Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
The Huns in Chinese annals
Sources on Eastern Hun history
V.S. Taskin (1917-1995)
USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies
MATERIALS ON THE HISTORY OF NOMADIC PEOPLES IN CHINA
3 - 5 cc. AD
Jie (Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)
Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1990, Print 1000 copies, ISBN 5-02-016543-3
The posting's introduction is given on the author's introduction page. Jie is an offshoot of the Türkic tribe Kiyan, also known as Kiyat, probably with the Mongolian plural. ending. The Russian derivative word of the Türkic koch (English coach) “kohevie” ~ “êî÷åâüå” that refleted the Chunese “bu”, is translated as horde. In this use the horde is an economical-social subdivision of a state, a tribal union, or a tribe, associated with certain ancestral pasturing route or pasturing territory, semantically different from the homophonic horde = army. Horde is a self-contained community united by traditional social ties like kinship or marital union, and generally is a conglomerate consisting of extended families belonging to the same ethnic group and able to propagate their possession of the pasturing route. Except for the introductory part, where is given the origin of the Jie branch and the origin of their Chinese name, the Jin shu annals refer to Jie almost exclusively as Hu and Huns.
* * *.
The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes. Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue. Highlighted comment numbers bring attention to the subjects more relevant to the Türkic history then to the Chinese history. Bibliographic references are numbered and listed in the Bibliography Section. Where possible, the author's Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcriptions were changed to Pinyin, to facilitate search, but because a switch to Pinyin coding frequently distorts or makes phonetics ambiguous, the phonetization of the original is generally retained also. It was noted that the annals, even composed by a single author like Sima Qian, use different expressions for the same phenomenon, in case of the Huns they are interchangeably called Hu and Hunnu (Hu 胡 and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴), and in reference to Jie they are interchangeably called Hu, and Hunnu, and occasionally Jie (Hu 胡, and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴, and Pinyin Jie 羯); personal and geographical names also come in variety of spellings; where appropriate, the Chinese form is given to facilitate search and verification, and possibly catch inaccuracies in translation. The identification of the Chinese 匈奴with the historical Eastern Huns is beyond any doubts for better then half a century, and this posting replaced all incarnations of Chinese-derived appellations with their modern appellation Hun, but attempts to retain the original formulation. Where direct correspondence between the Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcription of V.S.Taskin and their Pinyin counterparts has not been found, a putative Pinyin reconstruction used the following conventions: Ts = X or Q, Tsz = J, S = S or X, all without any systematic rules. In most cases, reconstructed spelling follows the Wikipedia Cyrillization of Chinese, except where it conflicts with the implied intent of the author.
MATERIALS ON THE HISTORY OF NOMADIC PEOPLES IN CHINA
3 - 5 cc. AD
Jie (Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)
HISTORY OF JIN DINASTY (Jin shu), Ch. 104
Shi Le. Part 1
Shi Le (274-333), by nickname Shilun, original name Áýé (Fule 匐勒 ?) 1, a native of a place called Tsze (pin. Jie 羯), in Uxian (pin. Wuxian)county, in Shang-dan district 2. His ancestors descended from a separate Hun's horde (幫/帮 buluo, lit. tribe of tents) Kyankyui (羌渠 Qiangqu, Kyankyui, Kyangaoi, Qiang Qu; orig.: Öÿíöçþé) 3. His grandfather was Yeyiyu (耶奕于 , orig: Eiyui) and father was Zhouhezhu (周曷朱, orig: Zhouhechju), with a second name Qiyijia/Qiizia (乞翼加, orig: Öèèöçÿ), both were minor leaders in their horde (This is one of the testimonies that associate pin. Jie 羯 people with the Kiyan tribe, as a splinter of the Kiyans. The Kiyans (Huyans) were an ancient Hun's maternal dynastic tribe. Kiyans are also listed as one of the 12 or 15 Tele tribes. As a Hunnic and Türkic dynastic tribe the Kiyans are known throughout the Ancient and Middle Age history).
At the moment of Shi Le birth, red light filled the room, and white vapors descended from the to the courtyard, which amazed everybody who saw it. At an the age of 14, together with a fellow countryman, Shi Le was peddling in Luoyang; [once] he stood and whistled at the Shandunmen gate, On seeing him, Wang Yan 4 was amazed, and glancing round, told the onlookers: “In my opinion, the voice and the eyes of this Hu (胡) greenhorn, whom I just saw, testify to his extraordinary aspirations. I am afraid that in the future he will bring calamities to the Celestial”, and urgently sent people to seize Shi Le, but that already left.
At the time of maturation, Shi Le was distinguished with health, bravery, and belligerence, he was a good rider and a bow shooter. [His fathersobriquet Zhou] hechju had a character was vicious and rough, the Hus (胡) avoided him, and therefore he was always ordering Shi Le substitute for him in the affairs connected with supervision and operation of the horde, and the members of the horde liked Shi Le and trusted him.
At the mountain foothills, in the steppe, north from the Uxian city, where
Shi Le lived, the grass and trees looked like horsemen dressed in iron armor, and in the
garden of his house grew a ginseng covered with abundant flowers and foliage, the form of
which roots resembled a human. All respectable elders and augurs spoke on his appearance:
“This Hu (胡) has an amazing appearance and extraordinary will power, it is impossible to foretell
how his life will end”, and urged fellows villager to treat Shi Le well. However at
that time many were sneering at these words, and only Go Jing, a native of Wu, and Nin
Qu who lived in Yanqu, believed [these predictions] and were helping Shi Le. And Shi
Le also, touched by their kindness, diligently worked their fields.
[During work] he frequently heard sounds of military drums and signal metal gongs,
about which he was telling his mother when he came home, but the mother was saying:
“It is ringing in [your] ears from the hard work, nothing foretells disasters”.
During Tai-an reign era 5 (302-.303) when in the area Bing-zhou 6 flared hungry revolts, Shi Le and other contemptible Hus (胡) began to scatter; [Shi Le] returned from the Yanmen district 7 to Nin Qu. The main commander of the Northern Horde (Southern Huns) 8 Liu Jian wanted to seize and sell Shi Le, but Nin Qu hid him; he was saved. After that Shi Le secretly went to surrender to the main commander 9 Li Chuan. On the road he met Go Jing, an executioner, bowed to him, and told him how he suffered because of hunger and cold. Go Jing burst into tears, fed him porridge that he was bringing for sale, and gave him clothes. Shi Le told Go Jing: “Now reigns a strong hunger, there is no strength to bear the extreme need. The Hus (胡) starve terribly, they should be enticed to the Jichjou area 10, where is plenty of grain, and then capture and sell them, it will be good for them and for us”. Go Jing completely approved that suggestion.
At that time Yan Tsui, with a rank of a commander who dispayed greatness, convinced the governor of the Bingzhou province (Before Tang dynasty, 618-907, a zhou 州 stood for "province" and was a largest territorial division of the time. later, zhou devalued and became equivalent to xian 县/縣, in modern lingo "prefecture" or "county"; a district is equivalent to a "military district" and may cover a number of counties) Sima Teng titled Duningun to catch Hus (胡) in the lands east from the mountains and sell them to cover military expences. Sima Teng ordered commanders Go Yan and Zhang Lun to seize the Hus (胡) and send them to the Jichjou area, putting one neck shackle (Ch. zia) on two people. Shi Le, who at that time was more than twenty years old, also fell among the seized, and repeatedly bore beatings and insults from Zhang Lun.
Before that Go Jing charged Go Yan and Go Shi, a son of his senior brother, to care for Shi Le. Go Yan was a Go Jing's senior brother, therefore Go Yan and Go Shi were asking convoy men all the time for Shi Le, who due to them avoided illnesses and famine on the way.
Soon Shi Le was sold into slavery to a native of Zhi-pin county 11 Shi Huan. A respectable elder came to him and said: “In your entangled hair already appeared four lines, you should become a noble and will be a ruler of the people. In the year of cyclic sign zia-syui (314 AD) you can take measures against Wang Pentszu 12”. Shi Le responded: “If it would happen as you foretell, I shall not dare to forget the favor you rendered for me”. Unexpectedly, the elder disappeared.
Every time, working in a field, Shi Le heard sounds of military drums and horns, he was telling about it the other
slaves, who also heard them. Then Shi Le said: “At home, in my childhood, I constantly
heard similar sounds”, about which the slaves informed Shi Huan, who [also] amazed by the
Shi Le appearance, freed him from slavery. Next to the Shi Huan house was a pasture for
horses, with its warden Ji Sang (汲桑),
a native of Weizong district, Shi Huan was keeping in touch; Shi Le, able to detect
abilities of horses, resolved to gain his protection.
Once, hired in district Uan 13, Shi Le came near a river and was seized by a patrol group, but at that time near them passed a herd of goats, the warriors rushed in pursuit, and Shi Le was salved. Unexpectedly the respectable elder appeared again, telling him: “The goat herd that just passed was me. You are to become a ruler of the Central zone 14, therefore I have rescued you”. Shi Le bowed to the elder as a sign of accepting the order, assembled eight horsemen, including Wang Yan, Kui An, Zhi Siun, Ji Bao, Wu Yui, Liu In, Tao Bao, and Lu Min, and organised a gang of robbers (In Türkic terminology, Cossaks, also spelled Kazakh [Like in Kazakh-stan]). Later Go Ao, Liu Zhen, Liu Bao, Zhang Ipu, Huyang Mo, Go Hei-liue, Zhang Yue, Kun Tun, Zhao Luchzhi and Qu Liu joined him, altogether [together with the first eight] they were called eighteen horsemen. In surprize attacks, like reddy racers and fine stallions in a reservation, appearing and disappearing in eastern lands, mounted the horses taken from the imperial pastures, they were seizing in the far lands silks and jewelry, and were bringing them to Ji San (The society where the beginning of the story develops parallells the Persian conquest of the Middle Asia, or Hunnic/Avar conquest of the Eastern Europe; in this case the Chinese and Hunnic elites become landlords and enslave the local mixed populace independently of their ethnic affiliation. It is impossible to tell the ethnicity of the landlords, and the highest level of the command should be presumed to be Chinese, the rest, including the troops patrol, are likely Hunnic. The scene with a herd of goats is a calque of the Herodotus' story about Scythians and a hare, when the whole Darius troops was dumbfounded wondering why they had to trudge that far around the sea to be so thoroughly ignored in favor of a stray hare. The nomadic impulses of the patrol tell the whole story. Like in Arab Caliphate, the nomadic mercenaries became a mainstay of the state, and like in Arab Caliphate, it did not take long for the mercenaries to take over. Creation of the revolting free-wheeling Cossak or Hiduk troops is a typical side effect. Considering that at that time the Chinese were still a dominant ethnicity, probably outnumbering the Huns 10:1, that would prevent the Hunnic landlords from seizing and enslaving Chinese peasants that were already a property of their Chinese masters, it can be safely presumed that enslavement of the nomadic Hun laymen was a deed of the Hunnic elite done using the Hunnic hands).
When Sima In, who had a title Chengdu-wang, defeated the imperial troops in Dangin district 15 and forced the emperor to move to a palace in Yecheng, Wang Jun ordered Syanbis to attack Sima In for offending the Son of the Sky. The scared Sima In, carrying the emperor Hui-di, fled south to Luoyang. There, Zhang Fan began pressing the emperor, and he moved to Chanan. After that, ostensibly intent on execution of Sima In, have risen all troops east of theHanguguan checkpoint, and Sima Yun, with a title He-jian-wang, afraid of the power of the troops in the east, and wishing to pacify the eastern part of the country, presented the emperor with a report with a plan on ousting Sima In.
That year (304 AD) Liu Yuanhai proclaimed himself in Litin to be a Han-wang 16, and the old commander of Sima In, a native of Yanpin county Gunshi Fang proclaimed himself a commander and started military actions in Zhaojung 17 and Weijung 18 districts, with number of his troops reached several tens of thousand men. Shi Le and Ji San, heading several hundreds shepherds (i.e. nomadic riders) on the horses taken from imperial pastures, set out to the aid of Gunshi Fang, and at that time Ji San for the first time gave Shi Le the surname Shi and name Le (石勒. If Ji San had to give Pule a Chinese moniker, he must be a Chinese, either uncomfortable with two-sillable Kiyan name, or parsing Pule as Pu-Le, and finding the part Pu unsuitable for Chinese ears).
Gunshi Fang appointed Shi Le a commander of a avantguarde, and following him, attacked
Sima Mo in the Yecheng. Sima Mo rdered the commander Fan Sun to counterattack, and he defeated the attackers. Gunshi Fang
crossed Huanghe in Baima district 19 and went south, but
was killed by the governor of the Hanyang Gou Xi district, who encountered him.
Shi Le and Ji San fled and hid on a pasture for imperial horses, where Ji San established encampment headed by Shi Le, and himself headed the shepherds who began plundering districts and counties, seizing captives. In addition, he enlisted escapees in the mountains and bogs, most of whom he passed to Shi Le, and he headed these escapees in support of Ji San. Then Ji San declared himself a Great Commander, and announced that [revenging] Sima Yin titled Chengdu-wang he would kill Sima Yue (to express the ethnic term Yui for Uigur, Chinese is using a number of various characters with the same phometical form; quite possibly, the different spellings were adopted to conceal or distruct from the direct ethnical term, which had decidedly negative connotations in the Chinese language) titled Dunhai-wang, and Sima Teng titled Dungin-gun. Because Shi Le went in avant guarde and repeatedly accomplished feats in battles, Ji San gave him a rank of a fighter commander of contemptible enemies, and a title Zhongmin tinhou 20.
Advancing the troops, and after appointing Shi Le a Chief Commander of the vanguard units, Ji San attacked the city of Yecheng, strong defeating a Sima Teng commander, Feng Sunu, and tirelessly pursuing the adversary, he entered Yecheng and killed Sima Teng, slew over 10 thousand people, siezed women and jewelry, and then abandoned the city. Crossing Huanghe in the Yanjin district 21, Ji San attacked Yanzhou province 22 in the south, which extremely frightened Sima Yue, who sent Gou Xi and Wang Zan to punish him.
Ji San and Shi Le attacked in the Lelin district 23
the governor of the Yuzhou province 24 Shi
Xian and killed him. Tian Yin moved to the Yuzhou province fleeing famine, 25, in the head of the troops numbering 50 thousand warriors
he marched to the aid
of Shi Xian, but Shi Le countered and defeated him.
At that time the leaders of the Hu (胡) hordes Zhang Beidu and the Fan Motu, with a
few thousand warriors, stood in encampments fortified with ramparts in the Shangdang
29 district. Shi Le
went to them and met quite friendly relation. Using it, he told Zhang Beidu: “The Shanyu Liu
Yuanhai mobilized troops to destroy the Jin dynasty. Can you, a leader of the horde, exist
independently, if you mount a resistance to him and would not follow him?” - “No”, - answered
Zhang Beidu. Then Shi Le said: “And if you can't, that means that you should subordinate
your troops to someone. Now all members of the horde were already attracted by the
Shanyu to his side with promise of awards; they frequently gather together and want to
raise a mutiny against you, to switch to the side of the Shanyu; you better decide soon
what to do”.
Frightened by the prospect of betrayal by the members of the horde, Zhang Beidu together with others, who were never distinguished by wisdom, secretly went with Shi Le to Liu Yuanhai with expression of submission. Liu Yuanhai awarded Zhang Beidu with a title Qinhan-wang, i.e. wang close to the Han dynasty, to Fan Motu - a title Chief Commander of the Hordes' Leaders, and installed Shi Le to govern them, giving him a rank Fuhan Jiangjun - Commander Assisting Han Dynasty, and a title Pin-jin-wang, i.e. Wang Pacifying Jin dynasty. After that Shi Le recognized Zhang Beidu as his senior brother, bestowed on him a surname Shi and a name Hui, i.e. “Meeting”, wishing to state that he met a friend.
The Uhuan [leader] Zhang Fulidu, who also had 2 thousand warriors, entrenched in Lepin district in an encampment surrounded with ramparts. Liu Yuanhai nimerously called for him, but he did not come, and then Shi Le, ostensibly culpable to Liu Yuanhai, fled to Fulidu. Quite pleased Fulidu be-fraternized with Shi Le, and ordered him to head the Hus (胡) in robberies, and notably, wherever Shi Le would move, nobody could resist him, and the frightened Hus (胡) recognized his authority above them. Knowing that the hearts of the people gravitate toward him, Shi Le took advantage of a [general] assembly, seized Fulidu, and addressed the Hus (胡): “We embarked on a great enterprise, who is deserves to head it, me or Fulidu?” All the Hus (胡) rooted for Shi Le. After that Shi Le deposed Fulidu, [rose] to the head of his people, and recognized the authority of Liu Yuanhai. Liu Yuanhai gave Shi Le in addition a post of a head of all military affairs for retaliatory campaigns in the lands east from mountains, and transferred to him all Fulidu troops.
Liu Yuanhai sent Liu Cong (劉聰, d. 318), 30 to attack the Huguan checkpoint 31, appointing Shi Le, who was heading 7 thousand reporting to him warriors, a Chief Commander of the forward units. [The Jin commander] Liu Kun 32 sent to the checkpoint Huguan aid a troop 33 commander Huan Xiu, but Shi Le defeated Huan Xiu in the Baitian district and killed him, then he occupied Huguan checkpoint.
Liu Yuanhai ordered Shi Le and seven commanders, including Liu Lin and Yan Pi, to
attack in the head of the 30 thousand-strong troops the encampments, fortified with
ramparts, in the Weijun and Dunqiu 34
districts. Most of the encampments were taken, and the heads of the encampments were
given ranks of the commanders and main commanders, more than 50 thousand healthy men were selected as warriors,
while the old and young were allowed to live in peace in their places. Because the troops did not engage in looting,
the people treated them with love.
When Liu Yuanhai illegally assumed a high title (i.e. declared himself an Emperor. - B.T.), he sent an emissary to hand to Shi Le a rank of imperial emissary 35 and a Great Commander-Pacifier of the East, “and the posts of bailiff, Chief Commander and the title wang were still retained by him.
Gathering his troops, Shi Le undertook an attack on the city of Yecheng 36. The warriors defending Yecheng fled, and the commander He Yu (pronounced Yui) 37 fled to Weiguo 38. In the Santai palace 39 Shi Le captured the governor Wang Cu of Weijun district. Advancing, Shi Le attacked district Zhaojun and killed Fan Jung, the chief commander of the western hordes, located in the Jizhou province. Then in the Zhongqui district 40 he attacked She Ting and Tian Yin, who came there fleeing famine, and killed them. Liu Yuanhai handed to Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander-Pacifier of the East, allowed to create a commandery and appoint in it a Left and Right senior officials 41, commanders of troops, and clerks at the commanders (This is a direct indication that Shi Le organized his forces along a Hunnic/Türkic traditional structure of the Left and Right wings, and the Center, called “Middle” in the Jin shi annals. In the following chapters, the “left” means the “Left Wing”, and the “right” means the “Right Wing”).
Keeping moving forward, Shi Le attacked districts Julu 42 and Chanshan 43, killed governors and commanders of these districts, and then occupied more than hundred rampart-fortified places in the Jizhou province. The number of his troops increased and exceeded a 100 thousand men. Shi Le gethered those who wore headdresses of officials, and assembled of them a detachment of noble men. After that he appointed Zhang Bing 44 a main adviser and for the first time created a department of awards for military feats, Shi Le appointed Diao Yin and Zhang Jing Shi Le as main assistants on civil affairs, and they became his hands and feet, Kui An and Kun Chan he appointed as main assistants on military affairs, and they became his claws and teeth. Zhi Xiong (for some reasons the name is translated here phonetically, though the name clearly designates Zhi the Hun 匈奴, like in other names where “the Hun” part is retained), Huyan Mo (allusion to the one of the Hun's dynastic clans Huyan 呼衍, after which one of its sons Huyan Mo was named; this is a usual naming tradition, a son of a wife from the tribe Huyan, as well as his mother herself, would have the tribal name as part of their name; being a commander, Huyan Mo was likely a Chanyu offspring normally serving in the upper echelons of the Right Wing in accordance with the Lateral Succession laws, and without a right to succession; another form of the name Huyan is Xianyun 獫狁, which was used as a generic name for the Huns during the Zhou era [1,122- 255 BC[), Wang Yan, Tao Bao, Lu Ming and Wu Yui (where “Wu” stands for “tribe”, and the “Yui” is a tribal name for the Uigur tribe; most likely Wu Yui name parrallels that of the Huyan Mo name, his mother being a concubine wife of the ruling Chanyu, he was likely a Chanyu offspring in the Right Wing, and an offspring of the female dynastic tribe Yui, also called Hui and Sui) were appointed as commanders.
Shi Le sent commander Zhang Si heading mounted warriors to the regions and districts located north of the mountains, to the Bingzhou province, to Hu's Jies (胡 羯) to explain to them when they can live undisturbed, and when they would be threatened with a danger; a majority of the Hus (胡), midful of his power, joined [Shi Le]. After entering Chanshan region, Shi Le dispatched commanders to attack districts in the Jungshan 45, Bolin 46, and Gaojan 47 regions, there a few of tens thousand people surrendered.
Wang Jun sent commander Qi Hun in the head of 100 thousand horsemen, Syanbi (Pin. Xianbei; it should be noted that Chinese carry the Türkic word “bek” to present, semantically it is “chief”, and not Wang/King or Wang/Prince, as it is commonly translated; the Chinese forms are “bi, bei, bet”, all semantically rendered as “chief”; the timing of the borrowing, other then the first appearance in the annals, can't be determined) leader Mouchen and others to punish Shi Le. Qi Hun inflicted on Shi Le a bad defeat at Feilunshan mountain; over 10 thousand people were killed. Shi Le retreated and staged in Liyan 48; [he] ordered commanders to attack those refusing to surrender, and the rebels; more than 30 places fortified with ramparts have surrendered, and he appointed there officials to calm the population.
Moving forward, Shi Le undertook an
attack on Xindu district,
49 where he killed a governor of the Jizhou province Wang Bin.
After that [the Jin] commander in charge of chariots and calvary Wang Kan, and the head of the northern bodyguards Pei Xian advanced from Luoyang in the head of the troops to punish Shi Le, Shi Le burned the encampment together with its grain, and withdrew troops to stage a resistance. When Shi Le stopped in a place Huanniulei, fortified with ramparts, the governor of the Weijun district Liu Ju joined him in the head of the district. Shi Le ordered Liu Ju to head the Huanniulei troops and to form a left wing of his middle army (This is a first indication that Shi Le organized his forces along a Hunnic/Türkic traditional structure of Left and Right wings, and the Center, called “Middle” in the Jin shi annals. In the following chapters, the “left” means the “Left Wing”, and the “right” means the “Right Wing”). After Shi Le approached Liyan, Pei Xian abandoned his troops and fled to the south of the river Huaihe, and Wang Kan retreated to the Cangyuan 50.
Liu Yuanhai handed Shi Le a rank of a Great Commander-Ruler of the East and raised him to the title Ji junggun 51, still retaining his rank of an imperial ambassador, a post of a Chief Commander, and a title wang, but Shi Le resolutely refused to accept the title of gun.
Together with Yan Pi 52, Shi Le attacked
the fortified with ramparts places Zhuquian and
Yuanshii, and occupied them. A stray arrow hit Yan Pi, from which he died, then Shi Le
took command of his troops into his hands. Secretly crossing Huanghe at Shiqiao 53,
Shi Le attacked the main city of the Baima county, took it by storm, and
buried alive more than 3 thousand men and women. In the east [Shi Le]
unexpectedly attacked the city of Jiuanchen 54 and killed the governor of
Yuan Fu. Then Shi Le attacked the Canyuan district, occupied it, and killed Wang Kan
there. Crossing Huanghe, [Shi Le] attacked Guan-zong 55, Qinhe
56, Pinyuan and Yanpin
57 counties, where over 90 thousand people surrendered
to him. Then, again moving to the south, Shi Le crossed Huanghe, and the governor of
Xinyan district 58 Pei Shun fled to Jianie 59.
After Liu Yuanhai death, Liu Cong gave Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, a post of the Bingzhou (并州) province governor, and title Ji jungun, still retaining his rank of an imperial ambassador, the right to establish an offic center, a post of Chief Commander and bailiff, and the title wang. Because Shi Le was persistently refusing to accept a rank of the commander, Liu Cong cancelled the grants.
When (311 AD) Liu Cong in the head of a forty-thousand troops raided Luoyang 63, Shi Le, [positioned] in the head of 20 thousand troops in Dayan 64 with transports left in Zhongmen, met with Liu Can, and they inflicted strong defeat on imperial troops in Mianchi district 65, and then invaded Lochuan 66
Then Liu Cong advanced through Huanyuan checkpoint 67, and Shi Le approached the Chengaoguen checkpoint 68, where in Canyuan he surrounded the governor of Chenlgodistrict Wang Zan, but sufferring a defeat from Wang Zan, retreated and repositined at a ferry Wenshijin. He wanted to attack Wang Jun in the north, but at that time the Wang Jun's commander Wang Jiashi, leading more than 10 thousand Syanbi horsemen from the Lyaosi district, defeated [ Liu Cong's commander] Zhao Gu north of the ferry. After that Shi Le burned the boats, abandoned the encampment and withdrew his troops to Baimen towards the transports stationed in Zhongmen. Coming to strategically important point Shimen 69, he crossed Huanghe, attacked the governor of Xianchen district Cui Kuan in Fanchan 70, and killed him.
It should be said that Wang Ju, Hou To and Yan Yi, who once fled from the Yunzhou (荤粥) province, started military actions in area between the rivers Yangtze and Huaihe. Having heard about Shi Le campaign, they got scared and sent numbering 10 thousand men to the Xianchen district 71 to repell Shi Le, but last, havinghe attacked and defeated them, and took prisoner all the warriors. Coming to the Nanian district 72, Shi Le stopped in the mountains north of the city Yuan. Afraid that Shi Le would attack Xianchen, Wang Ju sent an envoy to bring him jewelry, vehicles, horses, and treats for the troops, and also suggested to be-fraternize, to which Shi Le agreed (Is meant a Türkic ritual of blood oath that bonds partners as brothers and involves exchange of names).
Wang Ju, who was not in accord with Hou To, convinced Shi Le to attack Hou To. At night Shi Le ordered three armies to harness wagons at the [first] call of the cock, in the morning came to the gate of the Yuan city and besieged it. After 12 days the city was taken. Yan Yi heading the troops came to the Hou To aid, but when he approached to the Yuan city, it was already late, and he [then] surrendered to Shi Le. Shi Le beheaded Hou To, threw Yan Yi in jail, then sent him to Pinyan and joined his troops, so that his military forces have increased even more.
Moving to the south, Shi Le attacked Xianian district
73, and took by storm more
than thirty rampart-fortified places in the lands to the west from Yangtze. Leaving Diao
Yin to manage the Xianian district, Shi Le, personally commanding about 30 thousand
selected horsemen, turned to attack Wang Ju. Mindful of the Wang Ju force, initially he
went to Xianchen.
On Learning about that, Wang Ju sent his younger brother Wang Li in the head of the 25 thousand horsemen ostensibly to deliver treats to the Shi Le troops, and actually to attack him unexpectedly. Shi Le struck a counter blow, destroyed Wang Li troops, and again staged west from Yangtze, seemingly going to occupy the lands on the banks of the Yangtze and Hanshui rivers. Zhang Bin, in a belief that that should not be done, was convincing Shi Le to return to the north, but Shi Le did not listen. Shi Le appointed Zhang Bin a Chief Commander-Military Adviser 74 and a head of the office 75; occupying these posts immediately below the post of the commander of the troops, Zhang Bin stood at Shi Le side and was deciding all main matters.
Emperor Yuan-di, concerned with Shi Le attacks in the south, sent troops headed by Wang Äàî 76 to punish him. Because provisions for the Shi Le troops were not delivered on time, most of his troops died of illnesses; then, accepting Zhang Bin plan, he burnt the transports, stashed grain for campaign, collected weapons, and crossing the river Mianshui, ventured to raid the Jianxia district 77, which governor Yan Qu abandoned his district and fled. Proceeding north, Shi Le attacked Xincai district 78, where in Nangdun 79 he killed Sima Que, titled Xincai-wang. He Si titled Lanlin-gun and Chen Zhen titled Guanlin-gun, the governor of Shandan district Yan Zong, and the governor of Guanpin district Shao Zhao surrendered to Shi Le with their troops. Continuing advance, Shi Le took the city Xuchan 80 by storm and killed Wang Kan with a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the East.
It should be said that even earlier Sima Yue, titled Dunhai-wang,
advanced from Luoyang in the head of the troops totaling over 200 thousand warriors to
punish Shi Le. Sima Yue died on the march, and the troops elected to the post of the
commander a great commander 81 Wang Yan, who led them
to the east, pursued by Shi Le light cavalry (Election of the
Chief Commander in Chinese army is unimaginable; election of the Chief Commander in the
Hun army is expected, in accordance with the lateral succession order that formalizes the
hierarchy of command, and in accordance with the principles of elected leaders; that
indicates that the Jin Emperor Yuan-di sent an army of 200,000 that included a
significant proportion of the Hun cavalry, who were able to call the shots for the
campaign, and accordingly Wang Yan is a Chinese name for the Hun's royalty. The use of
nomadic tribes to fight nomadic tribes is a cornerstone of Chinese policies). Wang Yan sent
into battle a
commander Qian Duan (sounds like tribal/horde name, a man of
Kiyan tribe of the Duan Horde), but Qian Duan was crushed by Shi Le and killed; after that
of Wang Yan began fleeing (This is one more indicator that the
force of the Jin Emperor Yuan-di army consisted of the Huns, who had nothing to fight for
for the Chinese Emperor, and could easily switch sides voting with their feet). Shi Le divided
his horsemen [into groups] that surrounded
separate units [of Wang Yan] and shot them from bows, and the corpses of those killed
piled in mountains
one on another; not a single man manage to survive (This is a
typical handling of thye Chinese foot soldiers by the cavalry troops, not applicable to
the mobile cxavalry of the adversary). Shi Te captured Wang Yan, Sima Fan titled Xian-yun-wang
(Yu Xian wang 右贤王 = Right Jükü-wang = Right
Wise Prince, indicates a Hun title; the rest of tyhe titles appear to be Chinese), Sima Ji titled Jånchen-wang, Sima Si
titled Õihe-wang, Sima Õi titled Liang-wang, Syma Shao titled Qi-wang, the chief of the
rank assignment department 82
Liu Wang, the governor of the Yuzhou province Liu Qiao, senior official the senior
instructor of the successor to the throne Oi Ai, and sitting them in front of his tent, began
asking about the affairs of the Jin dynasty. Wang Yan and Sima Ji, afraid of the death,
mainly spoke trying to justify themselves. Only Sima Fan alone kept a rigid face and was unpertrubed.
Glancing at the others, he exclaimed: “Why bring confusion to what happened today!”, which quite surprized Shi Le. Then Shi Le brought out everybody entitled wang and gun, and also the highest officeholders, and killed them, and the killed were very many. Impressed with the eloquent reasoning of Wang Yan, and astonished with the spirit of Sima Fan, Shi Le could not deprive them of their lives with a sword, threfore he sent at night people to collapse the wall of the house and buried both of them under the ruins.
Hearing about the death of Sima Yue, the commander of left security detachment He Lun, and the commander of right security detachment Li Hun left Luoyang together with wife of Sima Yue, who was born Pei, and his heir son Sima Pi. Shi Le run into Sima Pi near the city Weicang 83. The troops of Sima Pi again began fleeing. Shi Le captured and killed Sima Pi, those who had titles of wangs and guns, and the highest officeholders, and the killed were very many.
After that in the head of the 30 thousand selected warriors Shi Le passed through the Chengaoguan checkpoint just when Liu Yao and Wang Ìè 84 were attacking Luoyang 85. After the fall of Luoyang, Shi Le attributed all achievements 86 to Wang Mi and Liu Yao, passed through the Huanyuan checkpoint, and stopped in Xuchan. Liu Cong granted Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, but Shi Le resolutely refused to accept it.
It should be said that Li Hun, a native of Pinyan county, who had a few thousand troops and stayed in rampart-fortified place in Wuyian county 87, and was once illicitly appointed by Gou Xi to a post of the governor of the Yunzhou province.
Shi Le attacked on Gaian district 88 and killed Wang Zi, a commander with a rank of Surpassing All in the Troops. Shi Le defeated Wang Zan in district Yangxia 89, took Wang Zan in captivity, and appointed him an adviser at the commander. With unexpected attack, Shi Le defeated the Great Commander Gou Xi in the city Menchen 90, took Gou Xi in captivity and appointed him a left commander of the troops.
Liu Cong granted Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, and a post of a pastor in Yuzhou province (jian mu 监牧 - shepherd/pastor; official with responsibility for animal husbandry; erroneously ascribed as originating during the Tang dynasty), but Shi Le resolutely refused to accept the rank of the commander.
It should be said that earlier Wang Mi, following the advices of Liu Tung, initially wanted to
kill Shi Le, and then to become a governor of the Qinzhou province in the east, for
what he sent Liu Tung to summon the commander Cao Yi
91 from the the lands in the former possession Qi.
The patrol horsemen of Shi Le intercepted Liu Tung, and Shi Le received the letter which Wang Mi wrote
to Cao Yi,
then [Shi Le] killed Liu Tung and began to secretly develop plans against Wang Mi.
At that time the Wang Mi commander Xu Miao unexpectedly abandoned him with his troops, as a result the Wang Mi's forces weakened. After Shi Le took Gou Xi prisoner, Wang Mi begun hating him even more, but feigning nevertheless humiliating expressions for himself, sent to Shi Le a courier to say: “You have taken Gou Xi prisoner, but pardoned him, it is so wise! If you make Gou Xi your left, and me, Wang Mi, your right assistants, for you it would not be effortful to calm down the whole Celestial”.
Shi Le turned to Zhang Bin: “Wang Mi, with his high post, uses humiliating for himself expressions, I am afraid that afterward he would start realization of his former canine desires”. Zhang Bin replied: “As far as the desire of the respectable Wang to receive Qinzhou province, it is natural: the native places with native mulberry trees are drawing in a man to themselves. Don't you, the illustrious gun, do not have thouhgts about the Bingzhou province? Respectable Wang hesitates and is not starting acting, mindful that you would will follow in his steps, and therefore alignes his acts to yours, not providing you with a chance to act. I am afraid that if now the measures are not taken against him, when Cao Yi arrives, they would begin helping each other, as the wings help a bird to fly; then you would repent, but it will be too late. After the departure of Xu Miao, the Wang Mi military power has weakened a little, but, despite of that, the Wang Mi dreams about establishing his domination are very strong, therefore he should be lured and destroyed”. Shi Le found the advice absolutely correct.
At that time Shi Le and Chen Wu attacked each other in Penguan 92, and Wang Mi was combatting Liu Jui in piercing struggle, and asked Shi Le for help, but Shi Le wanted to refuse. Then Zhang Bin said: “You, the illustrious gun, were always afraid that respectable Wang will not give you a chance to act, but now the Sky itself gives you such chance. Chen Wu is a little fool, how can he attack you, and Wang Mi is an oustanding man who in the future will cause us troubles”. At that junction Shi Le turned his troops around, attacked Liu Jui, and killed him. Pleased to no end, Wang Mi declared that Shi Le supports him with all his heart, and ceased treating him with suspicion.
After that Shi Le led his troops against Chen Wu in Feijie. Li Tou, a native
of Shandan district, who occupied a post of the troops commander at Chen Wu, told Shi Le: “You,
with innate wisdom and belligerency, are fated to calm the lands among the four
seas, all well-born houses and ordinary people look at you with hope and wish to obey you, dreaming that you will rescue them from extreme sufferings. There is a person who
fights with you for the Celestial, but you do not hasten to take measures against him,
and on the contrary attack us, who fled from the native places. Then our villages should
serve you and support you, so why did you begin to unexpectedly oppress them?” Shi Le in
found it to be right, and withdrew troops the next morning.
After that he deceitfully enticed Wang Mi to a feast into his encampment. A Wang Mi's senior official Zhang Sun was persuading him not to go, stating concerns that from the hand of Zhuan Zhu 93 he would be struck with a trouble, or with him would happen the same as with Sui Jun 94 (Hard to tell who learned what from whom, but both the Chinese and the Turkic traditions have uncounted number of leaders treacherously killed at banquets, with the poisoning rated as a penchant number one. The Türks had a better swing at it, because they were exposed to the whole flora and fauna of the Asian continent for millennia, and were widely known to use poisons in their weaponry. In Chinese tradition the cause of sudden death at a feast is at times wrapped in comely packaging, especially when the history was written by a winner), but Wang Mi did not listen to admonitions. When Wang Mi arrived and became tipsy from consumed wine, Shi Le personally beheaded him and joined his troops to himself, stating to Liu Cong that Wang Mi wanted to start a rebellion (In Türkic beliefs and traditions, the method of killing had a preeminent significance. For killing of relatives and the senior, respected people had to be used a bloodless method, breaking the neck or strangling. For adversaries, blood was to be spilled. Beheading was an extreme display of contempt, for ugliest characters. Since all souls - küns - were coming back to Tengre - Heaven for disposition, to be reincarnated as allies or adversaries, the method of execution and following treatment of the body had a sublime significance, as a message to the Almighty. Both mythology and history are full of examples how the methods of inflicting death were judiciously selected. Since the death is a return to Tengre, neither inflicting death, nor suffering death were viewed as murder). Liu Cong granted Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander-Ruler of the East, the post of commander over all military affairs in the Bingzhou and Yuzhou provinces, and a governor of the Bingzhou province, retaining for him the rank of the Imperial Ambassador Conducting Retaliatory Campaigns, posts of the Commander-in-Chief, bailiff, pastor of the Yuzhou province, a right to organise commanderies, and a title of gun.
Gou Xi and Wang Zan have conceived to raise a revolt against Shi Le, for which they were exterminated.
Appointing commander Zuo Fusu a Chief Commander of advance detachments, Shi Le attacked various districts in the Yuzhou province, reached Yangtze, from where he turned back and encamped in Gepo 95. There he obliged the captured commanders and officials receiving a sustenance salary at a rate of 2 thousand dans of grain, and also those appointed to the posts and positions in the Chu lands populated by various tribes of the Yis, to supply his troops with grain (Yis - pl. of Yi, undiscriminated Mongol and Tungus tribes).
It should be said that when Shi Le was sold in the Pinyuan district, he lost touch with his mother, the born Wang. At the time of the described events Liu Kun, to forward the born Wang to Shi Le, sent to him a certain Zhang Ju with a letter which said: “You, the commander, accomplished feats and became famous on the banks of Huanghe and in the northern lands, occupied the Yanzhou and Yuzhou provinces, watered horses in Yangtze and Huaishui, forced the adversary to retreat on the rivers Hanshui and Mianshui, and nobody of famed commanders since antiquity is worthy of a comparison with you. However, attacking the cities, you did not subdue their inhabitants to yourself, occupying the lands you did not become their possessor, everybody was gathering around you like clouds, and unexpectedly dissipated again like the stars in the sky. Do you know, the commander, why it was happening so?
Your existence and destruction depend on whether you will find a master for yourselves, your
victory and defeat will be determined by the one to whom you would subordinate: would
stand on the
side of the Emperor, would head the warriors struggling for justice, would join the rebel
(Liu Cong. -V.T.), would head the bandits. The warriors fighting for justice, despite of
possible defeats, would necessarily achieve success; a gang of robbers, despite of all
victories, will eventually be destroyed. In the past the Red Brows
96 and Yellow Scarves
97 “crisscrossed the universe, and that
in one nice day they suffered defeat and perished, is just explaned by that they waged war
for unknown reasons,
98 simply gathered in gangs and started turmoil.
You, the commander, with qualities granted by the Sky and who shook the universe with his power, should choosea virtuous [master] and express to him your respect, should obey the one in whom everyone lays their hopes at present. It will be your greatest merit, which will receive eternal reward. Turn away from Liu Cong - you will relieve yourself of a trouble, turn to the Emperor - you will find happiness! If you would follow the ancient didactics, would rectify yourself, and change your yearning, it would be effortless for you to calm the Celestial, to wipe out banndits numerous as ants.
Now you are being granted the posts of the courtier, 99 the Imperial Ambassador, the Great Commander, the Commander of Chariots and Calvary, the Chief of the Bodyguards, Supervising the Huns (匈奴) 100, the title Xianchen jungun. To you are assigned the duties connected with administration of the affairs both within the state, and beyond its limits, are given the titles granted to both natives of the Middle Kingdom and to the aliens, is granted a large district. Ant that all in order to note your exeptonal talents. Accept the grants, commander, answer the expectations of both those close, and living far. From antiquity nobody from the Jungs (戎) did become an Emperor, but among them were famous officeholders accomplishing great feats. My overdue thoughts are connected with the great turmoil in the Celestial, [the country] requires a great talent.
Remaining at a distance, I heard that you, the commander, attack cities, fight in the open field, everywhere show resource and wisdom. Though you are unfamiliar with military treatises, you appear to be the best friend of Sun Wu 101 and Wu Qi 102, and it is possible to say about you that somebody knowing from the birth stands above all, for that who found knowledge by studying 103 follows him. If you had 5 thousand selected horsemen, with your talents you would break an opponent on any side. About my full sincerity will tell Zhang Ju”.
Shi Le responded to Liu Kun: “The success in affairs is reached by different paths, but
that is unknown by the inutile
Confucian scientists. You should observe your duty in respect to the
dynasty, and I shall apply all efforts to overcome difficulties”. Shi Le sent to Liu
Kun famous horses and jewelry, received his ambassador with great honour,
and saw him return back with apologies, for he did not want to decline the suggestion of Liu Kun.
In Gepo, Shi Le brought to order residential houses and imposed on peasants a duty of constructing boats, he was going to attack Jianie. At that time came incessant rains which lasted three months; the [Jin] emperor Yuan-di took advantage of it and ordered commanders to assemble in Shouchin 104 large force drafted from the lands south from Yangtze. A greater half of Shi Le troops died of famine and illnesses, he was continuously receiving in the morning and in the evening urgent dispatches [about the approach of the Jin troops], therefore he assembled commanders to develop the further plans.
The Right senior official Diao Yin was convincing Shi Le to first express obeisance to the [Jin] emperor, to ask for a permission to exterminate all his enemies along the banks of Huanghe and in the northern lands, and then, when the imperial troops would retreat, to think without a hurry what to do next. Shi Le, with changed countenance, only hissed a long whistle (This is one of non-verbal gesticulations idiosyncratic to the Middle Asia area: disapproval or disagreement is expressed with a light motion of the head accompanied by a light hissing sound; the rejection is expressed by a click from a side of the mouth with a light motion of the head toward the clicking side. These gesticulations continue into the present, an uninitiated misses the response altogether, while the respondent thinks that he answered loud and clear).
Kui An with a rank of the commander of the middle army 105 was persuading Shi Le to rise to the foothills and to pull back from the water, but Shi Le exclaimed: “Why are you so cowardly, commander!”
More then 30 commanders, including Kun Chan and Zhi Xiong (for some reasons translated here phonetically, though the name clearly designates Zhi the Hun, like in other names where “the Hun” part is reatined) came forward and offered: “While the Wu troops are not assembled yet, we, Kun Chan and others, are asking to allow everyone to cross the river in 30 different places in boats, each one heading 300 infantrymen, to climb at night on the walls [of Shouchun], to behead the Jin commanders, to capture the city and to feed with the grain available in it, and we promise that in the same year we shall occupy the Danian district 106, we shall calm down the lands south from Yangtze, and we shall capture alive all members of the Sima clan”. Shi Le responded with a smile: “This is a plan of courageous commanders”, and presented to everyone one horse dressed in armor.
Addressing Zhang Bin, Shi Le asked: “And what is your plan?” Zhang Bin relied: “You, Commander, took the imperial capital in a battle, captured the Son of the Sky, killed those who carried titles wang and hou, kidnapped and dishonored emperor's concubines. If to pluck you hair out, one for each crime, the hair would run out. How is it possible to recognize yourself as a servant of the emperor?!
After the last year's killing of Wang Mi, it was not good to build the encampment
incessant rains sent by the Sky, deluged on many hundreds square li confirm that you
cannot remain here. At the same time, the Yecheng is protected by three terraces of the Santai
107, in the west Pinyan
108 is close by, on four sides it is surrounded
mountains and rivers, and is an important strategic point, therefore you should march to
north and occupy it. Already there, you will punish rebels, attract those expressing
obidience, and when the banks of Huanghe and the northern lands are tranquilized, in
the Celestial will not be left a place for somebody stronger than you.
The Jins are defending Shouchun, but you are afraid that you, commander, would move and attack them. Now, hearing at last that you turned your troops back, they undoubtedly would be delighted by the departure of the enemy, and will not even think to send light detachments to attack our rear guards. Let the transports depart immediately on the road to the north, and move the main forces toward the Shouchun; when the transports would already be far, let the troops to start departing slowly. Why be anxious, as if we fell into a desperate position!”
Shi Le rolled up his sleeves and stroking his beard from pleasure, responded: “The Zhang Bin's plan is correct”. Reproaching Diao Yin, he said; “You, like my other assistants, should think of the successful end of the events. Why were you persuading me to give up? For the suggested plan you should be beheaded, but I am clear that you are a coward, therefore I am forgiving you”. After that, Shi Le demoted Diao Yin in the rank to a commander, and promoted Zhang Bin to the post of the Right senior official, in addition gave him a rank of the Commander of the Guards Detachment 129, and a title of the right hou.
Leaving from the Gepo, Shi Le sent Shi Jilongg in the head of 2 thousand horsemen to Shouchun, but at that time from the lands south from Yangtze arrived transport vessels, and some tens of the vessels loaded with cloth and rice were seized by Shi Jilongg. His troops and commanders started fighting for the loot, without taking any precautionary measures (The incentive for participation in the campaigns in the Türkic nomadic armies was a participation in the division of the loot; rigid rules were adopted to maintain justice, and violations of the rules were strenuously rejected; many commanders lost their share and their heads because they wanted too much in the eyes of the troops; one of the rules was finder-keeper, which tended to induce discord in the ranks). Taking advantage of it, a hidden in an ambush large contingent of the Jin troops defeated Shi Jilongg at Julinkou. Over 500 of his warriors who jumped into the river in search of safety have drowned, the others raced for 100 li and came running to the Shi Le troops. The Shi Le troops came to disarray, saying that a large contingent of the imperial troops is approaching, that Shi Le intentionally staged them in these positions. However the Jins, mindful of an ambush, retreated to the Shouchun.
Along the whole Shi Le road population hid behind strong walls, first clearing the surroundings, and because nothing was left to collect and plunder, the troops were starving badly, so that men even devoured each other. When Shi Le reached Dunyan 110, he heard that Xian Bin, a native of the Jijun district, with a few thousand troops hid behind ramparts in the Fantou 111. Shi Le wanted to cross to the north at the Jijin ferry, but mindful that Xian Bin could delay him, gathered commanders for a meeting.
Stepping forward, Zhang Bin said: “By the rumors, all Xiang Bin's boats are in the
channel and not pulled to the shore 112. It is
necessary to select one thousand braves, order them to cross secretly the river, attack by surprise and capture boats, then transport on them the main
forces. When the main forces cross over, Xiang Bin will undoubtedly be captured”.
Following the suggested advice, Shi Le ordered Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun) and Kun Chan to tie the rafts together and secretly to cross at the Wenshijin ferry, and himself in the head of the troops headed from Suanzao 113 to the Jijin ferry. Xian Bin, as soon as he've heard about the approach of the Shi Le troops, at once wanted to pull the boats out on the bank, but at that time Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun) and others, after crossing the river, came to the gate of his encampment, have sent more than 30 boats to ferry the main forces, and ordering the registrar 114 Xianyui Fang (another Hunnic Yigur name) call Xian Bin for fight, set up ambushes in various places. The angry Xian Bin brought out the troops from the encampment, going to join the battle, but the hidden in ambush troops jumped out and attacked him from all directions. Captiring the property found in the encampment, the troops again cheered up and after sustained march they reached Yecheng. Then they ambushed the head of the northern security bodyguards Liu Yan in the Santai palace, after which the Liu Yan's commanders Lin Shen and Mou Mu, surrendered to Shi Le in the head of the troops totaling a few of tens of thousands warriors.
At that time all highest military officials wanted to attack the Santai palace and take it with combat, but Zhang Bin stepped forward and said: “Liu Yan still has a few thousands troops, and the three terraces are strongly fortified. If we attack the terraces, we can not occupy them 115 quickly, but if we forsake an attack, quite possibly the opposing troops will disperse. At the same time, Wang Pentszu and Liu Yueshi 116 are strong opponents, and it astute, while they are not prepared, to secretly advance forward and occupy the city Hanchen, to collect there large stocks of grain, in the west to report to Pinyan [on our intention to destroy Wang Pentszu and Liu Yueshi], and then to clear Bingzhou and Jizhou provinces; it will help us, like Huan-gun 117 and Wen-gun 118, to complete the great task. Besides, the Celestial is boiling like water in a tripod, the war has just began, and if you will be seeking a shelter elsewhere as a wanderer, roaming from place to place, and would not bring confidence to the people, it will be difficult for you to establish calmness and to rule the Celestial. Those who own land prosper, those who lose land perish.
The cities Handan 119 and Xiangguo (pin. Xiangguo 襄國, orig.: Xiango ~ Ñÿíãî in modern Xintai, Hebei) 120 areold capitals of the Zhao possession, they are surrounded with mountains and [other] natural barriers, they occupy important strategic position, you should choose one of them and make it your capital. After that you will order commanders to march in all directions, handing them marvelous plans you've developed. Pushing over the perishing, supporting the alive, affiliating the weak, and attacking the strayers, you can destroy all villains and think about a creation of a state”. Shi Le exclaimed: “The plan of the right hou is correct!”, then went to a campaign and occupied Xiangguo.
Zhang Bin again told Shi Le: “We established a capital here, and that causes deep fears
Yueshi and Wang Pentszu. I am afraid that now, when we have not strengthened the walls
did not restore the moats with water, and do not have enough stores, they will come here
to search death for themselves.
As I heard, in Guanpin 121 counties has ripened rich autumn crop, therefore it is necessary to send commanders there to collect and catch the grain available in the fields, and simultaneously send to Pinyan a courier with explanations why we are here”. Shi Le again approved this suggestion.
After that Shi Le presented Liu Cong with a petition and ordered commanders to attack districts and counties in the Jizhou province in different directions. A majority of the ramparts-surrounded places surrendered, joined Shi Le, and began transporting grain to him. Liu Cong appointed Shi Le as accredited imperial ambassador, a retinue horseman serving at the Court 122, a Chief Commander for all military affairs related to retaliatory campaigns against aliens in the Jizhou, Yuzhou, Bingzhou n Inzhou provinces, a pastor of the Jizhou province, raised him to the title Shandan jungun, gave for sustenance 50 thousand households, and retained for him the right to create commanderies, the post of the pastor of the Yuzhou province, and a bailiff for the affairs of the eastern barbarians (Apparently, V.S.Taskin is using terminology “aliens” and “barbarians” to reflect the different words used in the annals, the “aliens” rendered as “wai” 外 “foreigner”, and the “barbarians” rendered as “hu” 胡 “erhu”, which was originally derived from the “hu” 鬍 which stands for “beard; whiskers”, in other words the original “strangers” were westerners distinguished from the Chinese by their beards; however, Chinese has alternate expressions that could be employed in the translated text. The generic western hu, applied to Tungus people in the east, was Donghu “Eastern Hu”).
The natives of Guanpin county Yu Lun and Zhang Chai, with a few tens of thousands warriors, and with temporary post assignments from Wang Jun, stood with their troops in Yuanxian 123. Shi Le sent seven commanders against them, including Kui An and Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun), who seized the external moats. Wang Jun sent the Chief Overseer 124 Wang Chang and leaders of the Syanbi Duan 125 horde Jiuliuyuan, Moggi and Pidi, who had more than 50 thousand troops, to punish Shi Le. As at that time the city walls and moats around Xiangguo have not yet been brought to order, in expectation of the adversary were built barricading walls with [sentry] guardhouses, other obstacles were erected.
Jiuliuyuan encamped with his troops in Zhuyan. A few times Shi Le sent commanders to provoke him for a fight, but each time they suffered a defeat. Hearing that Jiuliuyuan actively prepares storm gear, Shi Le addressed his senior military officials: “We are threatened by bandits,they are many, we are few. I am afraid, that we will not be able to break through an encurclement, the external help will not come, the grain stores are exhausted, and if Sun-zi and Wu Qi ressurected now, they too could not defend the city. I want to gather commanders and troops, stage them all in the field, and give a decisive battle. What do you think?”
All commanders responded: “It is better to defend tenaciously to wear out the bandits. When their troops are fatiqued, they would retreat, and then we shall attack them in pursuit and surely will achieve a victory”.
Looking at Zhang Bin and Kun Chan, Shi Le turned to them: “And what do you think?”
Zhang Bin and Kun Chan replied: “We've heard that Jiuliuyuan decided to seek death on the
northern walls in the first decade of the next month.
His numerous troops came from far away, for many days they attack us, and we are defending, they think that our troops are weak and do not dare to venture on a fight, and therefore they inevitably show negligence. The troops of the Duan ruler are the most daring [among the Syanbi], and Mopi is the bravest, therefore all their best troops are with him. We should stop our sorties, demonstrating our weakness. Better urgently construct more than twenty passes in the northern ramparts, build secret gates, wait till the bandits show neglect to their defense, and strike suddenly directly against the Mopi tent. The adversary will undoubtedly be scared and would not have time to plan anything. As they say, “A sudden thunder leaves no time to plug the ears”. When Mopi troops flee, the others will disperse by themselves, and with the Mopi caught, it would be possible to precisely determine a day when Wang Pan-zu will be pacified”.
With laugh, Shi Le accepted the suggested plan, appointed Kun Chan a Chief Commander for the attack, and ordered him to build secret gates in the northern wall.
The Syanbi troops came behind the northern ramparts and encamped there. Shi Le, seeing that they have not taken positions, personally led the commanders and warriors to beat drums and shout from the city wall. At that time Kun Chan in the head of the troops hid by the secret gate, struck the enemy and captured Mopi alive, after which the other troops of Jiuliuyuan took to flight. Gaining on his success, Kun Chan pursued the fleeing, covering the land with corpses for more than 30 li, and capturing 5 thousand armored horses.
Jiuliuyuan collected the remaining troops and encamped in Zhuyan, whence he sent an emissary with a request for peace and [with gifts] of horses in armors, gold and silver. Simultaneously he asked to free Mopi, promising his three younger brothers as hostages.
All commanders were persuading Shi Le to kill Mopi, to humiliate Jiuliuyuan. However, Shi Le relied: “The Lyaosi Syanbis are a strong state. We never had an enmity with them, they were used by Wang Jun. To kill one man and start hostility with the whole state is not a best plan. Undoubtedly, freeing Mopi would please them, and in the fiture Wang Jun would not be able to use them”, after which he accepted hostages. Then Shi Le sent Shi Jilong to Zhuyan to conclude a friendship treaty with Jiuliuyuan and to perform a ceremony of be-fraternizing (Türkic custom of becoming brothers with a blood oath), after which Jiuliuyuan withdrew his troops.
Shi Le sent a Military Adviser 126 Yan Zong to report to Liu Cong on the victory.
After that Yu Lun and Zhang Chai asked Shi Le for a sanction to surrender, and recognized
themselves as his servants. Shi Le, preparing a surprize attack on the Yuzhou province and
intent to acquire commanders and troops, in view of the circumstances has agreed, and granted them
the ranks of the commanders.
Then Shi Le sent troops to raid the Xindu district; they killed a governor of Jinzhou province Wang Xian. Therefore Wang Jun appointed Shao Jiu, stationed in Xindu, an acting governor of the Jizhou province.
In the first year of the Jian-xing reign era (313 AD) Shi Jilong attacked near Yecheng the Santai palace, and the Yecheng troops dispersed, and their commander Liu Yan fled to Linqui 127, while the commanders Se Xu, Tian Cin, and Lan Mu, heading the fugitives in Yecheng, surrendered to Shi Le. To calm the situation down, Shi Le appointed Tao Bao a governor of Weijun district.
Shi Le ordered the Duan leader Mopi to view himself as his [Shi Le] son, appointed Mopi an Accredited Imperial Ambassador, gave him a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the North, a title Beiping-gun, and sent him back to the Lyaosi district. Mopi, touched with the favors that Shi Le rained on him, every day on the way was trice turning his face to the south and bowing toward Shi Le. Thus, the clan of Duan rulers sincerely submitted to Shi Le, and from then on the power of Wang Jun began gradually declining.
Shi Le assaulted the city Juanxian with a surprise attack, and captured Yu Lun, appointing him to a post of a registrar, and then in the city Shanbai 128 attacked Li Yun, who moved there from other places in search for the food, and beheaded him. Shi Le wanted to bury alive all surrendered troops, but saw among them Go Jing and recognising him, asked: “Are you the younger son of Go?”. “I am”, answered Go Jing, bowing to the ground. Shi Le dismounted from the horse, took him by hand, and exclaimed with tears: “Is not that the Sky brought the today's meeting!” Shi Le presented to Go Jing clothing, a carriage and a horse, and appointed him a senior commander, freed all surrendered troops, and gave them to Go Jing.
A Shi Le's military leader Kun Chan staged a raid on the Dinlin district 130 and killed the governor of the Yanzhou province Tian Hui. An (ethnic) Uhuan Boshen captured the governor of Bohai district Liu Ji, and in the head of 5 thousand households surrendered to Shi Le.
Liu Cong appointed Shi Le a courtier and gave him a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, retaining forhim the old posts, ranks and titles. Shi Le's mother, the born Wang, was raised to the title Shandango taifujen, and the wife, a born Liu, was raised to the title Shandango fujen 131. For them were established the same seals, seal cords, and head ornaments like those used by the wives of the wangs.
The younger brothers
of the Duan leader Mopi, given to Shi Le as hostages, fled to the Lyaosi district.
That angered Shi Le terribly, and he killed all heads of the districts and county commanders
in the lands traversed by the fugitives.
The Uhuan leaders Shenguan, Jianshan, and Hesi, breaking with Wang Jun, secretly sent messengers to Shi Le, expressing their desire to surrender. Shi Le accepted the leaders with great warmth.
In the Sizhou and Jizhou provinces the calmness was gradually restored, and people started to pay land rent and taxes. Shi Le established a school for the sons and younger brothers of the highest officials 132, selected officials who were experts on classical books and literature, appointed them to the posts of literati officials, drafted over 300 sons and younger brothers of the highest nobility and send them to them for education.
Shi Le mother, the born Wang, died, she was secretly buried in a mountain valley, so that the burial place remained unknown. After a while was performed a sacrifice, were used nine complements of sacrificial animals, and an empty coffin was buried south from Xiangguo (This is a good explanation why so many Scythian, Sarmatian, Western Hunnic, Bulgharian, and Türkic kurgan graves are found empty, puzzling and disappointing researchers, and eliciting an explanation that became standard in the Eastern European archeology, that the burial was symbolic, in memory of a fallen soldier from nobility. As it turns out, an alternate and more historically justified explanation may be less fanciful, but not any less romantic).
Shi Le told Zhang Bin: “E is the old capital of the Wei dynasty. I want to rebuild it, but I am saddened by the numerous existing customs, and I need a wise manwho enjoys universal trust to satisfy everybody. Whom is it possible to assign this task to?”
Zhang Bin relied: “The former Jin governor of Dunlai district, a native of Nanian county, Zhao Pan is distinguished by fidelity and honesty, he is sincere and clever, he helps skilfully with difficulties; if you, Army Commander, would charge him with this job, he undoubtedly can do everything in accordance with the commandments of the spirits”.
After that Shi Le summoned Zhao Pan with a view to appoint him a governor of the Weijun district. Zhao Pan arrived, and with tears began excusing himself from the post, saying: “In the past my name was listed in the House of Jin registers of officials, and I was receiving salary from it. And even a dog and a horse love their owner and never forget him. I know that the temples of ancestors of the Jin dynasty really overgrew with dense grass, that for it everything has passed, was carried away, like the water in the rivers [flowing away] to the east, and there is no return [to the past]. In accordance with foreboding manifestations, you, the illustrious gun, should assume the mandate of the Sky [to the throne], and it can be said that for me, if I would rely on you, the time has come to lift off, but I was honoured at another court and can not serve a new master, besides I am heedful that also you, the illustrious gun, would not allow that. If you would grant me the remains of my life, and by that satisfy my only desire, you would render me a great favor”. Shi Le was silent.
Zhang Bin stepped forward, and said: “Wherever sailed your sacred banner, Commander, was not
a single person wearing headdress of an official who did not defect from his duty, nobody could observe
the great rules of behaviour. And this wise man recognizes you
as a founder of a dynasty, and equates himself to the four highest officeholders
Has happened what is spoken about as an acquaintance of a ruler with a servant, and that is enough to show your inordinate greatness. Why force him to serve as an official!”
The pleased Shi Le relied: “The words of right hou coincide with the desire of my heart”, then presented Zhao Pan with a phaeton drawn by four horses, appointed him a salary like the highest officeholder, and appointed his son Zhao Min to a post of a military adviser.
Shi Le appointed Shi Jilongg a governor of the Weijun district with a residence in Yecheng. That assignment was the beginning that resulted in a capture of power by Shi Jilongg.
At that time Wang Jun on his own was appointing officials, led a magnificent way of life, was given to debauchery, and showed cruelty. Shi Le was dreaming up plans about subjugation of Wang Jun, and wanted to send to him first an envoy too find out on the situation, and all his high officials were saying that a best way to find out about each other is to exchange letters, as did Yan Hu and Lu Kan 134. At that time Zhang Bin was sick, and Shi Le went to him for an advice.
Zhang Bin said: “Wang Jun, using the might of the three hordes 135, issues orders, sitting with the face to the south, and though he says that he serves as a shield for the Jin dynasty, in reality contemplates thoughts about revolting, and therefore undoubtedly seeks to achieve a consent with oustanding people, that with their help he would finish the conceived design. The glory about your power, commander, thunders in the lands among the four seas, you coming or departure for many means life or death, on where you are depends their strength and weakness. Wang Jun's desire to acquire you is like the desire of the Chu possession to acquire Han Xin 136. Now you are going to send an envoy, but it is cunning in fact, and not a sincere expression of humility. If that would excite suspicions and our plans would be found out, then whatever many amazing plans are developed, all of them could not be fulfilled. Starting a great project, for its success is necessary to initially undergo humiliation. It is needed to recognize yourself as a servant and to promote Wang Jun; however, I am afraid that in that case also he might not believe, moreover will not be useful an exchange of letters, like with Yan Hu and Lu Kan”.
relied: “The plan of right hou is correct”, and sent to Wang Jun his attendants
Wang Zichun and Duk Zhao with numerous jewelry, and presented a petition which was
promoting Wang Jun to the place of the Son of the Sky, saying: “I, Shi Le, a lowly Hu (胡), was
born in the remote Jungs' (戎) lands. When the foundations of
the House of Jin weakened, in the lands between the
four seas arose famine and turmoils. Seeking safety from disasters and dangers, I
fled to Jizhou province, where together with others we assembled troops to save our lives.
Now, the House of Jin run out of fortune, it had to move over to the remote districts Kuazi and Wujun, the Central Plain remained without a ruler, people had nobody to lean on. I respectfully stipulate that all living in your area and in my native territories hope that you will take up the high position, and those living in the lands between the four seas will recognize you as their head, for who becides you can become an emperor! I, Shi Le, risking my own life, have mobilized troops struggling for justice to destroy the rebels, to expel them for your sake, the illustrious gun. I am respectfully asking you to enter the imperial throne, according with the will of the Sky and the needs of the time. I, Shi Le, shall serve you, illustrious gun, as the Sky and the Earth, shall support you as a father and mother. You should acquaint with my insignificant thoughts, and mercifully treat me as your son”. Simultaneously, Shi Le sent a letter and generous gifts to Zao Sun 137.
Wang Jun asked Wang Zichun: “The respected Shi is an outstanding man of our time, distinguished by wisdom and military talents, he occupies the old capital of the Zhao possession, and is like one of the legs of a tripod. Why is he saying that he wants to become my shield, and is it possible to trust him?”
Wang Zichun replied: “The military leader Shi
is an oustanding talent, surpassing all
others, he has strong and numerous troops and horses, everything is really the way you pleased to state. However he respectfully observes how those living in your domain and in his
native lands hope that you would ascend to the high position, he sees how you, in comparison
with the generations of your ancestors, have given a brighter shine to your name, how after
you went to govern the frontier lands covered with high mountains that serve as a barrier,
you spead the glory of youre power in all sides of the world. You are enjoing
respect in the remote northern lands populated by the Hus (胡),
and in the southern lands populated by Yues (越 and 粵,
essentially Vietnamese), and the Jungs (戎) and Dis
(氐) are extolling your virtues, and could my insignificant
governor of a small area dare to not raise the hems of his clothes and not to hasten
to perform a bowing in your sacred palace. Was it not in the past Chen Yin,
138 who rejected a title wang and did not become
a wang, was it not in the past Han Xin,
139 who disrespected emperor but did not become the emperor? He does that, knowing that
it is impossible to fight for the position of the emperor using wits and force. In comparison with you, illustrious gun,
the military leader Shi is like a dew in comparison with the sun,
a river in
comparison with a boundless sea. The examples of Xian Ji 140 and
who took a road that brought them to destruction, are so recent that they are clear warnings for
Shi. What are you surprised with, illustrious gun!
Besides, it really happened from antiquity that the loyal Hus (胡) became famed officeholders, but none of them ever became an emperor. The military leader Shi yields the place to you, illustrious gun, not because he does not want to become an emperor, but because he sees that his accessions to the throne would not be allowed neither by the Sky, nor by the people. I pray you, gun, do not have doubts!”
Quite pleased, Wang Jun raised Wang Zichun and others to the titles le-hou, and sent to Shi Le in return an envoy, dispatching with him gifts consisting of what was produced in his lands.
At that time Yu Tun, in charge of the Wang Jun troops, governed the Fanyan district. Secretly conceiving to desert Wang Jun, he urgently sent to Shi Le a courier, to tell about his willingness to surrender. Shi Le beheaded the courier, and sent his head to Wang Jun, to express his fidelity and sincerity. Wang Jun did not punish Yu Tun, but entrusted the Shi Le fidelity and sincerity even more, and dropped any suspicions.
When Wang Zichun together with an envoy of Wang Jun arrived to Xiangguo (pin. Xiangguo 襄國, orig.: Xiango, in modern Xintai, Hebei), Shi Le ordered to hide the strong warriors and best armor, to show the envoy an empty palace and weak troops, and turning to the north, accepted the Wang Jun letter from the envoy with a bow. Wang Jun sent Shi Le a hair fly swatter, but Shi Le mendaciously declared that he does not dare to hold it in his hands, hung the hair fly swatter up on a wall, and in the morning and in the evening made bowings before it, saying: “I have no possibility to see the respectable wang, so I look at the gift of the respectable wang and it is like I see him himself.”
Shi Le again sent Dun Zhao to present Wang Jun with a petition where he gave a date when he would personally arrive to Yuzhou province to present to Wang Jun a high title. In addition, he wrote a letter to Zao Sun, where he asked to be appointed a pastor of the Bingzhou province and to be given a title Guanpin-gun, to show his fidelity that deservs unconditional trust.
Starting devising plans about Wang Jun, Shi Le summoned Wang Zichun and
began asking him about [the rival]. Wang Zichun said: “Since last year, in the Yuzhou
province happened a strong flood, people have no grain for sustenance, but Wang Jun
saved up huge stocks of grain and does not render them any help. The punishments and laws are
severe, taxes and duties are numerous. The wise and virtuous are brutally killed, the
officials that are trying to counsel [the ruler] are executed or expeled. The life of the
lowest is intolerable, almost all of them either fled or revolted. Outside the area, the
Syanbis and Uhuans are devising a treachery, and within the province, Zao Sun and Tian Jiao
The mood of the people is depressed, the warriors are tired to a brim. In spite of that, Wang Jun builds terraces and pagodas for amusement, appoints officials and himself says that the Han emperor Gao-zu and the Wei emperor Wu-di are unworthy of comparison with him. Besides, in the Yuzhou province is spoken much about unusual events, and the hearts are siezed with horror for those who listen to these conversations. Nevertheless, Wang Jun keeps usual mood as though nothing is occuring, it is not seen that he feels fear, and that indicates that he destined for destruction”. Leaning on a little table, Shi Le said with laughter: “Right, it is now possible to capture Wang Pen-zu!”
When the Wang Jun's envoys returned to Yuzhou, they reported on Shi Le weakness and his sincere humility, free from any duplicity. Wang Jun believed that it is really so.
Shi Le assembled troops and set the date for the start of the campaign, going to attack Wang Jun unexpectedly, but mindful that Liu Kun, Syanbis, and Uhuans can strike him in the back, was heavily sighing. Zhang Bin said: “A sudden attack on hostile possession should be made unexpectedly. But your troops are already brought to a full readiness for many days, but are not starting the campaign, are you really disturbed by the opponents on three sides?” Shi Le relied: “Yes, I do not know, how to handle them”..
Zhang Bin said: “Wang Pentszu occupies Yuzhou province exclusively because he relies on three hordes. Now all of them deserted him and even became his enemies, and he would not get their support to resist us. In the Yuzhou province blazes famine because of a poor grain harvest, everyone is eating vegetables, people are rising mutinies, the Wang Jun's close allies are leaving him, the troops are weak, therefore Wang Jun in the province does not have strong troops for defense. So, if our numerous troops would approach the suburbs of his capital, everything would collapse, as dissipates a lump of soil or tile breaks on impact.
The opponents on the three sides have no plans, therefore you, the commander, can send to a campaign a thousand li away your self-sustained troops, to punish the Yuzhou province. For the lightly armed horsemen to make a roundtrip there would require no more than twenty days, and even if the opponents would start actions, the departed [to a campaign] troops would have time to return. It is needed, using the fortunate occasion, to strike the enemy, like a surprise thunder. Do not lose the time!
Besides, Liu Kun and Wang Jun, though they call themselves the shields of the Jin dynasty,
are actually its enemies. If to write Liu Kun a letter, to send him hostages and to ask
a peace, Liu Kun will surely be delighted that he succeded in winning our [humility],
he will be glad with the destruction of Wang Jun, and will never attack you to help him”. Shi
Le exclaimed: “What was not clear to me, understood the right hou, so away with the doubts!”
After that the lightly armed horsemen set out to a campaign, and to attack Yuzhou province unexpectedly, they even were moving at night with torch lights. Reaching Bozhen 142, Shi Le killed the registrar Yu Lun, because his senior brother Yu Tun was in the Fanyan district, and [Shi Le] was concerned that Yu Lun could divulge the military secret.
Shi Le ordered Zhang Liu to deliver a letter to Liu Kun, where he recounted the grave crimes he commited, and to atone for them asked a permission to punish Wang Jun. Liu Kun, who hated Wang Jun for a long while, dispatched to the provinces and districts a note where he said that Shi Le, perceiving the will of the Sky, reflected on the committed mistakes, stopped the crimes he was pursuing for a number of years, and asks for permission to occupy the main city of the Yuzhou province, in order to further devote himself to the service of the good, and therefore he ordered to satisfy Shi Le's demands and hold an establishment of friendship with him obligatory.
When Shi Le troops came to the river Ishui 143 (early 314), Sui Wei who held at Wang Jun a post of the Chief Warden, urgently sent to Wang Jun a courier with request to allow to stage the troops to repell Shi Le, but Yu Tun threw the courier in jail. All Wang Jun's highest officials asked for a permission to marshal troops against Shi Le, but the angry Wang Jun said: “The respectable Shi is coming to enthrone me as the Son of the Sky, everyone who would dare to talk about attacking him will be beheaded!”, and then ordered to prepare a feast and to wait for Shi Le.
In the morning, coming to the Zenchen city, Shi Le shouted to the gatekeepers to open the gate. Concerned about ambushes, he drove in front a few thousand heads of large livestock and sheep, declaring [everywhere], that these are the gifts for Wang Jun; actually, he wanted to fill the streets and alleyways with the animals, so that the troops could not jump out in ambush. That scared Wang Jun, who was one moment sitting down, the other moment getting up (Nice example of archaic language that does not yet have words for abstract subjects and uses standardized metaphorical expressions to render abstract subject like “fidgeting”).
Shi Le ascended to the Public Hall, and ordered troops to seize and set Wang Jun in
front of him. Then he ordered Xu Guan to present to Wang Jun the following
indictment: “You were a first among the highest officeholders also had the highest title.
You held the lands of Judu 144
where is located possession of brave warriors, you had power over the lands of the whole
[former possession] Yan
145, the motherland
of shock cavalry units. However, having strong troops in your hands, you were idle and
fall of the capital 146, did not render help to
the Son of the Sky, plotting you own ascension. Besides you were appointing to the positions only
the guileful and cruel, you were killing the loyal and virtuous, giving full freedom to
your feelings and desires,
you have harmed all the Yan lands. You have deserved the present situation yourself, it
is not the Sky that punishes you”.
Then Shi Le ordered the commander Wang Loshen to escort Wang Jun to the market square in Xiangguo, and to behead him.
After that Shi Le sent back the fugitives, promoted Xiun Cho and Pei Xian 147, granting them carriages and clothes; enumerated the crimes of Zhu Shi, Zao Sun, and Tian Jiao, who were accepting bribes and ruined governance; censured Yu Tun for the absence of loyalty to Wang Jun 148 and beheaded them all. He relocated the Uhuan leaders Shenguan, Jianshan, Hesi, and Jinypi to Xiangguo and burnt the Jin palaces in Ji. He granted the Jin chief of the state office Liu Han a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the North and appointed him to serve as the governor of the Yuzhou province; [then] Shi Le left in the Ji a garrison, appointed officials, and returned.
Shi Le sent a minor official of the eastern department 149 Fu Gou, after appointing him to the post of a left senior official, to present to Liu Cong the head of Wang Jun, and to report about the achieved victory.
After Shi Le returned to Xiangguo, Liu Han raised a revolt against him and fled to the Duan leader Pidi.
In Xiangguo happened a strong famine, the price of a sheng (1 l) of grain rose to the price of a jin (500 g) of silver, and the price of a jin (500 g) of meat rose to the price of a liang (50 g) of silver (Even during famine, a price of 1 l ~ 900 g of grain and 5 kg of meat was the same. Th, at clearly indicates a nomadic economy, the state lived on meat).
For the feats which Shi Le has done in the quelling of Yuzhou province, Liu Cong appointed Shi Le, through the ambassador Liu Shun, who was declared as an Accredited Imperial Ambassador, a Great Chief Commander for all military affairs in the lands east from Shen, a Great Commander Commanding Strong Calvary, and a Shanyu of the Eastern Lands, preserving for him the posts of a courtier, a rank of the accredited imperial ambassador, [also retained for him] the right to create commanderies, the post of bailiff, a pastor of two provinces, and the title of gun. Besides, Shi Le was granted a copper gong and yellow halberd 150, a set of drums and pipes for two detachments, one of which preceded, and other followed behind his cortege, and the number of the granted districts was increased to twelve. Shi Le resolutely refused from the assignments, accepting only two districts.
Shi Le promoted eleven people, including the left senior official Zhang Jing, to the titles bo, zi, and hou, and raised in grades the civil and military officials, everyone on his merits.
The Shi Le's military leader Zhi Siun attacked Liu Yan in the Linqui district, but was
defeated. Liu Yan sent commanders Han Hun and Pan Liang to suddenly attack Dunqui
district; there they killed Shao Pan, appointed by Shi Le a governor of
the district. Pursuing Han Hun and others, Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun)
killed in the Linqui district Pan Liang.
Serving Liu Kun troop commander Wen Jiao advanced to the west to punish Shanhu (山胡) 151, but Shi Le's commander Lu Min intercepted Wen Jiao and defeated him in the Luchen district 152 (This indicates that Shi Le state extended beyond the nominal Chinese borders to cover the free Hun population).
Because the calmness was gradually restored in the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces, Shi Le for the first time ordered the provinces and districts to run a census of the actual number of households, and levy each household at a rate of two pieces of cloth and a land tax at a rate of two hu of grain.
[The former] Shi Le's commander Chen Wu raised a revolt [against Jin dynasty] leading the Juni county 153, and switched over to the Shi Le side.
[Shi Le's commander] Lu Min attacked Nin Hei in the Zhipin district, and forced him to surrender, then took with fight the cities Dunyan and Suanzao, and turned back, relocating over 20 thousand surrendered households to Xiangguo (This is one of the many Eastern Hun examples indicative of the Türkic nomadic assessment of the relative value of the people and territory: the territory is vast and not valuable, people are few and valuable; it is the people who produce and may be assessed, not the land. The Chinese concept about tying people to the land and assessing the land was permeating the Türkic traditional nomadic etiology as part of the Sinicization process, by leaps and reversals. The mass transfer of the dependent people from the zone outside of the immediate control into the zone of functioning control is endemic to the Türkic history during Antique and Middle Age periods, one of the most massive examples was the transfer of the Slavic people from the Danube area to the Dnieper area during the late Hunnic times, and the reverse transfer of the Slavic people from the Dnieper area to the Danube area during Asparukh times).
Shi Le sent commander Ge Bo to raid the Puyan district 154. Ge Bo occupied the main city of the district, and killed its governor Han Hun.
Equipping envoy Fan Kan with an accreditation badge, Liu Cong sent him to hand Shi Le a decree about assignments for the posts, to present him with bow and arrows, bring additionally the title Shendun-bo, a Head of the Lands east from the Shen, and to grant the rights to independently conduct retaliatory campaigns, to appoint governors of provinces, commanders, local officials and to grant the titles of hou, presenting [to Liu Cong] at the end of the year the lists of appointed men. Shi Le's senior son Shi Xin was appointed a hereditary son of the governor of the Shandan possession, and in addition he was given a rank of the Commander of the Guard Troops, who was an assistant to the Commander of the Strong Calvary.
Liu Kun sent Wang Dan to attack the Zhongshan district, from where was expelled a governor Qin Gu, appointed by Shi Le. Shi Le's commander Liu Mian repulsed Wang Dan and defeated him, capturing Wang Dan at the Wangduguan checkpoint 155.
Shi Le made a surprise attack on Shao Xu in the Lelin district. Shao Xu put out for the counterattack all his troops, and Shi Le, after sufferring a bad defeat, returned back.
Wang Ji, a native of the Zhangu county, stationed in rampart-fortified place Kedoulei,
raised weapons and stirred strifes in the districts Hejian and Bohai belonging to Shi Le.
Shi Le appointed Zhang Yi, with a rank of Commander Famous forMilitary Valours,
a governor of the Hejian district, and Lin Shen, who occupied a post of the Military Adviser,
a governor of the Bohai district, so that they, with 2 thousand infantrymen and
horsemen each, have subdued Wang Ji. The governor of the Chanle district Chen Xia was ordered to
station with the troops in the Chantin to render support for them.
Over 30 thousand households from the hordes of the Uhuan leaders Zhang Guan and Liu Do were moved from the Pinyuan district to Xiangguo.
Shi Le sent Shi Jilongg for a surprise attack on Wang Pin, who left his native land and stayed in Lianchen. After a defeat, Shi Jilongg returned.
Then Shi Le again attacked on Liu Yan in Linqui.
Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun) and Lu Min attacked Nin Hei in the Dunyan city 156 and took the city, after which Nin Hei committed suicide by jumping into the river. Over 10 thousand of his peoplewere moved to Xiangguo.
Shao Xu sent [the Duan leader] Wenyan to the Liu Yang aid, therefore Shi Jilongg, avoiding collision, retreated and stopped at the Luguanjin checkpoint 157. Wenyan, unable to advance, encamped with his troops near Jintin. Zhang Pin together with other influential houses of the provinces Yanchzhou and Yuzhou advanced his troops to the Liu Yang aid, therefore Shi Jilongg at night abandoned his camp, set up ambushes outside of it, and launched a rumor that he is returning to the lands north of Huanghe. Believing that, Zhang Pin entered the empty camp, but Shi Jilongg returned and attacked him, defeated him, and captured the Linqui city. Liu Yan fled to the Wenyan troops. In the Shi Jilongg hands fell the Liu Yang's younger brother Liu Qi, whom he sent to Xiangguo. Liu Yan was a son of the Liu Kun's senior brother. Because Liu Kun cared for his mother, Shi Le was grateful to Liu Kun, and therefore he presented Liu Qi with land , a manor, and ordered officials to study classical books from him.
At that time appeared large quantity of locust, especially much of it was in the Zhongglan and Chanshan districts.
Zhai Shu, one of the Dinlins 158 in the Zhongshan district, raised a revolt against Shi Le, and attacked Zhongshan and Chanshan districts. Shi Le advanced in the head of horsemen to punish him, and returned after seizing Zhai Shu's mother and wife. Zhai Shu hid in Xuguan, and then fled to the Daijun district.
In the city of Zhangchen 159 Shi Le attacked a governor of the Lepin district Han Ju, and so Liu Kun sent commander Ji Dan in the head of more than 100 thousand trooprs to punish Shi Le, and himself arrived to Guanmu 160 to support Ji Dan.
Shi Le wanted to repulse Ji Dan , but somebody cautioning him said: “Ji Dan has
selected numerous troops, it is impossible to withstand their shock power. It
is better to cover behind deep moats and high ramparts, to reduce their fighting zeal,
because the positions of the attacking and defending are different, that way we shall
Shi Le relied: “Though the troops of Ji Dan are numerous, they came from far away, the troops are weakened, their strength is exhausted. They are a pack of dogs and rams, or a flock of ravens, and are not following orders. They can be captured in a single battle, what is their force! The bandits already came close to us, how can we distance ourselves from them? If our main forces would retreat, it will be difficult to come back later. And if Ji Dan would take advantage of our retreat, the warriors even would not have time to look back, how could they cover behind deep moats and high ramparts? This offer is a refusal to fight and a path to destruction”. After that the man who offered advice was immediately beheaded.
Appointing Kun Chan a Chief Commander of the vanguard, Shi Le issued an order for the three armies saying that anybody late with arrival will be beheaded. Lining the warriors on the mountain to distract the opponent attention from the direction of the main maneuver, Shi Le divided the troops and hid them in two ambushes. When the light-armed horsemen joined the fight with the Ji Dan troops, Shi Le intentionally withdrew them and began retreating to the north. Ji Dan allowed his warriors to pursue them, but then the Shi Le units hidden in two ambushes came out and attacked them on two sides. The troops of Ji Dan sufferred a bad defeat, and Shi Le captured 10 thousand armored horses.
Ji Dan fled to the Daijun district, and Hang Ju fled to Liu Kun.
The Liu Kun's upper official Liu Hun surrendered to Shi Le in the head of the Bingzhou province, after which Liu Kun fled to the Duan leader Pidi. Shi Le returned after relocating households from the Yangqu and Lapin districts to Xiangguo, and appointing officials of the local administration,.
Kun Chan pursued Ji Dan to the Sanggan county 161. Shi Le sent Zhang Fu, who doubled as a left (i.e Left Wing) senior official, to Liu Cong to inform about the won victory.
When Shi Le campaigned against Lepin district, in his Nanhe county its head Zhao Lin gathered around himself a few thousand households fro the districts Guanchuan, Pinyuan and Bohai, raised a mutiny against Shi Le, and fled to Shao Xu (pronounced Syui/Süi, i.e. Yui/Hui, i.e. Uigur, i.e. Shao the Uigur). Xin Gu from the Hejian district, whom Shi Le was repeatedly summoning, but he was not coming, also raised a revolt, assembling few hundreds men around of himself.
Shi Le went on a trip in the counties of the Jizhou province, and assigning to the right
troop commander (a Hunnic name for a position) Zhang
Xia (“Zhang the Chinese”) a rank of the Commander-Pacifier
of the North (a Chinese title), appointed him a Chief Commander
over all military affairs in the seven districts of the Jizhou province.
The husband of the Shi Le's senior sister Zhang Yue with a rank of Commander who Spread Greatness played shupa 162 with other military leaders, and Shi Le came to look at the game. Zhang Yue made a joke, offending Shi Le; Shi Le became terribly angry and ordered strongmen to break Zhang Yue's shins, and then to kill him.
Kun Chan attacked the Daijun district and killed Ji Dan.
At that time in the Lyaosi district were few tens of thousands households that fled from the Sizhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, and Yanzhou provinces; they were constantly enticing the others to come, and as a result the population did not attend quietly to their affairs. Kun Chan and others were attacking the [leaders of misconducts] Ma Yan and Fang Zhu, but for a long time could not overcome them.
Shi Le turned for advice to Zhang Bin, who said: “Fang Zhu and othersare not at all your enemies, and everybody who fled to the Lyaosi district is grieving after their native places. The troops should be recalled, military actions stopped, a good governor of province should be choosen and appointed, with obligation to act like Gun Sui 163, not bound by usual, firmly fixed rules. When he by your order would have spread widely favors and resolutely attending the business, would demonstrate authority, the misconducts in the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces, once you would raise your foot, would calm down on their own, and for the fugitives to the Lyaosi district would be even possible to establish the time for return”. Shi Le said: “The plan of the right hou is correct”, and withdrew Kun Chan. Then he appointed the chief of the Usui county Li Hui a Chief Overseer of the lands north of the river Ishui, gave him a rank of a Commander Tremendous with his Bellicosity, and a post of a governor of the Gaoyan district.
The majority of the members of the Ma Yan gang were earlier Li Qian's warriors, in whose office Li Hui held a post of a senior official. They admired for a long time the authority and virtues of Li Hui, therefore a major part of them rose against Ma Yan and switched to the side of Li Hui. The switch by the members of the gang scared Ma Yan, he fled to the Yuzhou province, but on the way drowned in the river. Fan Zhu in the head of the gang surrendered to Shi Le, after that Li Hui moved to Yijing 164, where to him with the expression of humility were annually joining a few thousand fugitives.
Highly valuing the Li Hui's accomplishments, Shi Le raised him to the title Yiyanzi and granted for sustenance 300 households. Shi Le in addition granted to Zhang Bin one thousand households, and raised him in the rank to the Commanderof Vanguard Troops, but Zhang Bin resolutely refused to accept the grants.
In provinces north of Huanghe appeared a mass of locust. First it appeared boring
through the soil, in 20 days it changed appearance, turning to a likeness of a silk worm, in
7-8 days it fell asleep, in 4 days it shed its skin and flew away. All grass was densely
covered with locust, which did not eat only three kinds of beans and a hemp. The provinces of
Bingzhou and Jiazhou suffered especially badly.
Shi Jilongg, crossing to the other bank through the Chanshou-jin, raided Liango district 165 and killed the district governor Xiun He.
Liu Kun met in Guan 166 with Duan leaders Pidi, Shefuchen, Jiliujuan, and Mopi 167, to develop with them a plan to punish Shi Le. Shi Le, to bring a split among them, sent a Military Adviser Wang Xua to Mopi with jewelry. Mopi decided that he can thank Shi Le for the former favors, and also was delighted with generous gifts, so he convinced Shefuchen and Jiliujuan to pull the troops back. After that Liu Kun and Pidi also retreated to the city Jichen.
Shao Xu sent Shao Ji, a son of his senior brother, ordering him to attack Bohai district, belonging to Shi Le, and Shao Ji, capturing more than 3 thousand people, returned back.
The Liu Cong's military leader Zhao Gu 168 submitted to the Jin dynasty together with the capital Luoyang, he was afraid that Shi Le could unexpectedly attack him, and therefore sent to Shi Le a Military Adviser Gao Shao with a letter, where he expressed his admiration of Shi Le, and asked him for military help to punish Liu Cong. Shi Le refused, citing a high feeling of the duty, which caused Zhao Gu to feel a deep hatred, and he together with Go Ìî 169 attacked districts Henei and Jijun and plundered them.
The Duan leader Mopi killed the Syanbi Shanyu Tszefuchzhen and installed Shanyu Hubalin. Then another Duan leader, Pidi, advanced from theYuzhou province and attacked Mopi, but Mopi defeated him striking a counterblow. Pidi fled back to Yuzhou, killed a Great Commander Liu Kun, and then the Liu Kun's highest military officials one by one surrendered to Shi Le.
Moli sent his younger brother Qidu to attack Pidi in Yuzhou province, then Pidi heading the horde totaling few thousand people was going to flee to Shao Xu, but Shi Le's commander Shi Yue intercepted him at Yanshan mountain and inflicted on him a bad defeat, after which Pidi retreated to the Yuzhou province. A stray arrow hit and killed Shi Yue. Therefore Shi Le forbade music for three months, and posthumously bestowed on Shi Yue a rank of a commander-pacifier of the south.
should be said that previously Cao Yi, who owned Qinzhou province, raised a revolt against Shi
Le and reported south about his desire to obey the emperor orders. Because [the capital
of Jin dynasty] the city of Jianie was far and in case of need the help could not be
rendered in time, Cao Yi was afraid of sudden attack Shi Le, and therefore sent to him
the ambassador for an establishment of friendship. Shi Le handed Cao Yi a rank great
âîåíà÷àëüíèka East province, a post of the pastor of Qinzhou province and title Lane-gun.
Liu Cong fell badly ill and sent a courrier to summon Shi Le, thinking to appoint him a Great Commander in charge of the State Chancellery 170, and to hand over a deathbed decree about rendering assistance in the state affairs. Because Shi Le resolutely refused to accept the assignments, Liu Cong stopped calling him. Then Liu Cong sent to Shi Le an envoy with accreditation badge [and assignment] to appoint Shi Le a Great Commander and to give him a right to wear an accreditation sign and a halberd, to retain for him the posts of the Chief Commander, courtier, bailiff, the pastor of two provinces, and a title gun, and also in addition to grant ten districts. Shi Le did not accepted the grants.
After the death of Liu Cong (died 318), the illegal throne was inherited by his son Liu Can (pronounced Tsan) 171. When Jin Zhun, a Great Commander of Liu Can, killed Liu Can in Pinyan, Shi Le ordered Zhang Jing to march in a vanguard heading 5 thousand horsemen and to punish Jin Zhun, and followed him with 50 thousand elite horsemen, stopping in the steppe north from Xianlin 172, where over 40 thousand Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) and Jie (Jie Huns) yurts surrendered to him. A few times Jin Zhun challenged Shi Le for a fight, but to dampen the ardour of Jin Zhun, Shi Le was sitting out behind the strong ramparts.
Liu Yao marched from Chanan and stopped in Pufang 173. Liu Yao arrogated a high title, appointed Shi Le a Great Commander of the troops, a Great Commander, gave him nine awards 174, in addition granted 10 districts, that together with the former districts made 13 districts, and raised him to a higher title of Zhao-gun (From this narrative follows that in 319 AD the 45-years old Shi Le ruled, at least nominally, only 3 Chinese eastern districts, plus the tribes and the erritories of the Free Southern Huns).
When Shi Le attacked Jin Zhun, who was in a lesser Pinyan, the head of the Pinyan city Zhou Zhi surrendered to Shi Le with 6 thousand courtyards of various aliens. Also surrendered over a hundred thousand yurts of the leader of the Bas (Hun-led Syanbi) 175 and various Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) and Jie (Jie Huns) hordes, who were resettled in the districts of the Sizhou province.
Jin Zhun, trying to achieve a conclusion of a peace treaty, sent Bu Tai to deliver to Shi Le imperial chariots and clothes. Shi Le, in competition with Liu Yao for attracting Jin Zhun to his side, sent Bu Tai to Liu Yao, and to quench a Liu Yao fighting impulse, informed him that in the city nobody is willing to switch to the Liu Yao side. However, Liu Yao secretly concluded a deal with Bu Tai, and sent him back to Pinyan to calm down various Chuge (Huns) 176 hordes.
Shi Le suspected that Bu Tai developed a plan of action with Liu Yao, and wanted to
behead him, to induce Jin Zhun to surrender sooner.
However, all commanders interjected: “If you decapitate Bu Tai, Jin Zhun will certainly lose his desire to surrender, but if to order Bu Tai to declare that the Han dynasty (Former Zhao.-V.T.) is going to conclude a treaty inside the city, and wants Jin Zhun to be killed faster, Jin Zhun will undoubtedly be scared and would hasten to surrender”. After a long meditation, Shi Le followed the advice of the commanders, and sent Bu Tai to Pinyan.
After arrival in Pinyan, Bu Tai together with Jin Zhun commanders, Qiao Tai, Ma Jung and others, mobilized troops, attacked Jin Zhun, killed him, and raised Jin Min to the post of the chief. Then [the participants of the mutiny] sent Bu Tai and Bu Syuan to bring Liu Yao six heritable imperial seals.
That raised a terrible anger with Shi Le, who sent to Pinyan an office scribe Yang Shen to express an admonition to Jin Min for the murder of Jin Zhun, but the angry Jin Min beheaded Yan Shen. Then, even more infuriated Shi Le marched troops against Jin Min. Jin Min joined the fight, but Shi Le attacked and defeated him, covering for two li the land with corpses. Jin Min, reinforced the city gate and switched to unyielding defense, not venturing for a battle. Shi Le sent the left senior official Wang Xiu to report to Liu Can about the won victory.
The Jin governor of Pengcheng county Zhou Jian killed the governor of Pei county, and together with Pengcheng and Pei counties surrendered to Shi Le.
Shi Jilongg in the head of the troops from the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces joined Shi Le in his attacks on Pinyan. Liu Yao sent to the Jin Min aid Liu Chan with a rank of a Commander Punishing the East. Then Shi Le ordered to withdraw the troops to Pushan, and then Jin Min in the head of the Pinyan population fled to Liu Yao, and Liu Yao retreated west to the Sui 177.
Shi Le burnt in Pinyan the palacial premises, ordered Pei Xian and Shi Hui to restore the tombs of Liu Yuanhai and Liu Cong, to gather more than hundred corpses, including the corpse of Liu Can, and to bury them. The amilliar sphere (spherical concave sundial) and musical instruments were transported to Xiangguo.
Liu Yao again sent an ambassador Go Si and others, handing them accrediting badges [and giving orders] to appoint Shi Le a Great Steward 178 (In the Hunnic society, the position of the Great Steward is called Right Wise Prince “Right Jükü-Bek” 右屠耆王, in Chinese rendition Yu Xian-wang 右贤王 or Right Tuqi-wang 右屠耆王, who traditionally is a head of the Gudu 骨都 “in-laws” maternal dynastic tribe, where the concept “Right” means and is expressed with the term “Western”, and was correspondingly rendered in Chinese as Xi 西, making the position title 西屠耆王 = Western Jükü-Bek; in traditional terms, excessively wrecked by the Chinese policies, the appointment of the head of the Huyan tribe to the supreme ruling position in the state simultaneously elevates the eastern remnants of the Huyan tribe to its former glory of a first maternal dynastic tribe. However, a traditional Western Jükü-Bek is located next to the monarch, leading his household and his staff, and not away from the monarch in his own court; therefore Liu Yao's gesture was nothing more then a political manuever that tried to exploit the Hunnic traditional organization and system of values. As a side note, we know that Jükü/Tuqi/Xian adjective did not die with the Huns, in eary 7th century the Chinese noted this adjective in the Western Türkic Kaganate as a title of Yugu Shad, a Chief Commander in the Western Türkic Kaganate, noted in the document entitled “Gaochang Undated (late 6th century or early 7th century). Ledger of Letter and Gift from Touliu Shi and others ” for the Shad who established a garrison north of the Tianshan mountains to monitor Turfan in eary 7th century [Jiang Boqin,, Dunhuang Tulufan wenshu yu Sichouzhilu ( Silk Road and Documents from Dunhuang and Turfan), Wenwu chubanshe, 1994, p. 9, n. 4]. The Chinese王 may very well correspond to the Türkic shad), a Great Commander, to bestow on him a higher title of Zhao-wang, in addition to grant seven districts, which together with former districts made 20 districts, to grant a right to call his coach appearances by Clearing of the Road 179, to wear twelve tassels on the headdress 180, to make rounds following the example of Cao-gun (Cao Cao.-V.T.), who was helping the Han dynasty, on the decorated with gold imperial chariot drawn by six horses, to call his wife Princess, and his heir son a princely heir son.
Cao Pinle, who was serving Shi Le in a post of a decree writer and who was included in
the (Shi Le) embassy,
remained to serve Liu Yao.
He told Liu Yao: “Sovereign, The Great Commander of Troops (Shi Le's rank.-V.T.) sent Wang Xiu and others ostensibly to express his deepest respect, and actually to reconnoiter your strong and weak sides. He planned to wait for the return of Wang Xiu and then unexpectedly attack you”. At that time the forces of Liu Yao were really impaired, therefore he became scared that Wang Xiu would report about that. Coming to terrible anger, Liu Yao sent a courier after Go Si with an order to return back, in the Sui beheaded Wang Xiu, and cancelled the order about Shi Le appointment as a Great Steward.
An escaped [member of the embassy] Liu Mao told Shi Le about circumstances of the Wang Xiu's death. In a fury, Shi Le executed members of the Cao Pinle clan for three generations, and posthumously granted Wang Xiu a post of the chief of the ceremonial department. Then, learning about recission of the decision about granting him the rights for salient rules of behaviour, Shi Le come to even greater wrath and gave an order that said: “I, together with my senior and younger brothers, served the House of Liu more assiduously than is due for a servant. If not I and my older and younger brothers would Liu Yao sit with his face to the south and be called as emperor! And he, barely establishing the foundation of the state, conceived a desire to build plans against me! However, the Sky does not help the wicked, therefore it ordered him to kill Jin Zhun with others' hands. And I, thinking only about a service to the ruler and with a belief that I should serve him more assiduously than Shun served Gu-sou 181, have again expressed to him respect as to a wise ruler, and kept equal, friendly relations with him, like before. Could I suspect that sunk in crimes [Liu Yao] would kill my envoy, who came to express my sincere feelings! Is the the elevation of the Emperors and Wangs eternal! I will myself procure the titles Zhao-wang and Zhao-di for me. Are the titles, high or low, depend on Liu Yao?” After that Shi Le established the posts of the Main Imperial Doctor, the Preparer of Medicines for emperor, the Chiefs of departments in the Imperial Medical Office.
Shi Le ordered the Military Adviser Chao Jan to construct Zhenyanmen Gates. Soon the gates collapsed, and the utterly angry Shi Le beheaded Chao Jan. But engulfed with anger Shi Le hastened too much with execution, and soon repented, granted to the executed a coffin and clothes, and bestowed a post of a Chief of the Ambassadorial Department. 182
Zu Ti [who
was serving the Jin dynasty] with a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the West, attacked Chen Chuan in Penguan.
Shi Jilongg advanced to the Chen Chuan's aid, then Zu Ti retreated and encamped in Liango, where
Shi Jilongg sent Zuo Fusu, with a title of Commander with Thunderous Military Valours, to attack him.
In addition, near the four gates in Xiangguo, Shi Le opened over ten lower schools to spread literature and education, for installation of respect (to Confucianism) and installation of respect to the didactics, he selected over hundred sons and younger brothers of the highest military officials and influential houses to study in them, and besides appointed watchmen to chime time with handbells. Was established an office of a custodian of the water clock and were cust coins named fenghuoqian (丰货, Feng Huo, Coin of Abundance).
The Syanbi leader Zhilyuian raised on the western bank of Huanghe a revolt against Shi Le, and Shi Jilongg went to punish him. He defeated Zhilyuian in the Shofan district, killed 20 thousand people, took prisoner 30 thousand of his warriors, and seized more than 100 thousand heads of large livestock and horses.
After Kun Chan pacified all districts of the Yuzhou province, the people of the Duan leader Pidi, suffering from famine, disperced, abandoning their wives and children, and Pidi himself fled to Shao Xu.
Cao Yi sent to Shi Le an ambassador to establish friendship relations, delivered gifts of onjects produced in his lands, and asked for the establishment of a border along Huanghe.
When Tao Bao approached to Ïýíãóàíþ 183, Tszu Ti retreated to the district Huajnan 184, Shi Jilongg moved over 5 thousand the households submitting Chen Chuanju, in Guanzong.
Shi Jilongg, Zhang Jing, Zhang Bin and over hundred highest military officials were persuading Shi Le to accept a high title. Then Shi Le issued a paper which said: “I unduly, owing to my small virtues, received your respect and love, therefore days and nights I shiver out of fear, as standing on an edge of a deep precipice or on thin ice. Hoe can I occupy the high throne and accept the high title, that would only cause sneers from all directions. Even The Zhou's Wen-wang 185, who was occupying a high position and was one of the tripod legs, and he was serving for the Yin dynasty, and Xiao-bai 186, who occupied a brilliant position that allowed him to put things in order in the Celestial, treated the House of Zhou with respect and deference. And the present rule of the [Jin] state is better than was the rule of the Yin and Zhou dynasties, and my virtues are minuter than [the virtues] of the two mentioned rulers. Stop immediately this talk and do not raise this question any more. Henceforth the one who would dare to talk about it will be punished without any mercy”. With that, everything has stopped.
Shi Le issued a paper which said: “Now, after
great tumults, we have many confusing laws,
of them should be to selected the essentials, and should be introduced an article system”.
After that the scribe of legislative department Guan Zhi was ordered to compile 5 thousand
articles of the system established in the Xin-hai year, which was used for ten-plus years,
and then again the laws started to be used.
The Jin's governor of the Taishan district Xu Kan raised a revolt [against Jin dynasty] and surrendered to Shi Le.
Shi Jilongg, Zhang Jing, Zhang Bin, the Left and Right army commanders Zhang
Qulu and Cheng Xia, and about 130 civil and military officials presented a report
Now, when mountains and rivers have been calmed, stars and constellations are not changing their color, Xias (Chinese.-V.T.) and peoples living in the lands beyond four seas peacefully talk with each other through translators, the Sky and people connect their hopes with you. You really should rise to the highest main altar and enter the emperor throne, in order to render favor to those who supports you. We are imploring you to follow the lead of Liu Bei 189 from Shu, or Wei-wang 190 from Yecheng, and to create a Zhao state consisting of 11 districts: Henei, Weijun, Jijun, Dun-qui, Pinyuan, Qinhe, Julu, Chanshan, Zhongshan, Changle and Lepin, which together with the former 13 districts - Zhaogo, Guan-pin, Yanpin, Zhangu, Bohai, Hejian, Shandan, Dinxian, Fanyan, Yuyang, Wuyi, Yango and Lelin - they would make 24 districts with (Chinese, or settled) population of 290 thousand courtyards. The assignments inside the state should be made in an old fashion with replacement of the name of the taishou post with neishi. According to Yu-gun 191 and by an example of the Wei emperor Wu-di it is necessary to restore borders of the Jizhou province 192 so that in the south they reached the Men-qizn 193, in the west the Lunmen (orig.: Lunmyn/Ëóíìûí) 194, in the east Huanghe, in the north Saiyuany 195. Because the Great Shanyu holds in submission and cares for all the people living in the lands and carrying the duties of bridling the barbarians 196, three provinces should be dismantled - Bingzhou, Shozhou and Sizhou, and establish everywhere horde commanderies to control them. We are respectfully asking to sim s.uvazheniem to take with respect the will of the Sky, to meet expectations of the people”.
turning five times to the west and four times south, was refusing, but the officials
kept bowing to the ground, persistently asking him to agree, and eventually Shi Le
satisfied their request.
HISTORY OF JIN DINASTY (Jin shu), Ch. 104
Shi Le. Part 1
1. Wei-shu states that Shi Le child name was Pule [7, Ch. 95, p. 9-a]. The last name Shi and the name Le were given by Ji San, and it is quite possible that the name Le is derived from the last syllable of the child name Pule.
2. Jie, or Keshi (orig.: Öçå, or Öçåøè) is the name of a place where lived one of Hun hordes. Chinese became calling that horde Jie Hus (羯胡) (Huns) after the area, and thus Jie is not a self-designation of the horde [7, Ch. 95, p. 9-a]. The main town Uxian of the county is 30 li north-west of the modern county town Yuyshe in the Shanxi province [15, p., 516].
3. Apparently, the subject is the pastoral rout of the horde of the southern Hun Shanyu Qianziuy (Qiangqu 羌渠, Kyankyui, Kyangaoi, Qiang Qu; orig.: Öÿíöçþé), about whom is known the following: “In the second year [of Kuang-ho reign era, 179 AD] the head of bodyguards Zhang Xu quarrelled with Shanyu Huchjen, killed him, and on his own, without Emperor's sanction, raised a right Sian-wang (Ch. Xian) Kyankyui to the Shanyu throne. Since Zhang Xu executed Shanyu without permission of the Emperor, he was taken to the capital in a cage and handed over to the chief of the judicial department, who sentenced him to death (This is one of the testimonies that associate pin. Jie 羯 people with the Kiyan tribe, as a splinter of the Kiyans. The Kians (Huyans) were an ancient Hun's maternal dynastic tribe. Kians are also listed as one of the 12 or 15 Tele tribes. As a Hunnic and Türkic dynastic tribe the Kiyans are known throughout the Ancient and Middle Age history).
Shanyu Kyankyui ascended the throne in the second year of Kuen-ho reign era (179 AD). In the fourth year of the Zhong-ping reign era (187 AD) a former governor of the Zhongshan district Zhang Shun raised a revolt, headed the Syanbis, and began raiding border districts. The Emperor Ling Di ordered the Southern Huns (匈奴) to send troops, to punish the rebels jointly with Liu Yu, a governor of Yuzhou province. Shanyu sent to Yuzhou cavalry led by left Sian-wang. But his people were afraid that the Shanyu would be sending troops without an end, and so in the fifth year [of Zhong-pin reign era, 188 AD] the right horde Ilo, and various Huns' (匈奴) hordes in the Syuchu county, horde Baymatun, and others, more than 100 thousand people, rebelled and killed the Shanyu (Chinese annalistic explanation is suspicious, more likely the reason for the revolt was the discontent with the Chinese policy of divide and rule; the “Syanbi” tribes headed by the local Hun ruler may have had legitimate, in the eyes of the Huns, reasons for uprising, may have been a kindered Hun horde, like Toba, within the Syanbi confederation, and may have had marital or other kindred links with the Southern Hun hordes. The “were afraid” of being ordered around by the Chinese as a reason for the revolt may be a less immediate motive for the uprising. In the Hun's eyes Kyankyui was illigitimate Shanyu from a maternal, and not a paternal dynastic line, installed by allien ruler).
Shanyu Kyankyui remained on the throne for ten years, after him the throne ascended his son Yuyfulo, who had a post of right Sian-wang” [21, Ch. 89, pp. 32-a - 32-b].
4. Wang Yan (256-311), nicknamed Yifu, was an outstanding representative of Neodaosism in Western Jin. During the troubles raised by eight princes (300-306), he deftly maneuvered between Sima Lun, with title Zhao-wang, Sima Jun, with title Chi-wang, Sima Ying, with title Chekdu-wang, and Sima Yue, with title Donghai-wang, and held the post of Chief of Public Works, a Guardian of Morals and a Great Commander, but during the era of Yung-jia reign was captured by Shi Le and was killed [20, Ch. 43, pp. 8-a - 10-a].
5. The text is in error, instead of an era of Tai An reign (302-303), established by the Jin Emperor Hui-di, is indicated an era of Da-An reign [23, Vol. 2, p. 945].
6. Bingzhou - a province established during the Han dynasty that occupied territory of modern Inner Mongolia, most of the Shanxi province and some od Hebei province. During the Eastern Han it was included in the Jizhou province, but during the Three Kingdoms (220-280) was again restored. It occupied the land in the middle course of the river Fenshui, in the Shanxi province.
7. Yanmen - district established by the Qin dynasty in the northern part of modern Shanxi Province.
8. The text erroneously named the chief commander of the Northern Lake (baijie duwei) instead of the chief commander of the Northern Horde (beiby duwei) was [23, Vol. 2, p. 945]. As stated in the biography of Liu Yuanhai, “Wei Emperor Wu-di-di divided it (Huchushoan. - V.T.) people into five parts, placing Liu Bao a left leader. The representatives of the surname Liu were appointed leaders of the remaining parts. In the era of Tai-kan reign (280-289) instead of the leaders were installed chief commanders. The left side [of the Hun's hordes] lived in the Syuanshi county, in the Taiyuan district, the right side lived in the Qi county, the southern part lived in the Puzi county, the northern part in Xinxing county, the center part in the Dzlin county” [20, Ch. 101, p. 1-a].
9. Chief Commander (duwei) - during the Qin dynasty in charge of each of the 36 districts, into which the empire was divided, was installed a district commander, who assisted the District Chief in military affairs. In 148 BC the post of district commander was given a new name, duwei, “Chief Commander”. The Chief Commanders, like the heads of the districts, were receiving sustenance allowance of 2 thousand dans of grain per year [41, Ch. 19-a, l. 15-b].
10. Jizhou - one of the nine regions into which the legendary Emperor Yui allegedly divided China after elimination of the consequences of terrible floods. Supposedly, the Jizhou region occupied territory of the modern Shanxi province, the north-western part of the Hebei province, the northern part of the Henan Province, and the western part of the Liaoning province. Starting with the Han time, a province with that name existed at all subsequent dynasties, but its territory gradually diminished, and typically to it are ascribed the modern Hebei province and the northern part of the Henan province.
11. Zhiping - county with main town 65 li north-east of the modern county town Liaocheng in the Shandong province [15, p. 806].
12. Wang Penzu .- Penzu is a nickname of Wang Jung, a son of a Jin official Wang Chen. At the age 15, after the death of Wang Jung's father, he became his successor, and began his career with the post of a chief commander in charge of the chariot escort horses. Later he held posts of freelance cortege rider the as an employee of the State Chancellery, a freelance permanent palace serviceman, commander of cavalry troops surpassing abilities of others, a commander of the right wing, and lastly was appointed a head of the Hunei district headquartered in Xu-chan (a modern Siuichan county in the Henan province).
At that time the situation in China has heated immeasurably. From 291 to 306, i.e. for 15 years at the Jin dynasty court went on a continuous strife. In 290, after a death of the Emperor Wu-di the throne passed to his heir, a feeble-minded Emperor Hui-di. In matters of governance Hui-di was helped by Yang Jun, belonging to the clan Yang, a clan of the late Emperor Wu-di's wife. This incensed a clever and insidious intrigante Hui-di's wife, who belonged to the clan Jia, who had Sima Wei with a title Chu-wang, to kill Yang Chun, after which shetransferred the ruling affairs into the hands of a member of the imperial clan Sima Liang with a title Zhunan-wang. As a result, among the three clans, Yang, Jia, and Sima flaired up a bitter power struggle. Shortly thereafter, following an order of the Empress, Sima Wei killed Sima Liang, but a trouble was waiting for him too. Accusing her faithful servant in a vicious murder of Sima Liang, the Empress had him killed, and deposed the son of Hui-di, a heir to the throne, and sent him into Siuichan, where Wang Jun, again at her command, deprived him of his life.
In gratitude, Wang Jun was given a rank of commander-pacifier of the north, and a position of a governor of Qingzhou province, and soon he was proclaimed to be an imperial emissary, and was appointed a head of all military affairs in Yuzhou province. Worrying more about his own welfare than of the fate of the state, Wang Jun sought to establish friendly relations with the nomads, and even gave his two daughters in marriage to the Syanbi leaders Uuchen and Sushuyan. Without interfering in the struggle for the throne, he waited to which side the victory would tilt. That caused an anger of Sima Ying, one of the contenders for the throne, who presented to the Emperor a report asking to appoint Shi Kan, a ruler of Yuzhou province, a right-wing commander, and the right-wing commander He Yan install in his place, at the same time secretly ordering He Yan to kill Wang Jung.
Executing the order, He Yan secured support of Uhuan leader Shenden, and agreed with Wang Jung about a meeting south of the city Jichen, during which he intended to slay him. However, because of heavy rain He Yan had to return, and Shenden interpreted this return as an expression of the will of Heaven that sent down rain to save Wang Jung. So he switched to the Wang Jung side, told him about He Yan's plans, and together they surrounded him, and when He Yan gave up, killed him.
By joining forces with the troops of the Syanbi chief Uuchen, Wang Jun marched against Sima Ying, defeated his commander Shi Zhao, and expanding success occupied the town of Yecheng (north of the modern county town Linchzhan in the Hebei province). The achieved victory greatly strengthened the position of Wang Jung.
Later, Wang Jun helped the Emperor Hui-di to return to Luoyang, in gratitude Hui-di bestowed upon him the title of a great military leader, a team of strong horses, and he was appointed to the post of Chief Commander of all military matters connected with the eastern Yis north of the Huanhe, and a governor of the Yuzhou province. The next Emperor Huai-di handed Wang Jung additional post of a Chief of Public Works and the bailiff of Wuhuan.
In an era of Yung-jia reign (3071-3131) Shi Le, attacking Jizhou province, killed the provincial governor Wang Bin, after which Wang Jun in addition to Yuzhou also began to govern the Jizhou province. After assembling troops, he sent them against Shi Le located in Xiangguo (襄國, in modern county town Xintai in the Hebei province, orig.: Siango). In the campaign participated Jiliujuan, a son of the Wuhuan leader Uuchen, his younger brother Wenyang and his cousin Mopi. Shi Le suffered a defeat, but persuing him Mopi was captured, and ransomed by Jiliujuan, who concluded with Shi Le a friendship treaty.
Wang Jung lost an ally, and had to continue the war with Shi Le alone, but in the events intervened a Jin commander Liu Kun, who became the main opponent of Wang Jung. By that time, Wang Jun found himself in a difficult situation. Heavy levies, rampant corruption among officials, severe drought and invasion of locust brought people to extreme distress. The general discontent was intensified by Wang Jung willful acts, who even decided to acquire a “high title”, i.e. to declare himself an emperor. Therefore, a commander of one of the military detachments Yu Tung establish secret links with Shi Le and developed with him a plan, by which Shi Le would falsely express his desire to surrender to Wang Jung and recognize him as emperor. Delighted Wang Jung invited Shi Le to come to the town Ji, preparing for him a rich feast. When Shi Le drove to the Wang Jung house and he came out to meet him, he was seized by Shi Le troops. Shi Le sent Wang Jung to Xiangguo (襄國, in modern county town Xintai in the Hebei province, orig.: Siango), where after some time he has beheaded [20, Ch. 39, pp. 2-b - 5-a].
13. Uan - same as the modern Uan county in the Henan province [15, p. 510].
14. Central Region (Zhongzhou) - refers to the modern Henan Province. In ancient times it was called “Yuizhou province”, and because it was in the middle of the nine regions into which China was divided, it was also called and Central.
15. Danin - county with main town on the site of the modern county town Tanin in the Henan province [15, p. 837].
16. Liu Yuanhai. - Yuanhai was a nickname of Liu Yuan (?-310), who during the Sixteen States of five northern tribes period founded the Han dynasty, which entered (Chinese) history under a name Former Zhao. As described in Jin-shu, [20, Ch. 101], Liu Yuanhai is a descendant of the famous Hun Shanyu Maodun with whom the Han Emperor Gao-zong (206-195 BC) signed a peace treaty based on kinship, giving him in marriage a girl from his clan. That gave Liu Yuanhai a cause to take the surname Liu, and call the dynasty he created Han.
The father of Liu Yuanhai, Liu Bao, with title Left Xian Wang, had a position of a leader of the left wing of the Hun hordes in the territory of the modern Shanxi Province. In his youth, Liu Yuanhai received a splendid Chinese education, he was a good horseman and a swordsman. During turmoils raised by eight princes that led to a sharp weakening of the Jin dynasty, Liu Yuanhai served Sima Yin, who had a title of Chengdu-wang. Under a pretext of the need to assemble the Hun troops to provide more effective aid, Liu Yuanhai rode into the town Zuogochen (north-east of the modern county town Lishi in the Shanxi province), where he abandoned the Jin dynasty and took a post of Great Shanyu, and in 304 took a title of the Han-wang. After that he brought the southern part of modern Shanxi Province into submission, in the east attracted Shi Le and Wang Mi, and in 308 ascended the imperial throne. After that Liu Yuanhai attacked twice Luoyang, the capital of the Jin dynasty, but was unable to take it, even though he was using all his troops. The actions of Liu Yuanhai opened a way for the alien tribes to establish their domination over the Northern China.
In the biography of Liu Yuanhai explains: “In the first year of the era of reign Yung-hsing (304) Liu Yuanhai built in the southern suburbs [Zuogo-cheng] the altar and illegally assumed the throne under the title Han-Wan> [20, Ch. 101, p. 4-a]. “In Litina Liu Yuanhai moved only in the next year due to a severe famine that struck the county Lishi, in which the city was Zuogochen” [20, Ch. 101, p. 4-b].
17. Zhaojun - district created in the lands of the former Zhao possession, in the south-western part of today's Hebei Province and the northern part of the Shanxi province. During the Jin dynast the administration of the district was in a provincial town Fanzi south-west of the modern county town Gaoi in the Hebei province [15, p. 374].
18. Weijun - district created during the Han dynasty. During the Jin dynasty administration of the district was in the provincial town Yecheng 40 li south-west of the modern county town Linchzhan in the Henan province [15, p. 944].
19. Baima (White Horse?) - county with main town located 20 li to the east of the modern county town Huaxian in the Henan province [15, p. 683].
20. Tinghou - lower title, given during the Han dynasty to the le hou, i.e., men not belonging to the imperial family. The Hou-Han shu reads: “Le hou ... [had] a golden seal on a dark red cord given as a merit reward. Those of greater merit had a feeding right from a county, of smaller merit from a county (xian) or region (ting) (In modern administrative devision, county is xian, county-level city is shi and local district is qu). The officials and people from whom they fed were their servants” (serf system) [21, Ch. 118, pp. 14-a - 14-b]. Tinghou can be translated as “township hou”. In the Western Han the title tinghou was given rarely, but in the Eastern Han, Northern Wei, and Jin it became widespread (The parasitic serf-based “feeding” system was a trait of the Sinicization, when previously free nobles were given a chance to become serf-owning parasites. In contarst, the Hunnic societal system was of egalitarian type, with every family, from the lowest to the highest, providing for themselves, and the highest were elected to ensure that the tribesmen wellfare was sufficiently secured. Both the Hatun household and the Shanyu household were their privite self-sustained possessions within their respective tribes, independendent ans separate from the state coffers, which were controlled by the Right Jükü-Bek” 右屠耆王, in Chinese rendition Right Tuqi-wang 右屠耆王 or Yu Xian-wang 右贤王. The Huns brought over their Sinicization to the Eastern and Central Europe, where in the Late Antique and Early Middle Ages we already encounter the serf system imposed on the Slavs, with the Slavic term “smerd”, various versions in different languages derived for “slave”, and possibly a derivational “serf”, and the “feeding” system as a normal organization of society in the Eastern Europe, well documented in the Slavic annals. The Hunnic system of serfdom only applied to the defenceless sedentary agricultural population, it could not be sustained in the mobile animal husbandry society, or for defence-capable mountain populations).
Zhongmin - lit. “Faithful and wise.”
21. Yanjing - a county with main town on the site of the same named modern county town located 90 li north of Zhengzhou in the Henan province [15, p. 333].
22. Yanzhou - a province established during the Eastern Han dynasty. During the Jin dynasty the administrative center of the province was located in the city Chani 40 li north-west of the modern county town Jinxian (Jining) in the Shandong province [15, p. 415].
23. Leling - county with administrative center located 30 li south-west of the modern county town Leling in the Shandong province [15, p. 497].
24. Yuzhou - a province founded, in accordance with tradition, by the legendary emperor Shun, who carved up for it a north-eastern part of the Jizhou province. It is believed that the Yuzhou province included the northern part of the Hebei province and some areas of the Liaoning province. During the Jin dynasty control of the province was located in the provincial town Jo, on the site of the modern county town Zhoxian in the Hebei province.
25. Refugees who fled from famine to the Yuzhou province - this is a translation of only two characters jiho, literally meaning “to ask about saving life”. Explaining this expression, Hu Sanxing (1230-1287) said that it means refugees from famine areas coming to places with sufficient supply of grain [17, Ch. 118, p. 3727].
26. Pinyuan - county with administrative center located 20 li south of the modern county town of the same-named in the Shandong province [15, p. 312].
27. Guandu - a city north-east of the modern county town Zhongmou in the Henan province [15, p. 250].
28. Lepin - county with main town 40 li south-east from the modern county town Tanya in the Shandong province [15, p. 495].
29. Shangdang - district, occupies the south-eastern, mountainous areas of modern Shanxi Province.
30. Liu Cong (of Luanti 欒提 royal clan, ? - 318, r. 310 - 318) with a nickname Xuan-min (Xuanmen 玄門, the 玄 Huyen most likely indicates the tribal affiliation of his mother, of the Huyan tribe, the 門 min/men corresponds to the English me and Turkmen men, in this case “of”, a la “I am Huyan” or “of Huyan”, a frequent naming in Hunnic/Türkic royal households with one Hatun and a number of secondary wifes from different tribes, in his case of a wife whose name was preserved as Huyan 呼延 ; if that conjecture is right, Liu Cong did not have any rights to the throne, his status was a derelict Prince outside of the Lateral Succession lineup; his grand-grandfather was Southern Huns puppet Shanyu Yufuluo 于夫罗, probably from Uigur tribe as hinted by his name, ficticious reign 188–195, his grandfather was Southern Huns Eastern (Left ~ Zuo) Jükü (Tuqi)-Bek 左屠耆王 Liu Bao 刘豹, whose name sounds like a parroted version of Ulu(g)bek, and who goes in the Chinese annals as a Worthy King of the Left 屠耆王左, and therefore a next in line to the throne; his father known under Chinese moniker Liu Yuan 劉淵 and under his name Yuanhai 元海 was elected a legitimate Southern Huns Shanyu in 304, continuing a line of the legitimate Southern Huns Shanyus with mute relationship to the Luanti 欒提 tribe and claim to the Maodun Shanyu descendency. The line of Southern Huns Shanyus is 17. Huchjen (Luanti, 15th generation after Maodun, 178-179), 18. Kyankyui (Qiang Qu of Huyan mother, 15th generation after Maodun, 179-188), 19. Hyuibu (likely of Uigur mother, 16th generation after Maodun, 188-189), 19a. Unnamed Prince regent (189-195) 20. Huchutsuan (Luanti Huxuquan, Hu Chuquan, 16th generation after Maodun, 195-215), 21. puppet Shanyu Kyuibi (likely of Huyan mother, 215-) ) )was a fourth son of the Han (i.e. Han Zhao) dynasty founder Liu Yuan, and the third emperor of the Hun (匈奴) dynasty Õàíü (i.e. Han Zhao). He received finest Chinese education, and living in Luoyang, maintained friendly relations with many prominent scientists. Commanding troops, he won a sympathy of the troopers and became a close associate of Liu Yuan, who appointed him as a Great Commander and a Great Shanyu (of the Southern Huns), which gave Liu Cong a chance to concentrate in his hands the actual power. In 310, after a death of Liu Yuan, the throne passed to his eldest son Liu He, but Liu Cong killed him and seized the Emperor throne.
In 311, Liu Cong's commander Liu Yao and Wang Mi attacked the Jin capital Luoyang, which was taken, and the Emperor Huai-di was captured. After the death of Huai-di to the Jin throne ascended Emperor Ming-di, but in 316 he also was taken prisoner by Liu Yao, who attacked the capital Chang'an. After the capture of the Emperor Ming-di the Western Jin dynasty ceased to exist. Using Shi Le, Liu Cong consolidated his power in the east. After the death of Liu Cong, at the court of the Han (i.e. Han Zhao) dynasty started infighting, the government split into two parts, one of which was headed by Shi Le, who in 329 destroyed the Han (i.e. Han Zhao) dynasty, known as Former Zhao dynasty.
31. Huguan is
a county with the main town 30 li south-east of the modern county city Changzhi in the
Shanxi province. In the mountains in a form of a carafe was built an outpost, called
Huguan - “Carafe Checkpoint” [15, p. 184].
text erroneously written instead of the character gun - “merit” a character
146. This refers to the occupation in 311 of the Jin capital Luoyang by the Liu Cong's
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
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