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Türkic languages
Yu.N. Drozdov
Türkic-lingual Period Of European History
Moscow, Yaroslavl, Letter", 2011, ISBN 978-5-904729-20-2
PREFACE
Preface  Chapter 1.6 / / Chapter 14

 Links

http://books.google.com/books?id=Prd4Ij5HGLQC (2nd ed., 2011)
http://www.kaynakca.info/tr/?Sayfa=EserDetay&EserId=2154290
YNDrozdov<oops>yandex.ru

 Posting Foreword

The void left by studies, Eurocentric in general and Western Civilization in particular, leave huge gaps that went unfilled for centuries. Scientific advances in both directions largely increased the gap, advancing both the civic national and Church versions of the European history, and bringing to the surface numerous voids that remain institutionally avoided. Meanwhile, numerous disciplines push scholars against the wall, forcing development of theoretical scenarios that explain observations without demolishing the established version. A biggest problem arose with accumulated genetical databases with ever increasing resolution, which started providing precise data that does not fit readily into instituted models, attracting unscholarly excursions into inhospitable territories. Ironically, the voids frequently cover problems of fundamental character, which in natural sciences constitute a backbone of the knowledge that generates consistent explanations and point a path forward, but in humanities tend to remain unscathed in a blind spot, peacefully coexisting with the historical mythology of the day. Preservation of the existing state of affairs became a science in itself, with its euphemistic lingo, and an industry producing proofs that the annalistic and archeological records abounds with flaws appearing as phantom conflicts with the national histories; cleansing the detected flaws bring annals and artifacts into logical compliance with our domesticated scheme of history.

The world record and the apex of the imaginative creation was reached after the Central Committee VKP(b), the ruling party of the USSR, published in 1944 an edict prohibiting ancientization of Turkic history. It postulated that Turkic history began in  12th c., period. It brought about a linguistic development of an alternate lexicon which replaced the nouns and adjectives containing the word "Türk by a wealth of euphemisms: nomads, Siberians, Paleosiberians, Middle Asians, Scythians, Altaians, Tuvians", etc. that filled scientific publications. It physically annihilated all carriers of national Turkology. The extent of Hitlerist and Soviet crimes against dead or alive nonconformists differred only in geography and adjectives, the methods and objectives were the same. The edict enabled V.I. Abaev to climb into a chair of Supreme Scythologist, to lay out the rules of propriety, and the scientific standard. What could be more idiotic and unscientific than the idea of ​​scientific standard? Never before, and hopefully  never again, an assault on the written history and common sense resulted in such across the borders victory. Digors, the descendents of Tokhars, were rebranded into linguistically agglutinating peculiar Indo-Europeans, and became the Scythians per se. By implication they also became Sarmats. The political re-mapping of the annexed Caucasus made Digors  the Ossetes, and the nomadic Eurasian Siberian Scythians became pra-fathers of the petite mountain enclave. The genius of a Jewish convert boy with alias Stalin turned the geopolitical table around, killing a bunch of birds with one stone. Europe and Russia needed Indo-European Scythians, and we have done it. Voila.

Stalin and his V.I. Abaev followed the tracts of the Church history, relying on intimidation, persecution, and dogmatism to win hearts and minds, which in a long run never work. In the end, they achieved the opposite, their enforcement of blind faith and dogmas notwithstanding. New Copernicuses come with concepts that conflict with dogmas, and the dogmas have to change  C'est la vie.

It may be taken as given that not all etymologies suggested by Yu.N. Drozdov hold the water, and will be properly discarded. No research gets it on the first attempt, and many an exploration conclude with a dead end, but the ball is rolling, and the wind has changed. Any counterargument will advance the state of the knowledge, and leave the pundits of blind spotting on the sidelines. The value of scientific pioneering rests with fracking bonds, to allow flow of media, and here is a best example of the productive insight: the etymology of the word Türk. Numerous scholars came up with various suggestions, many of them inspiring confidence, and the suggestion of A.Mukhamadiev is even corroborated by runiform coin inscriptions of an ancient Middle Asian ruler. But the etymology suggested by Yu.N. Drozdov is the most elegant and straightforward, both Türk and Turk are expressions of the Türkic Aturgy = at + urgy = horse + strike => horsed fighter/soldier/warrior, cavalryman, mounted fighter/soldier/warrior, rider, horseman, knight, equestrian, cavalier, , . The simplest solution is almost always a reality.

Türkic language has changed. In the time when some Kurgan people of the 6th millennia BC reached Central Siberian steppes in the 2nd  millennia BC, and then backtracked back to N.Pontic and went forward to Ordos and Manchuria, with all back and forth in-between, they encountered and amalgamated with countless other peoples, changing their genetics, their appearance, their traditions, their technology, their lexicon, their syntaxes, and their phonetics. Some of their people went through a pidgin analytic period, and were reborn with languages that have little in common with the original vernaculars; others lost them completely; an still others preserved them better, and could recognize their kinship separated by 40-50 generations per millennia, only to diversify and reconstitute them anew. The rigid determinism of the agglutinating morphology gave them a license for remarkable stability, but incredible separating distances, time, and mobility produced distinct vernaculars that puzzle and amaze the modern paleolinguists. Both eastern and western Türkic languages metamorphosed with time, and both have survived, with various linguistic clines extending across Eurasia. With the influences of the eastern Kipchak-Oguz languages brought over to Europe in the last 1,500 years, the European Türkic languages survived as Tatar and Balkar languages, as mostly unstudied Türkic isle languages of Balkans, and as traces in a number of European languages, of Finnic, Slavic, Germanic, and Romance groups. Naturally, these linguistic monuments are the first candidates for the reconstructive etymology of the Türkisms in the European languages. In his work, Yu.N. Drozdov mostly relied on the following dictionaries:
Tatar - Russian dictionary. Edited by F.A. Ganiev. Kazan. .2002. (25 thousand words) [ - . . . . . 2002. (25 . )]
Karachai-Balkar-Russian dictionary. Ed. E.R. Tenishev, H.I. Suyunchev, Moscow, 1989. (30 thousand words) [-- . . .. , .. , ., 1989. (30 .)]
Old Turkic Dictionary. Leningrad. 1969 [ . . 1969]
Dyachenko G. Complete Church Slavic dictionary. Moscow, 1993 [ . - . .,  1993]

Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page. Posting notes and explanations, added to the text of the author are shown in (blue italics)) in parentheses and in blue boxes, or highlighted by blue headers.

Contents
5
PREFACE 7
  12
Chapter 1 SCYTHIANS 17
  1.Tribes of North Black Sea Region and Neighboring Tribes 26
  2.Tribes mentioned by Strabon 39
  3.Tribes mentioned by Pliny the Elder 42
  4.Tribes mentioned by Ptolemy 51
  5.Goths 55
  6. Huns 74
  7.Avars 93
Chapter 2 ENETOI AND WENDS 100
Chapter 3 SCLAVENES, ANTES, AND VANDALS 107
  1.Sclavenes 107
  2.Antes 122
  3.Vandals 125
Chapter 4 SCANDINAVIAN ETHNIC TERRITORY 134
Chapter 5 EASTERN BALTIC REGION 166
Chapter 6 GERMANS 221
Chapter 7 FRANKS 236
Chapter 8 GAUL 250
Chapter 9 BRITAIN 260
Chapter 10 ITALIAN ETHNIC TERRITORY 285
Chapter 11 HELLENE, GREEK AND ROMAN ETHNONYMS 312
Chapter 12 PEOPLES OF KAMA AND VOLGA RIVERS 330
  1.Ruses 331
  2.Magars 356
  3.As-Saqaliba 387
  4.Cheremises 396
  5.Chuvashes 400
  6.Bulgars 408
  7.Burtas 426
  8.Khazars 430
Chapter 13 RUSSIAN ETHNIC TERRITORY 436
  1.Antique Sources 436
  2.Ancient Scandinavian Sources 440
  3.Russian Chronicle Sources 445
  4.Muscovy 490
  5.Toponymy 522
Chapter 14 ON CHRISTIANITY 540
REFERENCES 567
Yu.N. Drozdov
Türkic-lingual Period Of European History
PREFACE

7

As far back as once can reach into historical memory, the European continent already contained several ethnically homogeneous territories. The westernmost was Gaul (Latin: Gallia), or Celtica. To the east, as far as the Vistula River, extended Germania. Eastwards from the Vistula as far as the Ural Mountains lay the territory called by some ancient writers Scythia, by others Sarmatia, while yet others refer to part of it as Scythia and a part as Sarmatia. Britain, Scandinavia and the Sub-Apennine peninsula were separate entities with distinct ethnicities, as was the Iberian peninsula south of the Pyrenees. Moreover, the vast expanse of Scythia-Sarmatia was from the very beginning divided into an assortment of substantial territories. An ethnic territory owes its name to the ethnonym of the dominant people or tribe living there. The lands in question, however, were occupied by a large number of different tribes and peoples, all possessing their own ethnic names.

All ancient and most early medieval written sources concerned with European history exist in one of two languages: Ancient Greek or Latin. Neither one was much used in ancient times on the European land mass as vernacular, and after Late Antiquity they effectively fell into complete desuetude.

According to relevant historical written records, compiled in the period between Antiquity and the Early Mediaeval period, on the European land mass were more than 2,500 names of tribes and peoples.1 None of these names are derived from Ancient Greek or from Latin, but from some other European languages. Yet, the ethnonyms being themselves words that reflect the name of a defined community of people, must have been integral to the respective lexicons of those languages spoken by European peoples at the time. However, to judge from the great number of ethnonyms and other terms cited by the ancient sources, these languages fundamentally differed from those spoken by European populations today. This observation naturally gives rise to certain questions: What were these languages? Who spoke them? What is the relationship of their speakers to todays European peoples? How and why did their languages change to those we hear today? The earliest European ethnonym to be found on the pages of ancient written sources is that of the Cimmerians. A semantic and etymological analysis of this word shows that it has been of typical Türkic tribal nomenclature. Ancient sources provide detailed information that the Cimmerians belonged to the Scythian people who were later called the Huns. Generally speaking, the Ancient Greeks bestowed appellation Scyth on all those European tribes whose religious orientation, to judge from the semantic implications of the word, centred on fire worship (Semantic implications notwithstanding, the criteria for exonyms are always vague and superficial, color being the most popular superficial distinction, and given an absence of color or sqquinted eyes, the location and the most striking characteristic, in this case horse steppe nomadism and its unmistakable traits; Scyth being a reflection of the edonym, was used as an exonym for other horse steppe nomads). The name the peoples themselves used to describe their race was, however, As.
8

Modern opinion holds that the Scythians inhabited a vast territory stretching from the Urals to Vistula. Other names for them were Sarmatians or Savromatians. Analysis of their tribal ethnic names shows that they all were Türkic-speaking; indeed the works of numerous contemporary scholars and specialists demonstrate convincingly that the Scythians were a Türkic-speaking  people, and this is directly confirmed by the Western European Middle Ages documentary evidence of the written records. And in anthropological terms the Scythians were predominantly of the Caucasoid type. The original location of the Scythian tribes in Europe, including Huns, Avars, Bulgars and others, was the Middle Volga and Kama river basins, where they probably appeared no later than the third millenium BC. Some of these tribes subsequently settled in the wide expanse of land between the Volga and Don, an area they began calling Asia. At some point, apparently around the end of the third millenium BC, the Middle Volga tribes migrated to Central, Southern and Northern Europe, passing as they went through the Upper Volga basin and the lands around Baltic Sea. In all probability these tribes were carriers of the so-called Battle-Axe Culture (Also known as Corded Ware Culture and Single Grave Culture, names reflecting different aspects of the archeological record in artefacts and burial customs). At a later date these Türkic-speaking peoples from Middle Volga and Kama basins also began migration, via the banks of the Sea of Azov and Black Sea, to Southern, Central and Northern Europe. Apparently, from earliest antiquity the dominant peoples in Europe stemmed from the Türkic-speaking tribes.

Judging by vestiges, the greater part of the European territory where the Türkic-speaking peoples migrated to would likely have been inhabited by aboriginal populations speaking autochthonous inflected or fusional languages. The clues on that, albeit extremely rare and meagre, are occasionally found in the written records of the ancient writers. The hypothesis that the languages spoken by aboriginal folk would have been inflected rests on the following propositions.

The only available written sources in Europe that date back to antiquity are in Greek and Latin, although ethnonyms, onomastic and other linguistic studies point that a significant proportion of the population at that time must have been Türkic-speaking. But from the 10th to 12th cc. AD onwards the written sources start to appear in a variety of inflected tongues which form the basis for all languages spoken throughout Europe today. To be precise, no traces have come down to us today of any inflected language before the 10th to 12th centuries. Moreover, at a slightly earlier time than this, sources in Ancient Greek disappear from the record, followed after a short while by Latin. Later still, the Türkic onomastics and specific terminology vanish from the Latin sources. All that remain are some Türkic ethnonyms surviving in corrupted forms in the now proliferating fusional languages.
9

To judge from the written sources and archeological evidence, no significant waves of foreign language speaking populations penetrated Europe at that time. These factors give rise to the assumption that on the eve of the 10th 12th cc. AD the Türkic-speaking population of Europe swwitched from Türkic to inflected tongues. And this may mean that although inflected languages have already been spoken there, or to be accurate the peoples speaking those languages lived there since remote antiquity, for some reason the Greco-Latin sources make no mention of them. One reason for that may have been their social status. Most probably, they were indigenous population subjugated by the Türkic-speaking invading tribes, which condemned them to disenfranchised, historically inert position at the very lowest stratum of society, they were dismissed as commoners and savages with whom the newcoming Türkic-speaking population would have had little or no contact. But it can be speculated that at a particular moment in history, under influence of powerful external factors, the Türkic-speaking section of the population that for centuries had held sway over Europe, had to adopt the inflected languages of the indigenous peoples it subjugated for so long. Possibly, the underlying causes may be found in religion: from the end of the 4th c. a schism ran right through Christendom. Throughout the Roman Empire the Catholic Church was in ascendancy, whereas the populations of the remaining areas of the Western and Central Europe, mainly inhabited by Türkic-speaking peoples of Scythian origin, clung to Arianism.

Derived from the teaching of Arius (ca AD 250-336), who held that Jesus was not co-eternal with God the Father, but had been created by him and was therefore a distinct, and necessarily inferior being.

Arianism is a Church codeword for monotheism. The Roman Catholic Church fought Tengriism under a number of names, the most known of which are Arianism and Catharism, while the Greek Orthodox Church fought it under the names Khudaiyar in Türkic and its calque Bogomil (God-worshipper) in Slavic. The offshoot of the Greek Orthodox Church, the Russian Orthodox Church fought it by labeling its followers Judizers, but they called themselves Old Believers. In every case, that was a multi-faceted fight of Trinity against monotheism, wrapped in the early Christian lingo, with depiction of the theological competitors as Christians, the bad Christians, but the Christians nevertheless. With their profound differences in the adopted historical positions, both the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church do not acknowledge the Tengrian roots of neither the schism, nor the Türkic ethnic background of the Bulgars or Scythians that followed the Tengriism in either unadulterated or in Christianized form. However, the glossing over Bulgars or Scythians carries a great historical load, the the religious history of the Tengriism is as much a part of the Türkic history as are the Huns or Türkic Kaganates.

The sources of the eastern monotheism are readily apparent, although in the Christological theology they are camouflaged under different names and falsely attributed to the recognized early Christian luminaries, who in fact had nothing to do with the effects ascribed to them, Arian had nothing to do with Arianism, St-Augustine had nothing to do with Catharism. This religion came to the Central and Western Europe with the kurgans and Kurgan people in the 4th millennia BC. Only in the beginning of the 1st millennia AD it became an enemy of the bifurcated canonized Christianity on its roll to gain primacy in the Northern and Eastern Europe. The Goths, the Alans, the Huns, and all people of the Hunnic circle by the 2nd millennia AD resettled across Europe, occupied aristocratic positions among their tribesmen and locals, probably largely lost their mother tongue, but continued following the precepts of the millennium-old religion.

Preached usually in Türkic language, this was a theology universally proscribed as heretical, and heretics were savagely persecuted and repressed.

Inasmuch as the Türkic language was associated with Arianism, those whose tongue it was could well have shifted to that of the indigenous common people. for fear of repression imposed by the all-powerful Catholic Church. Then, this could have been the principal reason why those sections of the European population speaking Türkic abandoned it in favour of inflected languages. In this process, Inquisition was the Churchs chief instrument of repression, no doubt instituted expressly for the purpose.

In Eastern Europe the ethnic parameters developed rather differently. In the Middle Volga and Kama Basin Regions, as well as the area lying between the Volga and Oka Rivers, and South-Eastern Baltcs, the long estestablished populations were probably Finnic-speaking tribes. At some far-off period of time the Türkic-speaking people migrated there, where although they lived side-by-side with the indigenous populations they did not mix racially. However, the indigenous tribes in the northern parts of the Eastern Baltic form an exception to the pattern, because they were quick to assimilate the Türkic-speaking migrants.

Stipulaton on absence of  racial mixing conflicts with the known Türkic marital traditions; quite the opposite, Türks easily intermixed with every surrounding populations, creating innumerable admixtures with every neighboring peoples, some of which are well-known, some inferred, and most not documented. Among  well-known are all brands of Chinese, Mongolian, Slavic, Indian, Tibetian, Persian; among the inferred are Tungus, Finnic, Baltic, and a number of European brands; undocumented are admixtures beyond the literary space and time. The Türkic societies strictly followed anti-incest laws, and practiced long-term dual exogamy that united blood-unrelated trbes into marital unions and eventually produced a single tribe or nation.

10

It is difficult to tell with certainty the ethnic origins of the ancient populations in the Middle and Upper Dnieper regions. Somewhere around the 5th c. AD Slavic tribes migrated to Eastern Europe. These were Southern Slavs who originally had come from Dalmatia, thence passing through Bohemia, Poland, Northern Belorussia to settle in the Volga-Klyazma river basin. Another group of Slavic tribes from the Middle Danube region probably made its way at a later date, to settle in Eastern Europe in the regions of Middle Dnieper and Oka basin. Some of the Rus Türkic-speaking tribes originated from the Middle Volga and Kama basins, they joined the general migratory wave taking a northern route to end up in Eastern Baltcs, while still others came to the eastern shores of the Sea of Azov. In the middle of the 9th c. AD peoples of Rus origin from Baltc area penetrated as far as Lake Ilmen, and then spread to the Middle Dnieper, exercising control and influence over the resident Slavic tribes. By the 11th c. they had moved as far as the Volga-Oka region. Written records from that area mention a presence there of Mosk people, who were to establish the powerful mediaeval state known as Moskovia. Therefore, such is the likely ethnic background, against which evolved ethnogenesis and subsequent history of the entire European community of peoples.

The hypotheses and conclusions outlined in the offered work for the most part are founded on linguistical analysis of ethnonyms and other terms, and to some extent on interpretation of historical data out of the central focus of attention in modern historical science. Certainly, for credible understanding of ethnogenetic processes among the peoples of Europe is necessary to compare results presented in the present work with materials from the fields of archeology, source research, linguistics, Turkology, ethnology, and other related disciplines. Nevertheless, the aggregate of gleaned information from examination of ethnic names and other terms provides a cause to posit that for considerable time in the history of ancient Europe existed a Türkic-lingual period, when the dominant strata of the ancient European population spoke the Türkic language.
11

The purpose of a previous publication Türkic Ethnonymy Of European Peoples (2008) was to identify ethnic origins and relationships of the ancient tribes and peoples in Europe in the earliest historical sources; to decipher their ethnonyms, and understand why the ancient Europeans spoke different languages compared to the present. This second edition incorporates corrections, additions and partial revisions of the first edition of this book. Corrections mainly relate to semantics for a number of ethnonyms and terms. Additions and partial revisions reflect research works on ethnogenesis of the European nations that examine ethnicity and intra-European migrational processes. Revised content caused clarification of the title in the second edition of the book.

For their work in preparation of this book for the press the author wishes to express his deep appreciation to G.Zavgorodnaya, A.Zavgorodny, A.Phillips and G.Shuke.
12

REFERENCES
(Bibliographical listing has not been proofread. For accurate titles see Russian version)
567
1. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M. 1991. p. 5.
2. Drozdov Yu.N. Türkic peoples of ancient European ethnonymy. M., 2008.
3. BAH. 1947, No 1. , P. 267.
4. Code of the oldest written form of the Slavs. M., 1991. T. 1. , P. 25.
5. Ibid. , P. 51.
6. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 64.
7. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. , P. 33.
8. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. p. 86, 87.
9. Abayev VI Ossetian language and folklore. M.-A. , 1949. p. 239.
10. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. P. 139, 140.
11. Ibid. p. 5.
12. Ibid. p. 137-139.
13. Library of Foreign Writers of Russia. St Petersburg. , 1836. T. 1. , P. 24.
14. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century / / The Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1913. p. 4.
15. Ibid. , P. 16.
16. Mihalon Litvin. On the customs of the Tatars, Lithuanians, and Muscovites. M., 1994. , P. 62.
17. Dzhils Fletcher. On the Russian state. M., 2002. p. 109.
18. Russia began the 17th c. Notes of Captain Marzhereta. M., 1982. p. 141.
19. The dream of Russian unity. Kiev synopsis. (1674). M., 2006. , P. 53.
20. Jiri David. The present state of Great Russia or Muscovy / / Questions of history, No 1. 1968. , P. 131.
21. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. , P. 10.
22. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. , P. 79.
23. Ibid. , P. 61.
24. Dovatur AN, Kallistov DP, Shishova NA peoples of our country in the History by Herodotus. M., 1982. , P. 101.
25. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. 142 pp. 26. Ibid. p. 142.
27. Ibid.
28. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 29.
29. Slavs and Russia. M., 2001. p. 225.
30. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 11.
31. Tatishchev VN Russian history. M-A. , 1962 T. I. , P. 243.
32. Lyzlov A. Skifiyskaya history. M., 1990. , P. 19.
33. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 261 - 264.
34. Dovatur AI, Kallistov DP, Shishova IA peoples of our country in the History by Herodotus. M., 1982. , P. 117.
35. BAH. 1948. No.  3. p. 281.
568
36. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 21, 23.
37. Zakiev 3. The origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. , P. 56.
38. Ibid. , P. 56.
39. VDI, 1947, No 2. P. 278.
40. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 321.
41. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 280.
42. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 279.
43. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. p. 156.
44. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 280.
45. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Goths. M., 1950. p. 381, 382.
46. Strabo. Geography, Moscow, 1994. p. 280.
47. BAH. 1947, No 4. p. 198.
48. Ibid. p. 228.
49. Kulakovsky A. Selected works on the history of the Alans and Sarmatians. St Petersburg. , 2000. , P. 51.
50. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 294, 295.
51. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. Pp. 28, 169.
52. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 75.
53. Skrzhinskaya MV Northern Black Sea Coast in the description of Pliny the Elder. Kiev, 1977. , P. 39.
54. Ibid. , P. 41.
55. VDI, 1947, No 1. p. 295.
56. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 325.
57. VDI, 1949, No 3. p. 187.
58. VDI, 1947, No 3. P. 312.
59. VDI, 1947, No 1. p. 283.
60. VDI, 1947, No 1. p. 283.
61. VDI, 1948, No 3. , P. 26.
62. Strabo. Geography. M., 1994. p. 468.
63. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 66.
64. Strabo. Geography. M., 1964. The book. VII. p. 277.
65. Theophanes the Confessor. Chronographia / / JS Chichurov. Byzantine historical writings. M., 1980. , P. 47.
66. Ibid. , P. 47.
67. Ammianus Marcellinus. Roman history. St. Petersburg, 1994. p. 290-291.
68. VDI, 1947, No 4. p. 272.
69. Kulakovsky A. Selected works on the history of the Alans and Sarmatians. St Petersburg. , 2000. , P. 65.
70. Abayev VI Ossetian language and folklore. M., 1949. p. 263.
71. Ibid. p. 260-270.
72. Zakiev H. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. p. 168, 169.
73. Fattakhov F.Sh. What language is spoken Alan / / Some results and problems of studying the Tatar language. Kazan, 1992. , P. 108.
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74. Ibid. p. 169, 170.
75. J. Del Piano Carpini. History mongalov. Guillaume de Rubruck. Journey to the East. The Book of Marco Polo. M., 1997. , P. 104.
76. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. p. 91-92.
77. Skrzhinskaya MV Northern Black Sea Coast in the description of Pliny the Elder. Kiev, 1977. , P. 44.
78. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 123.
79. Skrzhinskaya MV Northern Black Sea Coast in the description of Pliny the Elder. Kiev, 1977. , P. 47.
80. VDI, 1948, No 2. p. 256.
81. Ibid. p. 257.
82. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1997. P. 196.
83. VDI, 1948, No 2. p. 236, 237.
84. Budanov VG ethnonymy tribes of Western Europe: the ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. , P. 88.
85. VDI, 1948, No 2. p. 236.
86. Ibid. p. 238.
87. Bershtam AN Essay on the history of the Huns. L., 1951. p. 135.
88. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. 2003. , P. 56.
89. Budanov VP Goths in the era of the Great Migration. St Petersburg. , 2001. p. 15.
90. Ibid. p. 103, 115.
91. Ibid. p. 195.
92. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. Pp. 81, 82.
93. Gukhman MM Gothic. M., 1958. p. 13-15.
94. Ibid. p. 6.
95. Budanov VP Goths in the era of the great migration of peoples. M., 1990. p. 190.
96. VDI, 1948, No 1, p. 308.
97. VDI, 1949, No 3, p. 261.
98. VDI, 1948, No 3, pp. 282.
99. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 280.
100. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Goths. M., 1950. p. 386.
101. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 66.
102. Chichurov Byzantine historical writings. M., 1980. P. 79, note. 9.
103. Budanov VP Goths in the era of the great migration of peoples. M., 1990. p. 71, 72.
104. Ibid. , P. 71.
105. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. , P. 64.
570
106. Skrzhinskaya MV Northern Black Sea Coast in the description of Pliny the Elder. Kiev, 1977. , P. 47.
107. VDI, 1949, No 3. p. 261.
108. VDI, 1949, No 3. p. 304.
109. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. Pp. 61, 64-66.
110. Budanov VP Goths in the era of the great migration of peoples. M., 1990. P. 194.
111. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier, Moscow, 1991. p. 193, 196.
112. Ibid. p. 85, 86, 87.
113. Belikov D. Christianity in ready. Kazan, 1887, vol. I. , P. 25.
114. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 70.
115. VDI, 1948, No 2. p. 260.
116. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 80.
117. Ibid. , P. 84.
118. Ibid. , P. 84.
119. Ibid. 68.
120. Ibid. , P. 89.
121. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M. 1960. p. 65, 66.
122. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Vandals. M., 1993. p. 128.
123. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 69.
124. Vudukind Korveysky. Acts of the Saxons. M., 1975. , P. 137.
125. Chronica Sigeberti Gemblacensis a. 381-1111. MGH, SS. Bd. VI. Hannover. 1844.
126. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 92.
127. Ibid. , P. 92.
128. Ibid. 68.
129. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. , P. 147.
130. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. 68.
131. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Goths. M., 1950. p. 386.
132. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. 68.
133. Budanov VP ethnonymy tribes of Western Europe: line of antiquity and early Middle Ages. M., 1991. , P. 81.
134. VDI, 1949, No 3. p. 301.
135. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 281.
136. VDI, 1948, No 3. Pp. 30.
137. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 85.
138. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Goths. M., 1950. p. 386.
139. Ibid. p. 384.
140. Ibid. p. 385.
141. Ibid. p. 381.
142. VDI, 1947, No 1. p. 281, 282.
571
143. VDI, 1947, No 2, pp. 260.
144. VDI, 1947, No 2, pp. 260.
145. Strabo. Geography. M., 1994. p. 191.
146. Ibid. p. 268.
147. VDI, 1947, No 4. p. 258.
148. Code of the oldest written form of the Slavs. M., 1991, Volume 1. , P. 25.
149. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. p. 368.
150. Kuzmin A. Beginning of Russia. M., 2003. , P. 147.
151. VDI, 1947, No 1. p. 285.
152. Ibid. p. 292.
153. VDI, 1948, No 1, p. 245.
154. The dream of Russian unity. Synopsis of Kiev (1674). M., 2006. , P. 62.
155. The history of Europe. M., 1988. T. 1. p. 214.
156. VDI, 1949, No 3, p. 305.
157. Ibid. p. 305.
158. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Goths. M., 1950. p. 386-388.
159. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M., 1996. , P. 20.
160. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. Moscow, 1989. p. 155.
161. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 87, 88, 213.
162. The history of Europe. M., 1992. T. 2. p. 216.
163. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 95.
164. Ibid. , P. 97.
165. Ibid. , P. 97.
166. Ibid. , P. 97.
167. Ibid. , P. 102.
168. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. p. 111.
169. Gedeonov SA Varangians and Rus. M., 2004. p. 445.
170. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. p. 112.
171. Kulakovsky A. Selected works on the history of the Alans and Sarmatians.   St Petersburg. , 2000. p. 120.
172. Dyachenko, G. Complete Church Slavic dictionary. M., 1993. p. 556.
173. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M. - L., 1957. p. 159, 160.
174. Pigulevskaya NV Syrian sources on the history of the USSR. M. - L., 1941. , P. 165.
175. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M. - L., 1957. p. 159.
176. Ibid. , P. 160.
177. Ibid. , P. 160.
178. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. p. 291.
179. Theophylact Simakatta. History, Moscow - Leningrad, 1957. p. 160, 161.
180. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. p. 231.
181. Code of the oldest written form of the Slavs. M., 1995, T. II. p. 367.
182. Ibid. p. 371.
183. Ibid. p. 273.
184. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. p. 111.
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185. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M., 1996. , P. 25.
186. Theophylact Simakatta. History, Moscow - Leningrad, 1957. , P. 160.
187. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. , P. 19.
188. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 12.
189. Shavlo J. Veneti: our early ancestors. M., 2003. , P. 48.
190. Kolosovskaya YK Veneti people in the testimonies of ancient authors / / The Ancient World. Byzantium. Kharkov, 1997. , P. 108.
191. Ibid. p. 109.
192. Ibid. p. 109.
193. Ibid. p. 107.
194. Shavlo J. Veneti: our ancient ancestors. M., 2003. , P. 49.
195. Kolosovskaya YK Veneti people in the testimonies of ancient authors / / The Ancient World. Byzantium. Kharkov, 1997. p. 111.
196. Julius Caesar. Notes on the Gallic War. St Petersburg. , 1998. P. 73.
197. Kolosovskaya YK Veneti people in the testimonies of ancient authors / / The Ancient World. Byzantium. Kharkov, 1997. , P. 104.
198. Ibid. P. 106.
199. Ibid. P. 106.
200. Shavlo J. Veneti: our early ancestors. M., 2003. , P. 49.
201. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. p. 372, 373.
202. VDI, 1948, No 2. p. 236.
203. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 67.
204. Shavlo J. Veneti: our early ancestors. M., 2003. , P. 48.
205. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 62, 65, 73, 219.
206. Venelin J. Ancient and present Slovenia. M., 2004. p. 245.
207. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. , P. 45.
208. Vudukind Korveysky. Acts of the Saxons. M., 1975. P. 153.
209. Ibid. , P. 147.
210. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M. 1963. , P. 33.
211. Kalinina TA information earlier scholars Arab caliphate. M., 1988, P. 48.
212. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. , P. 15.
213. Kalinina, T. Details of early scientists Arab caliphate. M., 1988, P. 91.
214. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 67.
215. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. p. 33-35.
216. Ibid. , P. 37.
217. Ibid. , P. 49.
218. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. p. 365.
219. Nazarenko AV Latin-German sources IX-XI centuries. M., 1993. , P. 64.
220. Tatishchev VN Russian history. Moscow - Leningrad, 1962, Volume 1. p. 209, 210.
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221. Kuzmin A. Beginning of Russia. M., 2003. , P. 147.
222. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. p. 85, 86.
223. VDI, 1948, No 2. p. 233.
224. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. p. 111.
225. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M., 1996. p. 73, 180.
226. Code of the oldest written form of the Slavs. M. 1995. T. 2. , P. 23.
227. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. , P. 56.
228. VDI, 1947, No 4. p. 242.
229. Strabo. Geography. M,. 1994. p. 270.
230. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 325.
231. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. p. 72.
232. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 280.
233. Gall Anonymous. Chronicle and deeds of princes and rulers of Poland. M., 1961, P. 27.
234. Description of the Muscovy communique at gr. Carlyle / / Historical Library. No.  5. 1879  p. 14-15.
235. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 262.
236. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century / / The Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1913. P. 8.
237. Description of the Muscovy communique at gr. Carlyle / / Historical Library. No.  5. 1879. p. 14-15.
238. Jerome Horsey. Notes to Russia XVI - the beginning of XVII. M., 1991. , P. 50.
239. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. From 58.
240. Venelin J. Ancient and present Slovenia. M., 2004. p. 223.
241. Alekseev, SV Slavic Europe V - VI centuries. M., 2005. p. 323.
242. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Goths. M., 1950. p. 297.
243. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. Pp. 79, 80.
244. Ibid. P. 73.
245. Slavs and Russia. M., 2001. p. 246.
246. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 92.
247. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. , P. 36.
248. Fattakhov F.Sh. What language is spoken Alans? / / Some results and problems of studying the Tatar language. Kazan, 1992. p. 113.
249. Disner G.-I. The Kingdom of the Vandals. The rise and fall. St Petersburg. , 2002. , P. 31.
250. Budanov VP ethnonymy tribes of Western Eropy: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 39, 40.
251. Kryukov V.G. Messages of anonymous author of Akhbar al-Zaman ("al-Mukhtasar andzhaib") on peoples of Europe / / The oldest state in the USSR territory. M., 1983. , P. 201.
252. Mamay Hassan. Alans in Pyrenees. Part 2. [Electronic resource. ] URL: http://karachays. com/index/0-48 253. Ibid.
254. Ibid.
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255. Kulakovsky A. Selected works on the history of the Alans and Sarmatians. St Petersburg. , 2000. P. 94.
256. History of Sweden. M., 1974. , P. 51.
257. Dzhakon TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 224.
258. Herausgegeben von Georg Waitz. MGH. Scriptores VI. Hannover 1844. Annalista Saxo. p. 542-777.
259. Ibid. p. 52, 53.
260. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 95.
261. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M, 1993. Pp. 62-63. comm. 29.
262. Snorri Sturluson. Circle the Earth. M., 1980. , P. 10.
263. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 96.
264. Nenny. History Britton / / Form of historical consciousness from late antiquity to the Renaissance. Ivanovo, 2000. p. 228.
265. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 61.
266. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. Pp. 87-88.
267. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 63.
268. Ibid. , P. 63.
269. Morozov, MN The current situation of national minorities in Sweden. / / Ethnic processes in the countries of Europe overseas. M., 1970. p. 212.
270. Ibid. p. 212.
271. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century / / The Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1913. p. 5.
272. History of Denmark. M., 1996. p. 37.
273. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 88.
274. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 58.
275. Mongait AL Archaeology of Western Europe. Stone Age. M., 1973. p. 280.
276. Ibid. p. 280.
277. Goldin RD Ancient and Medieval History of the Udmurt people. Izhevsk. 1999. In Fig. 50.
278. Ibid. p. 130.
279. The Bronze Age of the USSR forest belt. M., 1987. , P. 71.
280. Mongait AL Archaeology of Western Europe. Stone Age. M., 1973. p. 282.
281. Ibid. p. 283.
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282. J. P. Mallory. Middle Dnieper Culture / / Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
283. Mongait AL Archaeology of Western Europe. Stone Age. M., 1973. p. 283.
284. Ibid. p. 282.
285. Ibid. p. 282.
286. Ibid. p. 283.
287. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 52.
288. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. Pp. 76, 78.
289. Ibid. p. 77, 78.
290. Ibid. P. 77, 79.
291. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 224.
292. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. p. 87, 88.
293. History of Sweden. M., 1974. , P. 51.
294. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. p. 72.
295. Ibid. P. 73.
296. Ibid. , P. 75.
297. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 177, 178, 179, 183, 187, 189.
298. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 54.
299. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 95.
300. From the history of Denmark. M., 1996. , P. 37.
301. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 52.
302. Ibn Khordabex. The book of ways and countries. Baku, 1986. , P. 100.
303. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 66.
304. Ibid. p. 66.
305. Ibid. p. 53.
306. From the history of Denmark. M., 1996. , P. 71.
307. Ancient Russia in light of foreign sources. T. V. M. 2009. , P. 28.
308. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 54.
309. Ibid. p. 244.
576
310. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 69.
311. Jackson, TN East in the film world of the ancient Scandinavians / / Eastern way, No 2, 1996. p. 25.
312. Ibid. , P. 25.
313. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 58.
314. Ibid. , P. 26.
315. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 87.
316. Ibid. , P. 88.
317. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. Pp. 93.
318. Ibid. p. 103.
319. Ibid. , P. 66.
320. Ibid. p. 107.
321. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. , P. 46.
322. The history of Norway. M., 1980. p. 133.
323. Ibid. p. 103.
324. Ibid. p. 103.
325. Finno-Ugric and Baltic countries in the Middle Ages. M., 1987. p. 7.
326. Ibid. p. 7.
327. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. p. 372.
328. Ibid. p. 371.
329. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 130.
330. Henry of Latvia. Chronicle of Livonia. M. - L., 1938. , P. 83.
331. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 86.
332. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 258, 259.
333. Ancient Russia in light of foreign sources. M., 1999. p. 288-289.
334. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. P. 235.
335. Ibid. P. 235.
336. Khvolson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, madyarah, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. p. 34-40.
337. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and the Rus VI-IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 399, 400.
338. Ibid. p. 401, 402.
339. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 86.
340. Ibid. , P. 92.
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341. Ibid, p. 92.
342. Ibid. 68.
343. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. , P. 33.
344. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. P. 90.
345. Ibid. P. 87 346. Ibid. , P. 87.
347. Ibid. , P. 92.
348. Great pastors. M., 1999. p. 237-238, 242-246.
349. Peter from Doesburg. Chronicle of Prussian land. M., 1997. , P. 49.
350. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 58.
351. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 91.
352. Ibid. , P. 88.
353. Ibid. , P. 89.
354. Ibid. , P. 92.
355. Tatishchev VN Russian history. M.-A. , 1962, Vol I. p. 224.
356. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 29.
357. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 91.
358. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 87.
359. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 86.
360. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M. - L., 1936. , P. 108.
361. Henry of Latvia. Chronicle of Livonia. M-A. , 1938. , P. 96.
362. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 83.
363. Rus. Rurik. M., 2000. p. 145.
364. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 85.
365. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. p. 148.
366. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 86.
367. Ibid. , P. 80.
368. Ibid. , P. 89.
369. Ibid. , P. 88.
370. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. , P. 36.
371. Shouk G. Did Latvians Turks? Daugavpils, 2010.
372. Ibid. , P. 29.
373. Ibid. , P. 13.
374. Ibid. P. 8.
375. Popov AI Title of the USSR. L., 1973. , P. 95.
376. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M. - L., 1936. , P. 98.
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377. Popov AI Title of the USSR. L., 1973. , P. 97.
378. Peter from Doesburg. Chronicle of Prussian land. M., 1997. p. 152.
379. The Finno - Ugric and Baltic countries in the Middle Ages. M., 1987. With 382.
380. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M. - L., 1936. , P. 47.
381. Lyzlov A. Scythian history. M., 1990. Pp. 19, 20.
382. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M. 1988. p. 251.
383. Tatishchev VN Russian history. M.-A. , 1962, Volume 1. p. 228.
384. Annales Quedlinburgenses. MGH, SS. Bd. III. Hannover. 1839.
385. Aeneas Sylvius Pikkolomani. About Lithuania / / Scripteres rerum Prussicarum. Band IV. Leipzig. 1870. p. 237-239.
386. Henry of Latvia. Chronicle of Livonia. M.-A. , 1938. p. 268, 275, 411.
387. Great news about Poland, Russia and their neighbors 11th - 13th c. Ed. VL Ioannina, M., 1987. Ch. 43.
388. Finno-Ugric and Baltic countries in the Middle Ages. M., 1987. p. 398.
389. Nazarenko AV Latin-German sources 9 - XI centuries. M., 1993. , P. 14.
390. Lavrentiev Chronicle, MA, 2001. p. 4.
391. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. p. 77, 78.
392. Ibid. p. 66, 67.
393. Sedov, VV Zhalniki / / Russian archeology. No.  1. 2000. P. 7 - 20.
394. Ibid. , P. 15.
395. Ibid. , P. 11.
396. Ibid. P. 17 397. Ibid. , P. 18.
398. Ibid. , P. 19.
399. Ibid. , P. 19.
400. Finno-Ugric and Baltic countries in the Middle Ages. M., 1987. p. 411.
401. Great news about Poland, Russia and its neighbors 11th - XIII centuries. M., 1987. Ch. 43.
402. Sedov, VV Zhalniki / / Russian archeology. No.  1. 2000. , P. 18.
403. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002, p. 259.
404. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 85.
405. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. , P. 49.
406. Finno-Ugric and Baltic countries in the Middle Ages. M., 1987. , P. 12.
407. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. p. 372.
408. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. 1960. , P. 67.
409. Konovalova IG Eastern Europe in the writings of al-Idrisi. M., 1999. p. 194.
410. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 195, 205.
411. Ibid. p. 205.
412. Konovalova IG Eastern Europe in the writings of al-Idrisi. M., 1999. p. 194.
413. Henry of Latvia. Chronicle of Livonia. M. - L., 1938. , P. 83.
414. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 83.
579
415. Henry of Latvia. Chronicle of Livonia. M. - L., 1938. p. 259, 260, 261, 264.
416. Ibid. , P. 81.
417. Ibid. , P. 80.
418. Popov AI The names of the peoples of the USSR. L., 1973. p. 89.
419. Ibid. P. 90.
420. Mongait AL Archaeology of Western Europe. Stone Age. M., 1973. p. 283.
421. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M.-A. , 1936. , P. 108.
422. Ibid. p. 109.
423. Ibid. , P. 78.
424. Aeneas Sylvius Pikkolomani. About Lithuania / / Scripteres rerum Prussicarum. Band IV. Leipzig. 1870. p. 23-239.
425. Jerome Horsey. Notes to Russia XVI-early 17th c. M., 1991. , P. 50.
426. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century / / The Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1913. P. 8.
427. Travel Gillbera de Lanno in the eastern lands of Europe in 1413-14 and 1421 respectively / / Kiev university news, No 8, Div. 2. 1873. , P. 23.
428. Possevino A. Historical writings on Russia in the XVI. M., 1983. p. 214.
429. Ibid. p. 231.
430. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 162.
431. Hypation Chronicle. M., 1998. p. 339.
432. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. p. 354.
433. Ibid. p. 354.
434. Ibid pp. 355.
435. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 266.
436. Julius Caesar. Notes on the Gallic War. St Petersburg. , 1998. , P. 167.
437. Code of the oldest news of the Slavs. M., 1991, Volume 1. , P. 23.
438. Kalinina, T. Details of early scientists Arab caliphate. M., 1988, P. 48.
439. Tatishchev VN Russian history. Moscow - Leningrad, 1962, Volume 1. p. 245.
440. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 87.
441. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 53.
442. Ibid. p. 224.
443. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. p. 354
444. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. Pp. 39, 40.
445. Ibid. p. 74, 76.
446. Ibid. , P. 78.
447. Ibid. p. 102, 103, 187, 188.
448. Ibid. , P. 70.
449. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. , P. 35.
450. Strabo. Geography. M., 1994. p. 265.
451. Tacitus. Compositions. M., 1993. P. 360.
580
452. The history of Europe. M., 1988. T. 1. p. 595.
453. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 72, 73, 218.
454. Ibid. p. 197, 198.
455. Ibid. p. 198, 199.
456. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. , P. 61.
457. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 111, 112, 210.
458. Ibid. p. 210, 211.
459. Ibid. p. 193, 194.
460. Ibid. p. 53, 54.
461. Ibid. , P. 140.
462. Christendom and The Great Mongol Empire. St Petersburg. , 2002. p. 115.
463. Baymanova LS Language adaptation Turkisms in German. The thesis. ENU. Gumilev. Astana. 2009.
464. Lewandowski, AP Ethnic composition of the Carolingian Empire / / Questions of history. No 7, 1952. p. 113.
465. Einhard. Life of Charlemagne / / Historians Carolingian era. M., 1999.  p. 7466. Ibid. , P. 10.
467. Ibn Khordabex. The book of ways and countries. Baku, 1986. , P. 100.
468. Lebec Origin of francs. M., 1993. , P. 37.
469. Venelin Yu ancient and present Slovenia. M., 2004. p. 210.
470. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. p. 109.
471. Karl Lamprecht. History of the German people. M., 1894. P. 235.
472. Lewandowski, AP Ethnic composition of the Carolingian Empire / / Questions of history. No 7, 1952. P. 117
473. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 43.
474. Nazarenko AV. Latin-German sources 9 - XI centuries. M., 1993. p. 14.
475. Gall Anonymous. Chronicle of the Princes and deeds of the rulers or Polish. M., 1961. , P. 100.
476. Leben Stefan. The origin of francs. M., 1993. p. 39.
477. Nazarenko AV Latin-German sources 9 - XI centuries. M., 1993. , P. 64.
478. Ibid. , P. 62.
479. Ibid. , P. 67.
480. Lamprecht p. History of the German people. M., 1894. p. 300.
481. Einhard. Life of Charlemagne / / Historians Carolingian era. M., 1999. , P. 11.
482. The history of Europe. M., 1999, v. 2. P. 122.
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483. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. , P. 96.
484. The history of Europe. M., 1988. T. 1. p. 203.
485. Ibid. p. 204.
486. Julius Caesar. Notes on the Gallic War. St Petersburg. , 1998. p. 5.
487. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. Pp. 46, 47.
488. VDI, 1947, No 4. p. 179, 180.
489. Julius Caesar. Notes on the Gallic War. St Petersburg. , 1998. p. 65, 66.
490. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 86.
491. Julius Caesar. Notes on the Gallic War. St Petersburg. , 1998. 68.
492. Ibid. , P. 185.
493. Ibid. P. 235.
494. Julius Caesar. Notes on the Gallic War. Book VI. 13, 14, 15.
495. Ibid. Book VI. 14.
496. Ibid. Book VI. 18.
497. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. , P. 79.
498. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translated by the rev. James Ingram. Reprint. London, Toronto, 1923. P. 21.
499. Nenny. History Britton / / Form of historical consciousness from late antiquity to the Renaissance. Ivanovo, 2000. p. 224.
500. Ibid. p. 224.
501. Ibid. p. 228.
502. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 97.
503. Nenny. History Britton / / Form of historical consciousness from late antiquity to the Renaissance. Ivanovo, 2000. p. 225.
504. Kovalevsky, S. History of Rome. St Petersburg. , 2003. , P. 74.
505. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translated by the rev. James Ingram. Reprint. London, Toronto, 1923, P. 21.
506. Tacitus. Works, Moscow, 1993. p. 372.
507. Ibid. , P. 21.
508. Nenny. History Britton / / Form of historical consciousness from late antiquity to the Renaissance. Ivanovo, 2000. p. 226.
509. Ibid. p. 227.
510. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translated by the rev. James Ingram. Reprint. London, Toronto, 1923, P. 22. .
511. Adam of Bremen. Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church / / From early history of the Swedish people and state: the first description of the laws. M., 1999. , P. 86.
512. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 88.
513. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 58.
514. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 64.
582
515. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translated by the rev. James Ingram. Reprint. London, Toronto, 1923. P. 21.
516. Gelmold. Slavic chronicle. M., 1963. , P. 33.
517. Nenny. History of the Britons / / forms of historical consciousness from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. Ivanovo, 2000. p. 228.
518. Ibid. P. 232.
519. Burov, I. Two thousand years of English history. St Petersburg. , 2001. p. 7.
520. Julius Caesar. Notes on the Gallic War. St Petersburg. , 1998. p. 121.
521. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 63.
522. Nenny. History Britton / / Form of historical consciousness from late antiquity to the Renaissance. Ivanovo, 2000. P. 229.
523. Burov, I. Two thousand years of English history. St Petersburg. , 2001. , P. 11.
524. Ibid. , P. 12.
525. The Anglo - Saxon Chronicle. Translated by the rev. James Ingram. Reprint. London, Toronto, 1923. R. 275.
526. Nenny. History of the Britons / / forms of historical consciousness from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance, Ivanovo, 2000. p. 227.
527. AL Morton's History of England. M., 1950. p. 33, 34.
528. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translated by the rev. James Ingram. Reprint. London, Toronto, 1923, P. 25.
529. Ibid. P. 26.
530. History of Denmark. M., 1996. , P. 50.
531. Ibid. p. 51, 52.
532. Dyatlova GV, Smirnova LN stones of Stonehenge, or at the origins of European culture. M., 2005. , P. 14.
533. Ibid. , P. 88.
534. Ibid. , P. 88.
535. Julius Caesar. Entries on the Gallic War. St. Petersburg, 1998. P. 122.
536. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 64.
537. Gudz Markov AV-Indo-European and Slavic Eurasia. M., 2004. p. 144.
538. Dyatlova GV, Smirnova LN stones of Stonehenge, or at the origins of European culture. M., 2005. p. 231, 232.
539. Ibid. p. 234.
540. Ibid. p. 227.
541. Ibid. , P. 243.
542. Burov, I. Two thousand years of English history. St Petersburg. , 2001. p. 22, 23.
543. Murad Adji. The Turks and the world: a hidden history. M., 2004. p. 318.
544. Kovalev, S. History of Rome. St Petersburg. , 2003. , P. 57.
545. The history of Europe. M., 1988, T. I.
546. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. p. 120.
547. Kovalev, S. History of Rome. St Petersburg. , 2003. , P. 60.
548. Venelin Yu ancient and present Slovenia. M., 2004. p. 210.
549. Stephen Lebec. The origin of francs. M., 1993. , P. 37.
550. Kovalev, S. History of Rome. St Petersburg. , 2003. , P. 63.
551. Ibid. , P. 58.
583
552. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 103, 104.
553. Dovatur AI, Kallistov IA, IA Shishova peoples of our country in the History by Herodotus. M., 1982. p. 105.
554. Strabo. Geography. 1964. p. 198.
555. Kovalev, S. History of Rome. St Petersburg. , 2003. Pp. 57, 58.
556. Budanov VP Etnonemiya names in Western Europe: the ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. Pp. 151, 202.
557. Ibid. p. 159, 160, 161.
558. Ibid. p. 202.
559. Theophan the Byzantian. Prisk Paniysky. Ryazan. 2005. p. 486.
560. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. p. 216.
561. Ibid. p. 182.
562. Ibid. p. 182.
563. Ibn Khordabex. The book of ways and wanderings. Baku, 1986. , P. 100.
564. Kovalev, S. History of Rome. St Petersburg. , 2003. P. 73.
565. Ibid. , P. 74.
566. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. , P. 52.
567. Readings on the history of ancient Rome. M., 1987. , P. 13.
568. Ibid. , P. 54.
569. Ibid. , P. 47.
570. Ibid. , P. 47.
571. Ibid. p. 389.
572. Ibid. , P. 13.
573. Ibid. , P. 14.
574. Ibid. , P. 15.
575. Karachay-Balkar-Russian dictionary / ed. E. R., and H. I. Tenisheva Suyuncheva. Moscow, 1989. p. 539.
576. Readings on the history of ancient Rome. M., 1987. , P. 54.
577. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. , P. 15.
578. Kovalev, S. History of Rome. St. Petersburg, 2003. , P. 66.
579. Strabo. Geography. M., 1994. p. 265.
580. Readings on the history of ancient Rome. M., 1987. , P. 15.
581. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. p. 107.
582. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. , P. 217.
583. Readings on the history of ancient Rome. M., 1987. , P. 13.
584. Kryukov V.G. Messages of anonymous author of Akhbar al-Zaman ("al-Mukhtasar andzhaib") on peoples of Europe / / The oldest state in the USSR territory. M., 1985. p. 201 - 202.
585. Abd al-Rashid al-Bakuvi. Kitab al-Asar talhis va'adzha'ib al-Malik al-Kahhar. M., 1971. , P. 100.
584
577. 'Abd ar-Rahman' Abd al-Hakam. The conquest of Egypt, al-Maghrib and al-Andalus. M., 1985. , P. 57.
587. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 135.
588. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. , P. 85.
589. Karachay-Balkar-Russian dictionary. Ed. ER Tenisheva, H. I. Suyuncheva, M., 1989. p. 762.
590. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. p. 107.
591. Ancient Russia in light of foreign sources. T. III. M. 2009. p. 34-35.
592. Surikov, IE Ancient Greece: History and Culture. M., 2005. , P. 33.
593. Ibid. , P. 44.
594. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. , P. 15.
595. Ibid. p. 257.
596. The book. Encyclopaedia. M., 1999. p. 678.
597. Ibid., P. 158.
598. Ibid. p. 189.
599. Ibid. p. 562.
600. Ibid. p. 563.
601. Ibid. p. 585.
602. Ibid. p. 562.
603. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. p. 441.
604. The book. Encyclopaedia. M., 1999. p. 705.
605. Bartold W.W. Works. M., 1963, T. II, Part 1. p. 866.
606. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 179.
607. Kalinina, T. medieval Arab scholars contact the Khazars and Slavs / / Eastern Europe in ancient and medieval times. M., 1999. Pp. 59.
608. Dyachenko, G. Complete Church Slavic dictionary. M., 1993. p. 556.
609. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. P. 125.
610. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 401.
611. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 130.
612. Ibid. p. 191.
613. Ibid. p. 192, 193.
614. Konovalova IG Eastern Europe in the writings of al-Idrisi. M., 1999., P. 84.
615. PSRL. T. XIX. St Petersburg. , 1903. , P. 12.
616. Khvolson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, Magyars, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. , P. 23.
617. Ibid. , P. 85.
585
618. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX cc / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1985. p. 404.
619. Ibid. p. 275.
620. Khalikov H. Tatar people and their ancestors. Kazan, 1989. , P. 95.
621. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 193.
622. Ibid. , P. 131.
623. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 411, 412.
624. Harkavy J. A. Legend of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 193.
625. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 412.
626. Ibid. p. 413. Translated by A. Seyppelya edition.
627. E. Galkina Secrets Russian khanate. M., 2002. p. 111, 112.
628. Hudud al-Alam. The regions of the World. A Persian Geography 372 a. h. - 982 a. d. / Transl. by V. Minorsky. E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, XI. -London 1970 P. 75.
629. Goldin RD Ancient and Medieval History of the Udmurt people. Izhevsk, 1999. p. 136, 139.
630. Ibid. , P. 137.
631. Archaeology of the USSR. The Bronze Age of the forest belt of the USSR. M., 1987. P. 84 - 105.
632. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and the Rus VI-IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 418.
633. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. , P. 185.
634. Ibid. p. 275.
635. Ibid. p. 282.
636. Travel Abu Hamid al-Garnati in Eastern and Central Europe (1131 - 1153 G.). M., 1971. , P. 38.
637. Ibid. p. 34-35.
638. Collection of materials relating to the history of the Golden Horde. M., 1941. p. 224.
639. Konovalova IG Eastern Europe in the book of al-Idrisi. M., 1999. p. 192.
640. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs on Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. , P. 129.
641. Ibid. p. 129, 130.
642. Ibid. , P. 63.
643. Ibid. P. 125.
586
644. Khvolson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, madyarah, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. , P. 38.
645. Harkavy J. A. Legend of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 130.
646. Konovalova IG Eastern Europe in the book of al-Idrisi. M., 1999. p. 51.
647. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 13.
648. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 332.
649. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 130.
650. Ibid. p. 130-137.
651. Golubovsky PV History of the Smolensk land. Kiev, 1895. , P. 158.
652. Russia began the 17th c. Notes of Captain Marzhereta. M., 1982. p. 141 - 142.
653. The dream of Russian unity. Synopsis of Kiev (1674). M. 2006. , P. 53.
654. Lyzlov A. Scythian history. M., 1990. , P. 20.
655. Khvolson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, Magyars, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. p. 112-114.
656. Levitsky, T. Magyars of the medieval Arab and Persian geographers / / Eastern Europe in ancient and medieval times, 1978. , P. 56.
657. Khvolson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, Magyars, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. p. 105.
658. Ibid. , P. 25.
659. Ibid. , P. 26.
660. Ibid. p. 119.
661. Ibid. p. 120.
662. Khvolson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, Magyars, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. p. 111.
663. Levitsky, T. Magyars of the medieval Arab and Persian geographers / / Eastern Europe in ancient and medieval times. M., 1978. , P. 58.
664. W.W. Barthold. Compositions. T. IV. M., 1966. Pp. 58, 59.
665. Harkavy J. A. Legend of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 227.
666. Travel Abu Hamid al-Garanti in Eastern and Central Europe. M., 1971. , P. 35.
667. Ibid. , P. 37.
668. Hudud al-Alam / The regions of the world. A Persian Geography 372 a. h. -982 A. d. / Transl. by V. Minorsky. E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series. New Series, XI. - London, 1970. P. 76.
669. Ancient Russia in light of foreign sources. T. III. M. 2009. P. 158 670. Ibid. , P. 158.
671. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 411, 412.
672. Ibid. p. 412.
587
673. Ibid. p. 273, 274.
674. Christendom and The Great Mongol Empire. St Petersburg. , 2002. p. 243.
675. Bartold W.W. Works. M., 1968, V. 5. p. 466.
676. Travel Abu Hamid al-Garnati in Eastern and Central Europe (1131 - 1153 G.), Moscow, 1971. , P. 35.
677. Ancient Russia in light of foreign sources. T. III. M., 2009. p. 144.
678. Travel Abu Hamid al-Garnati in Eastern and Central Europe (1131 - 1153 G.), Moscow, 1971. , P. 35.
679. Kovalevsky AP Chuvash and Bulgarians according to Ahmed ibn Fadlan. Cheboksary, 1954. , P. 46.
680. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 384.
681. Ibid. p. 384, approx. 167.
682. Travel Abu Hamid al-Garnati in Eastern and Central Europe (1131 - 1153 G.). M., 1971. , P. 37.
683. Ancient Russia in light of foreign sources. T. III. M. 2009. P. 145, note. 90.
684. Ibid. P. 139, note. 68.
685. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M., 1996. , P. 20.
686. Theophanes the Confessor. Chronographia / / JS Chichurov. Byzantine historical writings. M., 1980. Pp. 59.
687. Kalinina, T. Details of early scientists Arab caliphate. M., 1988., P. 48.
688. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 401.
689. Konovalova IG Eastern Europe in the writings of al-Idrisi. M., 1999, P. 147.
690. Ibid. , P. 149.
691. Travel Abu Hamid al-Garnati in Eastern and Central Europe (1131 - 1153 G.). M., 1971. Pp. 7, 38, 41.
692. Ibid. , P. 44.
693. Christendom and The Great Mongol Empire. St Petersburg. , 2002. p. 242.
694. Ibid. , P. 243.
695. Ibid. p. 109.
696. Ibid. P. 240.
697. Ibid. , P. 114.
698. Ibid. p. 240, 241.
699. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 84.
700. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. p. 163.
701. Mehovsky Matthew. A Treatise on two Sarmatias. M. - L., 1936. , P. 69.
702. Ibid. , P. 79.
588
703. Ibid. , P. 83.
704. Statistical and geographical description of the Russian state in the early 17th c. / / Journal of the Ministry of Education. St Petersburg. No.  9. 1836. p. 268.
705. Tatishchev VN Russian history. Moscow - Leningrad, 1962, Volume 1. p. 271.
706. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. p. 441.
707. Christendom and The Great Mongol Empire. St Petersburg. , 2002. p. 114.
708. Kuzmin A. Beginning of Russia. M., 2003. , P. 83.
709. Description Poccii, published in 1630 in the Netherlands / / The Moscow Telegraph. Part 7, No 1. 1826. , P. 62.
710. J. Del Piano Carpini. History mongalov. Guillaume de Rubruck. Journey to the East. The Book of Marco Polo. M., 1997. p. 120.
711. Matuzova VI English medieval sources IX-XIII centuries. M., 1979. p. 216.
712. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. p. 429.
713. Levitsky, T. Madyary in medieval Arab and Persian geographers / / Eastern Europe in ancient and medieval times. M., 1978. Pp. 59.
714. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 25.
715. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 257.
716. Ibid. , P. 74.
717. Ibid. P. 125.
718. Ibid. P. 219.
719. Ibid. p. 275.
720. Christendom and The Great Mongol Empire. St Petersburg. , 2002. p. 242.
721. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. , P. 75.
722. Christendom and The Great Mongol Empire. St Petersburg. , 2002. p. 242.
723. Mehovsky Matthew. A Treatise on two Sarmatias. M.-A. , 1936. , P. 83.
724. Statistical and geographical description of the Russian state in the early 17th c. / / Journal of the Ministry of Education. St Petersburg. No.  9. 1836. p. 268.
725. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. p. 163.
726. Nazarenko LV Latin-German sources 9 - XI centuries. M., 1993. p. 107.
727. Ancient Russia in light of foreign sources. T. IV. M. 2010. p. 350.
728. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. , P. 53.
729. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. p. 163.
730. Description Poccii, published in 1630 in the Netherlands / / The Moscow Telegraph, Part 7, No 1. 1826. , P. 62.
731. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. 1870. , P. 74.
589
732. Ibid. p. 135.
733. Zakhoder BN Caspian collection of Eastern Europe. M., 1967, Volume 2. p. 126.
734. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 387.
735. Ibid. p. 391.
736. Ibid. p. 389, 390.
737. Ibid. p. 390.
738. Ibid. p. 391.
739. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. P. 125.
740. Ibid. p. 135.
741. Ibid. p. 135, 136.
742. Ibid. p. 135, approx. 10. P. 137, note. 10.
743. Khvolson DA Proceedings of hozarah, Burtases, Bulgarians, madyarah, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. p. 110.
744. Karl Lamprecht. History of the German people. T. I. M., 1894. p. 223.
745. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. P. 136, note. 2.
746. Ibid. p. 221, 222.
747. Ibid. p. 135.
748. Ibid. P. 125.
749. Ibid. , P. 129.
750. Ibid. , P. 137.
751. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources and Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 389.
752. Ibid. p. 387.
753. Ibid. p. 388.
754. Ibid. p. 390.
755. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. P. 164.
756. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M. - L., 1936. p. 109.
757. Ibid. p. 109.
758. Peoples of Russia. Encyclopaedia. M., 1994. p. 230.
759. Description Poccii, published in 1630 in the Netherlands / / The Moscow Telegraph. Part 7, No 1. 1826. p. 55, 56.
760. Ibid. p. 63, 64.
761. Fletcher Dzhils. On the Russian state. M., 2002. P. 106.
762. Ibid. p. 110-111.
763. Ibid. P. 106.
764. Kakashi and Tektander. Journey to Persia through Muscovy 1602-1603 gg / / Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1896. p. 23-24.
765. PSRL. T. XIX. M., 1903. p. 10-13.
590
766. Kalinin, NF Album Bulgar - Tartar epigraphy in 3 parts. Kazan, 1960.
767. Zakiev Z. Origin of the Turks and Tatars. M., 2003. p. 313.
768. Ibid. p. 357.
769. Peoples of Russia. Encyclopaedia. M., 1994. p. 113.
770. Luppov PN Udmurt XV - XVII centuries. Documents on the history of Udmurtia XV - XVII centuries. Izhevsk, 1958.
771. Ibid. p. 349-350.
772. Ibid. p. 351.
773. Ibid. P. 90.
774. Ibid. p. 179.
775. Ibid. p. 182.
776. Ibid. p. 182.
777. Ibid. p. 183 778. Ibid. , P. 185.
779. Ibid. p. 195.
780. Ibid. P. 196.
781. Ibid. , P. 207.
782. Ibid. p. 246.
783. Ibid. p. 329.
784. Teplyashin TI mixing the terms Chuvash and besermyane in written records / / Memoirs Institute for Owls. Min. Chuvash ASSR. No. XL. 1968. p. 181.
785. Peoples of Russia. Encyclopaedia. M., 1994. p. 113.
786. Teplyashin TI mixing the terms Chuvash and besermyane in written records / / Memoirs Institute for Owls. Min. Chuvash ASSR. No. XL. 1968. p. 182.
787. Dyachenko Gregory. Full Church Slavic dictionary. M., 1993. p. 556.
788. Harkavy J. A. Legend of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 262.
789. Ibid. P. 125.
790. Ibid. , P. 85.
791. Travel by Ahmad ibn-Fadlan to Itil the river. Compiled by Sultan Shamsi. Kazan, 1999. , P. 96.
792. Kovalevsky AP Chuvash and Bulgarians according to Ahmad ibn Fadlan. Cheboksary, 1954. , P. 34.
793. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. P. 125.
794. Ibid. p. 263.
795. Khvolson DA Proceedings of hozarah, Burtases, Bulgarians, madyarah, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. , P. 22.
796. Ibid. P. 22 (Arabic text).
591
797. Novoseltsev A.P. Eastern sources of Eastern Slavs and Russia VI - IX centuries. / / Old Russian state and its international significance. M., 1965. p. 399.
798. Christendom and The Great Mongol Empire. St Petersburg. , 2002. p. 240.
799. Theophanes the Confessor. Chronographia / / JS Chichurov. Byzantine historical writings. M., 1980. , P. 60.
800. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. p. 135.
801. Nicephorus. Divine Office / / JS Chichurov. Byzantine historical writings. M., 1980. p. 162.
802. Ibid. , P. 61.
803. J. Del Piano Carpini. History mongalov. Guillaume de Rubruck. Journey to the East. The Book of Marco Polo. M., 1997. p. 120.
804. Matuzova VI English medieval sources 9 - XIII centuries. M., 1979. p. 215.
805. Code of the oldest written form of the Slavs. M., 1995, Volume 2. p. 371.
806. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 445.
807. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century / / The Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1913. P. 17.
808. Zakiev Z. From the history of the Tatars and Tatar / / Russian-Tatar phrase. Kazan, 1986. p. 283.
809. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M.-A. , 1936. , P. 92.
810. Ibid. p. 113.
811. Ibid. p. 116.
812. Library of Foreign Writers of Russia. T 1. St Petersburg. 1836. , Pp. 25-26.
813. Khudyakov, M. Essays on the history of the Khanate of Kazan. Kazan, 1990. p. 171-172.
814. Ibid. p. 172.
815. Ibid. , P. 161.
816. Fletcher Dzhils. On the Russian State. M., 2002. p. 110.
817. PSRL. T. XIX. St Petersburg. , 1903. p. 10-13.
818. Ibid. p. 113.
819. Khalikov H. Tatar people and their ancestors. Kazan, 1989. , P. 36.
820. Zakiev Z. From the history of the Tatars and Tatar / / Russian-Tatar phrase. Kazan, 1986. p. 284.
821. Pokhlebkin V. Tatars and Russia. M., 2000. , P. 49.
822. Konovalova IG Eastern Europe in the writings of al-Idrisi. M., 1999. Ch. III, ca. 10.
823. Ibid. , P. 51.
824. Kryukov V.G. Messages of anonymous author of Akhbar al-Zaman ("al-Mukhtasar andzhaib") on peoples of Europe / / The oldest state in the USSR territory. M., 1983. p. 205.
825. Ibid. , P. 201.
592
826. Khvolson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, madyarah, Slavs, and Rousseau. St Petersburg. , 1869. p. 19-21.
827. Excerpts from the writings Gardizi Zayn al-Akhbar / / W.W. Barthold Compositions. M., 1973, T. 8. , P. 56.
828. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 117.
829. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 451.
830. Ibid. p. 451.
831. History of Russia. From ancient times to the end of X8th c. M., 2000. p. 35, 36.
832. Dyachenko Gregory. Full Church Slavic dictionary. M., 1993. p. 556.
833. Eustace. Commentary on Zemleopisaniyu Dionysus / / Scythians. Reader. M., 1992. p. 302.
834. A. Novosel Khazar state and its role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. M., 1990. , P. 77.
835. Theophanes the Confessor. Chronographia / / Chichurov Byzantine historical writings. M., 1980. , P. 61.
836. Ibid. p. 162.
837. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 11.
838. Hvalson DA Proceedings of the Khazars, Burtases, Bulgarians, Magyars, Slavs and Ruses. St Petersburg. , 1869. , P. 22.
839. Harkavy J. A. Legend of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. P. 219.
840. Novoseltsev A.P. Khazar state and its role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. M., 1990. , P. 79.
841. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 67.
842. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M., 1957. , P. 160.
843. Theophanes the Confessor. Chronographia / / Chigurov JS Byzantine historical writings. M., 1980. , P. 49.
844. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M.-A. , 1936.
Comment 109.
845. Novoseltsev A.P. Khazar state and its role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. M., 1990. P. 82.
846. Ibid. , P. 87.
847. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. P. 220.
848. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 262, approx. 7.
849. Ibid. p. 262.
850. Ibid. p. 262, approx. 1.
851. Ibid. p. 263, approx. 1.
852. Skrzhinskaya MV Northern Black Sea Coast in the description of Pliny the Elder. Kiev, 1977. , P. 52.
853. VDI, 1947, No 2. p. 263, approx. 2 and 3.
854. Ibid. p. 263, approx. 4.
855. The Scythians. A Reader. M., 1992. p. 113.
593
856. Skrzhinskaya MV Northern Black Sea Coast in the description of Pliny the Elder. Kiev, 1977. , P. 47.
857. Jordan. The origin and deeds of the Goths. M., 1960. , P. 67.
858. Procopius of Caesarea. The war with the Goths. M., 1950. p. 384 859. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 253.
860. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 97.
861. Ibid. , P. 78.
862. Tatishchev VN Russian history. T. I, Ch. 29, 4. p. 283.
863. Ibid. , P. 65.
864. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. , P. 71.
865. Ibid. p. 248.
866. Ibid. p. 246, 247.
867. Ibid. p. 247.
868. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 79.
869. Ibid. p. 87, 88.
870. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 248.
871. Snorri Sturulson. Circle of the earth. M., 1980. p. 284.
872. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 5.
873. Habichev MA Karachai-Balkaria nominal formation and inflection. Cherkessk, 1977. , P. 16.
874. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. Pp. 28 875. Ibid. p. 5.
876. Ibid. p. 6.
877. Ibid. , P. 11.
878. Ibid. Pp. 10, 11.
879. Ibid. Pp. 12, 13.
880. Ibid. , P. 20.
881. Novgorod set in 1050 with a continuation to 1079 / / Shakhmatov A. A. Research on  Russian chronicles. M., 2001. p. 458.
882. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 19.
883. Ibid. p. 4.
884. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 7.
885. Ibid. , P. 143.
886. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. p. 354 - 355.
887. Ibid. p. 357.
888. Ibid. p. 362.
889. Ibid. P. 360.
890. Ibid. p. 364.
891. Ibid. p. 365.
892. Ibid. p. 366.
594
893. Ibid. p. 368.
894. Ibid. p. 368.
895. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 245.
896. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 87.
897. Adam Oleary. Description of Muscovy / / 17th c. Russia. Memories of foreigners. Smolensk, 2003. p. 440.
898. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 29.
899. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. p. 78.
900. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 13.
901. Budanov V.P. Ethnonyms of the of Western Europe tribes: ancient and medieval frontier. M., 1991. , P. 64.
902. Ibid. p. 4.
903. Ibid. , P. 11.
904. Ibid. , P. 22.
905. Ibid. , P. 149.
906. Ibid. p. 503.
907. MV Lomonosov Complete Works. M.-A. , 1952. p. 195.
908. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 20.
909. Ibid, p. 20, note. 38.
910. Ibid. P. 20, note. 49.
911. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. p. 364, 365.
912. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001, p. 20.
913. Jackson, TN Icelandic saga of royal Eastern Europe. M., 1993. p. 257.
914. Henry of Latvia. Chronicle of Livonia. M.-A. , 1938. , P. 129.
915. Matuzova VI English medieval sources. M., 1979. , P. 87.
916. Notes Ayrmann of the Baltic States and Muscovy 1666-1670 / / Historical Notes. No 17. 1945. p. 306.
917. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M.-A. , USSR Academy of Sciences. 1936, p. 105.
918. Ibid. p. 107.
919. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. Pp. 20, 21.
920. NPL. M.-A. , 1950. P. 106.
921. Rybakov BA World history. M., 1987. , P. 60.
922. Harkavy J. A. Tales of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. , P. 137.
923. Lavrentiev Chronicle, MA, 2001. , P. 22.
924. Ibid. , P. 23.
925. The oldest Kyiv codex of 1039 in edition of 1073 / / Shakhmatov A. A. Research on  Russian chronicles. Moscow, 2001, pp. 387, 388.
926. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 23.
927. Ibid. p. 389, 390.
928. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 72.
595
929. Ibid. p. 73, 74.
930. The history of Norway. M., 1980. P. 122.
931. The oldest set of Kyiv 1039 as amended in 1073 / / Shakhmatov A. A. Research on  Russian chronicles. M., 2001. p. 385.
932. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. P. 9.
933. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. p. 45, 47.
934. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 78.
935. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 142.
936. Baskakov NA Russian names of Türkic origin. M., 1979. p. 215.
937. Gedeonov SA Varangians and Rus. M., 2004. , P. 38.
938. Ibid. p. 338.
939. Ibid.
940. Theophylact Simokatta. The history. M., 1957. , P. 161.
941. Habichev MA Karachai-Balkaria nominal formation and inflection. Cherkessk, 1977. , P. 84.
942. Novoseltsev A.P. On one of the oldest titles of the Russian Prince / / History of the Soviet Union. No 4, 1982. p. 151.152.
943. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 65.
944. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 60.
945. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. , P. 47.
946. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 28.
947. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. , P. 51.
948. Ibid, p. 57, 58.
949. Ibid. p. 64, 65.
950. Ibid. , P. 65.
951. Ibid. , P. 67.
952. Ibid. , P. 66.
953. History of Russia. From ancient times to the end of X8th c. Ed. A. Sakharov, AP Novoseltsev. M., 2000. , P. 74.
954. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 65.
955. The oldest set of Kyiv 1039 as amended in 1073 / / Shakhmatov A. A. Research on  Russian chronicles. M., 2001. p. 393.
956. Novoseltsev A.P. Khazar state and its role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. M., 1990. p. 221.
957. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 69.
958. Ibid. , P. 69.
959. Leo the Deacon. The history. M. 1988. , P. 56.
960. Russia began the 17th c. Notes of Captain Marzhereta. M. 1982. p. 141-142.
961. Ibid. p. 141.
962. BA Rybakov world history. M., 1987. , P. 60.
596
963. Lovyagin E. Two conversations of Holiest Patriarch Photius of Constantinople on the invasion of Ruses to Constantinople / / Christian Reading. 1882, Part II. p. 424-425.
964. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001, p. 54.
965. Kuzmin A. Beginning of Russia. M., 2003. p. 282.
966. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 76.
967. Ibid. , P. 74.
968. Ibid. p. 121.
908. Description of the Muscovy communique at gr. Carlyle / / Historical Library. No.  5. 1879. p. 4.
970. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. , P. 58.
971. History of Russia. From ancient times to the end of 17th c. Ed. A. Sakharov, AP Novoseltsev. M., 2000. , P. 64.
972. General Theory of Law and State. Ed. VV Lazarev, Moscow, 1994. p. 23.
973. Claessen H. J. M. 1996. State / / Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. Vol. IV. New York. P. 1255.
974. History of Russia. From ancient times to the end of 17th c. Ed. A. Sakharov, AP Novoseltsev. M., 2000. , P. 188.
975. Ibid. p. 191-192.
976. Boguslavsky, V., V. Burmin Russia. Rurik. M., 2000, pp. 273.
977. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001, pp. 470.
978. History of Russia. From ancient times to the end of 17th c. Ed. A. Sakharov, AP Novosel. M., 2000. p. 251.
979. Pokhlebkin V. Tatars and Russia, Moscow, 2000. , P. 49.
980. Science and Life. No.  2. 1965.
981. Dzhils Fletcher. On the Russian state. M., 2002. , P. 33.
982. Ibid. , P. 33.
983. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 470.
984. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century / / Moscow Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. 1913. p. 4.
985. Library of Foreign Writers of Russia. St Petersburg. , 1836. T. 1. , P. 15.
986. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. Pp. 59.
987. Russia began the 17th c. Notes of Captain Marzhereta. M., 1982. p. 141 - 142.
988. A Treatise of Johann Fabri Religion Muscovites / / Russia and Germany, Vol. 1. M., 1998. P. 17.
989. Russia began the 17th c. Notes of Captain Marzhereta. M., 1982. p. 141 - 142.
990. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M.-A. , 1936. p. 116.
991. For information about Russia in the late 16th c. Paolo Campaign / / Vestnik MGU. Series IX. History of number 6, 1969. , P. 81.
992. Kakashi and Tektander. Journey to Persia through Muscovy 1602-1603 gg / / Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1896. p. 18.
597
993. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. , P. 75.
994. Description of the Muscovy communique at gr. Carlyle / / Historical Library. No.  5. 1879. p. 12-13.
995. Library of Foreign Writers of Russia. St Petersburg. 1836. T. 1. p. 19-20.
996. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. , P. 56.
997. The dream of Russian unity. Synopsis of Kiev (1674). M., 2006. , P. 53.
998. Tatishchev VN Russian history. M., 1994, Part 1. p. 342.
999. Description of the Muscovy communique at gr. Carlyle / / Historical Library. No.  5. 1879. , P. 13.
1000. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. , P. 57.
1001. British travelers to Muscovy in the 16th c. M., 1937. , P. 56.
1002. Discourse on the affairs of Moscow Francesco Tiepolo / / Historical Archive, Moscow-Leningrad. , 1940, Vol III. p. 327.
1003. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century / / The Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. M., 1913. p. 7.
1004. Possevino A. Historical writings on Russia in the XVI. M., 1983. , P. 35.
1005. Ibid. , P. 41.
1006. Ibid. Pp. 62-63.
1007. For information about Russia in the late 16th c. Paolo Campaign / / Vestnik MGU. No 6, 1969. Series IX. The history. p. 46-47.
1008. Report of the second half of Muscovy 16th century. M. Imperial Society of Russian history and antiquities. 1913. , P. 18.
1009. A Treatise of Johann Fabri Religion Muscovites / / Russia and Germany. No. 1. M., 1998. , P. 19.
1010. Ibid. , P. 32.
1011. Antonio Possevino. Historical essays on Russia in XVI. M., 1983. , P. 27.
1012. Ibid. , P. 28.
1013. A Treatise of Johann Fabri Religion Muscovites / / Russia and Germany. No. 1. M., 1998. , P. 20.
1014. Hypation Chronicle. M., 1998. , P. 20.
1015. Description of the Muscovy communique at gr. Carlyle / / Historical Library. No.  5. 1879. p. 14-15.
1016. A Treatise of Johann Fabri Religion Muscovites / / Russia and Germany. No. 1. M. 1998. P. 17, note. 36.
1017. A Treatise of Johann Fabri Religion Muscovites / / Russia and Germany. No. 1. M., 1998. p. 19-20.
1018. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 28.
1019. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M. 2002. p. 390.
1020. Ibid. p. 393.
1021. Ibid. p. 382.
1022. Ibid. P. 380.
1023. Ibid. P. 392.
598
1024. Sreznevsky I. Materials for a dictionary of ancient Russian language in written records. St Petersburg. , 1893.
1025. Dyachenko, G. Complete Church Slavic dictionary. M., 1993, reprint.
1026. Hypation Chronicle. M., 1998. p. 339.
1027. Ibid. p. 600.
1028. Hadrian-Peretz, VP Likhachev, DS Introduction to Literature Pskov XIII - XIV centuries / / History of Russian Literature. M.-A. , 1941-1945. , P. 131.
1029. Russia began the 17th c. Notes of Captain Marzhereta. M., 1982. p. 141 - 142.
1030. Library of Foreign Writers of Russia. T. 1. St Petersburg. , 1836. , P. 25.
1031. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. M.-A. , 1936. p. 113.
1032. Sedov, VV The Slavs. M., 2002. p. 401.
1033. Ibid. p. 402.
1034. Khalikov AH 500 Russian surnames of the Bulgar-Tatar origin. Kazan, 1992.
1035. Dzhils Fletcher. On the Russian state. M., 2002. p. 36-39.
1036. Russia began the 17th c. Notes of Captain Marzhereta. M. 1982. p. 148.
1037. Tver Chronicle. Old Russian texts and translations. Tver, 1999. p. 216.
1038. Reflects the history of the Khanate of Kazan in Nikon (Patriarch) Chronicle / / Echo of Ages, No 1 / 2. 1999. , P. 66.
1039. Jiri David. The present state of Great Russia or Muscovy / / Questions of history, No 1. 1968. , P. 131.
1040. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. , P. 74.
1041. Description of the Muscovy communique at gr. Carlyle / / Historical Library. No.  5. 1879. p. 4.
1042. Readings in the Imperial Society of History and Russian Antiquities. M., 1846. , P. 16.
1043. Observations of an 16th c. alien on the Russian military campaigns of the time and their devotion to their Emperor / / Notes of the Fatherland, No 69. 1826. , P. 99.
1044. Road Atlas of Central Russia. M. 2002. (M 1: 500, 000).
1045. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. p. 540.
1046. Ibid. p. 486.
1047. Ibid. p. 527.
1048. Tretyakov, P., Schmidt EA ancient fortress of Smolensk. M.-A. , 1963. Pp. 11-12.
1049. Ibid. , P. 14.
1050. Sedov, VV Formation of the first cities in Northern Russia and the Vikings / / Early medieval antiquities of Northern Russia and its neighbors. St Petersburg, 1999. p. 209.
1051. The Martyrdom of St. Andrew / / I.S. Sventsitsky first Christians and the Roman Empire. M., 2003. p. 329.
1052. Sventsitsky JS The first Christians and the Roman Empire. M., 2003. p. 103.
1053. Ibid. p. 329.
599
1054. VDI, 1948, No 3. P. 219.
1055. VDI, 1948, No 2. p. 306.
1056. Sventsitsky JS The first Christians and the Roman Empire. M., 2003. p. 182-183.
1057. Bolotov VV, Lectures on the history of the ancient church. M., 1994, T. IV. P. 240.
1058. Belikov D. Christianity in ready. Kazan, 1887, vol. I. , P. 96.
1059. VDI, 1948, No 3. p. 289.
1060. VDI, 1949, No 3. p. 306, 307.
1061. VDI, 1948, No 3 p. 307.
1062. Belikov D. Christianity in ready. Kazan, 1887, vol. I. p. 124.
1063. Constantine Bagryanorodsky. On the control of the empire. M., 1991. Pp. 93.
1064. Belikov D. Christianity in ready. Kazan, 1887, vol. I. P. 125.
1065. Sventsitsky JS The first Christians and the Roman Empire. M., 2003. p. 156.
1066. Ibid. p. 123.
1067. Nicholas nomadic. Schism of 1054 and the East-West relations / / early feudal Slavic states and peoples. Sofia. 1991. , P. 102.
1068. Herodotus. History, Vol. IV, 1972, sec. 59.
1069. VDI, 1948, No 2. P. 299.
1070. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. , P. 27.
1071. Sventsitsky JS The first Christians and the Roman Empire. M., 2003. Pp. 46, 49.
1072. Ibid. Pp. 79, 80.
1073. Ibid. , P. 158.
1074. The dream of Russian unity. Synopsis of Kiev (1674). M., 2006. P. 106.
1075. Lavrentiev Chronicle. M., 2001. Pp. 8, 9.
1076. A Treatise of Johann Fabri Religion Muscovites / / Russia and Germany. M., 1998. No. 1. p. 20-21.
1077. Sigismund Herberstein. Notes on Muscovy. M., 1988. Pp. 88 - 89.
1078. A. Possevino. Historical essays on Russia in XVI. M. 1983. , P. 79.
1079. Adam Oleary. Description of Muscovy / / Russia of the X8th c. Memories of foreigners. Smolensk, 2003. p. 438.
1080. Melnikova EA Norse geographical works. M., 1986. , P. 65.
1081. J. Del Piano Carpini. History mogalov. Guillaume de Rubruck. Journey to the East. The Book of Marco Polo. M., 1997. , P. 104.
1082. Karachay-Balkar-Russian dictionary / ed. ER Tenisheva, H. I. Suyuncheva, M., 1989. p. 805.
1083. Harkavy J. A. Legend of Muslim writers of the Slavs and Russian. St Petersburg. , 1870. P. 125.
1084. Lavrentiev Chronicle. L., 1926-1928. PSRL. T. 1. AS 78.79.
1085. Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen Ermiya Salamis. St Petersburg. 1851. p. 490.
1086. Composition of Samuel Collins, who spent nine years at Moscow Court as a physician of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich / / Reading in Imperial Society of Russian History and Antiquities. M. 1846. P. 1.
1087. Mehovsky Matthew. Treatise on two Sarmatias. Moscow - Leningrad 1936. , P. 98.
600

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