segghen, Du. zeggen, OHG sagen, Grm. sagen to say, Hitt. shakiya- to declare, Balt. (Lith.) sakyti to say, OCS sociti to vindicate, show, OIr. insce speech, OLat. inseque to tell, say, Chinese 说 (shua) = say, tell, talk, Slavic skaz. The Chinese 说 (shua) = say, tell, talk is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language. The Gmc. and Lat. forms point to Ogur Türkic source with y<=>g alteration. The unattested PIE *sokei-, probably from root *seq- reverts back to the forms of the Türkic verb söy/suj = sprechen, speak (v). Notably, the Türkic verb is shared by all Türkic languages, from Chuvash and Gagauz to Khakass and Uigur, quite a contrast with the English say manifested exclusivity within the IE languages, which excludes a Nostratic origin.

English secede splinter, break away, separate, detach ~ Türkic ses- (v.) separate, segregate, detach. The basic semantic of the Türkic ses- (v.) is unravel, untie, untangle, all other derivatives ascend to that semantics. No IE cognates, the closest Lat. secedere is a stand-alone among IE families. It would be nice to turn the tables so that the word secedere would be borrow from Lat., which then would be a prefix se + cedere (v.) yield, and have it later developed into huge semantic clusters in numerous Türkic languages. That would have been unconscionable, given the Eurasian spread of the 42 Türkic languages with no immediate Lat.-Türkic interaction, the emergence of the verb definitely preceding the emergence of the Lat., the presence of the Lat. counterpart separ, the semantical conflict between the Türkic splinter or untangle and the Lat. to yield, and the inner development of Lat. cedere (v.) yield from a more basic verb stem (supposedly from unattested PIE root *ked- to go, to yield, way). The absence of IE cognates is striking, since the semantics of separate (v.) was needed from the dawn of humanity. English cognates secession, secessionism, secessionist are common European innovations, completely absent in the Asian IE languages that evolved in the last 3500 years, and in the Türkic languages that developed them from different stems. That also shows impossibility of Lat. to Türkic borrowing, a random coincidence of cedere (v.) with ses- (v.) with perfect semantic congruence is an infinitely long shot with negligible probability, and the chances of the Lat. compound se + cedere propagating to all Türkic languages and gain identical generically meaningful stem are totally improbable. The inevitable conclusion is that whether the English path was via French/Lat. or direct, ultimately both English and Lat. forms ascend to the Türkic.
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English see observe, perceive by sight (v.) ~ Türkic süz- (v.) to look, lit. to clarify, to make clear. Cognates: OE seon, OSax. sehen, OFris. sia, ONorse sja, OHG sehan, MDu. sien, MHG, Grm. sehen, Goth. saihwan. The perverse IE options suggest to follow and to say, obviously semantically impossible, while the OE semantics observe, perceive, understand; experience, visit, inspect exactly matches the Türkic semantics to clarify, to make clear.

English select (elect) (v.) choose ~ Türkic seč- (sech-) (v.) select, elect, sečil (sechil) (v.) be selected, sečim (sechim) (n.) selection. The IE (Lat.) scholarly etymology would have appeared to be suitable (Lat. se- apart + legere to gather, select), if not for the fact that selection was a part of the daily life before, during, and post-Latin times. The IE etymology leaves voids in the before and during periods, but people had to choose animals to use, maidens and lads to marry, seeds to plant, etc., and do it in a verbalized fashion inherent to humans. This void is filled with one of the Grm. forms, aussuchen, which is a far cry from select, but appear to be a derivative of the seč-/sech-. The alternate Grm. word for select, Dan. vælg, Germ. wählen, Norw. velg, Sw. välj, appear to either have Fennic roots, or a form of expressed will.

English shake (v.) sway, energetically vibrate ~ Türkic silk- (v.) shake, swing. Cognates: OE sceacan, ONorse skaka, Dan skage, Sw. skaka, with close semantics shake, swing, brandish, tremble, glide, hasten, flee, depart. No cognates outside Germanic, the suggested IE cognates are phonetic resemblances possibly derived from a second semantic meaning of the verb silk- recorded for its Türkic synonym tebrä- move, motion, twitch: OCS skoku leap, Welsh ysgogi move. See tremble.

English sever (v.) to cut off, separate ~ Türkic sevrä (sevrǝ) (v.) decrease, diminish, rid, get rid of. English has numerous homophonic words: severe, sewer, swear, and more, but none is connected with removing parts of a whole; Lat. has allophonic separare (v.) which produced English separate (v.) and noun, adj., and adv. derivatives; there are no IE cognates. Phonetically, sever (v.) can't be derived from separare (v.) or separate (v.), the English doublet ascends to the Türkic sevrä (v.) and its dialectal allophones, and the Lat. doublet may ascend to the Türkic sevrä (v.), or be a conflated form from the compound se + para with the Türkic sevrä (v.) A random coincidence of sever (v.) with sevrä (v.) with perfect semantic congruence is a terribly far shot with negligible probability, and chances that the Lat. compound se + para could propagate to all Türkic languages and be phonetically distorted to sevrä (v.) while gaining a generically meaningful stem (cut off is a semantical contraction of decrease, diminish) is totally improbable.

English sick (v., n., adj.) vomit ~ Türkic sök- (v.) destruction of some kind, have diarrhea. Cognates: OE seoc, ONorse sjukr, Dan. syg, OSax. siok, OFris. siak, MDu siec, OHG sioh, Goth. siuks sick, ill, all transparent allophones of the Türkic sök-. In English to sick to destroy (him), set upon (him) parallels Tr. semantics; a derivative of sök- (v.) is sökal (n.) sick person, formed with poly-functional suffix -al still active in Türkic and English, in this case sökal is to turn sick, which is equivalent to English is sick, turned sick. Türkic sök- also has a verb sökmak, lit. make sök - equivalent to to diarrhea (v.). The IE etymology goes standard of uncertain origin, a euphemism for we poor linguists do not have a clue. English has plenty of semantical innovations, while Turkish uses the stem sök- to form an innovation patient.
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English sicker (v.) ooze, percolate, trickle ~ Türkic sarq (v.) ooze, seep, leak. In English, sicker ooze is rated as a provincial talk, with no etymology; it does not even merit to be included in standard dictionaries, and has no date of first record. Cognates: Sl. sochitsya, sok, sochnyi to ooz, juice, juicy, also with no established etymology and apparently no Balto-Slavic cognates. The Slavic lost -r- in comparison with Middle Asian Türkic, and English transposed -rq-, pointing that the Western Türkic source probably was not exactly of the Middle Asian form. The likeliest source for both the English and Slavic forms is Sarmatian, since Sarmats covered both Anglo-Saxon and proto-Slavic areas.

English sip (v.) drink small mouthfuls at a time, sip (n.) small mouthful of drink ~ Türkic syp- by drops, syp (n.) drop (of liquid). Cognates: OE supan (WSax.), suppan, supian (Northumbr.), ONorse supa, MLG supen, Du. zuipen, OHG sufan, Grm. saufen to sip; Hu. chepp drop; Sum. sheks drop. Like Türkic, the Hu. and Sum. agglutinate affixes to the stem to produce derivative verbs and nouns. The IE etymology is funny, it circles and blunders, turning to notions from press out juice to juice, rain, to suck, flowing sap, OE seaw sap, eat the evening meal, and finally OFr. super and soupe broth, soup from a Gmc. source, thus completing a full circle from enigmatic Grm. into the bushes and back to enigmatic Grm. The Grm. form sup and Eng. sip are allophones with precisely the same semantics. Ultimately, the notion of a sup ~ sip drop is connected with water, in Türkic su/suv/sub, and must be its early derivative. The same Türkic su/suv/sub must have also originated the enigmatic Grm. sup and its Fr. version soupe broth, soup, MDu. sop, Lat. suppa. The Eng. sap also belongs to the same circle of derivatives, with cognates OE sæpm, MLG, MDu, Du. sap, OHG saf (sav), Grm. Saft juice, Ir. sug sap, Balt. (Lith.) sakas tree-gum, Sl. sok sap, Skt. sabar- sap, milk, nectar. The numerous derivative semantics and a collection of allophones, with the Sumerian cognate dating to the 4th mill. BC, all point to the Eurasian continental-wide distribution of the root su/suv/sub, and a slew of derivatives long preceding the Indo-Arian migration to India in 1500 BC and the birth of Latin.

English smile (v. and n.) sweet facial expression ~ Türkic (gülüm)seme (n.), gülümsemeye (v.) smile. Cognates: OE smerian to laugh at, OE smearcian (modern smirk), Dan. smile, Sw. smila smile, OHG smieron to smile; Balt. (Latv.) smiêt, smeju, smêju, smaidît, smîdinât, smĩnêt; Sl. derivatives via the Balt. (Latv.) smekh (); Skt. smayatē, smayati, smēras, smitas. The Latv. smaidīt to smile smaidīgs smiling preserved the reflex -īg of the Türkic affix -gen used to form qualitative adjectives from verbal stems; the Skt. forms point to E.European origin prior to ca. 1500 BC. The Türkic seme has a connotation of beginning, genesis, seed, as opposed to a full laugh, so the word was truncated at some point from its original form resembling (gülüm)seme. The IE unattested *smoisos was derived from the Türkic reflexes in Grm./Slavic languages, with telling absence of parallels in Romance branch of the IE family. Distribution of the word points to Nostratic origin, Türkic > Grm. > Slavic, with Skt. forms budding off after initial European development.

English soak (v.) imbue with liquid ~ Türkic saɣ- (v.) soak in, absorb. The dictionary form is saɣur, which is a derivative of the verb saɣ- with core meaning suck, suction > saɣ- + -ur (active voice marker) ~ (it) soaks, (it) absorbs. Cognates: WFlem. soken, which betrays the Ogur origin with Ogur version of the affix -en vs. Oguz -ur. No IE cognates, the unattested IE root *seue- to take liquid is bravely modeled after the Flem. soken. (See suck).

English squeeze (v.) press firmly ~ Türkic qis- (qys-), sïq- (syg-) (v.) squeeze, press. Both Türkic verb forms qis- and sïq- could produce Gmc. and English forms. The word has a cancellation of semantical and grammatical derivatives, all developed from the semantical field squeeze, press. Cognates: OE qwysan squeeze, Grm. quets[chen] squeeze, predictably of unknown origin, with no IE cognates whatsoever. Most of the English derivatives likely came together with the verb, squeeze coerce, intimidate, fit, force, grip, squeeze by barely manage (v.), squash (v.) and obsolete squiss (v.) squeeze or crush, grip, tight situation (money etc.), impassable situation (money etc.), pressed situation (social etc.), squeegee (n.) wooden scraping instrument with a rubber blade, squeezers (n.) pinchers. Türkic has a number of synonymous allophones that open gate for all kinds of semantical and phonetical innovations: qarish, qavir, qavur, qurul, and phonetically more remote cognate synonyms. The Grm. form points to either the English anlaut s- being a prosthetic innovation for a particular stem, or to an areal and probably temporal dialectic preference for one or the other form.
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English suck (v.) ~ Türkic saɣ- (v.) suck. Cognates: OE sucan, OSw., OHG sugan, ONorse suga, MDu. sughen, Du. zuigen, Grm. saugen to suck;OIr. sugim, Welsh sugno to suck; Lat. sugere to suck,succus juice, sap; Sl. sosasat, sosu, soska, sosok, sosunok (, , , , ). In nomadic ranching society, the origin of the word and its main meaning are obvious, milk, and as natural are the numerous derivatives that correspond to English suction, sucking, sucker, suckling, and so on to no end. Dictionaries do not list meanings like fellation, but they can be suspected to be there and survive through millennia and upheavals. The OTD gives 40 derivative forms found in Middle Age literature, probably at least as many did not get on the paper. Across 42+ Türkic languages and uncounted dialects can be numerous slightly different forms: sak/sag/saq, and the like. The phonetics and semantics show perfect match. English preserved some derivatives together with their Türkic affixes: sucan = sak + -an (verbal affix to produce noun), suckling = sak + lïg (lyg, noun affix to produce abstract, collective, or specific semantics). The confluence of Gmc. and Celtic forms points to deja vu of circum-Mediterranean and overland routs separated by 2 to 3 millennia, and the Lat. words joins numerous others that testify to common Türkic roots of Lat. and English lexises The IE unattested *sug-/*suk- with primitive of imitative origin was derived from the Türkic reflexes in western European languages, without pondering on the Slavic cognates, which obviously descended from the same Türkic root with s/k alternation or with Eastern European endemic palatalization. Notably, one of Türkic derivatives is saɣur soak, absorb, mirrored in English soak with unreal IE unattested etymology of P.Gmc. *sukon modeled on attested and real WFlem. soken, reputably from (unattested) IE root *seue- to take liquid, but in reality ascending to the same Türkic root saɣ-. (See soak).

English surrender (v.) to give up ~ Türkic süründi (adj., n.). The stem of the Türkic word is the polysemantic universal verb sür- lead, chase, drive, strip off, pull off, and derivatives scatter(ed), mush(ed) the affix -ündi/-undï/-ündi is verbal affix forming adj., noun of type of action, result of action: lead away, chased away, driven away, displaced, expelled, stripped off, pulled away (n.), or be lead away (n.) etc., or (one that is) lead away, taken, seized, scattered, mushed (adj.) etc. Cognates: OFr. surrendre to give up. The IE etymology makes it a circuitous construction: stem der (dare) give > rendre = ren + dre give back > surrendre = sur + ren + dre = over, above, beyond, in addition + back, again + give, which suits the modern legal semantics of turning something back over, like surrendering a property, but is in conflict with the underlying meaning of going to captivity, stop resisting, fighting, present in the original and the Türkic semantics. The Türkic also has a very specific derivative noun süründi (n.) describing a disenfranchised and expelled potential successor (heir) to the throne, fief, and the like. The Slavic calque izgoi relates the Türkic semantics with the Slavic vocabulary: an offspring ineligible for succession, since the early Slavs followed the Türkic Lateral Succession Order.

English swear (v.) take an oath ~ Türkic vara (n.) piety, reverence (fear) of God. Forms and cognates: Anglo-Sxon (OE) swerian take an oath, OSw. swerian, ONorse sverja, Dan. sverge, OFris. swera, MDu. swaren, OHG swerien, Grm. schwören, Goth. swaren to swear; Av. var- believe, varǝna- faith, OGrm. wara truth, faithfulness, grace, war truthful, loyal, OIr. var vow, solemn promise, fir true, veracious, Lat. verus veracious, true, Goth. tuzwerjan to doubt, unwerjan discontented. In this listing, all entries are straightforward, clear, and consistent, e.g. Under fear of God's penalty, I swear..., except that in few cases a more accurate translation could be selected, and Av. and Goth. need clarification. Av., like Türkic, is an agglutinative language with master stem and affix modifiers, thus all grammatical forms of verbs and nouns can be obtained from a single non-flexive stem; I faithfully swear = I take an oath is one-word construct. The Goth. tuzwerjan is transparent rendition of the inverted Türkic veransiz: ver + an (noun affix, rendered yan) + siz (negation affix, rendered tuz) = faith (n.) without = infidelity => Goth. tuz + wer + jan; both the inversion and the translation are suspect, but inversion is theoretically possible; however, neither doubt, nor infidelity are synonymous with oath, take an oath, as the august IE advocate M.Vasmer would want us to believe, in fact it means the opposite. The Goth. unwerjan discontented is a similar case, the inverted Türkic veranŋ: ver +an (noun affix, rendered yan) +ŋ (negation affix, rendered un) = faith (n.) none = infidelity => Goth. un + wer + jan (See un-); both the inversion and the translation are suspect, but inversion is theoretically possible; only the infidelity translated as discontented is out of line and unrelated to taking oath under fear of God's punishment. M.Vasmer lists these two Goth. words under the entry of Sl. vera faith, a Türkic word in Sl. lexicon. Notably, the Lat. fides is a rendition of the same Türkic vara (n.) = faith, with all its Lat., English, and international derivatives: fidelity, Lat. fidelitatem, fidelitas, fidelis, fides faithfulness, adherence, faithful, true, faith; faith, Lat. fides faith, and so on. With Türkic vara, there is no need for manufactured IE unattested *bheidh- to come up with English, Grm., and Slavic forms for swear and faith. (See faith, ought).
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English take (v. & n.) ~ Türkic tut- (v. & n.). This is undoubtedly one of the most popular words and verbs in any language. The cognates are limited to the Gmc. group: OE tacan, Sw. ta, ONorse taka take, grasp, lay hold, MLG tacken, MDu. taken, Goth. tekan to touch; Lat tolle. In Türkic, the stem tut- has numerous usages: take = catch, capture, grab, grasp, hold, keep, hold talks, hold speech, and a ton of other semantically close usages, facilitated by the wealth of affixes and the use of the stem as a verb, noun, adjective, adverb, paired compound, and so on. It was used in the only surviving Hunnic phrase of the 4th c: Süčy tiligan, Pugu'yu tutan ~ Army-man would order (to march, go), Pugu (he) would (be) capture(ed). Actually, the Hunnic phrase said at the capture of Luoyang in 328 in the future China, contains three English cognates: tili = tell, order; tut = take, capture; and 'yu = would, 'd, like in He would like ~ He'd like; in English, the conditional would divorced the verb, and migrated to the noun/pronoun, while in Türkic it remained faithful to the verb but both have that affixal for 'yu ~ 'ud = 'd. The English take is rated of uncertain origin, and unfitting for the IE perspective. Most likely, the word originated form the Sarmatian/European forms of the Ogur-type Türkic languages, a group of languages shared by Burgundians, Vandals, Goths, and their ancestors. See would, talk, tell.

English talk (v. and n.) ~ Türkic tili/tele/dili (n.) = language, tongue, speech, with verbal derivatives. Related to tell and tale. Cognates: OE talken, ME tale story, East Frisian talken to talk, chatter, whisper, Du. taale language, Du. taal speech, language. Ironically, the unattested PIE root *del- to recount, count reverts back to the Türkic verb tili/tele/dili, the absence of Indian/Iranian cognates notwithstanding. Apparently, the Türkic concept tili = speech is a later development compared with söy = say, which is reflected in Chinese as a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language. See tale for noun.
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English tangle (v.), better known as entangle (v.) ~ Türkic taŋ (tang) (v.) tie, fasten, bandage. Cognates: OE teag tie, tagilen to involve in a difficult situation, entangle, ONorse taug tie tygill string, Sw. cognate taggla to disorder (entangle), ONorse cognate thongull seaweed. The unattested PIE root *deuk- to pull, to lead is semantically unsustainable. The vowel rendition -ea-, -au-, -y- point to attempts to render the original laryngeal -a-. Close phonetics and exact semantics validate the Türkic origin. See tie.

English taste (v. & n.), tasty (adj.) ~ Türkic stem tat- (v.) taste, savor to derive verbs, nouns, adj., adv.: Türkic tatit (n.), tati (adj.) = taste (n.), tasty, to be pleasant (adj.), verb tat- (inf. tatmak) taste, tatgan to like the taste. Cognates: noun, OFr. tast (Mod. Fr. tat); verb, OFr. taster to taste. Conventional etymology ascends to Lat. taxtare, a frequentative form of Lat. taxare evaluate, handle. Apparently, English, Frisians, and Latins are oddball among the Europeans and IE Asians in using this Türkic word. The Chinese 味道 hui ta = taste is phonetically similar to its graphical depiction Uigur way, which may be a chance coincidence.

English tell (v.) ~ Türkic tili/tele/dili (n.) = language, tongue, speech, with verbal derivatives. Related to talk and tale. Cognates: OE tellan to reckon, calculate, consider, account, OSw. tellian, ONorse telja, OFris. tella to count, tell, Du. tellen to count, reckon, OSw. talon to count, reckon, Dan. tale to speak, OHG zalon, Grm. zählen to count, reckon. Possible derivatives known as Fr. conter to count, raconter to recount, It. contare, Sp. contar to count, recount, narrate; Grm. zählen to count, erzählen to recount, narrate. Ironically, the unattested PIE root *del- to recount, count reverts back to the Türkic verb tili/tele/dili, the absence of Indian/Iranian cognates notwithstanding. Chinese reflex 说 (shua) = say, tell, talk is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language. See tale for noun.

English think (v.) ~ Türkic saq (v.) think, consider, take for smth. Cognates: OE thencan, thohte, gethoht conceive in the mind, think, consider, intend, OFris. thinka, OSw. thenkian, OHG denchen, Grm. denken, ONorse thekkja, Goth. thagkjan; OE thencan is the causative form of the distinct OE verb thyncan, thuhte gethuht to seem or appear; Grm. dünken, däuchte. Supposedly from IE unattested root *tong- to think, feel. The OTD spelling saq ( I 85) may be somewhat distorted, since the Russ. Cyrillic does not allow for interdental phonemes, which may affect the rendition; the OTD is using only a voiced form δ, and no unvoiced symbol; if this is correct, the Makhmud Kashgari form may be thaq, which would be much closer to the English phonetics. The Türkic semantics is perfect, notably with the additional semantics of to seem or appear. In English, think, sane and sanity, and mind form a cluster that ascend to the identical Türkic cluster of san- think and ming brain. See sane, sanity, sanitary, mind.

English tick (v. & n.) clicking or ticking sound ~ Türkic tiki sound, noise, murmur, tikir make light cracking, crunching, ticking sounds. Cognates: Du. tik, Germ. zic. No IE cognates. Identical word is Sl. tikat (), pointing to a common, likely echoic, origin.

English tie (v. & n.) ~ Türkic tüg-, taŋ- (tang) (v.) tie, fasten, bandage, wrap. Cognates: OE teag, ONorse taug tie, tygill string, Ang.-Sax. teag, tiegan tie, bind, tan (in becnyttan to knit, tie, bind); Sl. tük bundle, (za)tyan(ut) () tighten (bundle), tugoi () tightened up and corresponding reflexes in other Sl. languages; Tr. derivatives tüglun- wrap into bundle and tüglüš- tied with knots preserved the original stem tüg- and the narrow semantic of tying/tightening a bundle. The absence of cognates in Baltic languages indicates a later borrowing into Sl. No IE cognates, the unattested PIE root *deuk- to pull, to lead is semantically and phonetically unsustainable. The OE and ONorse forms point to an effort to render the phonetics of the rounded -ü- with the limitations of the novel Roman alphabet, the vowel rendition -ea-, -au-, -y- point to attempts to render the original rounded -ü-, also present in the Sl. forms, or the laryngeal -a-. The close phonetics and exact semantics validate the Türkic origin. The phonetic contraction of ŋ > g probably reflects the local Türkic languages or dialects. The Türkic cognate taia- (v.), closer to the English form tie- (v.), means to support, to brace, like in tied with braces, a perfect semantical and phonetical match; that form may have propagated into the modern English. The Türkic compound kurultai, made famous by the Chingiz Khan, uses the word tie/tai in a sense family ties, kurultai lit. means be cured (family) ties. In the same same sense the word tai (sai) is used in the names of the Scythian eponymic ancestors Targitai, Koloksai, Lipoksai, there tai (sai) refers to the clan ties. The variety of forms indicate antiquity of the term, probably ascending to the pre-horse husbandry times of foot hunters and backpacks, 6th mill. BC. See tangle.
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English till harrowing, plowing ~ Türkic til- (v.) slit into narrow strips. The word till/til- is intrinsically connected with the Türkic allophone of the ard scratch plough, and refers to breaking the earth before planting. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) tilian, OFris. tilia, OSax. tilian, MDu., Du. telen, OHG zilon, Grm. zielen, all connected with cultivation; Türk. tilgä strip of land. OE used tile for bricks, semantically also connected with striping, and that was conflated by the etymologists with the origin of till harrowing, plowing, although the stems and the paths of these two words are obviously separate, with English tile and Fr. tuile tile related to Du. tegel, ONorse tigl, Lat. tegula tile fr. Lat. tegere roof, which ultimately may ascend to the Türkic til- slit into narrow strips for roofing. The distribution of both terms focused in Gmc., with Lat. outlier, points to separate paths, one via Celtic migration, the other via overland Türkic migration.

English topple (v.) tumble down, to tumble or roll about ~ Türkic topul (v.) rip, rupture, open wide, punch. Like the English top is töpü in Türkic, the English derivative topple (v.) from top is topul (v.) derivative from töpü in Türkic. The semantical, grammatical derivative, and phonetical parallel are absolute, topple is pronounced tó-pul; the -l in Türkic is a now obsolete (inactive) transitive verbal affix: tusu use, usage > tusul to use, in English the -le in topple is explained as a frequentative suffix, quite unsuitable for a noun to verbal derivative suffix top > toppl; this is one of the cases when derivative is adopted with its native functional affix. The root top has no IE connections outside Gmc. and Roman words, and the few Roman words probably are borrowed from Gmc. See top, use.

English touch (v. & n.) ~ Türkic toqï (v.) beat, hit, knock. Cognates: OFr. touchier touch, hit, knock, touche touching (n.), Sp. tocar, It. toccare, Lat. tangere touch (n.); Sl. tykat () poke, as tkati (), tkt (), tkac ()́ it is preserved in all Sl. languages complete with the Türkic semantical meanings; there is a notion of striking church bells. The standing etymology is below decency: perhaps of imitative origin. The usage pointedly refers to knocking, striking meaning paralleling that of the Türkic toqï. The polysemantic of the Türkic word (8 meanings) is more than matched by its English counterpart (15 meanings), semantical expansion in English to stirred emotionally, affecting emotions, get or borrow money and the like are very late developments, and the expansion is still continuing. A second meaning of toqï (v.) is weave, in the Sl. it is preserved along with tykat poke as tkat weave and its many derivatives. Positively no IE parallels.

English tremble (v.) twitch (of body parts), shake, shiver, jerk involuntarily, trembler (n.) quaker ~ Türkic tebrä-, četre (Chuv.) (v.) to tremble, twitch (of body parts). Cognates: OFr. trembler, It. tremolare, Sp. temblar, Lat. tremulus, tremere to tremble, shiver, quake; Gk. tremein; Balt. (Lith.) trimu; OCS treso to shake. Tr. conjugations tebrän- reflexive of tebrä-, tebrät imperative of tebrä-. The tebrä- also produced English quaver (v.) and quake, see quaver, quake; and in the Chuv. form čětre to tremble produced the Germ. zittern to tremble (tebrä- is eastern Oguz form, čětre- is western Ogur form). No Gmc. cognates. The amateurish IE etymology is purely phonetical and semantically accidental, the IE *trem- to tremble is a clear concoction, produced by reverse engineering of borsch to arrive at cabbage; the eastern IE languages do not have meaningful cognates, incontrovertibly pointing to a loanword into European languages. The close phonetic and perfect semantic congruency does not allow doubts on the Türkic origin of the word. The skewed distribution, shared by Türkic, Romance and Balto-Slavic groups, points to the Eastern European origin of the Romance loanword, apparently brought to the Romance group with the reverse migration back to the Central Europe in the 1st mill. BC. Geographical spread points to the movements of the Türkic mounted nomadic tribes across Europe, the two different forms point to the eastern Hunnic (tebrä-) and western Sarmatian (čětre-) heritage. See quaver, quake, shake.
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English tuck (v.) fit snugly, gather in folds ~ Türkic takın- (v.) put on, cover, tuck in. The phonetic and semantic concordance is perfect, down to the Türkic verbal affix -in in the word tuck in. Probably, Türkic mamas kept this word alive, tucking in their kids from generation to generation. The IE etymology dead-ends at MLG or MDu tucken pull up, draw up, tug, OE togian pull, leaving a wide path to the Türkic origin.

English turn (v.) ~ Türkic tön- (tür-) (v.) turn, return. Semantical application is completely identical, the Türkic tön- as a verb includes connotation of return, found in later English. Semantical clusters of the word in both languages include figurative abstract extensions like convince => turn somebody around, refuse => turn down, influence, bend, tilt somebody => turn, repulse => turn off, turnaround, turnabout, turn upside down, turn over, and the like, each language using its own morphological tools. The inlaut -r- (tön- > turn) seems to have been used to transmit the phonetics of the labial -ö-, later fossilized and articulated. The difference between the Türkic labial ö and English u most likely came about reflecting that in Türkic ö and ü are not clearly differentiated, most of the words have forms with both vowels, like kök and kük both standing for blue, sometimes in the same text; thus the English turn (v.) ~ Türkic tün- (v.) turn, return is equally applicable. The stipulated etymology from a unattested IE root *tere- to rub, rub by turning, turn, twist is just laughable.

English ululate (v.) long loud crying, howling, ululation (n.) long loud emotional utterance ~ Türkic ulï- (v.) wail, moan, bellow. Cognates: Lat. ululatus, ululare, Norse. hyle, ule, Dan. hyle, Sw. howl, yla, Du. huilen, huilt, gehuil; Sl. (Russ.) ululukat (v.), ululukanie (n.); Skr. lolati; Hu. üvölteni; Sum. i-lu, e-lu, u-lu (v.); Heb. urla-; all obviously dialectal variations of the Türkic stem ulï-, carried by different paths to different areas in Europe. Gmc. languages have prosthetic anlaut h-, probably a relict of the Türkic Ogur dialects; Slavic languages have forms with prosthetic anlaut v-; thus, Gmc. languages have form howl, while Slavic languages have form voi (n.), vyt (v.). Apparently, some Türkic languages had forms with consonants -d-, -b- instead of -l-, which produced essentially the same forms that differ only in the second consonant. Some post-Lat. languages added prosthetic -r- in the inlaut, e.g. It. urlo, urla. The universally near perfect phonetical and perfect semantical concordance does not leave any room for doubts of the Türkic origin of all these dialectal forms, including the form howl. The Skr. word attests to the presence of this word in the N.Pontic lexicon prior to the 2nd mill. BC, unless it was delivered to the Indian subcontinent directly in the course of pre-Arian migrations. See howl, lull.
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English unite (v.) join for common purpose, action, ideology or in shared situation ~ Türkic una- (v.) agree. Both English and Türkic have uncounted number of derivatives with semantics agree on: union, unanimity, united; uniting, disunited, unionize, reunite/reunion, communion, etc. The IE etymology deduces unite fr. Lat. unitus to unite, fr. unus one, LLat. unionem, unio oneness, unity, uniting, with semantics to become one, while the Türkic etymology arises to the root cause for uniting - to agree, qualitatively substantial difference. In favor of Türkic etymology attests the presence of stem una- in nearly all 42+ Türkic languages, many of them geographically quite distant from the Apennine peninsula: Enisei Kirgiz, Khakas, Uygur, Uzbek, Altaic, Kazakh, Tatar, Kumyk, Cuvash (a few Türkic languages use a Mongolic word), while in the IE family the word un for one has a distinct northern European flavor: OE an, ONorse einn, Dan. een, OFris. an, Du. een, Grm. ein, Goth. ains; OIr. oin, Breton un; Balt. (Lith.) vienas, Balt. (Latv.) viens, OCS -inu, ino-; Gk. ένας (enas); Lat. unus; OPers. aivam. Both the Türkic and IE families may have inherited the Eastern European areal Sprachbund word of the 3000 BC, which at 2000 BC migrated toward Mediterranean, India and Middle East, and at 1000 BC migrated to the Northern Europe. The IE languages carried the notion of numeral one, while the Türkic languages carried the notion of agreement, unity across the steppe Kurgan area, and into the Mediterranean and Northern European fringes.

English use (v. & n.) use, employ, practice, make use of ~ Türkic tusu (v. & n.) make use of. Cognates: OFr. user (v.), OLat. oeti (n.), Lat. . uti (v.) use, usus use; OFr. uss (n.) use, custom, skill, habit. IE etymology of unknown origin, positively pointing to non-IE origin. The Tr. form that reached us has a seemingly prosthetic t-, but it as well could be the original form that produced a form with unarticulated t-. See topple for verbal derivative.

English was past tense of to be ~ Türkic var- (v.) to be (i.e. in Eng. was, in Türk. is). Cognates: OE wesan, wæs, wæron (1st, 3rd pers. sing.), OSax. wesan, ONorse vesa, OFris. wesa, MDu. wesen, Du. wezen, OHG wesen, Dan. var, Icl. var, Norse var, Sw. var; Skt. vasati; Hu. van. In OE, wesan was a distinct verb that became used for the past tense of the 1st pers. form am of the verb to be, a process that also occurred in Goth. and ONorse. The Dan., Icl., Norse, Sw. form var has preserved the original phonetics, and matches exactly the Türkic form var- ; among its 42 languages, Türkic has numerous variations of the base form: bar- (Karachai, Kazakh, Kumyk, Tatar, Turkmen, Sakha), pur- (Chuv.), var- (Azeri, Gagauz), boluu- (Kirgiz), bolur- (Tuv.), wor (S.Altai), bor- (Karluk gr.), par- (Khakass). Historically, all non-Türkic (IE and Fennic) examples are contiguous with the Great Steppe, and either contain, or used to contain sizable Türkic component. The IE etymology ingeniously restored the Türkic real var-/bar-/par- as a unattested PIE root *wes-, soundly ignoring the inconvenient Dan., Icl., Norse, and Sw. forms. See be.

English write ~ Türkic rizan (Turkish resim) = draw (picture). Cognates: OHG rizan to write, scratch, tear, Grm. reißen to tear, pull, tug, sketch, draw, design, OE writan to score, outline, draw the figure of, later to set down in writing (class I strong verb; past tense wrat, pp. writen); OFris. writa to write, OSw. writan to tear, scratch, write, ONorse rita write, scratch, outline, all variations of Türkic rizan. Slavic preserved the original Türkic semantics to draw: Pol. rysowac from rîʒen/rîʒʒan > Ukr. risuvati () > Russ. risovat, risunok (n) (, ), with numerous cognates and derivatives in every Grm., Slavic, and Türkic language. No non-senile PIE etymology, no similar word exists in any other Romance language. This is one of primary examples on impropriety of family tree model applied to real languages. In the compound writer both stems, rit and ar are Türkic: draw + man. Write is a cultural word, it is intrinsically connected with the appearance of the runic writing in the NW Europe that coincided with the Sarmatian migration to the NW Europe, and temporally with the runic notations left in the Egyin Gol Hunnic royal kurgan cemetery (1st c.), Chinese records that Huns write on wooden planks (3rd c. BC), and Issyk runic inscription (5th c. BC).
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4.1 Body

English ache physical pain ~ Türkic čï (achy) physical pain. Etymological origin of the Türkic idiomatic čï comes from the čï meaning sour, like in the sour mood, sour attitude, sour-tasting; the Türkic poly-semantic čï still has these two meanings, pain and sour. Cognates: OE æce, Icl. ache, Gk. akhos pain, distress. The phonetical and semantical congruence of the English ache and Türkic čï (achy) is perfect, the use of the phoneme k for ch is a recent development ca. 1700, still reflected in the modern spelling. The complete absence of cognates in all branches of IE languages is a good indicator of a borrowed lexeme, in this case a survived vestige of the substrate language in English, and a borrowing from another time, place, and a Türkic group intio Greek. Unlike the čï lit. meaning sour that nearly universally penetrated all European languages, the idiomatic čï unhappy survived only in the descendent languages of the Vikings/Goths, and in the Türkic languages. See acid.

English asquint (askance, askant, cross-eyed) ~ Türkic qïŋïr (n., adj.) slanting, from the Türkic root qïŋ mean, hateful. Some cognates are in other Gmc. languages and in Fr.: Du. schuinte, Fr. equinter, (e)squintar, It. scancio. Both in English and Türkic, the semantic meaning is a triplet, 1. glance of disapproval directed to one side; 2. slanted; 3. cross-eyed. The Türkic root qïŋ points to the origin of the word: mean > mean glance > asquint glance > askance. The English inherited all three meanings, and developed new words, like askew. The Türkic has numerous allophones with related or close meaning: kyi slanted cut, qïjïq slanted (adj.) , qïŋu  glance unfriendly, slanted, mean, and various derivatives; quite likely the close phonetics and semantics conflated some forms and developed a tree of variations, one of which was retained in English. No IE etymology, the etymology is rated of obscure and contested etymology, but the phonetical and semantical congruence and continuity unambiguously connect the Türkic and English words.

English body entire structure of an organism ~ Türkic bod body. Cognates: OE bodig, OHG botah, Turkish beden, Arab. bädän body, Kor. badi 바디; these four forms belong to 4 linguistic families; another Eurasian-wide word is Türkic ten body, with reflexes in Lat. tegus, Sl. telo (), Hu. test, Sum. teshti, Ch. di/ti , this belongs to a different group of 3 Eurasian linguistic families. From the Türkic bod came the Türkic budun = a mass of bodies, generic for people, which already in Herodotus time obtained a negative, lowly semantics of human material, chattel, i.e. Herodotus' Budini (aka Bodini) describes the human chattel of the Scythians; ditto budun of the Orkhon inscriptions. Except for the Türkic, the reflexes of the terms bod and ten are systematically anomalous in their reseptor linguistic families and branches, pointing to a status of a loanword in each of those languages. The IE etymology for the English body is a standard of unknown origin, attesting that IE linguists are weak not only in history and Türkic languages, but in Semitic languages too. See botch.

English bald (adj.) lacking hair ~ Türkic bül (adj.) bald. The Türkic term bül is denoted specifically in respect to horses and a bald patch on the head of a horse. Significantly, Celtic bal means the same, white patch, blaze, especially on the head of a horse or other animal, attesting that the word existed at the time of the Celtic Kurgans' departure from the Eastern Europe in the 4th mill. BC, if not earlier. The IE etymology offers a range of unsuitable phonetical conjectures, essentially corroborating the non-IE origin. Notably, the semantically distant homophonic English bald and bold originated from close, but certainly phonetically distinct Türkic stems, bül and palt/bald. See bold.
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English brain ~ Türkic (Turkmen) beini brain. Cognates: English brain, OE brægen, MLG bregen, OFris., Du. brein; Gk. brekhmos. Of the 13 most prominent Türkic languages, this word shows up only in the Turkmen, quite an oddity, with second runner-ups the Turkish beyin and the Chuvash mime, Chuvash form could be restored to bine (with m/b rhotacism and m/n alteration), and Kazakh and Kirgiz form to beyit. A deeper look may produce closer phonetic allophones, meŋtä mental > beŋtä > beini, see mental. With a complete absence of IE cognates, the forms beini/beyin/bine/beyit are the best phonetic match for the English brain. Frisian word may point to the Cimmerians, then the modern Türkic form is separated from the Middle Age Frisian word by combined 6,000 years distance, 2,000 years on the Frisian side, and 4,000 years on the Turkmen side. See mental.

English cheek ~ Türkic (Tuva) čaak (chaak) cheek, a dialectal of OTD jaŋaq/eŋäk (yaŋaq, yangaq/eŋek, engek) side, cheek. The Türkic jaŋaq cheek is a derivative of jaŋaq side, which explains its semantic. The Tuva form čaak appear to be a preserved in the Mongolian Türkic Hunnic form from the Syanbi period, ca. 150 AD, when a small Mongolic Syanbi grouping took over control of 500,000 Huns; with the Sl. shcheka it reflects the Hunnic word that did not reach us directly, it presents the best allophone for the English form. The jaŋaq cheek, a derivative of jaŋaq side, points to the ultimate origin; the juxtaposition of yaŋ- and eŋ- forms demonstrates a textbook example of Ogur CV- anlaut vs. Oguz V- anlaut; the English cheek is of the Ogur origin. The inlaut -ŋ- (-ng-) is absent in the Tuva form, which points to the silent inner consonant, typical for Middle Asian forms and borrowings into Mong.: jaŋaq > jaaq > chaak > cheek; the middle vowels a and i are readily interchangeable; dialectal variations of anlaut semi-consonant to consonant are typical between Ogur and Oguz languages: y-/dj-/g- > ch-. The conventional etymology tends to confuse jaw and chin with cheek, presenting a jumble of guesses and little in terms of etymology; the best that is offered is that conflated forms for jaw/chin/cheek are not found outside West Gmc. milieu. The IE etymologists bravely declare that words for cheek, jaw, and chin tend to run together in IE languages, but cite only a single example, the Gk. genus jaw, cheek vs. geneion chin, and under that guise endeavor to conflate the Gmc. lexicon, which stubbornly does not go along with conflation thesis: MLG kake jaw, jawbone, MDu. kake jaw, Du. kaak jaw, with no conflation (See jaw). Probably, the uneducated dwellers of the European northern forests did not read Aristotle at the bedtime, who considered the chin as the front of the jaws and the cheeks as the back of them. The Anglo-Sax. (OE) ceace, cece jaw, jawbone, also the fleshy wall of the mouth dubiously passes confusion from the modern IE linguists to the English culprits. The closest cognates to English cheek comes not from the Gmc. languages, but from Slavic: shcheka = cheek, pointing to separate independent developments for chew and jaw and cheek, and enlightening us to be mindful of our own confusion before we address others' confusion (See jaw). A transition from a closer form of jaŋaq, like chanak > chaak > cheek, with j- > ch-, -a- > -i-, and silent or contracted -n/ŋ is consistent with examples found within the Türkic languages. The same closer form of jaŋaq via the same mechanism effortlessly produces the Slavic (Russ.) shcheka, (Blr.) shchaka, and (Ukr.) shchoka. There is no common Sl. designation for the cheek, pointing that the Eastern Slavic forms constitute a borrowing, apparently from the same underlying language as the English cheek, which also positively points to the Türkic original, since the early Slavic and especially early Eastern Slavic languages are more than saturated with Turkisms.
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English carpus anatomical assembly connecting wrist to forearm ~ Türkic qarï forearm part of arm. Lat. carpus fr. Gk. karpos (καρπὁς) wrist. With such pinpointed semantics, the Türkic origin is beyond doubts.

English colon large intestine toward anus ~ Türkic kolon, Gk. kolon, the part of intestine that ends with anus, from Türkic kilak stomach ache. Cognates: Fr. qolique, Lat. colica, Gk. kolike, also from the same Türkic root kilak.

English derma, dermat-, dermato- pertaining to skin ~ Türkic deri skin. The origin of the word in English is ultimately ascribed to Gk. derma skin, dermato- dermo- in compounds, via MLat. derma. Hence, Greeks carried the Türkic word to the Latins. See skin.

English elbow joint between forearm and upper arm ~ Türkic el arm, forearm. The Türkic element el starts the English elbow, OE elnboga, from ell length of the forearm + boga bow, arch; OI.. uilen, Cymmer. elin, Goth. lin; Du. elleboog, MDu. ellenboghe, Grm. Ellenbogen, OHG elinbogo, N. albuen, ONorse ölnbogi, Balt. (Latv.) elkonis, Balt. (Lith.) alkune, Sl. lokot (, with contracted el), all expressing compound arm + bend, with bend coming in two flavors: the Gaulic kon in Bask. ukondoa (probably contracted lukondoa), Gujarati koni, Hindi kohani, Hu. könyök, Balt. (Latv.) elkonis, Balt. (Lith.) alkune, Sl. lokot; and the Grm. bog < Tr. bük in E. elnboga, Du. ellenboghe, Sw. armbage, G. elinbogo, N. ölnbogi. Of Gmc. languages, only Sw. changed the Türkic el to Grm. arm: armbage. In time, the Türkic el shows up in Cimmerian in the 10th c. BC, Indo-Iranian (Avesta, Skrt.) after 6th c. BC, and in Europe roughly Gaul/Irish > Goth. > Germ. > Balt. > Slav. Gk. (Hestius) reflects the Cimmerian Türkic form: elin > olene ὠλένη > Lat. ulna elbow. The part bog in various allophones is the Türkic bük bend, twist, curl, wrench, contortion, wring, which produced English bow < boga < bük; all Gmc. languages uniformly inherited the Türkic bük, boq- (v.) (in modern Turkish bük(mek) (v.) bend, twist, curl, curl up, flex, fold, bükül(mek) (v.) twist, bend, curve, fold, spring, wind, bükme (n.) bend, twist, curl, wrench, contortion, wring; the Türkic part mek is the English make, infinitive verbal affix agglutinated to the stem). The little elbow allows to trace two Türkic words from 6000 ybp in the Pontic steppes to the Mesopotamian Guties ~ Guzes 4300 ybp, to Mesopotamian Cimmerians 3000 ybp, via Balkans to Jutland Danes 2000 ybp, and into literate period; and on circum-Mediterranean route from the same Mesopotamian Guties ~ Guzes to Iberia 4800 ybp (Beaker Culture), and Celtic spread up to Western Europe, British isles and Ireland, and into the literate period. Two forms for bend, the Gaulic kon and the Grm. bog attest to two independent routs, circum-Mediterranean and overland via Balkans. The Gk. and Lat. forms attest to a third path to Europe, potentially connected with the population replacement of 6500 ybp, or with the Hellenic immigration 4000 ybp. See bow, make.

English eye (n.) organ of sight ~ Türkic ög- (v.) to eye, penetrate, perceive. Ultimately, the Türkic-Grm. ög- and the IE ok- is the same stem, distributed nearly equally to form grammatical forms for vision: OE ege (Mercian), eage (WSax.), OSax. aga, OFris. age, ONorse auga, Goth. augo, Sw. öga, Dan. øie, MDu. oghe, Du. oog, OHG ouga, Grm. Auge, all eye; the English eye closely follows the Dan. øie: øie > øye > eye via form  øğe; (ğ may be articulated silently); nearly all of these Grm. forms preserved the tint of the rounded ö in the Türkic ög- and point to direct genetic connection; Skt. akshi eye, Gk. opsis sight, OCS oko, Balt. (Lith.) akis, Lat. oculus, Gk. okkos, Kuchean ak, ek, Armenian akn, all eye, the non- Grm. forms show separate paths; this would be a classical Nostratic stem. Obviously, all these forms were inherited via numerous independent paths, creating a spectrum of allophones; the Grm. allophones are notably closer to the Türkic version than to the Sl.-Balt.-Skt.-Gk.-Arm.-Indian (Kuchean) forms. See ogle, agaze.
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English dementia, dement drive mad ~ Türkic dumur = atrophy, degeneration. Cognate of OE form gemynd "memory, thinking, intention closest to the Türkic form, other cognates are explained from mind and memory, but not to the absence thereof: Goth. muns "thought," munan to think;" ONorse minni mind;" Grm. minne memory, loving memory. In Romance, M.Fr. démenter, LLat. dementare to drive out of one's mind; Lat. is explained as de mente out of mind, derived from mens mind, and then linked to mind and memory, but not to the absence thereof: Skt. matih "thought," munih "sage, seer; Gk. memona "I yearn," mania "madness, mantis "one who divines, prophet, seer; Lat. mens "mind, understanding, reason, memini "I remember, mentio "remembrance; Balt. (Lith.) mintis "thought, idea, OCS mineti "to believe, think, Rus. pamiat "memory, all lacking semantics of degeneration. The Türkic dumur, like the English dumb, can't be derived from Lat. de mente, but both dement and dumb, and other Grm. dem-/dum- cognates are derivatives of the Türkic dumur = atrophy, degeneration.

English dick penis (folksy) ~ Türkic dik (v.) erect, stand straight. The derivative slang senses are very old and naturally were not recorded in the surviving records. Meaning penis was first attested in the British army's slang, the slang for fellow is synonymous with fellow, lad, man. No parallels in Indo-Iranian languages, PIE, or even in the *PIE, but probably a daily term among Sarmatians, Goths, and other Wendeln tribes. As a straightly erected structure, erected posture, standing and protruding, the Türkic dik is found in Du. (dyke, dike = standing barrier), Spanish (dique - levee, upright wall, vertical rock stem protruding to the surface), and popular appellations that refer to exaggerated masculinity. No IE etymology.

English foot lower leg ~ Türkic but (bot). Cognates: OSax. fot, ONorse fotr, Du. voet, OHG fuoz, Grm. Fuß, Goth. fot foot"; Fr. pied, It. piede, Sp. pata, Lat. pes, Gk. pos, Skt. pad-, Av. pad-, all foot, Balt. (Lith.) padas sole, peda footstep. It is obvious that foot belongs to an areal Sprachbund language, which at 3000 BC centered in the Eastern Europe, at 2000 BC migrated toward Mediterranean, India and Middle East, and at 1000 BC migrated to the Northern Europe. Apparently, the voiced bilabial stop b turned into voiceless p in the southern fringes, and into voiceless labiodental fricative f in the northern fringes. Foot belongs to the collection of the Sprachbund words common with the Türkic languages and geographically adjacent to the steppe Kurgan area.

English heart muscular pump organ ~ Türkic (Chuv.) chäre (chere). Cognates: Yak. süreq, Tuv. chürek, Khak. chüräk, OT yürek; OE heorte heart, figurative breast, soul, spirit, will, desire; courage; mind, intellect, OSw. herta, OFris. herte, ONorse hjarta, Du. hart, OHG herza, Grm. Herz, Goth. hairto; OIr. cride, Welsh craidd; Lat. cor; Gk. kardia καρδιά; Balt. (Lith.) širdis, Rus. serdce heart; Hittite kir. English form is closer to Chuv. form, but the other forms demonstrate a common origin of all Türkic forms. Essentially, all forms show an international European/Great Steppe word that probably was seeded by overland and circum-Mediterranean horse-mounted Kurganians. The English spelling of the first vowel -ea-/-eo-, and the Goth. -ai- point to attempts to render the quality of that vowel depicted as -ä-/-ü- in Türkic transcriptions, and approximated as -e- in Grm. versions: the -ə-.

English jaw ~ Türkic čügtä, čökdä (chugte, chokde) jaw. The Türkic term čügtä, čökdä includes the vertical joint of the jaw. The English jaw came from jowl, after ME chawl (late 14c.), chavel (early 14c.), Anglo-Sax. (OE ceafl, with the dates attesting not the usage in time, but records in time. English also preserved jowl, ME cholle for fold of flesh hanging from the jaw; MHG kiver, Grm. kiefer, ONorse kjoptr jaw, Dan. kæft, Flem. kavel, Du. kevel gum; OIr. gop, Ir. gob beak, mouth; they are phonetically as close to jaw/ceafl as the čügtä, čökdä, considering the vast geographical and time differences between these forms: the anlaut semi-consonants/consonants j-/dj-/ch- are fluid between different dialects, the labial ö and ü are fluid between different dialects, and may be legitimately rendered -ow-/-aw- to show labial vowel, the final -tä/-dä may be reflected in the Dan. -t of the kæft. The closest cognates to English jaw comes not from the Gmc. languages, but from Slavic: jevat () to chew. Slavic also has completely separate chelust = jaw, and shcheka () cheek, pointing to separate independent developments for chew and jaw and cheek, and enlightening us to be mindful of our own confusion before we address others' confusion. Among many allophones and polysemantic meanings, one that ties together jaw and čügtä, čökdä is the stem čöq- with semantics bent, curved, knee-like, used to produce derivatives like čügtä, čökdä and čögän, čoɣan polo mallet, pointing that initially the curved jaws of animals were used as tools and in games, forming nouns of the stem čöq- (with allophones čök-, čög-, čöɣ-) with verbal noun affixes tä/dä/än/an to make nouns meaning hokey-stick shaped. Note that English jaw and chin are synonymic, chin has distinct Grm. roots, while jaw has cognates outside of the Grm. origin. In light of the forms clustering around čöq- bent, a temptation to connect the forms jaw and jevat with the verb ye eat is not sustainable.
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 English mind faculty of reason ~ Türkic ming brain with a constellation of dialectal forms for brain: meji/meŋä/meŋi and men/min/ben/bin ((m/b alteration). Cognates: OE gemynd memory, remembrance, ONorse minni mind, Goth. muns thought, munan think, Grm. minne, originally memory, loving memory; Lat. mens mind, Skt. matih thought, mind. The abundance of phonetical variations points to a lengthy history of the word, the reduced g in ng may be an archaic reflex of the affix -k/-q/-g signifying derivative nouns and adjectives. A presence of the Skt. word indicates either a time earlier than 2000 BC, or a later borrowing, the latter is likelier, since a brain is not necessarily connected with thought, take for example chickens and fish that have one but not the other. The dictionaries do not necessarily include all the extant, deviant, or archaic forms. The ancient forms with prefix ge-/ga must be Grm. innovations; the auslaut -d likely reflects the original Türkic dialectal form of the affix ta/tä/da/dä/δa/δä. In English, mind, and sane and sanity form a cluster that ascends to the identical Türkic cluster of ming brain and san- think. See sane, sanity, sanitary, mind, think.

English phlegm lung discharges ~ Türkic balgam (balɣam) lung discharges. The Gk., Arab. phlegma is etymologized as related to Gk. phlox flame, blaze, but there is a long way from the Classical Greece to the S.Siberian steppes for a Gk. loanword to penetrate into Oguz languages. A Gk. borrowing from the Western Scythians, who brought the word from the north-eastern fringes of the Middle Asia, would appear to be a better scenario, but an absence of a suitable base stem, of which balgam would have been a derivative, makes the direction of borrowing a mute matter. The Gk. dissemination at a time of the Gk. domination of the South-Central Asia is a viable path.

English quim vulva, vagina ~ Türkic em vulva, vagina. This is one of those eternal words that are transmitted before puberty, and never go away. The m-/b- dialectal alteration has apparently more westerly form eb. Cognate of innumerous derivatives, one of which is the Biblical Eve, Sl. ebat/ibat (v., n., derivatives) to fuck. Supposedly of unknown origin See Eve, wife

English saliva liquid in mouth ~ Türkic liš (lish) saliva, spit, mucus, phlegm. The Türkic word comes in numerous forms, attesting to the time depth and dialectal spread: lešp/lisip/lisp/liš/salya (leshp/lisip/lisp/lish/salya), and more. Cognates: MFr. salive, Lat. saliva, Ir. seile, Balt. (Latv.) seiles, Est. sülge spittle, Sl. sluna spittle, sliz mucus, phlegm, etymology of unknown origin. The Grm. word is spit (spittle), and apparently saliva and spit survived in English due to parallel usage. The recurrent element sl in numerous European languages points to a common s- form of the word that entered the Europe from the west, the Celtic Kurgan circum-Mediterranean migration, and from the east with the Kurgan overland waves that started in the 4th mill. BC.
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English sanity (n.), sane (adj.) sound powers of mind ~ Türkic san- (v.) think, reflect, realize, to be aware, contemplate. The Türkic stem san- produces with agglutinated affixes active and passive verbs, nouns, adjectives, and any other grammatical form, with the affix -mak/-maq = make, for example, it produces the above verbal infinitives. The stem san- appears to be a derivative of a stem sa- count, reckon, but it may be a reverse, with sa- being a contracted derivative of san-. The IE etymology gets it backward, deriving sane and sanity form the Lat. sanitas health, sanity, sanus healthy, sane, and then expanding to soundness of mind and health-giving sanitorius, while it is obvious that the Lat. semantics healthy is a semantical innovation of the Türkic san- that found its way to English independently of the meanings sane and sanity. The derivative insane was also initially developed in Lat. Neither the English, nor the Lat. forms have IE or independent Grm. cognates. In English, sane and sanity, and mind form a cluster that ascend to the identical Türkic cluster of san- think and ming brain. See sane, sanity, sanitary, mind, think.

English sinew (n.) sinew, tendon ~ Türkic siŋir (n.) sinew, tendon, nerve, blood vessel, fr. siŋ- infuse + -ir verbal affix. Cognates: OE sionu, seonowe sinew; OSw. sinewa, ONorse sina, OFris. sine, MDu. senuwe, OHG senawa, Grm. Sehne sinew; Welsh gewyn sinew; Skt. snavah, Av. snavar sinew; Balt. (Lith.) sausgysles, sausgysliu; Arm. neard, Gk. neuron sinew, tendon; modern Turkish sinir. Via Gk., the Türkic siŋir entered European languages for nerve. The credit of using the Gk. neuron for nerve may belong to Galen. The westward and eastward spread of the word siŋir can serve as a marker of migrations: northwestern into Grm., southwestern into Balkans and Romance, and southeastward to Skt. and Av. migration across Eurasian steppes between 4000 and 3600 ybp. The Balt. (Lith.) and the Welsh forms may point to the path around Mediterranean via Iberia to the Baltic zone starting at 4800 ybp. The IE etymology is notable for its choppiness, shallowness and creative inventions, and the abundance of forms in the European languages points to multiple independent sources of introduction the word  sinew into the daily life.

English skin animal hide, epidermis ~ Türkic saɣrï animal hide. The Türkic stem saɣ has connotations of an animal, and particularly of sheep, this stem produces words for milking, hunt, sheep, and the like. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. scinn, ONorse skinn, OHG scinten; Grm. schind, schinden, Flem. schinde, Breton scant, Dan., Norse skjule; Welsh cuddio; Sl. shkura (), Pol. skor; Gk. skutos (σκῦτος), all referring to animal hide, fur, skin or outer cover (bark, fish scale). Sl. cognates retained the Türkic r, northern European switched r to n, among other allophones. The distribution of the word, from Mongolia to Atlantic, and its absence in the Asian IE areas, makes etymological association with the Kurgan people and Scytho-Sarmatians unavoidable. The IE etymology somehow connects skin with cut, which is semantically and phonetically unsustainable and, considering uniformity of allophones and their particular distribution, unnecessary. See derma.

English skull ~ Türkic kelle head, a cognate of the ancient word form which produced English skull < general Scandinavian skulle/skult head; Slavic glava and golova: Türk. kelle > Balt. (Latv.) galva > Sl. glava, golova, hlava, glowa, hlowa; Aramaic gulgulta, lit. (place of the) skull, cognate with Heb. gulgoleth skull, the famous name for Golgotha where Jesus was executed; Armenian gluχ head. The predominance of anlaut g and presence of Slavic anlaut forms hl point to original glottal stop phoneme /q/, transmitted with local phonetical tools, with the Oguz Turkish kelle being only one of the dialectal forms. The spread of the word from northwestern Europe to Levant and Mesopotamia doubtlessly singles out the horsed Kurgan riders as the source of the borrowings, and allows to assign terminal dates of the borrowing by following the traces of the migrants' genetic mutations and literary traces. Another notably shared feature is the use of the same root in numerous languages for the generic kill, exemplified in English, where the word behead stripped the word kill from its origin, while in other languages the semantic behead from the kelle hjas survived, like the Russ. obezglavit () = behead.
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English testicles (n.) scrotum purse (external pouch that contains testes), male penis with scrotum ~ Türkic tašaq (tashaq) scrotum, male penis with scrotum. No sane IE cognates, the Lat. testis testicle ascends to the same Türkic word tašaq. The OTD does not offer dialectal variations, but it is doubtless that among the 42+ extant Türkic languages, variations ascending to the pre-historical periods do exist, for example the Sw. testiklar is almost identical to the modern Turkish taşaklar, complete with the Türkic pl. ending -lar, and since the ancient Greeks with their presence in Central Asia and their parastates for testicles could not be the originators of the Far Eastern Türkic words, the only far-reaching candidates for transmission and dissemination remain the fluid Türkic mounted nomads.

English tooth, teeth ~ Türkic tiš tooth, the oldest Goth. form is tunthus. This must be among the oldest known words of shared vocabulary.

4.2 Dresss

English baize fabric resembling felt ~ Türkic bez baize (cotton, linen). Cognates: ME bayse, Fr. baies. The Türkic word is recorded at least 500 years before its appearance in the French records. Any IE etymological speculations to extract this word from *IE *lexicon are pure fantasies, the Türkic pastoralists relied on products of animal husbandry for 8,000 years, and developed hundreds of terms connected with felt and its production; there is no need to derive English/French term from semantically unrelated phonetic resemblances.

English belt ~ Türkic bel waist, the form belt = belt, girdle comes as a derivative with agglutinated affix of place, direction. The form of another Türkic expression for belt, belbat, points to the mechanism of forming derivatives (Tale of Oguz-khan, 13th c.). The same mechanism is used in forming the Spanish bolsa, something hanging at the waist. The loss of -ba- may point to Ogur languages, Herodotus on Sarmats noted distortion, and M.Kashgari on Bulgars noted that they truncate affixes. Cognates: OHG balz, ONorse balti, Sw. bälte; Lat. balteus girdle, sword belt, said by Varro to be an Etruscan word. The Etruscan-Türkic correspondences is a separate subject, it was analyzed in detail by the former ambassador to Italy Adile Ayda, Etrüskler (Tursakalar) Türk idiler, Ankara, 1992 (In Turkish.), and numerous other scholars. The traditional and only Türkic attire, for men and women, was a left-lapelled caftan with a belt, described by all kinds of literati from early writings to the 19th c. and in places beyond that, and graphically immortalized on the carvings of the mengir funeral steles. Notably, as asserted by eminent sitting etymologists, the conspiratorial Latins passed the word only to the Grm. brunch, bypassing their own Romance branch, quite a circus trick on the grand European scene. From generation to generation, they must have uniformly used a codeword for belt, like a cinturon, in front of their toddlers, and disclosed the true word only at maturity, to be passed as a secret to their conspiratorial grandkids. The Latins did not limit their conspiracy to the word belt, a number of other words on the Table 2 list also are shared only by Latins and Germans, presenting some heavily trotted mystical trail of conspiratorial evidence.
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English boot tall ootwear ~ Türkic  bot, but leg, foot, thigh, via OFr. bote, with corresponding words in Provencal (France) language and Spanish, of supposedly unknown origin, perhaps from a Gmc. source, originally for riding boots only, from Türkic root bot leg (cf. leggings). This word has a glorious Euroasiatic circulation: Besenyo and Kipchak sapag/sapug boot with upper, Est. sbs, Fin. ss, Fr. sbt foresten boot, Karel sh/sg, Latv. zabags/zàbaks, Balt. (Lith.) sopagas/zopagas, Manchurian sabu, Mong. sb, Sl. sapog and chobot, Sp. zapata, in all cases the part sap- is Tr. sheathe, i.e sheathing boots. Like the English foot, the Türkic bot/but is a very productive stem, it can form anything connected with or resembling legs: butïq/butaq branch (tree), sprout, shoot; butla kick a leg, butluɣ with legs (chair), etc. The Türkic origin of the words sapog, zapata, boots was a point of perennial contention and ridicule between Turkologists and advocates of the European primacy or exclusivity, for different reasons equally uncomfortable to both sides, and mostly caused by the timing of the term predating Mongol expansion.

English bull sealed document ~ Türkic bola cord. English has two words for cord, bola and bull (bulla), the first is a cord worn around a neck as a decoration, the second as a document sealed with cord and signet. In Türkic bola is a cord (lace) used to lace something, like a baby in a cradle or to make a bundle package, bale. The IE etymology suggests semantically most unsuitable fantasies: cheek, swelling, buttocks, bag, knob, united by loosely construed phonetic consonance and a unattested PIE stem derived by linguistic reverse engineering.

English cap and cup ~ Türkic kap 1. container, vessel, box, 2. cover; and all the derivatives of the vessel and cover; the IE speculation is likely via Etruscan and Lat. (Lat. cappa cape, hooded cloak, ciphus goblet), which brings etymology to two other speculative unknowns. Notably, two Türkic semantic meanings are duplicated in two distinct semantic fields in the European languages, vessel and upper cover. The productivity of Türkic kap, which produces 39 derivatives listed in a small Turkish dictionary, is mirrored in the European languages, from cap to cup and far beyond. Grm. Kapf, and Lat. caput for the head belong to the same cluster. The lexem is shared by different linguistic families. Moreover, derivatives like hood ~ bonnet cap, a trademark of the Scythian, Sarmatian, and Türkic dress across millennia called kapşon (kapshon) in Türkic, retained both its Türkic stem and its Türkic affix in the loanwords: Eng. capuche, Germ. Kapuze, Spanish capucha, Fr. capuchon, Lat. kapuce, Russ. kapushon (), Arm. kapot (կապոտ), It. Church capuccino (Order of St. Francis), and so on.

English chintz cotton fabric ~ Türkic čit (chit) cotton fabric. The English term was borrowed from Hindi chint, a reflex of the Türkic čit/chit (cf. Türkic sari in Hindi). Chintz became an international word, due to the British learning in the India colony, Hindu cotton fabric with bright prints and glaze, used for sari. The original word likely referred to hemp fabric, and switched to mean a special type of cotton fabric after the advent of Türkic into Hindustan peninsula in the mid of the 1st mill. BC, permeating into Prakrit and Skt. Already in the Prakrit and Skt. time, the Hindu ladies wrapped themselves in a Türkic-derived sari made of chint. The word became international with the British industrial production and commercial spread in the 18th c. See sari.

English coat outer garment ~ Türkic gömlek outer garment, formed of the stem ked-/keδ-/kej-/ket- to don, put on (clothing), with the dialectal form ki- found in the Middle Asia and in the European lexicon. Cognates: OFr. cote, OSax. kot, OHG chozza, Grm. Kotze, Kittel; Sp., Port. cota, It. cotta; Sl. kitel (), all forms for outer, coarse, woolen garment. The English IE etymology proclaims the routine of unknown origin, but the Gmc. etymology connects Kittel and its Sl. version kitel with with the Türkic modern form gömlek. The Scottish/Celtic kilt and likely the Japanese kimono belong to the same series
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English corset close-fitting undergarment ~ Türkic stem qursa- (v., n.) to gird, to put sash, from the stem qur- belt, sash; the form qursag is synonymous with belt, see belt. The ascribed etymology from cors body < corps makes no sense neither phonetically nor semantically. The preserved Türkic affix -t makes abstract nouns, thus converting the stem qursa- into noun corset something akin to belt, sash. The borrowing from OFr. corsett (13c.) bodice is probable, but not necessary.

English cowl (n.) hood, bonnet hat ~ Türkic kalpak hood, bonnet hat, with the stem kal-. Cognates: OE cule, Anglo-Sax. cug(e)le, cufel, cüfel, cufle, cuffle, cyfl, cuhle, oferhacele, scyfel, scyfele; Hu. csuklya; Lat. cucullus, cuculla; Sl. klobuk; all hood, cowl, bonnet hat. The Tr. -pak and Sl. -buk are allophones of the Türkic diminutive affix -q/-k/-ïq/-ïk/-uq/-ük. The IE etymology is a dead end of uncertain origin. The recorded spectrum of the Anglo-Sax. forms illustrates that in the 5th-11th cc. all dialectal forms co-existed and were mutually understandable.

English diadem ~ Türkic didim diadem, wreath of bride; this term is missing from the new Türkic languages; it was borrowed into Mong. udim, Khal. titem crown; graphical tooth in a crown, Sogd. didm (δyδm), Gk. diadema (διαδημα). From Khalkha to Greece: who else could seed this Türkic word across the Eurasia?

English robe ~ Türkic rop = female gown without sleeves. OHG rouba vestments. The circuitous attempts to etymologize robe from the IE roots are pitiful.

English sari Hindu female garment of a length of light material draped around body ~ Türkic sarïl (v.) coiled, wrapped. Sari became an international word, due to the British learning in the India colony. The word in English is recent, and derived from Prakrit sadi and Skt. sati garment, petticoat, but that is no etymology: the word is derived from Türkic verb saru- (v.) coil, wrap, sarïl is a passive voice of saru- coiled, wrapped. Already in the Prakrit and Skt. time, the Hindu ladies wrapped themselves in a Türkic-derived sari. See chintz.

English shield armor carried on the arm ~ Türkic čyt (chyt), with eastern Türkic dialectal derivative form yïsïr (yyshir). Cognates: OE scield, scild, related to sciell (shell), ONorse skjöldr, OSax. skild, MDu. scilt, Du. schild, Grm. Schild, Goth. skildus; Sl. shchit shield; the Slavic form nearly exactly duplicates the Türkic form, and excludes the fanciful IE etymologies from the unattested *IE stem for cut; the Türkic word is a derivative of the verb yas-/yus-/yis- death, damage, harm. The abundance of anlaut sc- in Anglo-Sax. (OE) is reminiscent of the Türkic ts-ing dialect, where the first consonants ch-/j-/y-/dj- were pronounced ts-, like in scène vs. scene (stsène vs. seene); in literate English, the ts-ing consonant phoneme is replaced with phonemes s- (seene) or sk- (spelled sc-, scatter), sometimes with sh- (sciara ~ sharuu); in Roman times, the ts- consonant was active and interchangeable with k- (Caesar ~ Tsezar vs. Caesar ~ Kesar). Admitting a ts-ing dialect for Anglo-Saxons would make many of their words closer to the Türkic forms: shield < scield. See shell. scene.

English suave (adj.) smooth ~ Türkic šuvlaŋ (shuvlañ) (adj.) smooth. A version of suave is suede suede leather with napped surface, a type of soft leather, made an international word by the modern commerce. Cognates: Middle Fr. suave, Lat. suavis. The name from Sweden appears to be a popular etymology grown out of phonetical homophony (French Suede Sweden), a suede jacket in Sweden is suede jacket, not a Svenska jacket. Also badly problematic is to connect suave/suede with the Lat. persuasionem, persuasio, persuadere fr. per- strongly + suadere to urge, which produced OFr. and English persuasion. These IE etymological ideas lead to nowhere, stopping far short of the smooth nature and smooth leather.
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English tag badge ~ Türkic toqu belt buckle. Belts were a part of Türkic traditional triad caftan-belt-boots attire for men and women, and the buckle had numerous utilities beyond keeping kaftan fastened, one of them was to be a badge to indicate official position, thus the toqu belt buckle is equivalent to the tag badge. The word belongs to the numerous orphans in English with phonetical and semantical cognates in Türkic, with no IE connection, but probably with cognates in Afganistan, Pakistan, Indian, European Türkic and Eastern Siberian Türkic languages. The offered somewhat myopic etymology from the Norw. tagg point, prong, Sw. tagg prickle, thorn of tack nail or horse gear buckle connection may be not too far off, the horse gear is built of belts and buckles, bantlar ve tokalar in modern Turkish, and the Normans, Swedes, and English do share elements of the nomadic horse culture with vestiges still alive in Iceland.

English underwear, undies, Grm. Unterrock, from Türkic andarak/andrak/antar = short dress worn under caftan (Dahl V. Encyclopedic dictionary of live Great Russian anguage [ ], 1955), vol. 1, p. 78, in E.N. Shipova Türkisms in Russian, 1976, p. 33).

4.3 Social

English ace skilful in some activity ~ Türkic as skilful in some activity. This word can't be a random coincidence, because of precision of its meaning, and tentatively could be a late reverse borrowing from the European languages, but its association with archery points to much deeper, unrecorded usage. Speculatively, originally it was an Etr. word, and then it can be added to the extensive list of Türkic - Etruscan cognates. At the same time, it may also be connected with the prime Türkic ethnonym As, expressing the most notable property of the Türkic military from pre-Classic times - archers. The ethnonym As is known from the Assyrian records as an endonym of Scythians As-kiji = As People = Ishkuza or Ashkuza (Ashkenaz, Ashkenazim). Among very numerous derivatives of as are asig, asil, ash, and ashil, respectively benefit, substance, increase, and growth, all with connotations toward superlative. A notable cognate is esi older male sibling, elder brother.

English Alban (people) ~ Türkic lban (n.& adj.) dependent, tributary. Two peoples are known under name Alban, in the S. Caucasus at the turn of the eras, and in the Balkans from the Middle Ages, in the case of the Balkans, it is positively known as an exonym, since no ethnic group there called themselves Albanians. The same applies to the Caucasus Albania, the term is used in the sources exclusively as a politonym. The ruling tribe in the Caucasus Albania was the Türkic tribe Kayi, who may have called the indigenous tributaries lbans, hence the Armenian and Gk. reflex Albania. Both places at some time were dependent members and tributaries of the Türkic states.

English assess(ment) ~ Türkic asiɣ interest, percent, benefit, profit. The Türkic verbal stem as-, of which the noun asiɣ is a derivative, has a meaning desire, greed. In the IE languages the prime meaning is also verbal, with noun derivatives. The IE etymologies wind out to Lat. compound ad- + sedere (lit. at sitting) a long shot both semantically and phonetically, while the Türkic etymology is direct and pinpointed. The IE etymologies also stop at Roman time and geography, with no attempts to recover PIE *stem. The need for a word goes much deeper than the rise of Rome, since trade, taxation, debts, and tributes are attested in the first written records, 3 mill. before the Roman times, and by the time the Romans organized their state, the word must have long been in circulation among most of the Europeans' and Asians' daily life. The IE derivatives assign, assignation also point to the underlying Türkic form asiɣ, the Lat. etymologies notwithstanding.
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English Arthur ~ Türkic artur (v.) donate, present, gift (v.). Etymology of the King Arthur name has a long and wide trail with numerous offers that failed to suggest a Türkic etymology. The Türkic has two forms that ascend to the stem art- (v.) increase, add, amplify with semantics to grow, derivatives artur confer, present, gift, donate; entice, seduce (v.) and arttur = causative of art- increase, add, amplify. Semantically, both forms can be used for a title-name; in Türkic tradition the old name is abandoned at some point in life, and new name is given or taken, a custom still retained in the Chinese ethnology; outside of China, that custom disappeared with the switch to the new religions, where the name had to be Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, and the like, to display conversion, and given for life. Traces of name change still linger in eastern Christian Orthodoxy, where baptized people have 2 birthdays with 2 names, one a home name, and the other the appropriate Saint name, whose day is celebrated as a birthday (imeniny in Russ., i.e. name-day, imya = name). In the uncluttered by allusions and surmises Türkic, the name King Arthur is direct rendition of Kengu Artur = King Conferred (by Almighty), King Bestowed (by Almighty), etc. In undisturbed Türkic, the title should be at the end: Artur-Kengu, but English successfully parted with most of the Türkic morphology, and Kengu Artur is a viable form for the 6th c. A couple of ethnological traits corroborate the Türkic etymology: Türkic King was a position elected for life to preside over a counsel of nobles, and King Arthur is depicted as a presiding King of Round Table; King Arthur is held as buried under a kurgan (e.g. Bossiney mound, Wormelow Tump burial kurgan of King Arthur's son Amr, and more), his son Amr ~ Türkic amra- love (v.), Amran, Amraq Amïraq loved (adj.); his stallion Sigral is allophonic with Sïpqa = 2-year old stud. The etymology ascending to Lat. Artorius/Arturius, of obscure and contested etymology may be right, while also ascending to the Türkic artur gift. The o and u in Türkic are interchangeable, both versions are fully consistent with the Türkic artur. In English, amor for love has a flavor of borrowing from Romance languages, and probably it was resuscitated via Romance. But it is very unlikely that Sakha/Yakut amra has anything to do with the Romance languages. Too bad that the present Queen, 32nd in line from Arthur, can't give us any of the King Arthur's Y-Chromosomes. (See king, Amor, Boris)

English As (tribe) ~ Türkic Yazï (tribe) fr. yazï steppe, plain, flatland. The people Ases are known, in particular, from the Scandinavian sagas as conquerors and ruling elite of the Scandinavians, the dynasts of the the Scandinavian people; the mythological tradition is well-ingrained and richly embellished; Ases are extracts from somewhere in Asia. Besides Scandinavian sagas, Ases are known from the Assyrian texts as Askuza (also read as Ishkusa, Ashkuza), from the Hebrew Bible as Ashkenaz (pl. Ashkenazim), from Classical writers as conquerors of Bactria in 140 BC, as Yuezhi of the Chinese annals, and from many other sources and geographical locations. The part -kusa or -guza means people, but no source gives an etymology of the name As, and scholarly suggestions, in addition to the yazï, offer other phonetically justified and semantically possible etymologies: as, aš- (ash-) cross over, pass, climb over, increase, grow, az- go astray, err, get lost, not numerous, small, few, greedy; in addition, from general considerations, the as is suggested and held as standing for tribe. Because the names As and Alan were used interchangeably, and the words yazï and alan are synonyms, with the alan meaning plain, flatland, and because the form Yazï is recorded in many toponyms and in the chronicles, the As standing for steppe people, plain people is most convincing. The idea that Ases were Ossetian-speaking does not hold the water, the historical sources identified Ases (Yases) with Türkic Bulgars, and the very same Ossetians and Abkhazes identify Ases with their neighbors Balkars and Karachais, traditionally the same nomadic horse husbandry tribes as the historical Ases, while the Ossetians are traditional sedentary farmers.
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English baby child before walking or talking ~ Türkic bebi, beba, bebek, papak (Chuv.), pebek (Chuv.) child, baby. The cognate list is really short: OE (13c.) baban, with Türkic diminutive suffix -an; with such pinpointed semantics, a long-distance borrowing from OE into Türkic languages must be excluded.

English bastard (n.) illegitimate child ~ Türkic bas (n.) + tard (v.); bas head + tard = turn your head away; In English reportedly via Fr., OFr. bastard, Mod.Fr. batard. The Türkic etymology closely follows the Türkic social tradition of gender equality: unmarried people, especially young, are not demonized about sexual encounters prior to marriage, but after marriage fidelity is absolute and no deviations are accepted. Marriages were monogamous. In spite of the millenniums of religious condemnations, in the northern Europe this social tradition has largely survived to the present. In a tribal society, within the framework of the tradition, out of wedlock flings and children are events extraordinaire, with severe social consequences, hence the euphemistic term for not recognizing the offence. The Türkic elite practiced polygamy, and all offsprings of such marriages were equal, except that only the children of the First Wife (Queen, Hatun) were eligible for succession to the throne, and no one was held as a bastard. The fanciful IE etymologies formalistically concentrate on details of the encounter, like bast as fill of a straw mattress or barn with the same connotations, without appreciation of the social environment and social context.

English brother son of the same mother ~ Türkic birader son of the same mother. The Türkic word literally formulates son of the same mother: bir = one, as an article a ~ one in English + ad/at = name, appellative + er = male, man (n.) > male of the same name. Nothing even close can be found in the IE etymology, that mechanically lists cognates to demonstrate that many IE languages share this word. Cognates: OE brothor, ONorse broðir, Dan. broder, OFris. brother, Du. broeder, Grm. Bruder, Goth. brothar; Lat. frater, It. fratello, Gk. phrater; Balt. (Lith.) broterelis, OPruss. brati, OCS bratru, Czech bratr; Sanskrit bhratar-, OPers. brata; OIr. brathir, Welsh brawd of Kurgan migrants, all brother. The myopic horizon of the IE-school linguists does not dip deeper than the migrations of the 2nd mill. BC. The loanword nature of the IE versions is attested by the preserved original synonyms, Gk. adelphos, Lat. germanus, Sp. hermano, and their counterparts in other European languages. Semantic expansion from son of the same mother to generic son of the same parent(s) apparently developed within polygamous societies, and is not connected with the offsprings of the second marriages, with every language finding its own way to define half-brothers and half-sisters.

English Boris ~ Türkic böri wolf. Böri for wolf, bars/leopard, and bear (in different Türkic languages) was a popular name across Eurasia, before being replaced in the east by more orthodoxy-sounding Mohammeds and Abdullahs. Before that, Türkic names and titles based on animal names were a commonplace. In the West, the name kept its popularity, retaining an aura of upper aristocracy during the Middle Ages. See king, Amor, Arthur.

English cavalry (n.) ~ Türkic qavčï (v.) assault, rush, attack. The cavalry < cavalleria became international word that during Late Antique times supplanted the Lat. equites, its origin comes from the Türkic kobyla > Lat. caballus, in Lat. a  generic, and in Türkic a name for 4+ years mare that were preferred staple for the cavalry horses, which in turn may have originated from the verb qavčï/kabčï (kabchy) (v.) > kabï + -l/-lä = kabïl = assaulter, rusher, attacker; the accepted alternate based on the Gk. translations of the Scythian words is that the Türkic kobyla and Lat. caballus are forms of Türkic yabu and Scythian ippa = generic for horse (maybe also applied specifically to mare), complemented by derivative ippaka (hippaka) = cheese of mare's milk. From purely formal considerations, the verb qavčï is phonetically and semantically closer to the English cavalry, whatever was its path. In the yabu alternate, the Ogur form must have had a prosthetic consonant reflected in the Lat caballus. The non-IE origin of the word is beyond any doubts. It is also observed that the whole horse-related diverse and fractured lexicon of the IE languages ascends to the Türkic vocabulary.
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English carnival festival ~ Türkic kerme carnival, festivities, fair. Cognates: Du. kermis, Dan., kermisattracties, Icl., Sw., Norse, Grm. karneval; Fr. carnaval, It. carnevale. The Türkic kerme is traditionally adjunct to a market bazar, but they are not the same, even if there is plenty of market activity at each kerme, like at any fair, carnival, or festivities. In the form carnival, known from the late Middle Age, it became a European international term, and in the 20th c. it became an international term across the globe. The folk etymology promulgated by the professional IE linguists is an origin from Lat. carne meat, flesh + levare raise, with a fanciful twisted semantics 'flesh, farewell!. Connection with the Lent is also unsustainable, since in the Northern Europe kerme and kermis predate Christianity, they were conducted uninterruptedly annually a few times each year, plus a grand autumn fair. The part -val is apparently a variation of transparent modifications like -terrain, -grounds, -attracties, -jörn, -valen, valer, later -borough and -ville, etc. To the present, in its original Türkic form, the term apparently survived only in the North European Dutch and Danish.

English Charlemagne (king) ~ Türkic Charla-mag call for glory, from çağrı (ğ is silent) call, -la adj., adv. suffix + maɣ glory, fame; çağrı+la + maɣ (one) calling (for) glory > Charla-mag (Charlemagne). In Sl. languages the proper name Charla turned into eponymic korol, krol (, ) king.

English clan people related by blood or marriage and ulan young man, usually with military connotations ~ Türkic oglan, uhlan, ulan (ğ = silent g). The ulan is an obvious recent (Middle Age) borrowing from Türkic, but the clan comes from the same word, only from the Early Classical Time, likely via Etruscan.  The obsolete reference to the Etruscan is based on the 20th c. reading of the Etruscan inscriptions, where oglan means son, and before the concept of the Kurgan waves. In the last 3,000 years had developed a slew of meanings for oglan/ulan: son and its derivatives offspring, youth, young man, hero, strongman, warrior, rider, cavalryman, militiaman, descendant, clan of descendants, clan, family, stock, and possibly hundreds more semantic derivatives in different linguistic families.

English cousin relative, nephew, cousin, originally mother's sister's son ~ Türkic qazïn (OTD offers forms qadïn, qaδïn, qajïn) relatives by marriage on female side from the Türkic stem qïz- girl, with possessive affix of 3rd pers. -ïn => female's (relative); also applies to qaδïn male relatives by marriage. Cognates: Lat. consobrinus cousin, It. cugino; Dan. kusine; Pol. kuzyn; all directly from the same Türkic qazïn. Naturally, the word has a counterpart for the relatives on the male side bösük, bisük, expressed as Buzuk (likely, Büzük) in the Oguz tribal structure. The notion that French could educate English on the word cousin is laughable, the word was around much earlier than the French were; the French could pick it up from the Sarmatian Burgunds, Burgundian Cathars, or Franks; the IE's deriving cousin from its Lat. calque consobrinus cousin, originally mother's sister's son is phonetically unsustainable. The loss of semantical specificity (male vs. female) is normal in adoption of the word into alien native languages. In English, -i- is not articulated, the same as -ï- in Türkic.
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English crime evil act ~ Türkic krmšuhn (krmshuhn) (v.) mercy, ask for mercy. This is a most interesting case: OTürkic does not have a word for crime, instead it has names for specific transgressions: kill, steal, lie, betray, etc. The IE does not have a sensible etymology, Lat. crimen charge, indictment, accusation; crime, fault, offense from cernere to decide, to sift is clearly not defensible; a unattested IE *cri-men for cry of distress is no better. In English, the word crime showed up only in 13th c. as sinfulness, which semantically harkens back to forgiveness, thus matching the Türkic word both phonetically and semantically. The Lat. crimen fault, offense also belongs to the semantic cluster sinfulness, forgiveness, mercy, ask for mercy. In Türkic, from the stem krm- can be produced practically any derivative connected with requirement for clemency. The loss of the part - šuhn (shuhn) or any affixes is reasonable, considering the distance between Eastern Europe and Western Europe, and probably way more than that with a millennium of propagation. The semantical expansions are consistent with other lexical transformations from the Türkic.

English culture art, manners, knowledge, and values favored by a society ~ Türkic kültür- (v.) bind, fetter. Astonishingly, this most significant cultural word does not have a PIE or IE etymology, tracing the origin of the word culture in IE leads to colony (n.) settled land, farm, landed estate; husbandman, tenant farmer, settler in new land; to inhabit, cultivate, frequent, practice, tend, guard, respect ~ pp. of colere to till > cult (n.) worship, particular form of worship; care, labor; cultivation, culture; worship, reverence; tended, cultivated > culture (n.) tilling of land; cultivating, agriculture; care, an honoring, with no attested IE or PIE cognates outside of the Europe area. The IE etymology must be given a full credit for concocting most incredible linguistic scenarios, if our furniture was made out of the IE linguistic tree, we would eat and sleep on the floor. The Türkic verb kültür-, in contrast, directly alludes to a shaped art, manners, knowledge, and values that may apply to the land cultivation, bound piece of land, and the prized social aspects of life like art, manners, knowledge, and values. To suggest that cultural refinement waited from deep antiquity to the 1500 AD to be named is abomination: in Türkic societies youngsters were traditionally turned over to the mother's father to be properly shaped in the art of life.

English earl ~ Türkic yarlïqa-(v.) to rule. Cognates: OE eorl leader, chief, Dan., ONorse jarl under-king, viceroys under the Dan. dynasty in England. Like English, Türkic has numerous derivatives from the word rule, more than one could produce an unattested title in Türkic, but a likelier path is adoption into other languages not as a generic ruler, but as a title ruler. Türkic derivatives: yarlïg (known from the Mongol times as an inscribed order, given on paper, copper, bronze, silver, or gold, now Russ. yarlyk, a written certificate; yarlyks were given to the Russian Czars to reign), yarlïqamaq behest, yarlïqamaqlïɣ behested, yarlïqančuči clement, gracious, and more. The IE etymology declares of uncertain origin. Türkic did not preserve this word as a title, but its usage in Türkic is connected with ruling prerogatives (tgri yarlïqaduqïn üčün... qagan olurtum as Heaven behested, I sat a Kagan [Tonyukuk inscription]). The title is used in Anglo-Saxon poetry, and in ONorse sagas with allusion to the As rulers. See king, As.

English elite of superior status ~ Türkic elit- (v.) lead, take away. Cognates: Fr. élite selection, choice, OFr. eslite (12c.) pick out, choose, Lat. eligere choose. The IE etymology is winding: Fr. élite fr. OFr. eslite fr. elire via fem. past participle elisre, fr. Lat. eligere, without any extension to IE cognates. The Türkic etymology is direct: elite < leader < elit- (v.) to lead. The semantic and phonetic match is perfect.
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English Erik (popular name) ~ Türkic erk strength, will, might, power. Erik used to be a very popular name among the Germanic people and within their neighborhood.

English gaffe awkward act ~ Türkic ɣafillïq inattention, carelessness. Cognates: Fr. gaffe clumsy remark, linked to OProvençal gaf, which in turn leads to the Burgundians, a Sarmatian horse nomadic tribe of Vandals, Wonderers, in the Classical sources (Theophylact Simocatta ) identified with the Türkic Bulgars. The IE etymology piles up numerous unrelated homophones, semantically all wacky. All three Türkic forms (ɣafillïq, ɣaflat, ɣaflet) have Türkic affixes, indicating that the Arabic ɣafillïq is a loanword from the Türkic.

English girl ~ Türkic kyr (qyr, kyz, qyz, khyz, spelled kïr, kïz, qïr, qïz, χïz) girl. Cognates: OE gyrle child (of either sex), predictably of unknown origin; Low Grm. gære boy, girl, Norw. dial. gorre, Sw. dial. gurre small child; the attestation of use for male child is obscure and quite unlikely, historically the difference between male and female children was paramount; Sumerian gal, gašan (gashan) girl is attested fr. the 3rd mill. BC. The form qyr with auslaut -r is recorded in the derivatives qïrnaq = slave-girl, young slave-girl, concubine, qïrqïn = slave-girl, concubine; the form with auslaut -d is recorded in derivatives quduz, quδuz = previously married woman, quδurčüq = doll; the form with auslaut -z is recorded in kïz, qïz = girl; the form with anlaut χ- is recorded in χïz = girl, daughter; the form with auslaut -z is common in languages of Oguz-Kipchak branch. In English, -i- is not articulated, the same as -ï- in Türkic; the auslaut -l in girl is a diminutive suffix. On the status of the girls in Viking society we have testimony of Ibn Fadlan, the girls were maids and concubines of travelling princely traders; that status grossly contrasts with the status of girls in the pre-Islamic Türkic society, where females enjoyed full equality, girls had sexual freedom, and in the property matters females had a status higher than that of the males; the stories on Amazons and Scythians provide a glance into female warriors. However, the Viking girls of Ibn Fadlan may be of local Fennic extraction held as slave-maidens. In English and Gmc. languages, the term girl comes with the constellation of other Türkic terms for relatives, in English: son, father, cousin, kin, papa, youth; notable of that line-up, the term for mother, the Türkic ana/ani, is profoundly missing, pointing that Türkic males supplanted the local males, and for mother were used local terms. Such nearly complete displacement of local males has been detected by archeological studies, discriminating, for example, between the Early and Late Sarmatians. At the same time around 150 BC as the Early Sarmatian Uraloid males disappeared from the Urals area, new Sarmatian tribes of Vandal Wonderers popped up in the Baltics and Poland river valleys, and pressed on the Scythians in Ukraine and Rumania, changing again the demographical and cultural picture in the Central Europe. The Sumerian form attests to the temporal path Sum. > Türkic > English.

English guard defender, protector, guardian ~ Türkic garavul-, karaul- (v.) guardian, fr. qur (n.) sash, belt, arrange, build, line up, gather, stretch. Semantically, guard is a surrounding protection, akin to defensive wall (cf. Goth. gards, garths enclosure, Russ. karaul () guard. For cognates, etymology, distribution, and history see gird. See court, curtain, garden, gird, guard, and yard.

English guest visitor ~ Türkic göster, (n., v., adj., adv.), stem of göster(mek) = to demonstrate. Cognates: OE gæst, giest (Ang. gest) guest; enemy; stranger, OFris. jest, Du. gast, Grm. Gast, Goth. gasts guest; Gk. xenos guest, host, stranger; Lat. hostis enemy, hospes host; OCS gosti () guest, trader, friend, hozyain () host. With agglutinated affixes, the Türkic stem produces both active and passive verbs, which in turn produce derivative nouns: göstermek = to show, gösterdi = to be shown, hence bifurcated semantics of noun guest and host retained in Gmc. and Sl. languages, in Lat., and in Greek:, Slavonic also extended semantics to traders and billeting (postoi), hence the gospodi lord, master, with connotation of strangers, and hozayin = gospodi = host. No parallels in the Indo-Iranian languages, pointing to the emergence of the term after ca 1500 BC. That might be an indicator on when along the Eurasian steppes an incidental trading turned into trading profession.
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English hag ugly evil-looking old woman ~ Türkic karga/kharga/qarga etc., from Tr. karga = raven, with allusive meaning old, old woman (Shipova, Radloff, Zelenin, Berneker, Vasmer). The Eng. hag is ugly evil-looking old woman; the Türkic karga is the same (still living in Russ. Old karga = Staraya karga = old desiccated-looking woman). English Hag supposedly and very doubtably comes from PGrm. *hagatusjon-, where -tusjon ~ -tesse was a (fem.) suffix, in reality the Eng. and Grm. versions are descendants of the same root and concept. No IE connection, Grm. group only, not in Romance group,  predictably of unknown origin.

English Urheimat, German Heimat fatherland, motherland, homeland in Urheimat ~ Türkic xajmatläx (Chuv.) kindred. The same word in common Türkic would sound as hünmäklïg. The Chuv. composite consists of components xaj + mat + läx, or kin (Hun) + abstract noun suffix -mat (forms -ma/-mä/-maq/-mäk/-mïr-/-mur) + abstract noun suffix -lig (forms -lig/-liɣ/-lik/-lan) like, i.e. lit. of the kinship; the affix -lic is still productive in English, it is a part of the nouns republic, acyllic, etc.; the form xaj, as a colloquial form of the kin/Hun, is known from the Armenian endonym Hai, as a Caucasian designation of the Hailandurk Huns, and form the modern ethnonym Haitak/Haitag for the descendants of the Caucasian Huns. Notably, the OHG pra-form heimoudil (hei-moud-il) of the modern Grm. Heimat contains the Türkic root -il-, which stands for the country, land, nation i.e. lit. of the kinship country. In English, the Grm. Heimat became popular in the compound Urheimat, widely used in linguistics in relation to the soil where the romantic tree of the Indo-European linguistics was gestated. It turned out, it was gestated in a wagon, on the road from the Balkans via N.Pontic to the Baltic. See kin.

English hooligan troublemaker ~ Türkic čolvu (cholvu) (n.), qïčür- (qychur) (v.) slander, condemn, defame, disparage, scold, vilify, repudiate; vilify, bear malice, slander; and qïčür (n.) disparagement. Cognates: Goth. holon, OHG huolian deceit, vilify, Sl. hula slander, malice, vilify. Türkic has an assembly of allophones and synonyms: čantur-, časur-, časut, čïndutur-, čolvu, čulbu, čulvu, jer-, of which čolvu/čulbu/čulvu (n.) and qïčür- (v.) appear to be closest phonetical siblings; slander was a most powerful tool in the ancient Türkic political milieu, and the various forms of the word demonstrate its spread and importance. In English, the literary reference comes from Irish name Houlihan with connotations troublemaker, and from the English court records. Both Gmc. and Sl. etymologies lead to absolutely nowhere, with Gmc. etymology reduced to reciting latest anecdotes, and Sl. etymology aimlessly wondering across the whole Sl. phonetic field. In dialects, the phonetic č/q > h/ɣ transition is observed as systemic. The Irish brought to us a derivative houlihan complete with the Türkic affix of instrumental noun outcome -ɣan/-gän/-qan/-kän. Not a whiff of the IE etymology. The synonym jer- slander, ridicule has also survived in English, with about the same semantics. See jeer.

English ilk (n. and adj.) kind of person ~ Türkic ilk (n. and adj.) antecedent, outset, also beginning (n.). The Türkic semantics is turned toward the root, the English semantics is turned toward the branches, but both refer to some specific kind of generalized human line, be it descent, race, or attitudes. OE had a form ilca with the same connotation same (n. and adj.). The IE etymology cites Grm. cognates and builds some impossible pedigree using imaginative unattested *reconstructions. The Türkic etymology uses the same word for the same purpose (OTD p. 208). No IE connection, no cognates outside of the NGmc. group.
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English kin ~ Türkic Hun/hün, kun/kün, from the Türkic root hun/hün, kun/kün kin. OE cyn family, race, kind, nature, OFris. kenn, OSax. kunni, ONorse kyn kin, kundr son, OHG chunni kin, kind child, Goth. kuni family, race, Grm. kind child, OE cennan beget, create, OIr. ro-genar I was born, Welsh geni to be born, Balt. (Lith.) gentis kinsmen, Lat. gignere to beget, gnasci to be born, genius procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality, ingenium inborn character, germen shoot, bud, embryo, germ, Gk. gignesthai to become, happen, Skt. janati begets, bears, janah race, jatah born, Av. zizanenti they bear; Urdu huuni in idiom huuni rishtey daar, with Dari conterpart tariin rishtey daar next of kin. In the Romance group, common roots for Grm. kin are famil- and parent-.

English king monarch ~ Türkic Kengu king. The Türkic root is kön - sun, not the Türkic kun/kün ~ English kin, as suggested by IE philologists, and with the Türkic suffix -gu it makes kengu of sun, descended from sun. Cognates: OE cyning, Du. koning, OHG, N. konungr, Dan. konge, Grm. könig; in Balto-Slavic Balt. (Lith.) kunigas clergyman, OCS kunegu prince, Rus. knyaz, Boh. knez,; Fin. kuningas. Note that the OCS has perfectly Türkic form kengu ~ kunegu, and since Gmc. and Hunnic tribes solidly divorced at about 453, this Türkic/Grm./Balto-Slavic shared word must have been shared before that. Apparently the people who made the appellation illustrious knew the meaning of the kengu king, later lost, and that also shows that the kun/kün/kin = relative is a false etymology. A parallel title is Herceg (like in Hercegovina), formed identically, with parallel Türkic/Grm. meaning Er + eg ~ Herr +ceg = man + of = (Head, Leader) of men; the Balto-Slavic blindly borrowed both titles, and Grm. does not have herceg because it was a later Bajanak (Besenyo) title. Kengu shows up on the Late Antique Central Asian coins in Türkic runiform script, like on Athrikh (Afrosiab, 305-? AD) coin: . See earl, As.

English lullaby quiet song to lull child to sleep ~ Türkic balu bayu (balubayu) quiet song to lull child to sleep. Cognates: ME lollai, lullay, Sw. lulla hum a lullaby, MDu. lollen mutter child to sleep, Grm. lullen sway (a crib); Sl. bau bai ( ), baukat () (v.) sing lullaby, sway a crib; Est. unelaulu, Skt. lolati sway (a crib). The IE etymology suggests a primitive probably imitative without specifying who is imitated and who is imitating. The uniformity of the form and semantics, and the spread to disparate languages and language families indicates a common origin and numerous colloquial forms, carried over by mamas and fossilized over ages within family lines.

English mama (mammy) informal for mother ~ Türkic mamü woman accompanying bride on her first wedding night. Cognates: Mediterranean Lat. mater; Gk. meter; Hindustan Skt. matar-; N. European Balt. (Lith.) mote; OCS mati; and OIrish mathir of the Kurgan migrants; the Grm. formal forms are formed of mama with an energetic affix: OSax. modar, OFris. moder, ONorse moðir, Dan. moder, Du. moeder, OHG muoter, Grm. Mutter, etc. The affix -tur/-tür/-dur/-dür is still active in Türkic languages to form an energetic notion (causative, energetic mood), and the traces of traditional Türkic formal appellation to the parents still linger in the Ukrainian society, where parents are called with a formal you in plural, in contrast with the Slavic and Slavicized traditions. Now mama is an international word, with a predominant form mammy in the English-speaking world. The semantical difference between the familiar mama and formal mother still exists in most European languages: a mother in the society is mama (mammy) at home, or mother in the 3rd person is mama (mammy) in the 2nd person. Türkic has numerous words and word forms for mother, aba, ana, ani, , hana, ög, uma, and the mamü is just one specific form that belongs to the same semantical field. It was likely spread in Europe with the Kurgan waves, starting in the 4th mill. BC. The IE etymology starts at about 2000-1000 BC, when the IE farmers, with already internalized Türkic form, have fanned toward Mediterranean, India and Middle East. See brother.
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English master man in control or authority, mister unaccented variant of master, mistress female teacher, governess ~ Türkic composite mash/bash + er = headman = head + man. Cognates: late OE mægester one having control or authority; OFr. maistre, Fr. maître, Sp., It. maestro, Port. mestre, Du. meester, Grm. Meister, form influenced in MEng. by OFr. cognate maistre; Lat. magister (n.) chief, head, director, teacher, magis (adv.) more. The English mister and mistress are derivatives, mistress corresponds to the OFr. maistresse mistress (lover); housekeeper; governess, female teacher fem. of maistre master. The Gk. (μαɣοσ) great is squarely a phonetic variation of the Ogur Tr. form mash head, leading, first, main, main man, it is reflected in the Sl. term glava, golova (, ) head that is a calque of the Tr. words and expressions with the same semantics. The word mash/bash apparently penetrated European languages before the 1st mill. BC, and became an international word with generic semantics main, first that developed into numerous European derivatives enabled a ready adaptation of the derivatives brought over by the lexicons of the later nomadic arrivals. The development of the words based on mash/bash = head went on in parallel with the words based on IE cap head with cognates Lat. caput head, Skt. kaput- head. The imagined PIE *kaput- and PIE *mag-yos- are theoretical backward projections of the documented developments. In English and Grm. cases the striking feature is the duplication of the Türkic compound word with the intact part of the er = man: mash-er > mast-er, meest-er, Meist-er. The compound master exactly follows such Türkic compounds as Az-eri = Azeri = As Man, Mih-ar = Mishar = Forest Man, or Og-ur = Ogur = Tribes Men.

English money currency ~ Türkic manat, money. The term money belongs to the cluster of the Türkic monetary terms in English. Cognates: OFr. monoie. The semantical and phonetical congruence does not leave any doubts of the unity of the origin. The word does not have cognates in either Lat. nor Gk., but Lat. has moneta mint, definitely connected with a notion of money, and reportedly coming from the title (not a surname, as asserted by some etymological experts who assign surnames to the Gods) of the Roman goddess Juno, whose prototype the Gk. Hera was a daughter of Saturn and had nothing to do with money. These early mythological stories are perfectly confusing for the experts, and citing them may help the etymologists, but does not help the IE etymology. Besides being generic for money, manat is a modern unit of currency in the Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. The semantical and phonetical match does not leave any chances for random coincidences, especially so considering the Anglo-Türkic triad of money/penny/shilling ~ manat/peneg/sheleg. See penny, shilling.

English oath solemn promise ~ Türkic ötä (v.) perform, execute. The modern Russ. does not discriminate between t and th, the dictionary entry may in reality mean th instead of t, making the proto-form even closer. Cognates: ONorse eiðr, Sw. ed, OFris. eth, Du. eed, Grm. eid, Goth. aiths oath; OIr. oeth oath; the Irish as well might be a borrowing, unless other Celtic languages have cognates. All Grm. cognates are phonetically close to the Türkic form ötä and its derivative ötäg, with perfectly identical semantics. The variety of anlaut spellings points to the vestiges of attempts to render the labial ö-: ei-, ee-, ai-, oe-. The origin of the Türkic ötä ascends to verb ič-/ach-/ish- drink, since the numerously recorded and depicted for the Scythians, Huns, and Türks act of pledging an oath was accomplished by joint drinking a mix of blood and dilutant of water or wine from a sacred dish, if possible made of a skull of a decimated enemy; in modern Türkic languages to give oath is still expressed as drinking: Kazakh ant ishu, Azeri ant ichmek ~ drink. Except for  Gmc., no cognates whatsoever among IE 439 languages; only Gmc. branch has cognates; both IE's Grm. *aithaz and IE *oi-to- are figments of aroused imagination.
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English ogle (v.) agaze, look at, peer (v., adj.), ogler (n.) ~ Türkic ög- (v.) to eye, penetrate, perceive. Ultimately, the Türkic-Gmc. ög- and IE ok- is the same stem, distributed nearly equally to form grammatical forms for vision: OE ege (Mercian), eage (WSax.), OSax. aga, OFris. age, ONorse auga, Goth. augo, Sw. öga, Dan. øie, MDu. oghe, Du. oog, OHG ouga, Grm. Auge, all eye; the English eye closely follows the Dan. øie: øie > øye > eye via form  øğe; (ğ may be articulated silently); nearly all of these Gmc. forms preserved the tint of the rounded ö in the Türkic ög- and point to direct genetic connection; Skt. akshi eye, Gk. opsis sight, OCS oko, oglyad, oglyan (, -, -), Balt. (Lith.) akis, Lat. oculus, Gk. okkos, Kuchean ak, ek, Armenian akn, all eye; this would be a classical Nostratic stem. Obviously, all these forms were inherited via numerous independent paths, creating a spectrum of allophones; the Grm. allophones are notably closer to the Türkic version than to the Slavic-Balt.-Skt.-Greek-Armenian-Indian (Kuchean) forms. The English ogle, Sw. ögon(flirta), Norwegian øgle, Dan. øgle, Du. ogen, Low Grm. oegen with frequentative oeglen, all use the Türkic ögl with adjectival affix -l agaze, staring (glance, man). The agaze (adj.) is an obvious local derivative of the same stem ög-.

English papa (n.) father ~ Türkic baba//babai/papa/papai father. Cognates: Eng. papa, Fr. papa, Lat. papa; Gk. pappa o father, pappas father, pappos grandfather. Türkic root baba/babai is father, grandfather. Cf. Scythian Papai = primogenitor. ancestor, Altaic, Chuvash, and Khakas papai.

English peace absence of war ~ Türkic barısh peace. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. frið (frith), Gmn. Friede, Norse, Sw. fred, Icl. frið; Anglo-Fr. pes, OFr. pais (11c.), Fr. paix, Lat. pax, Provençal patz, Sp. paz, It. pace, Cat. pau; Hu. béke; Latv. miers, Sl. mir (), Slvt. mier, Mong. amar (); Hunnic bejke, Sum. pag, Ch. 和平 hepíng. The IE exercises notwithstanding, it is quite obvious that all these allophonic forms derived from the same source, recorded as a Sumerian cognate ascending to the 4th mill. BC, and split between m/b alteration versions, with the b- version further splitting into b-, f- (v-), and p- versions: bir-, fir- (vir-), and pir-. Other modifications include the well-documented prosthetic anlaut h- in and m/n (ng) alteration in Chinese, contraction fir- > fr- in Germanic languages, and ending variations -g, sh, th, ch, etc. The Balto-Slavic, Sl., and Mong. forms belong to the m- version: mir, mier, amar. The Türkic, Hunnic (Isfahan Codex), and Hu. retained the b- formant. The systemic changes allow to trace the separate paths, including those of the Burgund/Bulgar/Provence/Fr. p- form, a separate and older Lat. p- form, NW European f- (v-) form, separate paths for the Central European and Far Eastern m- form, and Eurasian steppe zone b- form. Tracing also carries time stamps: 4th mill. BC Sum. fr. 6th-5th mill. BC Kurgan migration to Mesopotamia, Chinese fr. Zhou Scythian Kurgans migration of 20th  16th cc. BC, Burgund Vandal Kurgan migration of 2nd c. BC 5th c. AD. It is clear that the Sum. version is a vernacular offshoot of the pre- 4th mill. BC western steppe belt Sprachbund that reflects, but not defines, the veriety of the allophonic forms of the time. The peculiar coexistence of the m/b alteration within the same communities endured for 7 millennia and has survived to the present times. See frog.

English penny smallest unit of currency ~ Türkic peneg, small coin. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) pening, penig, OSax. pending, OFris. panning, ONorse penningr, OHG pfenning, MDu. pennic, Dan. penge, Sw. pänning, Grm. Pfennig; the Goth. recorded term is independent skatts, apparently reflecting the skins of the pelts in pelt money. The term penny belongs to the cluster of the Türkic monetary terms in English, Germanic, and now international lexicon. The semantical and phonetical congruence does not leave any doubts of the unity of the origin, the English form penig and the Türkic form peneg are absolutely identical. No IE etymology, predictably of unknown origin. See money, shilling.
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 English quarrel altercation ~ Türkic qaršï enmity, discord, quarrel, ascending to qaršu opposite, against, facing you. Another form of qaršu, in the Hunno-Bulgarian language, was kötur = behind, facing your behind, which gave its name to the Hunnic Western Wing ~ Kutrigurs in Gk. rendering. The path to English is described as going via OFr. querele, Lat. querella complaint, queri to complain, lament, which transparently ascend to the Türkic qaršï. No IE cognates whatsoever, no unattested *qwuhweri'es.

English regal (adj.) related to supreme ruler ~ Türkic arïɣ (adj.) noble, honorable; flawless, faultless; clean, unpolluted, pure. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. -ric king, rice rich, powerful, OE rice kingdom, Goth. reiks leader; Gael. righ, Gaul. -rix, OIr. ri king; Lat., rex king, regere to rule, regalis royal, OFr. roi king, regal royal; Skr. raj- king, leader. All these akin allophones carry a distinct semantics of the nobility, rule and ruler.  The attested Gaul. and  Anglo-Sax. forms are agglutinated to the name according to the Türkic syntax (e.g. Chingis-khan, Boarix, Bilge-Kagan, Gunderic, etc.). Eng. cluster includes royal, rex, regalia, regime, regent, etc., all related to Fr. and Lat. sources supposedly derived from the Lat. stem rex king, which is an allophone and semantical extension of the Türkic designation arïɣ noble, honorable, and is unrelated to the IE directional notions of right and straight. Linguistic distribution indicates that the title was carried overland to the Northern Europe by the tribes of the Scythian, Sarmatian, and Hunnic circles, to the South-Central Europe by the circum-Mediterranean Celtic migrants who left the N.Pontic in the 6th-5th mill. BC, and to the South-Central Asia by the Aryan migrants between 2000 and 1500 BC. In the IE etymology, based on the phonetical resemblance, the dubiously compatible notions of  right, straight, and king are conflated, and individual words are extracted from the mixed pile based on the opinions formulated by reverse projection. The distribution of the words with the directional semantics right and straight attests a parallel, but much later existence in the geographical area of the Eastern Europe of the directional lexicon that did not affect the Celtic circum-Mediterranean migrants. The directional cluster includes cognates that can be dated to the period much after 6th-5th mill. BC and before 2000 BC: OE riht, Goth. raihts, OHG recht, OSw. reht, ONorse rettr right, correct; Lat. rectus right, correct; Av. raze- to direct, Pers. rahst right, correct. The terms for king (Skr. raj-) and direction (Av. raze-, Pers. rahst) migrated from the Eastern Europe to the South-Central Asia after 2000 BC. The IE etymology is in conflict with the dating provided by natural science disciplines of archeology and genetics.

English salary (n.) compensation, payment ~ Türkic salɣa (v.) to pay off compensation, to zero off payment account, in both cases referring to periodical or final payment for regular or specific service. Cognates: OFr. salarie, Lat. salarium salary, stipend for soldier's pay. Türkic mercenaries served in all armies from Mediterranean to Yellow Sea for as long as we have written history, everybody had to learn to pay salɣa, including Romans, Greeks, Persians, and Chinese, among many others. The Alexander sarcophagus depicts Persian soldiers exclusively as Scythians in Scythian hats shooting Parthian shoot with composite bows, in the battle the Persians are nowhere to be found. Accordingly, the word salɣa had to enter lexicon of all those farming states that employed Türkic mounted mercenaries. We have OFr. salarie, Lat. salarium salary, stipend for soldier's pay; The IE folk etymology for salary of pertaining to salt is totally incongruent: if the Türkic word for payment would have resembled avis, this same kooky etymology would have had it pertaining to birds. The Türkic cognate of salɣa is salïɣ taxes, dues, imposts with the same notion of you owe me, you pay me. The original semantics, associated with payment for hired guns, and the phonetic similarity attest to the real origin. See saldo, satisfy.
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English saldo (n.) outstanding balance ~ Türkic salɣa (v.) to pay off compensation, to zero off payment account. See salary, satisfy.

English saga historical narration ~ Türkic savga- (v) tell the history, narrate. The verb is formed with (a rare in the eastern Türkic languages) imperative affix -ga- of the verb söy/söjle/suj/söle/süle/sülä/sav- say. Cognates: OE sagu a saying, ONorse saga saga, story. In every case, semantical and phonetical match is perfect, and there is no trace of IE etymological attempts.

English sagacity (n.) insightful, wise ~ Türkic sag, sağ (ğ may be articulated silently) wise, talented, foresighted, from the stem sag- mind, intelligence, acumen. Cognates: MFr. sagacité, Lat. sagacitatem, sagax sagacity, also of quick perception, prophetic. The Romance and the English forms carry a trace of the Türkic agglutinated affix -g/-ɣ/-ag/-aɣ/-ïg/-ïɣ/-ig/-iɣ/-ug/ -uɣ/-üg/-oɣ/-ög that forms nouns and adjectives, and produced a number of allophonic suffixes in Lat. The Romance form also retained the semantic derivatives of the Türkic sag, sağ. The confused IE etymology incredulously derives the English sage wise (n.) from the Lat. sapere to taste, entirely ignoring the Lat. word sagax sagacity, and then for some unspecified reasons uses sage < sapere to taste to etymologize sagacity. Go figure. See saga, sage, say.

English savant ~ Türkic savan/saban prophetic, wise (adj.), OTD form savčï/sabčï prophet, messenger, a derivative of sav/sab (v.) word, speech, which with the personal instrumental affix -čï/-či (-chy/-chi) produces personal noun with semantic speaker, teller, talker, informant that grew into foreteller and then to prophet, messenger; the instrumental affix -n/-än (-am/-en) produces object noun savan/saban with semantic speaking, speech, telling, tale, informing, information that grew into foretelling, divination and then to prophetic, wise. Cognates: OE sefa mind, understanding, insight; OSw. sebban perceive, note, OHG seffen; Fr. savant learned man, Sp. se, sabe to know, Lat. sapere wise, sapientem wise from palatalized form sab > sap. Notably, English, Gmc. and Lat. have all preserved the Türkic substrate form with the Türkic non-animated adjectival affix n/än, attesting to the origin of the word; the ending -t, -s, etc. are individual modifications; English and other Grm. forms did not fall into the Lat. palatalized form sap, showing parallel independent processes of modification and innovation. All Türkic courts at all levels employed a staff of counselors whose duty was to know the future (cf. the Merlin). Since the recall of the ruler was swift and lethal, counselors' importance at the courts was immense, and their accountability for predictions and advice was life-crucial; their longevity was short, and their turnover was relatively high. At the Bulgar/Avar courts they were called Boyars/Bolyars/Boils, cf. Tonyukuk's title Boila Baɣa Tarqan, Boila stood for seer and usually is translated  wise. The Türkic root forms sav/sab/sag/sai have a flavor of affixed derivatives of once one-syllable primal form se/sa that may be older than the haplogroups R or R1. The suggested IE etymology of sap liquid in a plant is as far from being relevant as it can get; no IE cognates whatsoever lay outside of the Grm.-Lat. circle. See say, sage, sapient.

English secret hidden ~ Türkic soqru secret, hidden, covert. Cognates: Latv. slepens, Lith. slaptas; Slven., Serb. skriv-, Slvt. skry-, Bosn., Croat skri-, skro-; Lat. celatum and secretum, Fin. salaisuus, Est. saladus, Az. sirli. The Az. form allows development into both the sVl- and sVr-/sVkr- forms, covering the whole spectrum of the European s- forms with quite peculiar distribution in Balt.-Sl., Sl., Fennic, and Lat. The perfect semantical and near-perfect phonetical match practically excludes a random coincidence.
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English shilling one twentieth of a pound ~ Türkic sheleg, unconvertible, unexchangeable non-ambulant coin. The term shilling belongs to the cluster of the Türkic monetary terms in English, Germanic, and now international lexicon (i.e. shilling in Austria, New Zeeland, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, etc.). Cognates: OSax., OFris., OHG, Dan., Sw. skilling, ONorse skillingr, Du. schelling, Grm. Schilling, Goth. skilliggs; OCS skulezi, Pol. szelang, Sp. escalin, Fr. schelling, It. scellino; first record is in the Gundobad's (474? - 516) Burgundian Code, after Burgunds extended to Savoi in 438. The Russian Primary Chronicle under the year 885 noted that Radimiches (Slavic group) paid Khazars a tribute of one shilling per household; thus, the eastward distribution of the term reaches the Volga river before the advent of the Varyags. The semantical and phonetical congruence does not leave any doubts of the unity of the origin, the form shilling comes from the nomadic Vandalic tribes. The word can't be sanely etymologized from the IE languages, predictably of unknown origin, and neither the Vandals nor the Khazars surely were not renowned Latin rhetoricians. The shilling is a component of the Anglo-Türkic triad of money/penny/shilling ~ manat/peneg/sheleg. See penny, money.

English son male offspring ~ Türkic song end, after, then, trailing, M. Kashgari: söng offspring, sonsuz childless (-suz is a negation affix). Cognates: Lat. sunus, Slavonic syn., all Gmc. languages In Chinese, sūn ~ sūnz is grandson, another peculiar English/Türkic/Chinese coincidence, with a spill into Romance and Slavic.

English tariff tax, charge ~ Türkic tarïɣ tax, initially mostly in kind, later also in money, fr. tarïɣ grain. The Türkic taxing system for dependent population and usually for settled traders, farmers, and transit goods developed extensive vocabulary to enumerate different obligations, different dependencies, and different native languages: bert, čatipa, qalan, qatïl, salïɣ, tütün are a sampling documented in the OTD; tütün is a chimney tax (tütü smoke), tarïɣ is tax in grains (tarïɣ grain). Supposedly, the path to the English adopted form is It. tariffa, MLat. tarifa list of prices, book of rates, via Arabic ta'rif information, notification, inventory of fees to be paid. No IE cognates, and apparently the ancient Gmc. people used different words for august impositions (Anglo-Sax. gafol, Germ. Steuern conflict with Türkic phonetics, and generally speaking, the European taxing terminology is of relatively recent origin).

English tavern public house - road restaurant, bar, inn, or any combination thereof ~ Türkic tavar. The cognates are limitless: OFr. taverne shed made of boards, booth, stall, tavern, inn; Lat. tabernaculum tent, taberna hut, cabin, booth, hut, shed; Arabic dabbar small cattle; Russ. tovarnik shed, barn, stowage, the Russ. fem. form of tovarisch is tovarka, with fem. affix -ka, it points exactly where the male form came from; Scand. die Waare/de Waare goods, which produced OE waru and Eng. ware manufactured goods, goods for sale ~ Sw. vara, Dan. vare, OFris. were, MDu. were, Du. waar, MHG, Grm. ware, all meaning goods. The Türkic word apparently filled in a huge lacuna in the social and economic life of the Eurasia, its derivatives are spread everywhere in the Eurasia, and now are disseminated across the globe. The dictionary entries just for the Türkic term include:
1. article of commerce, sales
2. possessions, property, goods, acquisitions
3. supply train (military, with spillover to civilian), base camp
4. herd driven for sale
5. goods of processed leather
6. goods and tabor (train of wagons, tabor is a derivative of tavar) with goods, fortified camp, fortified convoy stopover
7. money, as an adjective of the word tavar = goodies for sale
8. related to supply train convoy and to its goods, an adjective
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The derivatives pop out in most unexpected circumstances, for example the Biblical Tabernacle comes from a tent (yurt) used as a sales stand to display and sell goods carried by the convoy train, it is a cousin of the word tavern. The Russ. tovarisch, popularized after the Russian revolution, is a derivative to denote members of the convoy's cohort. The feeble IE etymologies all pull in different directions, coming up with individual and unrelated phonetical siblings for each derivative on ad hoc basis, frequently with the help of the unattested inventions, like *traberna, from trabs beam, timber. Try to merge the Lat. beam, timber with the Arabic herd of small cattle for sale and the Hanseatic League base camp, convoy.

English tend look after, tutor guardian" ~ Türkic taya nurse, nursing. The notion of save, preserve, guard is expressed in Türkic with a verbal stem tut-, which is an obvious candidate for all the English, Lat., and Türkic derivatives and cognates. English has an abundance of derivatives: attend, tender, tutor, and many others; Türkic has a matching variety of derivatives, all congruent semantically across languages. The Türkic cognates include: taya- (v.) support (a child); tayjši (taishi) mentor; taytür fine, refined; tiun steward; among the cognates is Ch. tayshi 導師, complete with the Türkic affix -shi/-chi of profession, trade, or involvement, apparently ascending to the Zhou tradition of mentoring the youngsters. In Türkic tradition, the honor and obligation of mentoring boys belongs to the grandfather on the female line, but with the Qin/Han takeover, the Türkic family tradition of tutoring was abolished, and tutors were appointed by officials or seniors. Likely, the Türkic notion of gentle support, a nurse, was a primary semantics that developed into notions of gentleness and tutoring, and ended up, among others, with English tending offers. The Lat. tutor (n.) guardian, watcher and tutela guarding, watching from the verb tueri watch over are direct reflexes of the Türkic taya nurse, nursing, complete with the Türkic affixes -or for man and -la to form adjectives and adverbs. The Hu. dajka nurse apparently is also a reflex of the Türkic taya nurse, possibly taken from the Ogur branch. Genetic composition of the Hungarians suggests that Magyars were a union with predominance of Türkic Sarmatian males and Fennic Uralian females, and the females carried their language into posterity. This belief is corroborated by the archeological observations in the South Urals in the Late Sarmatian period. The IE etymology is absent, in the IE-centered compilations any etymology is missing, the attribution is a standard of unknown origin. Curiously, while the tend does not have an IE etymology, the attend does, from a Lat. tendere stretch. If one can stretch stretch into nursing and tutoring, stretching dinosaur into mama is a child's play.

English thief stealer, derivatives and variations thieve, theft (n.) ~ Türkic tef guile, deception. Cognates: OE theof, theofian, OFris. thiaf, OSw. thiof, MDu. dief, Germ. diob, Grm. dieb, ONorse thiofr, Goth. thiufs; Balt. (Lith.) tupeti to crouch. For theft: OE theofð, WSax. thiefð, OFris. thiufthe, ONorse thyfð, with suffix -itha, which is the Türkic abstract noun affix -č/-čï/-ču/-čü cognate with the same function Lat. -ita, Balt. -ži, Slavic -ch/-ishch (-/-). Thus, the Türkic tefč or thefč (tefch or thefch) corresponds to OE theofð (theofth) etc. Theft is one of the cases where the modern English word, in addition to the stem, preserved the word intact the with agglutinated Türkic affix in its recognizable form.

English throne monarch chair ~ Türkic tören celebration, ceremony. Cognates: Lat. thronus, Gk. thronos elevated seat, chair, throne. The word throne became an international word with the same meaning in all European languages, and numerous idiomatic extensions in every language, mostly international calques. The Türkic traditional ceremony of physically raising to the throne on a felt carpet retained its echo in the idiom raise to the throne, and in the British bag of wool on the seat of the throne.
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English trust certainty ~ Türkic döres(t) (Tatar), tröst (Turk.). Cognates: OE treowian to believe, trust, treowe faithful, trusty, ONorse traust confidence, to trust, OFris. trast, OHG trost trust, fidelity, Goth. trausti agreement, alliance, Du. troost. Notably, IE cognates are nowhere in sight. Apparently, the only possible source is the Sarmatian migration from the Ural-Itil area, the Wendeln/Veneds circle, which brought over the Oguz-Kipchak form to the central and western Europe. The eastern Türkic forms, from the verb tay- rely, lean, rely on, depend upon are phonetically much different from the western forms. The vowels -au- in the ONorse and -eo- in OE apparently tried to convey the Türkic round-labial ö well-preserved in the French phonology.

Grm. Ulan cavalryman ~ Türkic ulan/oglan" - young man, scion of a noble family. Same word in Pol., Russ.. See clan.

English vouch (v.) summon into court ~ Türkic buč- (buch-) (to) order. The OTD (OTD p. 119) recorded a derivative form bučur, with affix -ur forming 1st pers. verbal active voice, absolute participle, and predicate, with allophone bučur/buyur/vučur. The word is most remarkable: Türkic (probably, still Zhou nomads) has derivative cognates in English, French, Gallo-Romance *voticare, Lat. vocitare, vocare, and Chinese 憑證 buchun, po-čhuŋ pyn. píngzheng make up, compensate. The forms indicate a western (like Ogur Sarmatian or Hunnic) and eastern (like Zhou, Tokhars/Uezhi, proto-Huns) phonetics. The source of the Lat. borrowing could be Celtic/Gael./Gallo-Romance emanating from Iberia in 2800 BC, or one of the overland Kurgan waves of the 3rd - 2nd - 1st mill. BC. The words vouch and voucher lurked somewhere in the English folk language until they popped out sometime in the 17th c. See voucher.

English ware manufactured goods, goods for sale ~ Türkic tavar. Cognates: OE waru and Eng. ware manufactured goods, goods for sale ~ OFris. were, MDu. were, MHG, Grm. ware, Sw. vara, Dan. vare, Du. waar, all meaning goods; Scand. dieWaare/deWaare goods. Apparently, the Türkic tavar goods became truncated and conflated with the Scand. dieWaare/deWaare goods. See tavern.

English Yule winter holiday ~ Türkic yol road, way, as a winter holiday road, way (of fate); the original full name of the holiday was Yule Tengri ~ Fate (from) Tengri ~ Fate (from) God, it is celebrated on the winter solstice, with spruce, music, dances, and gift exchanges. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) geol, geola, Ang. giuli, ONorse jol, Grm. Yule; OFr. jolif; Modern Fr joli festive, semantically extended to pretty, nice; Modern English jolly festive. In the religious and IE etymological fields, the term is dumbfoundingly rated of unknown origin, although it is still active in the Türkic-populated areas, and is sufficiently well described in the ethnological literature. After advent of Christianity in the 4th c., the winter solstice period was reassigned to mean the 12-day feast of Nativity, it was transported to Northern Europe with the advent of Christianity, and in the 11th c. it was reassigned to Christmas, becoming a Christmas Yule, or Christmas holiday. The term is still active in the Northern Europe, with all its traditional trimmings. See jolly.

English youth (n. & adj.) young person ~ Türkic yaš (yash, adj.) youth, young, green, also year (in terms of age). Cognates: OE geoguð youth, related to geong young; OSw. juguth, OFris. jogethe, OHG jugund, MDu. joghet, Du. jeugd, Grm. Jugend, Goth. junda youth. In ME, the medial -g- became a yogh (geoyoghuð ), which then disappeared. The Türkic prosthetic y- is a dialectal version of yok-/jok- dialects that distinguish Ogur languages innate for the Huns and Bulgars, their ancestors, and their descendants, which is expressed as anlaut  y-/j-/g- and their close allophones; Oguz languages do not use prosthetic consonants in front of the initial vowel. A bifurcated version of yas is qar, with s-/r- alteration, also typical for Ogur/Oguz split. The terms like young are derivatives of yaš = green, youth with affix -n/-ng/-ŋ of adv. of quality from adj. Notably, English retained the connection between youth and green, which in Türkic is a single polysemantic stem yaš.
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4.4 Religious

English Adam (via Bible) first man, progenitor ~ Türkic adam generic man . Now Adam is international word, its origin is ascribed to Heb., but except for 42+ Türkic languages, no other language has adam for generic man; only Türkic languages use adam in non-religious context: The English I met an old man in the grocery store reads in Heb. פגשתי איש זקן במכולת with איש = man = hoish, not adam, while in modern Turkish it is Ben bakkal yaşlı bir adamla karşılaştım, with  adam man + accusative case affix -la. In Heb. Adam אָדָם‎ is Adam, not איש man; האנושות is mankind, not adamkind; and adamah is ground, not man. The Heb. etymology, though popular, does not hold water, and even though during the last 3000 years the household religious proper name Adam had enough opportunities to convert to a common noun, it still did not. Only in Türkic the phrase God created man uses adam for man: Tanrı adam oluşturulan. With the advent of the Christianization in the 5th-7th cc., the Biblical Adam probably conflated with the adam generic man, and escaped attention of the Latin-trained OSax. scribes.

English alms offering ~ Türkic cluster with religious semantics offering, give takings: lmak/algı taking, payment, acıma pity. Cognates:  OE, Grm. ælmesse, OSw. alamosna, OHG alamuosan, ONorse ölmusa, Ecclesiastical Gk. charity, alms, eleemon compassionate; Lat. eleemosyne, eleemosyna; Romance languages: OSp. almosna, OFr. almosne, It. limosina. Etymology: supposedly of unknown origin. The Türkic lmak lit. stands for make alms, in English transposed to make alms make alms.

English amen so be it (adj., adv.) ~ Türkic ämin (emïn, imin) (adj., adv.) reliable, reliably, dependable, dependably, correct, correctly. The religious and IE etymologies end up at Heb. amen אמן faithfulness, loyalty, but the idea that non-Judaic and non-Christian Türkic tribes across Eurasia learned the word from Heb., or that this is a chance phonetical and semantical coincidence is preposterous. The Arabic influence is ruled out for the same reason, the non-Islamic Türkic tribes across Eurasia could not get it from the Arabs. In addition, in parallel with the other religious terms like adam and eve, the word ämin is used for most casual speech: safe roads (lit. reliable roads), dependable caravan, do not trust (friends) (lit. do not rely on), hope on somebody (lit. hope, sureness); it is used with appropriate derivatives and numerous allophones, a sure indicator of the indigenous lexeme with religious application being only a minor semantical offshoot. Adoption of the exclamation amen from a Tengrian ritual into the pre-Heb. and then to Heb. ritual was a forerunner of its adoption into Christian and Islamic rituals, and a harbinger of its global spread. See Adam, Eve.

English Amor (God of love, Roman pantheon), amorous, amorist, etc. ~ Türkic amra/amran-  to love. The word Amor has found broad international distribution as the Roman God of love, also known as Lat. Cupido (desire) > Eng. Cupid, and as a French noun les amours. The Roman Amor was identified with Gk. Eros. As Eros, Amor was a fourth primordial god to come into existence, after Chaos, Gaia, and Tartar, mentioned in one of the most ancient Gk. sources (Hesiod ca. 700 BC). With Tartar, whose name in Türkic is tat alien, foreigner, and whose function was the alien underworld, two out of four primordial gods have possible Türkic etymology, and one of these two has largely synonymous Türkic substrates, Amor ~ amra to love in Roman pantheon, and Eros ~ er (with derivatives ~ masculinity, maleness, male potency) to make love in Gk. pantheon. Notably, Amor/Cupido marks his victims specifically with arrows, the innate Türkic weapon and tool, in contrast with lances, spears, javelins, darts, slings, etc. And from the first depictions, Amor/Cupid used the unequaled composite bow, the distinct weapon of the Scythians, Parthians, Huns, Türks, and Mongols.
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English bursary treasury of religious order, student grant ~ Türkic bursaŋ (bursoŋ, bursuŋ) monk community. The stem of the term is burs, and -aŋ/-oŋ/-uŋ is a 2nd pers. possessive affix. Cognates: Lat. bursar, bursarius, bursa purse, Romance bursa purse; Ukr., Sl. Bulg. bursa religious school; Ch. fosen, bvyr-sag Buddhist monk community. Ultimately a contracted form of the Skt. buddha sangha, the form bursa became an international term for a seminary and seminary student stipends, its spread and history are intimately connected with the Türkic languages. The spread started with the Manichean religious schools of the 4th c. in the Middle Asia, where was established the Türkic Manichean terminology, but probably the word first appeared still in the Buddhist Türkic community prior to the 4th c., and rolled over to the Manichean terminology with the growth of the Manichaeism's popularity. In the Central Asia, the popularizers of the terms were probably Sogdian and Türkic preachers, and in Europe the waves of the Türkic nomads possibly starting with Sarmats (syncretic Tengriism and Buddhism), then Alans (same) and Huns (same), then the European Türkic converts to Christianity, before the advent of the Middle Age Kipchak Khanate (Tataria).

English cherub baby angel ~ Türkic čebär (cheber) (n., adj.) beauty, beautiful. Cognates: OE cerubin, LLat. cherub, Gk. cheroub, Hebr. kerubh angel. Possible link is based on consonance and suitable semantics.

English curse invoke evil upon ~ Türkic qur- (v.): qarɣiš curse, invoke evil upon, qarɣa to curse, to invoke evil upon, qar-/cur- choke, gag. The stem qur with allophones is extremely productive, with wide and diverse semantics. No similar word exists in Grm., Romance, or Celtic, but Anglo-Sax. cursian to curse, cursung cursing, damnation, place of torment, cursumbor incense; OFr. curuz anger; Sl. chur hoodoo; Hu. kar damage; Sum. kur, kar damage. The pinpointed distribution points to the Scythian-Sarmatian conveyance to the northwestern Europe, Burgundian conveyance to Fr., and Bulgarian conveyance to Sl. and Hu. The IE etymology has a standard of uncertain origin, but some attempts to ignore Türkic origin are inventive and imaginative. The distribution of cognates repeats the pattern of other words with of uncertain origin and of unknown origin, and with historical presence of the Sarmats/Saxons/Burgunds/Bulgars in the area where Grm., Romance, Celtic, or Balto-Slavic languages have formed.

English Eden (Bible) paradise garden, garden of Eden ~ Türkic ed property, riches, thing, article, object. Now Eden is international word, its origin is ascribed to Heb. edhen pleasure, delight, and it may be so, who can tell? But Hebrews were much consistent in using untranslated foreign words in their Genesis story: Tr. Adam, Tr. Eve, Av. pairidaeza enclosure, park ~ Heb. פרדס, pardes (later introduction not used in the Hebrew Bible), so why expect that Eden is different? The Türkic edin means with riches, -in is instrumental case noun affix, and the explanation where the four rivers watering the Eden start is quite consistent with the Türkic naming convention: Four Rivers is as much a calque of Törtsu as Seven Rivers is a calque of Jetisu.

English Eve (via Bible) first man, progenitor ~ Türkic eve = generic engender, birth-giving woman. Now Eve is international word, its origin is ascribed to Heb., but the Heb. popular etymology does not hold the water: Heb. חַוָּה‎ Hawwah, living being from base hawa he lived,is phonetically and semantically far from being our foremother. The Türkic Eve is as generic foremother as the Türkic Adam is generic man, and it also does not need subtle casuistic reasoning to come up with incredible etymology. Statistically, the chances that these two generic words would precisely coincide, both phonetically and semantically, in two unrelated languages is as close to zilch as it comes, which means that if the Heb. etymology is correct, the Türkic Eve = foremother can't even exist save for a supernatural miracle. See quim, wife.
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English faith (n.) religious beliefs, system of religious beliefs ~ Türkic vara (n.) piety, reverence (fear) of God. Forms and cognates: OE faith duty of fulfilling one's trust, swerian take an oath, OFr. feid, foi faith, belief, trust, confidence, pledge, OSw. swerian, ONorse sverja, Dan. sverge, OFris. swera, MDu. swaren, OHG swerien, OGrm. wara truth, faithfulness, grace, war truthful, loyal, Grm. schwören, Goth. swaren to swear; OIr. var vow, solemn promise, fir true, veracious, Lat. fides trust, faith, confidence, reliance, credence, belief, fidere to trust, verus veracious, true; Gk. pistis πιστησ faith; Sl. vera faith; Av. var- believe, varǝna- faith. Goth. tuzwerjan to doubt, unwerjan discontented;. M.Vasmer lists these two Gothic words under the entry of Sl. vera faith, a Türkic loanword in Sl. lexicon. Goth. tuzwerjan is transparent rendition of the inverted Türkic veransiz: ver + an (noun affix, rendered yan) + siz (negation affix, rendered tuz) = faith (n.) without = infidelity => Goth. tuz + wer + jan; both the inversion and the translation are suspect, but inversion is theoretically possible; however, neither doubt, nor infidelity are synonymous with faith, as the august IE maniac M.Vasmer would want us to believe, in fact it means the opposite; the Goth. unwerjan discontented is a similar case, the inverted Türkic veranŋ: ver +an (noun affix, rendered yan) +ŋ (negation affix, rendered un) = faith (n.) none = infidelity => Goth. un + wer + jan (See un-); here also both the inversion and the translation are suspect, with inversion theoretically possible; but infidelity translated as discontented does not make sense, and the mother of all IE etymologists should not have produced the mother of all IE etymological blunders. With Türkic vara, there is no need for manufactured IE unattested *bheidh- to come up with English, Grm., and Slavic forms for faith. (See swear). It appears that before the advent of the organized religions, the (mandated, approved, or enforced) system of religious beliefs did not exist, vara was strictly personal devotion for the Supreme Being (inclusive of demi-god or angelic auxiliaries), and there was no fact of life corresponding to the notion of faith that required the word faith. Upon the advent of the organized religions, the old word vara piety, reverence, in all its polysemantic and dialectal expressions, was recycled to reflect the new phenomenon. Assigning origination dates for such words is pointless, all kindred people had it from time immemorial (say, 15 kya), otherwise they would be arbitrarily stigmatized as irreverent without any trace of evidence. See swear

English God (n.) ~ Türkic kut (ɣut, qut) (n.) soul, deity, divinity, spiritual being, spirit, host. The word kut must have evolved long before 5th mill. BC, when appeared first Tengrian kurgans marked by Tengrian ritual of sending the deceased off to Tengri for reincarnation; the Kurgan migrants to Sumer brought along the name for Tengri that we know in Sumer phonetics as Dingir and in Sumer cuneiform writing of the 4th mill. BC. With the appearance of the monotheistic Tengriism, the previuous kut deities retained their functions as syncretic local patrons and protectors, subordinated to or created by the Creator Tengri. From the available information, we can only guess that it were the Kurgan waves that brought with them Tengri (later Thor) and kuts to the Central Europe and Scandinavia. In the Tengrian hierarchy, the kut immortal deities occupied place a grade below Tengri and a grade above immortal heroes Alps, but their roles overlapped. Among the Türkic people Tengri retained the name as generic for God, but in Europe, Thor was a personal name of a Supreme Deity, and could not be used as a genetic term for the newly introduced Christian God, while kut retained the semantics of a Deity. Cognates: Eng., Du. God, Dan., Norw., Sw., Gud; Germ. Gott; not only the IE etymology is absent, but even any etymology is missing in the IE-centered compilations. The phonetical and semantic match leave no doubts on the Türkic origin of the Grm. term. Notably, the formulaic My God ~ mein Gott carries the Türkic affix -m as prefix in the IE syntax, like the other affixes reincarnated as prefixes in the flexive morphology, the Türkic -m is my ~ mein in Gmc. languages (Deus meus in Lat.). The term kut is extremely polysemantic, in addition covering happiness, blessing, grace, wealth, luck, success, happy lot, dignity, majesty, true state of being, bliss, and probably another lot not found in the dictionaries. See my.
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English Gorgon ~ Türkic qörq- (v.) fear (v.). Via Gk. (pl. Gorgones), from gorgos terrible, so scary that a glance at monster turned a looker to stone. The conventional wisdom is that the scarecrow term of unknown origin came via enlightenment from Gk., and could not have been home grown, which may be too presumptuous, given the exact functional, semantical and phonetical correspondence. In Türkic, the suffix -gün (-ɣïn, -gin; -ɣun, -gün; -qïn, -kin; -qun, -kün) forms a noun from a noun (like electra > electron), thus Gorgon is just The Terrible (OTD, pp. 195, 196, 653, 654), pointing to the origin of the Gk. myth without singularly defining the source of the English word.

English gut ~ Türkic kut (qut) soul, vital force, spirit. Cognates: OE guttas bowels, entrails, ME gote channel, stream, MDu. gote, Du. goot, Grm. Gosse gutter, drain. The meaning of abdomen, belly in English is from ca 1400. In English, this word pops up from nowhere in the 19th c., with connotations spirit, courage. In Türkic, kut is the most valuable gift that a human can have, it is the soul in Christianity, and the soul in Tengriism, with the small difference that in Christianity, the soul is not a personal endowment, it is not connected with a personal act of Almighty, and in Tengriism the Almighty personally endows every human being with a personal kut soul. The Tengrian kut is indestructible, it can leave a body and come back, and upon a death it reverts to Tengri to be given a new body. Thus, no living human should be afraid of death, he or she is about to come back to our precious world in an act of reincarnation. Not for 40 days, as testified disciples during the Roman times, but for a whole new life. Upon departure, the kut enters into the inventory of the Almighty, and He himself gives it another body to live in on this Earth. Enter the Christianity, and the kut becomes innards, the soul becomes spirit and courage of the human being, and then his guts. The Türkic kut is polysemantic, its other meanings are supernatural spirit (a la angel, but autonomous, not subservient); luck, blessing, grace, prosperity, good fortune, success, happy lot; dignity, majesty; praying, one of the most important derivatives is qutadɣu happiness, fortune. The everlasting soul in one etiology becomes intestines in another etiology. No IE etymology, no speculative attempts to establish IE etymology. Nowadays, the guts have two non-intersecting meanings, it is an immaterial spirit burning in someone who has guts, and it is the intestines and other inedible organic matter i the bellies of mammals and fish. Thus, both Tengrian and Christian concepts peacefully coexist in our confused lexicon. The perfect phonetical and semantical coincidence is transparent with little understanding of religious dynamics.

Side note on English god (n.) supernatural being, deity:
The etymology of the English god might as well ascend to the Türkic kut (qut) of the secondary semantics of supernatural spirit. The phonetics and semantics are utterly consistent between the two words, but speculation on transition from kut to god would be precisely that, a speculation not supported by known historical sources. Notably, the IE speculation is a bad example to follow, it derives god from most bizarre semantical and impossible phonetical analogies: a bunch of unattested IE *conjectures, and OCS zovo call, Skt. huta- invoked = an epithet of Indra (note that huta sounds much like kut, and invoke is no different from pray, consistent with many other Türkic-Skt. parellels) , and Gk. khein to pour with the phrase khute gaia poured earth referring to a burial kurgan. These amok etymologies make the ancient Grm. tribesmen complete idiots without their own culture and history. The problem with Türkic kut lays in the name for the Creator, the Almighty God Tengri. The word Tengri, as a generic name for the Creator God, has survived in all Türkic languages under the banners of all religions and their factions: Buddhism, Christianity Catholic, Christianity Orthodox, Christianity Nestorian, Manichaeism, Islam, Lamaism, etc. It was supplanted in a number of instances, but was completely replaced with foreign word in very few instances. The notion of the people with duplex etiology Tengrii + kut to drop the main character of Tengri and replace Him with a substitute kut = supernatural spirit does not seem to be feasible. An alternate solution may be that kut is older than Tengri, and people who brought the term to the Western Europe did not have it at the time of their departure. In that scenario, the Scythians and Sarmatians must be excluded, because their funeral ritual, and their balbals, clearly indicate the Tengrian religion with its material appurtenances. Notably, the Herodotus' Papai as the Supreme God of Scythians ca 5th c. BC does not conflict with Tengri as the Scythian Supreme God, mush as the present appellation Heavenly Father (Papai is Father or Pra-Father in Türkic) does not conflict with the notion of Jesus or Jehovah being the personal appellation for the Heavenly Father. But excluding Scythians and Sarmatians leaves only their much older predecessors, the Gimbutas' three waves of Kurganians on the overland route, and circum-Mediterranean Kurganians associated with the Beaker culture, both being very long shots anchored in the realm of speculation. At any rate, the kut (qut) as supernatural spirit and god supernatural being, deity objectively offer the best phonetic and semantic proximity.

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English monastery ~ Türkic religious prayer formula manastar forgive my sins. Cognates: LGk. monasterion monastery, monazein live alone from monos alone + suffix -terion place of something; LLat. monasterium. The concept of monasticism was brought to the European scene from the east, naturally with its own terminology, which is visible in the numerous examples of the Gk. religious terminology of the Türkic origin. Most of that terminology is either left hanging, or assigned impossible explanations (See Yu.N. Drozdov, 2011, On Christianity). The word monastery is a good example, in Türkic it is not a word, but a formulaic phrase that is next to impossible to randomly reproduce with any word in any language, let alone reproduce with specific religious monastic-related meaning using the lexicon from the time of the incipient Christianity. The IE etymology is clearly artificial, with suffix -terion place magically transforming into the verb zein = live. Other religious terms mechanically carried from religion to religion are Adam (Türkic adam = man [generic word]), Eve (Türkic eve = engender, birth-giving woman [generic word]), Hell (not in English, but in Gk., Rus. ad, Türkic ada calamities and suffering [generic word]) leave no doubt that the Biblical creation account follows the archaic Türkic religious concepts, the echoes of which have survived to this day. In the centuries before our era, Türkic has already syncretized Buddhism with Tengriism, that is evidenced by the heavy load of Skt. Buddhist religious terms in the Old Türkic Dictionary (1969), which includes 208 of them. Some of these terms, in addition to the authentic Türkic terms, also found their way into the incipient Christianity.

English sin (n.) ~ Türkic cin (jin) (n.) evil spirit. Cognates: OE synn moral wrongdoing, offense against God, misdeed, OFris. sende, ONorse phrase verð sannr at found guilty of, OSw. sundia, MDu. sonde, Grm. Sünde sin, transgression, trespass, offense, possibly cognate to Lat. sons guilty, criminal. Also cited are Goth. sonjis, ONorse sannr true ~ Türkic čïn (chyn) (n.) truth, true (adj.), like if black could be derived from white. The IE etymologies do not make sense neither for sin, Lat. sons < Tr. cin, nor for ONorse sannr < Tr. čïn, essentially suspending them up in the thin air.
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4.5 Dwelling

English barn grain/fodder storage shed ~ Türkic ambar grain/fodder storage shed. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. bernhus, berenhus, OE bereærn, beretun; Sl. ambar, onbar; Chagatai, Crimean, Kuman, Tat., Turk. ambar; Pers. ambar; all barn. The IE etymology is convoluted, OE bereærn ascending to bere barley and aern for house: bereærn barley house fr. bere barley + aern house << ONorse rann, Goth. razn house, OE rest resting place, sealtærn saltworks; neither bere, nor aern/rann/razn/rest are classed as IE words. The OE beretun is no better, -tun is town, settlement in Celtic, it is neither IE nor a gstorage shed, nor an animal pen. The distribution in Türkic and Pers. throws a destructive curveball into already convoluted IE etymology using non-IE vocabulary. The attested ambar offers a perfect semantical meaning and immediate phonetical proximity.

English bodega, also boutique, small shop of any sort ~ Türkic butïq (butiq) branch, limb, offshoot. See boutique, bud.

English boutique, also bodega, small shop of any sort ~ Türkic butïq (butiq) branch, limb, offshoot. Cognates: OFr. botica; speculated cognates OFr. apotecaire, Lat. apotheca, apothecarius, Gk. apotheke barn, storehouse.  In a small-town entrepreneurial world, boutique was an appendix to the residency, a supplementary business, and the semantics of the word branch, offshoot is appendix, first used in the literal sense in France, attested as a Burgund Vandal Wonderer word botica from the Provence and Savoy. The IE etymology ascends to nonsensical apotheca fr. apo- away + tithenai put. The IE etymology reverting to apoteca is unsustainable on phonetical grounds and unsustainable semantically: the obvious coexistence of the boutique and apoteca phenomena in France, and apoteca elsewhere in Europe, and the semantical incongruence since apoteca could at the same time be boutique if it was an appendix to a doctor's or a barber's home, and since apoteca was a specialty store like a tailor or shoemaker store, versus the boutique being a general convenience store, all that makes the IE attempt unsuitable. The Spanish version of botica is bodega, a form also adopted in English. See bodega, bud.

English bucket (n.) vat, container, bucket ~ Türkic but vat, container, bucket. See vat.

English burg dwellings within fortified enclosure ~ Türkic balïq fortified enclosure, also dwellings within a balïq. Cognates are distinctly limited to the northwestern Europe: OE burg, burh, OFris. burg, ONorse borg, OHG burg, buruc, Grm. Burg, Goth. baurgs, all denoting fortified enclosure with excursions to tower, fortress, castle, wall, citadel, and the like. The differences between a tower ~ Tr. tura and burg ~ Tr. balïq in English parallel those in Türkic, the first is a self-contained fortified dwelling, the second is a fortification containing dwellings, a girded place, see gird. In the Eurasia, balïq and its allophones, including the western burg, are the most popular toponymic components. In both cases, the semantics varies with location, some types of balïqs and burgs may have other forms, which discriminate them according to the local specifics of the Sprachbund. The change from balïq to burg and borough, and their local phonetics and spellings are local western innovations; the phonetical correlation with liquid -r-/-l- is observed for other words. See castle, gird, tower.
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English cemetery land used for burials ~ Türkic semäklä- (v.) bury, burial rites. Cognates: Tr. semäklägaü to bury, OFr. cimetiere graveyard, LLat. coemeterium. OE had licburg cemetery of Grm. origin. The IE etymologies bring dormitory (Gk. κοιτώνες/koitones), family, domestic servants (OCS semija ()), wife (Lettish sieva), bed, couch (*PIE *version), members of a household, measure of land (OE hiwan, higid), cradle (Lat. cunae), propitious, gracious (Skt. Sivah), all obviously unrelated to the acts of funerals. Given that funerals were one of the most persistent activities in the life of the families for dozens of millenniums, the burial terminology must be most resistant to modifications and cultural influences, including newly introduced religious lingo. In the European literature, the record on cemetery ascends to the early Christian writers, while a Gk. apparently unrelated version referred to sleep of death.

English court area surrounded by walls ~ Türkic qur- (v.) arrange, build, line up, gather, stretch, qur (n.) sash, belt. For cognates, etymology, distribution, and history see gird. See curtain, garden, gird, guard, and yard.

English curtain barrier ~ Türkic qur- (v.) arrange, build, line up, gather, stretch, qur (n.) sash, belt. For cognates, etymology, distribution, and history see gird. See court, garden, gird, guard, and yard.

English house ~ hut ~ Türkic Koš/quš/xüžə (English house ~ hut, with all corresponding ancient and modern Grm. cognates, Romance kasa/casa with all corresponding ancient and modern cognates, Sl. kosh, khata and other cognates, Mong. qos, Kalmuk xoš (hosh). The word possibly ascends to Proto-Altaic *kul'o enclosure (Dybo A.V., Chronology of Türkic languages and linguistic contacts of early Türks, Moscow, 2007, p. 808)

English castle ~ Türkic kishlak (kashlyk) winter quarters, winter village, winter fort/fortifications. Cognates: Fr. castel, Lat. castrum/castellum fort/fortified village, forming -caster and -chester in place names, the castle was used to translate Gk. kome village.

English key lock opener ~ Türkic kirit key. Cognates:  OE cæg, OFris. kei key, supposedly of unknown origin, with no certain cognates; Lat. clāvis, Gk. klηis/klαιs κληΐς/κλᾱίς; Sl. klüch. The Türkic kirit key is a derivative of stem kelbir- enter, pass through, get in, kiritla is to lock. Besides near perfect phonetical proximity and perfect semantical concordance, the Frisian origin may suggest either Cimmerian or Sarmatian origin, allowing for another peek at their language. In Slavic languages klüch is key and underground spring; the Türkic stem kir- also has a meaning of break through, figurative for the spring; the forms for key in Slavic, Lat., and Gk., point to the same source that appear to be a dialectal clone, and likely a precursor of the form kir- recorded in the 10th c. Notably, in the 11th-14th cc. the Bulgarian smiths from the Sarmatian lands west of Urals were mass-producers of warding locks for the North-Eastern Europe, demonstrating traditional design and metalworking craftsmanship.

English mengir (aka menhir) upright monumental stone ~ Türkic meŋgü (mengü) memorial monument, stela, from meŋü, beŋü memorial; commonly of stone, but may be of perishable materials. Cognates: Breton menhir , Welsh maen hir, Cornish medn hir. The phonetical and semantical concurrence is perfect. No IE etymology; the offered folk-type Breton etymology men stone + hir long is dubious in light of the Tr. meŋgü. England has numerous balbal alleys lined up with mengirs, exactly like the kurgan burials across Eurasian steppes, hence the Welsh, Cornish, and Breton lexicons; the Breton word may be an Alanian word of the Amorican Alans, who moved into Brittany in the 5th c. AD, and kept their Kurgan burial traditions with kurgans and stelas. Alternatively, the Brits of Brittany were Sarmatians, or Scythians, or even Cimmerians engaged in the construction of kurgan cemeteries adorned with meŋgü stelas. The dictionary spelling meŋgü reflects a particular phonetical form (actually, a range of forms: meŋgü, meŋi, meŋkü, meŋü, beŋgü, beŋkü, extracted from different sources), the phonetical articulation of the menhir falls neatly in this dialectal roster.
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English tower tall and narrow structure ~ Türkic tura fortified dwelling, fortress; turag asylum, refuge, den, from stem tur- live, dwell. Cognates and speculations: Grm. Turm tower; OSl. terem, Russ. türma () prison; also Fr., Sp. forms possibly from a pre-IE Mediterranean language; that unwittingly imply that the Türkic and English (Grm.) substrate was the pre-IE Mediterranean language, i.e. that English substrate predates the Gk. in Europe. Among Türkic derivatives is türma jail, dungeon, from tür- emplace > Russ. türma () prison, a late cultural borrowing from Tatar languages. Another Türkic meanings for türma  is grave mausoleum, grave.

English stair ~ Türkic satu/šatu (shatu) stair.Cognates: OE stæger flight of steps, single step, stigan climb, ON, OFris. stiga, MDu. stighen, OHG stigan, Grm. steigen, Goth. steigan climb; Skt. stighnoti mounts, rises, steps. The need for stairs in Türkic stationary dwellings is testified by the Türkic-OSl. word terem present in all OSl. annals, it stands for a multi-story palace with its legendary balcony, terem was later supplanted by synonymic dvorets palace, but still in the 17th c. the Russian Czars lived in the terem. In addition to the terems, stairs must have had other utility uses in Türkic life. The form satu comes from the Middle Asia, precisely what Türkic form morphed into English stair is in question, but the presence of the same word from Albion to Hindustan with the Türkic in-between allows to expect something closer to the Frisian form; Skt. had to carry it from the Eastern Europe of the 15th c. BC. The IE etymology quite amusingly piles up everything from unattested *conjectures to delirious cognates place, suddenly, and walk.

English vat (n.) vat, container ~ Türkic but vat, container, bucket (OTD p. 129). Cognates: OE fæt vat, container, OSw., ONorse fat, OFris. fet, MDu., Du. vat, OHG faz, Grm. faß, Sl. badiya, all vat, container.  Here v/b, a/u are clearly allophones, as much fluid in Türkic languages as they are in other languages; the semantics is unmistakably perfect; like many other Türkic words, vat was lurking in the English language until recorded in the 12th c. No IE cognates or etymology for vat whatsoever. Clearly cognate of English bucket (n.), from Anglo-Fr. buquet bucket, pail, and diminutive OE buc pitcher, bulging vessel; among the nomads, buckets traditionally were of leather and in forested areas also of wood. Unlike vat, bucket is claimed to descend from a unattested PIE *bhou- to grow, swell, an apparent nonsense. Like the vat, bucket was lurking in the English language until recorded in the 13th c.

English yard court ~ Türkic qur- (v.) arrange, build, line up, gather, stretch, qur (n.) sash, belt. The court and yard are synonymous; phonetically, the anlaut consonant is symptomatic of Ogur languages, and anlaut vowel is symptomatic of Oguz languages; -y is a semi-consonant typical for some Ogur languages, selected from a lineup of d-/g-/y-/j-. The phonetical difference between the court and yard points to separate origin paths, and likely considerable temporal separation. For cognates, etymology, distribution, and history see gird. See court, curtain, garden, gird, and guard.
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4.6 Life

English acorn (n.) nut of oak tree ~ Türkic yaɣaq large hard-shelled seed, yekel (Chuv.) acorn. Cognates: ONorse akarn, Goth. akran, Du. aker, LGrm. ecker, Grm. Ecker acorn; Sl. jelud (). The Sl. form remotely resembles an intermediate form from the eastern Türkic to the European Chuv. to Sl. to Gmc. The IE etymology derives acorn from impossible phonetical associations: open land, field, acre fruits and vegetables. With the cousins acorn - yekel, there is no need for stretched imagination.

Old English ad (n.) heap, funeral pile, pyre, fire, flame ~ Türkic öt fire, flame;  Türkic ada calamities and suffering. The Azeri and Turkish preserved a form öd. The Anglo-Saxon word ad did not survive into the modern language, and accordingly is not explicated etymologically; after 1200s it was replaced with the word fyr, attested in the post-Norman invasion time, originally it was not a fire, but fiery, strong fire, torch. The semantic and phonetic match of the ad/öt/öd is perfect, and it leads to understanding of the Gk. and Sl. word ad for hell, which apparently was borrowed as a physically fiery or suffering place from Türkic to Gk. and then to Slavic (see monastery). In Gk. and Sl. languages, the word adis (αδης) and ad () stand for hell without a notion of a fire, obviously a loanword for a religious concept. The Tengriism theology did not have a concept of the hell employed in Christianity, did not have a term for it, and accordingly had to find a native word to relay a new concept, while the Gk. had the word kólasi̱ (κoλαση) for inferno, hell. The spelling with the long ā, definitely not in the arsenal of the Anglo-Saxon scribes, is a clear attempt to render the Türkic word with the rounded ö.

English anguish (n.) extreme distress ~ Türkic özak (adj.) narrow. The attested link is Türkic özak narrow > Lat. angustus narrow, tight > OFr. anguisse, anguissier choking sensation, distress, anxiety, rage > English anguish suffer great pains or distress. Apparently, the semantic fork happened still in the parental dialect, and Lat. acquired both meanings, literal and figurative. The Türkic özak (adj.) is a derivative of öz (n.) valley, pass between mountains, hence a narrow passage, narrows. The semantic of narrow is preserved in Goth. form aggwus, OE enge narrow, painful, MDu. enghe, Balt. (Lith.) ankshtas, Lat. angustus, Sl. uzkii, vuzkii, Arm. anjuk, Skt. aihus, aihas, Av. azah- need. The syllable öz comes in numerous flavors, öd, öδ, öz, üz, making the Goth. form aggwus just another attested dialectic form. The IE etymology does not dig to the base stem of the IE forms, stopping at a limited sampling of allophonic forms. See anger, narrow.

English antler horn ~ Türkic anten horn. English has derivatives such as antenna (insect), antenna (radio); no sentient PIE etymology, no similar word exists in any other Romance language, while Türkic shares this primordial base with all Gmc. languages. In the IE paradigm, Grm. Augensprossen antlers, lit. antler-sprouts is linked with the unattested Gallo-Romance cornu *antoculare horn in front of the eyes, from Lat. ante before + ocularis of the eyes, which incidentally also includes the Türkic base ant, and cooks etymology incompatible with a word that was needed 50,000 years ago.

English apian (adj.) related to bees ~ Türkic arï bee. The word apian does not figure much in English etymology, just Lat. apianus < Lat. apis bee. The affinity of the Türkic arï and Lat. api can't be ignored, the OE beo bee undoubtedly comes from the same quarter as the Lat. api, and quite independently of it. Toward the origin of the English bee points the Türkic derivative word for beehive burt, and the ethnonym Burtas = burt as ~ apiarian tribe, as Mordva were known at the turn of the eras. In Türkic life, honey and accordingly honey collection played a major role not only as a daily sweetener and an ingredient for alcoholic drinks, but in the salient tradition of funeral rites, when the deceased leader is taken for the last respects around his country in a casket filled with honey as a preservative; in a country the size of Europe that trip could last for many months, and honey was a key to the ritual, it had to be prepared in advance to be ready for the occasion. Apparently, with the advent of Christianity the importance of honey faded, and so faded the honey-related lexicon.
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English aptitude ability ~ Türkic yapt (n.) construction, action, a noun derivative from a verb yap- construct, make, do + abstract noun affix -t. Cognates: Middle Fr. aptitude, LLat. aptitudo, aptus joined, fitted. The original Lat. aptus joined, fitted retained semantics of the Türkic yapt (n.) construction, action. The IE etymology derives the Lat. form from an unattested *PIE *ap- to grasp, take, reach, essentially identical with the actual Türkic yapt construction, action that does not use ingenious imagination to come up with etymology. Numerous English derivatives are built on the stem apt, not on the Lat. aptus, corroborating the Türkic origin: aptly (adv.), aptness (n.), apt (adj.), and derivatives of aptitude (n.). The Fr. aptitudee probably incorporated into the pre-Norman English lexus already equipped with numerous forms of apt- derivatives.

English arch ~ Türkic arca, from the Türkic root arca back. Cognates: OFr. arche arch of a bridge, Lat. arcus, PIE unattested base *arqu- bowed, curved (The logics behind the mechanism of the insane unattested cognates is arrow = bow: Goth. arhvazna arrow, OE earh, ONorse ör, hence arrowed = bowed, i.e. if we see an arrow, it is linguistically a bow, i.e. the arch).

English ard scratch plough ~ Türkic or scratch plow. The Türkic stem is a verb or- rip (harvest), scythe, leading to the original semantics for the or ripper, the other semantic meaning of the verb or- is cut, which makes the or cutter, a tool for cutting. Cognates: ONorse arðr, Sw. arder, Sl. oralo. No IE etymology; the IE terminology for plows and scratch plows comes from numerous different independent sources. The common Grm.-English-Slavic-Türkic term is specific for the Northern and Eastern Europe. The direction of borrowing is fairly apparent, the absence of this word at the numerous Slavic and Grm. neighbors (other than Türkic) indicates that Slavs or Germans gained this word from another area. The Slavic and Grm. migrations to Central Asia and Siberia can confidently be excluded, while the Kurgan excursions to Northern Europe are well-established, thus a most plausible scenario is Türkic => Gmc. and Türkic => Slavic, with likely Grm. <=> Slavic exchange, given the early history of Slavic expansion, driven by progressive farming technique.

English asp (snake, cobra) ~ Türkic äväs (Chuv.) asp. Cognates: OFr. aspe, Lat. aspidem; Gk. aspis; suggested Hamito-Semitic origin (Egypt. viper cobra), a phonetically weak but feasible proposition since the word is not attested in the eastern Türkic languages. But the peculiar distribution of the form asp Fr. - Lat. - Gk. - Chuv. makes Hamito-Semitic origin dubious.
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English ardent (adj.) passionate ~ Türkic arzu desire, striving (n.). Cognates: OFr. ardant burning, hot; zealous, Lat. ardere, ardentem (nom. ardens) glowing, fiery, hot, ablaze, passionate, ref. OE æsce, unattested IE *as- to burn, glow, PIE root *as- to burn, glow. This fanciful etymology operates with imagined ashes, flames, and burning established on unattested linguistic facts, while ignoring or ignorant that the actual attested Türkic words ataš (atash) fiery red and atašluɣ (atashlug) fiery provide attested sources for the English ash, used in the IE concoction, without manufacturing asterisked shams. The etymology ardent ~ arzu is sustainable on its own, without any extended equilibristic. A great semantical distance lays between the ashes and passions.

English Augean (stables), metaphoric filthy ~ Türkic aqür horse stables (n.). The English word came from Gk. via Lat. and probably via French folklore, the Gk. form is Afɣeías (Αὐɣείας), Lat. Augeas or Augeias, English Augean. The Gk. borrowing must be of Scythian origin, it associates the Scythian stables aqür (or close allophone) with the Scythian Herakles = Tr. Her + Ak + es = Man + White/Noble + Gk. ending -(l)es. Although the English application is not ancient, the timing of its Gk. borrowing arises to the earliest Gk. folklore. The numerous Gk. etymologies try to explain the name from the Gk. allophones and link the story with numerous Gk. mythologies, somehow all unrelated to the connotation of stables, while the clone of the Türkic word is obvious.

English aurora dawn light, glow, blaze ~ Türkic jaru- (v.) illumine (as of dawn aurora). The form jar-/yar- is widely used in Sl. languages, e.g. zarevo () dawn aurora. In Lat. the form jaru- (v.) illumine turned into the allophone aurora, presently an international word, with a derivative Aurora, the Roman goddess of dawn. The supposed IE cognates (Gk., Lith., Skt., Lat.) fr. unattested PIE *ausus- dawn and *aus- to shine conflict with the absence of cognates in Gmc. and Sl. branches, and rely on phonetic reflections of the disparate notions of dry, kindle, burn, south wind, east; the Gk., Skt., Lith. eos, usah ausra dawn appear to ascend to the E.European Sprachbund of 2000 BC, after the s/r split; hence no reasonable IE cognates. The anlaut semi-consonant j-/g- is a trait of the Ogur languages, while the Oguz languages start with the vowel ya-, hence the jar- vs. yar- forms. See jar (v.).

English barley ~ Türkic arpa barley, urba (Chuv.) barley. Cognates: OE bere barley, bærlic with Türkic suffix -lig/-liɣ/-lik/-lan like, ONorse barr, Grm. Erbse pea; possible cognate of Lat. far coarse grain. The semantics is accurate, and phonetical transition via the Grm. form appears to be reasonable. No attested IE cognates.

English bag (v. & n.) flexible container ~ Türkic bag (baɣ) (n.) sheaf (of goods), bale, bundle. Cognates: OE bagge, ONorse baggi M. Du. puyl bag; links to Scandinavian vernaculars is the (un)educated depth of the etymological luminaries. We can only be amazed that the same bags used on the Silk Road are used in our daily life . Another word taken from the camel back, yuk, took hold in the Slavic language as vieuk, a sheaf, and was actively used in figurative and direct meaning during the early days after the fall of the Former USSR to carry goods from the abundant West to the goods-starving East. The Slavic version has a prosthetic anlaut v- in its form. No IE cognates, etymologists can't even come up with asterisked *bag to make a case for an IE bag.

English bazaar, an international word that spread throughout Eurasia and beyond, from Türkic baz/boz to be loud, to scream that in addition to bazar, generated an extensive family of semantically related words in Türkic and Slavic languages. The English flea market, Grm. der Lausemarkt, Fr. marché aux puces are calques of the Türkic phrase bit bazary flea market.
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English bark (n.) (barque) small ship ~ Türkic barq (n.) construction, constructed object.Cognates: the earliest IE cognate is LLat. barca small ship, but another cognate cited is Egyptian bari and Gk. baris Egyptian boat, of Hamito-Semitic group. In Türkic, the notion barq (n.) is used as a generic term for anything that is built, any structure, mostly buildings, but for example a sepulture. Apparently, for seafaring people semantically contracted the Türkic barq (n.) constructed object to be predominantly associated with water craft structure. No IE etymology besides the Egyptian bari. Three homophonic meanings for English bark (n.) ship, woody covering, and dog bark point to adoption of the words together with associated semantics from the non-native languages .

English bear (n.) ~ Türkic bori bear (also with local meanings wolf or bars/leopard in geographically distant different Türkic languages). Cognates: OE bera bear, ONorse björn, MDu. bere, Du. beer, OHG bero, Grm. Bär; Scythian bory (Dnieper ~ Borysthenes in Heroditus' spelling, from bory bear + than  body of water, water space, river ~ Bear River), Türkic Bulgarian buri (Dnieper ~ Buri-chai bear + river); Lat. ferus wild for large wild animal of northern woods (like feral cat). No IE cognates. The Lat. ferus is probably a Turkic loanwords via archaic Celtic or directly from the Scythians. The bori bear, in all its allophonic forms, came to Europe a millennium earlier than its bori ~ Boris wolf counterpart, the latter coming from the Hunno-Bulgar circle and time. A late conflation of both meanings can't be excluded, a result of blending in the Northern Europe of few remote Türkic tribal vernaculars. See Boris.

English beetle (n.) ~ Türkic bit louse, insect, bug, böcek (böjek) beetle. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. dialectal form budda beetle, OE bitela, Dan. bille, Sw. bagge, Norse bille, Icl. bjallan, Grm. Beetle, Balt. (Lat.) vaboli, Balt. (Lith.) vabalas. The Anglo-Sax. dialectal form are reflexes of the Türkic derivative verb bitlä- (bitlə-) search, kill louse, bug, phonetically somewhat closer to the English form beetle than the Anglo-Sax. budda and Tr. bit, pointing to a parallel lexical path. The path böcek (böjek) > büj > budj > Ang-Sax. budda > beetle appear more probable, considering the ready interchangeability of ö/ü and o/u in Türkic languages and the fluidity of the the affricate j; the suffix -ek is a diminutive marker: böc (böj) > böcek (böjek). The IE etymology connects beetle bug with the verb bite, rather than with the Türkic bit bug or böc/böcek (böj/böjek) beetle, apparently finding it to be a shorter and more innovative detour. The cognates also point to an alternative stem bol-, not connected with either Türkic bit, nor with the English bite, undermining the IE speculation. There is no reasonable IE proposition for either bol-, bit-, or bite for an insect.

English berm (n.) ~ Türkic bürma (n.) fold, pleat (OTD p. 133). Cognates: ODu. baerm edge of a dike,Fr. berme. The Türkic noun is a derivative of the verbal stem bür- (aka pür-) fold with numerous derivatives. The English orthography -er reflects the Türkic phonetics -ür with ü as u in mule, the articulation of the English -e- in berm closely mimics articulation of the Türkic phonemes u and ü, demonstrating amazing continuity of the distinct phonetical peculiarities across time and space, and frustrating students who work on mastering English. The combination -aer- in Du. points to the attempts to render the same Türkic vowel ü with available means. The term brim (n.), related to the folds of the surf, appears to be a derivative of the Türkic verbal stem bür-, or a development of the berm (n.), semantically it extended to an edge of a fold. Another phonetically and semantically viable derivative is the word surf, which does not fit into IE etymologies: a Türkic derivative of the verbal stem bür-, in conjunction with the word su for water, is a compound süpür- brush, with connotation of wet sweep, the süpür- is allophonic with the surf, and the surf is also rated of obscure origin. In labialized phonetical version, the bür- ~ berm would produce pleat, verbal form plait, probably reflecting the alternate migration route and great time difference of its origin. Accepting that the Cimmerians and Sarmats were Eastern European Uralics, and the Scythians were their remote migrant kins from the South Siberia, the word berm would belong to the Sarmatian languages. With no IE etymology, the word is rated of obscure origin by the uninquisitive cloistered IE linguists.
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English blade (n.) cutting edge ~ Türkic baldu, balta ax, hatchet. In English, a second meaning applies to anything that resembles blade, like a leaf or grass, shoulder blade, skate blade, spade, etc. Cognates: OE blæd, OFris. bled, OSax., Dan., Du. blad, ONorse blað, Grm. blatt, Hu. balta, Arm beran, Basque pala, Sum. bal. The presence of the word in Sumerian, along with other Türkic-Sumerian words in English (cf. bat ~ pata ~  badd) corroborates the Türkic path to English and the circum-Mediterranean path of Kurgans via Caucasus and Mesopotamia (Basque, Celtic). In the IE family, only Gmc. languages have cognates of this Türkic and Sumerian word, and its Scandinavian-Baltic (OFris., ONorse, OSax.) focus points to the Scythian-Sarmatian conveyance to the northwestern Europe. The IE etymology does not offer any attested cognates, and dances around derivative meanings of grasses and leafs; the suggested IE etymology of to thrive, bloom is beyond any criticism. It is quite possible that the prehistorical meaning was based on sharp flat implements obtained from nature, like the cutting edge of reeds, we have no way to ascertain that, but the oldest attested form in Sumerian was already both specific and arose in the Neolithic society. A contracted form lad, with dropped anlaut b-, produced derivatives like Eng. leaf, Grm. Laub, Welsh llafn, Ir. lann, Sl. lezvie (), etc., the Celtic forms (Ir., Welsh, Basque) neatly fit into genetically-established circum-Mediterranean path of the Kurgans.

English bog (n.) ~ Türkic bog (boɣ) (n., v.) semantically fits in both meanings: 1. slime, slime mold, mold; 2. quagmire, tie, bind, bond, asphyxiate, choke (OTD p.109on). Cognates: Gael. and Irish adj. bog soft, moist, bogach bog. The IE etymology links it with bow (v.) bend, which is semantically unsustainable, although bow derives from the Türkic allophone buq- bend, bow (OTD p.125); otherwise for bog the IE etymology can't come up with a credible suggestion outside of unattested *reconstructions presenting  evidentiary nonsense. See bow.

English bong (n.) dull resonant sound, loud blow~ Türkic böŋ (böng) (n.) sound of a fallen object. Cognates: Scandinavian word, ONorse banga to bang. Undoubtedly of echoic origin, but the echo is limited to the Türkic and Scandinavian/Grm. world, the rest of the world had heard some other echo.

English boss (n.) overseer ~ Türkic boš (bosh) (adj.) free, unencumbered, yeoman, from bošu- freed, get freedom.Cognates:  MDu. baes, Du. baas master. The term is clearly from Middle Age society, supposedly of unknown origin. In Türkic, the adjective boš is likely a derivative of baš head (anat.), semantically a headman. In US the word gained popularity to distinguish a bonded slave from a free supervisor and then as a substitute for master. The s/sh alteration and adjustment of vowels are normal in dialectal forms, probably the phonetic version bos formed in the original Türkic environment. No IE parallels.

English bouillon clear meat broth ~ Türkic bula- (v.) boil. The bouillon came via French, from OFr. bolir, which is English boil and Türkic bula-. The o/u in Türkic are interchangeable, both forms bula- and bola- mean boil, and can be used in the same village or across a continent. The cited OFr. form bolir includes a Türkic 1st pers. verbal active voice affix -ïr/-ir/-ur, pointing to the use of other Türkic affixes in French, eg. 2nd and 3rd pers. voice, which either did not get on record, or were misunderstood by the scribes. Most likely, the word entered French from Burgundia, later Provence and Savoy, and had an initial suffix -än of instrumental mood: bülän (bulən with rounded u) > bouillon decocted, reflected in the French spelling. See boil.
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English bow (n., v.) ~ Türkic buq- (v.) to bend, bow (OTD p.125), with numerous derivatives. Cognates: OE bugan to bend, to bow down, to bend the body in condescension; Du. buigen, MLG bugen, OHG biogan, Grm. biegen, Goth. biugan to bend, ONorse boginn bent, the Gmc. source is unquestionable, the etymology is quite transparent and singular; Skt. bhujati bends, thrusts aside. The Skt. bhujati in India can't predate the arrival of the Indo-Arians in the South-Center Asia from the Central-Eastern Europe at about 1600 BC (3600 ybp), and thus derives from the same source as the Gmc. version, although Gmc. version likely appeared by overland route at quite different time, and was popularized by the mounted Türkic Kurganians. The OE form bugan is precise match of the Türkic buqan, where the affix -an forms the noun result of a verb, the object of action from base intransitive verb a bent one (n.) (OTD p. 650). Notably, the OTD has a notation that the noun affix -an is rare, within the predominantly eastern Türkic languages covered by the dictionary, pointing that it was picked up by the dictionary due to the influences of the westerly branches onto the easterly  branches. The affix -an has allomorphs -en and -in (-ïn), found in Du., MLG, Grm., and ONorse. We can be absolutely sure that the Goth., OE, Du., OHG, MLG, Grm., and ONorse did not pick up bugan from the Ottoman Türkic, they had it millenniums earlier.

English box (n.) container ~ Türkic boɣ container, travel pouch packed for transportation of things, from the verb boɣ- squeeze, choke. Cognates: LLat. buxis; the Gk. pyxis boxwood box does not make sense as a generic name, it appears that pyxis is intended to be a linguistic ploy to lead to the box. One can visualize multitudes for millennia on squeezing their belongings into multitudes of boɣs attached to their saddles, with each of their 3-5 pack horses festooned with boɣs from head to tail, then how come that OED has no clue and derives the name of such life-sustaining utensil from an adjective of a box tree? The word box/boɣ should have been a must lexicon not only within the nomadic society, but also among all the pedestrian polities that hired nomadic armies millennia after millennia, dealing daily with them and their boɣs. Would we get the name of the dog from the adjective of a dog tree? Or a name of a paradise from a paradise flower? That way can be produced etymology for half of the English, and any second-grader could do OED with his brains turned off. And still, OED has a rundown on box, leading over a circuitous path from where to nowhere, but staying firmly within the infertile IE light spot.

English bud incipient leaf or flower~ Türkic buqüq inflorescence, process of budding, node, budaq, butiq offshoot. Cognates: Du. bot, Grm. Beutel bud; OSax. budil  bag, purse; OFr. boter  push forward, thrust; the OSax. budil is semantically dubious, except as a derivative. The buqüq - bud semantic and phonetic match does not leave any room for doubts and speculations. The IE attempts to etymologize are pitiful: bag, purse, beetle, all semantically off-course. The nonuniform phonetic is consistent with numerous contributing dialects and blurred concept of budding and offshoot. See boutique, bodega.

English bull (n.) uncastrated adult cattle male, steer, with default meaning of bovine male ~ Türkic buqa uncastrated adult bovine male. Eurasia has two leading areal terms for bull, buC and tor, where C stands for a choice of few phonemes: -g/-l/-f and their siblings. Geographical distribution of the two is very pronounced, buC is contiguous in the Northern Eurasia, and tor is contiguous in the South-Western Eurasia. Few outliers complete the picture. It is as much evident that the international form buC was spread by the mobile animal husbandry entrepreneurs, who also propagated the complimentary name for the castrated adult cattle male, the ox Türkic öküz castrated adult bovine male. Geographical distribution of the pair buC and ox is identical, and notably, in the tor area the counterpart for castrated bull is a later borrowing from the buC zone: Gk. bodi (βόδι), Lat. bovis and similar in the daughter Romance languages; the direction of borrowing is indicated by generic term of the parent languages becoming varietal term in the recipient languages. In Türkic, the word buqa appears to be a derivative of the stem bug- meaning bend, an apparent allusion to the notorious aggressive posture of the bulls. The IE *reconstructions are pitiful concoctions. Probably, the form buC was already widespread within the contiguous pre-Kurgan archeological cultures noted for their animal husbandry economies: Khvalynsk (6000 BC on), Samara (55004800 BC), Sredny Stog (4500-3500 BC), and their areal extensions. See ox.
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English burl rounded outgrowth on a tree ~ Türkic burnï protuberance. Supposed cognates: OFr. bourle tuft of wool, LLat. burra wool; these cognates either refer to derivatives, or are unrelated. Figuratively, anything that resembles burl in shape can be called burl. The Tr. stem is burun nose, burnï is a derivative that describes protrusions akin to nose. The semantic and phonetic match is near-perfect. Fi

English butt (v. & n.) thick end ~ Türkic büt- (v.) come to an end, end, end up, befall. Cognates: MDu. and Du. bot, LGrm. butt," ONorse bauta, OE buttuc end, small piece of land, ONorse butr short (end). The Türkic system of affixing allows creation of vast volume of derivations, eg. bütün whole, entire; bütmäk ending, termination, fulfillment, etc., and so is its usage in English: butt in, butt out, button, buttress, butt-weld, button, buttock, and so on. The IE etymology is badly lost, vague, and incidental more than is warranted, observing incidental conflations (button - bud) and conflating unrelated (button - Fr. boter to thrust) words. The age of the lexemes is indicated by proliferation of the Türkic affixes, pointing to the formation of the words like button still in the Türkic linguistic milieu: -on, -ta, uch, etc. The original semantical association with the human butt is attested by the Türkic derivative form bütgü baby excrement (sounds much like the modern butt goo). The distribution of the word, from Mongolia to Atlantic, and evading the Asian IE areas, makes etymological association with the Kurgan Sarmatians people unavoidable.

English caginess cautious and watchful, wariness ~ Türkic qïjïm (n.) phobia, horror, fear, panic. English derivatives of the stem are cagy, cagey, caginess, cagily, predictably of unknown origin, with no IE cognates. However cognates are abundant in Türkic, from the stem qorq fear, and show up in the part Gorgon terrifying in the Gk. name Medusa Gorgona. Qïjïm happened to be just one form of many derivatives of the stem qorq, and they include a form with an adjectival affix -l, of which the affix -ly in the English cagily is a direct reflex. See Gorgon, scare, care.

English cake sweet pastry, small flat mass ~ Türkic kek flat, round loaf of bread. Originally (until early 15c.) a flat, round loaf of bread. Cognates are shared by Gmc. languages: ONorse kaka, MDu. koke, Du. koek, OHG huohho, Grm. Kuchen cake.

English calamus, Lat. Acorus calamus wetland reed endemic to S.Siberia, M.Asia (Caspian, Aral), India etc. ~ Türkic igir acor. The Lat. name is a modern concoction.

English calumny (n.), calumniate (v.) trickery, subterfuge, misrepresentation, malicious charge ~ Türkic člvu, člvu (v.) defame, disparage, libel. Cognates: OE hol (n.), Goth. holon, holian (v.), OHG huolian, Lat. calvi (v.), calumnia (n.), MFr. calomnie slander, deceive; Gk. kelein bewitch, seduce, beguile; Sl. allophones OCS, Serb., Croat, Bulg., Czech, Slovak, xula, xoula, etc. slander, deceive. The Lat. form calvi to trick, deceive matches exactly the Türkic člvu in phonetics and semantics, leaving no doubt on the origin of the word, the Lat. calumnia (n.) is a Lat. derivative of calvi, it produced MFr. calomnie, and Eng. calumny. There is no attested *PIE root *kel-, but instead exists the Türkic word člvu, still alive and kicking, and with numerous allophones attesting to its geographical, temporal, and dialectal diversity. The ONorse hol praise, flattery saliently falls out from the semantical uniformity across numerous languages and timespans, and may be a citation of misunderstanding flattering instead of unflattering. The transition Türkic člvu > Lat. calvi > Lat. calumnia > MFr., OE holian (v.), calomnie > English calumny clearly demonstrates the path and direction of the phonetical shifts within extremely narrow semantical field. The ubiquity of the word in time and space attests to the ubiquity and importance of the calumny in the life of numerous societies from at least the 1st mill. BC to the enlightened days.
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English can container ~ Türkic kanata (Turkish kodes) jug, can, container. Cognates: OE canne cup, container, OSax, ONorse, Sw. kanna, MDu. kanne, Du. kan, OHG channa, Grm. Kanne; LLat. canna container, vessel. The IE suppositions fr. Lat. canna reed, reed pipe, small boat do not make sense, thus the recognition that the sense evolution is difficult. Definitely so. The semantical and phonetical match of the European and Türkic words make any superficial phonetical resemblance with reeds, pipes, and boats irrelevant.

English candle wax lamp ~ Türkic kandil oil lamp. Cognates: OE candel lamp, lantern, candle, MIr. condud fuel (claimed cognate Welsh cann white is unrelated), Lat. candela a light, torch, candle made of tallow or wax, candere to shine; Skt. cand- to give light, shine, candra- shining, glowing, moon; the claimed cognate Gk. kandaros coal is unrelated. The claimed Slavic cognate chad smoke, soot could not be derived from the Lat. or Etruscan. Candles were common from early times among Romans and Etruscans, but unknown in ancient Greece (where oil lamps sufficed). The idea of early ecclesiastical borrowing from Lat. is preposterous, people in general, and English in particular were using lamps long before Christianity, and for example Etruscans were never given a chance to become ecclesiastical Christians. The Skt. cand- points to Nostratic spread, according to the genetic tracing Skt. migrated to Indian subcontinent ca 1500 BC via Eastern Europe and Caspian area.

English car wheeled vehicle ~ Türkic köl- (v.) to harness (animals to cart). All western European cognates have a rhotacised form with -r, pointing to a single source leading to the Celtic arrival in Iberia 2800 BC: OE cræt cart, wagon, chariot, ONorse kartr, ONFr. carre, Gaul. karros, OIr., Welsh carr, Breton karr cart, wagon; Lat. carrum, carrus, originally two-wheeled Celtic war chariot; the eastern European cognates have a  form with -l: Rus. odnokolka, dvukolka, koleya, prikol (, , , ) one horse cart, two-horse cart, grooved track left by cart, tie/harness something. In agglutinated languages, the word köl- and its allophones (e.g. car-) was just one of many, because the nature of agglutination makes innate derivatives from the names of the animals or harnesses by attaching the same affix to the various stems; that matter is supported by numerous synonyms for harnessing, e.g. Icl. beisla, belti, nýta, virkja, where belti is a verbal derivative of the Türkic bel belt with a locative affix -ta/-te/-ty denoting a notion of belt it, rope it, harness it. The word köl-/car- has a long trail, e.g. Anglo-Sax. (OE), ONorse, etc., and was still productive in the 20th c. in Russia, showing one or two horses are harnessed into a carriage. Obviously, the term car has nothing to do with the unattested *krsos from the PIE unattested root *kers- to run, it is a form still widely used as a noun derivative of the verb to hitch, harness (animals to cart, boat to pier) that probably was around long before the wheel came around. The animals were first hitched to drag sledges and stretchers, which required a word for harnessing, and it was later transferred to the wheeled transport. Modern English sports the words carriage, chariot, cart, carrier, carry, caravan, caravanserai, and a host of other derivatives connected with transportation, formed of the modest original verbal stem köl-. See belt.
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English caragana pea tree ~ Türkic qaraqan caragana, shrub with edible peas and leaves (OTD p. 425), now used as decorative shrub and pharmaceutical ingredient. The medicinal properties of the plant may have been a prime reason for its being carried from its native Central Asia to around Eurasia. The part cara/qara does not necessarily stand for black, it is exceptionally polysemantic term, and include a meaning strong; the part qan does not necessarily stand for Khan, it is exceptionally polysemantic term, and medicinally includes a meaning blood; it can be imagined that the generic name of the plant denotes blood medicine.

English case box ~ Türkic kečä (kecha) box.  Cognates: Provençal caissa; Dan. kasse, Du. kader, Icl. kassi, Grm. Kasten; MFr. caisse, It. cassa, Sp. caja, Cat. caixa (kaisha), Lat. capsa; Gr. koutí; Bask kutxa; Est. kast; Balt. (Latv.) kaste; Bosn., Bulg., Croat, Serb. kuti-, Slov. škatla (shkat-); Tamil kasu; Skr. karsha; Sinhalese kasi; Ch. he 盒 , hezi 盒子.With the semantics box, the word is truly international, formerly Eurasiatic, and presently of the whole world. Reportedly, the present form cash originated in Burgundy (Provence), from those nomadic Burgund (Bulgar) Vandals, it went into French, and then to English. More likely, the same word in slightly different allophones widely circulated across Eurasia, re-conflating and reincarnating in different allophonic forms. The Lat. form stands out, pointing to a path separate from the Burgundian form. Obviously, borrowing from Lat. to Dravidian, Sinitic, Fin., and other diverse languages from diverse linguistic groups can be positively excluded. The only inescapable conclusion can be only that the Eurasiatic steppe nomads spread the word around the steppe belt. The English semantical transition from cash money box to money, coin, cash is a late development, now universally borrowed from English as an international term. See cash, cashier.

English cash money box ~ Türkic kečä box, a derivative of case box. The English semantical transition from cash money box to money, coin, cash is a late development, now universally borrowed from English as an international word. See case, cashier.

English cashier money clerk ~ Türkic kečä box, a derivative of case box. The English semantical transition from cash money box to money, coin, cash is a late development, now universally borrowed from English as an international word. The Turkish kasiyer cashier is a good example of re-conflation and reincarnation, an innate Türkic compound of two Türkic words kečä box and er man was re-imported into Turkish with a novel semantics cashier. See case, cash.

English category conceptual division ~ Türkic qatïɣ (adj.) property of hard, tough, strong, harsh, cruel, violent. Cognates: MFr. categorie, LLat. categoria, Gk. kategoria category, prediction, accusation. The IE etymology expounds on the Gk. kategoria as a compound of kata down to + agora public assembly. It is obvious that the path from the public assembly to conceptual division is long and tenuous, while the direct Greek borrowing from the Türkic of the concept something with property of XXX with its intact phonetics is verbatim and consistent with other direct Türkic loanwords in Greek (eg. ache akhos, sinew neuron, guest xenos, etc.) and with the genetic picture of the reverse migration of the sedentary farmers from the N.Pontic to the Central Europe and Balkans during the 2nd mill. BC. See ache, sinew, guest, etc.

English cave underground hollow ~ Türkic kaba cave, underground hollow. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. scraef (scräf) cave, cavern, hole, pit, hovel, eorðscrafu earth hollow; OFr. cave, Lat. cavea cave, vault, cellar, hollow. From the 3 initial points, the enterprising IE etymologists deduce a unattested PIE root *keue- connected with cumulus accumulation, pile, a looney proposition. Without any looney intervention, the phonetical and semantical equivalency of the attested cave and kaba is obvious. The Anglo-Sax. compound eorðscrafu earth hollow is a slightly misspelled but easily recognizable Tr. compound yerkaba, lit. earth hollow. The example of cave provides a best illustration of the disservice the ideologically IE linguists provide to the historical and linguistic disciplines with disinformation via stretched linguistic machinations; the compound eorðscrafu earth cave, composed of two Anglo-Saxon words eorð earthen and scraf cave can't randomly arise to perfectly coincide semantically and closely coincide phonetically with a compound of two words from unrelated linguistic group, the Türkic yer earthen and kaba cave.
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English Celt/Kelt (ethnonym) ~ Türkic kel- (v.) arrive, come. The ethnonym Celt/Kelt does not have IE etymology, the closest that comes to pseudoetymology is a word in the Hebrew Bible naming a hand tool. The semantics of the word celt/kelt in respect to the Celts/Kelts was lost. The Türkic verb kel- with agglutinated affixes makes a semantic cluster of numerous grammatical forms, transmitting a meaning connected with arrival; the affix -t produces an abstract noun (arrival), and with the affix -tï (-ti;-tu, -tü; -dï, -di; -du, -dü) it produces predicate adjectives in analytical form (newcomer); other Türkic grammatical mechanisms would also lead to the form Celt/Kelt. The first to call Celts/Kelts was Hecetaeus of Miletos (550 476 BC), who noted that in the N. Pontic area Kelts were neighboring Scythians in the west. Herodotus (484 425 BC) mentions Kelts in the N. Pontic and Iberia. From then on, the ethnonym Kelts was used interchangeably with the ethnonym Gauls, Caesar (102 44 BC) stated that Gauls called themselves Kelts; the allophony of the two forms is obvious. Strabo (63 BC 24 AD) identified Kelts with Scythians, i.e. with nomadic horse pastoralists. The transfer of the of the term Kelts on the NW people now called Celtic was initiated by Edward Lhuyd (1707), following a logical sequence deduced from the sources and current observations. The generic exonym Celt newcomer clenches well with the individual tribal names, and may apply to the tribes without immediate ethnic connection. The transition from an exonym to ethnonym is a commonplace occurrence.

English care attend, be concerned, safeguard ~ Türkic qorq, lit. scare, fear, panic, horror, phobia, with connotation be concerned, safeguard, take care, look after. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. carig (carigea, carige) sorrowful, anxious, grievous, OSax. kara sorrow, karon to care, to sorrow, OE caru, cearu sorrow, anxiety, grief, burdens of mind; serious mental attention, carian, cearian be anxious, grieve; to feel concern or interest, Goth. kara sorrow, trouble, care. OED dubiously emphasizes that it is in "no way related to Lat. cura care, concern, trouble, which is a suitable match semantically. Instead, OED should emphasize that it is in no way related to the notion of scream, and any other subject semantically unrelated to care, there is no need to conflate phonetical resemblances, like unattested PIE root for cry out, call, scream fr. Ir gairm shout, cry, call, Eng. garrulous chatty, talkative, Du. karig scanty, frugal, OHG chara, charon to lament, wail, Grm. karg stingy, scanty, and the like; they all deserve and have their own cognates. It would be honest to declare the standard of unknown origin, with no IE cognates. Türkic have two phonetically close distinct forms with close, but different semantics, qorq be concerned, safeguard, be afraid for and gӧrg scare, which apparently conflated adjusting to different phonetical structure of different languages. The Anglo-Sax. carig sorrowful, anxious, grievous is a NW European form of the Türkic qorq scare, fear, panic, horror, phobia, and Gorgon is a Greek Mediterranean form. See caginess, Gorgon, scare.
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English chagrin grief, vexation ~ Türkic qadɣur- grieve, sorrow. Cognates: Eng. grief sorrow, grave (adj.) very bad, Sl. gore () grief, vexation, Lat. gravus, gravare grief, vexation. Supposedly of unknown origin, supposedly no IE cognates, which allows IE etymology to drop the ball and resign. Palatalization of laryngeal consonants and contraction of consonants is a known phenomena in the western Türkic dialects, hence q- > ch, dɣ > g. Another known phonetic change is d/r alteration, which tentatively would independently produce English grief and grave (adj.), Sl. gore (), and Lat. gravus, gravare from dialectal forms of same Türkic stem qadɣur-.

English chip fleck, bit ~ Türkic čïp (chip, chyp) twig, wand, thin flexible branch. Cognates: OE cipp piece of wood, OE forcippian to pare away by cutting, cipp split small piece of wood, Du. kip small strip of wood, OHG kipfa wagon pole, ONorse keppr stick; Lat. has cippus post, stake, beam, all allophones and derivatives of the Türkic čïp.  The original stem čïp had numerous uses in the animal husbandry household: frame of wagon cover, structural frame of yurt and its roof, wattle fencing for corrals, etc.; accordingly, Türkic has numerous derivatives and allophones: čïbïq, čïbïqla, čïbïrt (v.), čubuq, etc.. Gmc. languages preserved the original stem meaning and its utilitarian derivatives. Naturally, in wooded zone semantics changed from that of the forestless steppes; semantic expansion took place in line with the needs of the time, from wagon parts to fast food and micro schemes, and the old Türkic twig keeps marching across the globe and penetrating into our brains, eyes, and hearts.

English chalk (n.) limestone, chalk ~ Türkic (Chuv.) chol, OT tash, Yak. tash, Tuv. dash; MM. chilaun, Khalh. chulu:, Dag. cholo: stone. Cognates: OE cealc chalk, lime, plaster, pebble; Ir. cailc, Welsh sialc, calch; Lat. calx limestone, lime (crushed limestone), small stone; Gk. khalix small pebble. Gmc. languages uniformly have a phonetically different word, variations of krit. The Chuv. anlaut ch- corresponds to eastern Türkic t-/d-, thus chol ~ tash; the Mong. forms close to the English chalk point to the Ogur Hunnic word in the Mong. lexicon, likely ascending to the Syanbi period ca. 150 AD.  In light of the Mong. clones, the IE supposition of chalk origin from IE root for split, break up is fishy. The silent -l in the constructs -al- and eal- apparently indicates a quality of the vowel rendered -a- and -ea-, which is rather specific and likely has not changed from the original form; the auslaut -k is probably a reflex of the Türkic affix -ɣ/-k/-g, which among other functions produces nouns, along the line chä- + -k (-ɣ/-g).

English chute (n.) fall of water > cataract, narrow passage for cattle ~ Türkic čüm- (chum) (v.) dive. Cognates: OFr. cheoite, Fr. chute fall. The IE etymology runs amok: Lat. cadere case, event, befall.

English coal carbonized fossil fuel ~ Türkic kül/köl ashes, (hot) coals. Cognates: OFris. kole, ONorse kol, MDu cole, Du kool, OHG chol, Grm. Kohle, with -l/-m dialectal variation. The stem kül-/köl- means bury, cover underground, with the affix -ür (-yur, -ür; -r; -ar, - är; ïr, -ir) it is an adjectival participle buried, underground, hence an allophonic derivative  kömür coal, and the derivative kül/köl ashes. The köl also has connotations of dark, black, shadow, it creates derivatives and paired words like kölägä, köligä shadow, köm kök very blue. The IE etymology is funny, it uses two concoctions to muddle through and get nowhere: Anglo-Sax. (OE) col coal, via unattested PGmc. *kula(n), via unattested PIE *g(e)u-lo- live coal, which harkens back to the Türkic kül/köl (hot) coals. The Türkic word is alive and kicking, and does not need any hallucinated asterisks.

English cockney nonstandard native dialect of east end of London ~ Türkic köken motherland, native place, ancestral land > English domestic (language). The earliest reference to the Cockney is a mythical luxurious country, first recorded in 1305, a clear reference to the ancestral land. Phonetical folk etymologies are milksop, simpleton; effeminate man; hence: Londoner and spoiled child, milksop; cock's egg; runt of a clutch; the semantics of domestic (language) < motherland is a relict from the forgotten past; all folk etymologies date from late Middle Ages, a thousand years after the collapse of the substrate language.
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English cold (n.) low temperature ~ Türkic xaltarä (Chuv.) (v.) to freeze. Cognates: OE cald (Ang.), ceald (WSax.), OFris., OSax. kald, ONorse kaldr, Goth. kalds, OHG, Grm. kalt, all forms of cold; Lat. gelare to freeze, gelu frost, glacies; Ir. fuar; Bask hotz; Sl. holod (); Balt. (Lith.) šalt- (shalt); Tr. qarla- snowfall (v.), qarïla heavy snow, qardu ice. The Lat. gelare phonetically and semantically is a clone of the Türkic xaltarä (xalt- + -ar- + -ra ~ snow and ice + adjectival affix, i.e. snowy, icy + directional affix, i.e. into snow), the Türkic stem qar-, related to snow and ice, belongs to the Oguz phyla, while the Lat. gelare, Eng. cold and Türkic xaltarä belong to the Ogur phyla, with r/l rhotacism. In a stunt of inductive reasoning, the Türkic synonymous Sprachbund stems qar- and qal- in the IE etymology were turned into the unattested PIE root *gel-/*gol- cold and the PGmc. *kaldaz. What is the morphological function of the part *-az in the PGmc. *stem, is it an agglutinated affix as all stem modifiers are, what is the function of the affix is an untestable mystery of the IE linguistics.

English coney, cony hare ~ Türkic kuyan with dialectal variations hare. From here comes the Coney Island Jack Rabbit Island, and plenty of Türkic Kuyans, starting from the Eastern Hunnish tribe Kuyan, one of the 24 original Hun tribes which eventually became a dynastic clan of Huns and Syanbi, Kuyans in the Bulgarian royal line, Kuyan Hill in Kyiv, among Uezhi/Uechji Tocharians Kuyan Jack Rabbit also stood for Milky Way, it was a Scythian qayan, and is still living in the Russified word Kuyanchik My Little Rabbit that a mom calls her little boy.

English cork hard outer layer, bark of the cork oak ~ Türkic kairy bark (tree). Cognates: Eng. crust; Lat. quercus oak, cortex bark, Sp. alcorque cork sole. Türkic has numerous forms for bark: qadiz, qaz, qasïq, qas, kabyk, all from Oguz languages, and a matching kairy with European Ogur form, which agrees with the English form. Association with oak dates back to the time when oak bark was a known material for various applications, possibly imported from the nomadic Türkic suppliers. Not even a hint on IE etymology. The Türkic word for cork is polysemantic, its another meaning, preserved in English, is crust. See crust.

English count (v., n.) ~ Türkic köni measure (v., n.). Cognates: IE cognates practically absent, save for Lat. computare to count, sum up, reckon together, allegedly from com- with + putare prune > to reckon, semantically bordering on impossibility, and its Romance cognates. The phonetical transition from computare to count is questionable, given the limited time and the literate period for the transition. Likelier, both forms evolved independently from different allophones of the same stem that was attested as köni. See quantity.

English courage (n.), courageous (adj.) ~ Türkic kür (adj.) courageous, brave, daring. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. craeft (cræft, cräft) strength, might, courage, Fr.  corage, LFr.  courage, Lat. cor heart. The suggested OE cognate ignores the Anglo-Sax. cräft courage and instead suggests semantically incongruent ellen zeal, strength. The spelling cour- is French, from older French spelling cor- > corage for innermost feelings; temper, wrath, pride, confidence, lustiness, or any sort of inclination, a vague mush quite remote from bravery, but in reality just simple courage. From the IE listing of English synonyms, one would think that none of the English ethnic ancestors had any courage: they managed to live without a native word for it, a delusory proposition. The Türkic kür shows up both in Anglo-Sax. cräft and Fr.  corage. In Türkic, courage is associated with heart, OE heorte and Yak., Tuv., Khak., OT süreq/chürek/chüräk/yürek heart, in addition to the forms köŋül and baɣïr, which allows them to be semantically synonymous with the notion courage in particular applications. Extracting the English (and others') bravery from the Lat. cor heart is dubious, the term has its own independent etymology ascending to the attested Türkic word for heart, rightfully expressed in the English idiom to have heart to do something.
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English crow (n.) ~ Türkic karga (n.) (garga, kaargan, karga, xarga, xĕrxi, etc.) crow. Cognates: crow - OE crawe (n.), crawian (v.) with Tr. dialectal instrumental verbal affix -an, paralleling that of karga, OHG hruoh crow; raven - OE hræfn (Mercian), hrefn, hræfn (Northumbr., WSax.), hræmn, hremm, ONorse hrafn, Dan. ravn, Du. raaf, OHG hraban,Grm. Rabe raven; rook -  OE hrok, ONorse hrokr, MDu. roec, Du. roek, MSw. roka rook; Lat. cornix crow, corvus raven, Gk. korone crow, korax raven; Balt. (Lith.) krauklys crow, OCS kruku raven. The name for crow appear to be a compound kar-/gar-/xar-/xĕr- distinct call of crow + -ga/gan/xi ~ participle affix, or it could be kara black + noun affix. Türkic names for crow and raven overlap: raven is karga, kozgyn, kuskun, kuzgun, quzgun, quzɣun, quzgyn, xusxun, the rook is kale and probably some more. Germanic cognates closely follow the Türkic variety:  Most of the Gmc. and OCS forms are closest to the Chuv. and Khakass forms xarga, xĕrxi, xusxun; the Gk. and Lat. forms point to a separate path from a phonetically close kar- source. The absence of the accented -a- in kar- points to two different but related sources, one that produced the kar- form, and another that produced the kr- forms. The bifurcation is visible in the verbal line for to crow: Russ. karkat (, kar-) to crow; to portend misfortune; to dwell on negatives, Hu. karogas (kar-), krakogas (kr-), Fin. kurnuttaa (kar-), Balt. (Latv.) kurnet, kerkt (kar-), Sl. Bulg. grachene (grach rook, kr-), Bosn., Croat. kreštanje, kreketati ~ graktanje, graktati (kr-), Est. krooksuma (kr-) (kaaren crow, kar-), Balt. (Lith.) krank- (kr-), Pol. krak- (kr-), Slovak, Sloven., Serb. grak- (), krek- () (kr-). A third form kuak- of the European forms for to crow is focused in the areas with historically known past Gmc. presence: Alb., Czech, Slovak, Dan., Du., Norse, Sw. kuak, kvak-, kvæk-, kwak-, kvek-, kväka, distinguished by the absence of -r- in the root; its origins may be connected with the formation of the Gmc. people in the Scandinavia prior to their migration to the continental Europe and amalgamation with the Celtic people; kuak- is also connected with a cry of frog, pointing to the origin of the stem. The affixation of the forms kar- and kr-, and occasionally kuak-, display a variety of the Türkic affixes, mostly of instrumental case; the distribution of the forms for crow, raven, and rook makes the IE origin unfeasible, and EI etymologies incredulous.

English crust hard outer layer ~ Türkic kairy crust. Suggested cognates: Eng. cork; OE hruse earth (probably, surface crust), ONorse hroðr scurf, OGrm. hrosa ice, crust; Lett. kruwesis frozen mud, OFr. crouste; Lat. crusta rind, crust, shell, bark; Gk. krystallos ice, crystal, kryos icy cold, frost; Skt. krud- make hard, thicken, Av. xruzdra- hard. These cognates appear to conflate different subjects and different etymologies based on varied superficial resemblances: crystal, earth, ice, mud, cold, frost, all of them could not have turned to crust. The absence of a common IE word points to the IE linguistic borrowing. Türkic has numerous forms for crust: qadiz, qaz, qasïq, qas, kabyk, all from the Oguz languages, and a matching kairy with the European Ogur form, which agrees with the English form. The Türkic word for crust is polysemantic, its another meaning, preserved in English, is cork. Geographical spread of the words meaning crust points to the movements of the Türkic mounted nomadic tribes across Eurasia, the presence of the Skt. word indicates a period older than the post-2000 BC migration from the Eastern Europe, or a later borrowing, as indicated by the more easterly form with inlaut d. The surviving records indicate that most of the 42+ Türkic languages use the same word in different dialectal forms, pointing to long periods of independent development. The semantic and phonetic difference of the European crust vs. cork indicates that borrowing of these two words were independent, allochronic, and probably from quite different, both from the Ogur dialects (because of auslaut -r). See cork.
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English cue stimulus information for action, discriminative stimulus; actor's line that initiates action. prompt ~ Türkic kü word, signal, notification, bruit; English cue ball initial ball, initiating ball; English cue, queue cue stick ~ initiating stick; English cue, clue, clew initial evidence that gets the ball rolling, given hint, perceived hint, hence clew ball of yarn or thread that starts cloth; English on cue on a signal; English queue in sequential order, i.e. in a cue line. The IE myopic etymology is quite spurious: citing Shakespeare, from Q and cue in the actor's lingo, from Lat. quando when, perplexity; it does not connect the Shakespeare cue with the cue stick, the initial evidence, or a ball of yarn; in essence it is a non-self-deprecating way of expressing I don't have a clue.

English curve (n., v.) bend ~ Türkic qarvï (adj.) bend. Cognates: Du. krom, Dan. krum, Grm. krümmt, Ir. cuartha, Welsh crwm, Lat., It., Port., Sp. curv- crooked, curved, bent; Sl. kriv- (-) crooked; Hu. görbe; Fin. käyrä; all are obvious cognates of the Türkic qarvï. The distribution of the word, geographical and within incompatible linguistic groups, points to its origin from a single source and penetration via separate paths, one circum-Mediterranean via Iberia to the Apennines, and the other overland to the Northern Europe. No IE etymology beyond the Lat. cognate. The phonetic monotony of the allophones and Celtic cognates point to the single source not older than 6th-5th mill. BC.

English dune ~ Türkic dun (tüb, tüp) low, udu, uδu hill . Cognates: meaning low - Anglo-Sax. düne down, downwards, düniendlic (dünondlic) falling down, tottering, dünland downland, lowland; meaning low hill - dünlendise mountainous, dünlic of a mountain, mountain-dwelling, dünhunig honey from downland, open country; Eng. down, OE dün down, moor; low hill, low mountain, MDu. dunen sandy hill, Du. duin, also Celtic hill, citadel, OIr. dun hill, hill fort; Welsh din fortress, hill fort; second element in place names London, Verdun, etc., traced to pre-insular Celtic [Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names] before Anglo-Saxon migration. The Türkic, Anglo-Sax., and Eng. have parallel bifurcated semantics of low and low hill, with low hill extending to citadel, hill fort, and eventually to town, that bifurcated semantics continues to the present. The non-English Grm. words tend to mean sand bank, the Celtic cognates tend to mean hill. The Grm. Düne, Fr. dune, It., Sp. duna are said to be loan-words from the MDu., Du., linking them to the Cimmerian-Scythian origin, or MLG dune, perhaps from Gaulish. The Fr. word (13c.) is held to be an OFr. borrowing from Grm. The Russ. duna () dune likely comes directly fr. Türkic. Notably, the Anglo-Sax. words düniendlic (dünondlic) and dünlic have preserved the Türkic adjectival affix -lic -like (Tr. -lig/-liɣ/-lik/-lan like).

English duration continuing in time ~ Türkic dür- (v.). Cognates: Lat. form durationis, diuturnitas. The Türkic dür-/tür- to last for some time is a polysemantic verb get up, rise; stand; be, reside; dwell; stay, stop for a time; intention, willingness to do something, adverb for continuity of action or state, and an simulative affix; essentially the dür-/tür- semantics transmits prolonged state in various grammatical forms. See endure, duress, durable.

English duress adverse conditions, extended suffering ~ Türkic dür- (v.). Cognates: Lat. form duriciam. The Türkic dür-/tür- to last for some time is a polysemantic verb get up, rise; stand; be, reside; dwell; stay, stop for a time; intention, willingness to do something, adverb for continuity of action or state, and an simulative affix; essentially the dür-/tür- semantics transmits prolonged state in various grammatical forms. The English duress is a derivative of the Türkic dür-/tür- as something (bad) that lasts. See endure, duration, durable.
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English ea river ~ Türkic aq- (v.) flow, leak, outpour. Cognates: Goth. ahua river, waters, ONorse Ægir sea-god, OE ieg island, Hittite (ca 2000 BC) akwa- drink. The English aqua solution, decoct, aqua- involving water also are the Lat. derivatives of the Türkic aq- (v.); in English, the aqua and aqua- are not substrate stems, they were borrowed from Lat. and grew to become innate words. The forms with consonant -b-/-f-/-p- are allophones of the same stem, e.g. Rum. ape, Pers. ab, af, Skt. ap water. The presence of the -b-/-f-/-p- allophones in Europe (Rum.) and in Asia (Pers., Skt.) are consistent with N.Pontic serving as a refuge for European refugees from the carnage inflicted during the 3rd mill. BC on the old European farming populations marked by Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, E1b-V13, I1, I2, and R1a, from where started the descendent migrations to the south-central Asia (Pers., Skt.) and back to Europe (Rum.). The other Türkic synonymous stem tök- (v.) pour, pour out, strew also attests to the same migration pattern, it was widely adopted in Sl. tok, tek flow, Balt. (Latv., Lith.) teku flow, Skt. takti, takati to stream, Av. tachaiti to flow, run; the circum-Mediterranean path of Kurgans (Celts) via Caucasus and Africa to Iberia at 2800 BC is attested by the preserved Ir. tech-, techim run. The nearly parallel spread of these two linguistic markers parallels the migration of the genetic markers and provides solid corroborating testimony on the pattern of linguistic development started in the 3rd mill BC, but with roots attested in the 6th mill. BC (the start of Kurgan circum-Mediterranean migration, marked by dolmens, cairns, and kurgans).

English elm, Lat. Ulmus campestris ~ Türkic ilm (m.), ilma (f.) - Ulmus campestris tree. This could be a reverse borrowing, Grm. => Türkic, but one way or another it is a common, and very specific, word. The Romance Latins never ventured into Siberia to share their golden lexicon with various Siberian tribes. The same root is in the name of the river Ilmen, and Ilmen territory. This could be a Fin. loanword both to Germans and Türkics.

English ether ~ Türkic äsir ether, space. Cognates: Lat. aether the upper pure, bright air, Gk. aither upper air; bright, purer air; the sky, from Gk. aithein to burn, shine. No IE etymology.

English flask ~ Türkic baklaga, LLat. flasconem water bag. One etymological theory from unattested proto Grm. *fleh- flax, another theory a metathesis of Lat. vasculum, that's the end of IE phonetic digs.

English food ~ Türkic apat (Chuv.) food, eatable. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) ofett, foda, Eng. food food, Goth. fodeins, Sw. föda; Grm. Obst vegetables; Ir. bia, Welsh bwyd food; Lat. pabulum food, fodder, suspected connections with Lat. panis bread, pasci to feed, pascare to graze, to pasture, to feed; Greek pateisthai to feed, pastor shepherd, lit. feeder; OCS pasti feed cattle, pasture cattle, Russ. pishcha () food; Av. pitu- food. The IE etymology clearly confuses and conflates the notions of food and  to pasture, quite contrasting occupations.The transition apat > food is apparent with the Chuv. apat food > Anglo-Sax. (OE) ofett food > foda food > Eng. food food. English and Türkic have two genetically connected complimentary forms to express eating and feeding notions, respectively Eng. eat and food (feeding), and Tr. ye, ash and apat (See eat). Both base forms have extraordinary distribution, food/apat from Atlantic to SE Asia, and eat/ye from Atlantic to China, indicating that once they belonged to two separate Sprachbunds. Unlike the eat/ye, which carries salient hallmarks of the Kurgan spread, the food/apat is much more localized, apparently with no presence in the eastern Türkic languages. That points to the western origin of the food/apat, with attested presence in the N.Pontic refuge (war-time refuge of 3rd-1st mill. BC, not the N.Pontic glacial refuge of 13th-9th mill. BC), and consequent migrations eastward and westward. The presence of the form food/apat in Celtic languages may even push its attested presence in the N.Pontic to the 6th-5th mill. BC, to the time of the proto-Celtic departure from the N.Pontic to their migration; it could however be a much later borrowing from the Central Europe area, before the Celtic retreat toward Atlantic. The form food/apat initially may also be a loanword into the Türkic, with later spread to the Sarmatian areas, as suggested by its particular phonetic forms in the Gmc. languages. (See eat)

English frog ~ Türkic baga. The transition baga <=> frog is easily seen via intermediary forms: baga (Tr.) ~ béka (Hu.) ~ broga (Welsh) ~ vors (Du.) ~ frøen (Dan.) ~ Frosch (Germ.) ~ frog (Eng.). The Bask [b]igel belongs to this Celtic line. Other close cognates of this development line are groda/frosch (Sw.), frosk (Norw.), froskur (Icl.), varde (Lat.), varlė (Lith.), vatrach (Gk. βάτραχος), bena (Beng.), bretkocë (Alb.), broască/furcuță (Rum.), granota (Cat.); another line starts with the Balt. sarvkiil/kiil/konn (Est.) and continues in sapo (Port.), sapo (Galician), jaba (Sl.), and żaba (Pol.). The modern Türkic form qurbağa (Azeri, Turkish includes an adjective qur harm, damage, semantically making it bad toad, the traces of the adjectival qur are observable in the compounds froskur (Icl.), bretkocë (Alb.), dedakum (Gujr.), sammakko (Fin.), mendaka (Hindi, with m/b alteration). It appears that the original form included -r- (like Welsh broga), which was lost in the languages that did not like stems with consonant clusters.
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English garden yard adjoining a house ~ Türkic qur- (v.) arrange, build, line up, gather, stretch, qur (n.) sash, belt; karta (Chuv.) fence; Grm. Garten fence. Semantically, garden is a specialized enclosure. For cognates, etymology, distribution, and history see gird. See court, curtain, gird, guard, and yard.

English glut overabundant ~ Türkic oglït- (v.) increase. The stem is og (n.) family, tribe, with an affix -l- it is an adjective ogl- familial, related to family, an affix -ït modifies it to various verbal cases (causative, passive, active ), creating a notion of increase (cf. oglan = son, offspring > gain in size of family). The notion of overabundance, satiation is the expansion of the meaning increase, reflected in the notion satiate, eat to satiation. Cognates: Eng. glut, Sl. glot- (glot + at > ), OFr. gloter , Lat. gluttire swallow, gulp down. Most of the Sl. and Gmc. languages do not have the stem glt-. The IE etymologies are not satisfactory. The stem glt- in association with throat and swallowing appears only in a sprinkling of the European languages belonging to separate branches and centered in the Slavic area, with Eng. and Lat. being distant outliers, obviously pointing to independent borrowing from a single and ancient source long after the branches had formed; the balance of the European branches use allophones of the word faryng (pharynx) for throat. A best candidate for introduction of the word glut appear to be the nomadic tribes of the Vandal Sarmat circle, who ensconced in the area of modern Poland in the 2nd c. BC, and later migrated to the Savoy-Provence area between Rome and Gallia. The loss of the unaccented anlaut o- is theoretically consistent with the truncated and contracted forms of the western Türkic languages, cf. Kashgari's observations.

English hash chopped mix ~ Türkic ash chopped mix, ash is a Tatar dish of finely chopped meat and vegetables. Cognates: OE æces (Northumbrian acas) chopper, axe, hatchet later æx, OSax. accus, ONorse ex, OFris. axe, Grm. Axt, Goth. aqizi chopper; OFr. hache ax, Fr. hacher chop up; Gk. axine, Lat. ascia. The prosthetic h- points to the Ogur-family dialect, like the Sarmat, Hunnic, and Bulgar, lost in the modern Tatar. The *PIE etymology is based on an assumption that the dish was named after the hashing tool, and etymology is concocted from a blend of all known west-European forms, without due consideration of the east-European cognates. If hashing was done with a knife or a chopper, in the IE etymology the hash would logically be called knife or chop, and etymologized correspondingly. Herodotus, for example, reported (Herodotus IV 23) a Scythian dish called asxi/aschi, which could be a precursor for the modern hash/ash, without axes, knifes, or choppers. The simultaneous presence of the word in the Grm., Gk. and Romance attests to numerous paths from related sources, probably starting in the Neolithic time.

English heap pile of objects on top of each other, great number, multitude ~ Türkic kip/kep pile of clothing, clothing as household or trading stuff (Tuv, Sakha, Kirg.). Cognates: OSax. hop, OFris. hap, Sw. kippa, Norse, Dan. heap, MLG hupe, Du. hoop, Grm. Haufe; Sl. kipa, Balt. (Lith.) kaup(as), Lat. chupa; Hu. kepe, kupac; Sum. kapa; Ch. ke 砢, all heap. Nowadays, the western Turkish and Bosnian have allophonic forms küme and kamara respectively, at the turn of the eras the Oguzes (Turkish) and Kangars (Bosnians) occupied Middle Asian area around lake Balkhash, while the Enisei Kirgizes, Sakha (offshoot of Saka 塞 tribes), and Tuvinians (Tuba, Tabgach 拓拔, 拓拔雲碌) with respective allophonic forms kep, kip, and hep, that share the form with Grm., Slavic, and English, were located to the north-east of Balkhash, in the Altai and Dzungaria highlands. A chance correspondence between the Grm., Slavic, Chinese, and English forms on one hand and Tuv, Sakha, Kirg. forms on another hand is excluded because of the extremely narrow semantic field. We see that the north-eastern tribes (in respect to the steppe belt) in Asia share the word with the north-western tribes in Europe, and with the Sumerians in the center and to the south. To make things even more interesting, the Lat. shares the form grumus with Icl. hrúga, Balt. (Latv.) greda, Sl. gruda, and Turkish/Bosnian küme/kamara, with the European forms ascending to Neolithic times in reference to a pile of rocks (cairn), and in Lat. and Icl. case pointing to the Celtic origin, while the Celtic forms use semantically equivalent and temporally as old notions Ir. carn, cairn, Welsh domen, with underlying reference to a pile of rocks (cairn). No IE etymology for either heap nor cairn, these most ancient words are infiltrators into the IE languages.
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English herd troop of animals ~ Türkic kert (Chuv.) herd, flock, Tr. ordu troop, army. Cognates: OE heord, ONorse hjorð, Goth. haírda, Sw. hjord, OHG herta, Grm. Herde troop, flock, swarm; Balt. (Lith.) kerdžius shepherd, OCS čreda; Skr. sardhah, Hu. csorda (sorda), Tr. ordu troop. It is generally accepted that herd and horde is the same word, since phonetic is the same, and horde is a polysemantic word with one of the meanings troop, group, crowd, the same as the herd; kert appears to be an isolated case among Türkic languages, finding it in Balt. and OCS allows to speculate that this is a form among the Sarmatian Bulgars, who coexisted with local Baltic tribes from the 2nd. c. BC; the form with anlaut consonant is also typical for the Gmc. languages. The IE etymology, based on dubious OCS čreda line, line-up and phonetically dubious Skr. sardhah, appear less than credible, and obfuscation of the obvious Tr. cognates clouds etymological effort.

English hide pelt, skin ~ Türkic quyqa pelt, skin. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. hyd, ONorse huth, OFris. hed, MDu. huut, Du. huid, OHG hut, pelt, hide, Grm. Haut skin; OE hydan to hide; Welsh chuddio/guddio/kuddio (v.) and Ir. cheilt/chur/chun (v.) to hide; these North European cognates carry a mark of a local Sprachbund. The Türkic term is a compound of a stem qoy/quy inside, bosom which produced the English hide, the verb qoy-/quy- means placed inside, in the bosom, and with the noun-producing affix -qa (-ɣa/-qa/-gä/-kä) forms quyaɣ armor, cuirass, shell. The numerous and various synonyms of hide in different European languages, like the Türkic words and the English hide, uniformly have a connotation of hiding, translated into a constellation of idioms. The transitions g/k/q to h, and of semi-consonant y to th/t/d are consistent with similar observed linguistic modifications, they may be a result of assimilation into an alien linguistic system, or a local development within the Turkic family under an influence of an alien linguistic system. The same root qoy/quy for hide (v.) transpires in the Welsh and Ir. forms for to hide, suggesting two separate paths, one overland, and the other Celtic circum-Mediterranean. The IE etymology is feeble, addressing only a selected selection of samples suitable for the task, and strenuously resorting to random, unsuitable, and far-fetched cognates, like eyebrows and clouds, and the guts that relate back to the Türkic form of the notion inside, bosom. See gut.

English hue color, color of horse ~ Türkic tü color of horse. No IE etymology. The anlaut h/t alteration must be connected with dialectal variability and consonantal development in Türkic languages.

English jaggery brown sugar ~ Türkic yaɣïz burnt (color), dark. No IE etymology.

English jam preserve of crushed fruit ~ Türkic jemiš (jemish) fruits. Ridiculously, this obvious cognate is rated of unknown origin. In Türkic, jem/yem is food, edible (MK III 144), jemiš is a derivative of jem/yem ( İI 12), -iš/-š is an abstract class noun affix used to create category nouns from specific nouns. Connection between jam and jem is direct both phonetically and semantically, the loss of affix is normal adaptation, and shift in meaning was apparently produced by uniquely distinct preservation method, still widely used in Türkic and Türkic-influenced cultures. The verb jam is a derivative of the same conservation process, it could possibly originate still in the Türkic substrate. No IE cognates whatsoever. See yammy.
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English jar (n.) cylindrical vessel  ~ Türkic jart vessel, bowl-shaped vessel, goblet, also liquid measure. Cognates: Provençal jarra, Sp. jarra, It giarra vessel; MFr jarre liquid measure; Arabic jarrah earthen vessel. Distribution of the word points to two separate paths, the northern path to England and the Burgund Vandal path via Provence. The spread of the word with both meanings, vessel and measure, supports the Sarmatian source, both paths originating in the Baltic region. No IE etymology, no IE distribution, the possible Arabic origin should be checked by examining distribution within the Semitic family.

English joke jape ~ Türkic elük joke, jape, gibe. Cognates: Lat. iocari, iocus. The IE etymology deadlocks at Lat. iocus joke, sport, pastime. The Türkic form elük belongs to the Oguz branch, a corresponding Ogur form has an anlaut consonant: jelük, which produced the English joke, furnishing one more evidence linking English with the Ogur language of the Sarmats. The Lat. and Lat.-derived forms indicate an independent path without an anlaut consonant: Lat. iocari, iocus. The word could not have disappeared from the Roman times to the advent of the modern linguists, but as with many other words, the vernacular of the populace remained a separate world from the world of the literature that serves for the linguists as a linguistic mine. Not only the time barrier separates the English word from the Lat., the cognates of the English joke are notably absent from the English traditional donor languages, including its main French contributor, which provides most of the Lat.-derived lexicon, and Italian and Spanish, which are closest to the Roman vernacular. These hurdles exclude a chance of direct Lat. connection, supporting a thesis of two independent borrowing paths. Türkic retained one more form for joke, şaka (shaka), also form the Oguz branch (OTD); if elük/jelük is more archaic, the şaka (shaka) form may have been an intermediary for the Eng. and Lat. forms: jelük > şaka (shaka) > jaka > iocari, iocus ~ joke. See haze.

English juice plant liquids, sap ~ Türkic jü juice. Cognates: OFr. jus juice, sap, liquid, Lat. ius broth, sauce, juice; Skt. yus- broth, OCS jucha broth, soup, Balt. (Lith.) juse fish soup; Chinese 汁 ji (Pyn. zhi). The Türkic stem jušil- (jushil), passive of juš- (jush), means drip (v.), dribble (v.), and points to the semantical origin of the notion juice: it was not something pressed out of something, but the sap collected from the plants, a hunter-gatherer term.  The spread and time depth of the distribution point to origins predating mounted European Scythians by a millennium: the Chinese reflex ji juiceis likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language.

English laber (OE) thistle ~ Türkic läbär (Chuv.) thistle. Cognates: OE laber, leber rush, reed, OHG leber. The term is not attested in the eastern Türkic languages, but a name for a particular plant is unlikely to stably survive for millennia; likely it is a Sarmatian word carried from the Eastern Europe to the northeastern Europe. The non-IE origin is obvious.

English leak (n.) discharge of a fluid ~ Türkic liš (lish) (n.) moisture. Cognates: OE to moisten, Goth. leithu, Cimr. lliant, MDu. leken, ONorse leka; Balt. (Latv.) ieliet, (Lith.) pilti; Pol. lać (lach), Sl. lit (); Lat. libar, Gk. leívo (λείβω), all to pour, with a base stem le-/li-, all are derivatives of the Türkic liš moisture, with few allophonic variations. The term leak is a derivative of a verb to pour, which has a very particular distribution in Europe. The noun leak is developed from the verbal stem le-/li- to pour with the Türkic affix -ïg/-ïɣ, which produced the ONorse cognate leki leak, Anglo-Sax. leccan, and the English leak. Other terms connected with water also have Türkic stems: Lat. aqua, Pers. apa are derivatives of the Türkic verbal stem aq- to flow; the Eng. water and Gmc. Wasser are cognates of the Türkic noun stem su/suv water, with the Sl. voda () apparently germinating from the Gmc. form. The Sl. tok () current and potok () stream are reflexes of the Türkic tök- to pour. All these semantical siblings with particular distribution point to a common genetic origin.
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English mead fermented honey drink ~ Türkic mir honey. Cognates: Grm. OE medu, ONorse mjöðr, Dan. mjød, OFris., MDu. mede, Grm. Met/Metu mead; Celtic OIr. mid, Welsh medd, Breton mez mead; Balt.. medus, medus, meddo honey; OCS medu, Sl. med/med/miod/mjod; Finn. mesi; Gk. μέθυ methy wine; Skt. madhu honey, honey drink, wine, Av. maδu; Chinese 蜜 (mi); Japanese 蜜 (mitsy). The uniformity of forms across families points to Nostratic origin and widespread borrowing. In Türkic, a dialectal clone of mir via m/b alteration is bal, typical for the eastern Oguz linguistic subfamily. The Chinese word mi is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language, later transmitted to Japan.

English mean (v.) intend, have in mind ~ Türkic many (mahny) (n.) meaning, sense, essence, idea. Cognates: OE mænan, OFris. mena, OSax. menian, Du. menen, Grm. meinen; OIr. mian wish, desire, Welsh mwyn enjoyment; OCS meniti. The abstract meaning of the word allows development of numerous derivatives in English and Türkic, some of them present in both languages (e.g. mind ~ ming). The unattested PIE *meino- opinion, intent is a notional conflation of the above forms, with no cognates in other IE families outside of the N.Europe. The homophonic mean average, middle is clearly unrelated to the mean idea, all the scholarly scholastic notwithstanding: recycling lexemes is a routine business in science. See mind.

English much (n., adj., & adv.) great amount or extent ~ Türkic munča (muncha, adv.) so/thus, such a number of, so many. Munča is a clone of bunča via dialectal m/b alteration, and its development into much mirrors that of the bunch in respect to grammatical development, semantical expansion, and phonetics, see bunch. Predictably, IE etymology is lacking, and cognates are variations of much, like Sp. mucho. Probably, the version munča settled in Europe separately from bunča, and in view of its geographical spread also much earlier than bunča, pointing to the Kurgan Culture waves from the N.Pontic. If that supposition is correct, more m-version lexicon of the the b-version words on record may be found in the Romance languages. See bunch, bundle.

English message communication ~ Türkic muştu (mushtu) pleasing news. Cognates: OFr. message, MLat. missaticum, Lat. missus. IE etymology: OFr. message, from MLat. missaticum, from Lat. missus, pp. of mittere to send (~ mission). So, the Lat. used Türkic word. Oh, boy, no IE *cognates, but a Lat. borrowing from the Ottomans should probably be ruled out.

English omen foretelling sign ~ Türkic aman (adj.) bad, not good. Cognates: Lat. omen foreboding from OLat. osmen. The Türkic aman/yaman has two opposite meanings, bad, not good, and mercy, wellbeing, safety, with the negative meaning being or linked with a derivative of a stem yama- with semantics to fix something that require fixing: to patch, to clean, to wipe. The Türkic bifurcated literary semantics points to the underlying semantic of foreboding leading to bad omen and good omen. IE etymology: Lat. omen foreboding from OLat. osmen of unknown origin. No IE cognates. The Lat. used Türkic word.

English onus burden ~ Türkic önüs ascent. Cognates: Lat. onus load, burden, hence legal Lat. onus probandi, lit. burden of proving. The Türkic derivative  önüslüg related to ascent is probably a model for use in ecclesiastical Lat. This word is definitely not a late borrowing from Turkish, it must be an innate in Lat., probably from discourses during the early Christian Church time, when other Türkic words and idioms were popping up in ecclesiastical Latin and Greek. Possible source: Tengiist (Arian in Christian lingo) converts that rose in the hierarchy of the early Christian Churches.
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English otter fissiped mammal ~ Türkic ätär otter. Cognates: OE otr, otor, ONorse otr, Sw. utter, Dan. odder, Du. otter, OHG ottar, Grm. Otter;, OIr. odoirne; Skr. udrah, Av. udra; Lat. lutra, Gk. enydris; Balt. (Lith.) udra; OCS vydra. The IE etymology connects otter with water (Gk. hydra), and that implies a loanword into Türkic languages, a feasible proposition since the word is not attested in the eastern Türkic languages. The prosthetic anlaut v- in the Sl. form typifies the early Sl. version of the Tr. words starting with vowel: ätär > Lith. udra > Sl. vydra, arata > Sl. vorota ~ Lat. porta, ata > Gmc. Vater > Sl. vot(china), etc.

English owl bird of prey ~ Türkic abaqulaq, qoburta, etc., from the stem aba-/obu- etc., with various prosthetics, double stem, and affixes in different Türkic languages. Cognates: Du. uil, OHG uwila, Grm. Eule, ONorse ugla; Lat. ulula; Sl. sova, Sum. bagialu, all owl. The Sumerian bagialu is probably attested in the 3rd. mill. BC, it parallels Türkic cognates aba, qobur, etc., and ultimately Gmc. forms. The Gmc. auslaut ending -l/-la is a reflex of the Türkic adjectival affix -l/-il, making it something like owling bird. No credible IE etymology other than imitative, though imitation may in fact be the origin of the Türkic word.

English ox (oks) (n.) castrated adult cattle male ~ Türkic öküz castrated adult cattle male. Cognates: OE oxa, ONorse oxi, OFris. oxa, MDu. osse, Grm. Ochse, Goth. auhsa, all transparently ascending to the Türkic proto-form öküz. The unattested IE *conjectures are of figmentary nature. See bull.

English queue prompt signal ~ Türkic kü word, signal, notification, bruit. English has two spellings, queue and cue. See cue.

English sack ~ Türkic sak store, storage, and all the derivatives of the store. Cognates: OE sacc (WSax.), sec (Mercian), sæc (OKentish) cloth bag, sackcloth, MDu. sak, OHG sac, ONorse sekkr, Goth. sakkus bag;  Etr., Lat. saccus bag; Gk. sakkos bag; Hebr. saq cloth bag; OFr. sac, Sp. saco, It. sacco bag. The spread of the word is consistent with the spread of the nomadic tribes of the Scythian and Sarmatian circle, and with the distribution of the other terms of the nomadic inventory. The Heb. saq matches exactly the Türkic sak in phonetics and semantics, and apparently belongs to the time when in the 7th c. BC the Scythians dominated Palestine.

English sage wise (n.) ~ Türkic sag, sağ (ğ may be articulated silently) wise, talented, foresighted, from the stem sag- mind, intelligence, acumen. In etymological theory from Lat. sapere have a taste, have good taste, be wise, from unattested PIE base *sap - to taste; the pertinent Lat. form sagax is entirely ignored. The Türkic sag is real and does not need any asterisks; also if of all the IE languages only the ancient Lat. has it, then it is a borrowing in Lat. Semantically, from the unattested PIE *sap taste to the wise is quite a semantic distance that needs a scholarly leap, even the seasoned and wise semantically are quite distinct. The Gk. soph ascends to the 6th c. BC, and must be a medium that brought this Türkic word to Lat. sagax and into the western IE languages. See sagacity.

English sapphire ~ Türkic sepahir, sabarir, generic for mountain crystal, Moon Stone. Cognates: Lat. sapphirus; Gk. sappheiros (σάπφειρος) blue stone; Heb. sappir sapphire, ultimately not of Semitic origin; Skt. sanipriya dark precious stone. The IE etymology runs from Lat. from Gk. from a Semitic source but ultimately not of Semitic origin. Indian possibility: Skt. sanipriya dark precious stone with either a semantic shift or etymologically confused with Sani + priyah Saturn precious stone. The Gk. blue and Skt. Saturn both appear to be local semantical adaptations based on homophony. The name has been internationalized via trade routs, and etymology must be sought along the the caravan trade routs.
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English satyr (n.) ~ Türkic satir (adj., adj. n.) rootless, kinless. The modern English may borrowed the word from the Lat. and Greek, but it did not have to: the English substrate already had it, passed it to Greek, which passed it to Lat. satyrus and on to English. The Türkic satir is a derivative of the stem sat- trade, satir trade-man, with derisive connotations, it was successfully adopted into Gk. as a strange-man, oddball-man, which eventually gave us satire and satyr, words supposedly of unknown origin.

English scare fear~ Türkic qörq- (v.), qörq (n.) phobia, horror, fear, panic (v. & n.). Cognates: ONorse skirra to frighten, skjarr timid, shy. The prefix s- appear to reflect the northern European morphology, Slavic has the identical prefix s- with the same semantic of incoming or future perfect event, along with a slew of Türkic affixes. The unaccented second -q in the syllable qörq has a tendency to contract, probably it already had contracted in the Sarmat vernaculars. The Türkic qörq- dubs as care, which is reflexed in identical semantics in English: have fear ~ be afraid ~be careful. Etymology supposedly is of unknown origin, i.e. dead end etymology with no IE cognates. See Gorgon, caginess, care.

English sea (n.) turbulent body of water with swells of considerable size ~ Türkic si (n.) water, moisture. Cognates: OE sheet of water, sea, lake, OSax. seo, OFris. se, MDu. see, Goth. saiws lake, Du. zee sea, Dan. sea or lake, ONorse sær sea, Grm. See sea or lake. While the Common Türkic is presently using allophones of dingez for the sea, the stem si for waters, moisture is found in numerous derivatives, from the allophonic su water, moisture, liquid to siŋir vein, sid-/sit-/siδ- to urinate, sibak urine draining hose in baby cradle, siŋ- to absorb liquid into soil, siŋir/siŋür pour, sirkä vinegar, etc. The word is rated of unknown origin, which means that it has better than 50% chances of being Türkic. No IE cognates whatsoever. The distinction between sea and lake, salt or fresh is entirely conventional, depending on the environment.

English sector ~ Türkic čektür v. (chektür) separate with markers (imp.), from chek- v. (ček-) separate with markers. Lat. sector a cutter, from sectus, pp. of secare to cut. No IE etymology.

Grm. Schabracke horse blanket ~ Türkic cheprak - horse blanket. Same word in Yiddish, Polish, Byelorussian, Ukrainian, Russian.

English sepia reddish shade of brown ~ Türkic sepi- to tan (v.), i.e. to grow reddish-brown quite plausibly draws on the ink fluid of the cuttlefish, but then the IE etymology stumbles down from the Greek and Lat. sepia cuttlefish to the sepein rotten, a dubious proposition. More likely, the mollusks were not born rotten, but gained their name from the color of the extracted pigment, and the term for the color came from the Türkic derivative sepi (adj.), a direct loanword with proper semantic and phonetics. Numerous Türkic-Greek parallels attest to the close cultural exchange between the Türkic Scythians and the Greeks, as described Herodotus.
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English suture cord of sheep intestines, thread ~ Türkic sač (sach) thread. Cognates: Eng. sutura fibrous joint, Dan snoet spun (yarn) Icl. snúa, Ir. chasadh spin (yarn) Lat. sutura a seam, a sewing together, sutus sewn, Balt. (Lith.) sukti, Sl. such spin (yarn); Skt. sutram thread. Like in English (to thread), in Türkic the stem sač- can be used as a verb (sačan-). The IE etymology does not connect the spinning etymology, which in most cases is a derivative of the local form of the stem, in particular Eng. sew does not have a suitable etymology, and lends itself to a status of a derivative from the same stem sač-:  OE siwian, siowian to stitch, mend, patch, knit together, ONorse syja, Sw. sy, Dan. sye, OFris. sia, OHG siuwan, Goth siujan, Lat. suere to sew; Skt. sivyati to sew; OCS šijo to sew, šivu seam; Lat. siuviu, siuti to sew. The OE, Grm. and Goth. versions preserved the Türkic instr. case affix -an: sewan to thread.

English tab account, bill, check ~ Türkic tap- (v.) receive, acquire, with a collection of Türkic verbal and substantive equivalents covering everything from earning (serving) to hand over and entrust. The English equivalents are my tab ~ my account, how much I owe and his tab ~ other's account, how much others owe. The IE etymology gives American English colloquial, probably from tabulation or of tablet or tabloid, which does not account for forms like keep tabs on ~ follow the account, tab ~ file tab or attached ear to locate account or open a can, with unsustainable ultimate etymology from Lat. tabula small flat slab or piece of uncertain origin, essentially a dead-end etymology (Lat. tab is libellus). The attestation is late, 19th c., hence the colloquial, the recent origin, and the conflation with tag, tablet, tabula, and such. The Türkic etymology fits the phonetics and semantics, keeping track of the accounts is as old as are the caravans, caravanserais, and eateries. Archeologically, sustained trade relations are detectable from the mid of the Neolithic.

English tale narration ~ Türkic tili/tele/dili (n.) language, tongue, speech, with verbal derivatives. Related terms talk and tell. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) talu story, tale, the action of telling, Du. taal speech, language. Secondary English sense of number, numerical reckoning => teller, OFris. tale, MDu. tal number, OSw. tala number, OHG zala, Grm. Zahl number. Ironically, the unattested PIE root *del- to recount, count reverts back to the Türkic verb tili/tele/dili, the absence of the Indian/Iranian cognates notwithstanding. The Chinese 说 (shua)  say, tell, talk is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language.

English tambourine drum ~ Türkic tambur musical instrument, similar to mandolin. French tambourin long narrow drum used in Provence. Provence was a kingdom of Burgunds, they may have improved the drum, but they used the Old Türkic name tambur. Connection with the word tabor Türkic encirclement, for mobile fortifications used in the nomadic warfare, is superficial; although both the drum and tabor are circular, these two foreign words apparently were confused.

Grm. Tasse ~ Türkic tas/taz, Ital. tazze, French tasse, all low cylindrical bowls.

English, Grm. Gk, Lat. Theriak/theriacum (Theriacum Andromachi) snake antidote ~ Türkic tiryak snake antidote. Türkic has a cluster of meanings: antidote, opium, narcotic drug addict, heavy smoker, drunkard, maniac, quarrelsome, i.e. it is a generic word that passed to Greeks and Latins only one, apparently vital for them meaning. Theriac was in use till the 20th c.

English thread ~ Türkic telu bowstring, to stretch, Grm. Draht ~ wire. Cognates: Eng. thread, Grm. Draht, Mong. tele, Hotan ttila, New Pers. tel, Kurdish tel, Ossetian tel, Khal. tele, Buryat telür, Kalmyk tel-, Evenk telbe-, Japanese turu/tsurú, etc. (Dybo A.V., Chronology of Türkic languages and linguistic contacts of early Türks, Moscow, 2007, p. 806). The Türkic is so far the only language where the word can be etymologized, which excludes all branches of Indo-European and Tungusic families. The Eurasian spread of the word is amazing.
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English toll payment, fee ~ Türkic tölač compensation, fee, from the verbal stem töla- pay, pay off. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) toll, toln, ONorse tollr, OFris. tolen, OHG zol, Grm. Zoll; LLat. tolonium custom house, Lat. telonium tollhouse; Gk. teloneion tollhouse, telones tax-collector, telos tax. The original general European sense was payment exacted by authority, charge for right of passage, while in Türkic the verb töla- is a generic word for payment for service, for payment that you owe, for payout. Apparently, the Gk. merchants learned the term through their wallets, paying for ferries and safe passage on the way, and that particular semantics gained hold on the Southern European scene, but is likely irrelevant to the Gmc. domains in the Northern Europe. The Latins used the Gk. word. The IE etymology ultimately derives toll from an unattested PIE *kwel- to roll, to move around, wheel, which does not make much sense either semantically nor phonetically; the IE languages do not have a key underlying cognate of toll in a verbal form to pay, leaving the term an isolated and queer case. The Türkic etymology is transparent and obvious.

English tool implement, means to accomplish some act ~ Türkic tolɣa- (tolga-) to wind, wound (coil around), don, attach, squeeze, grasp. Cognates: OE, ONorse tol tool. The -ɣa/-ga in tolɣa- is a Türkic verbal affix, thus a likely chain is Tr. tol (n.) completion > tolɣa- (v.) to wind, grasp (action for completion) > Eng. tol/tool implement to accomplish; a direct transition from Tr. tol (n.) completion > Eng. tol/tool (n.) implement to accomplish appears to be less possible. The Türkic derivatives favor the tolɣa- (v.) > tol/tool path: Türkic has derivatives tolɣaq (n.) vise, tolumlan- (v.) to arm, to don armor, tolumlüɣ (adj., adv.) armed, equipped. No IE cognates, one other OE word tawian prepare appears to be semantically unsuitable, and is mentioned as cognate on purely phonetical resemblance.

English top ~ Türkic töpü top. The semantics and semantical extensions of the English and Türkic words are nearly identical, except for top off as finish instead of full, to the brim, top drawer, top gun, and topless, which all appear to be late American innovations. Türkic also used the word töpü for crown (anat.), pate, head. The exact phonetics and semantics validate the Türkic origin; even for a 3-letter word a chance coincidence of phonetics and semantics appear out of question, considering a slew of identical semantical derivatives in two languages. In Türkic etiology, top was especially important and everyday word, because of the mandatory use of mountaintops for sacral ceremonies, each tribe needed to know and use the local sacral mountain. No IE connections outside Gmc. and Romance words, and the few Romanic words probably are borrowed from Gmc.
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English tor stony top, rocks on a hill ~ Türkic tärä top. Cognates: OE torr tower, rock; Gael. torr lofty hill, mound, OWelsh twrr heap, pile; Lat torus tor (n.). The Lat turris high structure is obviously related to tower, and descend from the Türkic tura tower. In the Celtic Welsh and Lat., this is likely a part of the lexicon that the Celts carried during the circum-Mediterranean migration, the OE word was likely brought over 2500 years later by the Samat nomads. See tower.

Grm. Truthahn turkey fowl ~ Türkic turuhtan, both for a kind of fowl.

English valerian (plant, a kind of parsley) ~ Türkic pultäran, baldïran, a kind of parsley, fr. baldïr early, early (plant) + -an collective affix. Baldïr also has a meaning protrusion, cliff outcrop, which with certain grammatical affixation can echo the Lat. valere to be strong, and a notion alien, adopted, which echoes another Anglo-Sax. name for parsley wudumerce wild parsley, wood-mint. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. petersille parsley, OFr. valeriane, Lat. Valerianus ( adj.)Valerius (pers. name), valere to be strong. The IE etymology leads to OFr. valeriane, Lat. Valerianus, and personal name Valerius, valere to be strong, or to the Grm. and Scand. forms pointing to connection with the saga-hero Wieland. Either suggestion would not pass a muster explaining the Türkic pultäran of the Balkars, Chuvashes, Tatars, and Altaian Kipchaks without a Roman influence. Alternatively, the Gmc. version of baldiran, e.g. Anglo-Sax. peter-, conflated with Lat. valerianus or OFr. valeriane, all of them ultimately of the Türkic origin, irrespective of the origin of the Lat. homophonic verb valere. The Türkic-based etymology is direct and credible, it points to two independent paths leading to the Lat. and Gmc. forms. The eastern Türkic languages have another name for valerian, qamsun, qamatzun, which appears to be a derivative of the verb qamsa move, come in motion, semantically echoing with the Lat. semantic of valere to be strong. Such phonetic and semantic similarity on the opposite ends of the Eurasia is unlikely to be incidental.

English voe evil, misfortune ~ Türkic uvy (interj.) oh, what a misfortune. Cognates: ONorse verri, Sw. värre, Goth. wai (interj.), OFris. wirra, OHG wirsiro, OSax. wirs, Goth. wairsiza worse, OCS uvy (interj.); Lat. vah, v (interj.), Gk. ὀά, οὑά, οὑᾱ, οὑαί (oa, ova/oua, ovə/ouə, ovai/ouai) (interj.), Av. avoi, voi (interj.) oh, what a misfortune; Yidysh wei, wei-wei; Central Asian, Caucasus wai, wai-wai oh, what a misfortune. The IE etymology is mute, in spite of the popularity of the expression in the King James Bible voe to you and the idiom my voes to you ~ if you only had my problems. The phonetic link between woe and uvy is clearly seen in the numerous dialectal forms. The Av. form attests to the antiquity of the idiosyncratic form dating as early as the end of the 3rd mill. BC, before the migration of the future Indo-Iranians to the South-Central Asia. See worse.
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English voucher (n.) receipt from a business transaction > summon into court to warrant title to property ~ Türkic vučuŋ receipt, voucher, warrant. The word is most remarkable: Türkic (probably, still Zhou nomads) has cognates in Eng., Fr., Gallo-Romance, Lat. vocitare, vocare, and Chinese 憑證 buchun, po-čhuŋ pyn. píngzheng  make up, compensate. Türkic has allophone vučuŋ/bučuŋ, indicating a western (like Ogur Sartmatian or Hunnic) and eastern (like Zhou, Tolhars/Uezhi, proto-Huns) phonetics. The source of the Lat. form could be Celtic/Gaelic/Gallo-Romance emanating from Iberia in 2800 BC, or one of the overland Kurgan waves of the 3rd - 2nd - 1st mill. BC. The words vouch and voucher lurked somewhere in the English folk language until they popped out sometime in the 17th c. See vouch.

English wake (n.) wave behind boat ~ Türkic vak (n.) wave behind boat. Cognates: OE wacu (n.), wæcnan, wæcnian, awæcnan, onwæcnan, awoc, awacen, awakien, awacian, awacode (v.), ME awecchen, aweccan (v.), OSax. wakon, OFris. waka, Goth. wakan, ONorse vaka, OHG wahta (n.), wahhen (v.), Grm. wachen (v.), MDu. wachten, Du. waken, Dan. vaage; Lat. vegere, vigere vigor; Skr. vajah (n.) vigor, vajayati (v.); Kor. byongɣan vigil; Türkic Chuv. vak-, văran-, Turkm. oya-, Karachai, Kumyk oyaw, Tatar uyaw alert, wake. The base semantic of the word wake is to become, to be alert. It is apparent that the base stem is uy-/oy, which in the case of the western Sprachbund attained a prosthetic anlaut v-/w-, and in many languages transformed the semi-consonant -y- into a variety of consonants -c-/-d-/-h-/-g-/-yg-/-ɣ-/-k-, with -c-/-h- (-ch-)/-g-/-k- predominating in the west (vak-, vaka, wah-), and -d-/-h-/-yg-/-ɣ- taking hold in the east (oyg, od-, uh). Most of the eastern languages retained the initial root uy-/oy (Azeri, Turk., oy(an), Skr. vay(ah),, Uigur uy(ag)). The Kor. version demonstrates a spread from Atlantic to Pacific. English is unique in that it recycled the Türkic affix a- denoting result of action named by the stem (vak alert > vaka be alert, alerted) into a prefix (wake alert > awake be alert, alerted), that transition probably came during initial adjustment to the novel flexive morphology typical for the IE languages. Notably, the Anglo-Sax. forms awacan and awaclan differ by the Tr. adjectival affix -l-, which makes these two forms to awake and awaken (adj.), instead of misunderstood to awake and to awake. The semantical extension from the raw notion of alert, alertness to the process of alertness (vigil) and consequences of alertness (wake) occurred before the migratory fractionation, since the daughter languages carry those meanings (wake 1. aftermath, outcome, 2. vigil, 3. funerary feast). The vacillations between the transitive and intransitive forms are the product of the language development, that problem could not arise in the languages with morphological means of instinctively producing transitive verbs. The IE etymology is practically non-existent, the wacky PGmc. *wakwo leads nowhere, and explains nothing. Modern derivatives: vigil, watch, wake (boat), wake (funerals), wake (outcome), etc.

English wax (n.) beeswax ~ Türkic avus (n.) beeswax. Cognates: OE weax, OSax, OHG wahs, ONorse vax, Du. was, Grm. Wachs; Balt. (Lith.) vashkas, OCS vasku, Pol. wosk, Russ. vosk  wax. Clearly delineated distribution points to the Sarmatian Vandalic origin.

English wormwood (n.) (herb) ~ Türkic armuti (Chuv.). Cognates: OSax wermoda, Du. wermoet, OHG werimuota, Grm. Wermut; in the eastern Türkic languages armut is pear. The herb is used for medicinal purposes, specifically to treat hawks, disinfect, as an aphrodisiac, and to add bitter taste (vermouth). The IE etymology is routine etymology is unknown, western distribution is limited exclusively to the Gmc. linguistic branch. Reference to the hawks and Türkic semantic shift typical for flora and fauna terms corroborate the Türkic origin. In English, until Middle Ages, the word lurked as a folk word.

English yacht watercraft ~ Türkic yaɣ- (v.) come (rain), fall (luck), pour (sand), approach, the notion of movement. Cognates: ONorse jaga to drive, to move to and fro, Norw. jaght, OHG jagon chase, MLG jacht, chasing ship fr. chase. See jag.
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5. Adjectives

English abundant (adj.) in great quantity ~ Türkic abadan (adj.) plentiful, crowded, numerous, populous. Cognates: Lat. abundantem. A closer phonetical and semantical cognate is hard to imagine; statistically, the probability of the same 3-syllable word with the same semantics randomly appearing in two unrelated languages is vanishingly small, see example for a single syllable bad. As a paired compound, probability of retaining the same expression that seems to preserve intact is even smaller by orders of magnitude, cf. English be abundant ~ Türkic abadan bol be (become) plentiful, crowded, populous. See be, bad.

English agaze (adj.) peering ~ Türkic ög- (v.) to eye, penetrate, perceive. Agaze is an obvious local derivative of the stem ög-. See ogle.

English all (n.& adj.) full or entire extent ~ Türkic alqu (n.& adj.) all. Cognates: OFris., OHG al, ONorse allr, Goth. alls, with no certain connection outside Grm. family, in the IE family all is an oddball. The Türkic stem is a verbal stem al- with numerous meanings capture, gain, take, take away, receive, select, choose, receive in exchange, borrow, barter, buy, catch, marry but its linguistic utility is salient as intensifier and action, which allows its wide use in derivatives and paired expressions mirrored in English all-American, all-inclusive, all-over, altogether, all-dressed, etc. The Türkic alqu with an affix -qu/-ɣu/-ɣü/-kü to form noun, instr. of action, subject of action, adj., participle all, whole, everyone etc. is but an example of grammatical and semantical utility. The Türkic etymology fits perfectly semantically, phonetically, and in application; it is not a loanword, it is a substrate word that keeps living on.

English analogue (n.& adj.) ~ Türkic anlayu (adv.) so, this way. Cognates: the origin is claimed to be fr. Gk. analogon, fr. ana up to + logos account, ratio. That sounds reasonably enough, but raises a problem: could numerous pastoral tribes, scattered over much of the Eurasia, and broken into uncounted pastoral routes, adopt and spread this Gk. compound, and furthermore, reduce it to a most basic semantic of the such type, similar? The scholarly etymology seems to be too scholarly to be realistic. The Greeks, on the other hand, could pick up the expression before their migration from the N.Pontic, where they cohabited with the Kurgan nomads, or during the Herodotus' time, when according to Herodotus some of them were bi-lingual. Either way, a chance coincidence is too remote to inspire confidence. The same Türkic word could be brought over to the British Isles, re-introduced, and conflated with the borrowed scholarly usage.

English astute (adj.) savvy, sharp, shrewd ~ Türkic asurtɣuq (adj. intelligent, clever. Cognates: Lat. astutus crafty, wary, shrewd; sagacious, expert, from astus cunning, cleverness, adroitness. The unscholarly of uncertain origin is most anserine or dishonest verdict, given the spread of phonetically linked cognates from Atlantic to Pacific, and the known absence of the IE cognates.
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English bad (adj.) not good, wicked, evil, vicious ~ Türkic bäd (bəd) (adj.) bad, wretched. Cognates: Tr., Eng., Farsi, Sumerian. Now abandoned comparative and superlative forms badder, baddest were common in 14c.-18c. No IE etymology whatsoever, a mystery word with no apparent relatives in other languages. Oops. The English bad has a remarkable fate, it is a Sumerian agrarian word for bad soils bad hard soil > Türkic bäd bad, not good, wicked, evil, vicious > English bad bad, not good, wicked, evil, vicious. Farsi bad has the same meaning, quite clearly a cognate of the Türkic bäd, but is discounted by myopic and mathematically inept linguists as a pure coincidence. Given the pinpointed semantics of the word, with generous allowance for 10 synonyms in either English and Persian 10,000 word dictionary, probability of the same word appearing by random chance in 3 unrelated languages is miniscule, on the order of P3 = 0,0000001. The Persian bad must have come from the Türkic or Sumerian, although there is no documented direct link from the Babilonian, Akkadian or Assyrian to Persian. The word bad was with us (some of us, not all of us) for 5000 years, with room for some more. Sumers arrived to lower Mesopotamia from the N.Pontic steppes via Caucasus 5000 - 4500 ybp carrying primarily R1b haplogroup with mainly the R-M269 subclade and its downstream L23 subclade, bringing with them their N.Pontic language, providing us with best-documented 5000-year old lexeme bad of the early Kurgan steppe culture at least 1000 years before Indo-Iranian migration into the S.Caucasus (A. Klyosov, Ancient History of the Arbins, Bearers of Haplogroup R1b, from Central Asia to Europe, 16,000 to 1500 Years before Present//Advances in Anthropology, Vol.2, No.2, May 2012, pp.87-105, ISSN Print: 2163-9353, ISSN Online: 2163-9361, Full Text (PDF 1,419KB).

Probability of the same word appearing by random chance in 2 or 3 unrelated languages:
Allow 10,000 dictionary for each language
Allow 40 synonyms meaning bad for each language
Given that each language has 1 lexeme bad with semantics of something bad. If they don't, there is no point to compare, probability P = 0.
Probability that at least 1 lexeme bad falls into semantics of 40 synonyms is P1= 0.004
Probability that such coincidence would happen in 2 independent languages is P2 = P12 = 0.00002 (rounded up)
Probability that such coincidence would happen in 3 independent languages is P3 = P13 = 0,0000001 (rounded up)

To ensure at least one coincidence in 2 independent languages would require 1/0.00002 = 50,000 of 2-language sets, for a total of 50,000 languages (rounded).
To ensure at least one coincidence in 3 independent languages would require 1/0.0000001 = 10,000,000 of 3-language sets, for a total of 10,000,000 languages (rounded).
Considering that our mother-Earth has less than 10,000 languages (actually, less than 6,000), we would need 5 Earths for 2 language coincidence and 1,000 Earths for 3 language coincidence. And all these are very-very conservative numbers. The 2-language chance coincidence example, coined by mathematically challenged linguists, walks shamelessly from one linguistic textbook to another for the last 100 years (rounded down). Who is insane, the IE linguists, or the people who take their wisdom for granted?

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English Belgi (adj.) ~ Türkic belgü (n.) mark, sign, trait; belgülüg (adj.) marked, notable. Opposite of belgülüg notable is belgüsiz unknown, this helps to understand the semantics of Belgi. The tribe of Belgi (Belgae) appeared on the European scene as ethnologically Türkic Sarmatians, of the Vandal (Wonderers < wendeln, to wander) variety, mounted and mobile horse pastoralists leading a collection of Celtic and Grm. agrarian tribes, all known under an exonym Belgi (Belgae) of the confederation's ruling tribe. An alternate etymology descends from the Anglo-Sax. cluster belg bag, purse, leathern bottle, pair of bellows, pod, husk, belly (v.), anger, arrogance, belgan (v.) angry, offend, provoke belgnes injustice, not much for an alternative for an endonym. The PIE version picks up on belg belly, creates an unattested *bhelgh- to swell, bulge, billow, and ends up at the starting point, unwittingly with another Türkic stem found in the North-Western Europe. Hardly the Italians, English or French would call themselves with an endonym Bloated. The Türkic semantics of Belgi marked, notable parallels that of the German strong, and is appropriate for exonym that fossilized as an endonym.

English bogus (adj.) ~ Türkic bögüš (adj.) understanding, comprehension. Bogus is one of a number of words that appeared in English from nowhere, the folk speech. Suggested etymologies are quite speculative and introverted. The phonetical precision and proximate semantical connotation of not real allows to suspect that the Türkic substrate word survived unnoticed for millennia.

English bold fearless and daring, fast, quick (adj.) ~ Türkic palt (Chuv.) fast, quick. Cognates: OE beald (WSax.), bald (Ang.) bold, brave, confident, strong, OHG bald bold, swift, Goth. balthei boldness, ONorse ballr frightful, dangerous; it shows up in names such as Archibald, Leopold, Theobald. Chuvash language is distinct by palatalization, in contrast with the Common Türkic, the corresponding common form is bald (bahld).

English chalant (adj.) (we know it as nonchalant adj., nonchalantly adv., nonchalance n.) ~ Türkic čalaŋ (chalan) blab-, chat-, -t is verbal passive suffix ≈ blabby, chatty. No IE parallels, no decent IE etymology, an attempt to link chalant to Lat. calere be hot does not fit. The English form chalant preserved the original Türkic grammatical formant -t, inexplicable in the IE paradigms. No IE parallels.

English curt (adj.) ~ Türkic qïrt (adj.) short, a derivative of a verb stem qïs- to shorten, to lessen. Cognates: most Gmc. languages, OE sceort, scort, Icl. korta, ONorse skorta, skort, OHG scurz, Grm. kurz, etc.; OIr. cert, MIr. corr; Lat. curtus short, shortened, incomplete; Balt. (Lith.) skurstu, OCS kratuku, Rus. korotit; Skt. krdhuh. The Türkic adjectives qïrt, qïsga, qïsɣa, the verb qïsalat (v.) are a small sampling of derivatives from the verb stem qïs- to shorten, to lessen, with a universal base to make things smaller: shorter, narrower, pressed, compressed, tightened, briefer, etc., the number of verbal, noun, and adjective derivatives is very rich. The verbs qïs- to shorten, to lessen and kes- to cut are phonetically and semantically too close for an independent origin, one is a derivative of the other. A number of Türkic languages retained the form qïs-, some have changed to form qïr-, illustrating the s/r alternation, or rhotacism; of the sampling of 22 words, 1 has -r-, 8 have -l-, and 13 have -s-, with both the -r- and -s- forms listed in the OTD. With the Türkic qïs- (v.) and qïrt (adj.), there is no need for unattested PIE *(s)ker- and P.Gmc. *skurt- , it is quite apparent that they ascend to the same Türkic substrate word that may have reached Romance, Gmc., Balto-Slavic, and Indian groups by separate paths, at very different times, and by very remotely related Türkic linguistic branches. Like numerous other Türkic lexemes, the English curt popped up in the Middle Ages from the folk vernacular, genetically related, but independent of the Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indian sources. See carve, cut, short.
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English dumb (adj.) ~ Türkic dumur atrophy, degeneration. The ONorse dumbr is identical with Türkic form. Cognates: OE dumb silent, unable to speak and verb to become mute, OSax. dumb, Goth. dumbs, meant mute, speechless, OHG thumb is mute and stupid, Mod. Grm. dumm stupid, ME foolish, ignorant, Balt. (Latv.) dumjš stupid. The unattested PIE *dheubh- confusion, stupefaction, dizziness, from root *dheu- dust, mist, vapor, smoke, and related notions of defective perception or wits is not serious, with no cognates in other IE groups, and with semantical and phonetical breaches even with the unattested IE roots. Related to dementia, from the same Türkic dumur atrophy, degeneration. See dementia.

English damp (adj.) slightly wet ~ Türkic dymly (adj.) damp. Cognates: Middle Low Grm. damp; OHG damph, Grm. Dampf vapor; ONorse dampi dust, no IE cognates. The adjective dymly is recorded in the western areal of the Türkic languages, it must belong to that vague class called Sarmats and Scythians. This is one of the English words that popped up unannounced, from the depths of the country folk speech.

English durable (adj.) long lasting, withstanding ~ Türkic durağan (adj.) fixed', stable, from the root dür-/tür- to last for some time. Cognates: Lat. durabilis, from the same root and with the same semantics. No IE etymology for the stem dura-. The Türkic adjectival suffix that became Lat. -abilis, -ibilis > Eng. -able, -ible, and Eng. -able, -ible is the Türkic -bilä (ability) used after stems ending with -a/i, > -abilä/-ibilä, it forms adjectives expressing likeness, reciprocity, proximity; instrumental(ity); temporality, and is equivalent to the adjectival suffix -ɣan/-gän/-qan/-kän for general tense participle. See endure, duration, duress.

English eligible (adj.) ~ Türkic elïg (v. & n.) be eligible to command, to rule. Cognates: Fr. eligible fit to be chosen, LLat. eligibilis that may be chosen, Lat. eligere choose. Like the English handle, the Türkic elïg is a derivative from elïg hand, thus elïg (n.) is hand, arm and ruler, suzerain, and elïg (v.) has a constellation of derivative meanings related to ruling, one of which is be eligible, which matches exactly the original meaning recorded in English: fit or proper to be chosen, supposedly from Fr. from LLat. from Lat., and then a dead end. Thus, we have a chain of semantic shifts: hand (Tr.) => handle (Tr.) => govern (Tr.) => eligible to govern (Tr.) => chosen to govern (Lat.) => fit to be chosen (Fr.) => eligible (E.). No IE parallels, no murky IE etymology. In Slavic a parallel sequence produced a calque rukovodit () (v.), rukovodstvo () (n.), lit. gesture with hands to govern (v.), gesturing with hands to govern (n.). It is a small word after all.

Old English enge (adj.) narrow, tight ~ Türkic özak (adj.) narrow. Cognates: OE nearu (n.) distress, difficulty, danger; prison, hiding place, nearu (adj.) narrow, constricted, limited; petty; causing difficulty, oppressive; strict, severe, Fris. nar, OSax. naru, MDu. nare, Du. naar narrow; the semantic of enge narrow is preserved in MDu. enghe, Balt. (Lith.) ankshtas, Lat. angustus, Sl. uzkii, vuzkii, Arm. anjuk, Skt. aihus, aihas, Av. azah- need. The attested link is Türkic özak narrow > Goth. aggwus narrow > OE enge narrow, painful. The Türkic özak (adj.) is a derivative of öz (n.) valley, pass between mountains, hence a narrow passage, narrows. With its original meaning of the Türkic öz narrow pass, the word spread to the South-Central Asia at about 1600 BC, and with the Kurgan or Sarmatian waves to the NE Europe and SC Europe (Lat. angustus narrow, tight). The syllable öz comes in numerous flavors, öd, öδ, öz, üz, making the Goth. form aggwus and Sl. uzkii, vuzkii just another attested dialectic forms belonging to separate linguistic branches. The IE etymology does not find the base stem in other Germanic languages and classes it of unknown origin. See anger, anguish.
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English false (adj. & adv.) deceptive, delusive ~ Türkic yal-, al-, ar- (v.) deceitful, false, lie/lies. Cognates: Du. valsch, Dan. falsk, Grm. falsch; OFr. fals, faus, Fr. faux, Lat falsus, fallere deceived, erroneous, mistaken, deceive, disappoint. In English, the Türkic stem yal-, al-, ar- turned into two semantically close but separate forms, lie/liar and false, which originated from the Türkic derivatives formed with various affixes and expressed with dialectal phonetical variations. The forms with Lat. and Grm. anlaut f- indicate that the word came into circulation from the same source, already with the anlaut consonant of the Ogur type. The forms for lie/liar, in contrast, point to the Oguz origin, without anlaut consonant and in contracted form. Somewhere on the way, the Türkic prosthetic anlaut consonant usually expressed as d-/g-/j- turned into voiceless labiodental fricative f-, shared by Sl., Romance, and Germ. forms. The word does not have IE parallels, and etymological speculations come to the standard of uncertain origin. In the archaic Türkic culture, lying was among the greatest human sins, so the word had grave connotations; vestiges of that attitude still survive in the British culture, to much lesser degree in the American culture, and fairly well in the modern Türkic cultures. See lie.

English jolly festive ~ Türkic yol road, way, as a winter holiday road, way (of fate).  Cognates: Anglo-Sax. (OE) geol, geola, Ang. giuli, ONorse jol, Grm. Yule; OFr. jolif; Modern Fr joli festive, semantically extended to pretty, nice; Modern English jolly festive. The word has survived due to the winter solstice holiday Yule Tengri ~ Fate (from) Tengri ~ Fate (from) God, celebrated with spruce, music, dances, and gift exchanges. The term jolly is positively traced to the winter solstice holiday, but then is dumbfoundingly rated of unknown origin, although the holiday is still active in the Türkic-populated areas, and its propagation is sufficiently well described in the ethnological literature. See Yule.

English idle (n., v., adj.) inactive ~ Türkic ytla (adj.) (Chuv.) inactive, useless, wasteful. Cognates: OE idel empty, void; vain; worthless, useless; not employed, all these notions exactly duplicate the notions of the Türkic ytla/edligsiz;  OSax. idal, OFris. idel, ODu. idil, Du. ijdel, OHG ital, Grm. eitel. Ultimately, all allophones ascend to the Türkic verb edla-/eδlä- use, apply, borrowed into the Sl. delo, dela (, ) job, task, and probably it is a stem for the Eng. deal transaction. Unlike the eastern Türkic languages that produce inactive form as a negation of the active form (edligsiz, with negation affix -siz), Chuvash has the negation dropped and the meaning reversed. In that respect, the western Chuvash stands out vs. the eastern Türkic languages.The IE etymology meekly states of unknown origin.

English kilter (kelter) (adj. n.) in good condition, in order ~ Türkic kel- (v.) deliver, bring, make available, come, come about, appear, arrive, serve, as to (cond. mood), come (aux. verb); with agglutinated affix ür/ur, the form keltür-/keldür- attains a mood of intention or willingness to act: something gonna happen, something gonna to come, etc.Cognates: no IE cognates whatsoever. In English, the kilter/kelter is only used idiomatically: something out of/off kilter/kelter something is not going to happen, something is not right, etc. The etymology is claimed to be of unknown origin. The expression is traced to 1600s. Due to perfect semantical and phonetical identity, the Türkic origin is beyond doubts. The absence of cognates in other Gmc. languages indicates an independent origin path similar to other exclusively English-Türkic correspondences, likely from late Sarmat vernaculars, possibly from Anglo-Saxon lexicon.

English massif (adj. n.) ~ Türkic basɣuq (masɣuq, masguk). The Türkic mas and bas are interchangeable (m/b alteration), depending on a dialect, and in mixed societies can be used in parallel. The Sl. massiv () something huge, gromada () may be a late borrowing from the western languages.
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English matt (adj.) ~ Türkic mat (adj.) - matt, dull, opaque, lackluster, darkish. No etymology exists whatsoever, whoever goes by etymological dictionaries is going to miss this pearl....

English moist (adj.), moisture (n.), and mayonnaise (n.) ~ Türkic mayi - liquid, fluid > moist - watery, wet, damp. Cognates: mayonnaise from Catalan maonesa, in OFr. moyeu yolk of egg, via Fr. mayonnaise. Cognates ostensibly include Vulg. Lat and Lat. forms ca. mucidus, mador, quite a long shot. For such prominent phenomenon, absence of ascribed etymology is quite telling. However, the nature of the notion water allows to suggest its out of Africa nature, and in fact Hamito-Semitic languages have moi, mai for water, staking a terminus for a dashed trace Hamito-Semitic = => Dravidian = => Türkic = => English. The same initial path would apply to Lat.: Hamito-Semitic = => Dravidian = => Türkic = => Lat. It appears that no sane lover of IE patriotism would suggest a Lat. loanwords into the primeval vocabulary of the Hamito-Semitic linguistic family.

English murky (adj.) unclear, clouded, dim, stupid ~ Türkic mürki (adj.) unclear, clouded, dim, stupid. English form preserved the stem mür- with front rounded u, Türkic adjectival affix -ki, and intact semantics of muddy, whether it is pool or reasoning. No IE parallels, no murky IE etymology, and the Ottomans can't be blamed for an introduction of the word before they ever emerged.

English mental (adj.) of mind~ Türkic meŋtä (mengtə) (adj.) of mind (lit. of brain), from a constellation of dialectal forms for brain: meji/meŋä/meŋi with noun locative affix ta/tä/da/dä/δa/δä meaning place of or initiating place, i.e. from brain or of brain. Cognates: OE gemynd memory, remembrance Goth. gamunds; LLat. mentalis of mind, Lat. mens mind, Skt. matih thought, mind. A complementary Türkic synonymous noun is men with a variation ben (m/b alteration) expressing conviction of own superiority, the corresponding mental state is expressed with the same locative or possessive affix: mentä (adj.) with superiority mentality; accordingly, the word men also comes in a constellation of dialectal forms: mendä/mentä/mindä/mintä with men/ben alteration. All these Türkic forms of mind and brain are also intricately connected to the English mind: meji/meŋä/meŋi and men/min/ben/bin. The abundance of phonetical variations points to a lengthy parallel existence of both forms, the reduced g in ng may be an archaic reflex of the affix -k/-q/-g signifying derivative nouns and adjectives. A presence of the Skt. word indicates either a period older than 2000 BC, or a later borrowing, the latter likelier, since a brain is not necessarily connected with thought, take for example chickens and fish that have one but not the other. Notably, the dictionaries compiling the word forms are a priory limited to the materials at hand, and do not necessarily include all the extant, deviant, or archaic forms. The ancient forms with prefix ge-/ga must be Grm. innovations; the auslaut -d likely reflects the original Türkic dialectal form of the affix ta/tä/da/dä/δa/δä.

Norwegian sannr true (adj.) ~ Türkic čïn [chyn] (n.) truth, true (adj.). Cognates: Goth. triggws, ONorse sannr true, Chinese form 真 (chin). No sensible IE etymology. In Gmc. languages it was replaced by synonymous true ~ Türkic dürüst. The Chinese reflex 真 (chin) truth is likely a reflex of the Scythian Zhou component in the Chinese language. That both Türkic forms found their ways into Gmc. languages points to separate paths to English and Gothic vs. Norwegian and Chinese.

English sapient wise (adj.), like in Homo Sapiens ~ Türkic savan/saban prophetic, wise (adj.), OTD form savčï/sabčï prophet, messenger, a derivative of sav-/sab- (v.) word, speech, which with the personal instrumental affix čï/či (chy/chi) produces personal nouns with semantic speaker, teller, talker, informant that grew into foreteller and then to prophet, messenger; instrumental affix n/än (am/en) produces object noun savan/saban with semantic speaking, speech, telling, tale, informing, information that grew into foretelling, divination and then to prophetic, wise. Cognates: OE sefa mind, understanding, insight; OSw. sebban perceive, note, OHG seffen; Fr. savant learned man, Sp. se, sabe to know, Lat. sapere wise, sapientem wise from palatalized form sab > sap. Attestingly, ODT gives adjectival form savan/saban indirectly, by grammatical listing applied to all leading word forms in the dictionary; and the Lat. palatalized form sapien attests to indirect provenance in English. For wise, Türkic has at least 7 other words (bilgä, biliglig, bögu, bögülüg, dana, jïnčkä, öga), which tend to demonstrate the weight afforded to wisdom in Türkic societies. The Türkic root forms sav/sab/sag/sai have a favor of affixed derivatives of once one-syllable primal form se/sa that may be older than the haplogroups R or R1. Notably, English, Gmc. and Lat. preserved the Türkic substrate form with the Türkic non-animated adjectival affix n/än, attesting to the origin of the word; the ending -t, -s, etc. are individual modifications. The suggested IE etymology of sapp liquid in a plant is as far from being relevant as it can get; outside of Grm.-Lat. circle lay no IE cognates whatsoever. See say, sage, savant.

English short (adj.) ~ Türkic qïrt (adj.). The English curt and short are synonymous allophonic forms. See carve, cut, curt.
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English sollow (adj.) dusky, dark, dirty, grayish color (adj.) ~ Türkic sary (adj.) pale, dirty white, light yellow, grayish color. Cognates: MDu. salu discolored, dirty , OHG salo dirty gray , ONorse sölr dirty yellow; M.Fr. sorel from sor yellowish-brown, MDu. soor dry, OHG soren to become dry, OE sear withered, barren; OCS solovoi, solovyi cream-colored. The ONorse sölr dirty yellow" points to the path of the phonetical transition between sar and sol; the Slavic form is an extension of the Gmc. phonetics. The French forms indicate an independent path. The semantics of imprecise dirty hue, a kind of tawny, is retained in all phonetic forms. No attested IE cognates, the notional semantics is limited to Gmc. languages. See sorrel.

English sorrel light brownish color (adj.) ~ Türkic sary (adj.) pale, dirty white, light yellow, grayish color. Cognates: OE sear withered, barren, Eng. sorrel (adj.) reddish brown, MFr. sorel, sor yellowish-brown. The MDu. soor dry and OHG soren to become dry appear to be phonetic conflations or semantic extensions based on similarity with withered color; the Sl. idiom pojeltet () turn yellow = dry (foliage) exemplify the derivative semantics. Sary was a most popular Türkic color name, for pale yellow and achromatic pale gray, it was widely used as endonyms, from antiquity (Sary As, Sarir, Saragur, Saryg, possibly Sarmat) to Middle Ages (Sarysün, Kuman, Kipchak, Akkoyunly, Ak Nogaj, where Sary = Ku = Ak) and to modernity (Sary Yogur, Sary Uigur). Classical authors list an inventory of nomadic tribes in the Caspian basin with names starting with allophones of sar under different spelling; with the rise of the Khazar Kaganate a part of their lands became known as a Saksin Province. Eng. preserved a darker hue, sorrel reddish brown, Fr. preserved a lighter hue sorel yellowish-brown. Two transmission lines are discernable, one circum-Mediterranean ca 2800 BC, which eventually produced the Irish h-version harr gray, gray-haired, and another, probably later, overland s-version, which produced Gmc. and Slavic s-version with darker hue, and Slavic s-version with lighter hue, Slavic ser gray, gray-haired; the Fr. lighter hue may have been introduced by the Burgund Vandals, semantically it is closer to the Tr. sary. Not a trace of IE etymology in sight. See sollow.
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English subliminal (adj.) unconscious (perception) ~ Türkic sumlïm (adj.) speaking not in Türkic language, not understanding Türkic. The semantic of the word cluster sumlï- is unclear speech, speaking in tongues. The conventional, but not supported by evidence, IE etymology suggests below threshold from sub below + Lat. limen threshold; that may sound attractive, but the etymological references to the 18th c. do not make sense in light of M.Kashgari's 10th c. records, and a chance coincidence of phonetics and semantics between the Eng. subliminal and Tr. sumlïm appear to be out of question, thus the below threshold belongs to the host of the folk etymologies.

English sanitary (adj.) healthy ~ Türkic esän (adj.) healthy, uninjured. The IE etymology deadlocks at Lat. (Lat. sanitas health, sanus healthy, sane), clearly a loanword limited to some part of the IE languages. The Türkic etymology is perfect phonetically and semantically. The English cognates sane, sanity, etc., belong to the same stem san- as the Türkic form esan. See sane, sanity.

English savory (adj.) pleasing in taste ~ Türkic saɣur (sagur, sağur with ğ = silent g > saur) (v.) swallow, absorb. Cognates: OE sæþerie, OFr. savereie. Like in English, the Türkic verb is polysemantic, swallow, take, take in, undergo, taste (v.), tolerate/stand/endure, and the like. The semantical and phonetical match is perfect. The IE etymology is non-existent, OE and OFr. are the only documented cognates.

English sharp (adj., n.) pointed; incisive edge ~ Türkic süvrä (adj.) sharp. Cognates: OE scearp, OSax. scarp, ONorse skarpr, OFris. skerp, Du. scherp, Grm. scharf sharp; Welsh siarp; Ir. gear; Lett. skarbs sharp, MIr. cerb cutting; Hu. hirtelen sharp something; Lat. scalpellum sharp knife, now an international European word. Transition from süvrä to s(k)r (e.g. scar, Tr. kertük; Tr. kerai razor) is quite plausible, with pinpointed semantics. English sharp (n.) is a semantical adjectival derivative. Both süvrä and sharp applied mostly to weapons sharp weapon, cutting edge. The Gael. forms have matching cognates in Türkic, the Lat. form appear to be a Nordic loanword, or it came from the same source as the Nordic-Gmc. forms. No IE reasonable etymology.

English thick (adj.) dense ~ Türkic sik (adj.) - thick, dense. Cognates: OSw. thikki, OHG dicchi, Grm. dick, ONorse þykkr (thykkr), OFris. thikke, Gael. tiugh. In quasi-scientific etymologies, the obvious Türkic word is veiled by a unattested PIE *tegu- thick instead of attested straightforward Türkic adj. sik/thik with perfect phonetics and semantics.

English twat (adj.) obscenity, abusive term ~ Türkic tat (adj.) obscene, abusive term. The Türkic term tat became an international word long before our era, it is found in early Chinese annals, in South-central Asia, in the Eurasian steppe belt, it became widely known in Europe as an epithet Tatars, which lit. means alien man; a semantical cognate is Türkic tat (n.) corrosion, which points to its generic origin as a product of spoilage garbage, refuse, waste. As an obscene term for alien people, it was applied to insiders and outsiders of the Türkic societies, hence the tat Uigurs wayward Uigurs, non-Moslems, Kerulen Tatars oddball refugees, escapees; in ethnical aspect semantically it parallels another widely known epithet Kushan/Kashan meaning subject population, slaves, also widely applied to diverse alien people in Europe and Asia. The term tat became a marker of the Türkic presence, it was left in all areas ever populated by the Türkic people. The IE etymology is non-existent, the word is of unknown origin.

English wise (n., adj.) good judgment (n.), with good judgment (adj.) ~ Türkic vidya (adj.) knowledge, wisdom. Cognates: OE, OSax., OFris. wis, ONorse viss, Du. wijs, vroed, Sw. vis, Grm. weise, Icl. vitur; Welsh doeth; Fin. viisas, Hu. bölcs (bölch); Balt. (Lith.) budas; Bosn. vispren, Serb. vispr- (-), all wise, wisdom; Skr. veda knowledge > vidya knowledge, wisdom. The Türkic word belongs to the cluster of Buddhist terms, and probably is a Skr. loanword adopted no earlier than 5th c. BC. However, the Skr. word vidya belongs to a host of cognates that betray its belonging to the N.Pontic Sprachbund of 2000 BC; the presence of distinct Welsh form allows to date the origin of the word to the 6th-5th mill. BC, their time of departure from the N.Pontic area; the eastern Türkic allophonic forms that reached us are bögu, bögülüg, bilig, bilgä, bilge, bilgili, with Enisei Kirgiz, Altai, and Chuv. forms pilerge, pül, pel respectively, and some more variety, all cognates with the Skr. form with some minor semantical twists, like perception, judgment, common sense. The obvious semantic and phonetic commonality between these cognates belonging to numerous linguistic families points to the ancient N.Pontic Sprachbund; the numerous synonyms, apparently from disparate stems, in every language point to active exchanges between various languages belonging to different linguistic families. The IE etymology looks only at the Gmc. cognates, and bravely assembles them into a unattested PIE root *weid- semantically meaning totally unsuitable see.
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English worse (adj.) comparative of bad, evil, ill; opposite of better ~ Türkic uvy (interj.) oh, what a misfortune. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. wiers, wiersa, wierse worse, wierslan to get worse, wierrest worst, wierslic bad, vile, mean, OSax. wirs, ONorse verri, Sw. värre, OFris. wirra, OHG wirsiro, Goth. wairsiza worse, OCS uvy (interj.); Gk. ὀά, οὑά, οὑᾱ, οὑαί (oa, ova/oua, ovə/ouə, ovai/ouai) (interj.), Lat. vah, v (interj.), Goth. wai (interj.), Av. avoi, voi (interj.) oh, what a misfortune; Yidysh wei, wei-wei, Central Asian, Caucasus wai, wai-wai oh, what a misfortune. The link between worse and uvy is seen clearly via the intermediate forms: Türkic uvy (interj.) > Goth. wai (interj.) > OSax. wirs (interj.) > OE wiersa, wyrsa (interj., adj.) > English worse (adj.). The Yidysh and Central Asian forms became internationally known due to intensive use of them in the modern movie industry that plays on ethnic and regional idiosyncrasies. In the sense of bad, misfortune in the form voe the word was popularized by the King James Bible voe to you and in the expression my voe to you ~ if you only had my problems. The Av. form attests to the antiquity of the idiosyncratic form dating as early as the end of the 3rd mill. BC, before the migration of the future Indo-Iranians to the South-Central Asia. The IE etymology, with unattested *PGrm., *PIE is plain silly. See voe.

English yummy (adj.) delicious ~ Türkic yemiš (n.) fruit, pome. The stem of fruit, yem (n.) food, edibles, may as well be the source. Cognates: jam (n.) fruit preserve. The IE etymology is baby talk, not too enlightening statement expressing the absence of the IE etymology. The English cognate jam also stands without sensible etymology. Türkic adjectival participle of yem is yemy (pronounced yemmee), or yummy, it is a contracted form of yemiš in adjectival form. See jam.

6. Other

English as (adv.) to the same degree, like, because, while ~ Türkic aδïn (athin) (adv.) other, differently, the -δ- stands for voiced interdental -th-, the part -in looks like a detachable noun-producing affix-ïn/-in. Cognates: none listed; supposition of equivalency with OE alswa quite so, Grm. als than is questionable phonetically and semantically, especially so in the presence of the word also < alswa. In any case, the absence of cognates other than Eng. and Grm. points to a loanword status from a non-IE source. The form as is either a stem, or a truncated aδïn, typical for the western Türkic idioms: aδïn > aδ > ath > as, a semantically congruent plausible transition.
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English awhile (adv.) undetermined short period between two events ~ Türkic äwwäl (adv.) at first, before, in the beginning (adv.), before, in front of (postposition). Cognates: OE hwile, hwil, OSax. hwil, OFris. hwile, OHG hwila, Goth. hveila, Grm. Weile, all space of time, while. The Türkic phonetics is a little vague, since we do not know if the ancient phonetics had both -vv- and -w-, and the record has it both äwwäl (əwwəl) and ävväl (əvvəl); the Türkic semantics exactly matches the English usage, referring or alluding to a period between two events: event one - äwwäl - event two. The IE etymology has awhile as a derivative of while, via OE ane hwile (for) a while (13th c.), and via an unattested PIE *qwi- rest connects it with notions of rest (Lat. quies, OGS pokoi (), ONorse hvila bed," hvild rest" and joy (Av. shaitish, OPers. šiyatish joy), not serious propositions quite distant from the real semantics of the time interval. Such etymological equilibristic is obviously disingenuous. Since the word time is a form of the Türkic timin, the two separate notions of time and awhile always co-existed, and never needed to convert the word awhile into the word time. The form while (n., v.) is a natural oral contraction of a non-accented anlaut vowel, a derivative of the form awhile (adv.). See time.

English early (adv.) ~ Türkic ertä- (adv.) = early, in the morning, modern Oguz Turkish erken, ilk early. Both English and Türkic words are formed by the same mechanism, with different agglutinated affixes. The root of both words is Türkic er or its allophone, the English adverbial suffix -ly is conveyed in Türkic with temporal locative suffix -tä (-ta/-tä/-da/-dä/-δa/-δä) ~ when early, at an early time, in the morning, in modern Oguz Turkish -ken/k. Grammatically, the Türkic stem er corresponds to morning, possibly a derivative of the notion erï- = disappear, dissipate (of night, darkness). OE ær, ere soon, before (in time), superlative ærest earliest, OSw., OFris., OHG er, Du. eer; Grm. eher earlier, ONorse ar early, Goth. air early, airis earlier; Gk. eerios at daybreak; Av. ayar day. The English suffix -ly is clearly English innovation; the Türkic suffix - or its Ogur equivalent was dropped as a grammatical formant before the switch to the European alphabets. The perfect semantic unity and close phonetical correspondence leave no doubts about its Türkic origin: borrowing of such basic word from Gk. or Av. into Gmc. languages can be confidently excluded.

English gamut complete extent or range (adv.) ~ Türkic qamit (adv.) = whole, altogether. The best expression of the gamut meaning is the tautological idiom the whole gamut, i.e. the whole whole that refers to any matter or affair unrelated to music. In the figurative sense of entire musical scale scale or range gamutut is first recorded in the 1620s. The conventional anecdotal etymology links gamut with syllables in a Lat. hymn for St. John the Baptist's Day, a purely musical derivative application fossilized in popular encyclopedias. In English, the word gamut developed into a spectrum of noun, adverb, and adjective applications. No IE cognates.

English ha, hah, ha-ha guffaw ~ Türkic qatur (ɣatur) (v.) guffaw, hijinks. The population of the OEurope and the rest of the Europe in their numerous vernaculars definitely had numerous expressions for guffaw, but the population replacement of the 4th mill. BC by the horse-mounted Kurgan people wiped out and marginalized the previous European population, together with their numerous vernaculars. For 2 millennia, many Türkic languages covered Europe, spreading their lexicon and introducing new terminology that took hold across Europe. The Türkic qatur/ɣatur, in whatever allophonic forms of the time, is found in most European languages: in OE, Greek, Lat., OFr., Balt., Slavic, etc. The advent and spread of the IE languages to Europe in the 1st mill. BC was a process of infiltration, it gradually absorbed and digested the Türkic lexus, and brought to us remnants of the former common European lexicon, of which the ha, hah, ha-ha is one of the most prominent members.
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English hey (hei, hai, ai, he, heh) (interj.) call to get someone's attention, hello (greeting) ~ Türkic ay (interj.) call to get someone's attention. Cognates: Lat. eho, Gk. eia, Sw., Norse, Icl., Dan., Du., Grm. hei; Balt. (Lith.) ei, (Latv.) hey; Pol. hei; Hu hey; but Ir. hug. The IE etymology tends to confuse the Türkic cognates of ay call for attention and cognates of ay cry of grief, which are completely different in intonation and semantics; the IE etymology refers to natural expression, but that does not jibe with semantically identical calls with completely different phonetics, used by wide variety of the languages.

English how (adv.) ~ Türkic qalï (ɣalï) (adv.) how. Cognates: OSax. hwo, OFris., MDu. hu, Du. hoe, Grm. wie, Goth. hvaiwa how. The problem of transition from Romance initial k- to Grm. voiced h- is non-existent, this is the same process that connects Romance casa with Grm. house. Ultimately all IE forms for how ascend to the allophones and variations of the Türkic qalï, with laryngeal initial consonant, still preserved in the Türkic and Ukrainian languages. With the attested Türkic qalï/ɣalï, there is no need for the unattested Grm. *hwo- and the unattested PIE *kwo-.

English less smaller comparative of adjectives and adverbs (adv.) ~ Türkic es- smaller of comparative of adjectives and adverbs (adv.). Cognates: OE læs (adv.), læssa (adj.), comp. of læs small, læsse (n), OSw., OFris. les; Balt. (Lith.) liesas thin. The Balt. (Lith.) form preserved the original semantic of es-: reduce, from scatter, winnow by blowing. Near perfect phonetical correspondence and perfect semantical and grammatical correspondence. The prosthetic anlaut l- clearly appear to be a dialectal Eastern European innovation, all preserved forms center around Gmc. area. No IE cognates whatsoever. Used as a comparative of little, but not related to it.

English 'd (contracted of would, or the would is an expansion of phonetical wud/ud) ~ Türkic 'yu, conditional affix applied to nouns and pronouns. Cognates: OE wolde, past tense of willan to wish, desire, want, ONorse vilja, OFris. willa, Du. willen, OHG wellann, Grm. wollen, Goth. wiljan to will, wish, desire, Goth. waljan to choose. Semantically, functionally, morphologically, and phonetically the similarity of the Eng. 'd and Tr. 'yu is striking, the use of the Türkic conditional affix 'yu is documented from 328AD to the present. The IE etymology stipulates that the English conditional affix wud/ud is a derivative of the will wish, desire, want via OE wolde, past tense of willan to wish desire, want, which suggests that prior to the Middle Ages the ancestors of the English language did not have a way to express a conditional proposition. That allegation appear to be impossible, considering the realities facing English ancestors in the previous millennia, and numerous languages they encountered prior to the Middle Ages. In English, prior to being apostrophized, the conditional provision was expressed as a suffix, integral with the stem, a la sheele for she will, and without any form of the will expressed. Likelier, the conditional affix has already long existed, inherited from the Türkic substrate, in the forms and variations innate to the vernaculars of the Burgund, Vandal, and other European Sarmatian tribes.

English once (adv.) previous time, before ~ Türkic ön (v.) spring out, set out, depart, with adv. derivatives önce (onje) before, önceki (önjeki) previous. Cognates: OE anes (ane  one), Anglo-Sax. æne. The spelling and pronunciation have changed since 1200-1300 AD. No IE cognates, no unattested asterisked pra-forms. The semantical and phonetical match is near perfect, considering at least 4,000 years of independent development and traversed distances. The word must have been in daily use in recounting the old legends.

English other (adj., pronoun) second (adj.), alternate (pronoun)ötürü (adj., pronoun) then, following, after, because of, fore, after this. Cognates: OE other the second, alternate, after this, alternate the other; OSax. athar, OFris. other, ONorse annarr, OHG andar, Grm. ander, Goth. anthar, all meaning other; Spanish otra; Balt. (Lith.) antras; Sl. drugoi; Lat. alter; Skt. antarah other, foreign. Probably, the Türkic spelling with -t- does not reflect the soft -t- closer to the interdental voiceless -th-. The ONorse, Grm., and Goth. have a prosthetic -n- before fricatives, pointing to a separate dialectal origin. The IE etymology connects the word other with the Lat. compound of unattested *al- beyond + unattested adjectival comparative suffix *-tero-, quite a long shot that would not have produced either the Slavic drugoi, nor the Skt. antarah, nor the prosthetic -n>n- before fricatives in the Gmc. and Skt. The phonetical and grammatical match between the European, Eurasian (Türkic), and Hindustani forms, first, points to a common source, and second, to numerous dialectal variation within the common source. The pronounced commonality between the Gmc. and Hindustani forms attests to a common origin from within the Corded Ware culture of the 3rd mill. BC, brought over to the Hindustan at ca 1500 BC.
133

English sure (adj.) certain ~ Türkic sürek (adj.) sure.  The Türkic verbal stem sür- lead is one of most productive polysemantic stems with notions lead, chase, be engaged into, produce, perform/execute, pull, drag, live, rip, draw/pull off, with over 100 derivative bases in modern Turkish; saome derivatives have the notions of latching, locking. bolting, slider, continuity, duration, sustainability. Cognates: Anglo-Sax. orsorg, orsorglic, orsorgnes safe; secure, safely, unconcerned; security, prosperity, OHG ursorg ditto; OFr. sur, seur safe, secure, Lat. securus safe, secure, free from care. The IE etymology ascends to Lat. se free from + cura care, which not only conflicts with, but also ignores the Anglo-Sax. orsorglic form fr. or- + sorg +lic, where or- is a prefix out of, equivalent to Lat. ex-, sorg  is safe, and -lic is the Türkic suffix -lig/-lan like. The parallel presence of cognates sorg and securus certain, sure, safe in Lat, OHG, and Anglo-Sax. points to at least two independent paths to Lat. and Gmc. The interchangeability of u/o in Gmc. and Anglo-Sax. parallels their interchangeability in Türkic. The IE etymological attempt dead ends at Lat., uses the Türkic stem  qorq, and is obviously misleading. See care.

-

, , , / , , . /, 140 . .. , - . , , , -, .   , . - , , . - , , , . , 23- . ..  2- . .., - , . 6 - 4.
134

6. -
No English Chuvash Cognates
1 acorn jěkel Grm. Eichel acorn
2 asp äväs OE æps, Grm. Espe asp
3 barley urba Grm. Erbse pea
4 cheerful xatär OE hador, Grm. heiter cheerful
5 child papak, pebek Eng. baby
6 defense xüte Grm. Hut, Eng. hood, hat, Sw. hatt defence
7 do (v.) tu Grm. tun, Eng. to do, Du doen to do
8 fast, quick palt Eng. bold, Grm. bald fast, soon
9 fence karta Eng. garden, Grm. Garten
10 food, eatable apat OE ofett, Grm. Obst vegetables
11 freeze (v.) xaltarä Grm. kalt, Eng. cold cold
12 good, fine xitren OE cytren beautiful
13 herd kěrt Eng. herd, Sw. hjord, Grm. Herde herd, flock, Goth. haírda
14 kindred xajmatläx Grm. Heimat, (OHG heimoudil), Got haimoþli homeland
15 otter ätär Eng. otter , Grm. Otter
16 parsley pultäran Grm. Baldrian valerian, Lat. Valeriana,  Tr. baldiran
17 poppy mäkän Grm. Mohn poppy
18 sow-thistle pěčen Grm. Vesen siftings, bran
19 stick up (v.) čak(k) Grm. Zacke tooth, jag
20 thistle läbär OE laber, leber rush, reed, OHG leber
21 top tärä Eng. tor stony top. Lat torus
22 tremble (v.) čětre Grm. zittern to tremble
23 wake vak Grm. Wake, Eng. wake, Sw. vak wake
24 wormwood armuti Grm. Wermut wormwood
25 superfluous ytla Grm. eitel, Eng. idle, Dt ijdel

134

, , , , . , , , .

. , (Futhark) , , , .

, , . , , . 20- . (- ) , , , . - , , , . , .
135

, , 63%, 69%; . , , , , , . , .

, 30%. , 1/3 ; .

, , , . , , , , , .

  , , , . , (Merpert, 1974, 1976) (Gimbutas, 1964, 1974, 1977, 1980)   , , , .

. - , / , , , , . , . , , , .. , ( )  ( , 1980, Renfrew, 1987, , 1989, Gray Atkinson, 2003), - , , (D. W. Anthony, 2007). , , , .
136

5 . .., , , (), , , , . , , , , , . , , , , Honfoglalás . , (Angeiloi) . , . 5 . .., . , , , . , .

- ; , , , , . ​​ , Y- I . - , - . - , , , , -. , - , . : , . , . , , -. , (Zhou) . , , , . , -, , -. , , , , , , ..; , ' (S'k) , - - -, . -aɣut/-an/än/-ɣut/-güt/-lar/-lär/-t , Sykan () Saklar (Sekler). .
137

, , , , ;   turf  tourbe - . , *tourbe turf, . , ,   turan, turfan, turmaq , , . : - , , , .

, . , m- b-. , , , .

, , , , , , .

- . , . , , . , .

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