In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
The Huns in Chinese annals
Synopsis of Eastern Hun history
  V.S. Taskin (1917-1995)
USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies
3 - 5 cc. AD
Issue 2
Jie (Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)

Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1990, Print 1000 copies, ISBN 5-02-016543-3


http://www.i-u.ru/biblio/archive/sima_2/12.aspx (Biography, in Russian, find Òàñêèí on page )

Posting Introduction

The posting's introduction is given on the author's introduction page. Jie is an offshoot of the Türkic tribe Kiyan, also known as Kiyat, probably with the Mongolian plural ending. The Russian derivative word of the Türkic koch (English coach) “kohevie” ~ “êî÷åâüå” that reflected the Chunese “bu”, is translated as horde. In this use the horde is an economical-social subdivision of a state, a tribal union, or a tribe, associated with certain ancestral pasturing route or pasturing territory, semantically different from the homophonic horde = army. Horde is a self-contained community united by traditional social ties like kinship or marital union, and generally is a conglomerate consisting of extended families belonging to the same ethnic group and able to propagate their possession of the pasturing route. Except for the introductory part, where is given the origin of the Jie branch and the origin of their Chinese name, the Jin shu annals refer to Jie almost exclusively as Hu and Huns.

* * *.

The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes. Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue. Highlighted comment numbers bring attention to the subjects more relevant to the Türkic history then to the Chinese history. Bibliographic references are numbered and listed in the Bibliography Section. Where possible, the author's Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcriptions were changed to Pinyin, to facilitate search, but because a switch to Pinyin coding frequently distorts or makes phonetics ambiguous, the phonetization of the original is generally retained also. It was noted that the annals, even composed by a single author like Sima Qian, use different expressions for the same phenomenon, in case of the Huns they are interchangeably called Hu and Hunnu (Hu 胡 and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴), and in reference to Jie they are interchangeably called Hu, and Hunnu, and occasionally Jie (Hu 胡, and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴, and Pinyin Jie 羯); personal and geographical names also come in variety of spellings; where appropriate, the Chinese form is given to facilitate search and verification, and possibly catch inaccuracies in translation. The identification of the Chinese 匈奴with the historical Eastern Huns is beyond any doubts for better then half a century, and this posting replaced all incarnations of Chinese-derived appellations with their modern appellation Hun, but attempts to retain the original formulation. Where direct correspondence between the Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcription of V.S.Taskin and their Pinyin counterparts has not been found, a putative Pinyin reconstruction used the following conventions: Ts = X or Q, Tsz = J, S = S or X, all without any systematic rules. In most cases, reconstructed spelling follows the Wikipedia Cyrillization of Chinese, except where it conflicts with the implied intent of the author.

V.S.Taskin. Introduction
  On the Jie ethnogenesis 5
  Customs, traditions, and beliefs 21
Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 104
  Shi Le, Part 1 28
 Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 105
  Shi Le. Part 2. Shi Le sons - Shi Hung and Chang Bing 64
Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 106
  Shi Jilun. Part 1 95
Fang Xuanling . History of Jin dynasty, ch. 107
  Shi Jilun. Part 2. Shi Jilun sons Shi Shi, Shi Zun and Shi Jian, Jan Min 122
Notes 149
Bibliography 208
Index of names and titles 210
Index of geographical, churches, palaces, gates, cemeteries names 229
Glossary 241
V.S. Taskin
3 - 5 cc. AD
Issue 2
(Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)
Fang Xuanling

(Jin shu), Ch. 107
Shi Jilun. Part 2
Shi Jilun sons Shi Shi, Shi Zun and Shi Jian, Jan Min
In the third year of the Yung-ho reign era (347) Shi Jilong personally participated in Sanxinyuan in plowing the fields tilled by the people, and his wife born (nee) Du made offering in the vicinity of the capital sacrifycing to the spirit that first taught people silkworm cultivation. After that Shi Jilong went to Xiangguo (襄國, in modern county town Xintai in the Hebei province, orig.: Siango) and visited the Shi Le grave.

Shi Jilong granted an inspector of the palace secretariat Shi Ning a rank of Commander Punishing the West, and ordered him at the head of more than 20 thousand warriors from the Bingzhou and Sizhou provinces to follow Ma Qui and other commanders to support them.

A Zhang Chonghua commander Sun Qin with others led 20 thousand households to surrender to Shi Jilong.

Over 100 thousand Di and Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist)yurts located between the rivers Huanhe and Huanshui 1, and Zhang Qu supported each other, so Ma Qui, fearing them, did not advance.

A governor Zhang Chun of the Jin-chen district belonging to Zhang Chonghua surrendered to Shi Ning in the head of the district.

Soon Ma Qui arrived at Quliu 3, and Liu Ning and Wang Zhuo attacked the county cities Shixin and Wugai 4. A Zhang Chonghua commander Yang Kang fought with Liu Ning in Shafu. Liu Ning was defeated and withdrew the troops back to Jinchen. Wang Zhuo occupied Wugai, captured the troop commanders Cao Quan and Hu Xuan, and transferred more than 7 thousand households to the Yongzhou province.

Shi Jilong again bestowed on Sun Fudu a title of Commander Punishing the West and leading 30 thousand infantry and riders he, along with Ma Qui, deeply invaded the enemy land, crossed Huanhe, and then walled a settlement Chanzui 5. Extreamely frightened Zhang Chonghua sent a commander Xie Ai strike a counterblow, he defeated the enemy troops, and then Ma Qui retreated back to Jinchen 6.

Like Shi Le, so was Shi Jilong distinguished by greed, and did hot follow the rules of conduct. After Shi Jilong started ruling the lands of ten provinces, he attained an infinite amount of gold, silk, pearls, jade, and rare things, presented by the other possessions, but Shi Jilong, feeling that that is not enough, was uncoverinh the graves of the former emperors, rulers, and sages, to take jewelry from there. On the hill Shizigang 7 was a grave of Zhao Jianjie, which at the time of the described events Shi Jilong ordered to dig up.

First they opened a layer of charcoal more than one zhang (2.3 m) thick, then dug down to wooden boards one chi (2.3 cm) thick, and when the boards were stacked one on another, their height reached eight chi (18 cm). Then they reached groundwater sources with unusually clear and cold water. Then they made a pulley and began bailing water using bags of ox hide, and although the water was bailed for more than a month, they could not bail it out. Because they were not able to uncover the grave, the work was ceased. In addition, Shi Jilong ordered to excavate kurgan at the tomb of the Qin Emperor Shi-huang 8 (Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇 Ying Zheng 嬴政, of “barbarian stock”, 259-210 BC, the kurgan is still unexplored, with uncovered adjacent famous buried terracota army; he had quite non-Chinese appearance with prominent nose, deep-set eyes, heavy mustache, rich beard, and and a royal lock hanging from the skullcap. For comparison, next is I.E.Repin's Kazaks, ca. 1880: the same prominent noses, deep-set eyes, heavy mustache, rich beards, and royal locks hanging from the skullcaps under Scythian conical hats, and no respect whatsoever, 2100 years later and half-a-world away. The Zhou clan, the parental clan of Qin Shi Huang, is believed to be generic Türkic [Peter N. Stearns; Stuart B. Schwartz; Marc J. Gilbert; Michael Adas, “World Civilizations: The Global Experience”, Longman Pub Group, 2000, ISBN 10: 0321044797 / 0-321-04479-7, ISBN 13: 9780321044792]), from there were pulled copper columns, which were melted into objects....

At that time the shraman (Buddhist monk. -  V.T.) Wu Jin told Shi Jilong: “The fate of the Hus (胡) is declining, the Jin Dynasty should rise again, therefore to evade a disaster, on the Jins should be imposed heavy labor lavies.” After that, Shi Jilong ordered the official of the State Chancellery Zhang Qiun to draft in the nearest districts 160 thousand men and women, and 100 thousand wagons and order them to bring dirt for construction of a Hua-linyuan garden north of Yecheng and a long wall that stretched for a few tens of li.

In that connection, Zhao Lan, Shen Zhong and Shi Pu submitted a report stating that the heavenly bodies confuse their seats, and the common people are brought to exhaustion. When, in connection with the report, they were summoned to an audience, they admonished Shi Jilong straight into his face with a very strong language. Coming into a rage, Shi Jilong said: “If the construction of the wall will be finished in the morning, and in the evening I should die, even then I will not feel a regret”, and ordered Zhang Qiun to also work at night with a light of the lamps, to erect three towers and four gates, and to hang iron shutters at the three gates leading to the Zhanshui river.

[During work] swooped a strong storm with inundating rain, of which perished few tens of thousands of people.

From the Yangzhou province were delivered five chicks of yellow swans with necks a zhang (2.3 m) in length, their cries could be heard at a distance of more than 10 li. They were released to swim in the Xuanuchi lake 9. The districts and possessions at different times sent 16 black deer bucks, and 7 white goats. Shi Jilong ordered the warden of mountains and lakes 10 Zhang Hazho to teach them to walk in the harness of the imperial chariots, and display these chariots at the court 11.

When in the northern wall was made a break to bring water to the Hualin garden, the wall collapsed and crushed more than a hundred people.

Shi Jilong ordered Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) to sacrifice to the spirits of the mountains and rivers with a request to send down luck in the hunt. Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) drove through the Jinmingmen gates on the imperial chariot decorated with a canopy of feathers, holding flags and banners of the Son of the Heaven, and heading 180 thousand warriors, divided into 16 units.

Shi Jilong stepped out from the Rear Palace and ascended the Lingxiaoguan tower to watch the departure, and said with a smile: “That's what are I and my son! If only the sky would not collapse and the land would not cave in, I have nothing more to lament! It only remains to hold children in the hands, frolic with the grandchildren, and for days indulge in pleasures.

Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan), insatiably persuing wild animals, was setting up the Field Palace at the rest stops, with a strip one hundred li (45 km) wide reserved around it on each side, and was ordering to surround that area with beaters and drive toward him birds and animals, to have them by the evening [in plenty] . Then the civilian and military officials rose to his kneeled, the beater ring was doubled, were lit innumerable like stars torhces, the light of which made it as light as a daytime, after which more than a hundred strong riders were given an order to stampede to the animals and shoot them with bows and arrows. Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) himself, with his beloved concubine Xiande in the meizhen rank, was sitting in a palanquin, watching the hunt, and fully immersed in the game, forgetting to return, and ceasing the affair only after a complete wipeout of the animals.

If the animals escaped from the encirclement, the culprit beaters were taken as having committed a crime, for which from those with titles was taken away a horse, and for one day they had to go on foot, and those without titles were punished with hundred lashes. The strict rules and harsh penalties kept civilian and military ranks trembling, and over 10 thousand warriors have died from hunger and cold. The bows, horses, clothes and food for Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) were called imperial, and those who approached these objects were punished for violating prohibitions installed for the Imperial Palace. Fifteen districts in three provinces, through which passed Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan), were left without any food supplies.

Shi Jilong issued a new order to Shi Tao, commanding him to do the same as Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan). Shi Tao departed from the Bingzhou province, and passed by the Qinzhou and Jinzhou 12 provinces. Shi Xuan hated Shi Tao for a long time, because he enjoyed the love of Shi Jilong, and for such parading began hateing him even more. A Shi Xuan eunuch Zhao Sheng, his favorite, did not enjoy a love of Shi Tao, and began secretly persuading Shi Xuan to eliminate Shi Tao; so Shi Xuan acquired an idea to destroy [the opponent].

Ma Qui suddenly attacked in a gorge of the Huanhe river a Zhang Chonghua commander Zhang Mao and defeated him, killing more than 3 thousand warriors. The Fuhang troop commander Li Kui in the head of 7 thousand troops surrendered to Shi Jilong, after which to him also surrendered all the Dis and Tibetans (Qiang, with Kiyan twist)south of the Huanhe river.

Shi Tao started building a hall in the Great Commander residence, naming it a Xuanguangdian palace 13, with the length of the roof beams equal to 10 zhangs (23 m).

Upon seeing the palace, Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan)came to a terrible rage, beheaded the craftsmen, truncated the beams, and left. In his turn, Shi Tao was also infuriated, and [again] increased the length of the beams to 10 zhangs. On hearing of this, Shi Xuan became even more angry and said to his favorites, Yang Bei and Mou Cheng: “A wicked and vile Shi Tao goes against me, that's why he dares to subvert my will. If you would be able to kill him, then upon enetring the Western Palace (Shi Jilong's Palace. - V.T.) I will divide and grant you all the land of the Shi Tao possessions. When Shi Tao is dead, the ruler will surely mourn him, and then I will perform a great deed 14, the success is assured. Yang Bai and others gave their consent.

At that time in the south-east appeared a dark yellow cloud a size of a few mu (市亩, 畝 = 667 m2), which gradually divided into three stripes, resembling pieces of fabric. These pieces crossed the sky, grew dark, turning into black color, by the 5-7 o'clock in the evening they reached the sun, and after sunset divided into seven stripes, separated by several tens of zhangs, between the bands appeared white clouds, like fish scales, which disappeared from 11 pm to 1 am.

Seeing the cloud, Shi Tao, who for long was able to explain celestial phenomena, showed discontent, and said, glancing at his entourage: “This heralds considerable changes, in the capital should appear a pricker, I only do not know who will be his victim”.

That night, Shi Tao organozed in the tower Dunminguan a banquet for his officials and with the sounds of music, drunk and with a changed face, he said, mournfully sighing: “Nothing in life is permanent, to part is easy, but it is difficult to meet. I offer to each a cup of wine for joy, drink for me, and let everyone get drunk. How can we not to drink if we do not know when the next meeting will be!” From Shi Tao eyes rolled down large tears, and all others started sobbing. That night, Shi Tao had spent the night in a Buddhist temple.

Shi Xuan told Yang Bei, Mou Pi, and Mou Cheng sneak into the temple by a rope ladder, and having killed Shi Tao, they departed, leaving their swords and arrows in the temple. At the dawn, Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) reported of the incident. From grief and anxiety, Shi Jilong breath seized. He came to only after a long time, and wanted to go to the corpse. Exhorting him not to do so, the head of the Public Works Li Nun said: “I fear that the of the Qin-gun (Shi Tao title. - V.T.) killers are within the palace walls, I am worried that extraordinary events have happened, you should not leave the palace”. After that Shi Jilong abandoned his intention, and set up mourning for the dead in the Taiudian palace, surrounded by troops in full combat readiness.

Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) came to the palace to mourn Shi Tao on a chariot plastered with white clay, accompanied by a thousand people, but he did not cry, but was only grunting. Ordering to lift the shroud to look at the corpse, he aloudly laughed and deaprted. Then Shi Xuan seized Zheng Jing and Yin Wu, the Military Advisers in the Chancellery of the Great commander, to shift the blame to them for the committed crime.

Shi Jilong, suspecting that Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) killed Shi Tao, wanted to summon him, but, fearing that he would not show up, evoked that Shi Xuan mother fell dangerously ill from excessive grief. Shi Xuan, not expecting that he is suspected, came to the Middle Palace (the Empress palace. - V.T.), where he was detained.

Shi Ke, a native of the Jianxin county, reported that on the night of the Shi Tao murder, he stayed in the house of an important high official of the Eastern Palace Yang Bai, and has heard as the coming from somewhere at night Yang Bai and five others talked among themselves: “A great deed has already been decided, only let the ruler of the possession enjoy a longevity, and we need not worry, we will become rich and noble”. After that discussion, they entered the house. Shi Ke slept in a separate room, so Yang Bai did not see him. Soon Shi Ke left the room, intending to flee, but suddenly appeared Yang Bai and two other men, who were searching for him, but did not find. Then Yang Bai said: “The man who was staying here overnight has heard our recent conversation, and it should be killed, to avert the rumors, but now we need to go for a great deed.” [When they were gone], Shi Ke climbed over the wall, and thus escaped.

Shi Jilong at once sent men to seize Yang Bai, Mou Pi, and Zhao Sheng, but Yang Bai and Mou Pee already managed to escape. Only Zhao Sheng was captured, and when it came to questioning, he confessed everything. Then Shi Jilong, with magnified grief and anger, encarcerated Shi Xuan in the straw mat storage room, put a ring on his neck, shackled him in chains, made a wooden trough with a capacity of a few dou (10 l), and filled it with pottage, to feed Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) as are fed pigs and dogs. Taking the swords and arrows with which was killed Shi Tao, Shi Jilong lapped blood from them, and his bitter hollering trembled the palace premises.

To the north of Yecheng was piled a heap of firewood twigs, at the end of it was installed a whinch and tied a rope to it, leaned a ladder against the pile of firewood, to lift Shi Xuan up to the post. The Shi Tao favorite eunuchs Hao Zhi and Liu Ba were ordered to pluck out Shi Xuan hair, tear off his tongue, drag him to the stairs and lift him to the pile of twigs. Hao Zhi tied a rope around Shi Xuan neck, he was whinched up, and Liu Ba hacked off his arms and legs, punched out his eyes and ripped up his belly - so also was tormented Shi Tao. The heap of the brushwood was set aflame on all sides, and the smoke and flames rose to the sky.

Shi Jilong and several thousand concubines headed by a concubine with the rank of zhao-yi ascended the central terrace to see the execution. When the fire died down, the ashes were collected and placed at the intersection of the walkways intersecting at the gate. Nine wives and sons of Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) were killed. The younger son of Shi Xuan, who was only a few years old, was a Shi Jilong favorite, he took [the child] in his arms, and cried. The child was repeating: “I am not guilty”, and Shi Jilong wanted to pardon him. But the officials, not agreeing with that, snatched the child from the Shi Jilong's hands to put him to death. The child clung to his Shi Jilong's clothes and loudly shouted, all who saw that shed tears, and the Shi Jilong then fell ill.

After that were executed 300 people, ranging from the four chiefs of the Eastern Palace guards, and 50 eunuchs, torn apart with chariots, and the corpses were thrown into the Chang-shui river. The Eastern Palace where Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) lived was destroyed, and pigs and cattle started to be kept in its place. The guards of the Eastern Palace, numbering more than 100 thousand people, were accused of complicity and exiled to the garrisons on the borders of Liangzhou province (Under a guard should be understood a standing army, and allowing for an equal number for Shi Jilong, and another equal number for border service and all other services, Shi Jilong had a standing army of 300 thousand men; for a country of 3,000,000 people it is an equivalent of USA maintaining a standing army of 30,000,000 men, and China of 120,000,000, a mind-boggling proportion even for modern industrial food production. That number did not include the nomadic calvary, raised only for war actions and for very short campagns, only a minor portion of whom served in the peacetime).

It should be said that before that a cortege rider Zhao Lan serving at the court told Shi Jilong: “In the Middle Palace is brewing a rebellion, actions should be taken”. When Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) killed Shi Tao, Shi Jilong thought that Zhao Lan knew about the upcoming murder, but did not report it, and had him executed. Shi Xuan's mother, the born Du, was demoted to the position of a commoner. A born Liu, Shi Xuan's concubine with a rank of guibin, a daughter of an official of the State Chancellery Liu Qi, especially beloved by Shi Xuan for her beauty and talents, was executed on charges that her two older brothers were Shi Xuan's favorites. Remembering her beauty, Shi Jilong took the youngest daughter of Liu Qi to the Hua-linyuan garden.

[After the Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) execution] Shi Jilong began discussing whom to appoint a heir to the throne. A Great Commander Zhang Ju stepped forward and said: “Shi Bin (石斌) with a title Yang-gun, and Shi Zun (石遵), with the title Pengcheng-gun both handle weapons skillfully and are endowed with civic virtues. The teeth of Your Magesty have already rotted, and the lands amidst the four seas are still not united, so I beg you to select one of the two guns and install him a heir to the throne”.

It should be said that in the past Zhang Chai with the title of jungzhao jiangjun during the time of taking the city Shanguy 15 captured a twelve years old little daughter of Liu Yao, distinguished by remarkable beauty. Shi Jilong took over the girl, fell in love with her, and she bore him a son named Shi Shi, with a title Qi-gun. At the time of the described events Zhang Chai, because Shi Jilong grew old and suffered of many diseases, wanted Shi Shi to become a heir to the throne, so that his mother, born Liu, was declared a Dowager Empress, and he [Zhang Chai] would help in the governmental affairs, and so he told Shi Jilong: “Twice you appointed heirs to the throne, but in both cases they were children of the actresses, of lowly pedigree, and so the troubles followed one after another. Now a successor to the throne should be choosen such whose mother is of noble birth, such who is distinguished by reverence to his parents”. Shi Jilong replied: “Do not talk about it now, I know how to handle a successor to the throne”.

Then there was another discussion in the Eastern Room, where Shi Jilong said: “I would like to drink three xy (30 l) of clean ash, to wash away all crap accumulated in my stomach and intestines. Once I bore a villain son, who was barely over twenty years old when he was going to kill me. Now Shi Shi is just ten years old, when he becomes twenty I'll be quite old”. After that, Shi Jilong together with Zhang Ju and Li Nun decided to order high officials to present a paper with a request to declare Shi Shi a heir to the throne. The Great Administrator of Agriculture Cao Mo did not sign the required papers, and Shi Jilong ordered Zhang Chai to find out the cause. Cao Mo deeply bowed and explained: “The governance of the Celestial is a heavy burden, it is impossible to assign it to a minor, that is why I did not dare to sign the paper”. Shi Jilong said: “Cao Mo is a loyal high official, but he does not understand my intentions. Zhang Ju and Li Nun know my thoughts, let them teach him”, and installed Shi Shi a heir to the imperial throne, and pronounced the born Liu an Empress.

Summoning a head of the ceremonial department of Tiao Yu and a head of the palace inner gate protection department Du Gu, Shi Jilong told them: “I want to burden your with responsibility to be mentors of the heir to the throne, I sincerely hope that you will send him on a right path. You have to understand the duties which I lay upon you”, then he appointed Tiao Yu a senior, and Du Gu a junior mentor for the heir to the throne.

At that time, the Shi Jilong health had slightly improved, and in the fifth year of the Yung-he (Yonghe 永和) reign era (349) on the southern outskirts of the capital he illegally ascended the imperial throne, declared a large amnesty within his jurisdiction, established the reign era Da-ning (Taining 太寧), promoted all officials by one rank grade, raised his sons to the titles of district guns and appointed Zhang Liang a Right Assistant of the Chief of the State Chancellery.

More than 10 thousand strong men who used to guard the former Eastern Palace, and now exiled to the border, were supposed to encamp by garrisons in the Liangzhou province. They have already reached the main city of the Yongzhou province, but did not fall under the proclaimed amnesty, and the governor of the Yongzhou province Zhang Mao was ordered to escort them to their destination. Zhang Mao confiscated from the strongmen all horses, and ordered them to go by foot to the quartering points, carrying grain in hand carts (We have two oddities in this passage. First is lexical, the term “strong men” used by V.S.Taskin is an obvious Slavic rendition of the Türkic “bagatur”, so much ingrained into the Türkic lexicon that it was adopted by virually all their neighbors; V.S.Taskin translated it from Chinese, indicating that the Chinese borrowed it too, at least semantically. In Türkic, “bagatur” is mounted, there were no foot soldier bagaturs, as every warrior was mounted by default. The number 10,000 is a tumen, i.e. among the 100,000 Eastern Palace guards was a tumen of nomadic cavalry, the only bagaturs in the gard force, and to be a capable military force, they had to have 4-6 horses each, all brought from home as part of the bagatur warrior equipment. Confiscation of private 40-60,000 horses is not a minor offence, it could not be taken lightly, independent of the authority that authorised it. The second oddity is to order the bagatur forces to perform the hard labor of hand carts. The elite force of the army is exempted from the manual tasks performed by the peasant enlistees of the local Chinese population, and such an offence is even more injurious then the robbery of their horses. Zhang Mao could not become a provincial governor without being able to make sound judgements).

The commander of strongmen Liang Du, a native of the Dinyan county, using the general discontent, contrived to raise a rebellion and return to the east, and therefore secretly ordered an (ethnically) Hu Seduluwei to inform the exiled warriors of his intention. Upon hearing this, all warriors danced and shouted with joy. Then Liang Du declared himself a Jin Great Commander Punishing The East, led his warriors in storming the Xiabian city 16, and forced Zhang Mao to accept a title of Grand Administrator and a Great Commander of the Troops, and ordered him to ride in a light chariot drawn by one horse (In other words, as a minimum the bagaturs repossessed their horses and their elite status, and put the provincial governor in his rightful place).

Liu Ning with a rank of Commander-Pacifier of the West marched from the Anding district 17, attacked Liang Du, suffered a severe defeat, and returned, while Liang Du took in the Qinzhou and Yongzhou provinces all cities and garrisoned centers with troops, killed officials who were receiving a salary of 2 thousand dans of grain per year and senior officials, and headed east. The strongmen were distinguished by their physical strength, they were good shooters from bows, and every one of them could overcome more than a dozen enemies. Because they had no weapons, they were siezing from the population large axes, stucking them on long poles one zhang (2.3 m) long, and attacked the enemy like celestial warriors, the enemies were scattering before them. All garrison troops joined them. When the strongmen came to Chang'an, their number increased to 100 thousand men.

At that time, Chang'an was ruled by Shi Bao with a title Lepin-wang; to repulse Liang Du, he assembled all troops, but was decisively defeated in a single battle. Then Lyan.Du moved to the east, passed through the Tunguan gate and went to the river Lochuan. Shi Jilong appointed Li Nun a Great Grand Commander and acting Great Commander, instructed him to punish Liang Du, to lead the troops of the security forces commander Zhang Hedu, Zhang Liang with a title of Commander Punishing the West, and Shi Min (冉闵/冉閔, aka Yang Min, pin.: Ran Min, Shi Min 石閔, d. 352) with a title of Commander Avenging Contemptible Enemies These troops numbered 100 thousand infantry and riders. The battle occurred in the district of Xinan (orig.: Xinan) and ended badly for Li Nun. Then came a new battle near Luoyang, the Li Nun's troops were defeated again, and retreated under the protection of the Chengao walls.

Moving eastward, Liang Du robbed Xinyan, Chenlu and other districts, and then very scared Shi Jilong appointed Shi Bing with a title Yang-wang a Great Chief Commander for all military affairs in the capital and beyond, and he led 10 thousand selected horsemen, commanding the troops of Yao Yichjung, Fu Hun, and others, attacked Liang Du east of Xinyan and inflicted a severe defeat.

After beheading Liang Du and on a return march, [Yao Yichjung] punished the remnants of his (Liang Du) troops, which were completely destroyed. Suddenly, the Jin commander Wang Kan seized district Pujun belonging to Shi Jilong. Ma Xu 18, a native of the Shiping county, raised an uprising in Loshi gegu, declared himself a military commander, but Shi Bao attacked and destroyed him, and sent to execution more than 3 thousand families.

At that time, Mars first entered the constellation Cancer, and then the Pleiades constellation. The Moon reached a point north of Mars and entered the Eagle constellation.

Shortly thereafter, the Shi Jilong's disease turned highly acute, so he gave Shi Zong a title of Great Commander, charging him with governance of the land west of the Hanguguan outpost; he appointed Shi Bing a Chief Assistant to the Emperor and an Administrator of the State Chancellery, he gave Zhang Chai a title of Great Commander Guarding the Emperor and Commander Guiding the Troops, and appointed him a head of the Rank Assignment department; he bequeathed all three to assist [the heir] in the affairs of governance.

The born Liu, fearing that Shi Bin, helping in the affairs of governance, could harm Shi Shi, in conjunction with Zhang Chai conceived to kill him. At that time, Shi Bin was in Xiangguo, where they sent a courier who, in order to deceive Shi Bin, said: “The ruler is slowly recovering from the disease, and if you, wang, have to hunt, you can stay a little longer”. Shi.Bin liked wine and hunting, and therefore continued to hunt and drink. Then the born Liu, invoking an order of the Emperor, said that Shi Bin does not show loyalty and deference to his father, and dismissed him from his positions, ordering him to stay at home while retaining the title of wang, and ordered Zhang Xiong ("the Hun", orig. Sün), a younger brother of Zhang Chai, to keep him under guard in the head of 500 Riders Taking Off Like Dragons. Shi Zun arrived to Yecheng from the Yuzhou province. He was ordered to accept appointments in the Audience Hall, given 30 thousand warriors from the Emperor bodyguards, and sent back. Shi Zun left in a great grief, shedding tears. The same day, Shi Jilong felt a little better, and he asked: “Did Shi Zun come?” The courtiers replied: “He's left long ago”. Shi Jilong exclaimed: “What a pity that I did not meet with him!”

Shi Jilong went to the western hall of the palace, where more than two hundred bodyguards from the detachment of the Commander Rising up to the Sky Like a Dragon lined up and bowed before him. Shi Jilong asked: “What are you asking?” All present answered: “You are unwell, you should order the Yan-wang (Shi Bin's title. - V.T.) to come to your guards and to take over a command of the troops.” Some others added: “We are asking you to install him a heir to the throne”. Shi Jilong, not knowing about deposition of Shi Bin, responded with a smile: “Is Yan-wang not in the palace? Bring him over!”
Then the courtiers said: “The wang is drunk and can not come”. Shi Jilong ordered: “Quickly bring him in a palanquin, I must hand him the imperial seal with a cord”, but no one went for Yan-wang. Soon after that, Shi Jilong fell into dotage and left to the palace.

Zhang Chai, invoking the order of Shi Jilong, ordered his younger brother Zhang Xiong ("the Hun", orig. Sün) to kill Shi Bin. From her side, the born Liu, also invoking the order of Shi Jilong, appointed Zhang Chai a Senior Warden of the heir to the throne, a Grand Commander of all military affairs in the capital and beyond, an Administrator of the State Chancellery, increased the number of his guards by a thousand soldiers and 500 horsemen, following in everything the example of Huo Guang, who was helping the Han dynasty. After that, the courtier Xu Tong, sadly sighing, said: “A turmoil is coming, I will not participate in it", and committed suicide by taking poison.

Shortly thereafter died Shi Jilong. Shi Jilong illegally assumed the throne in the first year of the Xian-kan reign era (Jianwu 建武, 335), and by the time of death in the sixth year of the Tai-he reign era 19 (Taining 太寧, 349) occupied the throne for 15 years (The discrepancies between the era names translated by V.S.Taskin and those listed in the official chronography may be caused by selective re-writing of the history).

Shi Shi (石世)

[After his death] to the illegal throne ascended Shi Shi, who bestowed to the born Liu a title of Dowager Empress with a right to administer the state affairs, and promoted Zhang Chai to the position of the Chief Assistant of the Emperor. Zhang Chai, to pacify Shi Zun and Shi Jian, asked to appoint them a Left and Right Chief Assistants of the Emperor, which the born Liu consented to (This is a peculiarly Türkic tradition of the wife of the late ruler to take the reign as a Regent untill the dauphin comes out of age or a successor is elected. The same event was documented among the Caucasian Huns with Queen Beatrice, among the Middle Asian Masguts/Massagets Queen Tamiris, and a number of other instances).

Zhang Chai with Zhang Ju began developing a plan of killing Li Nun, but Zhang Ju for a long time was friends with Li Nun and told him about Zhang Chai plans. Scared Li Nun fled to the Guanzong county, leading over a hundred horsemen, stood at the head of several tens of thousands families who escaped from famine, and took refuge in the Shangbai city. The born Liu ordered Zhang Ju and others to head elite emperor bodyguard warriors to surround [Li Nun] there.

Chai Zhang gave Zhang Li a title of Great Troop Commander, to oversee all military actions in the capital and outside of it, and also appointed him to the position of Bailiff for Criminal Cases, making him his assistant.

In Yecheng apeared a large number of thieves, busy with ceaseless theft.

Shi Zun, on hearing about Shi Jilong death, entrenched in the Henei district. At that time Yao Yichjung, Fu Hong (orig.: Hun), Shi Min, Lu Ning, Wang Luan with a rank of Commander of the Armed Guards, Wang Wu with a rank of Commander-Pacifier of the West, Shi Xing, Wang Te and Duan Qin with a rank of Commander who Established Justice, were coming back after quelling the Qinzhou and Lozhou provinces. At a meeting with Shi Zun in Licheng 20, they told him: “You are the eldest son of Shi Jilong, and are also distinguished by wisdom, so the late emperor had a desire to end his choice on you. However, in later years the emperor had lost a clarity of mind and was misled by Zhang Chai. Now the troops of Zhang Chai are standing near the Shangbai city, but can not take it, and the capital remains deserted, because all personal bodyguards of the Emperor left to the campaign. If to declare the crimes of Zhang Chai, and march with drumbeat tp punish him, who would not turn spears against Zhang Chai and would not open the gates to meet you!” Shi Zun accepted the offer; [Furthermore,] the ruler of the Lozhou province Liu Guo and others also arrived in Licheng leading the troops stationed in Luoyang.

When the declaration of Shi Zong was delivered to Yecheng, highly frightened Zhang Chai hastened to summon the troops located near Shangbai. Meanwhile, Shi Zun arrived in the Danin county with 90 thousand warriors with Shi Min marching in the vanguard. Zhang Chai wanted to march to repell Shi Zong, but his old friends and the Jie warriors climbed over the walls and fled, with the words: “The Son of the Heaven rushes to her father's funeral, we must go to meet him and can not defend the city for Zhang Chai”. Zhang Chai was chopping off the heads of runaways, but could not stop them. Zhang Li in the head of 2 thousand warriors jetting off like dragons broke through the gate to meet Shi Zong.

The frightened born Liu summoned Zhang Chai, and said weeping bitterly: “The catalpa coffin of the late emperor was not yet interred, but numerous disasters have already befallen. The underage heir to the throne is entrusted to your care, commander, and how are you helping him? Would the disasters stop if we yield to Shi Zong important positions?” A confused Zhang Chai, without a clue on what to do, could not devise any plan, and only uttered: “Yes, yes”. Then the born Liu ordered to appoint Shi Zun a Chief Àssistant to the Åmperor, à Great Army Commander, a Great Grand Commander of all the military affairs in the capital and beyond, an Administrator on the affairs of the State Chancellery, in addition she granted him a yellow halberd and a right to exercise nine awards (ziu si), an increase of his possessions by ten districts, and assigned to him the duties of A-heng 21.

When Shi Zun arrived in Anyanting, a scared Zhang Chai came out to meet him, and was seized by an order of Shi Zun. Then, dressed in armors and sparkling with his weapons, Shi Zun entered Luoyang through the Fenyanmen gate, ascended into the front hall of the Taiudian palace, in a fit of grief started pounding his chest and stomp his feet, and then retired to the Eastern Hall of the palace.

Zhan Chai was beheaded [in Yecheng] at the Ping-leshi market square, and his family was exterminated for three generations. From the name of the born Liu, Shi Zun issued an edict which stated: “The heir son is small in years, the late Emperor gave him the throne by his personal favor, but the affairs of the Emperor are extremely difficult, and he would not be able to handle them, so let Shi Zun inherit the throne”. Shi Zun pretended to refuse the throne three times, but the high officials were persistently persuading him until they've got his consent, after which Shi Zun illegally ascended the high throne in the front hall of the Taiudian palace.

[After accession to the throne] Shi Zun announced a large amnesty for all up to those sentenced to death, and lifted a siege from the Shang-bai city. Shi Shi was demoted to the title Qiao-wang, bestowed with possession of 10 thousand households, and Shi Zun treated him as his own servant. The born Liu was demoted to the title of Dowager Concubine. Soon, Shi Zun killed Shi Shi and the born Liu. Shi Shi remained on the throne for a total of 33 days.

Shi Zun (石遵)

Li Nun returned asking for forgiveness for his crimes, and Shi Zun restored him in his former positions and began treating him as before. His mother, the born Cheng, Shi Zun proclaimed a Dowager Empress, his wife the born Chang was proclaimed an Empress, the Shi Bin's son Shi Yan was proclaimed a heir to the imperial throne, Shi Jian was appointed a courtier, Shi Chung a Senior Mentor for the heir to the throne, Shi Bao a Great Troops Commander, Shi Kun a Commander, Shi Min a Grand Commander of all military affairs in the capital and beyond, a Great Commander Helping the State, and the Administrator of the affairsof the State Chancellery, in order for him to assist in the affairs of governance (This segment clearly demonstrates an attempt to return to the legitimate scheme of events: the senior member of the clan becomes a legitimate leader, and the succession legitimately is designed to pass to the second-eldest eligible person, a nephew of the reighning monarch, in accordance with the lateral succession scheme. Following the tradidional scheme is intended to appeal to the Türkic part of the state population, bringing aboard a wide support of the masses).

Precipitated a storm which pulled out trees, thunder boomed, and fell hail a size of a cup or a volume measure of one sheng (1 l).

In the Huihuadian hall of the Taiudian palace flared a fire that completely destroyed towers and the premises near the gate, where burned down more than half of the chariots and garments stored there. The glow of the fire rose to the sky, all jewellery from precious metals and stones were lost, and the fire was completely extinguished only after a month.

Around Yecheng fell rain red as blood.

At that time, Shi Zhong (Shi Jian 石鑒 or Shi Zhi 石祇, orig.: ×æóí/Chjung, Shi Chong (石沖) in the Jizhou province heard that Shi Zun killed Shi Shi and himself ascended the throne, and told his aides: “Shi Shi took the throne on the decree of the late emperor, but Shi Zun unexpectedly deposed and killed him. There is no greater crime! I am ordering you to take strict precautionary measures in the palace and outside of it, and I myself will march to punish [Shi Zun].

Then, leaving Shu Jian with a rank of Commander Pacifier of the North to defend the Yuzhou province, Shi Zhong led 50 thousand warriors on a march from the Jizhou province to punish Shi Zong, sending out over the lands of the former Yan and Zhao possessions an appeal, in response to which around him gathered warriors as numerous as the clouds in the sky. As a result, when Shi Jung came to the Changshan district, the number of his troops exceeded 100 thousand people; he stopped with them in Yuanxiang.

There Shi Chung received from Shi Zong a paper with a promise of forgiveness, and he said having peered at his courtiers: “I and my younger brother are one whole, the dead can't be resurrected, why should we annihilate each other? I want to go back”. A Shi Chung's commander Chen Lo stepped forward and responded: “Pengcheng-wang (title of Shi Zong. -  V.T.) seized power, killed the ruler, and exalted himself, his offense is great. Although you, Wu-wang (title of Shi Chung. -  V.T.), will turn your flags to the north, I will aim the shafts of my carts to the south, quell the capital, catch Pengcheng-wang, and then will meet your imperial chariot”. Shi Zhong accept this offer. Shi Zun urgently sent Wang Zhuo to remonstrate with Shi Chung, but Shi Chung did not listen to the messenger. Then Ji Zun handed Shi Min a yellow halberd and copper gong, and ordered him, along with Li Nun and other commanders at the head of 100 thousand elite warriors to punish Shi Chung. The battle took place in the Pinji county 22, Shi Chung's troops suffered a severe defeat, and Shi Chung was captured in the Yuanshi county 23. Shi Zun ordered Shi Chung to commit suicide, and over 30 thousand of his men were buried alive (It is apparent that the volunteer army of Shi Chung was predominantly composed of Hun tribesmen, and a loss of 30,000 men in their primeout of 500,000 population was a severe nation-wide demographical blow. Shi Min was an ethnically Chinese commander).

Finally came the funeral of Shi Jilong, whose tomb was named a Xianyuanling cemetery. Shi Jilong was illegally bestowed a posthumous title of Emperor Wu huangdi (武帝) and temple title Tai-zu (太祖) (Posthumous and templetitles are Chinese retroactive historiography, nothing alike existed in the Türkic traditions).

A governor Wang Jia of the Yangzhou province that belonged to Shi Zong, in the head of the lands south of the river Huaihe submitted to the Jin Dynasty. A Jin chief of the western bodyguards Chen Kui took Shouchun. A Jin's Chu Pou with a rank of Commander Punishing the North led the troops in attackon Shi Zong, and encamped in Xiapei. Shi Zun appointed Li Nun a Great Grand Commander Punishing the South, and he headed 20 thousand horsemen to repulse Chu Pou. Chu Pou did not have a strength to attack, and retreated to Guangling. Upon hearing this, the frightened Chen Kui incinerated the stocks stored in Shouchun, destroyed the city walls, and retreated.

At that time Shi Bao, governing Chang'an, conceived to attack Yecheng at the head of the troops recruited in the Guanzhong lands.

A Left senior official commanding Cao Yao's troops Shi Guang, and others strongly admonished him not to do that, but enraged Shi Bao executed more than a hundred people, including Shi Guang. Shi Bao was greedy and unforesightful, so all influential houses in the Yongzhou province, knowing that he wouild not succeed, started sending couriers to the ruler of the Jin's Liangzhou province Sima Xion ("the Hun", orig. Sün) with messages about his intentions. After that Sima hurried for help in the head of the troops, and at a distance from Chang'an of more than 200 li he stopped in a small town Xuangou, surrounded himself with bulwarks, and ordered a provincial chancellery clerk 24 Liu Huan to attack Liu Zili, a ruler of the Jinzhao district, who was killed. Supporting Sima Xion, the influential homes in the three metropolitan counties killed most of the heads of large and small counties, and took refuge in more than thirty rampart-fortified villages, having [available] 50 thousand warriors.

Shi Bao, abandoning a plan to attack Yecheng, ordered Ma Qui, Yao Guo, and others to repulse Sima Xion with their calvary. Shi Zun, under a pretext of punishing Sima Xion sent 20 thousand horsemen under a command of Wang Lan with a rank of Commander of the Chariots and Cavalry, who seized Shi Bao and sent him to Yecheng. Sima Xion, rebuffed by Wang Lang, left Xuangou, took the Yuancheng city, killed a governor Yuan Jing of the Nanyang district belonging to Shi Zong, and returned.

It should be said that before leaving the city Lichen Shi Zun told Shi Min: “Be assiduous! When things will end with success, I will make you a heir to the throne”, but later appointed Shi Yan a heir of the throne, which utterly disappointed Shi Min. Shi Min, believing that with his merits he exceeds everybody, expected to hold the politics of the court in his own hands, but Shi Zun envied him, and consequently Shi Min could not get appointments to the relevant posts. When Shi Min had a post of the Grand Commander and held in his hands the military power in the capital and outside of it, he benignly attracted to his side the military commanders and warriors at the court, and over 10 thousand strongmen (i.e. bahadurs) from the former Eastern Palace, who now presented Shi Zun a report requesting to appoint Shi Min an informal commander of the palace warriors, to give him a title guenwai-hou 25, and grant him palace maids, to show his benevolence. That did not raise any suspicions of Shi Zun, but to humiliate Shi Min he enumerated his good and bad qualities, which caused a universal grumbling.

Then, heeding the advices of the Chief of the palace secretariat Meng Chung, and of the commander of the left guard corps Wang Luan, Shi Zun became imbued with a strong suspicion of Shi Min, [began to be afraid of him], and started depriving him gradually of the military power, and Shi Min showed increasing dissatisfaction, so Meng Chung and others were urging Shi Zun to kill him.

Shi Zun summoned Shi Jian (石鑒) and others to a meeting in the presence of the Empress Dowager the born Zheng (Zheng Yingtao), and all [gathered] asked to kill Shi Min. However, the born Zheng said: “When you were returning from the city of Lichen with the troops, would everything happen as it is, if not for Jinu (child name of Shi Min. -  V.T.)? A small frivolity of Shi Minya should be forgiven, he can not be killed just like that”.

After leaving the meeting, Shi Jian sent a eunuch Yang Huang to tell Shi Min about that conversation. Shi Min immediately forced Li Nun and Wang Ji with a rank of the Right Guard Corps Commander to see him, and secretly developed with them a plan to depose Shi Zun, and ordered military commanders Su Hai and Zhou Cheng to take thirty men and seize Shi Zun at the Jungguan tower. Shi Zun was playing checkers with women at that time, he asked Zhou Cheng: “Who is the rebel?” Zhou Cheng responded “To the throne must ascend Shi Jian with the title Yiyang-wang”. Shi Zun said: “If you do this to me, how long will last Shi Jian, that you will enthrone?” Then he was killed in the hall Kunhuadian, and with him were executed the born Zheng, her son, the heir to the throne Shi Yan, Senior Palace Advisor Zhang Fei, the head of the palace secretariat Meng Jun, the Left Guard Corps Commander Wang Luan and others. In total Shi Zun stayed on the throne for 183 days.

Shi Jian (石鑒)

Then, having illegally ascended the throne, Shi Jian announced a lage amnesty for all up to those sentenced to death, gave Shi Min a title of a Great Commander and raised him to a title Wude-wang, appointed Li Nun a Great Troop Commander and Administrator of the State Chancellery, appointed Lan Kai a Head of Public Works, appointed the ruler of the Qinzhou province Liu Qiun a Left Assistant of the Chief of the State Chancellery, and a courtier Lu Chen an inspector of the palace secretariat.

Shi Jian ordered Shi Bao, a chief of the Palace Secretariat Li Sun (pin. Song) and a Commander of the Palace Warriors Zhang Cai (orig.: Öàé/Tsai) to kill at night Shi Min and Li Nun in the Kunhuadian hall, but they failed to seize the hall, and a tumult rose at the palace. Shi Jian, fearing that Shi Min would raise a rebellion, pretended that he knew nothing, and at night killed Li Sun (pin. Song) and Zhang Cai at the west Zhonghuamen gate, and executed Shi Bao (Shi Bao 石苞 was Shi Jian's brother next in line for succession, his execution in 349 must have been a concession to Shi Min, playing directly into Shi Min's cards).

At that time, Shi Zhi was in Xiangguo, he had a friendly relationship with Yao Yizhuk and Fu Hung, he joined together his troops with theirs, and sent around notices, stating his desire to execute Shi Min and Li Nun. Shi Jian appointed Shi Kun a Great Commander in Chief, and ordered him, along with Zhang Ju and courtier Huyan Sheng to lead 70 thousand infantry and riders to march in different directions and to punish Shi Zhi.

The Commander of Troops Shi Cheng, courtier Shi Qi, and a former governor of the Hedun district Shi Hui planed to kill Shi Min and Li Nun, but were themselves killed by Shi Min and Li Nun.

Sun Fudu with a rank of Commander Jetting up to the Sky Like a Dragon, Liu Zhu and others, assembled 3 thousand Jie warriors, hid them in an ambush in the Hutian [service quarters], and also wanted to kill Shi Min. At that time Shi Jian was on the central terrace, and Sun Fudu with more than 30 warriors wanted come up there, intercept Shi Jian, and together with him attack Chi Min. Shi Jian, seeing that Sun Fudu is busting suspension bridges connecting the palace towers, came out to him to inquire what was going on. Sun Fudu replied: “Li Nun and others, who raised insurrection, are already at the Dunyimen gate, and I, your servant, am heading the bodyguards, of which I respectfully wish to bring to your attention in advance”. Shi Jian said: “You are a meritorious official, bear your efforts for me, and I'll be watching from the terrace over your actions, and do not worry, you would not be left without award”. After that, Sun Fudu and Liu Zhu headed an attack of the warriors on Shi Min and Li Nun, but failing to achieve success took positions at the Fenyanmen gate.

Shi Min and Li Nun led several thousand warriors to destroy the Jinmingmen gates, and they streamed to the palace. Shi Jian, fearing that he would be killed by Shi Min, hastened toward Shi Min and Li Nun, opened the gates, and let them in with the words: “Sun Fudu raised a mutiny, quickly think what to do with him”. Shi Min and Li Nun jumped on Sun Fudu and killed him, and the whole space from theFenyanmen gate to the Kunhuadian hall was covered with corpses, and blood flowed in streams.

Shi Min announced inside and outside of the palace an order that anyone belonging to the one of the six alien tribes that dared to take up arms will be beheaded. Then an uncounted number of Hus (胡) started fleeing the town, either breaking through the gates, or climbing over the city walls.

The official of the State Chancellery Wang Jian and the custodian of the small storeroom Wang Yui were ordered to hold Shi Jian, who headed several thousand riders, under guard in the Yuilunguan tower, and feed him by suspending food in front of him.

In the city was given an order: “Those unanimous with the emperor may live, those not unanimous should go wherever they like. It is ordered not to forbid a cpassage through the gates”. Following promulgation of the order, the Zhaos (Chinese. - V.T.) who lived within 100 li from the city came to the city, and the Hus (胡) and Jies who were leaving the city jammed all the gates.

Shi Min, who realized that he would not be able to use the Hus (胡), gave an order to the Zhaos in town and outside of it, according to which each civil servant who would kill one Hu (胡) and brought his head to the Fenyanmen gate, will be promoted in rank by three degrees, and a military officer will be transferred to the service at the [Shi Min's] Supreme Command. During the day were severed tens of thousands of heads. Shi Min himself lead Zhaos in killing the Hus (胡) and Jies without regard for sex or age. In total were killed over 200 thousand people, their bodies were dumped outside the city, where they were eaten by wild dogs, jackals and wolves. The troop commanders in various parts of the state received a prescript from Shi Min to be killing the Hus (胡), as a result a half of the people with high noses and bushy beards were killed.

The Great Administrator Zhao Lu, the Great Commander Zhang Ju, Commander of the Middle Army Zhang Chun, a Palace Adviser Shi Xing, Commander Comforting the Troops Li Ning, Commander of the Armed Guards Zhang Ji, those with the titles gun and hou, high officials and Warriors Jetting Up Like Dragons, all in excess of 10 thousand people fled to Xiangguo.

Shi Kun fled and entrenched in the Jizhou province, the Commander Comforting the Troops Zhang Chen ensconced in the Fu-kou 26, Zhang Hedu holed up at the Shidu dam, Duan Qin 27 with a rank of Commander Establishinh Justice occupied Liang, Yan Qun with a rank of Commander Pacifier of the South lodged with the troops in Sanbi 28, Liu Guo occupied Yanchen 29, Duan Kan 30 settled in Chenlu, Yao Yizhong (姚弋仲, a Qiang chief) occupied Hunjiao, and Fu Hong (orig.: Hun) occupied Fantou, and each of them had several tens of thousands warriors (That list amounts to about 150,000 men, representing 700,000 population, or 1/4 of the state population).

Wang Lan and Ma Qui fled from Chang'an to Luoyang, where Ma Qui, after receiving Shi Min's paper, slaughtered more than a thousand Hu (胡) warriors from the Wang Dan corps. After that Wang Lan fled to Xiangguo, and Ma Qui led the troops to Fu Hun.

Shi Kun, Zhang Ju and Wang Lan with 70 thousand warriors attacked Yecheng; Shi Min went on a sortie to the north of the city to repell them, leading over a thousand riders. Sitting astride a horse with a double-edged halberd in hands, Shi Min attacked the enemy, and wherever he raced, everybody was rolling down to the ground under his blows. Shi Kun and others suffered a severe defeat, loosing three thousand warriors, and returned to the Jizhou province.

Shi Min and Li Nun in the head of the 30 thousand horsemen marched to punish Zhang Hedu, who was located at the Shidu dam. Shi Jian secretly sent a eunuch with a letter to Zhang Chen and others, inviting them to take advantage of the Shi Min absence, launching a surprise attack on Yecheng, but the eunuch reported that to Shi Min and Li Nuno; Shi Min and Li Nun immediately returned, deposed Shi Jian and killed him. Together with Shi Jian were executed 38 grandchildren of Shi Jilong, and thus the Shi clan was completely annihilated. Shi Jian remained on the throne of 103 days.

The youngest son Shi Hun (pin. Shi Kun 石琨) of Shi Jilong in the eighth year of an of the Yung-ho reign era (352 AD) along with his wife and several concubines fled to the Jin capital, but the (Jin) Emperor (Sima Dan) ordered to arrest and turn him over to the Chief of the Judficial department, after which Shi Hun was soon executed at the market plazza in Jiankan. Of the thirteen sons of Shi Jilong, five were killed by Jan Min (冉闵/冉閔, aka Ran Min, Shi Min 石閔) , and eight wiped out each other, and by the time of the described events Shi Hun was killed also.

It should be said that long ago came a prediction that the Shi clan will be ruined by the Lin clan. Soon Shi Min's title was changed to Lanling-gun. [When Shi Jilong learned about the prediction], it unfavorably impressed him, and he renamed the Lanling district to the Wuxin district, but nevertheless his clan happened to be destroyed by Jan Min.

Shi Le illegally ascended the throne in the third year of the Xian-ho reign era (328 AD), established by the Jin Emperor Cheng-di, and after him for 23 years ruled two rulers and four sons. In the fifth year of the Yung-he reign era (349 AD), established by the Emperor Mu-di, [the created by Shi Le] dynasty was destroyed.

Jan Min (冉闵/冉閔)

Min, nicknamed Yung-zeng, bore a baby name Ji-nu, was an adoptive grandson of Shi Jilong. His father Zhang, nicknamed Hun-wu, bore a surname Jan and a name of Liang, he was a native of the Neihuan county in the Weijun district. The ancestor of Jan during the Han dynasty served as a comander of the mounted security guards the Liang district, and his descendants from generation to generation served in the office of the district governor (Chances that a head or rank-and-file of the mounted guards during the Han dynasty was not of a Hunnic/nomadic descent are slim to none; except for the uppermost position, all personnel involved with horses was traditionally of horse nomadic stock, and the uppermost position was almost always Hunnic also. That social arrangement continued well after An Lushan events. Jinshi confirms the records of other Chinese annals that the positions around horses were hereditary, in the army and in the stud farms. Culturally, Shi Min could very well be a Zhao Chinese, and his appearance could be Chinese too, after his female anscestors, but being always with the Türkic descendents, his father had to carry plenty of Türkic cultural traits). When Shi Le defeated Chen Wu, he captured Zhang, who was only 12 years old, and ordered Shi Jilong to adopt him. Zhang was distinguished by courage and great physical strength, so in the battle no one could resist him. He had a title of the Left Commander of Tracker Bowmen 31, and the title of Xihua-hou (Great physical strength is a good indicator that Zhang and his anscestors grew up on a meat diet. Chinese annals noted that Tibetans who switched to horse nomadism over generations noticeably changed their physique to the better).

[His son] Min was distinguished from childhood by resoluteness and courage, and Shi Jilong treated him like a grandson. When Min grew up, his height was equal to eight chi (184 cm), he knew to skillfully develop plans, and with courage and strength exceeded the others. He reeceived a rank of Commander who Displayed Duty, and a title Xiuchen-hou, and then consequtively occupied positions of a Chief of the Northern Bodyguard Security and had a title of Commander of Light Shock Troops. When Shi Jilong was defeated in the Chanli county, only the troops of Min were preserved intact, because of that a fame about his achievements dramatically increased, and after the trouncing of Liang Du the fame of his power increased even more, so all Hu (胡) and Xia (Chinese. - V.T.) commanders became afraid of him.

In the sixth year of the Yung-he reign era (350 AD), after assassination of Shi Jian, 48 people, including the Prude Shen Chung and Chief of Public Works Lan Kai, conveyed to Min the high title. Min was insistently yielding the title to Li Nun, but Li Nun, threatening to commit suicide, begged him to take the throne. As a result, in the southern suburb of [Loyan] Min illegally ascended the imperial throne, announced a large amnesty, changed the name of the reign era to Yung-xin, gave the state a name of the Great Wei, and adopted his former surname Jan (pin. Ran). Jan Min posthumously gave his grandfather a title of Emperor Lung-yuan, to his father Zhang he gave a temple title Le-zu and a posthumous title of Emperor Gao huangdi, his mother the born Wang he proclamed a Dowager Empress, his wife the born Tung he proclamed an Empress, his son Jan (pin. Ran) Zhi he proclamed a heir to the imperial throne. Li Nun was appointed a Great Administrator, a Great Commander, an Administrator of the State Chancellery, and raised to the title Qi-wang, and all his sons received titles of county guns. The sons of Jan Min, Jan Yin, Jan Min, and Jan Yu were raised to the titles of wangs. The civilian and military officials were raised in ranks by the three grades and given titles depending on merit (Three grades on the top of the three grades given for beheading a single Hun raised everybody by six grades, no official in the state had a ranl lower than a seventh grade). Then Jan Min handed messengers credential badges and sent them to announce the forgiveness for all who remain with the troops in the fortified posts 32, but no one responded to his call.
Shi Zhi (石祇)

Shi Zhi, on hearing of the Shi Jian death, illegally took a high title in Xiangguo, and all leaders of six alien tribes (Wu Hu in Chinese pin. lingo) 33 stationed in the provinces and districts and having troops supported him.

Jan Min sent an envoy to the banks of Yangtze to inform the Jin dynasty: “The Hu (胡) rebel, who raised mutiny on the Central Plain, has been executed now. If you are able to punish with me the rest, you can send the troops”. The (Jin) imperial court did not respond to this proposal.

Jan Min executed Li Nun and his three sons, and with them killed the head of the State Chancellery Wang Mo, a courtier Wang Yan, and palace servants Yan Zhen and Zhao Sheng.

A governor Yuan Zhen of the Jin's Lujian district attacked the city Hefey 34 belonging to Jan Min, captured a bailiff for Southern Mans San Tan, relocated the inhabitants of the city, and returned.

Shi Zhi sent a Chief Assistant of the State 35 Shi Kun in the head of 100 thousand warriors to attack Yecheng. When advancing Shi Kun took Handan district, Liu Guo marched from Fanyan 36 to join him, he served Shi Zhi with the rank of Commander-Ruler of the South. In the Handan district Jan Min inflicted on Shi Kun a severe defeat, he lost more than 10 thousand warriors, after which Liu Guo returned to Fanyan.

Fu Jian, depating from Fantou, broke inside past the outposts 37.

Zhang Hedu and Duan Qin met with Liu Guo and Jing Zhuo in Changcheng 38, going to attack Yecheng. Jan Min appointed Left Assistant of the Chief of the State Chancellery Liu Qun a Grand Commander of the Field Office, and ordered the military commanders Wang Tai, Cui Tung and Zhou Cheng to stage at the head of 120 thousand infantry and riders in Huangcheng, and he himself followed them leading 80 thousand elite warriors.

The battle took place at Canting, Zhang Hedu and others suffered a severe defeat, losing 28 thousand warriors dead. In pursuit of the fleeing, Jan Min killed Jing Zhuo in the Yinan county, captured all his warriors, and victorious turned back. Over 300 thousand warriors with banners and flags, gongs and drums stretched for more than a hundred li (50 km); even the clan of Shi at its peak would not exceed [Jan Min]. Coming from Canting to Yecheng, Jan Min made a sacrifice in the temple of ancestors on the occasion of his return from the campaign, conducted a certification for members od nine philosophical schools, and depending on the abilities of each appointed to the positions. Were promoted especially many followers of the Confucianism. At that time, the power of Jan Min was compared with the power of the Wei and Jin dynasties in the initial period of their rule.

Jan Min attacked Li Zhi in Xiangguo, heading 100 thousand infantry and riders.

Jan Min appointed his son Jan (pin. Ran) Yin with a title Taiyuanwang a Great Shanyu, gave him a title of a Great Commander of Strong Cavalry, and passed under his command 1,000 of surrendered Hu warriors. A Palace Adviser Wei Xiao presented a report which strongly counseled not to do that 39, but after acquainting with the report, Jan Min came to a terrible wrath and executed Wei Xiao together with his sons and grandsons.

Jan Min besieged Xiangguo for more than a hundred days, and began pouring high hills for the storm of the city, digging tunnels, and build houses; in addition, he initiated plowing the land. Quite frightened, Shi Zhi renounced his title of Emperor, took a title of Zhao-wang, and sent messengers to Mujun Jun and Yao Yichjung (pin. Yichrong) with a request for military assistance.

At that time, Shi Kun was marching to the Shi Zhi aid from the Jizhou province, Yao Yichjung sent his son Yao Xiang, who set out from Getou leading 38 thousand warriors, a Mujun Jun commander Yue Wan set out from Lungcheng at the head of 30 thousand clad in armor warriors. The total number of advancing from three sides strong warriors exceeded 100 thousand people (The 200.000 murdered Huns were likely mostly civilians and their families, the ethnically Hun troops largely escaped the holocaust, and escaped with their commanders. In the following struggles, their forces have diminished and disperced. The Hunnic Tele/Di 氐 and Hun 匈奴 tribes, the Syanbi 鮮卑 Duan tribe, and Tibetan Qiang 羌 tribes were outside of the Jan Min reach, preserved their strength, and gained in their importance in relation to the decimated Huns. After a loss of 200.000 people, the Huns were reduced to ca 300,000, and the other nomadic population numbered ca 1,000,000 people, vs. ethnically mixed ca 1,500,00 sedentary population. Apparently, Jan Min retained some contingents of the nomadic calvary).

Jan Min ordered Hu My with a rank of Commander of Chariots and Horses to repulse Yao Xiang at the Chanley river, ordered a commander Sun Wei to monitor the actions of Shi Kun from Huangqiu, but both were defeated by the enemy, lost nearly all warriors, and only Hu My and Sun Wei returned back.

When the Shi Kun troops and others almost came to Xiangguo, Jan Min wanted to meet and attack them, but the commander of the guard corps Wang Tai, admonishing him, said: “The desperate robber [Shi Zhi] continues to be stabornly mistaken, hoping for assistance from the side, now that the strong help of the troops, numerous like clouds in the sky, approached him, he wants us to come for the battle, hoping to strike us in the back. To disrupt his plans, we better cover behind solid ramparts, not come to the battle, and act according to circumstances. If you, Sire, would personally lead the troops, and with you, unfortunately, would happen the unexpected, the great deed that you have started would die. Please, use caution and do not come out for battle, and I, your servant, will lead the commanders and destroy for you all enemies”. Jan Min was about to agree, but a diviner Fa Zhao stepped forward and said: “Now Venus crosses the Mao constellation, and that indicates that the ruler of the Hus (胡) will be killed 40. An occasion where in one battle you would achieve what usually takes a hundred battles should not be missed”. Rolling up his sleeves, Jan Min boastfully stated: “I decided to give a battle, who would dare to dissuade me will be beheaded”.

After that Jan Min advanced all troops to a fight, but Yao Xiang, Yue Wan and Shi Kun attacked him from three sides, and Shi Zhi struck from the rear, as a result the Jan Min's forces suffered a major defeat. Jan Min took refuge in the field palace in Xiangguo, from where with ten riders he fled to Yecheng. A surrendered Hu, Li Tekan, together with others seized Jan (pin. Ran) Yin and the Left Assistant of the Chief State of the Chancellery Liu Qi, àíä sent both of them to Shi Zhi, who killed them. Also perished the Chief of Public Works Shi Pu, the head of the State Chancellery Xu Ji, commander, Commander of Chariots and Horses Hu My, courtier Li Lin, inspector of the palace secretariat Lu Chen, the warden of the small storeroom Wang Yu, officials of the State Chancellery Liu Qin and Liu Xu, and also over 100 thousand commanders and warriors, almost all talented and virtuous men have been destroyed.

Arose as numerous as bees robbers and thieves, in Sizhou and Jizhou provinces flared such a strong hunger that people ate each other. Starting with Shi Jilong's last year of life, Jan Min was trying to demonstrate his benevolence and gave away all food reserves stored in the barns, and there was not a month that he did not fight with the Tibetans (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) and the Hus (胡). Relocated from the Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Yuzhou and Jinzhou provinces (largely Chinese) households, and also the Dis, Tibetans (Qiang, with Kiyan twist), Hus (胡) and Mangs (芒人, alt. Ba), who numbered more than thousands of thousands of people, began stretching back to their permanent residences.

The migrants collided on the roads, killing and robbing each other, dying from hunger and diseases, therefore only two or three people from each ten were arriving at the destination. The Central Plain was engulfed by unrests, nobody was farming any more. Remorseful for what had happened, Jan Min executed Fa Zhao together with his sons by severing their limbs, and granted Wei Xiao a position of the Great Guardian of Morals.

Shi Zhi ordered [a commander] Liu Xian to lead 70 thousand warriors to attack Yecheng. At that time Jan Min-secretly returned to Yecheng, of which no one knew, in the city and its environs reigned a confusion, and everybody was saying that Jan Min has died. The commander of the detachment of archers shooting by sound 41 Zhai Ai urged Jan Min to personally bring sacrifices in the Yecheng vicinity. Jan Min took this advice, after which the false rumors ceased.

Liu Xian staged with troops in the Minguangun palace, located 23 li from Yecheng. A frightened Jan Min summoned the guard detachment commander Wang Tai to discuss the situation. Wang Tai, enraged that the plan he proposed earlier was not accepted, refused to appear, citing a heavy wound. Then Jan Min personally came to him for advice, but Wang Tai doggedly reiterated that he is seriously ill. Infuriated Jan Min returned to the palace, and said to his courtiers: “The Ba slave! 42 Would I really let him live! First I will annihilate the herd of the Hus (胡), and then behead Wang Tai!”After that, Jan Min went to the battle at the head of all his warriors, inflicted a severe defeat on Liu Xian, and in a pursuit of the fleeing to Yangping slaughtered more than 30 thousand men. Terrified, Liu Xian secretly sent a courier to Jan Min with a request to accept his surrender, and to atone for the crimes asked for a permission to kill Shi Zhi, after which Jan Min returned with victory.

At that time Jan Min received a snitch that Wang Tai gathers Qins 43, intending to escape to the Guanzhong lands, so angry Jan Min executed Wang Tai and annihilated his family for three generations.

Liu Xian in fact killed Shi Zhi along with ten of his men, among whom was a Great Administrator Zhao Lu, and sent the heads of the killed to Yecheng, sent hostages, and asked for further directions. Shi Ning [who was serving Shi Zhi] with a rank of Commander of the Strong Cavalry fled to Baizhen 44. Jan Min ordered to burn Shi Zhi head on a busy road.

Liu Xian (劉顯)

The governor Liu Qi of the Jan Min's Yanzhou province, together with Juancheng county, submitted to the Jin Dynasty. Liu Xian again led troops in attack on Yecheng, but was defeated by Jan (pin. Ran) Dwing. Returning back, in Xiangguo Liu Xian assumed the high title (It appears that Liu Xian was a high Hunnic or Jie/Kiyan dignitary, either a de-facto Chanuy, or a Prime Minister Right Juku Prince, or a heir apparent Left Juku Prince, making him a legal successor to the last Chanuy, whoever it was in the Hunnic genealogical scheme. Liu Xian occupied a prominent position in the decaying Hunnic state, and like Shi Zhi, could count on the loyalty of the nomadic tribes. The Chinese tradition did not know restrictions on the right to the throne, it accepted anybody who was a winner of the power play, while the Türkic tradition restricted that right to the heads of particular dynastic tribes, holding outsiders as imposters; the acceptance of Liu Xian as a leader of the state indicates that he satisfied the Türkic dynastic requirements. The Southern Hun tribes and their affiliates resolutely distasted serving the Chinese rulers, or being used to achieve their ends, but displayed readiness to fight for the tribal interests or participate in the Hunnic internecine fights. To the Chinese chroniclers, Liu Xian is only known as a participant in the Chinese dynastic affairs).

Jan Min's governor of the Xuzhou province (徐州) Zhou Cheng, the governor of the Yanzhou province Wei Tong, a pastor of the Yuizhou province Jan (pin. Ran) Yu, and governor of the Jinzhou province Yue Hun (pin. Hong) in the head of several cities expressed their submission to the Jin dynasty. Gao Chung (pin. Chong) with a rank of Commander Queller of the South, and Lu Hu with a rank of Commander Panishing Contemptible Enemies seized the governor of the Lozhou province Zheng Xi and in the head of the Sanhe district 45 submitted to the Jin dynasty (That practically left Jan Min without any territory).

Mujun Biao attacked and occupied the main city of the Chungshan district, killing Bai Tong who was serving Jan Min with a rank of Commander-Pacifier of the North, after which the governor of the Yuzhou province Liu Zhun surrendered to Mujun Jun.

At that time, in the north-east appeared a yellow-red cloud that extended for more than one hundred zhangs (230 m), from it flew to the southwest a white bird, that struck an unfavorable impression on the soothsayers.

Liu Xian led troops in an attack on the Changshan district, and the district governor Su Hai informed Jan Min of a critical situation. Jan Min, leaving the Great Commander Jiang Gan to help his heir son Jan Zhi to defend Yecheng, personally marched in the head of 8 thousand horsemen to help Su Hai. The Liu Xian Grand Troops Commander Shi Ning with a title Qinghe-wang surrendered to Jan Min in the head of Zaoqian county 46, after which Jan Min gathered the remnants of Shi Ning forces, attacked Liu Xiang, inflicted on him a defeat, and pursued fleers to Xiangguo. The Liu Xian's Great Commander Cao Fuzu gave Jan Min his support by opening a gate for him, due to that Jan Min entered the city, where he killed Liu Xian and more than a hundred of his officials, burned the palace premises and relocated residents to Yecheng. A Liu Xian's Troop Administrator Fan Lu, leading more than a thousand warriors, broke through the city gates and fled to Fantou.

Post Liu Xian (劉顯)

At that time Mujun Jun, who was victorious in the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces, already siezed the lands up to the Jizhou province, in response Jan Min marched in the head of the riders to repell them, and encountered Mujun Ke near the Weichan city 47. The Jan Min's Great Commander Dong Jung, and Commander of Chariots and Horses Zhang Weng told Jan Min: “Because of their victories, the Syanbis' morale is very high, it is impossible to resist them. In order to undermine their spirit, we are asking to avoid an encounter, and then with increased number of our troops, attack them, and in that case it would be possible to gain a victory”. The angered Jan Min said, “I marched with troops available to me now to pacify the Yuzhou province and behead Mujun Jun, and if on meeting Mujun Ke I would avoid encounters, people would despise me”. Moving forward towards Mujun Ke, Jan Min engaged him in battle ten times, and every time inflicted defeat.

Then Mujun Ke tied horses with iron chains, selected for them 5 thousand brave but not obstinate skilled Syanbi archer warriors, and forming them in a square, advanced forward. Jan Min, sitting on a red horse called Red Dragon, which run thousand li a day, holding a double-edged halberd in his left hand, and a trident in the right hand, using a tailwind, attacked Syanbis and slaughtered over 300 people. Suddenly, came a large group of the Yan (orig.: ÿíüñêèé) warriors, surrounding Jan Min with multiple encirclements. Because of the enemy numerical superiority Jan Min could not lead the battle any more, so he bucked his horse, broke through the encirclement and galloped away to the east. When he galloped for over 20 li, the horse fell with no [apparent] reason. Jan Min was captured by Mujun Ke, together with Dung Jung and Zhang Weng, and sent to Ji.

Placing Jan Min's in front of him, Mujun Jun asked: “How did you, a slave with miniscule talent, boldly dared to call yourself a Son of the Heaven?” Jan Min said: “Now, when in the Celestial flared great turmoils, even you, Yis (彝) and Dis (氐), with human faces but with the hearts of the wild animals, try to raise mutiny and seize the throne, so why I, a distinguished man of our time, could not become an Emperor!” Enraged Mujun Jun punished Jan Min with three hundred lashes and sent him to Lungcheng, announcing about gained victory in the temples in honor of Mujun Gui and Mujun Huang.

Mujun Jun sent troops headed by Mujun Ping to besiege Yecheng, after which Liu Ning and his younger brother Liu Chun, heading 3 thousand Hu (胡) horsemen fled to Jinyan, and Hai Su left the main city of the Changshan county and fled to Xinxing. In the besieged Yecheng flared famine, people were eating each other, almost all former palace servants of Shi Jilong were eaten.

At that time, since Jan Zhi was a minor, Jiang Gan sent to the Jin Dynasty court a courtier Miao Sun and the warden of the heir palace affairs Liu Yi with a petition, which expressed their desire to express submission and asked to send troops for assistance.

The governor of the Puyang county Shi Dai, on hearing about sending off the envoys arrived from Canyuan to the Jijin crossing, where he detained Liu Yi, did not allow him to proceed, and demanded the transfer imperial seal. Liu Yi told Miao Sun to return to Yecheng to report of the incident, but Jiang Gan was only sadly sighing, without taking any action. Then Dai Shi leeding a hundred braves came to Yecheng, ostensibly to assist in the defence of the Santai palace, and to deceive Jiang Gan, told him:

“Bring the seal and hand it to me. Now outside the city are raging bandits, the roads became impassable, so you would not be able to submit the imperial seal to the Jin dynasty court. When I have the seal, I'll urgently report to the Son of the Heaven that I have it. When the Emperor learns that I have the seal, he would come to believe your complete sincerity, and will surely send supplies for the troops and food for the population”. Deciding that it is a way to go, Jiang Gan brought out the seal and handed it to Dai Shi. Dai Shi ordered the chief warden He Jung to be meeting the grain, while he himself secretly ordered to deliver the seal to the Jin capital.

The commander of the Hu's (胡) horsemen detachment Ma Yuan from the Changshui horde 48, and the Military Commander Rising up to the Sky Like a Dragon Tian Xiang opened the gates of Yecheng and surrendered to Mujun Ping. Dai Shi, Hå Xiong ("the Hun", orig. Sün), and Jiang Gan descended on a rope from the city wall, and fled to Canyuan. Mujun Ping sent to the Ji the wifeof Jan (pin. Ran) Min, the born Dong, his successor son Jan Ji, the Great Commander ShenZhong, the head of Public Works Tiao Yu, the Inspector of the Palace Secretariat He Xiong, the Bailiff for Criminal Affairs Ji Pi, the head of the Palace Secretariat Li Yuan, wangs, guns, and the upper officials. The head of the State Chancellery Wang Jian, the Left Assistant of the Chief of the State Chancellery Zhang Qian, and the Right Assistant of the Chief of the State Chancellery Lan Su committed suicide.

When Jan Min was brought to Lungcheng, Mujun Jun beheaded them on the Exingshan mountain (Apparently, a religious sacrifice at a holly mountain, pointing to a Türkic religious ritual). After the execution of Jan (pin. Ran) Min around the mountain for a distance of seven li the grass and treeshave whittled, appeared multitude of locusts, the raindid not come for five months. Then, in the 12-th moon, Mujun Jun sent a courier to bring sacrifice to Jan Min, and bestow on him a posthumous title Wudao tien-wang. On the same day fell a heavy snow. This occurred on the 8th year of the Xian-ho reign era (352 AD).

* * *

I, a servant historian, will say: “To save the drowning and help the burning is the principle of emperors and kings, terrible atrocities and extreme cruelty is the way of Jungs (戎) and Dis (氐). From ancient times various disobedient tribes caused troubles, and although the border with them was a fortified border line, but still it was necessary to watch for their sudden intrusions, even more so when they settled in our inner lands and thereby were able to follow the state of power exercised by the emperors, were able to use favorable events of unrest and strife that were threatening the state with destruction - how could they not to assemble the warriors, armed with whistling arrows, and not to violate the permanent, established by the Sky order!

Shi Le, originally from the Qiangju horde, was a villain, but possessed exceptional qualities. In the Shangdang district he's heard sounds of military drums, and Ji-zi assessed him as a remarkable man 49; he was whistling at the city wall in Luoyang, and Yi-Fu realized that he would raise a havoc 50.

When Emperor Hui-di let go of the reins, and Celestial split into parts, Shi Le, gathering many warriors, taking advantage of a favorable opportunity, began to foment trouble, to rob and carve our towns and villages, destroying our nation. The court and commercial markets 51 suffered a punishment sinking like a ship under huge waves aroused by a whale; The wangs and guns lost their positions and turned into homeless souls in the sandy desert beyond the fortified line (Allusion to the Chinese administrators on assignments at the nomadic tribes in the Hunnic lands?). Was it really that the Heaven felt aversion to the virtues of the Jin dynasty, and it sent such misfortunes?!

Examining how Shi Le held in the face of the enemy or in danger, [we should say that] he was developing necessary steps, displayed unparalleled valiancy, adopted amazing plans, showed exceptional daring. Ridiculing the Wei Emperor Wu-di who lived in the old days, Shi Le displayed noble generosity 52; answering Liu Kun 53 who lived in his time he delivered an outstanding speech. He burnt Yuan-chao in the Kuxian county, annunciating his mistakes that led to the derangement of the governance 54; executed Peng-zu in the Xiangguo, listing his crimes expressed in beratement of the ruler 55.

After that, Shi Le stamped [the former] possessions Yan and Zhao, swallowed the possessions Han and Wei, due to his amazing qualities, illegaly assumed a high title, occupied the old Jin capitals, and joined the fight with the imperial house, threw off a felt coat and his hat and a belt made in the Middle State, postponed armor and helmet and opened shkoly 56. The hostile neighbors, fearing the Shi Le power, began bringing him offerings, the distant lands that submitted to his influence began to bringing tributes 57, and which of the ancient states was more exalted! Although Shi Le is called harsh and inhuman, but for a short time he was an outstanding man. He wrongly handed over the power, not thinking about posterity, and therefore after the death of Shi Le his heir was destroyed, the state passed into the hands of his foster son, demonstrating [Shi Le] ignorance.

Shi Jilong did not possess virtues and sense of duty, from the childhood he ignored dangers, was hiding a nature of a bars (leopard) in a sheep decorum, was concealing in the wolf character a heart of an owl, starting with murmur and discontent, he eventually seized the throne. After that, displaying extreme arrogance and sinking in excessive luxury, Shi Jilong established numerous labor levies, people with baskets carrying dirt and shovels followed one after another, the armed hostilities were unceasing, were used extremely harsh penalties, people were executed for any action, for any glance, population trembled from fear and did not know who to turn to for sympathy, the Jungs (戎) and Dis (氐) were raging, nothing could be graver than that situation! (In this instance, like in other places, the Jungs (戎) are the explicitely the Huns (匈奴), and the Tele Dis (氐) are explicitely a separate independent entity)

Soon fathers and children began suspecting each other, feuds flaired between older and younger brothers, mutual killings became more frequent, causing jests in the Celestial. The dirt has not yet dried up on the kurgan grave [of Shi Jilong] as sprung unending upheavals, started by Zhang Chai, and Jan Min destroyed his whole clan. Indeed, extinction for the commited crimes is a law established by the Sky! Participation in mutiny brings misery, the actions bring a matching result, a crime is followed by a punishment - this is a supreme law of universal interconnection. Shi-long (nickname of Shi Le. - V.T.) destroyed the Jins, bringing their suffering to a brim, and Yong Zeng (nickname of Jan Min. - B.T.) slaughtered the Jies, and in his turn, destroyed the [Shi] clan. Was it not about it that was said: no virtue would go unrewarded.

In conclusion I will state: the affairs of the dynasty ruling the Middle State fell into despair, the Mangs (芒人, alt. Ba) and Dis (氐) started contending for the power (The phrasing displays a demeaning connotation: even the lowly subjugated Mangs and Dis asserted their independence). Dust clouded five mountain peaks, fog hid the heavenly luminaries. The sly Shi, trying to benefit from the troubles, used weapons tirelessly. He spread disasters and committed atrocities, plundered villages and slaughtered cities. Starting as a leader of a gang of robbers, he finished with arrogating a high title. He can not be only called a ruthless criminal, for a short time he was also an outstanding personality. Shi Jilong, who seized the throne, gained fame for promiscuity and cruelty. After his death the state perished, because he has done a lot of evil.”

Fang Xuanling
(Jin shu), Ch. 107
Shi Jilun. Part 2
1. River Huaishui - originates in the Datungshan (大汤山, 38°N 99°E) mountains located north-east of Lake Kukunor (Ch. Qinghai, 37°N 100°E), and empties into the Huanhe.
2. Jinchen - district in the land along northern shore of the Huanhe. During the Jin dynasty the center of the district was in a provincial town Yuzhong (36°N 105°E) located in the eponymous modern county (xian) town in the Gansu province [15 Liu Junjen, "Zhongguo diming da sidian (Large Dictionary of Chinese geographical names)", Peking, 1930, p. 490].
3. Quliu - place north from the Hunchiling ridge, located south-east of modern Wuwei county (former Liangzhou province 凉州 , 38°N 103°E) in the Gansu province [17, Ch. 97, p. 3077].
4. Wugai - a county town east of the modern county town Lintao in the Gansu province [15, p. 515].
5. Changji - a settlement on the northern bank of the Jinchenhe river that crossed the Jinchen district [17, Ch. 97, p. 3078].
6. The war between Shi Jilong and Zhang Chonghua is described with more detail by Sima Guang: “Late Zhao commander Wang Zhuo, who opposed Zhang Chonghua, suddenly attacked the city Wugai, captured troops commanders Cao Quan and Hu Õuan and took more than 7 thousand households to the Yongzhou province. The ruler of the Liangzhou province Ma Qui and commander Sun Fudu attacked the district seat Jinchen, after which ther district ruler Zhang Chun asked them for permission to surrender, which caused fear among the population of Liangzhou province.
Zhang Chonghua gathered all troops from the territory under his control and ordered Pei Heng with a rank of Commander Punishing the South to lead them to repel the attack of the Later Zhao troops. Pei Heng surrounded himself with ramparts in the Guangya district and for a long time did not enter the fight. Then Zhang Dan, a troop commander of the Liangzhou province, told Zhang Chonghua: “The existence or destruction of the state depend on the troops, and a victory or defeat depend on the troop commander. Now the majority of your advisors, choosing a commander, selected to that post an aged, distinguished man. But Han Xin was nominated not for his old virtues! Apparently, a wise ruler nominates such people whose ability allow to handle the circumstances, and delegates to them to accomplish a great undertaking. Now, when strong robbers invaded our lands, the one who was appointed a military commander does not march on them, and that strikes a fear in the hearts of the people. The Registrar Xie Ai has civilian and military talents, he can be used to repulse the Later Zhao troops”.
Zhang Chonghua summoned Xie Ai and asked for the action plans. Xie Ai asked for 7 thousand warriors, promising that he would surely defeat the Late Zhao troops in gratitude for the trust afforded to him. Zhang Chonghua granted him a rank of Commander of the Middle Army, gave 5 thousand infantry and mounted warriors, and ordered to attack Ma Qui. Xie Ai went forward and joined a battle with the Later Zhao troops, and inflicted a severe defeat on them, felling five thousand warriors” [17, Ch. 97, pp. 3071-3072].
“Ma Qui, the Later Zhao ruler of the Liangzhou province, attacked the city Fuhang. Since the city occupied a large area and was difficult to defend, Lang Tan, a governor belonging to Zhang Chonghua Jinchan county, wanted to abandon the defense of the outer part of the city. However, a ruler of the Wuchen district Zhang Quan said: “If you abandon the outer part of the city, that would alarm the troops, and then our great cause will perish.” Zhang Qu, serving as detachment commander for quelling the Jungs (戎), heed the Zhang Quan words, and started doggedly defend the outer part of the city .
Ma Qui, leading troops numbering 80 thousand warriors, surrounded the city, dug around it a series of moats, used high storm ladders, was digging tunnels, and attacked the city on all sides. However, the defenders of the city were resisting, and Ma Qui lost tens of thousands killed and wounded warriors. Then the ruler of the Later Zhao Shi Jilong sent to his aid a commander Liu Hun (pin. Hong) heading 20 thousand horse and foot warriors.
Lan Dan, stung because his proposed advice was not taken, taught a warrior called Li Jia to secretly lead over one thousand of the Later Zhao warriors, who succeded in climbing on the city walls. Zhang Qu, in the head along with other commanders, engaged them in a battle and killed more than 200 people, after which the Later Zhao warriors retreated. Zhang Qu burned the assault implements, and Ma Qui retreated to Daxia.
Shi Jilong gave an inspector of the palace secretariat Shi Ning a rank of Commander Punishing the West, and ordered to march in the head of troops from the Sizhou and Bingzhou provinces numbering more than 20 thousand warriors to the help of Ma Qui. After that the Zhang Chonghua commander Sun Qin submitted to the Later Zhao dynasty with 20 thousand households.
Zhang Chonghua appointed Xie Ai a plenipotentiary imperial ambassador, gave him a title of Grand Troops Commander, and he marched with 30 thousand foot and mounted warriors to the Linhe county. Xie Ai was advancing with a drumbeat, sitting on a light chariot drawn by one horse, wearing a white headdress. Seeing that from afar, Ma Qui angrily exclaimed:
“Xie Ai is a young scribe, and that he rides in this fashion shows his contempt for me”, and ordered 3 thousand warriors armed with black lances to attack him, which very alarmed those who were accompanying Xie Ai. Some were persuading Xie Ai to change to a horse, but without listening to the admonitions, he descended from his chariot and sat on the Hu's divan and started directing the troops. That scared the Later Zhao warriors, who were suspecting an ambush and did not dare to advance. A commander of a separate detachment Zhang Mao went around by the back roads and cut off the Later Zhao warriors from their rears. The Later Zhao troops began retreating, and taking advantage of that, Xie Ai attacked them and inflicted on them a major defeat, killing commanders Du Xiong ("the Hun", orig. Sün) and Ji Yu, and capturing 13 thousand warriors. Ma Qiu alone escaped to Daxia.
In the fifth moon Ma Qiu and Shi Ning again encamped south of the Huanhe with 120 thousand warriors, and Liu Ning and Wang Zhuo, capturing the Jinxin, Ãuangyu and Wugai districts, approached the Qulu. Zhang Chonghua ordered a commander Nu Xuan to repuse the enemy, retreating to Fuhan, which caused a great excitement in Guzang. Zhang Chonghua wanted to march himself to repuse the Later Zhao troops, but Xie Ai persistently admonished him not to do that, and So (pin. Suo) Sia (pin. Xia) said: “A ruler is a support for the whole country, he can not act recklessly”. Then Zhang Chonghua appointed Xie Ai a plenipotentiary imperial ambassador, a Grand Commander of all military operations associated with the punitive expedition, and a Commander of the Expeditionary Guards Troops, and appointed So Sia a Commander Maintaining Order of the Troops, and they led 20 thousand foot and mounted warriors to repel the enemy. A commander of a separate detachment Yang Kan defeated Liu Ning's troops at Shafu, after which Liu Ning retreated and encamped in Jincheng.
The ruler of the Later Zhao dynasty Shi Jilong again sent 20 thousand foot and mounted warriors, led by Sun Fudu with a rank of Commander Punishing the West, and commander Liu Hun (pin. Hong), who joined together with the Ma Qui troops, crossed Huanhe and attacked city Suicheng and Changju place belonging to Zhang Chonghua. When Xie Ai posted toothed flag in front of his quarters and was taking oath before the battle, a gust of the wind swung the flag to the south-east, so Xie Ai said: “The wind has given a signal, the flag turned toward the enemy, the Heaven itself is showing us the way”. Xie Ai's troops encamped in Shennyao. Wang Zhuo engaged in a battle with their vanguard troops, was defeated, and returned to the southern shore of the Huanhe. In the eighth moon, in the day under a cyclic signs wu-wu, Xie Ai moved forward, attacked Ma Qui and inflicted on him a major defeat, after which Ma Qui fled back to Jinchen.
On hearing about events, Shi Jilong said with a sigh: “I quelled nine provinces using only a portion of my troops, but now, with forces gathered in all nine provinces, I failed in Fuhang. There is an outstanding man, against whom is forestalling to act” [17, Ch. 97, pp. 3076 - 3078].
7. Shizigan - a hill west of the modern Handan county in the Hebei province. On that hill was buried the ruler of Zhao possession Jian-zi (? -259 BC).
8. Tomb of Shi-huang is located on the Lishan mountain near the modern city Xi'an in the Shaanxi province. A description of that tomb was preserved by Sima Qian: “In the ninth moon the dust of Shi-huang was buried in the Lishan mountain. Shi-huang, after initially coming to power, immediately began cutting through the Lishan mountain to build a crypt; having unified the Celestial, he sent there more than 700 thousand criminals from the whole Celestial. They reached the third waters, covered the walls with bronze, and lowered the sarcophagus down. The crypt was filled with transported and lowered models of the palaces, figures of officials of all ranks, rare things and unusual jewelry. Aertisans were told to make automatic bows, to be installed in the grave to fire at those who would try to dig a tunnel and get through to the tomb. Large and small rivers and seas were made of the mercury, and mercury spontaneously circulated in them. On the ceiling was depicted a picture of the sky, on the floor were reproduced contours of the land. Lamps were filled with fat jenyus (literally, “fish-man” - a type of fish with inner gills [Chryptbranchus] from the Sea of Japan; from it was extracted fat. -  V.T.) with expectation that the flame would not quench for a long time.
[The heir of Shi-Huang] Er-shi said: “The childless dwellers of rear chambers in the palace of the late emperor should not be expelled”, - and ordered to bury all of them with the deceased. The fallen were numerous. When the coffin of the Emperor was already lowered down, someone said that the masters who made all the devices and hid the valuables know everything and can blab out about the hidden treasures. Therefore, when the funeral ceremony was over and everything was hidden, was sealed the middle door of the passage, and then lowered the outer door, completely walling up all craftsmen and those who filled the grave with valuables, so that no one there would come out from there. On the top were planted grass and trees, for the grave to regain the usual form of the mountain” [18, Ch. 6, pp. 31-a - 31-b] (This tradition of kurgan burials with grave goods necessary for the trip to the other world is known across Eurasian steppes, from Bakans to Manchuria, from the literature from antiquity to the Middle Ages, and in a greatly diminished form survived to modernity among more isolated Türkic people in South Siberia. It clearly has nothing to do with the Chinese burial customs).
9. Xuanuchi - a lake was located outside the north-eastern gates of the modern Nanjing, called Xuanumen. Starting with the Eastern Jin Dynasty it was a favorite place for emperors who came there for entertainmant, and during the Southern dynasties on the shores of the lake were trained warriors. The circumference of the lake was 40 li, but during the Song dynasty the water was drained, and the reclaimed land ploughed over. To date, the lake is just a little pond.
10. The warden of the mountains and lakes (siyu) - duties of the occupants of that position were to monitor the wealth of the mountains, lakes, gardens, and reserves, and the matters related to hunting.
11. During the Han dynasty was a custom to display in the courtyard of the palace during large audiences imperial chariots, regalia and palanquins [21, Ch. 5, p. 9-a].
12. The text apparently has a mistake: instead of Jinzhou should be Yongzhou province [17, Ch. 97, p. 3079].
13. As was pointed out by Hu Sanxing, Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) was angered because the name of the Xuanguandian palace included his name Xuan.
14. A great deed (dashi) .- A Chu ruler Cheng-wang (672-626 BC) announced his son Shang-chen a heir to the throne, but then changed his mind, deciding to put in his place his another son Zhi. Wishing to ascertain the true situation, Shang-chen turned to his mentor Pan Chung: “How do I find out the truth [about what is happening]?” Pan Chung suggested: “Arrange a feast for Jiang-cheng, a beloved concubine of the wang, but do not show her any respect”. Shang-chen did that, and the angry concubine exclaimed: “How fitting is that wang wants to kill you, and to declare Zhi a heir!” Shang-chen told Pan Chung that Cheng-wang really thought to change the heir to the throne. Pan Chung asked: “Would you be able to serve him?” - “No”, said Shang-chen. “Would you be able to escape?” asked Pan Chung again. “No”, said Shang-chen. “Would you be able to accomplish a great deed?” finally asked Pan Chung. “I will”, said Shang-chen. As explains Fu Qian, under a great deed was meant a murder of Cheng-wang.
In the winter, during the tenth moon, Shang-chen with the warriors guarding his palace surrounded Cheng-wang. Cheng-wang asked permission to eat a bear's paw before his death, but was denied that, and he committed suicide. Instead of him to the throne ascended Shang-chen, under a title Mu-wang [18, Ch. 40, pp. 7-a - 7-b].
15. In 328, Shi Le defeated at Luoyang the troops of the Former Zhao emperor Liu Yao, and took him prisoner. A Liu Yao son Liu Xi left Chanan and fled to the county town Shanggui, which was soon taken by Jilong.
16. Xiabian - county town where during the Jin Dynasty was an administrative center of the Wudu district. It was located 30 li west of the modern county town Chenxian in the Gansu province [15, p. 20]
17. Anding - district with administrative center located during the Jin dynasty in the provincial town Linjin 50 li south of the modern county town Zhengyuan in the Gansu province [15, p. 788].
18. The rank of the Great Commander Guarding the Emperor - was one of 16 ranks established by Liu Yao, the Emperor of the Former Zhao dynasty. Shi Jilong retained that title, which stood above the rank of Commander of the Chariots and Cavalry. It is considered a honorable rank, while the title of Commander Directing the Troops provided a real military power.
The position of the Head of the Rank Assignment department provided opportunity to control the appointment of the capital and provincial officials, and Zhang Chai concentrated in his hands the military and civil power [17, Ch. 98, c, 3088].
19. The name of the reign era Tai-he was stated erroneously in place of the reign era Yun-he.
20. Lichen - a city in the Pingao county in the Henei district. The main town of the Pingao county was located 20 li east of the modern county town Wenxian in the Henan province [15, p. 313].
21. A-heng - a wise commander of the Yin Emperor Cheng-tang, about whom Sima Qian says: “Yi-yin was called A-heng. A-heng wanted to serve Cheng-tang, but did not know how to get to him. Then he became a servant for a girl from the clan Yu-xin, and began carrying vessels din and kitchen boards zu, used in cooking. [Starting] talking with Cheng-tang about the taste of the food, he came to talking about the paths of the ruler. Others say that the Yi-yin was a decent man not in service, and that Cheng-tang sent people to invite and meet him. Only after being invited for the fifth time Yi-yin agreed to come and serve Cheng-tang. He narrated to Cheng-tang the deeds of kings and immaculate nine rulers. Then Cheng-tang promoted Yi-yin, assigning him to govern the affairs of the state” [18, Ch. 3, pp. 2-b - 3-b]. Since then “performance of A-heng duties” came to mean administration of the state affairs.
22. Pinji - a county with a main town 3 li south of the modern county town Zhaoxian in the Hebei province [15, p. 316].
23. Yuanshi - county with a main town north-west of the modern county town Yuanshi in the Hebei province [15, p. 65].
24. Provincial clerk (zhizhun) - a position in the name of which a character zhi means “to manage”, “be in charge”, and zhun is “register”, “case”, “list”, i.e., “managing papers, or a clerk.” The clerks, responsible for papers, acted as assistants of the provincial governors, and they were also called zhizhun congshishi. For this term was adopted a conditional translation “provincial clerk”.
25. Guanwai hou - in 215 AD, during the reign of the Later Han Emperor Xian-di, were established honorary titles given in reward for military services and divided into 18 grades. Title guanwai hou belonged to the 16-th rank (the ranks were graded from the bottom, so the 16-th rank was very high), and its owner had a copper seal with a handle in the form of a turtle, and a black cord.
The established honorary titles were not linked with the land tenure, their owners dis not have a right to levy taxes in their favor; as believes Pei Sunzhi (372-452), with their introduction begins the awarding of the titles not connected with any privileges [29, Wei Shu, ch. 1, p. 41-b].
Trying to explain the origin of the name guanwai hou, Hu Sanxing juxtaposes it with the title guannei hou. In his view, people who had the title guannei hou did not have a land tenure, were stationed at the court without occupying official positions, and lived in the capital, and therefore they were given the title that literally means “hou inside checkpoints”. On the other hand, guanwai hou did not live in the capital, and their title literally means “hou outside checkpoints” [17, Ch. 98, p. 3096].
26. Fukou - area west of the modern county town Linzhang in the Henan province, at the mouth of the river Fushui [15, p. 606].
27. Duan Qin - son of Duan leader Mopi.
28. Sanbi - settlement 50 li east of the modern county town Yonghe in the Shanxi province [15, p. 479].
29. Yanchen - district town 35 li south-east of the modern county town Denfen in the Henan province [15, p. 1003].
30. Duan Kan - son of Duan leader Duan Lan.
31. Commander of the Trackers Archers (jishe jiangjun) .- According to the Han-shu, the characters jishe mean “to locate and shoot bandits” [4, Ch. 76, l., 25.06].
32. Reference to Zhang Chen, Fu Hong (orig.: Hun) and others.
33. Six alien tribes (liu yi) - refer to the Hus (胡), Jies (羯), Dis (氐), Tibetans (Qiang 羌, with Kiyan twist), Duans (), and Ba Mangs (芒人, alt. Ba) (Bas are Tele Dis located in the Ba (巴) district; Mangs are largely wiped-out Austro-Asiatic people in China before the spread of Chinese Hua people; Ba Mangs appear to be semantically identical to the term Qiang, a symbiotic union of Tele and Mangs led by Tele Dis; The modern Tujia [Tujue/Tukue/Türk] people trace their origins back to the Ba people; however, genetically the modern Tujia are unrelated to the Türks; on the other hand, the Bas may allied with the Türkic Zhou in the overthrow of the Shang at the battle of Muye in 1046 BC, while the first positive record of the Bas is dated by 703 BC as allies of the Türkic Chu against Deng.) [17, Ch. 98, p. 3105].
34. Hefei - administrative center of the Lujian district on the site of the present district city Hefei in the Anhui province [15, p. 140].
35. Chief Assistant of the State (xiangguo) - position, which corresponded to the post of chief assistant to the emperor (chenxiang), introduced in 309 BC. Qin. An interesting attempt of Wang Guowei [5, p. 914] to trace the evolution of the term Xiangguo based on analysis of extant seal with the inscription Xiongnu (匈奴) xianbang yuin - “jasper seal of the Hun (匈奴) xianban”. In appearance and style of characters, it resembles a seal of pre-Qin time and dates back to Zhan-gou period (aka Zhangou, Warring States, 475-221 BC) or to the transition from the Qin to the Han period (ca 200 BC).
During the Zhan-gou period the term xianbang meant a position of a chief assistant to the governor of the possession, but later, due to the fact that the hieroglyph bang was a part of the name of Liu Bang, afounder of the Han dynasty, it was replaced with a semantically similar hieroglyph go (pin. guo).
36. Fanyang - a county town 27 li north-east of the modern county town Neihuan in the Henan province [15, p. 758].
37. The entry of Fu Jian inside the checkpoints is described by Sima Guang as follows: “After Wang Lan left Chang'an, his troop commander Du Hun (pin. Hung) took Chang'an, declared himself a Jin Commander Punishing the North, and a ruler of Yongzhou province, and appointed Zhang Ju, a native of Fenyi county, a Commander of the Troops. All aliens and Xias (Chinese. - V.T.) who lived west of the Hanguguan outpost supported Du Hong (orig.: Hun).
Fu Jian wanted to take Chang'an, but feared that Du Hong (orig.: Hun) would learn about it, accepted positions and titles from the (Later) Zhao dynasty (reference to the ruler of that dynasty Shi Zhi. -  V.T.). He then appointed Zhao Ju to the position of the district Henei ruler, ordering him to locate with the troops in the Wen and gave Nu Yi a rank of Commander Pacifying and Gathering People, and ordered him to encamp with the troops in the Huai. After that, Fu Jian began building palace premises in the Fantou, and obligated population to sow wheat (Since the local agricultural population was already cultivating fields, the order could only apply to the animal husbandry population), wishing to show that he has no desire to march to the west, and those who, knowing of the impending campagn, did not sow wheat, Fu Jian was killing as a warning to others. After a while Fu Jian declared himself a Jin Great Commander Punishing the West, Grand Commander of all military affairs in the lands inside the checkpoints, and a ruler of the Yongzhou province. Further, appointing Jia Xuanshi, a native of the Wuwei county, a Left Senior Official, Liang An, a native of Luoyang, a Right Senior Official, Duan Shun - a Left Commander, Xing Lao - a Right Commander, Wang Yu, a native of Jinzhao county, Cheng Gung, a native of Andin district, and Hu Wen the Principal Military Advisers, with all his troops Fu Jian moved westward.
When, with Yu Zun at the forefront, Fu Jian came to the Mengjin crossing, he began building a floating bridge for crossing Huanhe. Fu Jian ordered his younger brother Fu Xiong ("the Hun", orig. Sün) with a rank of Commander Helping the State to invade in the head of 5 thousand warriors through the Tungguan checkpoint, and ordered the son of his elder brother Fu Jing with a rank of Commander Shining with Military Virtues, in the head of 7 thousand warriors to break through the Zhiguan checkpoint. On their parting, taking the hand of Fu Jing, Fu Jian said: “If we are not to achieve victory, you will die on the northern, and I will die on the south bank of the Huanhe, so we will not have a chance to meet any more”. After-crossing, Fu Jian burned down the bridge and following Fu Xiong went ahead leading large forces.
Hearing of the Fu Jian approach, Du Hong (orig.: Hun) sent him a letter, where he insulted and reviled him in every way. The Zhang Ju younger brother Zhang Xian elevated to the rank of Commander Avenging Contemptible Enemies, in the head of 13 thousand warriors made a counterattack north of the Tungguan checkpoint, but suffered a severe defeat, and returned to Chang'an. To repulse Fu Jian, Du Hung began gathering troops available in the land inside of the outposts. The Du Hong (orig.: Hun) younger brother Du Yu was persuading him to march to meet Fu Jian, but Du Hung did not accept the advice, and then Du Yu in the head of his troops surrendered to Fu Jian.
Fu Jian sent Fu Xiong ("the Hun", orig. Sün) to bypass the lands north of the Weishui river. The leaders of Dis (氐) Mao Shou located in Gaoling, and Xu Cuo located in Haoji, and also the leader of the Tibetans (Qiang 羌, with Kiyan twist) Bai Du located in Huanbai, who each had several tens of thousands of people, killed Du Hong (orig.: Hun) envoys who came to them, and surrendered to Fu Jian, furnishing their sons as hostages. All cities, through which Fu Jing and Yu Zun passed, surrendered to them. The scared Du Hong (orig.: Hun) decided to doggedly defend Chang'an” [17, Ch. 98, pp. 3107-3108].
38. Changcheng (Great Wall) - a county with a main town located 20 li south of the modern county town Luanxian in the Hebei province [15, p. 415].
39. Wei Xiao was saying: “A few thousand of the Hus (胡) have already surrendered, you should keep treating them as before, and show real mercy, which will seduce and win over the others. However, the Hus (胡) and Jies are our enemies, and now they are willing to be submissive to somehow save their lives. If among them would appear prickers, or they'll revolt, that could lead to a sudden shock, it will be too late to repent.
In ancient times there was a saying: ,,Even one man can not be tamed, so how is it possible to tame a thousand”. I implore you, destroy the Hus (胡) that surrendered and forego the title Shanyu, remembering the admonition: “A constant memory of a wise ruler that the state may perish inspires the ruler to stronger fortify it.” Jan Min, who at that time wanted to attract elite warriors with his tenderness, to pacify the country, upon hearing the Wei Xiao words became terrible enraged and killed him along with his son Wei Boyan” [20, Ch. 91, p. 10-a].
40. Constellation Mao is a third of the Chinese constellations in the western sector of the sky in the Taurus constellation, which consists of seven stars. West is under the power of this constellation, it is responsible for judicial affairs and patronizes Hus (胡) [20, Ch. 11, p. 15-a]. Venus is in charge of the cases involving murder, so Fa Zhao says that the Venus transit across the Mao constellation symbolizes killing of the Hus (胡) ruler.
41. Commander of the detachment of archers shooting at the sound (sheshen xiaowei) was a post established by the Han Emperor Wu-di (147-87 BC). Its occupants were receiving allowance of 2 thousand dans of grain per year [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 13-a].
42. Wang Tai was a Ba's (巴) Mang (芒人, alt. Ba) [17, Ch. 99, p. 3116].
43. In this case, under Qins are meant Tibetans (Qiang, with Kiyan twist), whose leader Yao Yichjung was a father of Yao Chan, the founder of the Later Qin dynasty.
44. Baijen - a county with a main town 12 li west of the modern county town Yaoshan in the Hebei province [15, p. 468].
45. Sanhe (literally “three He”) area - reference to the districts Henei, Henan and Hedun.
46. Zaoqian - a county with the main town located south-east of the modern county town Zaoqian in the Hebei province [15, p. 4661].
47. Weichan - a main town of the same-named county north-east of the modern county town Wuji in the Hebei province [15, p. 1073].
48. The commander of the Hu's horsemen detachment from the Changshui horde - post established by the Han emperor Wu-di. As indicated in the Han-shu, people who held it commanded the Hu's horsemen of the Changshui horde, with a pasturing route near the tower Xuanquguan [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 13-a]. In Sung-shu, in addition to that version, is given a different account, according to which the Changshui is not a name of the horde, but a name of a river, and because the stable unit was located on the bank of the river Changshui, appeared a name of the position, Changshui Xiaowei, i.e., “commander of Hu (胡) riders from the Changshui river” [31, Ch. 40, pp. 8-b - 9-a].
49. Ji-zi - a nickname of Shi Huang, to whom Shi Le was sold into slavery.
50. Yi Fu - a nicknamed of Jin high official Wang Yan (256-311).
51. Court and commercial markets - Court is a place to achieve fame, and commercial market is a place to gain material prosperity. From that the expression “court and commercial markets” acquired a figurative meaning - the prominent high officials and wealthy individuals.
52. Cao Mende - a nickname of Cao Cao (155 - 200), the actual founder of the Wei dynasty.
53. Liu Kun sent to Shi Le an envoy, offering him to submit to the Jin Dynasty.
54. Yuan-chao - a nickname of Sima Yue with a title Donghai-wang. In 311 to punish the Shi Le, Sima Yue marched from Luoyang leading troops numbering more than 200 thousand warriors. Sima Yue died on the march, and the command of the troops passed into the hands of Wang Yan, who took the coffin with Sima Yue body to the east, to the Donghai district, to bury him there. Shi Le caught up with Wang Yan in the Kuxian county, and inflicted a crushing defeat on him, and then ordered to burn the body of Sima Yue, saying: “This man has raised a havoc in the Celestial, I will repay him for the Celestial, so I will burn his bones, to report to the Sky and Earth on the completion of the punishment” [20, Ch. 59, pp. 22-b].
55. Peng-zu - a nickname of the Jin high official Wang Jung.
56. See pp. 47, 62.
57. See p. 81.
In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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