In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
The Huns in Chinese annals
Synopsis of Eastern Hun history
  V.S. Taskin (1917-1995)
USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies
3 - 5 cc. AD
Issue 2
Jie (Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)

Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1990, Print 1000 copies, ISBN 5-02-016543-3


http://www.i-u.ru/biblio/archive/sima_2/12.aspx (Biography, in Russian, find Òàñêèí on page )

Posting Introduction

The posting's introduction is given on the author's introduction page. Jie is an offshoot of the Türkic tribe Kiyan, also known as Kiyat, probably with the Mongolian plural ending. The Russian derivative word of the Türkic koch (English coach) “kohevie” ~ “êî÷åâüå” that reflected the Chunese “bu”, is translated as horde. In this use the horde is an economical-social subdivision of a state, a tribal union, or a tribe, associated with certain ancestral pasturing route or pasturing territory, semantically different from the homophonic horde = army. Horde is a self-contained community united by traditional social ties like kinship or marital union, and generally is a conglomerate consisting of extended families belonging to the same ethnic group and able to propagate their possession of the pasturing route. Except for the introductory part, where is given the origin of the Jie branch and the origin of their Chinese name, the Jin shu annals refer to Jie almost exclusively as Hu and Huns.

* * *.

The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes. Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue. Highlighted comment numbers bring attention to the subjects more relevant to the Türkic history then to the Chinese history. Bibliographic references are numbered and listed in the Bibliography Section. Where possible, the author's Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcriptions were changed to Pinyin, to facilitate search, but because a switch to Pinyin coding frequently distorts or makes phonetics ambiguous, the phonetization of the original is generally retained also. It was noted that the annals, even composed by a single author like Sima Qian, use different expressions for the same phenomenon, in case of the Huns they are interchangeably called Hu and Hunnu (Hu 胡 and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴), and in reference to Jie they are interchangeably called Hu, and Hunnu, and occasionally Jie (Hu 胡, and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴, and Pinyin Jie 羯); personal and geographical names also come in variety of spellings; where appropriate, the Chinese form is given to facilitate search and verification, and possibly catch inaccuracies in translation. The identification of the Chinese 匈奴with the historical Eastern Huns is beyond any doubts for better then half a century, and this posting replaced all incarnations of Chinese-derived appellations with their modern appellation Hun, but attempts to retain the original formulation. Where direct correspondence between the Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcription of V.S.Taskin and their Pinyin counterparts has not been found, a putative Pinyin reconstruction used the following conventions: Ts = X or Q, Tsz = J, S = S or X, all without any systematic rules. In most cases, reconstructed spelling follows the Wikipedia Cyrillization of Chinese, except where it conflicts with the implied intent of the author.

V.S.Taskin. Introduction
  On the Jie ethnogenesis 5
  Customs, traditions, and beliefs 21
Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 104
  Shi Le, Part 1 28
 Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 105
  Shi Le. Part 2. Shi Le sons - Shi Hung and Chang Bing 64
Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 106
  Shi Jilun. Part 1 95
Fang Xuanling . History of Jin dynasty, ch. 107
  Shi Jilun. Part 2. Shi Jilun sons Shi Shi, Shi Zun and Shi Jian, Jan Min 122
Notes 149
Bibliography 208
Index of names and titles 210
Index of geographical, churches, palaces, gates, cemeteries names 229
Glossary 241
V.S. Taskin
3 - 5 cc. AD
Issue 2
(Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)
Fang Xuanling

(Jin shu), Ch. 106
Shi Jilun. Part 1
The Shi Le's nephew Shi Jilong, because his name (Shi Hu 石虎) violated a taboo imposed on the Emperor Tai-zu temple name, is called by a nickname (Jilong 季龍). His (paternal) grandfather's name was Beye and his father's name was Koumi (寇覓) . Shi Le's father [Zhouge] Zhu (aka Zhouhezhu 周曷朱, orig: [Zhouge]chju) adopted a little Shi Jilong, and some therefore say that he was a younger brother of Shi Le (If Shi Jilong was a younger brother of Shi Le, he would belong to the Left Wing, eligible for succession in order of seniority, and not to the Right Wing non-eligible for succession). When Shi Le was six or seven years old, someone who by a man's face could well tell his fate, said: “The appearance of this boy is amazing, his bones speak of a rise, he will be so grand, that it is even impossible to tell.”

In the Yung-xin reign era (304-306) Shi Le and Shi Jilong lost each other. Later, Liu Kun, sent Shi Le's mother, the born Wang, and Shi Jilong, who was 17 years old, to Gepo. Shi Jilong was distinguished by cruelty, he loved mounted hunting, indulged without a measure in wicked entertainment.

He especially loved to shoot balls from a crossbow, and many times he was shooting at warriors, and among the troops it was considered a true calamity. Having reported about this to the born Wang, Shi Le wanted to kill Shi Jilong, but the born Wang replied: “A bull destined to pull a heavy load, while being a calf, happens to break many carts, it should be treated leniently.” At the age of eighteen years old, Shi Jilong changed the old habits.

Shi Jilong, with a height of 7 chi and 5 cuns (7.5 x 23 cm = 172 cm) was quick, good archer and rider, by his courage he surpassed all his contemporaries, so all upper officials and his family treated him with respect and fear. Shi Le attitudinized Shi Jilong with great approval, and appointed him a Commander Punishing Despicable Enemies.

Shi Jilong was married to a younger sister of the commander Guo Jung, but he was enticed by a slave girl from the family of an actor Zheng Yintao, he showered his love on her, so he killed the born Guo. Then he married a born Cui from Qinghe county, but Zheng Yintao also defamed her, [Cui] was also killed. That's how cruel was Shi Jilong! If among the troops turned out someone equal in daring and skills in developing plans with him, Shi Jilong would immediately find a suitable opportunity and kill him, thus destroying very many people at different times. As to the towns and rampart-fortified settlements he took, without sorting out who was good and who was bad, he buried alive adult men and women, beheaded, and very few people were left alive. Although Shi Le repeatedly rebuked and admonished Shi Jilong, he continued acting as before. However, Shi Jilong commanded his troops sternly, without niggling fuss, nobody dared to violate his orders, and when the warriors received orders to attack, no matter how the enemy jigged, it could not resist them. On that account, Shi Le was benevolent to Shi Jilong, trusted him with more and more confidence, and delegated to him the conduct of punitive expeditions.

When Shi Le lived in Xiangguo (襄國, in modern county town Xintai in the Hebei province, orig.: Siango), he appointed Shi Jilong a governor of Weijun district with a seat in Yecheng, and later raised him to the title Fanyan-hou. Accepting a title of Great Shanyu, and having ascended a throne of the Zhao possession ruler, Shi Le appointed Shi Jilong a chief assistant of the Shanyu, and Grand Commander for all military affairs of the Emperor's bodyguards, and then transferred him to the courtier position, giving him a right to establish an office, and raised in the title of Zhongshan-gun . Illegally adopting the high title, Shi Le appointed Shi Jilong a Great Commander, and Chief of the State Chancellery, raised his title to Wang, and granted a possession numbering 10 thousand households.

Surpassing by his merits all contemporaries, Shi Jilong was himself saying that after Shi Le's ascension to the emperor throne he would become a Great Shanyu, but Shi Le appointed to that post his son Shi Hun. This is a very angry Shi Jilong, and in a secret conversation with his son, Shi Sui, he said: “Since the ruler established a capital in Xiangguo, he was only giving instructions while he sat idly by while I faced arrows and stones for over twenty years. In the south, I captured, Liu Yue, in the north I drove away hair braiders (Northerners), in the east I quelled the lands [of the former possessions] Qi and Lu, in the west I restored order in the Qinzhou and Yongzhou provinces, and also conquered and destroyed 13 provinces. Creation of the possession Great Zhao is a deed of my hands, so I really could have hoped to receive a post of the Great Shanyu, but he handed it over to a greenhorn chick. Every time when I think of it, I cannot sleep or eat. I will wait till the ruler leaves the palace late, 1 and then will not leave alive none of his descendants”.

In the first year of Xian-kan reign era (335), when Shi Jilong deposed Shi Le son Shi Hun, all high officials began persuading him to take a high title. Shi Jilong published a paper which stated: “The House of the ruler is experiencing numerous difficulties, Haiyang-wang willfully vacated the throne, in the land of the four seas are happening serious events, therefore humbly bowing my head I yield to the pressure exerted on me. However, I heard that someone who acts in accordance with the laws of the Heaven and Earth is called Huang (ruler. - V.T.) and the one whose virtues are in accordance with the wishes of the spirits and people is called da (emperor. - V.T.) . I dare not hear about the title huangdi 3 (ruler-emperor. - V.T.), and for now I can only accept the title of Acting Zhao Tien-wang - Wang, ruling the Zhao possessions at the will of the Heaven, to saytisfy the desires of the Heaven and people”. After that Shi Jilong announced amnesty in the territory under his control, and changed the name of the of the reign era to Jian-wu.

Shi Jilong sons:
Shi Sui (石邃), original heir apparent, executed by Shi Jilong in 337, appointments: Prince of Qi (330), Crown Prince of Wei (333), Crown Prince (337)
Shi Xuan (石宣), second heir apparent, executed by Shi Jilong in 348, appointments: Prince of Hejian (333), Crown Prince (337)
Shi Tao (石韜), assassinated by Shi Xuan in 348, appointments: Prince of Le'an (333), Duke of Qin (337)
Shi Zun (石遵), assassinated by Shi Jian in 349, appointments: Prince of Qi (333), Duke of Pengcheng (337), Prince of Pengcheng (349), Emperor for 183 days (348-349)
Shi Jian (石鑒), assassinated by Shi Min in 349, appointments: Prince of Dai (333), Duke of Yiyang (337), Prince of Yiyang (349), Emperor for 103 days (349)
Shi Bao (石苞), executed by Shi Jian in 349, appointments: Prince of Leping (333), Duke of Leping (337), Prince of Leping (349)
Shi Bin (石斌), executed by Empress Liu in 349, appointments: Prince of Pingyuan (330), Prince of Zhangwu (333), Duke of Yan (337), Prince of Yan (349)
Shi Ting (石挺), appointments: Prince of Liang (330, killed by Guo Quan 郭權 in battle in 333)
Shi Zhi (石祇), assassinated by Shi Min in 351, appointments: Prince of Xinxing, later emperor (349-351)
Shi Kun (石琨), executed by Jin Emperor Sima Dan in 352, appointments: Prince of Ruyin
Shi Shi (339–349, 石世), third heir apparent, executed by Shi Zun in 349, appointments: Duke of Qi, Crown Prince (348), Emperor for 33 days (348), Prince of Qiao (譙王)

Shi Jilong appointed Kui Ann a courtier, Great Commander, and a Chief of the State Chancellery, appointed Guo Yin a Head of the Public Works, appointed Han Xi a Left Assistant Chief of the State Chancellery, appointed Wei Gai, Feng Mo, Zhang Chun and Cao Xian the heads of various departments of the State Chancellery, appointed Shen Zhong a courtier, Lan Yin a Palace Advisor and Wang Bo - a Chief of the Palace Secretariat. The remaining civilian and military officials received titles and positions depending on thier merits. The Shi Jilong's son Shi Sui was declared a heir to the throne.

Because there was a prediction: “The Son of the Heaven should come from the northeast”, Shi Jilong prepared imperial chariots, went to Xindu and returned. Separating Lucian possession from the Yintao county 4, Shi Jilong conjured a Tinjia county (county where have stopped the imperial chariot . - V.T.).

In the Xuzhou province (徐州) belonging to Shi Jilong a clerk 5 Chu Zun killed the provincial governor Guo Xiang and heading the Pengcheng district his submitted to the Jin dynasty. Shi Jilong sent a commander Wang Lan to attack him, after which Chu Zun fled to the land south of the river Huaishui.

Shi Jilong, engrossed in entertainments, abandoned the governance affairs and engaged in large construction projects; he ordered Shi Sui to review and approve the reports of the Head of State Chancellery, to appoint provincial pastors and rulers of the districts, to perform sacrifices in the outskirts of the capital and in the temple of the ancestors, and personally examined only the cases involving punitive expeditions and attacks, and the death sentences.

A tower Guanshengtai collapsed, for that Shi Jilong killed the head of the artisans 6 Jen (pin. Ren) Wang and ordered to restore the tower, making it twice as high.

Shi Jilong, personally leading the troops, in the south undertook a foray into the Liyan [district] 7, and turned back reaching the Yangtze. The foray caused a great excitement in the Jin capital 8.

Shi Jilong sent Shi Yue with a rank of Commander Punishing Contemptible Enemies in a raid on Zhonglu county 9; then in Xianyan [Shi Yue] surrounded Huan Xuan with a rank of Commander-Pacifier of the North. Mao Bao with a rank of Commander Assisting the State, a Head of Southern Bodyguards Wang Guo, and Commander of the Troops Punishing the West Wang Qianqi marched to help Huang Xuan leading the troops of the Jinzhou province and encamped in the Zhangshan county 10. For twenty days Shi Yue fought with them offensive and defensive battles, but then because of the hunger and diseases turned back.

Because of the large quantity of the incoming taxes and difficulties with their transportation, Shi Jilong ordered to collect annually in the central warehouses a thousand of thousands xy of grain, and store the rest of the grain on the banks of the rivers.

The Jin commander Chunyu An in the Lanie district belonging to Shi Jilong attacked the Feixian county 11, and returned with prisoners and booty.

Shi Sui's wet nurse Liu Zhi became prominent in the past because she knew the art of shaman (或巫师 = lancer + wizard/military [bu] + master), and when she had reared Shi Sui she gained a special favor of Shi Jilong, started taking bribes, participate in the discussion of various subjects, suppress with her power everybody at the court, so most of the Shi Jilong courtiers and favorites became those due to her. Shi Jilong bestowed on Liu Zhi a title of Yicheng-jun (The title/name Yicheng appear to arise during 16 States period, and if it does not have a suitable Chinese etymology, there is a suitable Türkic etymology in ilchi/ilchu = regent dated to approximately the same period, and connected with Hunnic state structure).

Shi Jilong published a paper where he order persons who buy their way out of punishment to pay money instead of valuables and fabrics, and in the abscence of money to deliver grain at prevailing market prices, to be brought to warehouses on the banks of rivers.

In the eight districts of the Jizhou province fell hail, causing great damage to the harvest, therefore Shi Jilong published a where he sharply reprimanded himself for past mistakes. Then he sent censors to distribute wheat stored in warehouses along the river banks, as a seed, and freed from duties for one year the areas particularly hard-hit by the hail.

Shi Jilong was going to move to Yecheng, and therefore a head of the State Chancellery asked the chief of the ritual department to report about it in the temple of the ancestors. Shi Jilong said: “In ancient times, when some great undertaking was planned, that was always reported in the temple of the ancestors, but the sacrificial vessels were not set in front of the altar for sacrifices to the spirits of the Earth and plants. Let the head of the State Chancellery to discuss this issue in detail, and report the results to me”. The high officials asked to order the Great Commander to report on the Shi Jilong relocation to the altar for sacrifices to the spirits of the Earth and plants, and Shi Jilong agreed with that. When Shi Jilong moved into the palace in Yecheng, everywhere passed timely rains, and delighted Shi Jilong pardoned everyone, up to the sentenced to death.

A Chief of the Healing department Jie Fei (杰飛) made a south-pointing carriage (or chariot), and for displaying a great ingenuity in that, Shi Jilong granted him a title of hou without land possession and generously rewarded him (Apparently, there is a discrepancy that can lead to different interpretations; V.S.Taskin phoneticises the name Jie like 羯, and J.Needham spells the name Xie 谢飞; since the Later Zhou was a Hunnic Jie state, the name Jie would point to a Kiyan origin of the ingenuous master, further supported by the annalistic sources that specifically ascribe the south-pointing chariot workmanship to the Qiang artisans, who also definitely bear a Hunnic flavor).

It was established for the first time that the courtiers riders waiting on at the court, and the people holding more senior positions, can travel in light chariots drawn by one horse, and those bearing the titles of wangs and guns during sacrifices in the vicinities of the capital can ride the Emperor's escort chariots drawn by four horses, flying the flags depicting phoenixes (fenghuang ~ Chinese phoenix ~ Firebird) and eight festoons, and at the palace audiences on the first and fifteenth of the lunar month can ride light chariots drawn by one horse.

At that time the Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) leader Bo Gouda, hidden behind the shields of the rugged natural barriers, was not coming to the court with expression of submission, so Shi Jilong sent his son Shi Bin with a title Zhanu-wang heading 20 thousand horsemen and troops from the Qinzhou and Yongzhou provinces to punish him.

Shi Jilong went to Chanle district 12 and Weiguo county, and where the crops were not cultivated and mulberry trees planted, demoted local officials before returning back.

In the second year of the Xian-kan reign era (336), Shi Jilong ordered his staff commander Zhang Mi to transfer from Luoyang to Yecheng the bells and their hanging racks, figures of the Nine Dragons, a statue of Wen-jung, copper camels, and feylians 13. [In transition] one bell sunk in the Huanhe, then were gathered three hundred men who knew how to swim and dive, they tied bell with thick rope woven of bamboo-bark, and then with a hundred oxen and hoist pulled it out from the water. For transportation of the bells [across Huanghe] was built a vessel capable of raising 10,000 hu of grain, and then a four-wheeled cart, which was leaving ruts of four wide chi (10 cm) and two chi deep, delivered them to Yecheng. Very pleased Shi Jilong pardoned all who had been sentenced to two years, presented officials with grain and fabrics, and raised common people by one grade in titles.

Shi Jilong published a paper which stated: “Every three years the merits shall be verified, and in accordance with it the stupid and smart 14 shall be promoted or demoted in their positions - this is the invariable rule left by late rulers that ensures successes and failures in the affairs of governance.

When during the Wei dynasty (Cao Wei 魏朝, 220-265 AD) was first established a system of nine service grades, according to which once every three years was conducted impartial approval in positions, and although that system was not totally perfect, it is a fair law for those wearing badges under the belt 15, a clear mirror reflecting qualities of the people . Starting with present time let this system continue to be used without modifications. The late Emperor (Shi Le) established the governance of the Celestial, so again is reestablished the use of the yellow paper 16. With regard to the selection and nomination of civil servants, the most important is the attestation, and to date have passed three years as was done the impartial approval in positions. Those conducting confirmation for the office should promot the good and dismiss the bad, but in a way agreeable to the members of all nine philosophical thoughts. After selection, the palace secretariat and court administration should carry out verification [of the candidate] in three aspects 17 and announce the results, after which the appointment takes effect. Let my words be entered in the edict, and the censors are required to indict in crime and report to me about those who do not abide the selection rules with respect”.

The chief of hair braiders (Northerners) 18 Yu Ju led 30 thousand people to surrender to Shi Jilong. Shi Jilong gave Yu Ju and other thirteen chiefs who personally established relations with Zhao-wang (title of Shi Jilong . - V.T.) the titles of le hou and resettled their people in six provinces, including Jizhou and Qingzhou provinces (This does not necessarily mean that anybody moved an inch, this is a confirmation formula that must have fossilized long before the 3rd c. AD, the formula keeps popping up across times and ethnic definitions, it was chiseled in stone on the Kul Tefin stella).

At that time were numerous labor levies, the military campaigns had no end, besides the grain price went up because of prolonged drought, a price of two dou (2 x 10 l = 20 l) of husked rice reached one jin (500-600 g) of gold, the people with no means of sustenance were pleading for help.

In addition, Shi Jilong adopted Jie Fei proposal, and began dropping stones into Huanhe south of Yecheng, to build a suspension bridge, and though the costs of the work were expressed in thousands of tens of thousands of coins, the construction could not be completed. Because those employed in the works very starving, the construction was halted.

Shi Jilong ordered the heads of the large and small counties 19 to lead healthy adult males to gather acorns in the mountains and catch fish in the lakes, to assist the elderly and young, but what was collected was seized by influential houses, while the ordinary people were getting nothing.

By that time was finished the construction of the Taiudian palace in Xiangguo and the East and West palaces 20 in Yecheng. The Taiudian palace foundation height was 2 zhang and 8 chi (4.8 m), and it was tiled with multicolored stones. Beneath it was dug out a space for 500 guards. The length of the palace from east to west was 50 (60 m), and from south to north, 65 bu (80 m). The roof was covered with glazed tiles with gold patterns and inscriptions on the sides, around stood silver-plated columns and golden-plated pillars, hung curtains of pearl, the jasper adorned the walls, everything was done with amazing art and craftsmanship (We can observe syncretism in the description, the Chinese traditions of mansion construction blended with Türkic nomadic penchant for color, elaboration, and opulence, also noted by Prisk a century and a half later at the Western Huns' Atilla court in modern Hungary).

In addition, Shi Jilong selected girls from families of officials and commoners, at the Lingfengtai terrace built for them nine palatial buildings located behind the Xianyandian palace. In total there were over 10 thousand women, adorned with rare jewels and dressed up in silks. In the palaces were appointed female officials divided into 18 grades, who were teaching the girls divination by the stars [for prediction of lucky and unlucky events], and the art of archery from horseback and from the ground (This is a most interesting tidbit: Shi Jilong inherited a state numbering 3 million people, with an even split of 1.5 million of Chinese and Hunnic-circle nomads; the nomadic tradition of raising children on the horse irrespectively of the gender was definitely inherent to the Türkic Huns and Dis, and might have had penetrated the originally Mongol, Tungus, and Tibetan tribes blended with the Huns; thus about half of the 10,000 girls were brought up in the saddle and from the childhood trained in archery; the other half from the sedentary Chinese households grew up in the tradition of utter gender submission, and must have been in stark contrast with the assertive and capable nomadic girls; the Chinese annalists noted a dazzling fact that Shi Jilong was not satisfied with the subservient elegancy of the culturally Chinese concubines, and tried to improve them by teaching them nomadic skills of reading stars, so necessary in the wide-open steppe, and archery).

In an astronomical observatory was appointed a female Great Astrologer to monitor lucky and unlucky omens, and to verify the validity of the predictions by the Great Astrologer of the opposite sex. Then was created a female escort corps, carrying standards decorated with feathers and playing percussive and wind instruments, and they played a skillfully as the musitions of the opposite sex. The districts and possessions were not allowed to study art of fortunetelling, and those who dared to violate the prohibition were subjected to execution (This is another most interesting and multi-faceted tidbit:
Appointment of a female scientist as a Great Astrologer runs counter to the Chinese culture to its extreme; the Chinese culture did not know female literacy, or a female role outside of the strictly female household functions, which included hard labor; on the opposite, the Türkic nomadic society not only did not have gender discrimination, but was still maternalistic, and it took centuries and millennia of changes to mostly discard the maternalistic traditions; in the Türkic nomadic society the fortunetelling and healing was as much female talent as male, if not even more; Shi Jilong had good reasons not to trust the Chinese astrologers and fortunetellers, legendary for erroneous predictions, and probably suspected in disloyalty, and equally good reasons to trust the time-tested Hunnic traditional female fortunetellers; the superstition penetrated the Türkic etiology to the last bone; in the atmosphere of superstition the role of the fortunetelling astrologer was of supreme importance for the state and personally
The chances that Shi Jilong came up on his own with the idea of the female Swiss Guard troops are small; much likelier that he continued a tradition that escaped prior annalists, a tradition peculiar to the Türkic nomadic society; we have resemblances in the Amazons, in the Scythian tradition of recognizing a girl as a woman not after a first battle, but after she have killed her first enemy; in the Bulgarian tradition of bride-to-be combat wrestling with a pretender for a marriage that outlived Islam; in the general Türkic nomadic tradition of women fighting in the ranks of the warriors; it is much likelier that the roots of the Shi Jilong's female guard troops must have come from the older traditions. It is clear that Shi Jilong was only half-right, his Kulturträger undertaking was utterly naïf in thinking that drafted people with bound feet would be able to ride horses and stand their ground like his compatriots would, if that, and not a showmanship, was his expectation
A ban on free-lancing, institutionalized by tradition fortunetelling seems to be a first historical attempt to control the mass media. In the framework of the Türkic tradition, the people's fortune is concentrated in the persona of the leader, selected and deposed by the will of Tengri. A bad luck for the people indicates a will of Tengri to change the ruling monarch, the deposition normally follows, with accompanied likely loss of life; a started rumor that blames the monarch's missteps for the country's misfortunes might spread like a wildfire, and a ban on uncontrolled fortunetelling may be the only device at the monarch's disposal to preserve his life and the throne. This ban flies in the face of the people's beliefs, mentality, and traditions, since the good and bad omens are so ingrained in the Türkic nomadic daily life that the ban would have to sanitize practically every activity and movement. The underlying system of beliefs populates everything around with its own soul, from a single leaf to tree to forest to mountain, and the life in that crowd required as many do's and don'ts, which is a soil where all kinds of omens arise and interlink with private life, and bring about consequences. This uncontrollable system of beliefs is overplayed on the paranoid psyche of the usurper. A ban on fortunetelling is in essence a global gag order)

The Left Warden of the imperial cemetery Chenggong Duan made an outdoor lamp, mounted at the end of a huge pillar with a height of more then 10 zhangs (23 m). At the top of the column was a circle where the oil was poured, and at the bottom was a circle where people stood, and both circles were connected with thick ropes. Shi Jilong tested the lamp and remained very pleased.

The senior upbringer of the heir to the throne 21 Kui An headed 509 civil and military officials in urging Shi Jilong to take the high title, but just as Shi Jilong entered the lower ring, the oil from the upper circle leaked, and seven people were killed. It terribly affected Shi Jilong, and horribly angered him, he beheaded Chenggun Duan at the Changhemen gate.

Then, following the established rules that existed during the Yin and Zhou 22 dynasties, in the third year of an of the Xien-kan reign era (337), Shi Jilong illegally usurped the title of Da Zhao tian-wang, i.e. Wang ruling Great Zhao possession by the will of the Heaven, ascended the throne at the southern outskirts of the capital, and announced a large amnesty covering everybody up to the sentenced to death. Shi Jilong grandfather Beye was posthumously given a title of Emperor Wu huangdi, and his father Koumi was given a temple title Tai-zun and a posthumous title of Emperor Xiao huangdi. Shi Jilong's wife, the born Zheng, was declared a tian-wang huanhou 23, and his son Shi Sui was declared a heir to the emperor occupying a post of wang ruling by the will of the Heaven. The members of Shi Jilong's family (i.e. his sons . - V.T.] who had titles of wangs, were demoted to the title of district guns, and members of his family ruling possessions and carrying titles of wangs were demoted to the county hous. The officials received titles and appointments for the positions depending on their merits.

Over 500 households exiled from the Taiyuan district to the works revolted against [Shi Jilong] and fled to the Black Tibetans (Qiang, with Kiyan twist).

Han Qiang, a native of Chanchen in the Wuxiang county, found an Imperial Seal of black jasper the size of 4 cuns and 7 fens in a square with a handle in a form of a turtle, and gilded letters, which he delivered to the Yecheng and presented to Shi Jilong. Shi Jilong appointed Han Qiang a commander of the Mounted Guards 24 and exempted his family from levies.

After that, Kui An and others again began convincing Shi Jilong to accede to the throne, saying: “We want to respectfully note that the possession of the Great Zhao is favored by the element of water, and really the black turtle is an omnipotent spirit of water, and the jasper is a most precious stone. The number of fens symbolizes the seven main luminaries 25, and the number of cuns points to the four directions: it is not good to keep violating for a long time the clearly expressed will of the Great Heaven. Pray, order the officials to choose a fortunate day, develop a necessary ceremonial, prepare regalia, and we will respectfully, without a fear of death, deliver to you the high title of Emperor”.

Shi Jilong has published a paper which stated: “You, resorting to excessive praise, many times forced me to accede to the throne, but consideration of these proposals only increased in me a sense of shame: accession to the throne is not what I am dreaming of. Immediately cease such discussions!

Now, when the spring field work just started, nobody in the capital and beyond will not be impressed [with my accession to the throne]”. The head of the palace secretariat Wang Bo, praising Shi Jilong, presented an “Ode on a black imperial seal”. [It should be said] that that stamp was chiseled by Shi Jilong himself still during the life of Shi Hun, and now Han Qiang found it and presented it.

Since Shi Sui was managing all affairs, he fell into drunkenness and debauchery, became arrogant and vicious. Sometimes he would depart to the field and would come back only when it was time to hang up flutes in their places, sometimes he was leaving at night to the houses of the palace servants and fornicated with their wives and daughters. Having dressed up beautiful palace maids, he was beheading them, and laying the bleeding corpses on a tray, and he was exposing them for everybody's observation. In addition, Shi Sui was coming intimate with the Buddhist mendicant nuns, bikshuni, who were distinguished with beauty, entered in a carnal connection with them, and then would kill them, cook their meat, mix it with lamb and beef, and ate it, and also bestowed that meat to the courtiers, demanding that they had a taste of it. Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) with the title He-jian gun, and Di Tao with the title Lean-gun, both ingratiated Shi Jilong favor, so Shi Sui hated them as his enemies.

Shi Jilong himself was mired in drinking, he was indulging in the palace entertainments, so he used his power and imposed punishments violating the existing rules, and Shi Sui reported to him only those cases which he found needed to report, but Shi Jilong was angrily exclaiming: “Is it necessary to report about such trifles?” And sometimes, when he was not reported to about something, he was shouting again in anger: “Why you have not reported?”, after which he reproached Shi Sui with swearings, and flogged him with sticks, and that happened several times a month. That was arousing a popping anger in Shi Sui, and once he said in a secret conversation to the always accompanying him Wu-qiun, Chan-shen, and the tutor of his heir son Li Yan: “The Emperor is hard to please, I want to do as did Maodun, 28 will you follow me?” Li Yan and others bowed to the ground, not daring to say anything.

Shi Sui (in 337 AD), under a pretense of an illness, dropped running the affairs, and leading more than 500 riders of the palace servants, and civil and military officials, went to a feast in the house of Li Yan, during which he told him and others: “I want to go to the Jizhou province and kill Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan), anyone who does not follow me will be beheaded!” (Obviously, Shi Sui entourage consisted entirely of the nomadic riders, i.e. predominantly of the Jie Huns, en mass the Chinese were not riders, and definitely not fighters able to assault the provincial cavalry troops. The Shi Sui story allows a peek into the cross-section of the Hunnic state) When Shi Sui rode a few li, the accompanying him riders fled, and Li Yan, bowing to the ground, started admonishing him persistently to abandon his intention, after which the deadly drunk Shi Sui came back. Shi Sui's mother, the born Zheng, learning about the incident, secretly sent to Shi Sui an eunuch with expression of a censure, but the angry Shi Sui killed her messenger.

On hearing that Shi Sui is sick, Shi Jilong sent a woman close to him, who served as a Department Chief of the State Chancellery, to find out what's going on. Shi Sui ordered the woman to approach for a conversation, and then drew his sword and hacked her to death. The enraged Shi Jilong seized Li Yan and others for interrogation. Li Yan told him everything from the beginning to the end, after which Shi Jilong executed more than 30 people, including Li Yan, and imprisoned Shi Sui in the Eastern Palace, but soon pardoned him and summoned him to the Eastern Room of the Taiudian palace. Appearing at the audience, Shi Sui did not apologize, and soon quietly left. Shi Jilong sent a courier to tell Shi Sui: “The heir to the throne must appear at the audience in the Middle Palace, how can you leave quietly?” But Shi Sui still willfully left, paying no attention to the admonition. Quite angry, Shi Jilong demoted Shi Sui to a commoner. That same night (in 337 AD) he killed Shi Sui, his wife, the born Zhang, and 26 of his sons and daughters; all of them were buried in the earth in a common coffin. Then he executed more than 200 of Shi Sui court attendants and his supporters, the born Zheng (a wife of Shi Jilong. - V.T.) was demoted to the title of Donghai taifei, the son [of Shi Jilong] Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) was proclaimed a heir to the emperor, holding the office of a wang and the ruling by the will of the Heaven, and the mother of Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan), the born Du with a rank of zhao-yi concubine, and was proclaimed a wife of the emperor holding a post of a wang and ruling by the will of the Heaven.

Hou Ziguan, a native of the Anding county, distinguished by handsome appearance from an early age, declared himself a heir of the Buddha, and apprized that he came from the great state of Daqing (Daqing Mountain, Pingxiang County, Guangxi province, China (22°N, 106°E ? ) and should rule a small state Xiaoqing (?). Changing his surname and name to Li Ziyang, Hou Ziguan settled without a definite occupation on the house of Yuan Chimei, a native of the Huxian county, he showed his magic power, for his predictions to some extent were true, therefore Yuan Chimei, who believed and respected him, gave him in wives his two daughters, and together they began organizing a tumult. The natives of the Jinzhao county Fan Jing, Zhu Long, Yan Chen, and Xie Lezi gathered on the Mount Dunanshan several thousand people, and Li Ziyang pronounced himself a Great Emperor, established the Lung-xin reign era, appointed Yuan Chimei and Fan Jing a Left and Right top aides of the Emperor, appointed Zhu Long and Yan Chen a Left and Right Great Commanders, and appointed Xie Lezi a Great Commander. Shi Guang, with a title of Commander-Ruler of the West, attacked Li Ziyang and beheaded him, and notably from the Li Ziyang throat was no bleeding, and after more than ten days the complexion of his face was no different from its color during his life.

Shi Jilong was going to launch a campaign against Syanbi leader Duan Liao (in 337 AD), who was in the Liaoxi district, and therefore he assembled 30 thousand brave and strong warriors, and bestowed on all of them a title “bodyguards jetting up like a dragon”. [At that time] Duan Liao sent his younger cousin Duan Quyun (pronounced Qiuy-yun/Öþéþíü) to make a surprise attack on the Yuzhou province, and because of that the ruler Li Meng of that province fled to Yijin. Then Shi Jilong gave Tao Bao a title of commander who crossed a sea 27, and gave Wang Hua the title of commander who crossed river Lyaoshui 28, and heading 100 thousand warriors loaded on boats they advanced at the crossing at the settlement Piaoyu 29. Zhi Xiong (orig.: ×æè Ñþí, i.e Zhi the Hun) received a rank of a “Great Commander Rising up to the Sky Like a Dragon”, and Yao Yichjung (~Ich Jung = Two Huns) 30, who received the rank of “commander of troops surpassing all”, were in the vanguard, commanding a 100-thousand infantry and riders.

When Shi Jilong troops stopped in Jintao, and Zhi Xiong invaded deeply into the Ceng district, the governors of the Yuyan district Ma Bao, of the Daijun district Zhang Mu, of the Beiping district Yang Yu, and of the Shanggu district Hou Kan, appointed by Duan Liao, surrendered to Shi Jilong with more than 40 cities and their troops. Zhi Xiong attacked the city Anci 31, where he beheaded Nalouci, the leader of the (Syanbi Duan) horde.

The frightened Duan Liao left the Lingzhi county and fled to the Miyunshan mountains. The Duan Liao's Left and Right senior officials Liu Qun and Lu Chen, and the troop commander Cui Yue sealed the storerooms and sent a courier [to Shi Jilong], asking for permission to surrender. Shi Jilong sent commanders Guo Tai and Ma Qiu in the head of 20 thousand lightly armed horsemen in pursuit of Duan Liao, and they overtook and captured in a battle in the Miyunshan mountains his mother and wife, and slaughtered 3 thousand troops. Duan Liao galloped away alone, and hid in a remote area, from where he sent his son Qitezhen to Shi Jilong with a petition and famous horses, which were accepted. After that, Shi Jilong relocated more than 20 thousand households owned by Duan Liao to the Yongzhou, Sizhou, Yanzhou, and Yuizhou provinces, and raised in positions all who had abilities.

Earlier, the Northern Shanyu Yihuey was expelled by the Syanbi leader Go Na, but after quelling of the Liaoxi district, Shi Jilong sent commander Li Mu, who attacked Go Na, and inflicted a defeat; [Shi Jilong] reinstalled Yihuey a Shanyu and returned. Arriving to the Duan Liao palace, Shi Jilong conferred titles and awards, depending on the merits of each man (Shi Jilong intervention in the conflict between Syanbi and Northern Huns indicates that Shi Jilong was at least de-facto a Great Shanyu of the reunited Huns).

It should be said that in the past Mujun Huang (Pin. Murong Huang) 32 and Duan Liao quarreled, so Mujun Huang (in 337 AD) sent to Shi Jilong an envoy, expressing a desire to recognize himself as his servant, talking about a need to attack Duan Liao, and asked for permission to join Shi Jilong, with all his existing troops.

But when Shi Jilong troops came to Lingzhi county, Mujun Huang troops still did not set out, so Shi Jilong wanted to attack him. Fotu Den (aka Buttocho 佛図澄, pin. Fu Tucheng, orig.: Ôîòó Äýí) from the of Tianzhu possession (from India . - V.T.) stepped forward and said: “Yan is a happy possession, for its ruler is virtuous, military force should not be used against it.” With his face changed, Shi Jilong replied: “If such forces like mine attack the city, no one can resist! If such troops like mine are fighting, no one can resist me! Where the miserable fool [Mujun Huang] can escape to!”

The great astrologer Zhao Lan was strongly discouraging Shi Jilong from the attack, he said: “Over the Yan dynasty land stands Jupiter 33, if the troops go to the campaign, they will not succeed, a misfortune will surely fall on them”. The enraged Shi Jilong flogged Zhao Lan with a whip, and demoted in his position to the head of the Feizhu county.

Moving his troops forward, (in 338 AD) Shi Jilong attacked the (Former Yan capital) city Jicheng (棘城, in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), but could not take it for more than ten days. Mujun Huang ordered his son Mujun Ke(慕容恪) to march in the morning from the city at the head of 2 thousand Hu riders, bring Shi Jilong to battle, while he would create an appearance of sortie from all city gates by the troops numerous like clouds in the sky. Strongly scared Shi Jilong fled, abandoning the arms. After that, Shi Jilong summoned Zhao Lan and restored him in his post of the great astrologer (Fang Xuanling in his Jinshi “History of Jin dynasty” used the term Hu exclusively for the Huns, accordingly the Hu cavalry represents the Hun cavalry, pointing to composite compound of the Syanbi people, and to the presence of a Hunnic layer in their society).

Returning from Lingzhi, Shi Jilong passed through the Yijin, and, unhappy that the city walls were too strong, demolished them. Upon return, Shi Jilong visited Shi Le grave, received high officials at an audience in the front hall of the Jiandedian palace in Xiangguo, and thanked the civil and military officials who participated if the campaign, depending on the merits of each. Arriving to Yecheng Shi Jilong performed a ceremony in the temple of the ancestors on the occasion of the return from the campaign, and granted the Chief of the State Chancellery and the department heads the seized captives.

Shi Jilong conceived to attack Chanli, 34 and ordered Cao Fu with the rank of commander who crossed river Lyaoshui, to cross to lead the troops of the Qingzhou province to cross the sea and stage in the Taduncheng city. Due to the low water level in the river, Cao Fu turned back and encamped on the sea island where Shi Jilong transported over three million hu of grain (30,000 m3) provision. In addition, Shi Jilong ordered to deliver on three hundred ships to the Gaozuli possession three hundred thousand hu of grain (3,000 m3), ordered Wang Dian, who served as a chief of bodyguards in charge of agriculture 35, to head more than 10 thousand warriors to establish grain farming settlements along the coast, and was ordered to simultaneously build a thousand ships in the Qingzhou province.

Shi Jilong ordered Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) to head 20 thousand infantry and riders to attack the Syanbi leader Humotou, located in the Shofan district. Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) defeated Humotou and beheaded more than 40 people.

In the eight districts of the Jizhou province appeared lots of locust, and the bailiff for criminal cases asked for permission to accuse in that the local administration. Shi Jilong said: “This happened because of a breach of the harmony in the affairs of governance, caused by my lack of virtues, but they want to pass the blame for the happened disaster to the local administration. Is that the way done by [the founder of the Xia Dynasty] Yu and [the founder of the Yin dynasty] Chentang, who blamed it all on themselves? The bailiff for criminal cases have not told the truth in the eyes to help me achieve what I do not have, and shifted the blame on the innocent, which has increased further my responsibility. Let him perform his duties of the bailiff for criminal cases, but let him walk in the white robes of a commoner”.

Shi Jilong additionally granted to his son Shi Tao, who served as Prude, a guardian of the moral police 36, a brass gong, a yellow halberd, an imperial chariot, and the imperial banner with nine festoons.

It should be said that in the past Shi Jilong ordered Sheng-gui with a title Xiangcheng-gun, and Yuegui with a title Shangyun-gun, to head the garrison troops in Chang'an. Both Guis accused Shi Guang with a rank of Commander-Governor of the West that he secretly provides indulgencies, conceiving secretly a malicious affair. Very angry, Shi Jilong summoned Shi Guang, and killed him when he arrived.

Duan Liao, who was in the Miyunshan mountains, sent [to Shi Jilong] a courier, falsely claiming a desire to surrender. Believing Duan Liao, Shi Jilong ordered Ma Qui with the rank of Commander Punishing the East, to meet him at a distance of 100 li from the place of his staging. Shi Jilong ordered Ma Qui: “The acceptance of surrender is comparable with expectation of the enemy, be careful, commander!”

At the same time Duan Liao sent a courier to Mujun Huang, expressing his desire to surrender. The messenger relayed: “The Hu (胡) (Shi Jilong . - V.T.) is greedy, but not prudent. I asked him for permission to surrender and asked to meet me, and he does not suspect anything. Hiding troops in ambush and intercepting them coming to see me, may achieve success”. Mujun Huang ordered his son Mujun Ke to hide in ambush in the Miyunshan mountains. When Ma Qui, who had 30 thousand men, was marching to meet Duan Liao, he was unexpectedly attacked by Mujun Ke, lost of each ten 6-7 killed warriors and fled on foot. The report about the incident, received during a meal, so alarmed and angered Shi Jilong that he spat out the food and stripped Ma Qui of his posts and titles.

Shi Jilong published a paper where he ordered districts and possessions to establish a post of an expert scientist on Five Books (an analog to Pentateuch) 37.

It should be said that earlier Shi Le established a post of Higher and Lower school scholar, and therefore was now restored the post of a scholar for the school for the sons and younger brothers of the highest officials and an assistant scholar for the school for the sons and younger brothers of the highest officials helping in teaching 33.

Because the department of rank assignments in the selection and nomination of officials was dismissing the old, known for their virtues, and advanced the youth belonging to the influential homes, who were offered great posts, Shi Jilong fired the department of chief Wei Cho, and lowered him to the level of a commoner.

Shi Jilong appointed the heir to the throne Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) à Great Shanyu, and allowed to exhibit flags and banners of the Son of the Heaven (Considering a major devaluation of the Shanyu title within and outside of the Hunnic sphere, even the transition of the Shanyu to Great Shanyu at that time was apparently past its prime, and to acquire a significance of the supreme leader was already necessary to use the Chinese nomenclature; functionally, the title of Shanyu as a leader of all Hunnic and subordinated tribes, in the Chinese disguise, remained valid with all its appurtenances. All descending titles devolved accordingly, the leaders of unions were Great Shanyus, the tribal leaders were Shanyus, and indigenous supreme titles were being developed. The downhill process was started by the pretender Huhanie, who adopted a splinter Shanyu title).

Shi Jilong gave Kui An a title of Grand Commander for Punitive Expedition, and (in 339 AD) ordered him at the head of five generals to raid with 50 thousand infantry and horsemen the northern outskirts of the Jinzhou and Yang-zhou provinces. Shi Min defeated the Emperor (Jin. - V.T.) troops on the southern bank of the river Mianyiui 39 and killed [the Jin] commander Cai Huai. A commander of Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) Zhu Bao defeated the Imperial troops near the city Baishi, 40 and in the battle were killed the Jin commanders Cheng Bao, Tung Xuan, Hao Zhuang, Sui Xiang, and Cai Xiong (orig.: Öàé Ñþí, i.e Cai the Hun). The Shi Jilong commander Zhang Hedu attacked the city of Zhucheng 41 and took it by storm, and then to the north of Zhucheng defeated the Jin commander Mao Bao, who lost more than 10 thousand warriors killed. The advancing Kui An. took a place Hutin, after which the Jin commander Huang Chung and the governor of the Lian district Zheng Jin surrendered to him. Then, taking 70 thousand households, Kui An returned.

At that time the influential relatives of the ruling house were seizing other's property, and were openly accepting bribes for their services, which troubled Shi Jilong. So he promoted his palace censor 42 Li Ju to the position of Assistant of Chief Censor 43, and started totally trusting him. Then all officials were trembling with fear, and tranquility settled in the provinces and districts. Shi Jilong said: “We heard that a good civil servant is like a wild beast: when he, lifting his feet high, walks on the road, the jackals and wolves 44 yield him the way, indeed it is so!”

Wang Zhuo with a rank of commander-governor of the distant lands, presented a petition which said that after the noble houses of the Yongzhou and Qinzhou provinces were relocated to the east, they were levied with a duty to carry border service, but now their descendants are wearing clothing and headgear of officials, and they should be excluded from the general rule and exempt from that levy. Shi Jilong accepted the offered advice. Since then, 17 families, including the families Huanfu, Hu, Liang, Wei, Du, Niu and Xin were excluded from military lists, their members were appointed and discharged based on personal merits on a par with the old clans, and those desiring to separate and return to their native lands were given permission to do so. However, this rule dod not apply to those not belonging to that category.

Shi Jilong appointed Li Nun with a rank of Commander Comforting Troops a plenipotentiary imperial ambassador, asked him to oversee all military affairs in the Liao-xi and Beiping districts, gave him a title of Commander Punishing the East, and a position of the Yinzhou province pastor with a seat in Lingzhi.

At that time occurred a severe drought, and a white rainbow crossed the whole sky, 45 and Shi Jilong issued a paper which stated: “While we are on the throne for six years, but the uppers failed to achieve harmony with the celestial phenomena, and the lowers failed to help ordinary people, and that led to changes of the stars and rainbow. I command each officer to submit their sealed proposals. I am lifting the bans imposed on the mountains located in the west, and am cancelling, except for annual deliveries to the court, the bans on harvesting the reeds, fishing and salt mining. Those high officials with titles of guns and hous, and provincial pastors should not seize mountains and lakes, and deprive people of benefits” (This proclamation reflects the Hunnic notion that Shanyu as a head of state is selected by the Almighty, called Tengri, with a sole purpose to ensure a wellbeing of the people; the tenure of the Shanyu lasts as long as the Heaven favor him, and its disfavor is demonstrated in natural calamities that fell on his people; thus, every natural calamity may be a cause for the removal of the reigning Shanyu, and quite a few Shanyus and Kagans paid with their lives for a failure to ensure general wellbeing. Shi Jilong must have been especially sensitive to this tradition because of his status of illegitimate usurper. In contrast, the Chinese tradition has nothing of the kind).

Then Shi Jilong published another paper, which stated: “In the past, when in the Fanguo and Mianchi were just installed smelting furnaces, there were transferred people sentenced to hard labor, which was a temporary measure to meet immediate needs. But the authorities continued to do so in the future, turning a temporary measure into a standing rule, which caused a universal grumbling. From now all perpetrators of crimes sentenced to exile should be reported, it is prohibited to arbitrarily assign them to works. All prisoners of the prisons in the capital, except for murderers, should be sent into exile depending on the circumstances”. On the same day came a highly needed rain.

Shi Jilong, going to embark on a punitive expedition against Mujun Huang, ordered Sizhou, Jizhou, Jinzhou, Xuzhou, Yuzhou, Bingzhou, and Yongzhou provinces to collect from each household three out of each five draft animals, and two out of each four draft animals, including the households exempted of the levies, so that together with the forces present in the Yecheng, to bring the overall troops number to 500 thousand strong, and also to build 10 thousand boats for transporting by Huanhe to the sea to the Anlechen city 11 thousand hu of grain and beans to provision the troops, which were to participate in the punitive expedition. In addition, from the Liaoxi, Beiping, and Yuyan districts were relocated over 10 thousand households to the Yanzhou, Yuizhou, Yongzhou and Lozhou provinces.

After Shi Jilong illegally came to the throne, the department in charge of selection of officials was proposing candidates moving to other posts, and reported them to the approval of the Chief of the State Chancellery and his aides. If the choice fell on a wrong person, the responsibility for it fell on the head of the State Chancellery and his assistants, and the head of rank assignment department and its officials were presumed innocent. At the time of these events, the chief of the rank assignment department Liu Zheng found that such a system violates the very essence of certification, and told about that [to the emperor]. The enraged Shi Jilong had officials reprimanded, and additionally granted Liu Zheng the post of palace adviser with a gold seal on a dark red cord 46.

Shi Jilong arrived in Yuanyan tower and conducted a large review of troops on a military field.

Mujun Huang made a surprise attack on the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces, captured more than 30 thousand households and returned. The governor of Yuzhou province Shi Guang was accused of cowardice and withdrawn.

Shi Jilong bestowed to the summoned by an imperial decree to the service, but not assigned an official position 47 Xin Mi a little table with a verge 48, clothing, and 500 hu of grain, and ordered the Pinyuan district to build [for Xin Mi] a compound, like the noble people have.

It should be said that earlier, a Li Shou's 49 commander Li Hong (orig.: Hun) fled from the Jin dynasty to Shi Jilong. In that connection, Li Shou sent to Shi Jilong a letter asking to extradite Li Hong (orig.: Hun), addressing it this way: “To master Shi entitled Zhao-wang”. That caused Shi Jilong's discontent, he handed the letter for discussion to the high officials, and most of the high officials expressed different opinions.

During the discussion, the inspector of the palace secretariat Wang Bo said: “Now Li Hong (orig.: Hun) swears with his life that if his soul would return to the land under authority of the Cheng-han dynasty, he would gather and lead his clan, and together with all its members would submit to your beneficial influence. If you send him off and it all would really happen the way he said, then not even troubling a single battalion of 500 warriors, and remaining in place, we can establish peace in the Liangzhou and Yizhou provinces, but if he now says one thing and then would depart from his words, we would lose only one man, the fugitive himself. Li Shou has a title equal in brilliance to the sun and moon, possesses one of the corners of the world, so if we would send him the imperial order, he may dare to respond with disobedience, and then the Jungs(戎) in outlying boonies will scoff at us.

Li Shou should be answered with a letter, and he should be sent a gift of arrows with shafts of the ku tree wood, that he would not forget that we, in the distant vast lands, are always able to come to him!” After that, Li Hong (orig.: Hun) was sent with various gifts to Li Shou.

Shi Jilong appointed Shi Tao a great commander, and in turn he with the heir to the throne Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) was reviewing and approving reports of the Chief of the State Chancellery.

From the Yuzhou province eastward to the Baylang river began extensive construction of farming settlements.

Zhang Jun, fearing the power of Shi Jilong, sent to his court an assistant province governor Ma Shen. Initially, Shi Jilong was very glad, but when he got acquainted with the petition, it contained a lot of disrespectful, arrogant expressions, so in a fury Shi Jilong wanted to behead Ma Shen. Then, stepping forward, a courtier Shi Pu said: “Only the Danyang county can cause you misfortunes, and what can do small lands on the right bank of the Huanhe? If you behead Ma Shen, a punitive expedition against Zhang Jun would become inevitable. And in that case it would be necessary to take half of the troops intended for a punitive expedition to the south, and that would only prolong by several years the life of the Jin ruler and his servants in Jiangye. A victory over Zhang Jun would not confirm your military talents, and a failure will make all aliens to laugh at you, so better take things as they are, and show generosity to Zhang Jun. If he would change his intentions, apologize for the mistakes and start performing his duties as a servant, nothing more should be desired! If, however, he would remain in error and not recognize his mistakes, to punish him is never too late”. Shi Jilong changed his intention.

When Li Hong (orig.: Hun) arrived in the land of Shu under the authority of the Cheng-han dynasty, Li Shou, wanting to show off to the people on the territory under his control, issued a decree which stated: “To my court appeared a Jie ambassador, with offerings of arrows with shafts of the ku tree. Upon hearing that, Shi Jilong became furious, expelled Wang Bo from his post, and ordered him to serve as an inspector of the palace secretariat, but in the white robes of the commoner.

Cheng-han before 347 AD

Shi Jilong, always ready to resort to weapons, banned keeping horses, they were few in his possession, and commanded to chop violators in two by the waist. This way from the population were collected over 40 thousand horses in favor of the state. At the same time he led broad construction of the palace premises, and in the Yecheng were built more than 40 towers, and in the Chang'an and Luoyang were built two palaces, at the construction of which was engaged more than 400 thousand people (The number of 40,000 horses must represent the horses of the sedentary, mostly Chinese population. The 1,400,000 horse husbandry subjects could not possibly be stripped of their horses, they were a backbone of the state, and not a meek backbone. The same with the 400,000 labor levy, it would not be imaginable to draft and contain such nomadic force).

In addition, Shi Jilong ordered four provinces south of the Huanhe to prepare necessities for a campaign in the south, the Bingzhou, Shozhou, Qinzhou, and Yung-zhou provinces prepare necessities for punitive action in the west, the Qingzhou, Jizhou and Yuzhou provinces to ensure execution of the plans connected with the march to the east 50. In all areas, every household had to furnish two out of every three draft animals, and three out of every five men. More than 500 thousand people participated in all areas in the manufacture of weapons 51. In addition, those with the titles of wangs and guns, the pastors and governors of the provinces were competing with each other to gain wealth, so every seven households out of ten were unable to attend to their own work. One hundred seventy thousand boaters drowned in the rivers, a third of the troops was killed by wild animals (Rather, one third of the troops in the 500,000-men army died of drowning and wild animals).

Taking advantage of people's grumbling Li Hong (orig.: Hun), a native of the Beiqiu county, declared that his surname and name match the magic predictions, and began gathering cunning supporters around him, and appointing officials, but their plan became known; after that Li Hong (orig.: Hun) was executed along with several thousand families that joined him.

Shi Jilong indulged in hunting without a limit, leaving the palace in the morning and returning in the evening, he frequently dressed in other's clothes and inspected construction sites. Exhorting him not to do that, the courtier Wei Xiao said: “As me your servant heard, the one who has a fortune of ten thousands jins of gold (5-6 tons) does not sit under an eave of the roof 52, and a ruler who has 10,000 chariots 53 does not go where he can run into a danger. You, Sire, have the wisdom and military talents bestowed by the Heaven, you occupied by force the land among four seas, the Sky and the Earth support you, and there is nothing that would cause your anxiety. However, when a white dragon turned into a fish, he suffered a misfortune from the hand of Yui Qie 54, and when the dragon secretly left the sea he had to endure suffering in Gepo 55. I deeply hope, Sire, that you would bring the palace in order 56, would start cleaning the road from the passers-by during outings, and would view what has happened with two unusual creatures as a lesson for yourself. The high position that you occupy in the Celestial can not be disregarded, the places where you could be threatened with a halberd or ax should not be giddily visited. If one day would break out a rebellion raised by madmen, even if you possess bravery of a soaring dragon, you still would not have time to use it, let alone your wise advisors would not even have time to develop necessary plans!

In addition, since ancient times all omniscient rulers endeavored to build palace premises only during intervals between the three seasons of the agricultural year, so they did not hinder people to work.

A now large works are carried out in the days when is needed a weeding of the crops or planting of seedlings, the labor conscription is served in the months when is needed to harvest, and the corpses of people who died a violent death [for non-appearance at the assembly point] lie in rows, on the roads everywhere stands a murmur of discontent; indeed it can not be tolerated by an omniscient sovereign or a humane ruler! [Remember that] once a wise ruler, the Han Emperor Ming-di, stopped the construction of the Deyangdian hall when he barely heard the words of Zhongli 57. I, your servant, am truly ashamed before the men of the old that I can not find convincing words, but you, Sire, surpass the previous rulers, and so should condescend to me and consider my [pathetic] words”. Having pondered about Wei Xiao speach, Shi Jilong approved it, presented Wei Xiao with grain and fabrics, but the construction continued on an even larger scale, and the secret inspection of the work was conducted as before.

The Right Assistant Chief of the State Chancellery Zhang Li who headed five departments in charge of various brunches of troops, 56 and run the most important military affairs, wishing to ingratiate Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan), said: “Now the number of officeholders and warriors at the guns and hous is above all measures, it should be gradually reduced in order to enhance the authority of the heir to the throne”. Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan), who for long hated Shi Tao because that enjoyed a love of Shi Jilong, was very pleased and ordered Zhang Li to submit a report on reduction of civil servants in the offices of high officials, [the report] said: “Qin-gun (the title of Shi Tao. - V.T.), Yan-gun (the title of Shi Bin. - V.T.), Yiyang-gun (the title of Shi Jian. - V.T.) and Lepin-gun (the title of Shi Bao. - V.T.) are allowed to appoint 197 officeholders in the departments, and to have 200 warriors at their staffs; all occupying lower positions may have one-third of the personnel, and the remaining warriors numbering 50 thousand men are to be handed over to the Eastern Palace”. That caused a grumble of all guns, and caused major discords.

Shi Jilong ordered Zhang Ju with a rank of Commander Punishing the North to depart from the Yanmen district to punish the leader of the hair braiders (Northerners) Yuju (orig.: Yuijui), who was [soon] defeated.

Shi Jilong, thinking to campaign in the land south of the Yangtze, issued a decree, under which every five warriors recruited to participate in the campaign should furnish one wagon and two oxen, and each warrior should bring 15 hu of rice and 10 pieces of silk, and those not fulfilling these supplies were to be beheaded. The population that found itself in extremely difficult situation was selling children to cover the procurement of military supplies, and still could not leave to the troops, on the trees along the roads were dangling bodies of suicidal hangings, but the requirements of the supplies were not seizing.

At that time from the Qingzhou province was reported that a stone sculpture of an animal, which stood north of the city Pingling in the Jinan district, at night suddenly shifted to a Shanshigou ravine, south-east of the city. The animal, judging by the tracks left, followed more than a thousand wolves and foxes that trod a path. Very pleased, Shi Jilong said: “The beast is me 59. The move of the statue from the north of Pingling to the south-east shows that the Heaven wants me to pacify the land south of Yangtze. The will of the Heaven can not be violated, so I am ordering to gather troops in the coming year from all provinces, and I myself will lead six armies in accordance with the happy omen, expressed in the well-trodden path”. All officials were congratulating Shi Jilong, 107 men presented odes entitled “Ode about the virtuous emperor”.

At that time sharply increased a number of unusual events. On the Mount Taishan a stone went ablaze, extinguishing after eight days. In the Donghai county a large stone by itself went airborne, with blood streaming near it. Between the stones in the mountains to the west of Yecheng emerged a stream of blood longer than 10 bu, with a width of 2 chi. The images of the ancient sages in the Taiudian hall turned into Hus (胡), and after ten-something days their heads sunk into their shoulders. All that made a very bad impression on Shi Jilong, and Fotu Den (aka Buttocho, ca. 235-348), while explaining these omens to him, was dripping tears (How can you tell apart a Hu from the ancient Chinese sages? Hu is hairy; with a prominent nose; with deep-set eyes; with lighter hair; with lighter eyes; dressed in kaftan with lapel closing on the left; wearing trousers; wearing boots; wearing a leather belt with a metal buckle; wearing a distinct conical felt hat; men and women dress the same. The Chinese images tend to show a full body completely attired, the difference must have been striking. By 333 AD, Fotu Den/Buttocho was working for the Shi family for 23 years, and supposedly was 98 years old, his eyes could be running constantly).

Liu Ning (劉寧) with a rank of Commander Pacifier of Distant Lands, attacked the city Wudu 60 and Didao 61, and took them by storm.

Shi Jilong sent (333 AD) Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) to punish Syanbi leader Huguti, and he inflicted on him a severe defeat, killing over 30 thousand warriors (For the whole Syanbi people guesstimated at 500,000 people, and more so for a horde of Huguti guesstimated at 210,000 people, the loss of 30,000 heads of household is a terrible wound).

The chief of task assignments for palace officials 62 Shen Bian enjoyed a love of Shi Jilong, but was close to Shi Xuan. Displaying smarts in debates and an ability to make wise decisions, he was in charge of most secret and important matters. Because Shi Jilong did not review incoming reports, Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) had sunk in drunkenness and spent time on the female half of the palace, and the drank Shi Tao indulged in hunting, and Shen Bian decided all cases related to executions and pardons, appointments and dismissals. Using that power, Shen Bian stifled everybody as the court and outside of it, most of the provincial governors and those who had a salary of two thousand dans of grain a year were receiving appointment from his hands; everybody, including the nine senior officials 63, on seeing just the dust [from his carriage] hurried up to reverently congee before him, and only little more than ten persons, including courtiers Zheng Xi and Wang Qian, and the palace servants Lou Chen and Cui Yao, held equal with him.

Shi Jilong again gathered more than 14 thousands horses belonging to the regional and district officials, and distributed them among the commanders at the checkpoints for their reinforcements. All owners of the horses were exempted from levies for a year.

Yuwen Gui (宇文貴 ?) with a rank of Commander Ruler of the North, seized and delivered to Shi Jilong a son Duan Liao, Duan Lan; he himself also surrendered to the ruler (to Shi Jilong?) and presented him with 10 thousand of fine trotters.

Shi Jilong appointed Zhang Fudu, with a title of Commander Queller of the West, a plenipotentiary imperial ambassador and a Grand Commander of all military affairs for punitive expeditions, and ordered him to lead an attack by 30 thousand infantry and riders on the Liangzhou province. When Zhang Fudu crossed Huanhe, he joined a mighty battle with the Zhang Jun's commander Xie (泄, 謝) Ai, and was defeated.

That Xie, pronounced Se, represent an ethnic name is little doubt; a great number of the Chinese names are versions of the ethnic names, from different locations, different traditions of writing, and likely from different languages and dialects; the name Xie is controversial in terms of the Chinese history; it was noted that Zhou justified their conquest of the Shang by asserting that the Shang had replaced the Xia, i.e. justifying their conquest by the right of priority, and claiming the descendency of the Zhou from Xia; while Shang was associated with the east, the Xia was associated with the west; many aspects of the Xia were opposite of traits believed to be emblematic of the Shang; on top of that the traditional Chinese chronology is also controversial, there are indications that not only the standard Chinese concept of ethnical continuity projected into illiterate period is false, but the dating is implausibly exaggerated.

With these premises, it was suggested that the Sai/So/Se塞 (pin. Sai; Old Chinese *Sək; who knows how Saka pronounced their name, and how different neighboring tribes vocalized their name) may be associated with the Chinese Xia and later Yin and Zhou, ascending to the mythological period of the Chinese history; that they not only integrated with the Chinese, but also survived as distinct people is evidenced by the direct records testifying that the Ashina Türks were a branch of the Sai people. There is high confidence that the Chinese Sai refer to the Saka tribes, identified as Eastern Scythians, and comprising on the western end of their territory the tribes of Massagets/Masguts and Alans. Both Sai and Alans (Ch. Lan 阿蘭 = A 阿 + Lan 蘭) were members of the Eastern Hun confederation, and both had a tint of Mongoloidness that predated anthropological finds of the 1st millennium BC.

It is true that these constructs are speculative, and may never be concluded; but at the same time they are not any more speculative then the ethnical constructs within Indo-Europeism that enjoyed wide circulation and are inherently innately contradictory, frequently misleading, and sometimes openly absurdous or delirious.

Although Shi Jilong was ignorant, rude and devoid of virtue, yet he revered science that was studying classic books, so he sent scholars from the school for the sons and younger brothers of the highest officials to Luoyang to copy the texts of classic books, carved on stone 64, and to correct according to them the books stored in the palace library. The cupbearer scientist from the school for the sons and younger brothers of the upper officials Nie Xiong (orig.: Íå Ñþí, i.e Nie the Hun) wrote notes to the Chun-Qiu chronicle in the Gulian edition 65, which were exhibited in the temple of the science 66.

Shi Bin with a title Yang-gun was drinking without restrain, and indulged in hunting, from where he was returning only when it was time for hanging up the wind instruments in their places. Zhang Hedu with a rank of Commander Punishing the North, believed that in the defense of the borders is necessary to be on guard, and repeatedly admonished Shi Bin, but infuriated Shi Bin insulted him. Upon hearing this, the enraged Shi Jilong punished Shi Bin with a hundred blows with stick, and sent a clerk of the palace secretariat Li Yi with a credential badge to monitor the actions of Shi Bin. Shi Bin continued to act as he wished, therefore following the law Li Yi tried to stop him with a yell, but the angry Shi Bin killed him. He also wanted to kill Zhang Hedu, but that fled under heavy guard to Shi Jilong, and told him everything. Shi Jilong handed the department chief of the State Chancellery Zhang Li a credential badge and ordered to head horsemen to punish Shi Bin. Shi Bin was punished with three hundred lashes, relieved of his position, and was ordered to stay at home. More than a dozen of his close people were executed.

In the beginning of the Jian-yuan reign era (343-344), during a feast Shi Jilong organized for high officials in the front hall of the Taiudian palace, over one hundred white geese descended south of the horse road. Shi Jilong ordered to shoot the geese, but none of them was shot.

At that time Shi Jilong was going to embark on a punitive expedition to the three sides of the world, so from all provinces were gathered over a thousand of thousands warriors. The great astrologer Zhao Lan told Shi Jilong in a secret conversation: “The fact that the geese landed next to the palace indicate that the palace premises would be deserted, the campaign should not be undertaken” 67. Taking that advice, Shi Jilong ascended the Xuanwuguan tower, conducted a large review of the troops, and lifted the martial law (Considering the damage a million of scared peasants could inflict, the geese literally saved China).

Shi Bin with the title Yang-gun was appointed a plenipotentiary imperial ambassador, a courtier, a Great Troops Commander, and a manager of the State Chancellery. Were established military ranks of the Left and Right jungzhao jiangjun and Military Commander Shining with Military Virtues, [these ranks] were higher then the Left and Right Commanders of the armed guards; at the Eastern Palace were formed the ranks of the Left and Right Troops Commander, [these ranks] stood above the ranks of the four Commanders guarding the heir to the throne; was installed a position of a senior palace adviser, which stood above the Left and Right palace advisers; for the military commanders were formed the rank of zhenwei jiangjun, standing above the rank of the Commander of Chariots and Cavalry.

At that time, Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) fornicated and was brutal, but nobody dared to report on it. The head of the troops Wang Lang told Shi Jilong about him: “Now, at the height of the winter, when snow piles and is cold, the heir to the throne is forcing people to cut lumber for the palace construction and drag it to the banks of the river Zhanshui. Tens of thousands of people are working, the people of sigh heavily, you, Sire, should under a pretext of hunting trip see what is happening, and stop the work”. Shi Jilong did as advised Wang Lang, but soon Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) learned that it all was orchestrated by Wang Lang. That angered him, and he wanted to kill Wang Lang, but could not find an excuse. It happened that Mars entered the constellation Fang 68, and [the great astrologer] Zhao Lan on orders of Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) told Shi Jilong: “The lands of the Zhao dynasty are under the Mao constellation 69, and its leader can not be indifferent to the position of the Mars. For the constellation Fang, i.e. Residence, symbolizes the Son of the Heaven, and Mars can bring it considerable troubles. To prevent possible troubles is needed a noble high official named Wang” 70.

Shi Jilong asked: “Who can prevent trouble?” After a long silence Zhao Lan responded: “There is no one nobler than the head of the troops Wang Lang”. Shi Jilong, who felt sorry for Wang Lang (besides, he doubted whether his death would be beneficial), said: “Who is the next”. Zhao Lan responded: “The next can only be the inspector of the palace secretariat Wang Bo”.

Soon after that Shi Jilong published a paper where he, recalling the past Wang Bo's wrongdoing when he offered to send Li Hong (orig.: Hun) to Li Shou with arrows of the ku tree, ordered to chop Wang Bo and his four sons in two along the waist, and throw the corpses into the Zhanshui river; all this in order to avert the disaster that the Mars could bring down on him. Soon, regretting that Wang Bo was unjustly executed, Shi Jilong granted him a post of the Chief of the Public Works, and raised his grandchildren to the titles of hou.

Yin Nun [in Shi Jilong service] with a rank of Commander Queller of the North attacked belonged to Mujun Juan city Fancheng, but did not take it and went back, for which he was demoted to a status of a commoner.

At that time from the main sacrificial altar rose a white rainbow, which stretched south-east of the Fenyanmen gate, rose to the sky, and disappeared after hanging there for more than ten ke 71. On that occasion, Shi Jilong issued a paper which stated:

“In ancient times, the wise rulers governing the Celestial, saw justice as main objective, and took humanity and mercy as the basis for re-education of the people, by which they helped to establish harmony among people and glorify the spirits. I, unworthy, despite that govern all parts of the state, therefore I am always in fear, afraid to commit negligence, worrying at all times with thoughts on how to follow the example of the virtuous men who lived in ancient times. So I often issue papers on lifting levies and taxes, about the rest for the ordinary people, I am striving to humbly take care of the people, to excel in that, and to report on the achievements to the three luminaries [sun, moon, stars]. But in spite of everything, when I came to the middle age, started occurring a variety of natural disasters, the heavenly bodies are changing places, seasons come in a wrong time. All of this happens because the people grumble at the bottom, and their complaints gain sympathy of the almighty Heaven; the cause of course is in my lack of wisdom, but also [guilty are the] officials, unable to help me. Once the adviser of the Chu possession restored order in the affairs of governance, and the floods immediately stopped; a high official of the Zheng possession reinforced the moral footing, and the unlucky omens disappeared by themselves. That happened because the governor's closest associates, his hands and feet, sought to replace the disasters with prosperity. And now every high official and officeholder seek to cheat the state, in silence, with folded arms watching successes and setbacks, but is that what the ruler hopes to get from his aides and officials! Let each of them submit a sealed report and state in it about everything, hiding nothing”. After that the Fenyanmen gates were closed and started to be opened only on the first day of the first moon, and at the Lingchangjin crossing were built two altars for sacrifices to the Heaven and performing of five sacrifices for the coming yearly seasons 72 (This opus clearly displays the Hunnic traditional obligation to provide for the wellbeing of the people by the Shanyu, his tenure defined by the will of the Heaven, and the omens that demonstrate that his tenure is over and it it is time to elect a new replacement favored by the Heaven. The pathos of the opus is quite compatible with the later Kul Tegin and Bilge Kagan inscriptions).

Li Shou surrendered to Shi Jilong at the head of the Jianning, Shanyun, Hangu, Bazheng, and Xintung districts.

It should be said that earlier Shi Jilong started building at the Linchangjin crossing a bridge across Huanhe, and procure stone for the central pillars of the bridge. However, the stones, large or small, were carried away by the current, and despite the efforts expended by thousands and thousands of the laborers, the construction could not be finished. Shi Jilong sent an envoy to offer a sacrifice and sink jasper in the Huanhe, but the jasper thrown into the water suddenly surfaced and landed on a sandbank. At the same time struck an earthquake, came a high tide, all constructions at the crossing collapsed, and under the rubble died more than a hundred people. Very angry, Shi Jilong beheaded the masters who did the work, and stopped the construction.

Shi Jilong ordered Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) and Shi Tao to review cases day by day in sequence, and make decisions on their own, without reporting cases about clemency, executions, appointments and dismissals. Exhorting Shi Jilong, the prude Shen Zhong said: “The rewards and punishment are always held by the all-powerful emperor, the title and insignia associated with it are extremely important, the power based on them can not be given to others, because [the power] allows to fight with treachery, to intercept unwanted in the very beginning, and demonstrate the force of law. The heir destined to take the throne after you must from the morning till the evening care of his parents, and not take part in the affairs of the governance. Once a commoner Shi Sui suffered a calamity because he intervened in the affairs of the governance.

Thus, there is no need to go far for the warning, the [bad] example should not be imitated. Besides, the division of power between two individuals often bring trouble. The strifes, caused by Zu-tui 73 during the Zhou dynasty, and turmoil raised by Shu-duan 74 in the Zheng possession occurred because the rulers showed love to those who lack moral principles, and that led to unrest in the possessions and murder of the relatives. I hope that you, Sire, would pay attention to my words”. Shi Jilong did not accept the advice (The advice advocated a Chinese model, where children of many concubines are disenfranchised from the governance, and the officials in charge of the state are not blood relatives of the monarch. The Türkic model is based on a dynastic marital union, all offsprings are involved in the governance, and are lined up in positions by their seniority in the lateral succession order. Violation of that order makes succession illegitimate, and for better or for worse the seniority order must be maintained to ensure perpetuation of the dynastic clan. The closeness of the blood relations in the Türkic governance scheme is paramount. The Jie Hun state was organized along the Hunnic lines).

The warden for the affairs of the heir to the throne palace 75 Sun Zheng appealed to the courtier Cui Yao: “I suffer from an eye disease, how can I be cured?” Cui Yao was always snubbing Sun Zheng, he decided to make fun of him, and said: “You will be healed if you put your eye in urine.” Sun Zheng said: “How is it possible to put an eye in the urine!” Cui Yao replied: “You have deeply sunken eyes, they can be very easily filled with urine.” Extremely annoyed, Sun Zhen reported this to Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan). Upon hearing this, Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan), who of all the Shi Jilong's sons had a most pronounced Hu (胡) appearance with deep-set eyes, flew into a rage and executed Cui Yao together with his sons.

Sun Zhen, using Shi Xuan's love (石宣, orig.: Suan), was actively intervening in the court politics, but now, after execution of Cui Yao, everybody, up to the high officials, feared him, and on meeting with him averted the gaze.

The son of Shi Jilong, Shi Jian with the title Yiyang-gun, at that time ruled the lands between four checkpoints, introduced numerous labor levies and imposed heavy taxes, which led to a breakdown of the order in the areas west of the Hanguguan checkpoint. Li Song, a friend of Shi Jian, persuaded him to pluck long hair from the civilian and military officials, and make from them laces for the hats, and to give the remaining hair to the palace maids. A senior officeholder took the hair and reported everything to Shi Jilong, who came into a terrible rage and appointed the Right Assistant Chief of the State Chancellery Zhang Li left a senior official, punishing the west, gave him the rank of Commander Jetting Up into the Sky Like a Dragon, a post of the Yuzhou province governor of Yun- Zhou, and send him to check, and everything turn out to be as said the senior official. Shi Jian was recalled to Yecheng, and Li Song was captured and handed over to the chief of the judicial department. Instead of Shi Jian, Shi Bao was appointed to rule the Chang'an, and from the Yongzhou, Lozhou, Qinzhou, and Bingzhou provinces were sent 160 thousand people for construction of the wall around the Weiyangun palace in Chang'an.

 Shi Jilong loved hunting, but over the years he put on weight, and could not climb into the saddle, and so he made a thousand hunting chariots, and the length of the shafts was 3 zhangs (7 m), and the height of the chariots was 1 zhang (2.3 m) and 8 chi (18 cm). In addition, were made 40 chariots to kill ferocious animals with the height of 1 zhang (2.3 m) and 7 chi (16 cm), on them from three sides stood two-story moving towers. When the date for the encircling hunt was set, were erected barricades, stretching from the Lingchangjin ferry (Yanjing, modern Beijing, Huanhe crossing, aka Dae crossing, 40°N 116°E) to Xinyang (32°N 114°E, distance from Yanjing 900 km) and in the east reaching Yandu (33°N 120°E, distance from Xinyang 570 km, distance from Yanjing 850 km; triangle area ~ 250,000 km2) 77, and the censors were ordered to check the number of birds and animals in the pen. Harming the animal was regarded as the crime, and the perpetrators were punished up to a death sentence, so the censors punished and pardoned on their own whim. If ordinary people had beautiful daughters, or good bulls and horses, and the censors, no matter how much they demanded could not get them, they would make false accusations of harming animals, and so every time they were sentencing to death more than a hundred families; so the people in the Haizhou (North of modern Jiangsu province ?, 35°N 119°E), Daizhou (centered at modern Xinzhou City, Shanxi province, 39°N 113°E), Hezhou (河州, centered at modern Linxia City, Gansu province, 36°N 103°E) and Jizhou provinces knew no rest. In addition, 260 thousand people from these provinces were sent to the construction of the palace in Luoyang, and more than 20 thousand bulls belonging to the residents were sent for the disposal of the supervisor of pastures in the Shozhou province (The role of encircling hunts in the social life of the Türkic societies and in military training is well documented, but even rudimentary details are badly missing. An encircling hunting range 5° wide and 9° long is beyond any imagination, and definitely belongs to the Guinness book. The technique of the encircling hunts could only develop in the steppe and by the horse riding society , since any natural obstacle provided an escape route for the herded wildlife. Probably, the prototype for the encircling hunts was trap fishing, as all Türkic tribes are known to originate as riverbank inhabitants, and the evidence of the net fishing has a Stone Age history. In the modern world, the elements of the mounted hunting survived only in the world of the British nobility, and it is still continuously practiced in the surviving Türkic tribal steppe and forest-steppe societies not encumbered by agricultural colonization. Out of necessity, the traditions of the encircling hunts and levirate marriage were revived in the Kazakhstan steppes during the WWII.).

The number of ranks for the [Imperial] concubines was increased to 24, for the concubines in the Eastern Palace was increased to 12, and for the concubines belonging to the rulers of more than 70 possessions with the titles of guns and hous was set at nine ranks. Prior to that, among the population were drafted over 30 thousand women between the ages of 13 and 20, who were divided into three groups for distribution to the palaces. The districts and counties, seeking to please Shi Jilong, tried to choose the most beautiful, and more than 9 thousand women were torn off from their husbands. Therefore, the influential houses resorted to threats, seeking beautiful others' women, most of whom ended their lives with suicide. In addition, on secret orders of Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) and others with titles of guns were conscripted at least 10 thousand women who were gathered in the palaces in Yecheng. Shi Jilong , who appeared on the lawn in front of the main hall of the palace for selection of women was very pleased, and granted the 12 officials who were sent to their recruitment a title of le-hou. From the beginning of the recruitment of the women to their delivery to Yecheng, the number of those killed, and the husbands who committing suicide when their wives were taken away, exceeded 3 thousand people (I.e. to deliver 10 thousand women to Yecheng cost another 3 thousand lives. The number of collateral victims to deliver 30 thousand women to Xiangguo probably was not in the official records. It should be noted that the treatment of the Chinese population was consistent with other records on the treatment of the dependent sedentary population by the nomadic masters, the root of the treatment was that the dependent population was viewed as chattel, be that horses, oxen, or people; they were planted, cultivated, driven, and harvested as needed. Exactly identical picture the Huns, Avars, and Bulgars presented in Europe, driving and treating Slavs as chattel, endowing them with their language, and possibly germinating Slavs out of the southern Baltic population. That page of history was thoroughly avoided in the past Slavic studies, creating a gaping historical lacuna between the 3rd and 9th cc. AD).

In the Jinzhou province, on which land in the past was located the Chu possession, in the Yangzhou and Xuzhou provinces, almost all people had fled their homes and were raising mutinies, and although the district governors and county heads were accusing people in crimes, they could not calm the people, so more than 50 [officials] were thrown into prisons or executed. A palace adviser with a gold seal on a dark red cord Lu Ming during his shift at the palace started strongly admonishing Shi Jilong, but terribly angered Shi Jilong ordered the guards jetting up like dragons to drag Lu Ming out and kill him. From that time, the court officials clamped their mouths and began inducing each other to serve only for the salary.

Escorted by a thousand horsewomen with dark red bands on their heads, in embroidered silk trousers, girdled with engraved gold and silver belts, in embroidered boots, Shi Jilong often went for entertainment to the Simaguan tower 78. On the tower were mounted wooden phoenixes, in their beaks was inserted colored paper for imperial edicts. The phoenixes were revolving, and it seemed that they were floating in the air.

Shi Jilong sent, a governor of Liangzhou province Ma Qui and others to attack Zhang Chonghua 79.

An official of the State Chancellery Zhu Gui conflicted with the palace chamberlain Yan Sheng. At that time fell prolonged torrential rains, the roads turned to mud and became impassable. Using that, Yan Sheng slandered Zhu Gui, stating that he is not fixing the roads, and besides he is rumoring on the politics of the court.

After that, Shi Jilong killed Zhu Gui, and then were instituted articles on punishment for gossiping and rules for penalties for secret conversations, the officials were allowed to report on their superiors, the slaves were allowed to report on their owners, and with every day the punishments were applied more widely. Everybody up to the highest officials during audiences at the palace were only exchanging glances, and stopped asking each other about happy or sad events.

When Zhu Gui was thrown into prison, Fu Hun 80 with a rank of Commander Surpassing All Troops said, exhorting Shi Jilong: “As I, your servant, heard, a wise ruler governing the Celestial makes at his palace clay steps three chi high (3 x 23 cm = 70 cm), covers the roof with reeds leaving the ends uncut, eats monotonous food, does not impose penalties because they are not needed. [On the other hand,] the ruler who faces demise, in governing the land among the four seas, has palaces so high that it seems that they are about to collapse, and pavilions decorated with jasper, uses chopsticks of ivory and cups of jade, severs people's shins and dissects their chests to see their hearts 81, turns the flesh of wise men into jerky 82 and dissects the bellies of pregnant, hence his demise comes so soon.

Now in Xiangguo and Yecheng are enough palaces for you, the Emperor, to live in them, why would you build palaces in Chang'an and Luoyang? You are excessively indulging in hunts, have a passion for female beauty, and from that started the end of the three dynasties 83. Besides, you suddenly built a thousand hunting chariots, you are keeping wild animals in the area of tens of thousands li, took away 100 thousand of other men's wives and daughters to fill your palaces.

The official of the State Chancellery Zhu Gui, a high official loyal to you, on charges that he fail to repair the roads by law has to be subjected to severe punishment. But the disaster, a rain pouring for 70 days, is due to the fact that you, Sire, by your policy violated a harmony between the dark and light elements. The sky cleared just in the last two days, and even a thousand of thousands of heavenly warriors would not be able during that period to bring the roads in order, and what can be said about the people! If you are going to be punishing like that, what would the historians write about it, how the Celestial would take it? I am humbly begging you, stop the works done by the levied for labor duties, free the women conscripted for the palaces, pardon Zhu Gui, and satisfy by that the aspirations of the people!”

After perusing the words of Fu Hong (orig.: Hun), Shi Jilong remained dissatisfied. Fearful of the truthfulness of these words, with unhappy face he dismissed them, but did not blame Fu Hun. Nevertheless, the construction work in the two capitals were suspended.

Fang Xuanling
(Jin shu), Ch. 106
Shi Jilun. Part 1
1. The ruler will leave the palace (yangjia) late. - The hieroglyph yang means “late”, and jia means “ride in a carriage”. It is a figurative expression for the Emperor's death. The Emperor must get up early and leave to the throne room to attend the affairs. His late departure indicates an emergency, i.e. the death, which is the only cause able to distract him from performing firmly established rules [18, Ch. 79, p. 13a].
2. Haiyang-wang - a title of Shi Hun given by Shi Jilong.
3. The title of huangdi, which is usually translated with the word “emperor”, was first introduced by the first emperor of the Qin dynasty Shi-huan.
4. Yintao - a county with the main town 29 li south-west of the modern county town Ningjin in the Hebei province [15, p. 332].
5. Clerk (cunshi - lit. “doing work”) is an official who was helping a provincial or district governor in the affairs of governance. The post was established during the Han dynasty. The clerks were not appointed and dismissed directly by the head of the province or district, and therefore they were also called zhou cunshi, i.e., “provincial clerks”.
6. A head of the artisans (dianjiang shaofu) - According to Hu Sanxing, that position corresponded to the position jianzuo dajian, a great master heading the work, that existed during the Han dynasty. The head of the artisans was in charge of the construction of the palace structures [17, Ch. 95, p. 3000].
7. Liang - district controlled by the same-named provincial town, on the site of the modern county town Hexian in the Anhui province [15, p. 519].
8. Sima Guang says about the same events: “Shi Hu (Shi Jilong . - V.T.), the ruler of Later Zhao dynasty, drove south and before reaching Yangtze, turned back. More than a dozen of his riders from the flying squad cavalry approached Luoyang, that was reported by the Lian district governor Yuan Dan, without mentioning, however, the number of the riders. The report alarmed and frightened the Jin court and the prude Wang Tao asked for permission to march to punish Shi Hu. In summer, the fourth moon, Wang Tao was additionally appointed a Grand Commander, he was handed a yellow halberd, and given a title of commander in chief of all military operations associated with the punitive expedition. On the day of the cyclic signs gui-chou the emperor reviewed the troops at the Guanmomen gates, ordered military commanders to march to the help of the Liang district, and encamp with the troops in Sihu, Nuzhu and Fuhu. The Head of the Public Works Chi Jian ordered Chen Guang, a governor of the Guangling district, to come to the capital at the head of the troops for its defense.
Soon came a report that the Zhao riders were very few, and besides they already left, so on the day under the cyclic signs wu-wu the martial law was lifted, and Wang Dao relieved of his duties as a Great Commander. Yuan Dan for display of lightheadedness was dismissed from position” [17, Ch. 95, pp. 3001-3002].
9. Zhonglu - county with the main town located south-west of the modern county town Xianyang in the Hubei province [15, p. 26].
10. Zhanshan - county with a main town located 140 li southeast of the modern county town Jingmin in the Hubei province in place of the settlement Shayanzhen [15, p. 735].
11. Feixian - county with main town 20 li north-west of the modern county town Feixian in the Shandong province [15, p. 889].
12. Chanle - district with administrative center in the Xindu city, on the site of the modern county town Jixian in the Hebei province [15, p. 55].
13. Feilian - a fantasy animal, for the first time mentioned by Sima Qian in the main records on the deeds of the Han Emperor Wu-di (141-87 BC). In 109 BC Emperor Wu-di “ordered construction in Chang'an of the tower Feilianguan and Guiguan” [18, Ch. 12, p. 21-b]. The Feilianguan tower received its name because there were installedc cast metal feylian figurines. According to the Yin Shao commentary, feylian is a fantastic animal able to fetch wind. Commentator Jin Zhuo adds that the body of feylian is like a body of a deer, the head by its shape resembles a wine goblet, it has horns, in the back is a tail like a snake, the hue of the fir is spotted like of a bars (leopard).
14. Reference to the activities of the mythical Emperor Shun, who allegedly “once in three years has verified the merits of [each], and after three inspections raised or lowered in the positions the dumb and wise, in result everywhere was reached success” [30, Ch. 3, p. 111].
15. Sticks the badge under the belt - subject is about officials wearing belt, under which they stuffed the badge while in the palace or in the service.
16. Yellow paper (huanzhi) - refers to the written on yellow paper lists of officials who passed the palace examination.
17. To verify the [candidate] in three respects (san sheng) - an expression borrowed from the Lun yu, which states: “Zeng-zi said:
“Every day I check myself in three ways: did I show lack of loyalty in helping others to make plans, did I violate trust in relations with friends, did I leave unstudied the teachings of the wise” [13, 26. Ch. 1 , p. 5]. Later the expression san sheng came to mean verification of the deeds and spoken words to determine whether errors were made .
18. Hair braider (suotou), so during the Southern and Northern Dynasties the Southerners contemptuously called the Northerners for their custom to braid their hair [17, Ch. 69, p. 2186].
19. Heads of large and small counties (lingzhang): according to the system that existed under the Qin Dynasty, and was inherited by the Han dynasty, the heads of large counties with population over 10 thousand households, were called xianmi and received salaries ranging from 600 to 1000 dans of grain per year, and the heads of small counties with population of less than 10 thousand households were called xianzhan and received salaries ranging from 300 to 500 dans of grain per year [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 16-a].
20. Eastern Palace was built for the heir to the throne Shi Sui, and the West Palace was built for Shi Jilong [17, Ch. 95, p. 3007] (In the Hunnic nomenclature, East is Left and West is Right, facing to the south, and it is unimaginable that a heir to the throne would be associated with Right. Assigning Shi Jilong to the Right Palace can be taken as a firm evidence that Shi Jilong was given a role of Right Juku Prince, i.e. a Prime Minister without a right to succession, and a head of his respective tribe).
21. Senior upbringer of the heir to the throne (taibao) - was a position in ancient China, which along with taiji taifu, senior mentor of the heir to the throne, and taiji taishi, senior teacher of the heir to the throne, belonged to the positions collectively called san shi “three teachers.
Senior teacher was in charge of the mental development of the heir to the throne, while a senior mentor taught him the rules of behavior, and the senior upbringer was in charge of his health [22, p. 25].
22. Sima Qian gives a brief description of the Zhou Wu-wang entry to the throne after the overthrow of the Yin dynasty: “The next day [in the Yin capital] the roads were cleared, restored the altar to the spirits of the Earth and the palace of the Shang ruler Zhou were restored. When time came, hundreds of warriors carrying flags on their shoulders lined up in front; the Wu-wang younger brother Shu Zhendo respectfully presented a ceremonial chariot, Zhou-gun Dan with a large halberd and Bi-gun with a small halberd took positions on the sides of Wu-wang. San Yisheng, Tai-dian and Hung-yao were guarding Wu-wang with swords in their hands. Upon arrival, they took positions on the southern side of the altar. Wu-wang àssistants from the army main forces followed behind him. Mao-shu Zheng gave clean water, the Wei's Kan-shu called Feng (if Kan-shu was not a name, what was it?) spread a straw mats, Zhao-gun called Shi helped to spread out colorful fabrics, Shi-shan-fu brought sacrificial animals. Yin-yi read from a tablet an appeal to the spirits, which said: “The last descendant of the Yin, the youngest son in the Zhou family (This points to a lateral succession order in the House of Yin; in Chinese tradition would be mentioned a son of the last ruler, not his brother), ignored the glorious virtues of the former wangs and abandoned them. He insulted and blasphemed the spirits of the Heaven and Earth, and did not bring sacrifices to them, having lost his mind, he mistreated the people of the Shang capital. That became clear to all, and was heard by the Supreme Ruler - the Lord of The Heaven”. Then Wu-wang twice bowed to the ground bowing to the altar, and said: “In response to the changing will of the [Supreme Ruler], we dismissed the House of Yin, and executed the wise decree of the Heaven”. Wu-wang again twice bowed to the ground and left the altar” [18, Ch. 4, pp. 11-a - 12-a].
23. In ancient times, the wife of a wang was called wang-hou - the wife of a wang, and the wife of the huandi Emperor was called huan-hou - wife of the emperor. The title tianwang huan hou, i.e., the “wife of the Emperor holding wang office ruling by the will of the Heaven did not exist, and it was first introduced by Shi Jilong [17, Ch. 95, p. 3010].
24. Commander of Mounted Guards (qi duwei) - Post, established in 116 BC during Han emperor Wu-di. This commander headed a squad of horsemen, called yuling qi, and received a subsistence allowance of 2 thousand dans of grain a year. The origin of the name yuling qi has different interpretations. Yan Shigu believes that character yu - “wings” points out that the riders qi in the squad were fast like the birds, and the character ling “forest" points out that they are numerous like the trees in the forest. According to another interpretation, the character yu meant that riders supported the emperor like the wings of the birds [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 6-a - 13-b]. The function of the Commander of Mounted Guards was to accompany the emperor during his outings.
25. The seven main stars (qi zhång) - refers to the Sun, Moon, Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Their favorable positioning means that the Sky does not oppose the aceptance of the power by the new emperor.
26. Touman, the first Shanyu of the Huns (Xiongnu匈奴) whose name is known in history, had an eldest son by the name Maodun. Later, he got a younger son, born from his beloved wife. Touman, desiring to discard Maodun and raise to the throne his youngest son, sent Maodun as a hostage to Yuezhi.
Once Maodun arrived at Yuezhi as a hostage, Touman suddenly attacked them. Yuezhi wanted to kill Maodun, but he stole from them an excellent horse and rode away. Touman appreciated his courage and ordered him to command 10 thousand horsemen.
Fortuitously avoiding the death, Maodun began preparing to seize the power, and according to Sima Qian “made whistling arrows and began teaching archery to his horsemen. He declared an order: “Anyone who will not shoot where flies a whistling arrow will be beheaded”, and went hunting birds and animals, and all those who did not shoot where the whistling arrow flew were beheaded.
Soon Maodun sent a whistling arrow into his splendid horse. Some of his entourage did not dare to shoot, and Maodun immediately beheaded those who did not shoot at the splendid horse. Some time later [Maodun] again shot an arrow into his beloved wife. Some of his entourage got very scared and did not dare to shoot. Maodun beheaded them too. After a certain period Maodun went on a hunt and shoot a whistling arrow into the gorgeous horse of Shanyu. All of his entourage also shot it. Maodun knew that now he can rely on everyone of his retinue.
Following his father Shanyu Touman on a hunt, he sent a whistling arrow into Touman and all of his entourage also shot where the whistling arrow flew, and Shanyu Touman was killed. Then Maodun put to death his stepmother, younger brother and the nobles who were unwilling to submit to him. [Then] Maodun himself ascended the throne and became a Shanyu” [18, Ch. 110, pp. 7-a - 8-a] (This romantic fable of undoubtedly Hunnic descent is roaming from one printed publication to another with no disclamer that it is an obvious poetical mythology built along the lines of Classical oral literature, a la frog Prince, Odyssey, Chinese Classical romance, and King Arthur).
27. The Commander who Crossed a Sea (henhai jiangjun) - a rank first established, according to Hu Sanxing, by Shi Jilong [17, Ch. 96, p. 1014]. Its origin was that the transported by water troops, in order to get to the Liaoxi district, had to cross the Liaodong Bay of the Yellow Sea.
28. The Commander who Crossed a River Lyaoshui (duliao jiangjun) - a military rank established during the Han dynasty, first it was received by Fan Minyu, sent to a campaign against the Huns (Xiongnu匈奴). The hieroglyph du means “cross”, and the liao is a name of the Lyaoshui river, and according to the explanation of Ying Shao, such title was given because to attack the Huns (匈奴) Fan Minyu had to cross the river Lyaoshui [4, Sec. 7, p. 7-b].
29. Piaoyu - a settlement that was north of the modern Tianjin in the Hebei province [15, p. 615].
30. Yao Yichjung - a father of Yao Chan (330-393), a founder of the Later Qin dynasty.
31. Anci - county town 40 li north-west of the modern county town Anci in the Hebei province [15, p. 232].
32. Mujun Huang (297-348) - nicknamed Yuanzheng, a son of Mujun Gui, an actual founder of the Former Yan dynasty. In 337, after a death of his father, assuned a title Yen-wang, in the south destroyed his old enemy, the Duan horde, defeated troops of Shi Jilong, and founded a capital in Lunchen (modern county town Zhaoyang in the Liaoning province), and extended his power throughout the northern China.
33. The astronomical section of Jing-shu says: “Jupiter is growing and diminishing, and the fate of the state depends on where it is. If Jupiter for a long time stays over a state, it means that goodness dominates the state, all grains bring bountiful harvest, and attacking it is precluded” [20, Ch. 12, p. 1-b].
34. Chanli - county with a main town located at the site of the modern county town Changli in the Hebei province [15, p. 416]. It was a homeland of Mujun Gui and served as a base for his son Mujun Huang.
35. Head of bodyguards in charge of agriculture (diannun zhunglangjian) - a title of a position organized by Cao Cao at the end of the Han dynasty for the areas where were established farming settlements. The occupants of this position were in charge of grain production, collected taxes, and their duties were no different from the district governors.
Farming settlements (tuntian) began to be created during the Han dynasty in abandoned or virgin lands. For cultivation of the state land were sent either warriors or migrant peasants, and in the first case the settlements were called “military farming settlements (juntun), and in the second case “peasant (literally “folk”) farming settlement “(mintun).
Typically, the cultivation was conducted not collectively, but individually by families, between which was distributed the land. peasant land settlements “in" most cases moving with time in the property of those who ee'obrabatyval, creation of farming settlement was meant to supply troops with food.
The emergence of the farming settlements in China started in 104 BC, when “for the first time were established Zhanye and Jiuquan districts, while in the Shanjun, Shuofang, Õihe and Hesi districts were installed officials in charge of agriculture, and 600 thousand warriors that have expanded the limits [of the Empire], were guarding borders and cultivating the fields” [4, Ch. 06.24, p. 16-a].
36. Prude (sytu - lit. “in charge of the people”; ~ guardian of the moral police) [25, Ch. 9, p. 325] is one of the oldest positions in China, first mentioned in the Shang-shu [30, p. 103]. the Prude propagated among population the five principles in relations between people, according to which the fathers should be fair, the mothers should be loving, the elder brothers should be friendly towards the younger, the younger brothers be respectful of the elders, and children should show respect for the parents.
37. Expert scholar on the Pentateuch (wujin boshi) - a position established by the fifth year of the Jian-yuan reign era (136 BC) by the Han Emperor Wu-di [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 5-a]. Its occupants tought five Confucian canons, which include: Yi-jin, Shu-jin, Shi-jin, Li-ji and Chun-qiu.
38. As indicated in Jin-shu, “in the first years of the Jin dynasty (265–420) existence it adopted a system that had existed under the Wei dynasty, establishing 19 scholar positions. In the fourth year of an of the Xian-ning reign era (278) Emperor Wu-di established a first school for sons and younger brothers of the upper officials, and established a post of a cupbearer scholar of the school for sons and younger brothers of upper officials, one for each canon, and 15 assistant scholars in the school for sons and younger brothers of upper officials to teach the students. For the scholar positions were selected people distinguished by pure behavior, and for exams for these posts were recruited only those who held positions not lower than a cortege rider serving at the court who have served in the palace secretariat not less than three years, and the tutors of the heir to the throne. In the first years after the Jin dynasty move to the right bank of the Yangtze the number of scientists was reduced to nine men. At the end of the Emperor Yuan Di reign were further established the posts of the experts scholars in the canons Yi-li, Li-ji, and chronicles Chun-qiu in the Gulian edition, so that the total number of the scholar positions increased to eleven people. Later that number was increased to sixteen, but the occupants of these positions were not divided by the five canons, and had a common name “scholar of higher education”. In the tenth year of the Tai-yuan reign era (385) established by the Emperor Xiao-wu, the number of scholar assistant posts for the schools for sons and younger brothers of the upper officials was reduced to ten” [20, Ch. 24, p. 8-b].
39. River Mianshui began in the modern Lueyan county in the Shanxi province, and flow into the Hanshui river.
40. Baishi - a city north of modern Nanjing. It grew on the site of the encampment built by Tao Kan (259-334) during a reprisal expedition against insurrection of Su Jun. The encampment was surrounded by ramparts built of white stone, and the city was named Baishi, i.e., “[the city with walls of] white stone”.
41. Zhucheng is a main town of the same-named county 20 li north-west of the modern county city Huanggang in the Hubei province [15, p. 928].
42. Palace Censor (dianzhong yushi) - by the Hu Sanxing explanation, during the Wei dynasty existed a rule by which the palace library allocated two people who stayed at the court, acted as censors, and were detecting offenses (see [17, Ch. 96, p. 3034]).
43. Assistant Chief Censor (yushi zhuteng).- Censor (yushi) is a civil service position. The censor duties were mainly overseeing officials. The censors were headed by a Chief Censor (yushi dafu), who at the same time was a deputy chief assistant of the emperor (chenxian) and was among the three highest officials of the empire. The Chief Censor had an assistant (yushi zhunchen) who had in his disposal 15 censors tasked with sorting and custody of the documents coming to the palace, supervising the officials of the central and local staffs, and bringing them to justice for their crimes.
44. Jackals and wolfs are symbols of perverse, greedy people.
45. A white rainbow crossing the sky was a harbinger of disaster, if the rainbow crossed the disk of the sun, it presaged a killing of the ruler.
46. Palace Adviser with a gold seal on a dark red cord (jinizi guanglu dafu). - During the Qin and Han the upper officials of the empire, such as the chief assistant of the emperor (chenxian), the great commander (taiwei), a great mentor (taifu), a great teacher (taishi) and others had a right to use a golden seal (jinyin) on a dark red cord (zishou) [4, Ch. 19-a]. Hence jinzi is a short form of jinyin zishou.
Palace Adviser (guanglu dafu) - post, established by the Emperor Wu-di in 104 BC instead of zhong dafu. The position of zhong dafu existed in the department for guarding the inner gate of the Imperial Palace. The persons holding that position were among a group altogether called dafu. In the hierarchy, dafu followed the department heads, which were nine in the Han period. The dafu function was to discuss various issues at the court. Thus, in a way they formed a council at the emperor. The council had no special name and permanent staff, because the number of the court counselors was varying, in some cases reaching several dozen people. The palace advisers were divided into three categories: senior palace adviser, palace adviser, and advisor exhorting the emperor [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 5-b ].
47. Summoned by an imperial decree to the service, but not holding an official post (zhengshi) refers to a person (shi) of great learning and distinguished for perfect behavior, who was called by an emperor's decree for the service (zheng), but declined a position. A honorary designation for such persons was a term zheng-jun, i.e., “a noble called to service” [24, p. 801].
48. Table and staff (jizhang) - were granted to distinguished, elderly high officials for them to sit leaning on the table, and walk leaning on the staff.
49. Li Shou - Emperor of Cheng Han dynasty (303-347), created by Li Xiong (Xiong = Hun = “ferocious” is apparently a Chinese moniker in lieu of the real name), a member of the Di (Tele) tribe, during Sixteen states of five northern tribes. Li Xiong's father Li Te moved into the land of Shu, rebelled against the Jin dynasty, and later his son Li Xiong, using the riots that spread in China, expelled Shang Lo, the Jin ruler of Yizhou, from the Chengdu, and adopted a title of Chengdu-wang, and in 305 ascended the imperial throne, having named the newly created dynasty Great Cheng. Using advices of the (ethnically) Chinese Fan Changsheng, Li Xiong simplified administration methods, attracted wise officials for the service, established fair punishments, and reduced taxes and levies, for which he was supported not only by the Dis, but also by the Chinese.
Cheng Han state
After the death of Li Xiong, at the court broke conflicts on the question of succession, and although his son Liu Qi succeeded to ascend to the throne, soon he was deprived of the power by the Li Xiong's nephew Li Shou, who changed the name of the dynasty to Han. For that reason, the dynasty created by the Dis in (the Chinese) history is usually called Cheng-Han. Under the rule of that dynasty was a territory of the modern Sichuan province, a southern part of the Shaanxi province, and the northern parts of the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. In 347 the dynasty Cheng Han, having existed for 45 years, was destroyed by the Eastern Jin commander Huan Wen [20, Ch. 121].
Li Hong (orig.: Hun), a Li Shou's commander governing the Jinzhou province, was captured by the Jin troops during a retributive expedition in 339, and sent to the Jin capital, from where he escaped to Shi Jilong.
50. The text does not have the words “to secure implementation of the plans for the march to the east”, which violates a construction of the whole sentence, which in listing of other provinces states for what purpose were made preparations for the campaign. Based on these considerations, Sima Guang introduced the missing words into the text [17, Ch. 97, p. 3052], which is reflected in the translation.
51. An error in the text: instead of 500 thousand is indicated 50 people (see [7, Ch. 95, p. 15-b]).
52. Possessor of fortune appraised in thousands of jins of gold does not sit under the eaves of the roof is a widespread proverb, which was cited by Sima Qian [18, Ch. 101, p. 3-b] and, in accordance with a noted comment, means that the rich do not sit under the eaves of the roof out of fear that a tile may fall down. It is used to express an extreme caution.
53. A ruler who has ten thousand chariots (wanchen zhi zhu) - In the Meng-zi text is found expression wangchen zhi gou - “State with ten thousand chariots”, as a symbol of the Son of the Heaven.
54. White Dragon turned into a fish.- According to the legend, once a white dragon descended into a clear pond, and turned into a fish. A fisherman Yu Qie shot the fish from the bow and hit it into an eye. The dragon rose into the sky and complained about the fisherman to the Heavenly Emperor. The emperor asked: “How did you look?” The dragon replied: “I turned into a fish”. The emperor then decided: “The people have a right to shoot at the fish, and there is no fault of the fisherman”. Later, the expression “white dragon in the fish clothing” gained an allegorical meaning, and came to signify a noble man leaving his house dressed in other's clothes and by that subjecting himself to a danger.
55. And when the dragon secretly left the sea, he had to endure suffering in Gepo is a phrase of the wonder stories about Fei Chanfang, who lived during the Eastern Han. Once Fei Chanfang, who served as a minor official, from a tower saw an old man in the city market, who was selling drugs, with the closing of the market he crawled into a jar hanging next to him, nobody other than Fei noticed it. Fei Chanfang approached the elder, gave him a treat, and the elder told him to come back the next day. When Fei Chanfang came, he and the elder entered the jar, inside of which was a luxuriously furnished room, full of fine wine and exquisite dishes. A few days later the old man came to Fei Chanfang and told him that he is a celestial being serving a sentence for the committed crimes, but by now his sentence has ended, and he must leave, and for the farewell he brought some wine. Fei Chanfang ordered to bring the vessel with wine, but ten men could not raise it, while the old man with a smile raised the vessel with one finger. In the vessel was only slightly more than one sheng of wine, but two of them could not drink it up in the whole day.
Fei Chanfang wanted to ask the elder to teach him the magic, but worried that for that he must leave his family. The elder broke off a branch of bamboo, and ordered to hang it the middle of the house. The branch turned into Fei Chanfang's corpse, the relatives decided that he was hanged himself, and buried the body, with Fei Chanfang present at his own funerals, for no one could see him.
Together with the elder Fei Chanfang went into the remotest mountains covered with dense thorn, in the thickets of which lived many tigers. The old man left him alone among the tigers, but Fei Chanfang was not afraid. Then the old man put him in an empty house, and hung over him on a rotten rope a huge rock weighing 10 jins. Many snakes were gnawing the rope, and it was about to break, but Fei Chanfang was lying quietly under a stone. After that, finding that he can be taught magic, the elder told the student to eat dung with three terrible stinking worms. Fei Chanfang could not overcome his disgust, and then the old man said that he nearly mastered the magic, but because he could not eat the dung, he mastered this art incompletely. On parting, the old man gave him a bamboo staff, saying that riding the staff, he can immediately reach any place, and upon coming back home he should throw it on the hill Gepo. In addition, he presented him with a talisman that gives power over the earth spirits and the souls of the dead.
Riding the staff, Fei Chanfang returned home, and threw the stick on the Gepo hill, and it immediately turned into a dragon. Fei Chanfang told his relatives that he left for ten days, whereas in reality it was more than ten years. Initially, the relatives did not believe in his return, thinking that he was long dead. Fei Chanfang managed to convince them that was buried not him, but a branch of bamboo, which they found when they dug up the grave and opened the coffin.
Using the magic talisman, Fei Chanfang engaged in heeling, successfully expelling evil spirits, in one day he was appearing at different locations, separated by thousands li. Later, Lord of the Eastern Sea dragon Donghai-jun, came to visit the dragon, which was already called a Lord of the Gepo hill, and began fornicating with his wife. Accusing the Dragon of the Eastern Sea in crime, Fei Chanfan detained him. Three years have passed, and because there was no fetching rain dragon, the Eastern Sea coast suffered a severe drought. Arriving at the coast and seeing that the people are praying for rain, Fei Chanfang said: “The Lord of the Eastern Sea has committed a crime, for which I have detained him on the Gepo hill. Now I just released him for him to send down the rain”, and indeed immediately came the rain [21, Ch. 82-b, pp. 16-a - 18-b] (Is it possible that a peculiarly Chinese flying walking staff turned into a peculiarly European flying broom of the witches by a coincidence? The European witches could not fly on bamboo, there was no bamboo in Europe. It appears that the Europe absorbed a Chinese myth from the people who carried it all the way from China, and successfully planted it, a contribution from the Etsel or Atli people to his Germanic subjects that extended to our days. Ditto for the dragon, the Classical European mythology did not have too many dragon personalities, while they were quite popular in the Türkic mythology).
56. Bring the palace in order (literally, “to clear the palace”) is found in a similar sense at the Sima Qian: “Great stud groom Xiahou Yin and Liu Xinzu with a title Dunmu-hou, was ordered to put the palace in order” [18, Sec. 10, p. 4-a], and, according to the commentary, this meant taking measures to protect the palace against possible surprises.
57. Zhongli - reference to the Later Han high official Zhongli Yi, who served the Emperor Ming-di (57-75). In 60 AD the Emperor Ming-di, despite the severe drought, began a large work on the construction of a Deyandian hall in the territory of the Northern Palace. On that occasion Zhongli Yi came to the palace, took off his hat and turned in a report, stating: “Respectfully bowing to the ground, I see as you, Sire, saddened about the common people because of the drought, avoid visiting the main hall of the palace and blame yourself for what has happened. Although the sky from day to day is covered with dense clouds, they do not moisten the earth, have you allowed in the governance affairs anything not conforming to the wishes of the Heaven? In the past, [the Yin ruler] Cheng-tang, when occurred a drought, reproached himself in six offences, saying: “Did I violate the order in the affairs of the governance? Have I made people to suffer? Are my palace premises too luxurious? Are my concubines patronizing others too much? Did the bribery spread too much? Have the detractors multiplied too much?” In my opinion, the major works on the construction of the Northern Palace distract people from their agricultural work, and they can be said of that they contribute to an increase in luxury of the palace premises. Beginning from the ancient times, the sufferings were not because the area of the palace premises was too small, but the sorrowing was only about a lack of a quiet life for the people. The construction should be terminated for now, to meet the desire of the Heaven” [21, Ch. 41, pp. 15-b - 16-a]. The Emperor approved the report, and on the same day came big downpour.
58. During the Jin dynasty (265–420) existed five departments, each in charge of a certain branch of troops. These departments included: 1) zhunbin cao - Department of the Central, i.e. principal, or Palace Troops; 2) waibin cao - Department of External Forces, i.e. forces stationed outside of the capital; 3) qibin cao - Department in charge of Mounted Troops; 4) bebik cao - Department in charge of Separate Forces, i.e. the forces of the native “aliens”; 5) dubin cao - Department in charge of the Troops in the Capital.
59. Animal is me. - The Shi Jilong's proper name was Hu, such was the name of one of the Tang emperors, and therefore it was considered to be tabooed. The surname Shi (in Chinese) means “stone”, and Hu (in Chinese) means “Tiger”. That gave Shi Jilong reason to say: “The beast - it's me.”
60. Wudu - a county town, an administrative center of the eponymous district 80 li west of the modern county town Chengxian in the Gansu province [15, p. 515].
61. Didao - a county town, an administrative center of the Lungxi district. It was located at the site of the modern county town Lintao in the Gansu province [15, p. 650].
62. Palace officials for task assignments (zhong echje).- Official for assignments was a title in the Imperial Palace inner gate protection departmant. The occupants of this post were entrusted with presenting guests coming to the court, and intermediated between them and the emperor. The Han dynasty numbered 70 officials for assignments. The highest of them was called echje pue or da echje - “chief, or senior, clerk for assignments” [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 5-b - 6-a]. In this text the considered position is called zhong echje ling, “Head of the court officials for assignments”.
63. Nine high officials (jiu ching).- Òhe nine high officials in the Qin empire were: fenchang (from the Han empire - taichang) - head of the ceremonial department; langzhungling (from the Han dynasty - guangluxiun] - head of the the inner gate of the palace guards department; weiwei - head of the outer gate of the palace guards department; taipu - chief equerry; tinwei - head of the judicial department; dianke (from the Han dynasty - dahunlu) - head of the ambassadorial department; zongzheng - head of for the imperial clan department; zhisu neishi (from the Han dynasty - da sinun) great administrator of agriculture; shaofu - warden of small storeroom.
64. The texts of classical books, carved in stone (shi-jing). - “In the spring, the third moon of the fourth year of the Xi-ping reign era (175), Emperor Ling-di ordered the Confucian scholar to ascertain hieroglyphs in Five Classical Books, chisel the text on the slabs and install the slabs in front of the gates of the school for sons and younger brothers of upper officials” [21, Ch. 8, p. 7-b]. The carved on the slabs text was considered canonical, free of errors.
65. Chun-qiu annals in the Gulian edition (Gulian Chun-qiu) is a work written by Gulian Chi, a native of Lu possession, who lived during the Zhan-go period (Warring States). It is dedicated to explanations of the main ideas contained in the Confucius annals Chun-qiu.
66. Temple of Science (xuegun) - so were called temples in honor of Confucius.
67. Judging by the writing of Zizhi tunjian, Shi Jilong organised a feast in the first moon of a spring [17, Ch. 97, p. 3057], when the geese fly north. They landed to rest south of the horse road, to fly on later. According to the opinion of Zhao Lan, the event that they could not shoot any goose was an indication that the campaign would end in failure, and Shi Jilong would have to flee to the north after the geese, resulting in his palace in Yecheng would become empty.
68. Constellation Fang (Residence) - a fourth of the seven constellations in the eastern sector of the sky, consisting of four stars in the SE part of the zodiacal constellation Scorpio. The our stars of this constellation form a square which the Chinese astrologers viewed as a dwelling (hence the name - Residence) for the Son of the Heaven, where he works and receives visiting possessing princes, and the stars at the corners are help him in governing, with duties of a senior military leader, assistant senior military leader, first counselor, and assistant of the first counselor. The entry of Mars into the constellation was seen as a presence of a stranger, from whose appearance can be expected all sorts of surprises.
69. Constellation Mao (Pleiades) - a third of the Chinese constellations in the western sector of the sky in the Taurus constellation, consisting of seven stars. Under a patronage of that constellation was the Jizhou province (18, Ch., 27 p. 29a].
70. The hieroglyph wang used as a family symbol and at the same time has a meaning of “emperor”, “lord”, “Prince”. In connection with that to avert misfortune from Shi Jilong, who was a ruler, Zhao Lan suggested to kill one of the noble officials with the name of Wang, to satisfy in that way the desire of the Heaven, and to calm its anger (This used to be a popular Türkic version of the musical chairs game: because everything has a spirit, and the good and bad spirits invisibly participate in every event and action not unlike the invisible will of Allah, and because every spirit is good and bad at the same time, the Türks used to change their names, have a back-up names, and secret names; that was a useful device to mislead a vengeful or malicious spirit: he came for Johnny, and I am Sammy, do me no evil. This superstition continues into the present days, it appears that the ghosts by good fortune can not read foreign passports, be they Russian, Chinese, or Persian).
71. Ke - a measure of time, one hundredth part of the day and hight, measured by water clocks.
72. The five sacrificial offerings in connection with the onset of the annual seasons (wu jiao).- According to the rules that existed in antiquity, the emperor was meeting the coming of the spring on the eastern outskirts of the capital on the first day of the spring, the summer was meeting on the southern outskirts of the capital on the first day of the summer; 18 days before the start of the spring at the central altar the emperor was meeting the spirit of Huang-ling; the fall he was meeting in the western suburbs of the capital on the first day of the autumn; the winterhe was meeting in the northern suburbs of the capital on the first day of the winter.
73. Zu-tui - a favorite son of the Zhou ruler Zhuang-wang (697 - 682 BC) born of a concubine Yao. A mentor of Zu-tui was a high official Wei-guo. In 676 BC the throne passed to Hui-wang (676-652 BC) and, as reported in the Zuo-zhuang: “When Hui-wang ascended the throne, he took away from Wei-guo a garden and turned it into a corral for wild birds and animals. Then, because the palace [of the courtier] Bian-bo was close to the wang's palace, wang seized it too. Then the wang seized the arable land from Zu-jin, Zhu-gui, and Chang-fu, and in addition withheld the pay of his cook [Shi-su]. Because of that, Wei-guo, Bian-bo, Shi-su, Chang-chu, Zu-jin and Zhu-gui revolted, finding support at the Su clan. In the autumn the listed five high officials, trying to raise Zu-tui to the throne, attacked the wang, but not having succeeded, they fled to the Wen, while the head of the Su clan together with Zu-tui fled to the Wei. After that, the troops of the possessions Wei and Yan attacked Zhou, and in the winter raised Zu-tui on the throne” [27, Ch. 9, pp. 385, 386]. Hui-wang fled to the Zheng possession (Since the relationship between Zhuang-wang and Hui-wang is not specified, it appears to be a lateral succession from elder brother to a younger brother, and Zu-tui was legitimately next in line).
After accession to the throne, “Zu-tui organized a feast with wine for the three high officials, where Zi-guo (aka Wei-guo. - V.T.) was a chief guest (was present at the feast as a main guest, as he of was a mentor Zu-tui. - V.T.). Played music, and were performed all melodies. Upon hearing of that, the Zheng governor Li-gun met with the Go's Shu and said: “As I've heard, when the head of the department in charge of punishments performs an execution, the governor is banning music because of that, so how can someone else's misfortune be enjoyed (i.e., the expulsion of Hui-wang. - V.T.). I've heard that Zu-tui sings and dances without tiring, and that means that he is glad with somebody's misfortune, though what evil can be greater than the expulsion of a wang from the throne, and ascension of another person. To forget about sadness when faced with misfortune means to rejoice in another's trouble, and in that case, the misfortune always comes to those who do so. Why would not we return the wang to the throne?” The Go's Shu agreed with that proposal.
Then the ruler of the Zheng possession headed by the wang entered the capital from the south, and the Go's Shu entered the capital through the northern gate. They killed Zu-tui and his three officials, after which the wang returned to the capital” [8, Ch. 1, pp. 9, 10] (This is a typical Türkic scenario, a younger brother or a nephew trying to jump the lateral succession order. Aside from the illegitimacy of the action, the fallout is that the children of the bypassed heir become disenfranchised, since only the children of the Chanyu are eligible for succession, and all juicy positions in the state are afforded by the proximity to the reigning monarch; all the progeny of the bypassed heir become simple rank-and-file tribesmen, with no non-violent perspectives. In the Rus Kaganate the term for such disenfranchised princes was “izgoi”, with a connotation of unfortunate and troublemaker).
74. Shu-duan - Sima Qian said about him: “On the 10th year of his reign, the Zheng ruler Wu-gun married the Shen-hou daughter Wu-jiang. Wu-jiang bore a senior son Wu-sheng, the delivery was difficult, so after the birth of the child she did not love him. Then Wu-jiang bore a younger son Shu-duan, the delivery was easy, so she loved him.
On the 27-th year of reign Wu-gun fell ill, and therefore Wu-jiang asked him to declare Shu-duan a heir to the throne, but the Wu-gun did not consent. That year, Wu-gun died and Wu-sheng ascended the throne, and took a title Zhuang-gun.
On the 1st year of his reign Zhuang-gun granted to his younger brother Shu-duan land in Jing, and began to call him Tai-shu, a Great Younger Brother. Ji-zhong told Zhuang-gun: “The land in Jing by area is larger then your possession, they can not be bestowed on the younger son of the late ruler”. Zhuang-gun said: “That's what Wu-jiang wants, and I do not dare to deprive him of them.”
Coming to the Jing land, Shu-duan began preparing troops and weaponry, conceiving to attack unexpectedly, with his mother Wu-jiang, the ruler of the Zheng possession. On the 22nd year of Zhuang-gun reign Shu-duan attacked him, and Wu-jiang supported him from inside. Zhuang-gun sent troops against Shu-duan, and he fled. Zhuang-gun attacked on the Jing land, the population of the land rebelled against Shu-duan, and he fled to the Yan city. After the fall of the city Yan, Shu-duan fled to the Gong (orig.: Gun) possession.
After that, Zhuang-gun transferred his mother Wu-jiang to the Chenyin, with an oath: “I would meet with her only deep underground by the groundwater” (i.e., when I die. - V.T.). More than a year has passed, and Zhuang-gun began to repent of his oath, longing for his mother. At that time to Zhuang-gun came with offerings Kao-shu, who lived in Yingu, and Zhuang-gun honored him with a meal. Kao-shu said: “I, your servant, have a mother, please grant her food”. Zhuang-gun responded: “I am longing for my mother very much, but I can not break my oath, what should I do?” Kao-shu suggested: “Dig the ground to the underground water, and then you will be able to meet with her”. Zhuang-gun followed this advice, and met with his mother” [18, Ch. 42, pp. 2-b-3-b].
75. The Warden for the affairs of the heir to the throne's palace (taiji zhanshi). - Zhanshi is “Warden”, a position that appeared during the Qin dynasty (221-206 BC). During the Han dynasty this position existed at the palace of the Empress, and at the palace of the Crown Prince, and in front of the position name was stated the name of the palace. For example, there was a position changxing zhanshi "Warden for the affairs of the palace Changxing, i.e., for the affairs of the Empress Dowager Palace [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 10-A-10-b].
Later, this position as a rule existed only at the heir to the throne palace, so appeared the term taiji zhanshi, “warden for the affairs of the heir to the throne”. The duty to govern a heir to the throne was placed on his senior and junior tutors, but because they were too high positions, virtually all of the caretaking of practical nature lay on the warden for the affairs. His position at the heir to the throne was analogous with that of the Chancellor at the Emperor. That is why the “Old Tang History” (Hou Tangshu) states that the Warden for the affairs of the heir to the throne was in charge of “decrees of the three departments and ten detachments of the heir to the throne palace guards” [14, Ch. 44, p. 24a].
76. Right Assistant to the Chief of the State Chancellery (yu pue). Pue is a title that existed still during the Qin dynasty. The hieroglyph pu means “to head”, “to be in charge”, and she, in this case with a reading e, means “archery”, hence pue is “in charge of archery”. According to the Ban Gu explanation, the existence of such post was because in ancient times great attention was paid to the military training, particularly the archery [4, Ch. 19-a, p. 6-A].
Later, the term pue acquired a figurative meaning “head”, “leader”, and was added to the names of various positions, indicating that a person is a senior among his colleagues. Thus, during the Qin and Han dynasties for example existed a position boshi pue , “senior erudite”.
In the 199 AD, a Han Emperor Xian-di for the first time established for the State Chancellery the position of the Left and Right senior clerks [21, Ch. 9, p. 12-b], who as Assistant Chief of the State Chancellery concentrated in their hands, together with the Chief of the State Chancellery, all the power.
During the Tang Dynasty, both senior clerks in fact held a post of the Chief of the State Chancellery and had a title Chancellor. As the senior clerks were formally assistants of the head of the State Chancellery, for the term pue was accepted not a literal translation as “senior clerk”, but “assistant to the Chief of the State Chancellery, a best rendition of the actual situation.
77. Yandu - county town located south of the modern county town Yishui in the Shandong province [15, p. 1004].
78. Simaguan (literally, “tower for mounted riding fun”) - was located west of the modern county town Linzhan in the Hebei province, and was built by Shi Jilong for military training.
79. Zhang Chonghua was a ruler of the Former Liang dynasty (301-376), ruling the western and northern parts of the modern Gansu province and the eastern part of the East Turkestan (“Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region”).
80. Fu Hong (Fu Hun) (285-350) - A Di by origin. His father, Huai-gui served as leader of a small horde. During the troubles in the Yung-jia reign era, Fu Hong (orig.: Hun), who possessed intelligence and courage, was promoted to the post of a Chief of all Di hordes (I.e., Shanyu). While in the office, he submitted to Liu Yao, the Emperor of the Former Zhao dynasty, from whom he received a title of Shuayi Hou, i.e. Hou standing at the head of justice“. After a defeat of Liu Yao, he found refuge in the Longshan mountains, and then submitted to Shi Jilong, who gave him a number of senior positions and a title Sipin jiugun.
After ascending the Emperor throne of the Later Zhao dynasty, Shi Zun stripped Fu Hong (orig.: Hun) from the post of the Grand Commander, and the offended Fu Hong (orig.: Hun) sent an envoy to the court of the Jin dynasty with an expression of submission. At that time he had over 100 thousand warriors (Implying a total population of the Dis was in the order of 700,000 people). Despite the fact that in 350 the Jin Emperor gave Fu Hong (orig.: Hun) a title of the Grand Commander Punishing North, and of the Chief Commander of All Military Affairs to the North of the Huanhe, the post of the governor of the Jizhou province, and a title Guanchuan jun-gun, Fu Hong (orig.: Hun) proclaimed himself a Grand Commander, a Great Shanyu, and assumed a title Sanqin-wang.
In the future, Fu Hong (orig.: Hun) planned to begin a capture of the Northern China, but he was poisoned by Ma Qui, a former commander of Shi Jilong [20, Ch. 112, pp. 1-a - 1-b].
81. Severs people's shins and dissects their chests to see their hearts is a phrase associated with the Yin vicious ruler Zhou-xin. As pointed out by Sima Qian, “Zhou-xin fornicated and behaved outrageously, not knowing any restraints. Wei-qie admonished him many times, but Zhou-xin did not listen to persuasion, then he conspired with taishi and shaoshi to leave Yin. Bi-gan said: “He, who is a servant of a ruler, must fight without fear of death”, and started strongly exhorting Zhou-xin. Infuriated, Zhou-xin said: “I've heard that the heart of a sage has seven openings” - and dissected Bi-gan's chest to look at his heart” [18, Ch. 3, ch. 12-b].
82. Turns the flesh of wise men into jerky - a phrase associated with the vicious Yin ruler Zhou-xin. “E-hou competed with Zhou-xin in strength, was sharper in disputes, [Zhou-xin killed him and] turned the E-hou's flesh into jerky” [8, Ch. 3, p. 11-b].
83. The three dynasties (xan dai) refers to the Xia, Yin, and Zhou dynasties, the last rulers of which indulged in excessive luxury and entertainment.
In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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