In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
The Huns in Chinese annals
Sources on Eastern Hun history
  V.S. Taskin (1917-1995)
USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies
3 - 5 cc. AD
Issue 2
Jie (Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)

Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1990, Print 1000 copies, ISBN 5-02-016543-3


The posting's introduction is given on the author's introduction page. Jie is an offshoot of the Türkic tribe Kiyan, also known as Kiyat, probably with the Mongolian plural. ending. The Russian derivative word of the Türkic koch (English coach) “kohevie” ~ “êî÷åâüå” that refleted the Chunese “bu”, is translated as horde. In this use the horde is an economical-social subdivision of a state, a tribal union, or a tribe, associated with certain ancestral pasturing route or pasturing territory, semantically different from the homophonic horde = army. Horde is a self-contained community united by traditional social ties like kinship or marital union, and generally is a conglomerate consisting of extended families belonging to the same ethnic group and able to propagate their possession of the pasturing route. Except for the introductory part, where is given the origin of the Jie branch and the origin of their Chinese name, the Jin shu annals refer to Jie almost exclusively as Hu and Huns.

* * *.

The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes. Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue. Highlighted comment numbers bring attention to the subjects more relevant to the Türkic history then to the Chinese history. Bibliographic references are numbered and listed in the Bibliography Section. Where possible, the author's Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcriptions were changed to Pinyin, to facilitate search, but because a switch to Pinyin coding frequently distorts or makes phonetics ambiguous, the phonetization of the original is generally retained also. It was noted that the annals, even composed by a single author like Sima Qian, use different expressions for the same phenomenon, in case of the Huns they are interchangeably called Hu and Hunnu (Hu 胡 and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴), and in reference to Jie they are interchangeably called Hu, and Hunnu, and occasionally Jie (Hu 胡, and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴, and Pinyin Jie 羯); personal and geographical names also come in variety of spellings; where appropriate, the Chinese form is given to facilitate search and verification, and possibly catch inaccuracies in translation. The identification of the Chinese 匈奴with the historical Eastern Huns is beyond any doubts for better then half a century, and this posting replaced all incarnations of Chinese-derived appellations with their modern appellation Hun, but attempts to retain the original formulation. Where direct correspondence between the Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcription of V.S.Taskin and their Pinyin counterparts has not been found, a putative Pinyin reconstruction used the following conventions: Ts = X or Q, Tsz = J, S = S or X, all without any systematic rules. In most cases, reconstructed spelling follows the Wikipedia Cyrillization of Chinese, except where it conflicts with the implied intent of the author.

V.S.Taskin. Introduction
  On the Jie ethnogenesis 5
  Customs, traditions, and beliefs 21
Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 104
  Shi Le, Part 1 28
 Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 105
  Shi Le. Part 2. Shi Le sons - Shi Hung and Chang Bing 64
Fang Xuanling. History of Jin dynasty, ch. 106
  Shi Jilun. Part 1 95
Fang Xuanling . History of Jin dynasty, ch. 107
  Shi Jilun. Part 2. Shi Jilun sons Shi Shi, Shi Zun and Shi Jian, Jan Min 122
Notes 149
Bibliography 208
Index of names and titles 210
Index of geographical, churches, palaces, gates, cemeteries names 229
Glossary 241
V.S. Taskin
3 - 5 cc. AD
Issue 2
(Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)
Fang Xuanling

(Jin shu), Ch. 104
Shi Le. Part 1

Shi Le (274-333), by nickname Shilun, original name Áýé (Fule 匐勒 ?) 1, a native of a place called Tsze (pin. Jie 羯), in Uxian (pin. Wuxian)county, in Shang-dan district 2. His ancestors descended from a separate Hun's horde (幫/帮 buluo, lit. tribe of tents) Kyankyui (羌渠 Qiangqu, Kyankyui, Kyangaoi, Qiang Qu; orig.: Öÿíöçþé) 3. His grandfather was Yeyiyu (耶奕于 , orig: Eiyui) and father was Zhouhezhu (周曷朱, orig: Zhouhechju), with a second name Qiyijia/Qiizia (乞翼加, orig: Öèèöçÿ), both were minor leaders in their horde (This is one of the testimonies that associate pin. Jie 羯 people with the Kiyan tribe, as a splinter of the Kiyans. The Kiyans (Huyans) were an ancient Hun's maternal dynastic tribe. Kiyans are also listed as one of the 12 or 15 Tele tribes. As a Hunnic and Türkic dynastic tribe the Kiyans are known throughout the Ancient and Middle Age history).

From what we know of the modern Qiang (羌族, where 羌 is Qiang, and 族 = zu is people, tribe, compare Yue-zhi), we can deduce that their name is a Sinified form of Kiyans (Huyans), their Chinese sobriquet is erma or rma (尔玛, which may be etymologized as horseriders with fiery arrows), i.e. they were already depicted as horse hasbandry people in the eyes of the ancient Chinese. For the modern Qiangs their name appears to be a politonym, analogous to Celts becoming French, Slavs becoming Ruses or Bulgars, and Nakhs becoming Ases. The modern Qiangs appear to be a product of ancient symbiosis between the horse pastoralists Kiyans and agro-hunter-getherer Tibetans. The traces of non-Tibeto-Burman component are visible in the modern Qiang ethnology. These are noted in the language (Abba for ancestor and Almighty God, compare Papai of Scythians and Türkic Babai ~ grandfather; Sinified Chi as Tengri ~ God of Heaven, Chenli in Chinese rendition), customs (matrilineality, sexual freedom, sacral restrictions on a pregnant women, sleeveless jackets, girdles, millet in diet, wine tolerance), religion (Chi for Tengri), and probably many more.

As a working hypothesis, it can be accepted that because the Kiyan women were destined to be the wifes of the Hun's male dynastic tribe Luyanti, the Kiyans lined up in a matrimonial union with a tribe of their Tibetan dependents, thus producing little Kiyans that would repeat the cycle by delegating their girls to the Huns, and their boys to the Tibetans. This process is known from the half-Mongol, half-Hun tribe that entered the ethnological history as Toba/Tofa/Tofalar/Ch. pin. Tuoba, from the As/Tokhar union, and numerous other documented examples of Türkic history. The underlying ethnological tradition is a rule of exogamous marriage that extended from Antique times to Modern Age. This hypothesis explains the etymology of the term, and elucidates the pages of Qiang history. It should be expected that at some ancient time Qiangs spoke a Tibeto-Burman language, the language of their mamas, with assimilated Türkic lexicon and elements of Türkic grammar of their papas as an adstrate.

The oddity of Qiang language attracted philologists for a long time.  The Tibeto-Burman languages do not have verb agreement systems, the vast majority of all Tibeto-Burman languages have no trace whatsoever of ever having had one. These languages include four of the five languages which have writing systems more than four hundred years old: Tibetan (seventh century), Burmese (twelfth century), Newari (fourteenth century) and Yi (Lolo; sixteenth century). Only Tangut (ancestor of modern Qiang in China, writing system in twelfth century), on the other hand, has an optional, morphologically simple, etymologically transparent verb agreement system that shows no signs of age. Tangut and (at least some of) the modern Qiang languages, all of which have complex agreement systems involving tense/aspect and portmanteau morphemes. One or more of the Qiang peoples, particularly the Muya, have been said to be descendants of the Tangut (Ran, Li and Zhou, 1984: 184-5; Li, 1989: 222; see also Sun, 1991 on the relationship between the Qiang languages and Tangut).
Kwanten Luk, 1984, The Phonological Hypothesis of the Hsi Hsia (Tangut) Language pp. 159-184(26)//T'oung Pao
Kwanten, Luc. 1982, Verbal agreement in Tangut: a conflicting opinion, Linguistics of the Tibeto- Burman Area, 7/1: 55-62.
Randy J. LaPolla, 1992, On the Dating and Nature of Verb Agreement in Tibeto-Burman, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 55, No. 2 (1992), pp. 298-315 (http://victoria.linguistlist.org/~lapolla/rjlapolla/papers/LaPolla-Dating_and_Nature_of_Verb_Agreement_in_TB.pdf)

Not all Kiyan girls were absorbed exclusively by the Luyanti men, they could also marry into other Hunnic prestigious tribes, and a certain portion could marry Tibetan men, provided that those specific rules of exogamy that governed their life allowed that. Various divergence and convergence processes impacted their traditions and language since then, and the period of the Hunnic/Tibetan matrimonial partnership may only be found in spotty remnants, and in the historical records that describe Qiangs as nomadic horse herders with a tradition of military distinction. We can be absolutely sure that the now traditional two-story stone houses are a result of non-Kiyan influence, the nomadic horse husbandry precludes drugging around stone mini-forts on their travel wagons. It can be also suggested that the Kiyan/Tibetan marital partnership predates the appearance of the Hunnic state in the 2nd c. BC, when the Kiyan tribe was recorded as an old marital partner of the Huns, supplanted by the newer marital partner Hui/Sui/Yui/Uigur tribe, and it likely belongs to the previous period when the center of the Hun life was located in the vegetation-lush steppes of the Tarim and Taklamakan plains, abutting the Tibetan platau and Pamir mountains. The tradition of inherent division of labor between Qiang men and women reflects the initial Bronze Age hierarchy of the tribal pecking order, women engaged in status-despised activities, and men handling higher-status work.

There is little understanding of the Qiang dialects, their ethnic history, their Swadesh composition. The extinct Tangut language is grouped with Qiang branch, but it may conceal as a complex descent as the Qiang tribe itself. A number of 19th c. linguistic classifications turned out to be anywhere between wrong and absurd, and the process of linguistic re-classification is far from complete for many languages.

In the following comments, Qiangs are interpreted as a branch of Tibetans, with understanding that politically and ethnologically they may as well be called Huns, Kiyans, Türks, Türko-Tibetans, or Tibeto-Türks, or any Tibeto-XXX combination thereof.

Among Qiangs, or next to Qiangs, the annals exude Black Qiangs, and the ajective "black" is a prominent ajective in Turkology, denoting a huge number of tribes over vast distances and over two millennia. It has at least three main meanings, never clearly elucidated for the later generations, and possibly polysemantic to begin with. These are:
1. Western (Kara Deniz ~ Western Sea ~ Black Sea, Kara Turgesh ~ Western Turgesh, Kara Kithan ~ Western Kithan etc.,
2. Lower, dependent, i.e. black bone people, as opposed to white bone people, i.e. dominated vs. dominating, in English blue vs. red blood ancestry (Kara Bulgars/Ak Bulgars, Ak Huns ~ White Huns ~ Hephthalites ~ Abdaly with ab = white, Kara Tatars/Ak Tatars etc.),
3. Dark skinned and /or dark haired, this is the default definition where two previous semantics are clearly inapplicable. The origin of the name is the same as with any other racial epithet, evoked by the contrast between the northern pale and blond Tele tribes and the darker southern and East Asian people. This semantic usually has a mutual property: while the Chinese called the Türkic Tele "Red Chi" and "Red Di" and "Red Jungs/Rongs", the northern Türks called the Chinese among them "Black XXX", and the northern Türks are still sensitive to the dark eyed or dark haired individuals among them. Since the Tele-circle tribes occupied forest-steppe zone stretching from Danube to Amur, the number of various people that fell into this category is huge, and it definitely inclludes contrast between numerous branches of the southern and northern Türkic people, like the ethnonym Kupchak ~ Kuu Chak ~ White Saka = Kuu Kiji ~ White People, White/Black Khazars, etc.

The Chinese ethnonym Black Qiangs definitely carries an ethnic message, but its nature needs a close examination.

Chinese annals have numerous references to Qiangs living in yurts. In the last two millennia, this mobile lifestile gained wide distribution, and spilled over to a number of Türkic neighbors, which is also frequently documented in the Chinese annals in the form "they fled and started to live in yurts". For many sedentary forest foot hunter-getherers (like Mongols, Tunguses) and sedentary mountain animal husbandry tribes (like Tibetans) the switch to the horse nomadism was quite drastic, and could only be precipitated by symbiotic intermixing. In every case, the bulk of the sedentary populace remained in situ, continuing their traditional lifestile, their traditional housing technology, and their traditional mortuary practices, which remain stable benchmarks in the direction of the cultural borrowings. The Qiangs living in yurts represent a phenomenon that needs to be viewed in the complexity of their history.

This translation of the V.S.Taskin work renders the Chinese term Qiang and its Russian version Kyan/Öÿí/Êÿí, following the present nomencalture, as Tibetans, with understanding that they were as much Tibetans as the Celts were German Franks.

At the moment of Shi Le birth, red light filled the room, and white vapors descended from the to the courtyard, which amazed everybody who saw it. At an the age of 14, together with a fellow countryman, Shi Le was peddling in Luoyang; [once] he stood and whistled at the Shandunmen gate, On seeing him, Wang Yan 4 was amazed, and glancing round, told the onlookers: “In my opinion, the voice and the eyes of this Hu (胡) greenhorn, whom I just saw, testify to his extraordinary aspirations. I am afraid that in the future he will bring calamities to the Celestial”, and urgently sent people to seize Shi Le, but that already left.

At the time of maturation, Shi Le was distinguished with health, bravery, and belligerence, he was a good rider and a bow shooter. [His fathersobriquet Zhou] hechju had a character was vicious and rough, the Hus (胡) avoided him, and therefore he was always ordering Shi Le substitute for him in the affairs connected with supervision and operation of the horde, and the members of the horde liked Shi Le and trusted him.

At the mountain foothills, in the steppe, north from the Uxian city, where Shi Le lived, the grass and trees looked like horsemen dressed in iron armor, and in the garden of his house grew a ginseng covered with abundant flowers and foliage, the form of which roots resembled a human. All respectable elders and augurs spoke on his appearance: “This Hu (胡) has an amazing appearance and extraordinary will power, it is impossible to foretell how his life will end”, and urged fellows villager to treat Shi Le well. However at that time many were sneering at these words, and only Go Jing, a native of Wu, and Nin Qu who lived in Yanqu, believed [these predictions] and were helping Shi Le. And Shi Le also, touched by their kindness, diligently worked their fields. [During work] he frequently heard sounds of military drums and signal metal gongs, about which he was telling his mother when he came home, but the mother was saying:

“It is ringing in [your] ears from the hard work, nothing foretells disasters”.

During Tai-an reign era 5 (302-.303) when in the area Bing-zhou 6 flared hungry revolts, Shi Le and other contemptible Hus (胡) began to scatter; [Shi Le] returned from the Yanmen district 7 to Nin Qu. The main commander of the Northern Horde (Southern Huns) 8 Liu Jian wanted to seize and sell Shi Le, but Nin Qu hid him; he was saved. After that Shi Le secretly went to surrender to the main commander 9 Li Chuan. On the road he met Go Jing, an executioner, bowed to him, and told him how he suffered because of hunger and cold. Go Jing burst into tears, fed him porridge that he was bringing for sale, and gave him clothes. Shi Le told Go Jing: “Now reigns a strong hunger, there is no strength to bear the extreme need. The Hus (胡) starve terribly, they should be enticed to the Jichjou area 10, where is plenty of grain, and then capture and sell them, it will be good for them and for us”. Go Jing completely approved that suggestion.

At that time Yan Tsui, with a rank of a commander who dispayed greatness, convinced the governor of the Bingzhou province (Before Tang dynasty, 618-907, a zhou 州 stood for "province" and was a largest territorial division of the time. later, zhou devalued and became equivalent to xian 县/縣, in modern lingo "prefecture" or "county"; a district is equivalent to a "military district" and may cover a number of counties) Sima Teng titled Duningun to catch Hus (胡) in the lands east from the mountains and sell them to cover military expences. Sima Teng ordered commanders Go Yan and Zhang Lun to seize the Hus (胡) and send them to the Jichjou area, putting one neck shackle (Ch. zia) on two people. Shi Le, who at that time was more than twenty years old, also fell among the seized, and repeatedly bore beatings and insults from Zhang Lun.

China Provinces ca. 300 AD

Before that Go Jing charged Go Yan and Go Shi, a son of his senior brother, to care for Shi Le. Go Yan was a Go Jing's senior brother, therefore Go Yan and Go Shi were asking convoy men all the time for Shi Le, who due to them avoided illnesses and famine on the way.

Soon Shi Le was sold into slavery to a native of Zhi-pin county 11 Shi Huan. A respectable elder came to him and said: “In your entangled hair already appeared four lines, you should become a noble and will be a ruler of the people. In the year of cyclic sign zia-syui (314 AD) you can take measures against Wang Pentszu 12”. Shi Le responded: “If it would happen as you foretell, I shall not dare to forget the favor you rendered for me”. Unexpectedly, the elder disappeared.

Every time, working in a field, Shi Le heard sounds of military drums and horns, he was telling about it the other slaves, who also heard them. Then Shi Le said: “At home, in my childhood, I constantly heard similar sounds”, about which the slaves informed Shi Huan, who [also] amazed by the Shi Le appearance, freed him from slavery. Next to the Shi Huan house was a pasture for horses, with its warden Ji Sang (汲桑), a native of Weizong district, Shi Huan was keeping in touch; Shi Le, able to detect abilities of horses, resolved to gain his protection.

Once, hired in district Uan 13, Shi Le came near a river and was seized by a patrol group, but at that time near them passed a herd of goats, the warriors rushed in pursuit, and Shi Le was salved. Unexpectedly the respectable elder appeared again, telling him: “The goat herd that just passed was me. You are to become a ruler of the Central zone 14, therefore I have rescued you”. Shi Le bowed to the elder as a sign of accepting the order, assembled eight horsemen, including Wang Yan, Kui An, Zhi Siun, Ji Bao, Wu Yui, Liu In, Tao Bao, and Lu Min, and organised a gang of robbers (In Türkic terminology, Cossaks, also spelled Kazakh [Like in Kazakh-stan]). Later Go Ao, Liu Zhen, Liu Bao, Zhang Ipu, Huyang Mo, Go Hei-liue, Zhang Yue, Kun Tun, Zhao Luchzhi and Qu Liu joined him, altogether [together with the first eight] they were called eighteen horsemen. In surprize attacks, like reddy racers and fine stallions in a reservation, appearing and disappearing in eastern lands, mounted the horses taken from the imperial pastures, they were seizing in the far lands silks and jewelry, and were bringing them to Ji San (The society where the beginning of the story develops parallells the Persian conquest of the Middle Asia, or Hunnic/Avar conquest of the Eastern Europe; in this case the Chinese and Hunnic elites become landlords and enslave the local mixed populace independently of their ethnic affiliation. It is impossible to tell the ethnicity of the landlords, and the highest level of the command should be presumed to be Chinese, the rest, including the troops patrol, are likely Hunnic. The scene with a herd of goats is a calque of the Herodotus' story about Scythians and a hare, when the whole Darius troops was dumbfounded wondering why they had to trudge that far around the sea to be so thoroughly ignored in favor of a stray hare. The nomadic impulses of the patrol tell the whole story. Like in Arab Caliphate, the nomadic mercenaries became a mainstay of the state, and like in Arab Caliphate, it did not take long for the mercenaries to take over. Creation of the revolting free-wheeling Cossak or Hiduk troops is a typical side effect. Considering that at that time the Chinese were still a dominant ethnicity, probably outnumbering the Huns 10:1, that would prevent the Hunnic landlords from seizing and enslaving Chinese peasants that were already a property of their Chinese masters, it can be safely presumed that enslavement of the nomadic Hun laymen was a deed of the Hunnic elite done using the Hunnic hands).

When Sima In, who had a title Chengdu-wang, defeated the imperial troops in Dangin district 15 and forced the emperor to move to a palace in Yecheng, Wang Jun ordered Syanbis to attack Sima In for offending the Son of the Sky. The scared Sima In, carrying the emperor Hui-di, fled south to Luoyang. There, Zhang Fan began pressing the emperor, and he moved to Chanan. After that, ostensibly intent on execution of Sima In, have risen all troops east of theHanguguan checkpoint, and Sima Yun, with a title He-jian-wang, afraid of the power of the troops in the east, and wishing to pacify the eastern part of the country, presented the emperor with a report with a plan on ousting Sima In.

That year (304 AD) Liu Yuanhai proclaimed himself in Litin to be a Han-wang 16, and the old commander of Sima In, a native of Yanpin county Gunshi Fang proclaimed himself a commander and started military actions in Zhaojung 17 and Weijung 18 districts, with number of his troops reached several tens of thousand men. Shi Le and Ji San, heading several hundreds shepherds (i.e. nomadic riders) on the horses taken from imperial pastures, set out to the aid of Gunshi Fang, and at that time Ji San for the first time gave Shi Le the surname Shi and name Le (石勒. If Ji San had to give Pule a Chinese moniker, he must be a Chinese, either uncomfortable with two-sillable Kiyan name, or parsing Pule as Pu-Le, and finding the part Pu unsuitable for Chinese ears).

Gunshi Fang appointed Shi Le a commander of a avantguarde, and following him, attacked Sima Mo in the Yecheng. Sima Mo rdered the commander Fan Sun to counterattack, and he defeated the attackers. Gunshi Fang crossed Huanghe in Baima district 19 and went south, but was killed by the governor of the Hanyang Gou Xi district, who encountered him.

Shi Le and Ji San fled and hid on a pasture for imperial horses, where Ji San established encampment headed by Shi Le, and himself headed the shepherds who began plundering districts and counties, seizing captives. In addition, he enlisted escapees in the mountains and bogs, most of whom he passed to Shi Le, and he headed these escapees in support of Ji San. Then Ji San declared himself a Great Commander, and announced that [revenging] Sima Yin titled Chengdu-wang he would kill Sima Yue (to express the ethnic term Yui for Uigur, Chinese is using a number of various characters with the same phometical form; quite possibly, the different spellings were adopted to conceal or distruct from the direct ethnical term, which had decidedly negative connotations in the Chinese language) titled Dunhai-wang, and Sima Teng titled Dungin-gun. Because Shi Le went in avant guarde and repeatedly accomplished feats in battles, Ji San gave him a rank of a fighter commander of contemptible enemies, and a title Zhongmin tinhou 20.

Advancing the troops, and after appointing Shi Le a Chief Commander of the vanguard units, Ji San attacked the city of Yecheng, strong defeating a Sima Teng commander, Feng Sunu, and tirelessly pursuing the adversary, he entered Yecheng and killed Sima Teng, slew over 10 thousand people, siezed women and jewelry, and then abandoned the city. Crossing Huanghe in the Yanjin district 21, Ji San attacked Yanzhou province 22 in the south, which extremely frightened Sima Yue, who sent Gou Xi and Wang Zan to punish him.

Ji San and Shi Le attacked in the Lelin district 23 the governor of the Yuzhou province 24 Shi Xian and killed him. Tian Yin moved to the Yuzhou province fleeing famine, 25, in the head of the troops numbering 50 thousand warriors he marched to the aid of Shi Xian, but Shi Le countered and defeated him.
For several months Ji San and Shi Le took a stand against Gou Xi and other [Jin] commanders on a line between the Piniuange and Yanpin counties; during [that time] were more than 30 large and small battles, won by one or the other side. To support Gou Xi, the frightened Sima Yue encamped with his troops near Guan-du 27. Gou Xi defeated Ji San and Shi Le, they lost over 10 thousand men killed, and gathering the remaining troops they were going to flee to Liu Yuanhai. However the governor of the Jizhou province Din Shao intercepted them at Chiqiao, the Red bridge, and inflicted on them again a strong defeat. Ji San fled to the pasture for the imperial horses, and Shi Le fled to the Lapin district 28, but in the Pin-yuan district the imperial troops beheaded Ji San.

At that time the leaders of the Hu (胡) hordes Zhang Beidu and the Fan Motu, with a few thousand warriors, stood in encampments fortified with ramparts in the Shangdang 29 district. Shi Le went to them and met quite friendly relation. Using it, he told Zhang Beidu: “The Shanyu Liu Yuanhai mobilized troops to destroy the Jin dynasty. Can you, a leader of the horde, exist independently, if you mount a resistance to him and would not follow him?” - “No”, - answered Zhang Beidu. Then Shi Le said: “And if you can't, that means that you should subordinate your troops to someone. Now all members of the horde were already attracted by the Shanyu to his side with promise of awards; they frequently gather together and want to raise a mutiny against you, to switch to the side of the Shanyu; you better decide soon what to do”.

Frightened by the prospect of betrayal by the members of the horde, Zhang Beidu together with others, who were never distinguished by wisdom, secretly went with Shi Le to Liu Yuanhai with expression of submission. Liu Yuanhai awarded Zhang Beidu with a title Qinhan-wang, i.e. wang close to the Han dynasty, to Fan Motu - a title Chief Commander of the Hordes' Leaders, and installed Shi Le to govern them, giving him a rank Fuhan Jiangjun - Commander Assisting Han Dynasty, and a title Pin-jin-wang, i.e. Wang Pacifying Jin dynasty. After that Shi Le recognized Zhang Beidu as his senior brother, bestowed on him a surname Shi and a name Hui, i.e. “Meeting”, wishing to state that he met a friend.

The Uhuan [leader] Zhang Fulidu, who also had 2 thousand warriors, entrenched in Lepin district in an encampment surrounded with ramparts. Liu Yuanhai nimerously called for him, but he did not come, and then Shi Le, ostensibly culpable to Liu Yuanhai, fled to Fulidu. Quite pleased Fulidu be-fraternized with Shi Le, and ordered him to head the Hus (胡) in robberies, and notably, wherever Shi Le would move, nobody could resist him, and the frightened Hus (胡) recognized his authority above them. Knowing that the hearts of the people gravitate toward him, Shi Le took advantage of a [general] assembly, seized Fulidu, and addressed the Hus (胡): “We embarked on a great enterprise, who is deserves to head it, me or Fulidu?” All the Hus (胡) rooted for Shi Le. After that Shi Le deposed Fulidu, [rose] to the head of his people, and recognized the authority of Liu Yuanhai. Liu Yuanhai gave Shi Le in addition a post of a head of all military affairs for retaliatory campaigns in the lands east from mountains, and transferred to him all Fulidu troops.

Liu Yuanhai sent Liu Cong (劉聰, d. 318), 30 to attack the Huguan checkpoint 31, appointing Shi Le, who was heading 7 thousand reporting to him warriors, a Chief Commander of the forward units. [The Jin commander] Liu Kun 32 sent to the checkpoint Huguan aid a troop 33 commander Huan Xiu, but Shi Le defeated Huan Xiu in the Baitian district and killed him, then he occupied Huguan checkpoint.

Liu Yuanhai ordered Shi Le and seven commanders, including Liu Lin and Yan Pi, to attack in the head of the 30 thousand-strong troops the encampments, fortified with ramparts, in the Weijun and Dunqiu 34 districts. Most of the encampments were taken, and the heads of the encampments were given ranks of the commanders and main commanders, more than 50 thousand healthy men were selected as warriors, while the old and young were allowed to live in peace in their places. Because the troops did not engage in looting, the people treated them with love.

When Liu Yuanhai illegally assumed a high title (i.e. declared himself an Emperor. - B.T.), he sent an emissary to hand to Shi Le a rank of imperial emissary 35 and a Great Commander-Pacifier of the East, “and the posts of bailiff, Chief Commander and the title wang were still retained by him.

Gathering his troops, Shi Le undertook an attack on the city of Yecheng 36. The warriors defending Yecheng fled, and the commander He Yu (pronounced Yui) 37 fled to Weiguo 38. In the Santai palace 39 Shi Le captured the governor Wang Cu of Weijun district. Advancing, Shi Le attacked district Zhaojun and killed Fan Jung, the chief commander of the western hordes, located in the Jizhou province. Then in the Zhongqui district 40 he attacked She Ting and Tian Yin, who came there fleeing famine, and killed them. Liu Yuanhai handed to Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander-Pacifier of the East, allowed to create a commandery and appoint in it a Left and Right senior officials 41, commanders of troops, and clerks at the commanders (This is a direct indication that Shi Le organized his forces along a Hunnic/Türkic traditional structure of the Left and Right wings, and the Center, called “Middle” in the Jin shi annals. In the following chapters, the “left” means the “Left Wing”, and the “right” means the “Right Wing”).

Keeping moving forward, Shi Le attacked districts Julu 42 and Chanshan 43, killed governors and commanders of these districts, and then occupied more than hundred rampart-fortified places in the Jizhou province. The number of his troops increased and exceeded a 100 thousand men. Shi Le gethered those who wore headdresses of officials, and assembled of them a detachment of noble men. After that he appointed Zhang Bing 44 a main adviser and for the first time created a department of awards for military feats, Shi Le appointed Diao Yin and Zhang Jing Shi Le as main assistants on civil affairs, and they became his hands and feet, Kui An and Kun Chan he appointed as main assistants on military affairs, and they became his claws and teeth. Zhi Xiong (for some reasons the name is translated here phonetically, though the name clearly designates Zhi the Hun 匈奴, like in other names where “the Hun” part is retained), Huyan Mo (allusion to the one of the Hun's dynastic clans Huyan 呼衍, after which one of its sons Huyan Mo was named; this is a usual naming tradition, a son of a wife from the tribe Huyan, as well as his mother herself, would have the tribal name as part of their name; being a commander, Huyan Mo was likely a Chanyu offspring normally serving in the upper echelons of the Right Wing in accordance with the Lateral Succession laws, and without a right to succession; another form of the name Huyan is Xianyun 獫狁, which was used as a generic name for the Huns during the Zhou era [1,122- 255 BC[), Wang Yan, Tao Bao, Lu Ming and Wu Yui (where “Wu” stands for “tribe”, and the “Yui” is a tribal name for the Uigur tribe; most likely Wu Yui name parrallels that of the Huyan Mo name, his mother being a concubine wife of the ruling Chanyu, he was likely a Chanyu offspring in the Right Wing, and an offspring of the female dynastic tribe Yui, also called Hui and Sui) were appointed as commanders.

Shi Le sent commander Zhang Si heading mounted warriors to the regions and districts located north of the mountains, to the Bingzhou province, to Hu's Jies (胡 羯) to explain to them when they can live undisturbed, and when they would be threatened with a danger; a majority of the Hus (胡), midful of his power, joined [Shi Le]. After entering Chanshan region, Shi Le dispatched commanders to attack districts in the Jungshan 45, Bolin 46, and Gaojan 47 regions, there a few of tens thousand people surrendered.

Wang Jun sent commander Qi Hun in the head of 100 thousand horsemen, Syanbi (Pin. Xianbei; it should be noted that Chinese carry the Türkic word “bek” to present, semantically it is “chief”, and not Wang/King or Wang/Prince, as it is commonly translated; the Chinese forms are “bi, bei, bet”, all semantically rendered as “chief”; the timing of the borrowing, other then the first appearance in the annals, can't be determined) leader Mouchen and others to punish Shi Le. Qi Hun inflicted on Shi Le a bad defeat at Feilunshan mountain; over 10 thousand people were killed. Shi Le retreated and staged in Liyan 48; [he] ordered commanders to attack those refusing to surrender, and the rebels; more than 30 places fortified with ramparts have surrendered, and he appointed there officials to calm the population.

Moving forward, Shi Le undertook an attack on Xindu district, 49 where he killed a governor of the Jizhou province Wang Bin.

After that [the Jin] commander in charge of chariots and calvary Wang Kan, and the head of the northern bodyguards Pei Xian advanced from Luoyang in the head of the troops to punish Shi Le, Shi Le burned the encampment together with its grain, and withdrew troops to stage a resistance. When Shi Le stopped in a place Huanniulei, fortified with ramparts, the governor of the Weijun district Liu Ju joined him in the head of the district. Shi Le ordered Liu Ju to head the Huanniulei troops and to form a left wing of his middle army (This is a first indication that Shi Le organized his forces along a Hunnic/Türkic traditional structure of Left and Right wings, and the Center, called “Middle” in the Jin shi annals. In the following chapters, the “left” means the “Left Wing”, and the “right” means the “Right Wing”). After Shi Le approached Liyan, Pei Xian abandoned his troops and fled to the south of the river Huaihe, and Wang Kan retreated to the Cangyuan 50.

Liu Yuanhai handed Shi Le a rank of a Great Commander-Ruler of the East and raised him to the title Ji junggun 51, still retaining his rank of an imperial ambassador, a post of a Chief Commander, and a title wang, but Shi Le resolutely refused to accept the title of gun.

Together with Yan Pi 52, Shi Le attacked the fortified with ramparts places Zhuquian and Yuanshii, and occupied them. A stray arrow hit Yan Pi, from which he died, then Shi Le took command of his troops into his hands. Secretly crossing Huanghe at Shiqiao 53, Shi Le attacked the main city of the Baima county, took it by storm, and buried alive more than 3 thousand men and women. In the east [Shi Le] unexpectedly attacked the city of Jiuanchen 54 and killed the governor of Yanzhou province Yuan Fu. Then Shi Le attacked the Canyuan district, occupied it, and killed Wang Kan there. Crossing Huanghe, [Shi Le] attacked Guan-zong 55, Qinhe 56, Pinyuan and Yanpin 57 counties, where over 90 thousand people surrendered to him. Then, again moving to the south, Shi Le crossed Huanghe, and the governor of Xinyan district 58 Pei Shun fled to Jianie 59.
At that time Liu Cong attacked Henei district 60, and Shi Le joined him in the head of horsemen. In the Ude district 61 they attacked the troops of Lian Ju, a commander with a rank of Surpassing All in the Troops; then [the Jin] emperor Huai-di sent troops to his aid. Shi Le, leaving commanders to observe the adversary in the Ude district, together with Wang Sang attacked Lian Ju in Chanlin 62. Lian Ju asked for a permission to surrender, but Shi Le did not give a consent. Then Lian Ju climbed the city wall and fled, but was seized. Shi Le hastened back to the Ude district, where he buried alive more than 10 thousand of the surrendered troops, recited Lian Ju crimes, and killed him. The imperial troops retreated. That strongly disturbed all places fortified with ramparts north of Huanghe, which began asking for permission to surrender and send hostages to Shi Le.

After Liu Yuanhai death, Liu Cong gave Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, a post of the Bingzhou (并州) province governor, and title Ji jungun, still retaining his rank of an imperial ambassador, the right to establish an offic center, a post of Chief Commander and bailiff, and the title wang. Because Shi Le was persistently refusing to accept a rank of the commander, Liu Cong cancelled the grants.

When (311 AD) Liu Cong in the head of a forty-thousand troops raided Luoyang 63, Shi Le, [positioned] in the head of 20 thousand troops in Dayan 64 with transports left in Zhongmen, met with Liu Can, and they inflicted strong defeat on imperial troops in Mianchi district 65, and then invaded Lochuan 66

Then Liu Cong advanced through Huanyuan checkpoint 67, and Shi Le approached the Chengaoguen checkpoint 68, where in Canyuan he surrounded the governor of Chenlgodistrict Wang Zan, but sufferring a defeat from Wang Zan, retreated and repositined at a ferry Wenshijin. He wanted to attack Wang Jun in the north, but at that time the Wang Jun's commander Wang Jiashi, leading more than 10 thousand Syanbi horsemen from the Lyaosi district, defeated [ Liu Cong's commander] Zhao Gu north of the ferry. After that Shi Le burned the boats, abandoned the encampment and withdrew his troops to Baimen towards the transports stationed in Zhongmen. Coming to strategically important point Shimen 69, he crossed Huanghe, attacked the governor of Xianchen district Cui Kuan in Fanchan 70, and killed him.

It should be said that Wang Ju, Hou To and Yan Yi, who once fled from the Yunzhou (荤粥) province, started military actions in area between the rivers Yangtze and Huaihe. Having heard about Shi Le campaign, they got scared and sent numbering 10 thousand men to the Xianchen district 71 to repell Shi Le, but last, havinghe attacked and defeated them, and took prisoner all the warriors. Coming to the Nanian district 72, Shi Le stopped in the mountains north of the city Yuan. Afraid that Shi Le would attack Xianchen, Wang Ju sent an envoy to bring him jewelry, vehicles, horses, and treats for the troops, and also suggested to be-fraternize, to which Shi Le agreed (Is meant a Türkic ritual of blood oath that bonds partners as brothers and involves exchange of names).

Wang Ju, who was not in accord with Hou To, convinced Shi Le to attack Hou To. At night Shi Le ordered three armies to harness wagons at the [first] call of the cock, in the morning came to the gate of the Yuan city and besieged it. After 12 days the city was taken. Yan Yi heading the troops came to the Hou To aid, but when he approached to the Yuan city, it was already late, and he [then] surrendered to Shi Le. Shi Le beheaded Hou To, threw Yan Yi in jail, then sent him to Pinyan and joined his troops, so that his military forces have increased even more.

Moving to the south, Shi Le attacked Xianian district 73, and took by storm more than thirty rampart-fortified places in the lands to the west from Yangtze. Leaving Diao Yin to manage the Xianian district, Shi Le, personally commanding about 30 thousand selected horsemen, turned to attack Wang Ju. Mindful of the Wang Ju force, initially he went to Xianchen.

On Learning about that, Wang Ju sent his younger brother Wang Li in the head of the 25 thousand horsemen ostensibly to deliver treats to the Shi Le troops, and actually to attack him unexpectedly. Shi Le struck a counter blow, destroyed Wang Li troops, and again staged west from Yangtze, seemingly going to occupy the lands on the banks of the Yangtze and Hanshui rivers. Zhang Bin, in a belief that that should not be done, was convincing Shi Le to return to the north, but Shi Le did not listen. Shi Le appointed Zhang Bin a Chief Commander-Military Adviser 74 and a head of the office 75; occupying these posts immediately below the post of the commander of the troops, Zhang Bin stood at Shi Le side and was deciding all main matters.

Emperor Yuan-di, concerned with Shi Le attacks in the south, sent troops headed by Wang Äàî 76 to punish him. Because provisions for the Shi Le troops were not delivered on time, most of his troops died of illnesses; then, accepting Zhang Bin plan, he burnt the transports, stashed grain for campaign, collected weapons, and crossing the river Mianshui, ventured to raid the Jianxia district 77, which governor Yan Qu abandoned his district and fled. Proceeding north, Shi Le attacked Xincai district 78, where in Nangdun 79 he killed Sima Que, titled Xincai-wang. He Si titled Lanlin-gun and Chen Zhen titled Guanlin-gun, the governor of Shandan district Yan Zong, and the governor of Guanpin district Shao Zhao surrendered to Shi Le with their troops. Continuing advance, Shi Le took the city Xuchan 80 by storm and killed Wang Kan with a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the East.

It should be said that even earlier Sima Yue, titled Dunhai-wang, advanced from Luoyang in the head of the troops totaling over 200 thousand warriors to punish Shi Le. Sima Yue died on the march, and the troops elected to the post of the commander a great commander 81 Wang Yan, who led them to the east, pursued by Shi Le light cavalry (Election of the Chief Commander in Chinese army is unimaginable; election of the Chief Commander in the Hun army is expected, in accordance with the lateral succession order that formalizes the hierarchy of command, and in accordance with the principles of elected leaders; that indicates that the Jin Emperor Yuan-di sent an army of 200,000 that included a significant proportion of the Hun cavalry, who were able to call the shots for the campaign, and accordingly Wang Yan is a Chinese name for the Hun's royalty. The use of nomadic tribes to fight nomadic tribes is a cornerstone of Chinese policies). Wang Yan sent into battle a commander Qian Duan (sounds like tribal/horde name, a man of Kiyan tribe of the Duan Horde), but Qian Duan was crushed by Shi Le and killed; after that troops of Wang Yan began fleeing (This is one more indicator that the force of the Jin Emperor Yuan-di army consisted of the Huns, who had nothing to fight for for the Chinese Emperor, and could easily switch sides voting with their feet). Shi Le divided his horsemen [into groups] that surrounded separate units [of Wang Yan] and shot them from bows, and the corpses of those killed piled in mountains one on another; not a single man manage to survive (This is a typical handling of thye Chinese foot soldiers by the cavalry troops, not applicable to the mobile cxavalry of the adversary). Shi Te captured Wang Yan, Sima Fan titled Xian-yun-wang (Yu Xian wang 右贤王 = Right Jükü-wang = Right Wise Prince, indicates a Hun title; the rest of tyhe titles appear to be Chinese), Sima Ji titled Jånchen-wang, Sima Si titled Õihe-wang, Sima Õi titled Liang-wang, Syma Shao titled Qi-wang, the chief of the rank assignment department 82 Liu Wang, the governor of the Yuzhou province Liu Qiao, senior official the senior instructor of the successor to the throne Oi Ai, and sitting them in front of his tent, began asking about the affairs of the Jin dynasty. Wang Yan and Sima Ji, afraid of the death, mainly spoke trying to justify themselves. Only Sima Fan alone kept a rigid face and was unpertrubed.

Glancing at the others, he exclaimed: “Why bring confusion to what happened today!”, which quite surprized Shi Le. Then Shi Le brought out everybody entitled wang and gun, and also the highest officeholders, and killed them, and the killed were very many. Impressed with the eloquent reasoning of Wang Yan, and astonished with the spirit of Sima Fan, Shi Le could not deprive them of their lives with a sword, threfore he sent at night people to collapse the wall of the house and buried both of them under the ruins.

Hearing about the death of Sima Yue, the commander of left security detachment He Lun, and the commander of right security detachment Li Hun left Luoyang together with wife of Sima Yue, who was born Pei, and his heir son Sima Pi. Shi Le run into Sima Pi near the city Weicang 83. The troops of Sima Pi again began fleeing. Shi Le captured and killed Sima Pi, those who had titles of wangs and guns, and the highest officeholders, and the killed were very many.

After that in the head of the 30 thousand selected warriors Shi Le passed through the Chengaoguan checkpoint just when Liu Yao and Wang Ìè 84 were attacking Luoyang 85. After the fall of Luoyang, Shi Le attributed all achievements 86 to Wang Mi and Liu Yao, passed through the Huanyuan checkpoint, and stopped in Xuchan. Liu Cong granted Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, but Shi Le resolutely refused to accept it.

It should be said that Li Hun, a native of Pinyan county, who had a few thousand troops and stayed in rampart-fortified place in Wuyian county 87, and was once illicitly appointed by Gou Xi to a post of the governor of the Yunzhou province.

Shi Le attacked on Gaian district 88 and killed Wang Zi, a commander with a rank of Surpassing All in the Troops. Shi Le defeated Wang Zan in district Yangxia 89, took Wang Zan in captivity, and appointed him an adviser at the commander. With unexpected attack, Shi Le defeated the Great Commander Gou Xi in the city Menchen 90, took Gou Xi in captivity and appointed him a left commander of the troops.

Liu Cong granted Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, and a post of a pastor in Yuzhou province (jian mu 监牧 - shepherd/pastor; official with responsibility for animal husbandry; erroneously ascribed as originating during the Tang dynasty), but Shi Le resolutely refused to accept the rank of the commander.

It should be said that earlier Wang Mi, following the advices of Liu Tung, initially wanted to kill Shi Le, and then to become a governor of the Qinzhou province in the east, for what he sent Liu Tung to summon the commander Cao Yi 91 from the the lands in the former possession Qi. The patrol horsemen of Shi Le intercepted Liu Tung, and Shi Le received the letter which Wang Mi wrote to Cao Yi, then [Shi Le] killed Liu Tung and began to secretly develop plans against Wang Mi.

At that time the Wang Mi commander Xu Miao unexpectedly abandoned him with his troops, as a result the Wang Mi's forces weakened. After Shi Le took Gou Xi prisoner, Wang Mi begun hating him even more, but feigning nevertheless humiliating expressions for himself, sent to Shi Le a courier to say: “You have taken Gou Xi prisoner, but pardoned him, it is so wise! If you make Gou Xi your left, and me, Wang Mi, your right assistants, for you it would not be effortful to calm down the whole Celestial”.

Shi Le turned to Zhang Bin: “Wang Mi, with his high post, uses humiliating for himself expressions, I am afraid that afterward he would start realization of his former canine desires”. Zhang Bin replied: “As far as the desire of the respectable Wang to receive Qinzhou province, it is natural: the native places with native mulberry trees are drawing in a man to themselves. Don't you, the illustrious gun, do not have thouhgts about the Bingzhou province? Respectable Wang hesitates and is not starting acting, mindful that you would will follow in his steps, and therefore alignes his acts to yours, not providing you with a chance to act. I am afraid that if now the measures are not taken against him, when Cao Yi arrives, they would begin helping each other, as the wings help a bird to fly; then you would repent, but it will be too late. After the departure of Xu Miao, the Wang Mi military power has weakened a little, but, despite of that, the Wang Mi dreams about establishing his domination are very strong, therefore he should be lured and destroyed”. Shi Le found the advice absolutely correct.

At that time Shi Le and Chen Wu attacked each other in Penguan 92, and Wang Mi was combatting Liu Jui in piercing struggle, and asked Shi Le for help, but Shi Le wanted to refuse. Then Zhang Bin said: “You, the illustrious gun, were always afraid that respectable Wang will not give you a chance to act, but now the Sky itself gives you such chance. Chen Wu is a little fool, how can he attack you, and Wang Mi is an oustanding man who in the future will cause us troubles”. At that junction Shi Le turned his troops around, attacked Liu Jui, and killed him. Pleased to no end, Wang Mi declared that Shi Le supports him with all his heart, and ceased treating him with suspicion.

After that Shi Le led his troops against Chen Wu in Feijie. Li Tou, a native of Shandan district, who occupied a post of the troops commander at Chen Wu, told Shi Le: “You, with innate wisdom and belligerency, are fated to calm the lands among the four seas, all well-born houses and ordinary people look at you with hope and wish to obey you, dreaming that you will rescue them from extreme sufferings. There is a person who fights with you for the Celestial, but you do not hasten to take measures against him, and on the contrary attack us, who fled from the native places. Then our villages should serve you and support you, so why did you begin to unexpectedly oppress them?” Shi Le in his soul found it to be right, and withdrew troops the next morning.

After that he deceitfully enticed Wang Mi to a feast into his encampment. A Wang Mi's senior official Zhang Sun was persuading him not to go, stating concerns that from the hand of Zhuan Zhu 93 he would be struck with a trouble, or with him would happen the same as with Sui Jun 94 (Hard to tell who learned what from whom, but both the Chinese and the Turkic traditions have uncounted number of leaders treacherously killed at banquets, with the poisoning rated as a penchant number one. The Türks had a better swing at it, because they were exposed to the whole flora and fauna of the Asian continent for millennia, and were widely known to use poisons in their weaponry. In Chinese tradition the cause of sudden death at a feast is at times wrapped in comely packaging, especially when the history was written by a winner), but Wang Mi did not listen to admonitions. When Wang Mi arrived and became tipsy from consumed wine, Shi Le personally beheaded him and joined his troops to himself, stating to Liu Cong that Wang Mi wanted to start a rebellion (In Türkic beliefs and traditions, the method of killing had a preeminent significance. For killing of relatives and the senior, respected people had to be used a bloodless method, breaking the neck or strangling. For adversaries, blood was to be spilled. Beheading was an extreme display of contempt, for ugliest characters. Since all souls - küns - were coming back to Tengre - Heaven for disposition, to be reincarnated as allies or adversaries, the method of execution and following treatment of the body had a sublime significance, as a message to the Almighty. Both mythology and history are full of examples how the methods of inflicting death were judiciously selected. Since the death is a return to Tengre, neither inflicting death, nor suffering death were viewed as murder). Liu Cong granted Shi Le a rank of the Great Commander-Ruler of the East, the post of commander over all military affairs in the Bingzhou and Yuzhou provinces, and a governor of the Bingzhou province, retaining for him the rank of the Imperial Ambassador Conducting Retaliatory Campaigns, posts of the Commander-in-Chief, bailiff, pastor of the Yuzhou province, a right to organise commanderies, and a title of gun.

Gou Xi and Wang Zan have conceived to raise a revolt against Shi Le, for which they were exterminated.

Appointing commander Zuo Fusu a Chief Commander of advance detachments, Shi Le attacked various districts in the Yuzhou province, reached Yangtze, from where he turned back and encamped in Gepo 95. There he obliged the captured commanders and officials receiving a sustenance salary at a rate of 2 thousand dans of grain, and also those appointed to the posts and positions in the Chu lands populated by various tribes of the Yis, to supply his troops with grain (Yis - pl. of Yi, undiscriminated Mongol and Tungus tribes).

It should be said that when Shi Le was sold in the Pinyuan district, he lost touch with his mother, the born Wang. At the time of the described events Liu Kun, to forward the born Wang to Shi Le, sent to him a certain Zhang Ju with a letter which said: “You, the commander, accomplished feats and became famous on the banks of Huanghe and in the northern lands, occupied the Yanzhou and Yuzhou provinces, watered horses in Yangtze and Huaishui, forced the adversary to retreat on the rivers Hanshui and Mianshui, and nobody of famed commanders since antiquity is worthy of a comparison with you. However, attacking the cities, you did not subdue their inhabitants to yourself, occupying the lands you did not become their possessor, everybody was gathering around you like clouds, and unexpectedly dissipated again like the stars in the sky. Do you know, the commander, why it was happening so?

Your existence and destruction depend on whether you will find a master for yourselves, your victory and defeat will be determined by the one to whom you would subordinate: would stand on the side of the Emperor, would head the warriors struggling for justice, would join the rebel (Liu Cong. -V.T.), would head the bandits. The warriors fighting for justice, despite of possible defeats, would necessarily achieve success; a gang of robbers, despite of all victories, will eventually be destroyed. In the past the Red Brows 96 and Yellow Scarves 97 “crisscrossed the universe, and that in one nice day they suffered defeat and perished, is just explaned by that they waged war for unknown reasons, 98 simply gathered in gangs and started turmoil.

You, the commander, with qualities granted by the Sky and who shook the universe with his power, should choosea virtuous [master] and express to him your respect, should obey the one in whom everyone lays their hopes at present. It will be your greatest merit, which will receive eternal reward. Turn away from Liu Cong - you will relieve yourself of a trouble, turn to the Emperor - you will find happiness! If you would follow the ancient didactics, would rectify yourself, and change your yearning, it would be effortless for you to calm the Celestial, to wipe out banndits numerous as ants.

Now you are being granted the posts of the courtier, 99 the Imperial Ambassador, the Great Commander, the Commander of Chariots and Calvary, the Chief of the Bodyguards, Supervising the Huns (匈奴) 100, the title Xianchen jungun. To you are assigned the duties connected with administration of the affairs both within the state, and beyond its limits, are given the titles granted to both natives of the Middle Kingdom and to the aliens, is granted a large district. Ant that all in order to note your exeptonal talents. Accept the grants, commander, answer the expectations of both those close, and living far. From antiquity nobody from the Jungs (戎) did become an Emperor, but among them were famous officeholders accomplishing great feats. My overdue thoughts are connected with the great turmoil in the Celestial, [the country] requires a great talent.

Remaining at a distance, I heard that you, the commander, attack cities, fight in the open field, everywhere show resource and wisdom. Though you are unfamiliar with military treatises, you appear to be the best friend of Sun Wu 101 and Wu Qi 102, and it is possible to say about you that somebody knowing from the birth stands above all, for that who found knowledge by studying 103 follows him. If you had 5 thousand selected horsemen, with your talents you would break an opponent on any side. About my full sincerity will tell Zhang Ju”.

Shi Le responded to Liu Kun: “The success in affairs is reached by different paths, but that is unknown by the inutile Confucian scientists. You should observe your duty in respect to the dynasty, and I shall apply all efforts to overcome difficulties”. Shi Le sent to Liu Kun famous horses and jewelry, received his ambassador with great honour, and saw him return back with apologies, for he did not want to decline the suggestion of Liu Kun.

In Gepo, Shi Le brought to order residential houses and imposed on peasants a duty of constructing boats, he was going to attack Jianie. At that time came incessant rains which lasted three months; the [Jin] emperor Yuan-di took advantage of it and ordered commanders to assemble in Shouchin 104 large force drafted from the lands south from Yangtze. A greater half of Shi Le troops died of famine and illnesses, he was continuously receiving in the morning and in the evening urgent dispatches [about the approach of the Jin troops], therefore he assembled commanders to develop the further plans.

The Right senior official Diao Yin was convincing Shi Le to first express obeisance to the [Jin] emperor, to ask for a permission to exterminate all his enemies along the banks of Huanghe and in the northern lands, and then, when the imperial troops would retreat, to think without a hurry what to do next. Shi Le, with changed countenance, only hissed a long whistle (This is one of non-verbal gesticulations idiosyncratic to the Middle Asia area: disapproval or disagreement is expressed with a light motion of the head accompanied by a light hissing sound; the rejection is expressed by a click from a side of the mouth with a light motion of the head toward the clicking side. These gesticulations continue into the present, an uninitiated misses the response altogether, while the respondent thinks that he answered loud and clear).

Kui An with a rank of the commander of the middle army 105 was persuading Shi Le to rise to the foothills and to pull back from the water, but Shi Le exclaimed: “Why are you so cowardly, commander!”

More then 30 commanders, including Kun Chan and Zhi Xiong (for some reasons translated here phonetically, though the name clearly designates Zhi the Hun, like in other names where “the Hun” part is reatined) came forward and offered: “While the Wu troops are not assembled yet, we, Kun Chan and others, are asking to allow everyone to cross the river in 30 different places in boats, each one heading 300 infantrymen, to climb at night on the walls [of Shouchun], to behead the Jin commanders, to capture the city and to feed with the grain available in it, and we promise that in the same year we shall occupy the Danian district 106, we shall calm down the lands south from Yangtze, and we shall capture alive all members of the Sima clan”. Shi Le responded with a smile: “This is a plan of courageous commanders”, and presented to everyone one horse dressed in armor.

Addressing Zhang Bin, Shi Le asked: “And what is your plan?” Zhang Bin relied: “You, Commander, took the imperial capital in a battle, captured the Son of the Sky, killed those who carried titles wang and hou, kidnapped and dishonored emperor's concubines. If to pluck you hair out, one for each crime, the hair would run out. How is it possible to recognize yourself as a servant of the emperor?!

After the last year's killing of Wang Mi, it was not good to build the encampment here. The incessant rains sent by the Sky, deluged on many hundreds square li confirm that you cannot remain here. At the same time, the Yecheng is protected by three terraces of the Santai palace 107, in the west Pinyan 108 is close by, on four sides it is surrounded by mountains and rivers, and is an important strategic point, therefore you should march to the north and occupy it. Already there, you will punish rebels, attract those expressing obidience, and when the banks of Huanghe and the northern lands are tranquilized, in the Celestial will not be left a place for somebody stronger than you.

The Jins are defending Shouchun, but you are afraid that you, commander, would move and attack them. Now, hearing at last that you turned your troops back, they undoubtedly would be delighted by the departure of the enemy, and will not even think to send light detachments to attack our rear guards. Let the transports depart immediately on the road to the north, and move the main forces toward the Shouchun; when the transports would already be far, let the troops to start departing slowly. Why be anxious, as if we fell into a desperate position!”

Shi Le rolled up his sleeves and stroking his beard from pleasure, responded: “The Zhang Bin's plan is correct”. Reproaching Diao Yin, he said; “You, like my other assistants, should think of the successful end of the events. Why were you persuading me to give up? For the suggested plan you should be beheaded, but I am clear that you are a coward, therefore I am forgiving you”. After that, Shi Le demoted Diao Yin in the rank to a commander, and promoted Zhang Bin to the post of the Right senior official, in addition gave him a rank of the Commander of the Guards Detachment 129, and a title of the right hou.

Leaving from the Gepo, Shi Le sent Shi Jilongg in the head of 2 thousand horsemen to Shouchun, but at that time from the lands south from Yangtze arrived transport vessels, and some tens of the vessels loaded with cloth and rice were seized by Shi Jilongg. His troops and commanders started fighting for the loot, without taking any precautionary measures (The incentive for participation in the campaigns in the Türkic nomadic armies was a participation in the division of the loot; rigid rules were adopted to maintain justice, and violations of the rules were strenuously rejected; many commanders lost their share and their heads because they wanted too much in the eyes of the troops; one of the rules was finder-keeper, which tended to induce discord in the ranks). Taking advantage of it, a hidden in an ambush large contingent of the Jin troops defeated Shi Jilongg at Julinkou. Over 500 of his warriors who jumped into the river in search of safety have drowned, the others raced for 100 li and came running to the Shi Le troops. The Shi Le troops came to disarray, saying that a large contingent of the imperial troops is approaching, that Shi Le intentionally staged them in these positions. However the Jins, mindful of an ambush, retreated to the Shouchun.

Along the whole Shi Le road population hid behind strong walls, first clearing the surroundings, and because nothing was left to collect and plunder, the troops were starving badly, so that men even devoured each other. When Shi Le reached Dunyan 110, he heard that Xian Bin, a native of the Jijun district, with a few thousand troops hid behind ramparts in the Fantou 111. Shi Le wanted to cross to the north at the Jijin ferry, but mindful that Xian Bin could delay him, gathered commanders for a meeting.

Stepping forward, Zhang Bin said: “By the rumors, all Xiang Bin's boats are in the channel and not pulled to the shore 112. It is necessary to select one thousand braves, order them to cross secretly the river, attack by surprise and capture boats, then transport on them the main forces. When the main forces cross over, Xiang Bin will undoubtedly be captured”.

Following the suggested advice, Shi Le ordered Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun) and Kun Chan to tie the rafts together and secretly to cross at the Wenshijin ferry, and himself in the head of the troops headed from Suanzao 113 to the Jijin ferry. Xian Bin, as soon as he've heard about the approach of the Shi Le troops, at once wanted to pull the boats out on the bank, but at that time Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun) and others, after crossing the river, came to the gate of his encampment, have sent more than 30 boats to ferry the main forces, and ordering the registrar 114 Xianyui Fang (another Hunnic Yigur name) call Xian Bin for fight, set up ambushes in various places. The angry Xian Bin brought out the troops from the encampment, going to join the battle, but the hidden in ambush troops jumped out and attacked him from all directions. Captiring the property found in the encampment, the troops again cheered up and after sustained march they reached Yecheng. Then they ambushed the head of the northern security bodyguards Liu Yan in the Santai palace, after which the Liu Yan's commanders Lin Shen and Mou Mu, surrendered to Shi Le in the head of the troops totaling a few of tens of thousands warriors.

At that time all highest military officials wanted to attack the Santai palace and take it with combat, but Zhang Bin stepped forward and said: “Liu Yan still has a few thousands troops, and the three terraces are strongly fortified. If we attack the terraces, we can not occupy them 115 quickly, but if we forsake an attack, quite possibly the opposing troops will disperse. At the same time, Wang Pentszu and Liu Yueshi 116 are strong opponents, and it astute, while they are not prepared, to secretly advance forward and occupy the city Hanchen, to collect there large stocks of grain, in the west to report to Pinyan [on our intention to destroy Wang Pentszu and Liu Yueshi], and then to clear Bingzhou and Jizhou provinces; it will help us, like Huan-gun 117 and Wen-gun 118, to complete the great task. Besides, the Celestial is boiling like water in a tripod, the war has just began, and if you will be seeking a shelter elsewhere as a wanderer, roaming from place to place, and would not bring confidence to the people, it will be difficult for you to establish calmness and to rule the Celestial. Those who own land prosper, those who lose land perish.

The cities Handan 119 and Xiangguo (pin. Xiangguo 襄國, orig.: Xiango ~ Ñÿíãî in modern Xintai, Hebei) 120 areold capitals of the Zhao possession, they are surrounded with mountains and [other] natural barriers, they occupy important strategic position, you should choose one of them and make it your capital. After that you will order commanders to march in all directions, handing them marvelous plans you've developed. Pushing over the perishing, supporting the alive, affiliating the weak, and attacking the strayers, you can destroy all villains and think about a creation of a state”. Shi Le exclaimed: “The plan of the right hou is correct!”, then went to a campaign and occupied Xiangguo.

Zhang Bin again told Shi Le: “We established a capital here, and that causes deep fears for Liu Yueshi and Wang Pentszu. I am afraid that now, when we have not strengthened the walls yet, did not restore the moats with water, and do not have enough stores, they will come here to search death for themselves.

As I heard, in Guanpin 121 counties has ripened rich autumn crop, therefore it is necessary to send commanders there to collect and catch the grain available in the fields, and simultaneously send to Pinyan a courier with explanations why we are here”. Shi Le again approved this suggestion.

After that Shi Le presented Liu Cong with a petition and ordered commanders to attack districts and counties in the Jizhou province in different directions. A majority of the ramparts-surrounded places surrendered, joined Shi Le, and began transporting grain to him. Liu Cong appointed Shi Le as accredited imperial ambassador, a retinue horseman serving at the Court 122, a Chief Commander for all military affairs related to retaliatory campaigns against aliens in the Jizhou, Yuzhou, Bingzhou n Inzhou provinces, a pastor of the Jizhou province, raised him to the title Shandan jungun, gave for sustenance 50 thousand households, and retained for him the right to create commanderies, the post of the pastor of the Yuzhou province, and a bailiff for the affairs of the eastern barbarians (Apparently, V.S.Taskin is using terminology “aliens” and “barbarians” to reflect the different words used in the annals, the “aliens” rendered as “wai” 外 “foreigner”, and the “barbarians” rendered as “hu” 胡 “erhu”, which was originally derived from the “hu” 鬍 which stands for “beard; whiskers”, in other words the original “strangers” were westerners distinguished from the Chinese by their beards; however, Chinese has alternate expressions that could be employed in the translated text. The generic western hu, applied to Tungus people in the east, was Donghu “Eastern Hu”).

The natives of Guanpin county Yu Lun and Zhang Chai, with a few tens of thousands warriors, and with temporary post assignments from Wang Jun, stood with their troops in Yuanxian 123. Shi Le sent seven commanders against them, including Kui An and Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun), who seized the external moats. Wang Jun sent the Chief Overseer 124 Wang Chang and leaders of the Syanbi Duan 125 horde Jiuliuyuan, Moggi and Pidi, who had more than 50 thousand troops, to punish Shi Le. As at that time the city walls and moats around Xiangguo have not yet been brought to order, in expectation of the adversary were built barricading walls with [sentry] guardhouses, other obstacles were erected.

Jiuliuyuan encamped with his troops in Zhuyan. A few times Shi Le sent commanders to provoke him for a fight, but each time they suffered a defeat. Hearing that Jiuliuyuan actively prepares storm gear, Shi Le addressed his senior military officials: “We are threatened by bandits,they are many, we are few. I am afraid, that we will not be able to break through an encurclement, the external help will not come, the grain stores are exhausted, and if Sun-zi and Wu Qi ressurected now, they too could not defend the city. I want to gather commanders and troops, stage them all in the field, and give a decisive battle. What do you think?”

All commanders responded: “It is better to defend tenaciously to wear out the bandits. When their troops are fatiqued, they would retreat, and then we shall attack them in pursuit and surely will achieve a victory”.

Looking at Zhang Bin and Kun Chan, Shi Le turned to them: “And what do you think?” Zhang Bin and Kun Chan replied: “We've heard that Jiuliuyuan decided to seek death on the northern walls in the first decade of the next month.

His numerous troops came from far away, for many days they attack us, and we are defending, they think that our troops are weak and do not dare to venture on a fight, and therefore they inevitably show negligence. The troops of the Duan ruler are the most daring [among the Syanbi], and Mopi is the bravest, therefore all their best troops are with him. We should stop our sorties, demonstrating our weakness. Better urgently construct more than twenty passes in the northern ramparts, build secret gates, wait till the bandits show neglect to their defense, and strike suddenly directly against the Mopi tent. The adversary will undoubtedly be scared and would not have time to plan anything. As they say, “A sudden thunder leaves no time to plug the ears”. When Mopi troops flee, the others will disperse by themselves, and with the Mopi caught, it would be possible to precisely determine a day when Wang Pan-zu will be pacified”.

With laugh, Shi Le accepted the suggested plan, appointed Kun Chan a Chief Commander for the attack, and ordered him to build secret gates in the northern wall.

The Syanbi troops came behind the northern ramparts and encamped there. Shi Le, seeing that they have not taken positions, personally led the commanders and warriors to beat drums and shout from the city wall. At that time Kun Chan in the head of the troops hid by the secret gate, struck the enemy and captured Mopi alive, after which the other troops of Jiuliuyuan took to flight. Gaining on his success, Kun Chan pursued the fleeing, covering the land with corpses for more than 30 li, and capturing 5 thousand armored horses.

Jiuliuyuan collected the remaining troops and encamped in Zhuyan, whence he sent an emissary with a request for peace and [with gifts] of horses in armors, gold and silver. Simultaneously he asked to free Mopi, promising his three younger brothers as hostages.

All commanders were persuading Shi Le to kill Mopi, to humiliate Jiuliuyuan. However, Shi Le relied: “The Lyaosi Syanbis are a strong state. We never had an enmity with them, they were used by Wang Jun. To kill one man and start hostility with the whole state is not a best plan. Undoubtedly, freeing Mopi would please them, and in the fiture Wang Jun would not be able to use them”, after which he accepted hostages. Then Shi Le sent Shi Jilong to Zhuyan to conclude a friendship treaty with Jiuliuyuan and to perform a ceremony of be-fraternizing (Türkic custom of becoming brothers with a blood oath), after which Jiuliuyuan withdrew his troops.

Shi Le sent a Military Adviser 126 Yan Zong to report to Liu Cong on the victory.

After that Yu Lun and Zhang Chai asked Shi Le for a sanction to surrender, and recognized themselves as his servants. Shi Le, preparing a surprize attack on the Yuzhou province and intent to acquire commanders and troops, in view of the circumstances has agreed, and granted them the ranks of the commanders.

Then Shi Le sent troops to raid the Xindu district; they killed a governor of Jinzhou province Wang Xian. Therefore Wang Jun appointed Shao Jiu, stationed in Xindu, an acting governor of the Jizhou province.

In the first year of the Jian-xing reign era (313 AD) Shi Jilong attacked near Yecheng the Santai palace, and the Yecheng troops dispersed, and their commander Liu Yan fled to Linqui 127, while the commanders Se Xu, Tian Cin, and Lan Mu, heading the fugitives in Yecheng, surrendered to Shi Le. To calm the situation down, Shi Le appointed Tao Bao a governor of Weijun district.

Shi Le ordered the Duan leader Mopi to view himself as his [Shi Le] son, appointed Mopi an Accredited Imperial Ambassador, gave him a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the North, a title Beiping-gun, and sent him back to the Lyaosi district. Mopi, touched with the favors that Shi Le rained on him, every day on the way was trice turning his face to the south and bowing toward Shi Le. Thus, the clan of Duan rulers sincerely submitted to Shi Le, and from then on the power of Wang Jun began gradually declining.

Shi Le assaulted the city Juanxian with a surprise attack, and captured Yu Lun, appointing him to a post of a registrar, and then in the city Shanbai 128 attacked Li Yun, who moved there from other places in search for the food, and beheaded him. Shi Le wanted to bury alive all surrendered troops, but saw among them Go Jing and recognising him, asked: “Are you the younger son of Go?”. “I am”, answered Go Jing, bowing to the ground. Shi Le dismounted from the horse, took him by hand, and exclaimed with tears: “Is not that the Sky brought the today's meeting!” Shi Le presented to Go Jing clothing, a carriage and a horse, and appointed him a senior commander, freed all surrendered troops, and gave them to Go Jing.

A Shi Le's military leader Kun Chan staged a raid on the Dinlin district 130 and killed the governor of the Yanzhou province Tian Hui. An (ethnic) Uhuan Boshen captured the governor of Bohai district Liu Ji, and in the head of 5 thousand households surrendered to Shi Le.

Liu Cong appointed Shi Le a courtier and gave him a rank of the Great Commander Punishing the East, retaining forhim the old posts, ranks and titles. Shi Le's mother, the born Wang, was raised to the title Shandango taifujen, and the wife, a born Liu, was raised to the title Shandango fujen 131. For them were established the same seals, seal cords, and head ornaments like those used by the wives of the wangs.

The younger brothers of the Duan leader Mopi, given to Shi Le as hostages, fled to the Lyaosi district. That angered Shi Le terribly, and he killed all heads of the districts and county commanders in the lands traversed by the fugitives.

The Uhuan leaders Shenguan, Jianshan, and Hesi, breaking with Wang Jun, secretly sent messengers to Shi Le, expressing their desire to surrender. Shi Le accepted the leaders with great warmth.

In the Sizhou and Jizhou provinces the calmness was gradually restored, and people started to pay land rent and taxes. Shi Le established a school for the sons and younger brothers of the highest officials 132, selected officials who were experts on classical books and literature, appointed them to the posts of literati officials, drafted over 300 sons and younger brothers of the highest nobility and send them to them for education.

Shi Le mother, the born Wang, died, she was secretly buried in a mountain valley, so that the burial place remained unknown. After a while was performed a sacrifice, were used nine complements of sacrificial animals, and an empty coffin was buried south from Xiangguo (This is a good explanation why so many Scythian, Sarmatian, Western Hunnic, Bulgharian, and Türkic kurgan graves are found empty, puzzling and disappointing researchers, and eliciting an explanation that became standard in the Eastern European archeology, that the burial was symbolic, in memory of a fallen soldier from nobility. As it turns out, an alternate and more historically justified explanation may be less fanciful, but not any less romantic).

Shi Le told Zhang Bin: “E is the old capital of the Wei dynasty. I want to rebuild it, but I am saddened by the numerous existing customs, and I need a wise manwho enjoys universal trust to satisfy everybody. Whom is it possible to assign this task to?”

Zhang Bin relied: “The former Jin governor of Dunlai district, a native of Nanian county, Zhao Pan is distinguished by fidelity and honesty, he is sincere and clever, he helps skilfully with difficulties; if you, Army Commander, would charge him with this job, he undoubtedly can do everything in accordance with the commandments of the spirits”.

After that Shi Le summoned Zhao Pan with a view to appoint him a governor of the Weijun district. Zhao Pan arrived, and with tears began excusing himself from the post, saying: “In the past my name was listed in the House of Jin registers of officials, and I was receiving salary from it. And even a dog and a horse love their owner and never forget him. I know that the temples of ancestors of the Jin dynasty really overgrew with dense grass, that for it everything has passed, was carried away, like the water in the rivers [flowing away] to the east, and there is no return [to the past]. In accordance with foreboding manifestations, you, the illustrious gun, should assume the mandate of the Sky [to the throne], and it can be said that for me, if I would rely on you, the time has come to lift off, but I was honoured at another court and can not serve a new master, besides I am heedful that also you, the illustrious gun, would not allow that. If you would grant me the remains of my life, and by that satisfy my only desire, you would render me a great favor”. Shi Le was silent.

Zhang Bin stepped forward, and said: “Wherever sailed your sacred banner, Commander, was not a single person wearing headdress of an official who did not defect from his duty, nobody could observe the great rules of behaviour. And this wise man recognizes you as a founder of a dynasty, and equates himself to the four highest officeholders 133.

Has happened what is spoken about as an acquaintance of a ruler with a servant, and that is enough to show your inordinate greatness. Why force him to serve as an official!”

The pleased Shi Le relied: “The words of right hou coincide with the desire of my heart”, then presented Zhao Pan with a phaeton drawn by four horses, appointed him a salary like the highest officeholder, and appointed his son Zhao Min to a post of a military adviser.

Shi Le appointed Shi Jilongg a governor of the Weijun district with a residence in Yecheng. That assignment was the beginning that resulted in a capture of power by Shi Jilongg.

At that time Wang Jun on his own was appointing officials, led a magnificent way of life, was given to debauchery, and showed cruelty. Shi Le was dreaming up plans about subjugation of Wang Jun, and wanted to send to him first an envoy too find out on the situation, and all his high officials were saying that a best way to find out about each other is to exchange letters, as did Yan Hu and Lu Kan 134. At that time Zhang Bin was sick, and Shi Le went to him for an advice.

Zhang Bin said: “Wang Jun, using the might of the three hordes 135, issues orders, sitting with the face to the south, and though he says that he serves as a shield for the Jin dynasty, in reality contemplates thoughts about revolting, and therefore undoubtedly seeks to achieve a consent with oustanding people, that with their help he would finish the conceived design. The glory about your power, commander, thunders in the lands among the four seas, you coming or departure for many means life or death, on where you are depends their strength and weakness. Wang Jun's desire to acquire you is like the desire of the Chu possession to acquire Han Xin 136. Now you are going to send an envoy, but it is cunning in fact, and not a sincere expression of humility. If that would excite suspicions and our plans would be found out, then whatever many amazing plans are developed, all of them could not be fulfilled. Starting a great project, for its success is necessary to initially undergo humiliation. It is needed to recognize yourself as a servant and to promote Wang Jun; however, I am afraid that in that case also he might not believe, moreover will not be useful an exchange of letters, like with Yan Hu and Lu Kan”.

Shi Le relied: “The plan of right hou is correct”, and sent to Wang Jun his attendants Wang Zichun and Duk Zhao with numerous jewelry, and presented a petition which was promoting Wang Jun to the place of the Son of the Sky, saying: “I, Shi Le, a lowly Hu (胡), was born in the remote Jungs' (戎) lands. When the foundations of the House of Jin weakened, in the lands between the four seas arose famine and turmoils. Seeking safety from disasters and dangers, I fled to Jizhou province, where together with others we assembled troops to save our lives.

Now, the House of Jin run out of fortune, it had to move over to the remote districts Kuazi and Wujun, the Central Plain remained without a ruler, people had nobody to lean on. I respectfully stipulate that all living in your area and in my native territories hope that you will take up the high position, and those living in the lands between the four seas will recognize you as their head, for who becides you can become an emperor! I, Shi Le, risking my own life, have mobilized troops struggling for justice to destroy the rebels, to expel them for your sake, the illustrious gun. I am respectfully asking you to enter the imperial throne, according with the will of the Sky and the needs of the time. I, Shi Le, shall serve you, illustrious gun, as the Sky and the Earth, shall support you as a father and mother. You should acquaint with my insignificant thoughts, and mercifully treat me as your son”. Simultaneously, Shi Le sent a letter and generous gifts to Zao Sun 137.

Wang Jun asked Wang Zichun: “The respected Shi is an outstanding man of our time, distinguished by wisdom and military talents, he occupies the old capital of the Zhao possession, and is like one of the legs of a tripod. Why is he saying that he wants to become my shield, and is it possible to trust him?”

Wang Zichun replied: “The military leader Shi is an oustanding talent, surpassing all others, he has strong and numerous troops and horses, everything is really the way you pleased to state. However he respectfully observes how those living in your domain and in his native lands hope that you would ascend to the high position, he sees how you, in comparison with the generations of your ancestors, have given a brighter shine to your name, how after you went to govern the frontier lands covered with high mountains that serve as a barrier, you spead the glory of youre power in all sides of the world. You are enjoing respect in the remote northern lands populated by the Hus (胡), and in the southern lands populated by Yues (越 and 粵, essentially Vietnamese), and the Jungs (戎) and Dis (氐) are extolling your virtues, and could my insignificant governor of a small area dare to not raise the hems of his clothes and not to hasten to perform a bowing in your sacred palace. Was it not in the past Chen Yin, 138 who rejected a title wang and did not become a wang, was it not in the past Han Xin, 139 who disrespected emperor but did not become the emperor? He does that, knowing that it is impossible to fight for the position of the emperor using wits and force. In comparison with you, illustrious gun, the military leader Shi is like a dew in comparison with the sun, a river in comparison with a boundless sea. The examples of Xian Ji 140 and Ji-yan 141, who took a road that brought them to destruction, are so recent that they are clear warnings for the commander Shi. What are you surprised with, illustrious gun!

Besides, it really happened from antiquity that the loyal Hus (胡) became famed officeholders, but none of them ever became an emperor. The military leader Shi yields the place to you, illustrious gun, not because he does not want to become an emperor, but because he sees that his accessions to the throne would not be allowed neither by the Sky, nor by the people. I pray you, gun, do not have doubts!”

Quite pleased, Wang Jun raised Wang Zichun and others to the titles le-hou, and sent to Shi Le in return an envoy, dispatching with him gifts consisting of what was produced in his lands.

At that time Yu Tun, in charge of the Wang Jun troops, governed the Fanyan district. Secretly conceiving to desert Wang Jun, he urgently sent to Shi Le a courier, to tell about his willingness to surrender. Shi Le beheaded the courier, and sent his head to Wang Jun, to express his fidelity and sincerity. Wang Jun did not punish Yu Tun, but entrusted the Shi Le fidelity and sincerity even more, and dropped any suspicions.

When Wang Zichun together with an envoy of Wang Jun arrived to Xiangguo (pin. Xiangguo 襄國, orig.: Xiango, in modern Xintai, Hebei), Shi Le ordered to hide the strong warriors and best armor, to show the envoy an empty palace and weak troops, and turning to the north, accepted the Wang Jun letter from the envoy with a bow. Wang Jun sent Shi Le a hair fly swatter, but Shi Le mendaciously declared that he does not dare to hold it in his hands, hung the hair fly swatter up on a wall, and in the morning and in the evening made bowings before it, saying: “I have no possibility to see the respectable wang, so I look at the gift of the respectable wang and it is like I see him himself.”

Shi Le again sent Dun Zhao to present Wang Jun with a petition where he gave a date when he would personally arrive to Yuzhou province to present to Wang Jun a high title. In addition, he wrote a letter to Zao Sun, where he asked to be appointed a pastor of the Bingzhou province and to be given a title Guanpin-gun, to show his fidelity that deservs unconditional trust.

Starting devising plans about Wang Jun, Shi Le summoned Wang Zichun and began asking him about [the rival]. Wang Zichun said: “Since last year, in the Yuzhou province happened a strong flood, people have no grain for sustenance, but Wang Jun saved up huge stocks of grain and does not render them any help. The punishments and laws are severe, taxes and duties are numerous. The wise and virtuous are brutally killed, the officials that are trying to counsel [the ruler] are executed or expeled. The life of the lowest is intolerable, almost all of them either fled or revolted. Outside the area, the Syanbis and Uhuans are devising a treachery, and within the province, Zao Sun and Tian Jiao are extorting and raging.

The mood of the people is depressed, the warriors are tired to a brim. In spite of that, Wang Jun builds terraces and pagodas for amusement, appoints officials and himself says that the Han emperor Gao-zu and the Wei emperor Wu-di are unworthy of comparison with him. Besides, in the Yuzhou province is spoken much about unusual events, and the hearts are siezed with horror for those who listen to these conversations. Nevertheless, Wang Jun keeps usual mood as though nothing is occuring, it is not seen that he feels fear, and that indicates that he destined for destruction”. Leaning on a little table, Shi Le said with laughter: “Right, it is now possible to capture Wang Pen-zu!”

When the Wang Jun's envoys returned to Yuzhou, they reported on Shi Le weakness and his sincere humility, free from any duplicity. Wang Jun believed that it is really so.

Shi Le assembled troops and set the date for the start of the campaign, going to attack Wang Jun unexpectedly, but mindful that Liu Kun, Syanbis, and Uhuans can strike him in the back, was heavily sighing. Zhang Bin said: “A sudden attack on hostile possession should be made unexpectedly. But your troops are already brought to a full readiness for many days, but are not starting the campaign, are you really disturbed by the opponents on three sides?” Shi Le relied: “Yes, I do not know, how to handle them”..

Zhang Bin said: “Wang Pentszu occupies Yuzhou province exclusively because he relies on three hordes. Now all of them deserted him and even became his enemies, and he would not get their support to resist us. In the Yuzhou province blazes famine because of a poor grain harvest, everyone is eating vegetables, people are rising mutinies, the Wang Jun's close allies are leaving him, the troops are weak, therefore Wang Jun in the province does not have strong troops for defense. So, if our numerous troops would approach the suburbs of his capital, everything would collapse, as dissipates a lump of soil or tile breaks on impact.

The opponents on the three sides have no plans, therefore you, the commander, can send to a campaign a thousand li away your self-sustained troops, to punish the Yuzhou province. For the lightly armed horsemen to make a roundtrip there would require no more than twenty days, and even if the opponents would start actions, the departed [to a campaign] troops would have time to return. It is needed, using the fortunate occasion, to strike the enemy, like a surprise thunder. Do not lose the time!

Besides, Liu Kun and Wang Jun, though they call themselves the shields of the Jin dynasty, are actually its enemies. If to write Liu Kun a letter, to send him hostages and to ask a peace, Liu Kun will surely be delighted that he succeded in winning our [humility], he will be glad with the destruction of Wang Jun, and will never attack you to help him”. Shi Le exclaimed: “What was not clear to me, understood the right hou, so away with the doubts!”

After that the lightly armed horsemen set out to a campaign, and to attack Yuzhou province unexpectedly, they even were moving at night with torch lights. Reaching Bozhen 142, Shi Le killed the registrar Yu Lun, because his senior brother Yu Tun was in the Fanyan district, and [Shi Le] was concerned that Yu Lun could divulge the military secret.

Shi Le ordered Zhang Liu to deliver a letter to Liu Kun, where he recounted the grave crimes he commited, and to atone for them asked a permission to punish Wang Jun. Liu Kun, who hated Wang Jun for a long while, dispatched to the provinces and districts a note where he said that Shi Le, perceiving the will of the Sky, reflected on the committed mistakes, stopped the crimes he was pursuing for a number of years, and asks for permission to occupy the main city of the Yuzhou province, in order to further devote himself to the service of the good, and therefore he ordered to satisfy Shi Le's demands and hold an establishment of friendship with him obligatory.

When Shi Le troops came to the river Ishui 143 (early 314), Sui Wei who held at Wang Jun a post of the Chief Warden, urgently sent to Wang Jun a courier with request to allow to stage the troops to repell Shi Le, but Yu Tun threw the courier in jail. All Wang Jun's highest officials asked for a permission to marshal troops against Shi Le, but the angry Wang Jun said: “The respectable Shi is coming to enthrone me as the Son of the Sky, everyone who would dare to talk about attacking him will be beheaded!”, and then ordered to prepare a feast and to wait for Shi Le.

In the morning, coming to the Zenchen city, Shi Le shouted to the gatekeepers to open the gate. Concerned about ambushes, he drove in front a few thousand heads of large livestock and sheep, declaring [everywhere], that these are the gifts for Wang Jun; actually, he wanted to fill the streets and alleyways with the animals, so that the troops could not jump out in ambush. That scared Wang Jun, who was one moment sitting down, the other moment getting up (Nice example of archaic language that does not yet have words for abstract subjects and uses standardized metaphorical expressions to render abstract subject like “fidgeting”).

Shi Le ascended to the Public Hall, and ordered troops to seize and set Wang Jun in front of him. Then he ordered Xu Guan to present to Wang Jun the following indictment: “You were a first among the highest officeholders also had the highest title. You held the lands of Judu 144 where is located possession of brave warriors, you had power over the lands of the whole [former possession] Yan 145, the motherland of shock cavalry units. However, having strong troops in your hands, you were idle and watched the fall of the capital 146, did not render help to the Son of the Sky, plotting you own ascension. Besides you were appointing to the positions only the guileful and cruel, you were killing the loyal and virtuous, giving full freedom to your feelings and desires, you have harmed all the Yan lands. You have deserved the present situation yourself, it is not the Sky that punishes you”.

Then Shi Le ordered the commander Wang Loshen to escort Wang Jun to the market square in Xiangguo, and to behead him.

After that Shi Le sent back the fugitives, promoted Xiun Cho and Pei Xian 147, granting them carriages and clothes; enumerated the crimes of Zhu Shi, Zao Sun, and Tian Jiao, who were accepting bribes and ruined governance; censured Yu Tun for the absence of loyalty to Wang Jun 148 and beheaded them all. He relocated the Uhuan leaders Shenguan, Jianshan, Hesi, and Jinypi to Xiangguo and burnt the Jin palaces in Ji. He granted the Jin chief of the state office Liu Han a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the North and appointed him to serve as the governor of the Yuzhou province; [then] Shi Le left in the Ji a garrison, appointed officials, and returned.

Shi Le sent a minor official of the eastern department 149 Fu Gou, after appointing him to the post of a left senior official, to present to Liu Cong the head of Wang Jun, and to report about the achieved victory.

After Shi Le returned to Xiangguo, Liu Han raised a revolt against him and fled to the Duan leader Pidi.

In Xiangguo happened a strong famine, the price of a sheng (1 l) of grain rose to the price of a jin (500 g) of silver, and the price of a jin (500 g) of meat rose to the price of a liang (50 g) of silver (Even during famine, a price of 1 l  ~ 900 g of grain and 5 kg of meat was the same. Th, at clearly indicates a nomadic economy, the state lived on meat).

For the feats which Shi Le has done in the quelling of Yuzhou province, Liu Cong appointed Shi Le, through the ambassador Liu Shun, who was declared as an Accredited Imperial Ambassador, a Great Chief Commander for all military affairs in the lands east from Shen, a Great Commander Commanding Strong Calvary, and a Shanyu of the Eastern Lands, preserving for him the posts of a courtier, a rank of the accredited imperial ambassador, [also retained for him] the right to create commanderies, the post of bailiff, a pastor of two provinces, and the title of gun. Besides, Shi Le was granted a copper gong and yellow halberd 150, a set of drums and pipes for two detachments, one of which preceded, and other followed behind his cortege, and the number of the granted districts was increased to twelve. Shi Le resolutely refused from the assignments, accepting only two districts.

Shi Le promoted eleven people, including the left senior official Zhang Jing, to the titles bo, zi, and hou, and raised in grades the civil and military officials, everyone on his merits.

The Shi Le's military leader Zhi Siun attacked Liu Yan in the Linqui district, but was defeated. Liu Yan sent commanders Han Hun and Pan Liang to suddenly attack Dunqui district; there they killed Shao Pan, appointed by Shi Le a governor of the district. Pursuing Han Hun and others, Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun) killed in the Linqui district Pan Liang.
Liu Kun sent the governor of Lepin district Jiao Qiu to attack the Chanshan district that belonged to Shi Le, where he killed Xin Tai, a governor of that district.

Serving Liu Kun troop commander Wen Jiao advanced to the west to punish Shanhu (山胡) 151, but Shi Le's commander Lu Min intercepted Wen Jiao and defeated him in the Luchen district 152 (This indicates that Shi Le state extended beyond the nominal Chinese borders to cover the free Hun population).

Because the calmness was gradually restored in the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces, Shi Le for the first time ordered the provinces and districts to run a census of the actual number of households, and levy each household at a rate of two pieces of cloth and a land tax at a rate of two hu of grain.

[The former] Shi Le's commander Chen Wu raised a revolt [against Jin dynasty] leading the Juni county 153, and switched over to the Shi Le side.

[Shi Le's commander] Lu Min attacked Nin Hei in the Zhipin district, and forced him to surrender, then took with fight the cities Dunyan and Suanzao, and turned back, relocating over 20 thousand surrendered households to Xiangguo (This is one of the many Eastern Hun examples indicative of the Türkic nomadic assessment of the relative value of the people and territory: the territory is vast and not valuable, people are few and valuable; it is the people who produce and may be assessed, not the land. The Chinese concept about tying people to the land and assessing the land was permeating the Türkic traditional nomadic etiology as part of the Sinicization process, by leaps and reversals. The mass transfer of the dependent people from the zone outside of the immediate control into the zone of functioning control is endemic to the Türkic history during Antique and Middle Age periods, one of the most massive examples was the transfer of the Slavic people from the Danube area to the Dnieper area during the late Hunnic times, and the reverse transfer of the Slavic people from the Dnieper area to the Danube area during Asparukh times).

Shi Le sent commander Ge Bo to raid the Puyan district 154. Ge Bo occupied the main city of the district, and killed its governor Han Hun.

Equipping envoy Fan Kan with an accreditation badge, Liu Cong sent him to hand Shi Le a decree about assignments for the posts, to present him with bow and arrows, bring additionally the title Shendun-bo, a Head of the Lands east from the Shen, and to grant the rights to independently conduct retaliatory campaigns, to appoint governors of provinces, commanders, local officials and to grant the titles of hou, presenting [to Liu Cong] at the end of the year the lists of appointed men. Shi Le's senior son Shi Xin was appointed a hereditary son of the governor of the Shandan possession, and in addition he was given a rank of the Commander of the Guard Troops, who was an assistant to the Commander of the Strong Calvary.

Liu Kun sent Wang Dan to attack the Zhongshan district, from where was expelled a governor Qin Gu, appointed by Shi Le. Shi Le's commander Liu Mian repulsed Wang Dan and defeated him, capturing Wang Dan at the Wangduguan checkpoint 155.

Shi Le made a surprise attack on Shao Xu in the Lelin district. Shao Xu put out for the counterattack all his troops, and Shi Le, after sufferring a bad defeat, returned back.

Wang Ji, a native of the Zhangu county, stationed in rampart-fortified place Kedoulei, raised weapons and stirred strifes in the districts Hejian and Bohai belonging to Shi Le. Shi Le appointed Zhang Yi, with a rank of Commander Famous forMilitary Valours, a governor of the Hejian district, and Lin Shen, who occupied a post of the Military Adviser, a governor of the Bohai district, so that they, with 2 thousand infantrymen and horsemen each, have subdued Wang Ji. The governor of the Chanle district Chen Xia was ordered to station with the troops in the Chantin to render support for them.

Over 30 thousand households from the hordes of the Uhuan leaders Zhang Guan and Liu Do were moved from the Pinyuan district to Xiangguo.

Shi Le sent Shi Jilongg for a surprise attack on Wang Pin, who left his native land and stayed in Lianchen. After a defeat, Shi Jilongg returned.

 Then Shi Le again attacked on Liu Yan in Linqui.

Zhi Xiong (Zhi the Hun) and Lu Min attacked Nin Hei in the Dunyan city 156 and took the city, after which Nin Hei committed suicide by jumping into the river. Over 10 thousand of his peoplewere moved to Xiangguo.

Shao Xu sent [the Duan leader] Wenyan to the Liu Yang aid, therefore Shi Jilongg, avoiding collision, retreated and stopped at the Luguanjin checkpoint 157. Wenyan, unable to advance, encamped with his troops near Jintin. Zhang Pin together with other influential houses of the provinces Yanchzhou and Yuzhou advanced his troops to the Liu Yang aid, therefore Shi Jilongg at night abandoned his camp, set up ambushes outside of it, and launched a rumor that he is returning to the lands north of Huanghe. Believing that, Zhang Pin entered the empty camp, but Shi Jilongg returned and attacked him, defeated him, and captured the Linqui city. Liu Yan fled to the Wenyan troops. In the Shi Jilongg hands fell the Liu Yang's younger brother Liu Qi, whom he sent to Xiangguo. Liu Yan was a son of the Liu Kun's senior brother. Because Liu Kun cared for his mother, Shi Le was grateful to Liu Kun, and therefore he presented Liu Qi with land , a manor, and ordered officials to study classical books from him.

At that time appeared large quantity of locust, especially much of it was in the Zhongglan and Chanshan districts.

Zhai Shu, one of the Dinlins 158 in the Zhongshan district, raised a revolt against Shi Le, and attacked Zhongshan and Chanshan districts. Shi Le advanced in the head of horsemen to punish him, and returned after seizing Zhai Shu's mother and wife. Zhai Shu hid in Xuguan, and then fled to the Daijun district.

In the city of Zhangchen 159 Shi Le attacked a governor of the Lepin district Han Ju, and so Liu Kun sent commander Ji Dan in the head of more than 100 thousand trooprs to punish Shi Le, and himself arrived to Guanmu 160 to support Ji Dan.

Shi Le wanted to repulse Ji Dan , but somebody cautioning him said: “Ji Dan has selected numerous troops, it is impossible to withstand their shock power. It is better to cover behind deep moats and high ramparts, to reduce their fighting zeal, because the positions of the attacking and defending are different, that way we shall ensure our safety”.

Shi Le relied: “Though the troops of Ji Dan are numerous, they came from far away, the troops are weakened, their strength is exhausted. They are a pack of dogs and rams, or a flock of ravens, and are not following orders. They can be captured in a single battle, what is their force! The bandits already came close to us, how can we distance ourselves from them? If our main forces would retreat, it will be difficult to come back later. And if Ji Dan would take advantage of our retreat, the warriors even would not have time to look back, how could they cover behind deep moats and high ramparts? This offer is a refusal to fight and a path to destruction”. After that the man who offered advice was immediately beheaded.

Appointing Kun Chan a Chief Commander of the vanguard, Shi Le issued an order for the three armies saying that anybody late with arrival will be beheaded. Lining the warriors on the mountain to distract the opponent attention from the direction of the main maneuver, Shi Le divided the troops and hid them in two ambushes. When the light-armed horsemen joined the fight with the Ji Dan troops, Shi Le intentionally withdrew them and began retreating to the north. Ji Dan allowed his warriors to pursue them, but then the Shi Le units hidden in two ambushes came out and attacked them on two sides. The troops of Ji Dan sufferred a bad defeat, and Shi Le captured 10 thousand armored horses.

Ji Dan fled to the Daijun district, and Hang Ju fled to Liu Kun.

The Liu Kun's upper official Liu Hun surrendered to Shi Le in the head of the Bingzhou province, after which Liu Kun fled to the Duan leader Pidi. Shi Le returned after relocating households from the Yangqu and Lapin districts to Xiangguo, and appointing officials of the local administration,.

Kun Chan pursued Ji Dan to the Sanggan county 161. Shi Le sent Zhang Fu, who doubled as a left (i.e Left Wing) senior official, to Liu Cong to inform about the won victory.

When Shi Le campaigned against Lepin district, in his Nanhe county its head Zhao Lin gathered around himself a few thousand households fro the districts Guanchuan, Pinyuan and Bohai, raised a mutiny against Shi Le, and fled to Shao Xu (pronounced Syui/Süi, i.e. Yui/Hui, i.e. Uigur, i.e. Shao the Uigur). Xin Gu from the Hejian district, whom Shi Le was repeatedly summoning, but he was not coming, also raised a revolt, assembling few hundreds men around of himself.

Shi Le went on a trip in the counties of the Jizhou province, and assigning to the right troop commander (a Hunnic name for a position) Zhang Xia (“Zhang the Chinese”) a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the North (a Chinese title), appointed him a Chief Commander over all military affairs in the seven districts of the Jizhou province.

The husband of the Shi Le's senior sister Zhang Yue with a rank of Commander who Spread Greatness played shupa 162 with other military leaders, and Shi Le came to look at the game. Zhang Yue made a joke, offending Shi Le; Shi Le became terribly angry and ordered strongmen to break Zhang Yue's shins, and then to kill him.

Kun Chan attacked the Daijun district and killed Ji Dan.

At that time in the Lyaosi district were few tens of thousands households that fled from the Sizhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, and Yanzhou provinces; they were constantly enticing the others to come, and as a result the population did not attend quietly to their affairs. Kun Chan and others were attacking the [leaders of misconducts] Ma Yan and Fang Zhu, but for a long time could not overcome them.

Shi Le turned for advice to Zhang Bin, who said: “Fang Zhu and othersare not at all your enemies, and everybody who fled to the Lyaosi district is grieving after their native places. The troops should be recalled, military actions stopped, a good governor of province should be choosen and appointed, with obligation to act like Gun Sui 163, not bound by usual, firmly fixed rules. When he by your order would have spread widely favors and resolutely attending the business, would demonstrate authority, the misconducts in the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces, once you would raise your foot, would calm down on their own, and for the fugitives to the Lyaosi district would be even possible to establish the time for return”. Shi Le said: “The plan of the right hou is correct”, and withdrew Kun Chan. Then he appointed the chief of the Usui county Li Hui a Chief Overseer of the lands north of the river Ishui, gave him a rank of a Commander Tremendous with his Bellicosity, and a post of a governor of the Gaoyan district.

The majority of the members of the Ma Yan gang were earlier Li Qian's warriors, in whose office Li Hui held a post of a senior official. They admired for a long time the authority and virtues of Li Hui, therefore a major part of them rose against Ma Yan and switched to the side of Li Hui. The switch by the members of the gang scared Ma Yan, he fled to the Yuzhou province, but on the way drowned in the river. Fan Zhu in the head of the gang surrendered to Shi Le, after that Li Hui moved to Yijing 164, where to him with the expression of humility were annually joining a few thousand fugitives.

Highly valuing the Li Hui's accomplishments, Shi Le raised him to the title Yiyanzi and granted for sustenance 300 households. Shi Le in addition granted to Zhang Bin one thousand households, and raised him in the rank to the Commanderof Vanguard Troops, but Zhang Bin resolutely refused to accept the grants.

In provinces north of Huanghe appeared a mass of locust. First it appeared boring through the soil, in 20 days it changed appearance, turning to a likeness of a silk worm, in 7-8 days it fell asleep, in 4 days it shed its skin and flew away. All grass was densely covered with locust, which did not eat only three kinds of beans and a hemp. The provinces of Bingzhou and Jiazhou suffered especially badly.

Shi Jilongg, crossing to the other bank through the Chanshou-jin, raided Liango district 165 and killed the district governor Xiun He.

Liu Kun met in Guan 166 with Duan leaders Pidi, Shefuchen, Jiliujuan, and Mopi 167, to develop with them a plan to punish Shi Le. Shi Le, to bring a split among them, sent a Military Adviser Wang Xua to Mopi with jewelry. Mopi decided that he can thank Shi Le for the former favors, and also was delighted with generous gifts, so he convinced Shefuchen and Jiliujuan to pull the troops back. After that Liu Kun and Pidi also retreated to the city Jichen.

Shao Xu sent Shao Ji, a son of his senior brother, ordering him to attack Bohai district, belonging to Shi Le, and Shao Ji, capturing more than 3 thousand people, returned back.

The Liu Cong's military leader Zhao Gu 168 submitted to the Jin dynasty together with the capital Luoyang, he was afraid that Shi Le could unexpectedly attack him, and therefore sent to Shi Le a Military Adviser Gao Shao with a letter, where he expressed his admiration of Shi Le, and asked him for military help to punish Liu Cong. Shi Le refused, citing a high feeling of the duty, which caused Zhao Gu to feel a deep hatred, and he together with Go Ìî 169 attacked districts Henei and Jijun and plundered them.

The Duan leader Mopi killed the Syanbi Shanyu Tszefuchzhen and installed Shanyu Hubalin. Then another Duan leader, Pidi, advanced from theYuzhou province and attacked Mopi, but Mopi defeated him striking a counterblow. Pidi fled back to Yuzhou, killed a Great Commander Liu Kun, and then the Liu Kun's highest military officials one by one surrendered to Shi Le.

Moli sent his younger brother Qidu to attack Pidi in Yuzhou province, then Pidi heading the horde totaling few thousand people was going to flee to Shao Xu, but Shi Le's commander Shi Yue intercepted him at Yanshan mountain and inflicted on him a bad defeat, after which Pidi retreated to the Yuzhou province. A stray arrow hit and killed Shi Yue. Therefore Shi Le forbade music for three months, and posthumously bestowed on Shi Yue a rank of a commander-pacifier of the south.

It should be said that previously Cao Yi, who owned Qinzhou province, raised a revolt against Shi Le and reported south about his desire to obey the emperor orders. Because [the capital of Jin dynasty] the city of Jianie was far and in case of need the help could not be rendered in time, Cao Yi was afraid of sudden attack Shi Le, and therefore sent to him the ambassador for an establishment of friendship. Shi Le handed Cao Yi a rank great âîåíà÷àëüíèka East province, a post of the pastor of Qinzhou province and title Lane-gun.

Liu Cong fell badly ill and sent a courrier to summon Shi Le, thinking to appoint him a Great Commander in charge of the State Chancellery 170, and to hand over a deathbed decree about rendering assistance in the state affairs. Because Shi Le resolutely refused to accept the assignments, Liu Cong stopped calling him. Then Liu Cong sent to Shi Le an envoy with accreditation badge [and assignment] to appoint Shi Le a Great Commander and to give him a right to wear an accreditation sign and a halberd, to retain for him the posts of the Chief Commander, courtier, bailiff, the pastor of two provinces, and a title gun, and also in addition to grant ten districts. Shi Le did not accepted the grants.

After the death of Liu Cong (died 318), the illegal throne was inherited by his son Liu Can (pronounced Tsan) 171. When Jin Zhun, a Great Commander of Liu Can, killed Liu Can in Pinyan, Shi Le ordered Zhang Jing to march in a vanguard heading 5 thousand horsemen and to punish Jin Zhun, and followed him with 50 thousand elite horsemen, stopping in the steppe north from Xianlin 172, where over 40 thousand Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) and Jie (Jie Huns) yurts surrendered to him. A few times Jin Zhun challenged Shi Le for a fight, but to dampen the ardour of Jin Zhun, Shi Le was sitting out behind the strong ramparts.

Liu Yao marched from Chanan and stopped in Pufang 173. Liu Yao arrogated a high title, appointed Shi Le a Great Commander of the troops, a Great Commander, gave him nine awards 174, in addition granted 10 districts, that together with the former districts made 13 districts, and raised him to a higher title of Zhao-gun (From this narrative follows that in 319 AD the 45-years old Shi Le ruled, at least nominally, only 3 Chinese eastern districts, plus the tribes and the erritories of the Free Southern Huns).

When Shi Le attacked Jin Zhun, who was in a lesser Pinyan, the head of the Pinyan city Zhou Zhi surrendered to Shi Le with 6 thousand courtyards of various aliens. Also surrendered over a hundred thousand yurts of the leader of the Bas (Hun-led Syanbi) 175 and various Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) and Jie (Jie Huns) hordes, who were resettled in the districts of the Sizhou province.

Jin Zhun, trying to achieve a conclusion of a peace treaty, sent Bu Tai to deliver to Shi Le imperial chariots and clothes. Shi Le, in competition with Liu Yao for attracting Jin Zhun to his side, sent Bu Tai to Liu Yao, and to quench a Liu Yao fighting impulse, informed him that in the city nobody is willing to switch to the Liu Yao side. However, Liu Yao secretly concluded a deal with Bu Tai, and sent him back to Pinyan to calm down various Chuge (Huns) 176 hordes.

Shi Le suspected that Bu Tai developed a plan of action with Liu Yao, and wanted to behead him, to induce Jin Zhun to surrender sooner.

However, all commanders interjected: “If you decapitate Bu Tai, Jin Zhun will certainly lose his desire to surrender, but if to order Bu Tai to declare that the Han dynasty (Former Zhao.-V.T.) is going to conclude a treaty inside the city, and wants Jin Zhun to be killed faster, Jin Zhun will undoubtedly be scared and would hasten to surrender”. After a long meditation, Shi Le followed the advice of the commanders, and sent Bu Tai to Pinyan.

After arrival in Pinyan, Bu Tai together with Jin Zhun commanders, Qiao Tai, Ma Jung and others, mobilized troops, attacked Jin Zhun, killed him, and raised Jin Min to the post of the chief. Then [the participants of the mutiny] sent Bu Tai and Bu Syuan to bring Liu Yao six heritable imperial seals.

That raised a terrible anger with Shi Le, who sent to Pinyan an office scribe Yang Shen to express an admonition to Jin Min for the murder of Jin Zhun, but the angry Jin Min beheaded Yan Shen. Then, even more infuriated Shi Le marched troops against Jin Min. Jin Min joined the fight, but Shi Le attacked and defeated him, covering for two li the land with corpses. Jin Min, reinforced the city gate and switched to unyielding defense, not venturing for a battle. Shi Le sent the left senior official Wang Xiu to report to Liu Can about the won victory.

The Jin governor of Pengcheng county Zhou Jian killed the governor of Pei county, and together with Pengcheng and Pei counties surrendered to Shi Le.

Shi Jilongg in the head of the troops from the Yuzhou and Jizhou provinces joined Shi Le in his attacks on Pinyan. Liu Yao sent to the Jin Min aid Liu Chan with a rank of a Commander Punishing the East. Then Shi Le ordered to withdraw the troops to Pushan, and then Jin Min in the head of the Pinyan population fled to Liu Yao, and Liu Yao retreated west to the Sui 177.

Shi Le burnt in Pinyan the palacial premises, ordered Pei Xian and Shi Hui to restore the tombs of Liu Yuanhai and Liu Cong, to gather more than hundred corpses, including the corpse of Liu Can, and to bury them. The amilliar sphere (spherical concave sundial) and musical instruments were transported to Xiangguo.

Liu Yao again sent an ambassador Go Si and others, handing them accrediting badges [and giving orders] to appoint Shi Le a Great Steward 178 (In the Hunnic society, the position of the Great Steward is called Right Wise Prince “Right Jükü-Bek” 右屠耆王, in Chinese rendition Yu Xian-wang 右贤王 or Right Tuqi-wang 右屠耆王, who traditionally is a head of the Gudu 骨都 “in-laws” maternal dynastic tribe, where the concept “Right” means and is expressed with the term “Western”, and was correspondingly rendered in Chinese as Xi 西, making the position title 西屠耆王 = Western Jükü-Bek; in traditional terms, excessively wrecked by the Chinese policies, the appointment of the head of the Huyan tribe to the supreme ruling position in the state simultaneously elevates the eastern remnants of the Huyan tribe to its former glory of a first maternal dynastic tribe. However, a traditional Western Jükü-Bek is located next to the monarch, leading his household and his staff, and not away from the monarch in his own court; therefore Liu Yao's gesture was nothing more then a political manuever that tried to exploit the Hunnic traditional organization and system of values. As a side note, we know that Jükü/Tuqi/Xian adjective did not die with the Huns, in eary 7th century the Chinese noted this adjective in the Western Türkic Kaganate as a title of Yugu Shad, a Chief Commander in the Western Türkic Kaganate, noted in the document entitled “Gaochang Undated (late 6th century or early 7th century). Ledger of Letter and Gift from Touliu Shi and others ” for the Shad who established a garrison north of the Tianshan mountains to monitor Turfan in eary 7th century [Jiang Boqin,, Dunhuang Tulufan wenshu yu Sichouzhilu ( Silk Road and Documents from Dunhuang and Turfan), Wenwu chubanshe, 1994, p. 9, n. 4]. The Chinese王 may very well correspond to the Türkic shad), a Great Commander, to bestow on him a higher title of Zhao-wang, in addition to grant seven districts, which together with former districts made 20 districts, to grant a right to call his coach appearances by Clearing of the Road 179, to wear twelve tassels on the headdress 180, to make rounds following the example of Cao-gun (Cao Cao.-V.T.), who was helping the Han dynasty, on the decorated with gold imperial chariot drawn by six horses, to call his wife Princess, and his heir son a princely heir son.

Cao Pinle, who was serving Shi Le in a post of a decree writer and who was included in the (Shi Le) embassy, remained to serve Liu Yao.

He told Liu Yao: “Sovereign, The Great Commander of Troops (Shi Le's rank.-V.T.) sent Wang Xiu and others ostensibly to express his deepest respect, and actually to reconnoiter your strong and weak sides. He planned to wait for the return of Wang Xiu and then unexpectedly attack you”. At that time the forces of Liu Yao were really impaired, therefore he became scared that Wang Xiu would report about that. Coming to terrible anger, Liu Yao sent a courier after Go Si with an order to return back, in the Sui beheaded Wang Xiu, and cancelled the order about Shi Le appointment as a Great Steward.

An escaped [member of the embassy] Liu Mao told Shi Le about circumstances of the Wang Xiu's death. In a fury, Shi Le executed members of the Cao Pinle clan for three generations, and posthumously granted Wang Xiu a post of the chief of the ceremonial department. Then, learning about recission of the decision about granting him the rights for salient rules of behaviour, Shi Le come to even greater wrath and gave an order that said: “I, together with my senior and younger brothers, served the House of Liu more assiduously than is due for a servant. If not I and my older and younger brothers would Liu Yao sit with his face to the south and be called as emperor! And he, barely establishing the foundation of the state, conceived a desire to build plans against me! However, the Sky does not help the wicked, therefore it ordered him to kill Jin Zhun with others' hands. And I, thinking only about a service to the ruler and with a belief that I should serve him more assiduously than Shun served Gu-sou 181, have again expressed to him respect as to a wise ruler, and kept equal, friendly relations with him, like before. Could I suspect that sunk in crimes [Liu Yao] would kill my envoy, who came to express my sincere feelings! Is the the elevation of the Emperors and Wangs eternal! I will myself procure the titles Zhao-wang and Zhao-di for me. Are the titles, high or low, depend on Liu Yao?” After that Shi Le established the posts of the Main Imperial Doctor, the Preparer of Medicines for emperor, the Chiefs of departments in the Imperial Medical Office.

Shi Le ordered the Military Adviser Chao Jan to construct Zhenyanmen Gates. Soon the gates collapsed, and the utterly angry Shi Le beheaded Chao Jan. But engulfed with anger Shi Le hastened too much with execution, and soon repented, granted to the executed a coffin and clothes, and bestowed a post of a Chief of the Ambassadorial Department. 182

Zu Ti [who was serving the Jin dynasty] with a rank of the Commander-Pacifier of the West, attacked Chen Chuan in Penguan. Shi Jilongg advanced to the Chen Chuan's aid, then Zu Ti retreated and encamped in Liango, where Shi Jilongg sent Zuo Fusu, with a title of Commander with Thunderous Military Valours, to attack him.

In addition, near the four gates in Xiangguo, Shi Le opened over ten lower schools to spread literature and education, for installation of respect (to Confucianism) and installation of respect to the didactics, he selected over hundred sons and younger brothers of the highest military officials and influential houses to study in them, and besides appointed watchmen to chime time with handbells. Was established an office of a custodian of the water clock and were cust coins named fenghuoqian (丰货, Feng Huo, Coin of Abundance).


The Syanbi leader Zhilyuian raised on the western bank of Huanghe a revolt against Shi Le, and Shi Jilongg went to punish him. He defeated Zhilyuian in the Shofan district, killed 20 thousand people, took prisoner 30 thousand of his warriors, and seized more than 100 thousand heads of large livestock and horses.

After Kun Chan pacified all districts of the Yuzhou province, the people of the Duan leader Pidi, suffering from famine, disperced, abandoning their wives and children, and Pidi himself fled to Shao Xu.

Cao Yi sent to Shi Le an ambassador to establish friendship relations, delivered gifts of onjects produced in his lands, and asked for the establishment of a border along Huanghe.

When Tao Bao approached to Ïýíãóàíþ 183, Tszu Ti retreated to the district Huajnan 184, Shi Jilongg moved over 5 thousand the households submitting Chen Chuanju, in Guanzong.

Shi Jilongg, Zhang Jing, Zhang Bin and over hundred highest military officials were persuading Shi Le to accept a high title. Then Shi Le issued a paper which said: “I unduly, owing to my small virtues, received your respect and love, therefore days and nights I shiver out of fear, as standing on an edge of a deep precipice or on thin ice. Hoe can I occupy the high throne and accept the high title, that would only cause sneers from all directions. Even The Zhou's Wen-wang 185, who was occupying a high position and was one of the tripod legs, and he was serving for the Yin dynasty, and Xiao-bai 186, who occupied a brilliant position that allowed him to put things in order in the Celestial, treated the House of Zhou with respect and deference. And the present rule of the [Jin] state is better than was the rule of the Yin and Zhou dynasties, and my virtues are minuter than [the virtues] of the two mentioned rulers. Stop immediately this talk and do not raise this question any more. Henceforth the one who would dare to talk about it will be punished without any mercy”. With that, everything has stopped.

Shi Le issued a paper which said: “Now, after great tumults, we have many confusing laws, of them should be to selected the essentials, and should be introduced an article system”. After that the scribe of legislative department Guan Zhi was ordered to compile 5 thousand articles of the system established in the Xin-hai year, which was used for ten-plus years, and then again the laws started to be used.

The Jin's governor of the Taishan district Xu Kan raised a revolt [against Jin dynasty] and surrendered to Shi Le.

Shi Jilongg, Zhang Jing, Zhang Bin, the Left and Right army commanders Zhang Qulu and Cheng Xia, and about 130 civil and military officials presented a report which said:
“We, your servants, heard that extraordinary plans necessarily result in extraordinary feats, and extraordinary feats necessarily end up with extraordinary accomplishments. For that reason perished three dynasties 187, and one by one rose five towered hegemons 188, who calmed turmoils, helped in disasters and were equal to wise rulers in the performed feats. We think with respect that the Sky generously gave you extraordinary wisdom, at your birth appeared happy omens, you flogged the universe with a whip, helped the emperor [Liu Cong] to successfully complete affairs, ressurected with your arrival all lands under the vast Sky, every day and every month one by one appear happy omens and benedictory portents. Nine out of ten live souls dream of the Liu clan disappearance and of establishment your authority based on force and mercy.

Now, when mountains and rivers have been calmed, stars and constellations are not changing their color, Xias (Chinese.-V.T.) and peoples living in the lands beyond four seas peacefully talk with each other through translators, the Sky and people connect their hopes with you. You really should rise to the highest main altar and enter the emperor throne, in order to render favor to those who supports you. We are imploring you to follow the lead of Liu Bei 189 from Shu, or Wei-wang 190 from Yecheng, and to create a Zhao state consisting of 11 districts: Henei, Weijun, Jijun, Dun-qui, Pinyuan, Qinhe, Julu, Chanshan, Zhongshan, Changle and Lepin, which together with the former 13 districts - Zhaogo, Guan-pin, Yanpin, Zhangu, Bohai, Hejian, Shandan, Dinxian, Fanyan, Yuyang, Wuyi, Yango and Lelin - they would make 24 districts with (Chinese, or settled) population of 290 thousand courtyards. The assignments inside the state should be made in an old fashion with replacement of the name of the taishou post with neishi. According to Yu-gun 191 and by an example of the Wei emperor Wu-di it is necessary to restore borders of the Jizhou province 192 so that in the south they reached the Men-qizn 193, in the west the Lunmen (orig.: Lunmyn/Ëóíìûí) 194, in the east Huanghe, in the north Saiyuany 195. Because the Great Shanyu holds in submission and cares for all the people living in the lands and carrying the duties of bridling the barbarians 196, three provinces should be dismantled - Bingzhou, Shozhou and Sizhou, and establish everywhere horde commanderies to control them. We are respectfully asking to sim s.uvazheniem to take with respect the will of the Sky, to meet expectations of the people”.

Shi Le, turning five times to the west and four times south, was refusing, but the officials kept bowing to the ground, persistently asking him to agree, and eventually Shi Le satisfied their request.

Fang Xuanling
(Jin shu), Ch. 104
Shi Le. Part 1
1. Wei-shu states that Shi Le child name was Pule [7, Ch. 95, p. 9-a]. The last name Shi and the name Le were given by Ji San, and it is quite possible that the name Le is derived from the last syllable of the child name Pule.
2. Jie, or Keshi (orig.: Öçå, or Öçåøè) is the name of a place where lived one of Hun hordes. Chinese became calling that horde Jie Hus (羯胡) (Huns) after the area, and thus Jie is not a self-designation of the horde [7, Ch. 95, p. 9-a]. The main town Uxian of the county is 30 li north-west of the modern county town Yuyshe in the Shanxi province [15, p., 516].
3. Apparently, the subject is the pastoral rout of the horde of the southern Hun Shanyu Qianziuy (Qiangqu 羌渠, Kyankyui, Kyangaoi, Qiang Qu; orig.: Öÿíöçþé), about whom is known the following: “In the second year [of Kuang-ho reign era, 179 AD] the head of bodyguards Zhang Xu quarrelled with Shanyu Huchjen, killed him, and on his own, without Emperor's sanction, raised a right Sian-wang (Ch. Xian) Kyankyui to the Shanyu throne. Since Zhang Xu executed Shanyu without permission of the Emperor, he was taken to the capital in a cage and handed over to the chief of the judicial department, who sentenced him to death (This is one of the testimonies that associate pin. Jie 羯 people with the Kiyan tribe, as a splinter of the Kiyans. The Kians (Huyans) were an ancient Hun's maternal dynastic tribe. Kians are also listed as one of the 12 or 15 Tele tribes. As a Hunnic and Türkic dynastic tribe the Kiyans are known throughout the Ancient and Middle Age history).
Shanyu Kyankyui ascended the throne in the second year of Kuen-ho reign era (179 AD). In the fourth year of the Zhong-ping reign era (187 AD) a former governor of the Zhongshan district Zhang Shun raised a revolt, headed the Syanbis, and began raiding border districts. The Emperor Ling Di ordered the Southern Huns (匈奴) to send troops, to punish the rebels jointly with Liu Yu, a governor of Yuzhou province. Shanyu sent to Yuzhou cavalry led by left Sian-wang. But his people were afraid that the Shanyu would be sending troops without an end, and so in the fifth year [of Zhong-pin reign era, 188 AD] the right horde Ilo, and various Huns' (匈奴) hordes in the Syuchu county, horde Baymatun, and others, more than 100 thousand people, rebelled and killed the Shanyu (Chinese annalistic explanation is suspicious, more likely the reason for the revolt was the discontent with the Chinese policy of divide and rule; the “Syanbi” tribes headed by the local Hun ruler may have had legitimate, in the eyes of the Huns, reasons for uprising, may have been a kindered Hun horde, like Toba, within the Syanbi confederation, and may have had marital or other kindred links with the Southern Hun hordes. The “were afraid” of being ordered around by the Chinese as a reason for the revolt may be a less immediate motive for the uprising. In the Hun's eyes Kyankyui was illigitimate Shanyu from a maternal, and not a paternal dynastic line, installed by allien ruler).
Shanyu Kyankyui remained on the throne for ten years, after him the throne ascended his son Yuyfulo, who had a post of right Sian-wang” [21, Ch. 89, pp. 32-a - 32-b].
4. Wang Yan (256-311), nicknamed Yifu, was an outstanding representative of Neodaosism in Western Jin. During the troubles raised by eight princes (300-306), he deftly maneuvered between Sima Lun, with title Zhao-wang, Sima Jun, with title Chi-wang, Sima Ying, with title Chekdu-wang, and Sima Yue, with title Donghai-wang, and held the post of Chief of Public Works, a Guardian of Morals and a Great Commander, but during the era of Yung-jia reign was captured by Shi Le and was killed [20, Ch. 43, pp. 8-a - 10-a].
5. The text is in error, instead of an era of Tai An reign (302-303), established by the Jin Emperor Hui-di, is indicated an era of Da-An reign [23, Vol. 2, p. 945].
6. Bingzhou - a province established during the Han dynasty that occupied territory of modern Inner Mongolia, most of the Shanxi province and some od Hebei province. During the Eastern Han it was included in the Jizhou province, but during the Three Kingdoms (220-280) was again restored. It occupied the land in the middle course of the river Fenshui, in the Shanxi province.
7. Yanmen - district established by the Qin dynasty in the northern part of modern Shanxi Province.
8. The text erroneously named the chief commander of the Northern Lake (baijie duwei) instead of the chief commander of the Northern Horde (beiby duwei) was [23, Vol. 2, p. 945]. As stated in the biography of Liu Yuanhai, “Wei Emperor Wu-di-di divided it (Huchushoan. - V.T.) people into five parts, placing Liu Bao a left leader. The representatives of the surname Liu were appointed leaders of the remaining parts. In the era of Tai-kan reign (280-289) instead of the leaders were installed chief commanders. The left side [of the Hun's hordes] lived in the Syuanshi county, in the Taiyuan district, the right side lived in the Qi county, the southern part lived in the Puzi county, the northern part in Xinxing county, the center part in the Dzlin county” [20, Ch. 101, p. 1-a].
9. Chief Commander (duwei) - during the Qin dynasty in charge of each of the 36 districts, into which the empire was divided, was installed a district commander, who assisted the District Chief in military affairs. In 148 BC the post of district commander was given a new name, duwei, “Chief Commander”. The Chief Commanders, like the heads of the districts, were receiving sustenance allowance of 2 thousand dans of grain per year [41, Ch. 19-a, l. 15-b].
10. Jizhou - one of the nine regions into which the legendary Emperor Yui allegedly divided China after elimination of the consequences of terrible floods. Supposedly, the Jizhou region occupied territory of the modern Shanxi province, the north-western part of the Hebei province, the northern part of the Henan Province, and the western part of the Liaoning province. Starting with the Han time, a province with that name existed at all subsequent dynasties, but its territory gradually diminished, and typically to it are ascribed the modern Hebei province and the northern part of the Henan province.
11. Zhiping - county with main town 65 li north-east of the modern county town Liaocheng in the Shandong province [15, p. 806].
12. Wang Penzu .- Penzu is a nickname of Wang Jung, a son of a Jin official Wang Chen. At the age 15, after the death of Wang Jung's father, he became his successor, and began his career with the post of a chief commander in charge of the chariot escort horses. Later he held posts of freelance cortege rider the as an employee of the State Chancellery, a freelance permanent palace serviceman, commander of cavalry troops surpassing abilities of others, a commander of the right wing, and lastly was appointed a head of the Hunei district headquartered in Xu-chan (a modern Siuichan county in the Henan province).
At that time the situation in China has heated immeasurably. From 291 to 306, i.e. for 15 years at the Jin dynasty court went on a continuous strife. In 290, after a death of the Emperor Wu-di the throne passed to his heir, a feeble-minded Emperor Hui-di. In matters of governance Hui-di was helped by Yang Jun, belonging to the clan Yang, a clan of the late Emperor Wu-di's wife. This incensed a clever and insidious intrigante Hui-di's wife, who belonged to the clan Jia, who had Sima Wei with a title Chu-wang, to kill Yang Chun, after which shetransferred the ruling affairs into the hands of a member of the imperial clan Sima Liang with a title Zhunan-wang. As a result, among the three clans, Yang, Jia, and Sima flaired up a bitter power struggle. Shortly thereafter, following an order of the Empress, Sima Wei killed Sima Liang, but a trouble was waiting for him too. Accusing her faithful servant in a vicious murder of Sima Liang, the Empress had him killed, and deposed the son of Hui-di, a heir to the throne, and sent him into Siuichan, where Wang Jun, again at her command, deprived him of his life.
In gratitude, Wang Jun was given a rank of commander-pacifier of the north, and a position of a governor of Qingzhou province, and soon he was proclaimed to be an imperial emissary, and was appointed a head of all military affairs in Yuzhou province. Worrying more about his own welfare than of the fate of the state, Wang Jun sought to establish friendly relations with the nomads, and even gave his two daughters in marriage to the Syanbi leaders Uuchen and Sushuyan. Without interfering in the struggle for the throne, he waited to which side the victory would tilt. That caused an anger of Sima Ying, one of the contenders for the throne, who presented to the Emperor a report asking to appoint Shi Kan, a ruler of Yuzhou province, a right-wing commander, and the right-wing commander He Yan install in his place, at the same time secretly ordering He Yan to kill Wang Jung.
Executing the order, He Yan secured support of Uhuan leader Shenden, and agreed with Wang Jung about a meeting south of the city Jichen, during which he intended to slay him. However, because of heavy rain He Yan had to return, and Shenden interpreted this return as an expression of the will of Heaven that sent down rain to save Wang Jung. So he switched to the Wang Jung side, told him about He Yan's plans, and together they surrounded him, and when He Yan gave up, killed him.
By joining forces with the troops of the Syanbi chief Uuchen, Wang Jun marched against Sima Ying, defeated his commander Shi Zhao, and expanding success occupied the town of Yecheng (north of the modern county town Linchzhan in the Hebei province). The achieved victory greatly strengthened the position of Wang Jung.
Later, Wang Jun helped the Emperor Hui-di to return to Luoyang, in gratitude Hui-di bestowed upon him the title of a great military leader, a team of strong horses, and he was appointed to the post of Chief Commander of all military matters connected with the eastern Yis north of the Huanhe, and a governor of the Yuzhou province. The next Emperor Huai-di handed Wang Jung additional post of a Chief of Public Works and the bailiff of Wuhuan.
In an era of Yung-jia reign (3071-3131) Shi Le, attacking Jizhou province, killed the provincial governor Wang Bin, after which Wang Jun in addition to Yuzhou also began to govern the Jizhou province. After assembling troops, he sent them against Shi Le located in Xiangguo (襄國, in modern county town Xintai in the Hebei province, orig.: Siango). In the campaign participated Jiliujuan, a son of the Wuhuan leader Uuchen, his younger brother Wenyang and his cousin Mopi. Shi Le suffered a defeat, but persuing him Mopi was captured, and ransomed by Jiliujuan, who concluded with Shi Le a friendship treaty.
Wang Jung lost an ally, and had to continue the war with Shi Le alone, but in the events intervened a Jin commander Liu Kun, who became the main opponent of Wang Jung. By that time, Wang Jun found himself in a difficult situation. Heavy levies, rampant corruption among officials, severe drought and invasion of locust brought people to extreme distress. The general discontent was intensified by Wang Jung willful acts, who even decided to acquire a “high title”, i.e. to declare himself an emperor. Therefore, a commander of one of the military detachments Yu Tung establish secret links with Shi Le and developed with him a plan, by which Shi Le would falsely express his desire to surrender to Wang Jung and recognize him as emperor. Delighted Wang Jung invited Shi Le to come to the town Ji, preparing for him a rich feast. When Shi Le drove to the Wang Jung house and he came out to meet him, he was seized by Shi Le troops. Shi Le sent Wang Jung to Xiangguo (襄國, in modern county town Xintai in the Hebei province, orig.: Siango), where after some time he has beheaded [20, Ch. 39, pp. 2-b - 5-a].
13. Uan - same as the modern Uan county in the Henan province [15, p. 510].
14. Central Region (Zhongzhou) - refers to the modern Henan Province. In ancient times it was called “Yuizhou province”, and because it was in the middle of the nine regions into which China was divided, it was also called and Central.
15. Danin - county with main town on the site of the modern county town Tanin in the Henan province [15, p. 837].
16. Liu Yuanhai. - Yuanhai was a nickname of Liu Yuan (?-310), who during the Sixteen States of five northern tribes period founded the Han dynasty, which entered (Chinese) history under a name Former Zhao. As described in Jin-shu, [20, Ch. 101], Liu Yuanhai is a descendant of the famous Hun Shanyu Maodun with whom the Han Emperor Gao-zong (206-195 BC) signed a peace treaty based on kinship, giving him in marriage a girl from his clan. That gave Liu Yuanhai a cause to take the surname Liu, and call the dynasty he created Han.
The father of Liu Yuanhai, Liu Bao, with title Left Xian Wang, had a position of a leader of the left wing of the Hun hordes in the territory of the modern Shanxi Province. In his youth, Liu Yuanhai received a splendid Chinese education, he was a good horseman and a swordsman. During turmoils raised by eight princes that led to a sharp weakening of the Jin dynasty, Liu Yuanhai served Sima Yin, who had a title of Chengdu-wang. Under a pretext of the need to assemble the Hun troops to provide more effective aid, Liu Yuanhai rode into the town Zuogochen (north-east of the modern county town Lishi in the Shanxi province), where he abandoned the Jin dynasty and took a post of Great Shanyu, and in 304 took a title of the Han-wang. After that he brought the southern part of modern Shanxi Province into submission, in the east attracted Shi Le and Wang Mi, and in 308 ascended the imperial throne. After that Liu Yuanhai attacked twice Luoyang, the capital of the Jin dynasty, but was unable to take it, even though he was using all his troops. The actions of Liu Yuanhai opened a way for the alien tribes to establish their domination over the Northern China.
In the biography of Liu Yuanhai explains: “In the first year of the era of reign Yung-hsing (304) Liu Yuanhai built in the southern suburbs [Zuogo-cheng] the altar and illegally assumed the throne under the title Han-Wan> [20, Ch. 101, p. 4-a]. “In Litina Liu Yuanhai moved only in the next year due to a severe famine that struck the county Lishi, in which the city was Zuogochen” [20, Ch. 101, p. 4-b].
17. Zhaojun - district created in the lands of the former Zhao possession, in the south-western part of today's Hebei Province and the northern part of the Shanxi province. During the Jin dynast the administration of the district was in a provincial town Fanzi south-west of the modern county town Gaoi in the Hebei province [15, p. 374].
18. Weijun - district created during the Han dynasty. During the Jin dynasty administration of the district was in the provincial town Yecheng 40 li south-west of the modern county town Linchzhan in the Henan province [15, p. 944].
19. Baima (White Horse?) - county with main town located 20 li to the east of the modern county town Huaxian in the Henan province [15, p. 683].
20. Tinghou - lower title, given during the Han dynasty to the le hou, i.e., men not belonging to the imperial family. The Hou-Han shu reads: “Le hou ... [had] a golden seal on a dark red cord given as a merit reward. Those of greater merit had a feeding right from a county, of smaller merit from a county (xian) or region (ting) (In modern administrative devision, county is xian, county-level city is shi and local district is qu). The officials and people from whom they fed were their servants” (serf system) [21, Ch. 118, pp. 14-a - 14-b]. Tinghou can be translated as “township hou”. In the Western Han the title tinghou was given rarely, but in the Eastern Han, Northern Wei, and Jin it became widespread (The parasitic serf-based “feeding” system was a trait of the Sinicization, when previously free nobles were given a chance to become serf-owning parasites. In contarst, the Hunnic societal system was of egalitarian type, with every family, from the lowest to the highest, providing for themselves, and the highest were elected to ensure that the tribesmen wellfare was sufficiently secured. Both the Hatun household and the Shanyu household were their privite self-sustained possessions within their respective tribes, independendent ans separate from the state coffers, which were controlled by the Right Jükü-Bek” 右屠耆王, in Chinese rendition Right Tuqi-wang 右屠耆王 or Yu Xian-wang 右贤王. The Huns brought over their Sinicization to the Eastern and Central Europe, where in the Late Antique and Early Middle Ages we already encounter the serf system imposed on the Slavs, with the Slavic term “smerd”, various versions in different languages derived for “slave”, and possibly a derivational “serf”, and the “feeding” system as a normal organization of society in the Eastern Europe, well documented in the Slavic annals. The Hunnic system of serfdom only applied to the defenceless sedentary agricultural population, it could not be sustained in the mobile animal husbandry society, or for defence-capable mountain populations).
Zhongmin - lit. “Faithful and wise.”
21. Yanjing - a county with main town on the site of the same named modern county town located 90 li north of Zhengzhou in the Henan province [15, p. 333].
22. Yanzhou - a province established during the Eastern Han dynasty. During the Jin dynasty the administrative center of the province was located in the city Chani 40 li north-west of the modern county town Jinxian (Jining) in the Shandong province [15, p. 415].
23. Leling - county with administrative center located 30 li south-west of the modern county town Leling in the Shandong province [15, p. 497].
24. Yuzhou - a province founded, in accordance with tradition, by the legendary emperor Shun, who carved up for it a north-eastern part of the Jizhou province. It is believed that the Yuzhou province included the northern part of the Hebei province and some areas of the Liaoning province. During the Jin dynasty control of the province was located in the provincial town Jo, on the site of the modern county town Zhoxian in the Hebei province.
25. Refugees who fled from famine to the Yuzhou province - this is a translation of only two characters jiho, literally meaning “to ask about saving life”. Explaining this expression, Hu Sanxing (1230-1287) said that it means refugees from famine areas coming to places with sufficient supply of grain [17, Ch. 118, p. 3727].
26. Pinyuan - county with administrative center located 20 li south of the modern county town of the same-named in the Shandong province [15, p. 312].
27. Guandu - a city north-east of the modern county town Zhongmou in the Henan province [15, p. 250].
28. Lepin - county with main town 40 li south-east from the modern county town Tanya in the Shandong province [15, p. 495].
29. Shangdang - district, occupies the south-eastern, mountainous areas of modern Shanxi Province.
30. Liu Cong (of Luanti 欒提 royal clan, ? - 318, r. 310 - 318) with a nickname Xuan-min (Xuanmen 玄門, the 玄 Huyen most likely indicates the tribal affiliation of his mother, of the Huyan tribe, the 門 min/men corresponds to the English me and Turkmen men, in this case “of”, a la “I am Huyan” or “of Huyan”, a frequent naming in Hunnic/Türkic royal households with one Hatun and a number of secondary wifes from different tribes, in his case of a wife whose name was preserved as Huyan 呼延 ; if that conjecture is right, Liu Cong did not have any rights to the throne, his status was a derelict Prince outside of the Lateral Succession lineup; his grand-grandfather was Southern Huns puppet Shanyu Yufuluo 于夫罗, probably from Uigur tribe as hinted by his name, ficticious reign 188–195, his grandfather was Southern Huns Eastern (Left ~ Zuo) Jükü (Tuqi)-Bek 左屠耆王 Liu Bao 刘豹, whose name sounds like a parroted version of Ulu(g)bek, and who goes in the Chinese annals as a Worthy King of the Left 屠耆王左, and therefore a next in line to the throne; his father known under Chinese moniker Liu Yuan 劉淵 and under his name Yuanhai 元海 was elected a legitimate Southern Huns Shanyu in 304, continuing a line of the legitimate Southern Huns Shanyus with mute relationship to the Luanti 欒提 tribe and claim to the Maodun Shanyu descendency. The line of Southern Huns Shanyus is 17. Huchjen (Luanti, 15th generation after Maodun, 178-179), 18. Kyankyui (Qiang Qu of Huyan mother, 15th generation after Maodun, 179-188), 19. Hyuibu (likely of Uigur mother, 16th generation after Maodun, 188-189), 19a. Unnamed Prince regent (189-195) 20. Huchutsuan (Luanti Huxuquan, Hu Chuquan, 16th generation after Maodun, 195-215), 21. puppet Shanyu Kyuibi (likely of Huyan mother, 215-) )  )was a fourth son of the Han (i.e. Han Zhao) dynasty founder Liu Yuan, and the third emperor of the Hun (匈奴) dynasty Õàíü (i.e. Han Zhao). He received finest Chinese education, and living in Luoyang, maintained friendly relations with many prominent scientists. Commanding troops, he won a sympathy of the troopers and became a close associate of Liu Yuan, who appointed him as a Great Commander and a Great Shanyu (of the Southern Huns), which gave Liu Cong a chance to concentrate in his hands the actual power. In 310, after a death of Liu Yuan, the throne passed to his eldest son Liu He, but Liu Cong killed him and seized the Emperor throne.
In 311, Liu Cong's commander Liu Yao and Wang Mi attacked the Jin capital Luoyang, which was taken, and the Emperor Huai-di was captured. After the death of Huai-di to the Jin throne ascended Emperor Ming-di, but in 316 he also was taken prisoner by Liu Yao, who attacked the capital Chang'an. After the capture of the Emperor Ming-di the Western Jin dynasty ceased to exist. Using Shi Le, Liu Cong consolidated his power in the east. After the death of Liu Cong, at the court of the Han (i.e. Han Zhao) dynasty started infighting, the government split into two parts, one of which was headed by Shi Le, who in 329 destroyed the Han (i.e. Han Zhao) dynasty, known as Former Zhao dynasty.
The sack of Luoyang in 311 AD by the Hun's army turned out to be a milestone in the Turkology, it allowed to clinch the identification of theretofore blatantly disputed identification of the Chinese 匈奴 “Xiongnu” with the European Huns, Sogdian Xwn, and Indian Hunas. W.B. Henning in the “The Date of the Sogdian Ancient Letters” (BSOAS. 1948. pp. 601-615 [315] confirmed that before the Huns reached Europe, in alphabetical form the name of the Chinese 匈奴 “Xiongnu” in the Middle Asia was Hun:
“Of far greater interest is xwn = Hsiung-nu (pin. Xiongnu); the first letter, by origin the Aramaic heth, serves in Sogdian, a language devoid of the sound h, to represent not merely the indigenous x (χ) - voiceless guttural continuant - but also any kind of foreign h-sound (occasionally also thee Chinese k'). Thus xwn can be read as Hun or Hūn or Xun or Xūn... here we find the name that is indistinguishable from that of the Hūna, Ουννοι, Hunni, Arm. Hon-k', Saka's Huna, Khwarezmian [ ] Hūn 4, employed not of nomads of vague definition, but actually of the genuine Far-Eastern Hsiung-nu. And, what is more remarkable still, this name, unlike that found in the Saka Lehrgedicht 5, was in use well before the time when either the European Huns or the tribes that became known as Hûna to the Indians made their first appearance in history (i.e. AD 312-313).”

In the letter analyzed by W.B. Henning, Luoyang is called “Saraγ”, a transparent Türkic word for “Palace” and “Capital”, known on the Oguz from “Sarai” (Sarai-Batu, Sarai-Berke, Sarai al-Djedid, etc.)

After W.B. Henning demonstrated written evidence of the equivalency of the terms 匈奴 “Xiongnu” and Hun, the scholarly dispute shifted to assertion that the Huns were not Türkic speaking. This last dispute is still lingering.

31. Huguan is a county with the main town 30 li south-east of the modern county city Changzhi in the Shanxi province. In the mountains in a form of a carafe was built an outpost, called Huguan - “Carafe Checkpoint” [15, p. 184].
32. Liu Kun (270-318) - nicknamed Yue-shi, a native of the Weichan county in the Zhongshan district. He was an offspring form the hereditary family of officials. He began his career at age 26 with a post of a clerk at the office of a bailiff for criminal cases. During Emperor Ming-di (313-316) he held a post of Chief of Public Works and Chief Commander of all military affairs in the Bingzhou, Jizhou and Yuzhou provinces. After the relocation of the Jin dynasty to the south, when Sima Jui temporarily assumed duties of the emperor, he presented a petition urging him to accede to the throne.
As a commander in the Bingzhou, Jizhou and Yuzhou provinces, Liu Kun concluded a treaty with Pidi, a leader of the Syanbi Duan horde, to support the Jin dynasty and to jointly fight against Shi Le. Pidi appointed Liu Kun to the post of the Great Chief Commander, and told his relatives, the leaders of the hordes, to meet in Guan with their troops for a campaign against Shi Le. But his younger brother Mobo, after receiving generous gifts from Shi Le, not only refused to come, but was able to convince others not to do so.
At that time, the elder brother of Pidi died, and Pidi went to his funeral, accompanied by Liu Qiun, a son of Liu Kun. On the way Pidi run into Mobo troops, was defeated and fled, and Liu Qun was captured. Mobo treated his prisoner kindly, promised to appoint Liu Kun a ruler of Yuzhou province, but demanded for that that Liu Kun attacked Pidi together with him. Liu Qiun wrote his father a letter, asking to support Mobo, but the messenger was intercepted by Pidi sentinel riders. Pidi summoned Liu Kun, and accusing him of violating the agreement, killed him [20, Ch. 62, p. 1-a - 7-b] (This account allows an insight into theretofore unknown internal politics within the Duan horde conglomerate, which could have been suspected because of the ethnic differences between the rulers and the ruled. It is clear that both conflicting warlords tried to play the ethnic differences to their advantage, with an eye to the 50,000-strong cavalry force).
33. Troop Commander (hujun) .- The hieroglyph hu means “to supervise and guide” and jun - “troops”. Hence, the literal translation should be “Supervising the troops and leading them”, instead of which is used “Troop Commander”. The functions of this position were changing. During the Qin dynasty existed the position of a Chief Troop Commander (hujun duwei]. The Han Emperor Gao-zong changed the name of the position to the “Capital Troop Commander” (hu-jun zhongwei), but the Emperor Wu-di restored the old title.
Later, Cao Cao as the principal assistant to the emperor established a position of Troop Commander (hujun) and Troop Governor (linjun) to head the most reliable military units, something like the guardsmen. At the beginning of the Wei dynasty was established a post of Troop Commander (hujun jiangjun) in charge of certification of the military officials [20, Ch. 24, pp. 10-b - 11-a]. In this text the title of Troop Commander is apparently used in the broadest sense: most likely it refers to the Chief Commander.
34. Dunqiu - district with administrative center in the same-named provincial town 25 li south-west of the modern county town Qingfeng in the Hebei province [15, p. 1043].
35. Imperial Ambassador (chijie) .- According to the Chinese established tradition persons on a mission sent by the Emperor were handed credential badge (jie). During the Wei and Jin dynasties, the envoys of the Emperor, depending on the level of authorization were divided into three groups: shichijie - lit. “ordered (shi) to carry (chi) credential badge (jie)”, or “plenipotentiary imperial ambassador”; chijie - “carrying a badge of credence” or “imperial ambassador”; ziajie - “with right to carry credential badge” or “imperial envoy”. The Plenipotentiary Imperial Ambassador could execute high-ranking officials, up to those receiving a salary of 2 thousand dans of grain per year, the imperial ambassador could execute those not in the civil service, and an imperial envoy could execute those violating military orders [20, Ch. 24, p. 4-b].
36. Yecheng - town 40 li south-west of the modern county town Linchzhan in the Henan province [15, p. 944]. It was built during the Chun-Qiu period by the Qi ruler Huang-gun (383-374 BC) and was a capital of many dynasties. It served as a base for Cao Cao, a founder of the Wei dynasty. In 335 Shi Le, the founder of the Later Zhao dynasty, moved the capital from Xiangguo to Yecheng. In 352 the founder of the Former Yan dynasty Mujun Jun has destroyed the Later Zhao dynasty, ascended to the throne, and the next year transferred the capital to Yecheng. After a split of the Northern Wei Dynasty onto the Eastern Wei, supported by the ethically Han Gao Huan, and the Western Wei, supported by Yuwen Tai , the Eastern Wei (534-550) proclamed its capital in the Yecheng, which also served as the capital of the Northern Qi dynasty (550-557) that replaced it.
37. He Yu - Jin high official, who served as right assistant to the chief of the State Chancellery. In 307 he received a rank of Commander Punishing the North, and encamped with his troops in Yecheng [1920, ch. 5, p. 2-a].
38. Weiguo - county with the main town located south-west of the modern county town Zhangqiu in the Shandong province [15, p. 855].
39. Santai - palace, which existed during Han, Wei, and Northern Qi dynasties. The name (Santai - lit. “Three terraces”)has given because its territory had three terraces: Tungqiaotai, Jinshoutai and Binjintai. It was located south-west of the modern county town Linchzhan in the Henan province.
40. Zhongqiu - county with the administrative center 10 li west of the modern county town Neiqiu in the Hebei province [15, p. 23].
41. Senior civil servant (zhanshi) - post, established during the Han dynasty. As indicated in the Han-shu, “in the first year of the Han Emperor Wen-di reign (179 BC. Yecheng.) was re-established a position of chief assistant of the emperor (chenxian), who had two senior officials [4, Ch. 19-a, l, 3-a]. It appears that senior officials suprvised the rest. During the Wei and Jin dynasties the senior officials designated senior ranks in the provincial administration. Thus, permitting Shi Le to establish governing office can be regarded as his appointment to the post of a governor of the province.
42. Julu - district covering the area of the modern Pinxian county in the Hebei province. The administrative center of the district during Jin dynasty was in the provincial town Inta 29 li south-west of the modern county town Ninjin in the Hebei province [15, p. 332].
43. Changshan - district with administrative center during the Jin dynasty. was in a provincial town Chzhendin lying south of the modern county town Chzhendin in the Hebei province [15, p. 698].
44. Sima Guang wrote: “It should be said that Zhang Bin loved to read books, had wide purview, and was distinguished by great aspirations, he often compared himself with Zhang Zifang. When Shi Le with his troops passed the land east of the mountains, Zhang Bing told his friends: “I saw at different times many military leaders, but none of them can compare with this (ethnically) Hu (胡) commander. With him can be accomplished a great job!” Then he took his sword, came to the gates of the Shi Le military encampment, and loudly asked for a meeting, but Shi Le did not find in him anything amazing. Zhang Bing started serving for Shi Le, developing for him plans, and everything was happening as he predicted. That surprized Shi Le, who appointed Zhang Bing a head of department that issued awards for military achievements, and turned to him for advice on every occasion.” [17, Ch. 87, p. 2743].
45. Zhongshan - district with administrative center during the Jin dynasty in the provincial town Lunu on the site of the modern county town Dinxian in the Hebei province [15, p. 695].
46. Bolii - district with administrative center in the provincial town Anpin on the site of the same-named modern county town in the Hebei province [15, p. 234].
47. Gaoyan - county with the administrative center in the county town Bolu 15 li south of the modern county town Lixian in the Hebei province [15, p. 122J.
48. Lian - county with the main town north-east of the modern county town Zhuyxian in the Henan province [15, p. 1099].
49. Xindu - a county town, an administrative center of the Anpin district in the Jizhou province, on the site of the modern county town Jixian in the Hebei province [15, p. 55].
50. Canyuan - locality in the territory of the modern Kaifeng county in the Henan province [15, p. 60].
51. Jung-gun - title established during the Jin dynasty. Gun is a highest title of nobility, jung is a district, thus the title Jung-gun can be translated as “district gun”. The district guns enjoyed a right of sustenance from 10 thousand households, and in essence were equated to the rulers of small possessions.
52. Yang Pi - commander of Liu Yuanhai.
53. Shiqiao - settlement 50 li north of the modern county town Nanyang in the Henan province [15, p. 709].
54. Jiuanchen - a main town of the same-named county 20 li east of the modern county town Puxian in the Shandong province [15, 57. pp. 938].
55. Guanzong - county with the main town 78 li south of the modern county town Nangun in the Hebei province [15, p. 326].
56. Qinghe - county with the main town located 10 li north of the modern county town Qinghe in the Hebei province [15, p. 585].
57. Yanpin - county with the main town located on the site of the modern county town Xinxian in the Shandong province [15, p. 1001].
58. Xinyan - district established during Jin dynasty, with administrative center in the provincial town Xinyan 17 li south-west of the modern county town Xinjie in the Henan province [15, p. 605].
59. Jianie - city 3 li south of the modern county town Jiannin in Jiangsu province [15, p. 337].
60. Henei - district established during Han Dynasty. During Jin dynasty the center of the district was in the provincial town Evan, on the site of the modern county town Qinyan in the Henan province [15, p. 949].
61. Ude - county with the main town located south-east of the modern county town Uchzhi in the Henan province [15, p. 518].
62. Changlin - main town of the same-named county 40 li north-east of the modern county town Xianyan in the Shanxi province [15, p. 977].
63. Liu Can - a son of Liu Cong, a third emperor of the Han dynasty. He led a raid on Luoyang in 310, of which Sima Guang says: “In the winter, in the tenth moon, Liu Can with a title Henei-wang, Liu Yao with the title Shian Wang, and Wang Mi, leading 40 thousand troops raided Luoyang.
Shi Le-headed 20 thousand riders joined with Liu Can in Dayan, in the Mianchi county they defeated a military inspector Pei Miao, and invaded the Lochuan county” [17, Ch. 87, p. 2752].
64. Dayan - county with the main town located north-east of the modern county town Pinlei in the Shanxi province [15, p. 195].
65. Muanchi - county with the main town 148 li west of the modern county city Luoyang in the Henan province [15, p. 622].
66. Lochuan - county with main town north of the modern county town Lochuan in the Shanxi province [15, p. 567].
67. Huanyuan - outpost 55 li south-east of the modern county town Gunxian in the Henan province [15, p. 904].
68. Chengaoguen - checkpoint in the Chengao county with main town 2 li north-west of the modern county town Fanshui in the Henan province [15, p. 373].
69. Shimen - a strategically important point north-west of the county town Zhenxian south-east of modern county town Zhenxian in the Hebei province [23,. 948, note. 39].
70. Fanchan - county with main town 30 li north-west of the modern district city Linyi in the Henan province [15, p. 758].
71. Xiangchen - county with the administrative center in the same-named provincial town 90 li south-west of the modern county town Siuichan in the Henan province [15, p. 858].
72. Nanyang - district with administrative center in the provincial city of Yuan, which lay at the site of the present district city of Nanyang. in the Henan province [15, p. 254].
73. Xiangyang - district with administrative center in the provincial town Yicheng south of the modern county town Yicheng in the Hubei province [15, p. 252].
74. Chief Commander-Military Adviser (cangjun duwei) .- A Military Adviser (cangjun) is position, called at the end of the Later Han cangjunshi (literally, “participating in discussion of military affairs” or “Military Adviser”). Starting with Jin dynasty this post was established in the office of military commanders.
75. Head of the Chancellery (lin jishi) .- The hieroglyph ji means “record”, and shi - “building”, i.e. building where records are maintained, or chancellery. In the Eastern Han existed a position jishi lingshi.
Lingshi is the title for minor bureaucratic positions corresponding to scribe, so jishi lingshi can be translated as “scribe of the office”. His functions consisted in the presentation of incoming reports and petitions, and sending replies to the incoming papers [21, Ch. 114, p. 515].
In addition, during the Eastern Han there a position of the office clerk existed in the offices of the Great Commanders (taiwei), of the head of the district, and the Chief Commanders (duwei). Later in the possessions headed by the wangs was established a post of Military Adviser to the Office (jishi cangjun). The people in these positions were in charge of office work, and their functions were similar to the functions of the modern secretaries.
76. Wang Dao (267-330), a native of Linyi county with nickname Mao-hong, a commander of the Eastern Jin dynasty. He was in close relationship with Sima Jui, a future Emperor Yuan-di, and when in 317 the latter took the title of Chin-wang, ushering in the Eastern Jin dynasty, he became his closest aide. After a death of Yuan-di he served the emperors Ming-di and Cheng-di, occupying the post of the Chief Assistant to the Emperor [20, Ch. 65].
77. Jianxia - district with administrative center during the Jin dynasty in a provincial town Anlu, located 110 li northwest of the modern county town Xiaogan in the Hubei province [15, p. 235].
78. Xinzi - county with the administrative center in the county city Tunyan 70 li north-east of the modern county town Xincai in the Henan province [15, p. 1076].
79. Nandun - a major town 50 li north-west of the modern county town Xiangchen in the Henan province [15, p. 112].
80. Xuchan - district town, an administrative center of the Yinchuan district north-east of the modern county town Xuchan in the Henan province [15, p. 876].
81. Great Commander (taiwei) - post established during the Qin dynasty. The Great Commander was in charge of all military affairs and in grade equaled the chief assistant of the emperor (chenxian). The Han Emperor Wu-di changed the title to “Great Commander of Troops” (da sima), but under the Emperor Guang-wu was restored the former name, and people in that position were considered highest among the three upper officials of the empire.
82. Rank assignment department (libu), first appeared in the kingdom of Wei in the Three Kingdoms period (220-280), and existed for all subsequent dynasties. It occupied a dominating poisition, which was connected with its right to appoint officials [22, pp. 54 - 55].
83. Weicang - a city south of the modern county town Fugou in the Henan province.
84. Wang Mi - a native of Dunlai county, he descended from a noble bureaucratic family. His grandfather served as a first governor of the Xuantu district, then the Zhunan district. Although Wang Mi was distinguished by abilities and received a good education, retired scholar Dung Zhongdao said in a meeting with him: “Your voice is like the howl of a jackal, and your eyes resemble a bars (leopard), and you tend to cause troubles. If in the Celestial would erupt turmoils, you would not want to serve as a clerk.
And indeed, when towards the end of the Jin Emperor Hui-di (290-306) in the Dunlai district Liu Bogen began robberies, Wang Mi immediately joined him, for his bold actions he received a nickname “Flying Bars”. In a short time around Wang Mi gathered tens of thousands of people, and the court could not cope with it. With such large forces, Wang Mi besieged Luoyang, but was defeated, submitted to Liu Yuan-hai and then together with him and Shi Le led a struggle against the Jin dynasty.
In 311 Wang Mi, together with the troops of Liu Yao came to the Jin capital Luoyang. In the city reigned severe famine, flared cannibalism, the officials fled, no one had any desire to defend. Luoyang became an easy prey for the attackers, who completely destroyed it. The Emperor Huai-di was captured and sent to Pingyan.
Wang Mi offered Liu Yao to move the capital from Pingyan to Luoyang, but Liu Yao said no. Then the angry Wang Mi exclaimed: “Does this hangman have a desire to become an Emperor! What can he do with Celestial “- and then withdrew his troops to the east. This aroused Liu Yao suspicions, because he was already displeased by Wang Mi breaking into Luoyang first, and therefore he suggested that Wang Mi should settle in the Qizhou province.
It should be said that Shi Le always envied Wang Mi, and took precautions against him. He captured the Jin commander Gou Xi, and appointed him Commander of the Left. Wang Mi turned to Shi Le with a request that he would appoint him a Right commander, saying that having two such generals, for Shi Le would not be difficult to capture the Celestial. Simultaneously, Wang Mi sent to Cao Yi, who seized the land of the former Qi possession, a courier with a letter where he proposed to march troops for a joint action against Shi Le. The messenger was captured by the sentinel horsemen and taken to Shi Le. Learning of the Wang Mi perfidy, Shi Le suddenly attacked and killed him (20, Ch. 100, pp. 1-a - 2-b].
85. Raid at Luoyang - was a major military operation by Liu Cong against the Jin dynasty, which ended with the capture of Luoyang and capture of the Emperor Huai-di. These events in the Chinese histriography are called “Troubles in the Yung-jia reign era”, described in the records on the deeds of Liu Cong as follows: “Liu Cong appointed Huyan Yan, a commander of the guards at the palace outer gates, as an imperial plenipotentiary ambassador, a Great Chief Commander of the Vanguard, a Great Commander of Advance Troops, gave him 27 thousand troops of his guards, and ordered to invade from Yiyan the Lochuan county, and simultaneously ordered Wang Mi, Liu Yao, and Shi Le, who had the title zhen-jun jiangjun, to dispatch troops and join up with him.
When Huyan Yan came to the county, at different times he inflicted twelve defeats on the imperial troops, who lost more than 30 thousand dead men. Since Wang Mu and others have not yet arrived, Huyan Yan left the transport trains in the old encampment of Zhang Fan, and attacked Luoyang, taking by storm the Pinchanmen gates, burned the Dunyanmen and Syuanyanmen gates, and burned various government offices.
The Emperor Huai-di told Liu Mo, the chief of Henan county, to repell Huyan Yan, but the imperial troops were defeated at the Schemen gates. Because the aid still has not come, Huyan Yan passed through the Luoyang Dunyanmen gate and left, driving more than two hundred men and women, from those with the title wang, gun and lower. At the time of these events, the emperor intended to cross Huanhe and escape to the east, for which he prepared boat on the Loshui river, but Huyan Yan burned all boats and returned to the old encampment of Zhang Fan.
The troops of Wang Mu and Liu Yao arrived, joined with Huyan Yan, and surrounded Luoyang again. The city was stuck with hunger, people ate each other, the officials fled, no one had any desire to defend. Taking the gate Syuanyanmen, Mi Wang and Yan Huyan entered the Southern Palace, rose to the front hall of the Taijidyan palace, allowed the troops to loot, and captured all servants in the palace and jewelry.
Then Liu Yao slautered more than 30 thousand people, starting from wangs and guns and officials, piled bodies in a heap on the north bank of the Loshui river and poured over it a large hill to commemorate the victory. He relocated the Emperor and Emperor Huai-di's wife Empress Yang Hou to Pingyan, sending there also six heritable imperial seals” [20, Ch. 102, pp. 1-b - 2-a].

The sack of Luoyang in 311 AD by the Hun's army turned out to be a milestone in the Turkology, it allowed to clinch the identification of theretofore blatantly disputed identification of the Chinese 匈奴 “Xiongnu” with the European Huns, Sogdian Xwn, and Indian Hunas. W.B. Henning in the “The Date of the Sogdian Ancient Letters” (BSOAS. 1948. pp. 601-615 [315] confirmed that before the Huns reached Europe, the name of Chinese 匈奴 “Xiongnu” was used in the Middle Asia in the alphabetical form Hun:
“Of far greater interest is xwn = Hsiung-nu; the first letter, by origin the Aramaic heth, serves in Sogdian, a language devoid of the sound h, to represent not merely the indigenous x (χ) - voiceless guttural continuant - but also any kind of foreign h-sound (occasionally also thee Chinese k'). Thus xwn can be read as Hun or Hūn or Xun or Xūn... here we find the name that is indistinguishable from that of the Hūna, Ουννοι, Hunni, Arm. Hon-k', Saka Huna, Khwarezmian [ ] Hūn 4, employed not of nomads of vague definition, but actually of the genuine Far-Eastern Hsiung-nu. And, what is more remarkable still, this name, unlike that found in the Saka Lehrgedicht 5, was in use well before the time when either the European Huns or the tribes that became known as Hûna to the Indians made their first appearance in history (i.e. AD 312-313).”

In the letter analyzed by W.B. Henning, Luoyang is called “Saraγ”, a transparent Türkic word for “Palace” and “Capital”, known on the Oguz from “Sarai” (Sarai-Batu, Sarai-Berke, Sarai al-Djedid, etc.)

After W.B. Henning demonstrated written evidence of the equivalency of the terms 匈奴 “Xiongnu” and Hun, the scholarly dispute shifted to assertion that the Huns were not Türkic speaking. This last dispute is still lingering.

86. In the text erroneously written instead of the character gun - “merit” a character gun “attack”.
87. Uyan - county with the main town located south-west of the modern county same-named town in the Henan province [15, p. 800].
88. Gaian - county with the main town south-west of the modern county town Linby in the Anhoi province [15, p. 731].
89. Yanxia - county with main town 3 li north of the modern county town Taikan in the Henan province [15, p. 1004].
90. Menchen - a main town of the Menxian county 22 li north-east of the modern county town Shangqiu in the Henan province [15, p. 228].
91. Cao Yi - In 309, Liu Yuanhai, the founder of the Former Zhao dynasty (304-329), bestowed on Cao Yi the rank of Commander-Pacifier of the East and ordered to march to the east for pacification of the Qingzhou province.
As a result of successful actions Cao Yi occupied the Qingzhou province, in whose territory in the antiquity was located the Qi possession, and was able to increase the number of his troops, which exceeded 100 thousand troops. As Cao Yi was a real force, in preparation for actions against Former Zhao Emperor Liu Cong, Shi Le established secret contacts with him.
In 317, Cao Yi received from Shi Le a title of the Great Military Leader, a position of Qingzhou governor, and a title Lanie-gun. Nevertheless, in 323 a Shi Le commander Shi Jilong attacked Cao Yi, besieging him in the city Guangu he built. After a brief siege, Cao Yi surrendered. He was sent to Xiangguo, the capital of the Later Zhao dynasty, where he was killed.
92. Penguan, or Penpo - the name of the location south-east of the modern county city Kaifeng in the Henan province [15, p. 834].
93. Zhuan Zhu (? -515 BC) - The Wu prince Guan concocted a plan to kill Liao, a ruler of the Wu possession, to take his place. To implement this plan, he invited a strongman Zhuan Zhu. At the 12th year of Liao rule Guan invited him to a feast at which Liao was accompanied by heavily armed guards. Guan ordered Zhuan Zhu to hide a knife in a grilled fish, and serve the dish. Serving the dish, Zhuan Zhu quickly pulled knife from the fish, which was a complete surprise for the guards, and killed Liao, but he was also killed by his guards [18, Ch. 31, pp. 11-b - 13-a].
94. Sun Jun (218-256) - a nickname of Zi-yuan, a younger brother of Sun Jian, a father of Sun Quan (182-252), a founder of the Wu kingdom. He served as a chief commander of armed guards and a courtier, and before his death, Sun Quan had bequeathed him to help in the matters of governance. Therefore, he became a Principal Assistant to the emperor and a Great Military Leader, receiving a title Fuchun-hou.
In 255, when the Wei commanders Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin rose against the Wei dynasty, in which court clan Sima seized the power, Sun Jun supported them and attacked the city Shouchun, but after a defeat of the insurgents returned back.
After being defeated, Wen Qin fled to Sun Jun, and in 256 persuaded him to attack the Wei dynasty. Sun Jun ordered a commander Lu Ju and others to try to capture the Qingzhou and Xuzhou provinces. Before the troops marching on the campaign, Sun Jun decided to organize a farewell feast for the commanders, and arrived to the Lu Ju camp. There he saw that Lu Ju has an excellent command of the troops, and that engendered in him suspicious, moreover, he had a dream that he was being killed. That so frightened Sun Jun that he suddenly fell ill and died at the age of 38 years old [9, Wu-shu, ch. 19, pp. 18-a - 19-b] (Xuzhou 徐州 province was a northern part of the modern Jiangsu province, its recorded history descends to the legendary times of the Chinese history. Xuzhou was also called Pi and Pengcheng 彭城, Xuzhou was also Romanized as Suchow, Hsüchow, Hsuchow, and Hsu-chou, V.S.Taskin phoneticizes it Ñþé÷æîó/Süichjou = Siuichjou. The first tribes of the Xuzhou province were Yu people, with the designations of Eastern Yu Dongyi or Sui/Hui Yu Huaiyi, where the first part Sui/Hui/Huai is documented as a female dynastic tribe of the Huns, and in the topological name of the Huai river, whose bed became the channel of the Huanhe. The Chinese historiography first links them with the times of the legendary Xia, and they enter the written history as a Xu = Sui state, an enemy of the Shang and Zhou states, Xu survived as an independent entity till 512 BC, it became a dependency of the Yue State at around 480 BC, a dependency of the Chu State in the 334 BC, and a dependency of the Han state in 206 BC. The fluid nomadic tribes of Chu/Chui and Sui/Hui survived historical upheavals and around 206 BC became the constituent tribes of the Eastern Hun confederation, still located in their anscestral general area. Both tribes played a prominent role in the Chinese history and in the history of the Türkic people).
95. Gepo - location north of the modern county town Xincai in the Henan province [15, p. 825].
96. Red-browed (chimei) - the name of the peasant rebel groups. In the end of the Western Han the unnsuccessful foreign and domestic policy led by Wang Mang led to a sharp deterioration in the economic situation and caused numerous uprisings of the peasantry, who suffered from hunger and poverty. One of the largest uprisings were Red--browed revolt which flared in 18 AD on the territory of the modern Shandong province, led by Fan Chung. The rebels, in order to distinguish themselves from the Wang Mang troops, painted their eyebrows red. Other rebel groups joined Fan Chung, and the number of his troops increased to several tens of thousands men.
The power of Wang Mang was on the verge of a collapse. Using that, against him stepped out a member of the imperial caln Liu Xuan, who came with troops to the capital Chang'an. Wang Mang sent troops consisting of convicted criminals, but they rebelled and went over to the Liu Xuan side, after which Wang Mang was killed. Liu Xuan entered Chang'an and declared himself an emperor.
At the same time the Red-browed, whose numbers rose to 300 thousand people, put on the throne a simple shepherd Liu Penzi, portraying him as a member of the imperial family, and with a battle entered Chang'an. After a Liu Xuan death, a grandson of the first Han Emperor Gao-zong in the ninth generation Liu Xiu took power into his hands, in 27 AD during his reign the Red-browed rebellion was quelled.
97. Yellow Scarves - the name of the rebel forces which opposed the Later Han Dynasty and played a major role in its fall. They were called Yellow Scarves because they wrapped their heads with yellow scarves. The leader of the uprising, which began in 184, and engulfed the whole East China, was Zhao Jiao, a head of the religious sect Taipindao that preached revolutionary ideas and promised its followers a happy life in the future. For its suppression the court sent troops under command of commanders Lu Zhi, Huanfu Sun and Zhu Jun, who quickly routed the forces of the rebels, but the rebellion was eventually put down only after the fall of the Later Han.
98. The Chinese distinguish five types of wars, allegedly defined by the laws of the Sky itself. On these wars the Han-shu says: “In an era of Yuan-kan reign (65-62 BC) the Huns (匈奴) sent troops against the Han tiller settlers in Cheshi, but they could not take the city. The Emperor started conferring with the rearguard commander Zhao Chung and others who wish to use this weakness of the Huns (匈奴) to send troops for an attack on their right of land, so that the Huns (匈奴) would no longer dare to disturb the Western region.
Wei Xiang presented a report which was persuading the emperor not to do that: “I've heard that when the mutinies are quelled and the raging are exterminated, it is called a just war, and he who fights for justice becomes a wang, when the enemy is attacking you and forces to take up arms - that is called a counter war, and whoever is fighting a countering war, wins; when the conflict is over trifles, competing in anger and can not control the rage, it is called a war caused by anger, and whoever starts a war caused by anger suffers failure; when is sought profit in the riches of the land of others, it is called a war caused by greed, and whoever fights in the name of the greed, suffers defeat; and when relying on the vastness of the state and exaggerating the strength of its people is intended to demonstrate the strength to the enemy, it is called a war caused by pride, and he who is fighting in the name of the pride dies.
These five types of wars are not only connected with the actions of the people, but are also defined by the laws of the Heaven.
Recently the Huns (匈奴) showed good intentions, they returned the captured Hans, did not attack the border areas, and that they dispute the tiller settlements in Cheshi does not deserve attention.
I heard that all the commanders want to march the troops and invade these lands, but by my foolish understanding I di not know how to call this war” [4, Ch. 74, pp. 3-a - 3-b].
99. Courtier (shizhong) - civil service position, lit. shi - “wait on”, zhong “in the middle”, i.e., at the court. Hence it is clear that those serving in these positions were closest to the Son of Heaven, always followed him and performed various functions. From the meaning of the hieroglyphs, for this term was adopted translation “courtier”, which origin is connected with the word “court”.
During the Han dynasty the position of a courtier was viewed not as a stand-alone position, but as an additional, usually on it were appointed those who already hold some positions. The number of personnel was not limited, so sometimes several dozen people were courtiers [4, ch. 19-a, l. 13-b - 14-a].
In most cases courtiers were court scholars. For example, a Han scholar Kong Anguo, best known for his translation into modern language of a number of classic books written by obscure tadpole script (i.e. he converted from emphasized brushstroke art form to standardized clerical script), was a courtier. As a courtier, Kong Anguo was obliged to monitor the spittoons in the imperial palace.
100. The chief security guard of the guard, overseeing the Huns (匈奴) (Hu Sunnu zhonglanjiang, shi Sunnu zhonglanjiang, or Sunnu zhonglanjiang) - is a post equivalent to position of high officials who receive sustenance allowance of 2 thousand dans of grain a year. The main responsibility of this position was to supervise the Southern Huns (匈奴). It had a staff of two clerks (congshi), and depending on the number of cases could have more [21, Ch. 118, p. 10-a].
101. Sun Wu, aka Sun Ju - the author of the most ancient still extant military treatise. He was in service of the ruler He-Lu (515-496 BC) in the possession Wu, and commanding its troops defeated in the west a strong possession Chu, and in the north was threatening possessions Qi and Jin.
102. Wu Qi (440? -381 BC) - A native of possession Wei, politician and military theorist during the Zhan-go period. He served for the rulers of the possession Lu, and when appointed to the post of the commander, repelled an attack of the Qi troops .
After that success, he gained a lot of envious people who began slandering him, so he fled to Wen-hou, a ruler of the Wei possession, was given a post of a commander, attacked thepossession Qin and took five cities, after which he was appointed commander of the troops facing possession Qin, on the Õihe river. Later on, because of a quarrel with Gung-shu, a first adviser to the ruler of the Wei possession, Wu Qi fled to Dao-wang, a uler of the Chu possession, where he became a first adviser. In that position, he established clear laws, reduced unnecessary positions, stripped titles from the distant relatives of the ruler (The implied social system in Chu is analogous to the Hunnic and Türkic system of dynstic appointments, where the alaborate double structure of 12 grades allowed to fit even most distant relatives of the ruling monarch in parallel on the paternal and maternal dynastic lines. The Chu may be connected with the later “Chu” Huns and Türks, the Chu tribes). After creating a strong army, in the south Wu Qi curbed the Yue tribes (越语, pinyin Yueyu, Vietnamese; in the period 475-339 BC the Vietnamese Yue dominated the Yantze-Huanhe interfluvial, and their Go Jian was recognised as a hegemon), in the north annexed the Chen and Dai possessions to the Chu and repulsed attack of the Jin possession, in the west fought with Qin. The actions of Wu Qi displeased aristocrats and bureaucrats whose rights were trimmed back, so he was killed after the death of Dao-wang [18, Ch. 65, pp. 4-b - 7-b].
103. Phrase borrowed from Lun Yu [Ch. 19, p. 361].
104. Shouchun - a city on the site of the modern county town Shouxian in the Anhui province [15, p. 185].
105. Commander of the middle army (zhongjian jiangjun), a military rank, established by Shi Le [17, Ch. 88, p. 2776]. The hieroglyph chung means “middle”, and jian - “solid”, “strong”. Because in the ancient times the middle army was considered to be the strongest, it was also called zhongjian (This complements other records that show that the Shi Le army was organised along Hunnic traditional tri-partite structure of the Left Wing, Center, and the Right Wing; the “center” in Türkic is Orta, preserved to the present in the name of the Kazakh Middle Juz “Orta Juz”, orta is either an anscestral form of “horde”, or its cognate. The name of the European Huns center horde was preserved in the slightly distorted Greek version Utragurs, which stands for Ortagurs, or Center tribes).
106. Danyang - the name of the district where the Jin capital Jiankan was located.
107. Yecheng - administrative center of the Weijun district, 40 li south-west of the modern county town Linchzhan in the Henan province [15, p. 941] Under the three terraces are meant three terraces, built in 210 by Cao Cao in the Santai palace - Three-terraced. The middle of them, which had a height of 10 zhang (23 m), was called Tunqiaotai, the southern Jinshoutai, and the northern Binjintai had the height of eight chang (18.5 m) [17, Ch. 88, p. 2777].
108. Pingyan - the capital of the Han dynasty established Yuanhai Liu, and Shi Le could always count on help from her.
109. The Commander of the Guards Unit (zhonglei jiangjun) .- During the Han dynasty existed zhonglei xiaowei, and people in that position “were in charge of affairs connected with the northern troops stationed inside the gates of the encampment fortified with ramparts, and in addition the cases concerning the Western Territory [4, Ch. 19-a, l. 13-a]. Under the Northern Troops are meant the personal troops of the emperor, called so because they were quartered north from the palace, they were the personal troops of the Emperor belonging to the middle army, which is transmitted with the hieroglyph zhong “middle”. Thus, zhonglei xiaowei can be roughly translated as “commander of the middle army troops stationed inside the gates of the encampment fortified with ramparts”. In essence, it was a Guards detachment. Hence, for the term zhonglei jiangjun can be conditionally accepted translation as “Military Commander of the Guards Unit”.
110. Dunyan - district town 35 li east of modern district town Yanjing in the Henan province [15, p. 459].
111. Fantou - area south-west of the modern county city Jiunxian in the Henan province. Now it is called Qimendu. The name Fantou - Piles arose after Cao Cao in 204 AD built at the mouth of the local river Qishui a dam of large logs to streamline the flow to the river Baigou (modern Weihe river) and facilitate transportation of grain [15, p. 467].
112. Usually, when the boata are not used, they are pulled onshore and dried, making them lighter and more convenient on the move [17, Ch. 88, p. 2781].
113. Suanzao - county town 15 li north of the modern district city Yanjing in the Henan province [15, p. 946].
114. Registrar (zhubu - lit. “handling registries”)is a title that existed at state offices at various levels. During the Wei and Jin dynasties the Registrar position became important, since it occupants headed the bureaucratic apparatus at the general staff of the commanders [22, p. 41].
115. In the text instead of the character zhi, and indicator of an object, is the character shou - “to defend” [23, Vol. 2, p. 951] (In Türkic and Hunnic languages the particle zhi, spelled in Turkish či, plays the same semantical role, forming noun objects from other roots, like suči in the Hunnic language, trooper from su - army, and čömlekči in the Turkish language, potter from čömlek - pot. The chronology and history of this most significant borrowing must be facinating).
116. Pentszu - Wang Jung nickname, Yueshy is the nickname of Liu Kun (The nicknames and native names are routinely confused in the translations and studies, probably because of the richness of the Chinese terminology for the various shades of the names. We learn incidentally that what is termed nickname is in fact a native name, like for the Shi Le's native name Fule 匐勒, which provides a chance to discriminate between Chinese monikers and native names recover the native names of the non-Chinese characters, and inspect their etymology).
117. Huan-gun (685-643 BC) - ruler of the Qi possession, with a surname Jiang and the name Syaobai. After a death of his father Xiang-gun, he struggled for the throne with his half-brother Jiu. Guan Zhong, a councilor of Jiu, shot into Huan-gun from a bow, but hit a buckle on his belt, and Huan-gun stayed alive. He wanted to execute Guan Zhong, but then on an advice of Baoshu he brought him closer and made a chief adviser. Implementation of the plans developed by Guan Zhong enabled Huan-gun to dramatically improve a welfare of the people, to create a powerful army, to subordinate Zhuhou (Zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes) and stop wars they fought with them, to repel the raids of Dis in the north and Chus in the south. At a Congress of Zhuhou (Zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes) in 651 BC in Kuiqiu, Huan-gun was recognized as a hegemon, i.e., a de facto head of the whole China (The various personal names cited in this note give an impression that all these forms Huan, Syao, Xiang, Guan are various forms of the underlying ethnical term Hun/Sun).
118. Wen-gun (697-628 BC) was a ruler of the Jin possession with a name Zhonger. From his early years he surrounded himself with wise men, and maintained close relations with Zhao Shuai, Hu Yan, Chiu Fan, Xian Chen, and many others. At an age of 34 he was in command of the troops stationed in the city Puchen, on the border with the possession Qin. Because of intrigues of Li-ji, a wife of his father Xian-gun, Wen-gun had to flee to the Dis, among whom he spent 19 years. With the help of the possession Qin he returned home and took over the throne. The rule of Wen-gun was marked by rapid growth of economic and military power of the Jin possession. By intervening in the internal conflict at the court of the Zhou dynasty, which resulted in the Zhou Xiang-wang being forced to flee to the Zheng possession, Wen-gun returned Xiang-wang to the capital and restored the authority of the Son of the Sky. Coming to the aid of the Sung possession, Wen-gun defeated the Cao and Wei possessions, and after some time defeated the troops of Chu near a town Chenpu. In 632 BC Wen-gun's successes allowed him to take a hegemon position among the Zhuhou (Zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes).
119. Handan - a capital of Su-hou (350-326 BC), a ruler of the Zhao possession during Zhan-go period (Warring States). It was located 50 li south-west of the modern county town Yunnyan in the Hebei province [15, p. 927].
120. Xiangguo - a city that served as a capital of the Zhao possession. It was located south-west of the modern county (prefecture) city Xingtai, on the site of the modern village Baiqiuancong (柏乡县, 37,5°N 114,7°E) [15, p. 859].
121. Guanpin - district with administrative center during the Jin dynasty in the same-named provincial town 20 li east of the modern county town Jijie in the Hebei province [15, p. 325].
122. The Cortege Rider, Serving at the Court (sanzi changshi) .- Initially during the Qin dynasty were positions sanzi and zhunchanshi. The hieroglyph san means “loose”, “scattered”, “disunited” and qi means “rider”. Hence, following the Yan Shigu explaination, under sanzi is meant the riders accompanying the emperor during his outings, but following not in column but as a crowd [4, Ch. 19-a. L. 14-a]. For the term sanzi was adopted a conditional translation “Cortege Rider.” The hieroglyph zhun means “middle” or “at the Court,” chan “always”, shi - “wait on”, i.e., “always waiting on at the court,” and for this position was adopted a translation “Palace Servant.”
During the Eastern Han existed only the position of a palace servant, staffed by the eunuchs. The Wei Emperor Wen-di combined the two positions into one sanzi changshi, i.e., “Cortege Rider, Serving at the Court”, and started appointing to it the scholars doing exclusively exhortations to the emperor and not carrying any responsibilities.
123. Yuanxian - town in the in the Zhenxian county of the Guanpin district [17, Ch. 88, p. 2786]. The main town of the Zhenxian county was south-east of the modern county town of the same-named in the Hebei province [15, p. 1949].
124. Main Warden (duhu), is an additional post to which were appointed people that already held some post. It was established in 60 BC during the Han emperor Xuan-di for the Western Territory, and the first on it was appointed commander Zheng Ji. He was appointed to supervise the 36 possessions then in the Western Territory, to control them, to report on changes, reassure the obedient and punish the disobedient.
The hieroglyph du means “all”. Apparently, based on that meaning, Yan Shigu equates it with either hieroglyph da - “great”, “senior by position”, or to the hieroglyph zong -” chief”, the character xy has meanings “supervise“ and “command“. Hence lit. duhu can be translated as “chief supervisor and commander”. In fact, it was a governor-general [17, Ch. 26, p. 859-860].
125. Duan Horde.- The Wei-shu reads: “The Duan [Elder] Jiuliuyuan (pin. Riuliuyuan), who lived in the Tuhe county, originally was from the Lyaosi district. His father's elder brother Juliuyuan (pin. Ruliuyuan) was sold for participation in a rebellion, and became a household slave of an Uhuan [Elder] Great Kujuguan, who lived in the Yuyyam district. Once all elders gathered for a meeting in the Yuzhou province, each of them holding a spittoon, only Kujuguan did not have it. Then he spat in the Juliuyuan's mouth. Juliuyuan swallowed the spit, turned to the west, bowed to the Heaven and said: “I beg to command that the knowledge and wisdom, salary and fledk of my master went into my belly”.
Later on the Yuyyan district fell a great famine. Since Jiuliuyuan was distinguished by his abilities, Kujuguan charged him with leading the horde, and he, going to the Lyaosi district in search of food, collected there escapees and rebels, gaining power and prosperity.
After a death of Juliuyuan to power came his younger brother Qizhen, and after a death of Qizhen to power came his son Umuchen, a father of Jiuliuyuan. He held the lands of the Lyaosi district, and was a servant of the Jin dynasty. Under his power were more than 30 thousand families and 40-50 thousands of string-drawing riders.
During the Jin Emperor Mu-di (344-361), the ruler of the Yuzhou province Wang Jun used Duan several times in his own interests, and in gratitude presented a petition, following which Umuchen was raised to a title Lyaosi-gun with the award of a Great Shanyu seal. Wang Jung ordered Umuchen to attack Shi Le at Mount Fenlunshan in the Chanshan district, leading more than 10 thousand horsemen; Umuchen inflicted a severe defeat on Shi Le.
After the Umuchen's death, Jiuliuyuan came to power. Jiuliuyuan with his younger brother Pidi and a cousin Mobo heading more than 50 thousand horsemen surrounded Shi Le in Xiangguo. Climbing on the city wall, and surveying the surroundings, Shi Le saw that thye commanders and troops of the enemy removed their armors and leisurely sleep without any precautions. Taking advantage of this carelessness, Shi Le assembled brave and strong warriors, who unexpectedly exited the city through a secret gate in the wall, and striking Mobo directly, took him prisoner. Shi Le seated Mobo and began feasting with him. After the feast, they agreed to be in father and son relationship, and concluded an oath agreement, then Shi Le released Mobo.
After Mobo release, Jiuliuyuan gathered his troops, and returned to the Lyaosi district without reporting to Wang Jun. In the future, Mobo even never dared to urinate turning south. When he was asked about a reason for that, Mobo was replying: “My father is in the south.” That's how he was grateful to Shi Le for not destroying him (This is a good example of the rerspectful relations between children and parents in the generic Türkic societies, among other places its relicts still survive in the Ukraine, where the natives call their parents in respectful plural “you”, “they”, instead of the Russian familiar “thou”, and avoid staring directly into the eyes; in this example we have the people from an extended Kiyan Huns Türkic family).
When Jiuliuyuan died, his son was still small. Pidi and a heir Liu Qun of Liu Kun hurriedly left for the funerals, and Pidi secretly took troops with him, having contrived to kill his second uncle Yuilin and Mobo, and seize their possessions. Learning of that, Mobo sent out troops, who inflicted on Pidi a counter strike. Mobo captured Liu Qun, and Pidi returned back to Ji. Fearing that Liu Kun would capture him, he invited Liu Kun for a feast, seized and killed him.
After the murder of Liu Kun, Pidi, Yuilin, and Mobo began attacking each other. Because the hordes began scattering, Pidi wanted to lead his people to move into the Shangu district, and resist Mobo relying on the natural barriers in the Jundu county. Upon hearing about that, the Northern Wei Emperor Pni-wen secretly assembled horsemen to attack him. The scared Pidi fled south into the Lelin district (The mobility of the nomadic confederations makes fluidity of the social organization a hallmark feature. In times of danger the horde scatter, waiting out for better times, and reassemble when the chance comes, with the changes and admixtures that the time dictates, with some of the members included in the confederation being from different tribes, and even from different ethnic background. Certain allied tribes retain their status of kyshtyms, i.e. dependent tribes, throughout any upheavals).
Later, Shi Le sent Shi Hu to attack the Duan commander Wenyang, who was in the Lelin district. Shi Hu defeated Wenyang and took him prisoner. After that Pidi, heading the family and with small forts, surrendered to Shi Le.
Mobo, proclaiming himself a ruler of the Yuzhou province, settled in the Lyaosi district. After a death of Mobo, the people of his possession installed as a ruler Huliao, a younger brother of Juliuyuan (in a clear lateral succession). The Northern Wei Emperor Le-di granted Huliao a title of the Great Military Leader, a team of strong horses, the post of Yuzhou province governor, the titles of Great Shanyu and Bay-pin-gun; to his younger brother Yulango was granted a title of Commander Comforting Troops, a post of the Jizhou provincial governor, and title Bohai-gun (Bohai is one of the Chinese names for Tunguses, pointing to the family's Tungus descent).
In the first year of the era of Jian-go reign (338) Shi Hu made a punitive expedition against Huliao, who was in the Lyaosi district. Huliao fled to the mountains in the Pingali county, and then submitted to Mujun Huang Huang, who killed him.
Yulan fled to Shi Hu, who gave him five thousand of displaced Syanbians and ordered to settle in the Lingzhi county. After a death of Yulan his son Kang replaced him.
During the troubles, raised by Yang Min, Kang headed people in the move south, and occupied the [former possession] Qi lands. Mujun Jun ordered his younger brother Mujun Xuangun to lead the troops in an attack on the Kang, who was in the Guangu. Mujun Xuangun seized Kang and sent him to Ji. Mujun Jun punched out his eyes and killed him, and besides buried in the ground alive more than 3 thousand of his supporters” [7, Ch. 103, pp. 24-a - 26-a].
126. Military Advisor (cangjun) - a position called at the end of the Later Han cangjunshi - “participating in the discussion of military affairs” or “Military Adviser”. Starting with the Jin dynasty, this position was established at staffs of the military commanders.
127. Linqiu - a county town 70 li south-east of the modern county town Fanxian in the Shandong province [15, p. 331].
128. Shanbai - a city south of the modern county town Weixian in the Hebei province [15, p. 11].
129. Guo Jing - a man for whom Shi Le worked in his youth and who was helping him (see pp. 28 - 29).
130. Dinlin is a county, with a main town 15 li north of the modern county town Uyan (Wuyan) in the Henan province [15, p. 247].
131. According to the explanation of the Han-shu commentator Zhou Chun (189 - 265), the wives of le-hou, i.e., of the rulers of possessions, not related to the imperial family, were called fujen. In the case of her husband's death, if his son continued to remain le-hou, they were called tai fujen [4, Ch. 4, p. 11-b]. According to the Kong Ind (574 - 648) interpretation, the character fu is in this case has a meaning of the character fu - “help, maintain” [11, Vol. 1, p. 185], and therefore, fujen means “supporting a ruler,” i.e., “his wife”, and the tai fujen - “great wife” or “wife of the late ruler” (Asisde of the Chinese terminology, the social differentiation between the “eligible”, “non-eligible”, and “toy” wifes either parallels, or duplicates the traditional social differentiation of the Türkic and Hunnic societies).
132. The Jin Emperor Wu-di (265 - 290 AD) established a school for sons and younger brothers of the upper officials, called gozixue - “School for sons and younger brothers of highest officials”, which also was later known as goxue or taixue. Creating a school, Shi Le apparently was emulating the Jin dynasty.
133. Four of the highest officials - are meant the Qi high official Menchan-jun, the Wei high official Xinlin-jun, the Zhao high official Pi-k'yuan-jun and the Chu high official Chunshen-jun, who lived during the Zhan-go period (Warring States).
134. Yang Hu - came from a family of hereditary officials. In the early Jin dynasty he received a title Jupin-hou and was appointed a Chief Commander of all military affairs in the Jinzhou province, occupying that post for ten years. Yang Hu was opposed by Lu Kang, a commander of the Wu kingdom, but in spite of hostile actions they constantly exchanging ambassadors, letters, and gifts. For example, when Lu Kang fell ill, Yang Hu sent him medicine, and Lu Kang in turn was sending wine to Yang Hu.
Nevertheless, the antagonism between them did not stop, and in the minds of the high officials Shi Le should have maintain hostile relations with Wang Jun, covering them with accepted rules of conduct.
135. Under three hordes are meant Duans, Wuhuans and Syanbis.
136. Han Xin (? -196 BC) - A grandson of Xiang Wang, a ruler of the Han possession. In 207 BC, one of the leaders of the anti-Qin uprising Liu Bang, a future founder of the Han dynasty, sent Zhang Liang to take the land of the former possession Han. Zhang Liang was able to attract Han Xin, who faithfully served Liu Bang. In particular, when in 206 BC after a final victory over the Qin, Xiang Yu conferred on Liu Bang remote lands in the Ba (巴), Shu, and Hanzhong, Han Xin told Liu Bang: “Xiang-wang assigned all generals as wangs of lands located near the capital, and sent only you t6o the distant lands. This is a demotion. All of your warriors were born in the Shandong area, they are eager to return home, and as long as they have a strong desire to go to the east, you can start fighting for the Celestial. Liu Bang followed the advice, which was a beginning of his protracted, bloody war with Xiang Yu. In gratitude to Han Xin, Liu Bang promised to install Han Xin a ruler of the Han possession, but for that was needed to first take the Han lands.
In 204 BC Xiang Yu defeated the troops of Han Xin under Xinyan, Han Xin surrendered, but soon fled to Liu Bang, and took part in the defeat of Xiang Yu at Gaixia, after which the Celestial Empire was pacified.
After ascending the throne, Liu Bang began strengthening the central government. During a bitter internecine struggle, he was generously giving away to his comrades high titles of wangs and vast land holdings. But because a strong central authority is incompatible with the feudal fragmentation, after his victory Liu Bang began taking away the titles and possessions, which found a reflection in the famous formula “Exept for those bearing the surname of Liu, nobody can be a Wang.”
Han Xin received the title Han-wang and the lands in the Yinchuan district (south-eastern part of the modern Henan Province), but the existence of other's possessions in the heart of the empire did not suit Liu Bang, so soon he gave Han Xun a new domain, Dai, in the northern part of the Shanxi province.
The Dai lands (Daizhou 代州) were located adjacent to the Huns (匈奴), who frequently invaded them. In autumn 201 BC the Hun (匈奴) Shanyu Maodun surrounded Han Xin with major forces in the Mai city. Han Xin several times sent mountaineers (supposedly so called “Mountain Huns”, “Mountain Jungs”, “Mountain Hus (胡)” Shanhu 山胡 , or “Shanjungs” 山戎, whose valleys were north of Dai, see Note 151) to the Huns (匈奴), seeking to resolve the conflict peacefully, but the emperor learned of this, suspected Han Xin of a treason and sent to him an official with an expression of condemnation.
Fearing for his life, Han Xin reached an agreement with the Huns a joint attack on the Han, revolted, surrendered the May city and attacked the Taiyuan district. In the winter of 200 BC the Han Emperor personally defeated Han Xun at the town Tundo and beheaded his commander Wang Xi. Han Xin fled to the Huns (匈奴). In 196 BC Han Xin, together with the Huns (匈奴) invaded the Han land, but was defeated and killed [18, Ch. 93] (In that story, the previous history and the ethnic affiliation of the characters plays an important role. Though the ethnicity of the participants can only be inferred from their names seemingly derived from the Chinese designations for the Huns, the historical background and the historical memory must account for the development of the events. In his perspective, Maodun was expelling occupiers, re-possessing the Hun lands, and liberating the Hun people).
137. Zao Sun - an influential high official of Wang Jung.
138. ChenYing. - Sima Qian tells about him: “Chen Ying in the past served as a minor official in the Dunyan provincial administration. During his stay in the county, he earned a reputation as an honest and diligent man, and he was nicknamed “senior.” At that time the youth from Dunyan killed the county commander, and gathering in the number of several thousand people, decided to find a leader, but not finding a suitable one, appealed to ChenYing to lead them. When ChenYing began refusing, citing a lack of ability, he was forcibly inaugurated as a leader, and soon around him gathered 20 thousand of the county residents. Then the boys decided to declare Chen Ying a wang, and to contrast from other insurgent troops began to bind their heads with black headscarves. However, Chen Ying's mother told him: “Since I came to your house, I never heard that your ancestors were among noble people. If now you suddenly would assume a title, it will not bring you success. It is better if you were subordinated to someone, then in a case of success you will still receive a title of hou, and in a case of failure you'll be able to easily disappear, because nobody in the world would call you by your name”.
Then Chen Ying did not dare to take the title of wang. Appealing to the troop commanders, he said: “The members of the Xiang clan generation after generation were commanders, and enjoyed fame in the Chu. If we want to accomplish a matter of great importance, only be a man of their clan could be a military leader. If we would entrust to this well-known clan, the demise of the House of Qin is inevitable!” Everybody agreed with Chen Ying, and he with the troops went under Xiang Liang command” [18, Ch. 7, p. 3-b - 4-a].
139. Han Xin (韩信, ? -197 BC). - Along with Zhang Liang and Xiao He he is considered a most prominent figure in the initial period of the Han dynasty. During the uprising against the Qin dynasty, together with Xiang Liang he crossed with the troops the Huaihe river, and after a death of Xiang Liang began serving his nephew Xiang Yu (项羽). Because Xiang Yu did not heed his advice, he joined Liu Bang (劉邦), a future founder of the Han dynasty, who appointed him to the post of a chief commander of the agricultural department, and after some time installed him a Great Commander. For great merits in the fight against Xiang Yu he received a title of Chu-wang, but then was demoted to the title Huaiyin-hou.
Feeling offended, Han Xin began preparing for an attack on Liu Bang. At that time Chen Xi was appointed to the position of the Julu district ruler. When Chen Xi came to say farewell to the Han Xin, the latter said: “In the places where you are to live are the elite troops of the Celestial, and you are a beloved trusted high official of the monarch. If someone would say that you raised a rebellion, the emperor certainly would not believe it. If he hears about it again, the emperor would begin to doubt, and on the third time would certainly ignite with anger, and he would lead the troops against you. Then I, to help you, would raise an uprising in the capital, and we can think about establishing our authority in the Celestial.” Chen Xi agreed, and revolted in 196 BC.
Liu Bang set out to quell the nsurrection, and Han Xin used disease as an excuse and remained in the capital, ready for action. At night he prepared a fake imperial decree about a pardon for all criminals and slaves, planning to attack the Empress and the heir to the throne with their help. Learning about the upcoming coup, Empress sent out a rumor that Chen Xi was caught and executed, and further announced about acceptance of congratulations at the palace. When Han Xin came to the palace, he was captured and executed [18, Ch. 92, p. 18-a - 19-a].
140. Xiang Ji (项籍, 233-202 BC), also Xiang Yu (项羽), a native of the county Xiaxian (modern county Suqian in the Jiangsu province). In 209 BC, joining the anti-Qin rebellion raised by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, opened the campaign with his uncle Xiang Liang heading 8 thousand best troops. When they reached Xiapei county (modern county Peixian in the north of the Jiangsu province), the number of their troops increased to 70 thousand people. Then Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu entered into an alliance with Liu Bang, one of the leaders of the insurgency. In the battle of Dingtao (modern Jining county in the Shandun province) Xiang Liang was defeated and killed in battle, but Xiang Yu succeeded in defeating the main Qin forces at Julu (modern county Pinxian in the Hebei province).
While Xiang Yu conducted a successful operation against the Qin dynasty, Liu Bang entered the Qin capital Xianyan and by the prior agreements, was to receive the major Qin lands. But despite that Xiang Yu, relying on military force, gave him distant lands in the Ba, Shu and Hanzhong, and proclaimed himself a hegemon of the Western Chu with a capital in Pengcheng (modern Tunshan county in the Jiangsu province). Between Xiang Yu and Liu Bang flared a bitter war for supremacy, which ended in 202 BC with Xiang Yu's defeat.
141. Tzu-yang - a nickname of Gunsun Shu (? -36), an outstanding figure in the beginning of the Later Han Dynasty. During Former Han Emperor Ai-di (ruled 7-1 BC) served as a governor in the Qinshui county, but during Wang Mang adopted a title Shu-wang, and then established a capital in Chengdu (an administrative center in the modern Sichuan province) and declared himself a Son of Heaven. The Late Han Emperor Guang-wu was persuading Gunsun Shu to surrender, but he refused. In 36 he was defeated by Later Han commander Wu Han and was killed [21, Ch. 13, pp. 20-b - 32-b].
142. Bozhen - county town 12 li west of the modern county town Yaoshan in the Hebei province [15, p., 468].
143. Ishui - a river in the Hebei province, south of the modern county city Baoding.
144. Yudu (于都, literally, “abode of darkness”) - designation of the distant lands in the north. First mentioned in the Shang Shu, which states that the legendary Emperor Yao, “commanded He-shu to settle in the north, in [a place called] Yudu, and observe the changes in the sun in the north” [30, Ch. 2, p. 1949]. Later on these lands was established a Yuzhou province, which also retained its former name Yudu (The 于都 is rather “far country” than “abode of darkness”, it can also be interpreted as a “Country of Yu”, where Yu is depicted by a homophonic hieroglyph for “remote”, in any case the “abode of darkness” is rather a metaphorical expression then the literal).
145. Yan was one of the most powerful possessions during Zhan-Guo period. After defeating the Yin dynasty it was granted by the Zhou Wu-wang to Zhaogun Shi, who is considered to be an ancestor of the rulers of this possession. Yan occupied a northern part of the modern Hebei province with a capital in Ji (north-west of Beijing). In the west, it bordered on the Zhao possession, in the south with Qi possession, in the north with nomadic tribes, and being squeezed from all sides by powerful neighbors, for a long time could not rise, so its ruler Yi-wang only in 323 BC took the title of wang, much later then the rulers of the other possessions. However, the long struggle has helped to make the possession residents strong and courageous warriors. The ruler Zhao-wang was successfully attracting talented people, in 284 BC in alliance with other possessions the Yan defeated Qi possession, and some time later with a help of an outstanding general Qin Kai displaced nomads away from the borders and seized their land. After a death of Zhao Wang the power of the possession started to fall, and in 222 BC it was destroyed by the Qin dynasty.

146. This refers to the occupation in 311 of the Jin capital Luoyang by the Liu Cong's troops.
147. Sima Guang tells: “Shi Le killed 10 thousand Wang Jung's warriors. All the Wang Jung's senior military officials, overtaking one another, rushed to the gate of the camp to ask for forgiveness for the comitted crimes and bring gifts. Only were the Chief of Staff Pei Xian and a military leader's clerk Xun Cho did not come. Shi Le called them and began accusing them, saying: “Wang Jung was distinguished by his cruelty, therefore I rose to punish him and kill him. Everybosy is coming to congratulate me with the victory, and apologize for the comitted crimes, how do you, who did the same atrocities, can avoid a deserved execution!”
The summoned replied: “From generation to generation we served the Jin dynasty, enjoyed being honored, received from it salary, and although Wang Jung was a cruel villain, yet he was a servant of the Jin dynasty, so we followed him, not daring to show duplicity. If you, the illustrious gun, are not improving your virtues, and are only concerned with punishments and executions, death is our destiny, and we can not avoid it! We are asking permission to go to the place of execution”. With these words, without bowing, they departed. Shi Le returned them, apologized, and began treating them observing the rules of conduct prescribed for the reception of the guests [17, Ch. 89, p. 2813 ].
148. Recall that Wu Tung, who commanded the troops of Wang Jung, planned to break with him and sent a courier to Shi Le, notifying on his desire to surrender.
149. Eastern department (duncao). - During the Jin dynasty existed Western department (xicao), which corresponded to a military department, because the west was identified with the element of metal, and the metal symbolized war and punishment. Apparently, the Eastern department in contrast with the Western was in charge of civil affairs.
150. A bronze gong, used for military signals, and yellow, i.e., adorned with gold, halberd were the symbols of the imperial status, and were carried in front of the Imperial appearance. Granting these symbols to someone meant affording a right to conduct independently punitive expeditions.
151. Shanhu (山胡) (literally “mountain Hus (胡)”).- Perhaps it would be better to say Shanjung (山戎) because, according to Wang Guowei research, the terms Hu (胡) and Jungs (戎) signified one and the same people that later in history went down as Huns (匈奴) [5, Vol. 2, Sec. 13]. Shanjungs (山戎) were repeatedly mentioned by Sima Qian [18, Ch. 110] as the people who lived in the eastern part of today's Hebei Province (“Mountain Huns”, “Mountain Jungs”, “Mountain Hus (胡)” Shanhu 山胡 , or “Shanjungs” 山戎, whose valleys were north of Dai, see Note 136).
152. Luchen - county with main town 40 li north-east of the modern county city Changzhi in the Shanxi province [15, p. 619].
153. Jun'yi - county with the main town located north-west of the modern county city Kaifeng in the Henan province [15, p. 574]. The main body of the records about the deeds of the Jin Emperor Yuan-di says: “In the summer, in the fourth moon, Chen Chuang, who had a rank of Commander Jetting up to the Sky Like a Dragon, in the head of the Chun county raised rebellion and surrendered to Shi Le” [20, Ch. 6, p. 5-a]. Therefore, firstly the revolt raised Chen Chuang, and not Chen Wu, and secondly Chen Chuang served the Jin dynasty and can not be called a Shi Le commander.
154. Puyang - district with main town located in the same-named provincial town south of the modern county city Puyang in the Hebei province [15, p. 626].
155. Banduguan - outpost in the Wangdushan mountains located north-east of the modern county town Tanxian in the Hebei province.
156. Dunyang - county with the main town 40 li west of the modern county town Zhaochen in the Shandong province [15, p. 460].
157. Luguanjin - outpost north-west of the modern county town Puxian in the Shandong province.
158. Dinlins (Ch. Dinglings 丁零) - Turkic-speaking people, with their pasturing routs in the 3rd c. BC - 5th c. AD in the Northern Asia. Dinlins occupied a huge area south-west of Lake Baikal to Altai. Initially (from 2nd c. BC) they were dependent on the Huns (匈奴), but then they attained independence. They led fierce wars with the Huns (匈奴), and contributed to their downfall. Wei-shu tells about Dinlins: “Gaoju, apparently, are the remaining branch of the ancient Chidi. Originally they were called Dili, in the north they are called Chile, and in China - Gaoju Dinlins, i.e.  High Carts Dinlins. Their language is generally similar to the Hun's (匈奴), but sometimes there are small differences” [7, Ch. 103, pp. 26a - 26b (Wei Shou 魏收. Wei-shu 魏書/魏书 (History of Northern Wei Dynasty). Peking, Bo-na, 1958)].
159. Zhanchen - county town, an administrative center of the Lepin district. It stood 30 li south-west of the modern district city Xiyan in the Shanxi province [15, p. 564].
160. Guanmu - county town north of the modern county town Shoyan in the Shanxi province [15, p. 326]..
161. Sanggan - county with main town north-east of the modern county town Weixian in the Hebei province [15, p. 479].
162. Shupu - gambling game, its invention is attributed to a philosopher Lao-zi. The rules of the game were changing, so its fragmentary descriptions found in the sources of different times do not completely coincide with each other. There is no doubt only that shupu was played on a special mat by throwing five bones, which fell either with white or black side up. The combination of the throws corresponded to a particular number of points, which determined a winner. Five black sides were called “lu” and it was a best result - 16 points, four black and one white sides were “zhi” - 14 points, three black sides - “do” - 10 points, etc. [2, p. 155].
163. Gong Sui - a native of the Nanpinyan county, nicknamed Shao-jing. He served for Liu He, a grandson of the Han Emperor Wu-di. In 74 BC, when the Emperor Zhao-di died without leaving a heir, Liu He was raised to the throne. However, as indicated by the sources, he was noted for his debauchery, so Ho Guang in collusion with high officials deposed him in exactly 27 days after his accession to the throne. Gun Sui was charged with not admonishing Liu He to drop promiscuity, and was sentenced to hard labor buiulding city walls.
During the reign of the Emperor Xuan-di because of bad harvest in the Bohai district appeared many robbers, whom the local authorities could not handle.
The high officials offered the Emperor to appoint Gun Sui, who was already more than 70 years old, a governor of the Bohai district. Summoned to the Emperor, Gun Sui said: “I heard that to bring rebellious people to order is as difficult as to unravel tangled ropes, you can not do it with a hurry. First of all, we should reassure the people, then they can be ruled. Please, have your chief assistant and the censor not to restrict me to the written laws, so that I can act in any way as the situation demands.” Having obtained the consent of the emperor, Gong Sui arrived in Bohai district, where first of all he opened the state-controlled warehouses to help the residents, and started persuading them to engage in agriculture. The calm was quickly restored in the district, and rebels began selling their swords and daggers to buy bulls and calves [4, Ch. 89, pp. 11-a - 14-a].
164. Yijin - a name of a locality north-west of the modern Syunxian county in the Hebei province [15, p. 419].
165. Liango - district, which administrative center during Jin dynasty was in a provincial town Xiongyan (pronounced Suiyan) south of the modern county town Shangqiu in the Henan province [15, p. 700].
166. Guan - county town 15 li south of the modern county town Guan in the Hebei province [15, p. 410].
167. Shefuchen was an uncle, Jiliujuan - a senior, and Mopi - a younger brother of Pidi [17, Ch. 90 seconds. 2874].
168. Zhao Gu, Liu Cong's commander, in 312 was appointed a governor of the Jinzhou province and was ordered to protect the newly occupied Jin capital Luoyang [17, Ch. 88, p. 2781]. He later fell out with senior official Zhou Chen, who secretly slandered him before Liu Cong. In 317, the Jin troops under the command of Li Ju defeated Liu Cong's commander Liu Chan, who attacked the Xinyan city. In the Liu Chan's tent Li Ju found a Liu Cong order instructing Liu Chan after a victory over enemies on the return leg to stop in Luoyang, kill there Zhao Gu, and install in his place Zhou Zheng. Li Ju sent the order to Zhao Gu, who realized the danger hanging over him and hastened to kill Zhou Chen, and then heading a thousand of horsemen submitted to the Jin dynasty, and received a directive from Li Ju to continue protecting Luoyang [17, Ch. 90, pp. 2843 - 2848].
169. Guo Mo (郭默, ? -330) came from a poor family, but distinguished with great courage, managed to take a post of a military detachment commander for the district governor Pei Zheng. During troubles in the era of Yun Jia reign he took refuge with his men in a ramparts-fortified encampment, quickly gathered a large number of refugees fleeing the unrest, and submitted to Liu Kun, who appointed him a governor of the Henei district.
In connection with the Guo Mo switch to the Liu Kun side, a Liu Yuan-hai commander Liu Yao besieged Guo Mo in his encampment, intending to starve him to death. Guo Mo submitted, sent to Liu Yao his wife and children as hostages, and asked for permission to make purchases of grain, but after buying grain again turned against Liu Yao. Enraged, Liu Yao drowned the hostages in the river, and restarted the siege of the encampment. Guo Mo sent a messenger to Liu Kun asking for help, but getting no support, made a similar request to Shi Le. Shi Le sent the received letter to Liu Yao. Learning of that, Guo Mo broke through the encurclement and fled to the Jin commander Li Ju.
In the beginning of the Tai-xin reign era (318-321) Guo Mo was appointed a governor of the Yinchuan district. Guo Mo suffered several defeats in battles with the forces of Shi Cong, who at the court of the Later Zhao dynasty held an office of the ruler of the Jijun district, becides the forces of Li Ju at that time weakened, and therefore he willfully abandoned his post and fled to the Jin capital. The Emperor Ming-di appointed Guo Mo a chief of the northern security guard, assigned to command all military affairs north of the Huaihe river, and placed under his command the troops of the late Liu Xia, who had a rank of Commander Avenging Contemptible Enemies.
During the rebellion raised by Su Jun, Guo Mo was promoted to Commander of the Rearguard, and after quelling of the rebellion it was intended to assign him a rank of Commander of the Right Detachment. Leaving on the summons from the court to receive a title, Guo Mo asked the ruler of Jianzhou province Liu Yin for money for the trip, but Liu Yin refused his request, which angered Guo Mo. And before that LiuYin's senior official Zhang Man demonstrated a disrespect for Guo Mo, which always irked him. So, when one day shortly before Guo Mo departure Liu Yin sent him wine and pork, Guo Mo in front of the courier threw the food into the water. At that time Liu Yin was dismissed on charges of trading to the detriment of the state, but he did not plead guilty, and on the contrary was rationalizing in every way . It happened that a certain Gai Zhun kidnapped a girl, intending to marry her. Zhang Man ordered to return the girl, but Gai Jun refused to do that, and told Guo Mo, who hated Liu Yin, that Liu Yin together with Zhang Man want to start a rebellion, but Guo Mo stands in their way, and so they are plotting to first kill him. Believing the allegation, Guo Mo killed Liu Yin and Zhang Man, accusing them of wanting to raise a rebellion, and sent Liu Yin head to the capital. At the insistence of the Great Commander Tao Kan (259-334) against Guo Mo were sent troops, and he was killed [20, Ch. 63, pp. 7-b - 8-b].
170. Manager of the affairs of the State Chancellery (lu shanshu shi) .- During the Western Han was established post lin shanshu shi. In this case shapshu means “in charge of papers”, “clerk”, shi is “case”, and lin is “to provide overall guidance”, “direct”, i.e., “direct the affairs of the officials”. From that can be accepted translation “head of the affairs of the State Chancellery”. During the Eastern Han this position was renamed to lu shanshu shi - managing the affairs of the State Chancellery. Since all papers went to the state office, its manager was a key person among other officials.
171. Liu Can, son of Liu Cong, ascended the throne after a death of his father, he was distinguished by his cruelty, he did not engage in state affairs, from morning till night he spent time on the female half of the palace. All military and state affairs decided high official Jin Zhun, who hatched an idea to depose Liu Can and take his place. In pursuing this objective, Jin Zhun falsely accused a number of high loyal officials in a desire to raise a rebellion, and when they were executed, entered the palace leading the troops, seized Liu Can, and killed him after reciting his crimes. All men and women from Liu clan were beheaded in the marketplace regardless of age, the tombs of Liu Yuanhai and Liu Cong was dug up, and the temple of ancestors was burned down.
Jin Zhun declared himself a Great Military Leader, conferred on himself a title of Heavenly Wang of the Han Dynasty, appointed officials, and sent an envoy to the Jin dynasty, expressing a desire to serve as its bulwark [20, Ch. 102, pp. 14-b - 15-b].
172. Xianlin - county town 15 li south-east of the modern county town Xianlin in Shanxi province [15, p. 859].
173. Pufang is a county with main town located south-east of the modern county city Yongjia in the Shanxi province [15, p. 830].
174. Nine awards (ziu si) refers to the zhuhou nine awards (Zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes), which in ancient times the Son of Heaven conferred on them for performed exploits. These include:
1) wagon and a horse that dispensed with the walking;
2) clothes with the drawings that symbolically represented virtues
3) the rules of music intended for the education of the people,
4) the right to erect at the house red gate that distinguished the recipient among the others;
5) the right to build a low porch, which was a convenience on entering the room;
6) the right to keep brave guards for protection;
7) a bow and arrows, symbolizing the right to make expeditions against enemies;
8) ax and halberd, symbolizing the right to carry out executions;
9), aromatic wine from black millet for sacrifices [26, Ch. 6, p. 173]. .
175. Ba (巴) - possession in the eastern part of the modern of Sichuan province. In the territory of the possession lived the tribes of Dis, some of whom the Wei Emperor Wu-di relocated to the territory of the modern Shaanxi province, where their numbers significantly increased over time [17, Ch. 90, p. 2863] (Wikipedia link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba_(state) ).
176. Chuge - one of the Hun hordes that moved inside China [20, Ch. 97, p. 11-b] (Future Chui tribes?).
177. Sui - district town lying 80 li north-west of the modern county town Banshui in the Shaanxi province [15, p. 745].
178. Great Steward (taizai) (pronounced tszai) - a position that existed in the Yin dynasty, during the Zhou dynasty it was renamed to zhokzai “chief steward”. Men who held that position headed all officials and were running the country [25, Ch. 1, p. 25].
179. Clearing of the road [from passers-by for the passage of the Emperor] (jinbi) .- The hieroglyph jing “protect”, “guard” refers to the protection of the Emperor during field visits, and bi means “cessation of movement on the road”, “cleaning up the road from the passers-by.” Therefore, the term Jinbi has come to mean “emperor's appearance”.
180. Headwear with 12 hanging tassels, symbolizing the 12 regions into which China was divided, could only be worn by the emperor [11, Ch. 23, p. 1090].
181. Shun - a legendary emperor of antiquity, and Gu-sou was his father. Their relationship is recounted by Sima Qian: “Shun's father Gu-sou was blind. When Shun mother died, Gu-sou remarried, and had a son Xiang. Xiang was distinguished with arrogance. Gu-sou loved his son by his second wife, and so wanted to kill Shun many times, but Shun was fleeing and hiding. When Shun was committing small offenses, he was accepting punishments obediently. Shun humbly served his father, his stepmother, and younger brother, was daily showing sincerity and respect, and was not negligent in anything” [18, Ch. 1, p. 21-a].
“Shun's father Gu-sou was prone to vice, his stepmother was quarrelsome, and his younger brother Xiang was arrogant, and they all wanted to kill Shun. But Shun obediently followed their wishes, did not violate his filial duty, was friendly to the younger brother and respectful with the stepmother. When they wanted to kill Shun, they could not find him, but when something was demanded of him, he always turned up nearby [18, Ch. 1, p. 21-b].
“Gu-sou still wanted to kill Shun, so he told him to climb up, mud-plaster the barn, and at the bottom he started a fire and set fire to the structure. Then Shun, covering with two straw hats, descended and left, avoiding the death. Later, Gu-sou forced Shun to dig up a well. Digging the well, Shun made a secret exit that went sideways. When Shun made it sufficiently deep, Gu-sou with Xiang dropped down the dirt and filled the well, but Shun escaped through the secret side exit and left. Gu-sou and Xiang rejoiced, believing that Shun was already dead.
Xiang said: “The main initiator of the plan am I, Xiang”. Therefore, when Xiang began dividing with his father and mother what owned Shun, he said: “I, Xiang, am taking two daughters of Yao, the Shun's wives and qin, and the oxen, sheep and barns I am giving you, my father and mother”. Then Xiang moved into the Shun house and began to play his qin.
Shun went to see him. Xiang, seeing Shun, was stunned and not delighted, but said: “I thought about you, Shun, indeed with great sadness!” Shun replied: “Really, these feelings are close to you!” Shun started serving Gu-sou again, love his brother even more, and to exercise diligence” [18, Ch. 1, pp. 22-b - 23-a].
“After ascending the throne, Shun took along a banner of the Son of Heaven, went to visit his father Gu-sou, and behaved with extraordinary deference, as a son should do” [18, Ch. 1, p. 29-a] (This story has all attributes of the legendary nonsense, pretty much like the Maodun story, with tripple repetitions before the culmination, a static set-up of canonic family drama, and a happy ending in a black-and-white world).
182. The chief of the embassy department (da hunlu) .- Ambassadorial order - one of the nine orders that existed in the Han dynasty, in fact, a kind of department of foreign affairs. On issues related to relations with the Zhuhou (Zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes) and various alien tribes, dependent on the Han dynasty. Initially, when the Qin dynasty was named chief of the embassy of the order dyanke - lit. “to know the guests.
In 144 BC. dyanke name was changed to yes sinlin, and in 104 BC. Yecheng. da kung-lu [4, Ch. 19-a, l. 7-b]. The hieroglyphics Over-the “big” in this case, “loud” hoop - “voice” and Lou “to” transfer “means together” send a loud voice. “The name, apparently due to the fact that AB at receptions at the palace had to be a loud voice to lead the ceremonial arrival and departure of visitors, bows, etc. Thus, at the ambassadorial-chalnik order served as chief of ceremonies, and the term hunlu correctly translated as “master of ceremonies.”
183. Above was described that when the Jin commander Ju Ti attacked Chen Chuang in Penguan, to the Chen Chuang help marched Shi Jilong, after which Ju Ti retreated to Liango. Now to help Shi Jilong, Shi Le additionally sent troops under command of Tao Bao [17, Ch. 91, p. 2869].
184. Huainan - district with administrative center in the provincial town Shouchun on the site of the modern county town Shouxian in Anhui province [15, p. 185].
185. Wen Wang - the founder of Zhou House, bore a surname Ji, the name Zhang and title Zhang Xi-Bo. Dissatisfied with the vicious brutality of the Zhou ruler of the Yin, he was secretly sighing that after a delation was imprisoned in Yule (?). Then Sima Qian tell: “Hong (Hun)Yao and other servants of Xi-Bo found a beautiful girl, rare objects, and good horses, and brought them to Zhou, then Zhou pardoned Xi-Bo.
Xi-Bo, after coming from jail, presented Zhou with lands west of the river Lo, and for that asked to abolish torture by fire. Zhou agreed and granted Xi-Bo bow, arrows, battle-ax and halberd, giving him a right to conduct punitive expeditions and giving him a title Xi-Bo - Ruler of the West” [18, Ch. 3, pp. 11-b - 12-a].
“Xi-Bo was secretly doing good, and all influential princes were coming to him to justly resolve disputes. At that time between the residents of Yue (越國, 722-221 BC) and Jia (Jui ~ Jia, 芮國, pin. Rui, 1046-655 BCE) arose a conflict that they could not solve, so they went to Zhou. Once within Zhou, people saw that all tillers yield boundaries to each other, and among the people reigns a custom to yield to the seniors. The people from the of Yu and Jui (芮國, pin. Rui) realms, even before they met Xi-Bo, became ashamed and said one to another: “What we are arguing about the Zhous consider shameful, why go to Xi-Bo, we will only disgrace ourselves!” And they returned home and yielded each other in everything. The possessing princes, hearing of that, said: “Xi-Bo will probably be a ruler by the will of Heaven” [18, Ch. 4, pp. 5-a - 5-b].
186. Hsiao-Bai (685-643 BC), ruler of Qi possession, who had the title Huang-gun. Possession Qi occupied central and eastern parts of the Shandun province. The fertile soil, salt mining and developed fisheries created favorable conditions for its growth. In no small measure that was facilitated by the Huan-gun wise counselor Guan Zhong.
On the 15th year of Luske Chuang-Hune (680 BC. Yecheng.) At a congress of rulers possessions Qi, Sun, Chen, Wei and Zheng Huang Gong was declared hegemon and thereafter made a lot of good not only for their own, but also for other domains. Because thanks to the Huang-Kung in Celestial established peace, “Zhuhou (Zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes) did not take Latin out of the case, weapon from its sheath, and packs for onions was not, bows, quivers of arrows was not the military proceedings were set aside, only deal with civil matters” [8, Ch. 6, p. 85].
In 652 BC. e, held a congress in Zhuhou (Zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes) Kuyqiu. Zhou Wang Kun sent a steward Welcome ruler possession Qi sacrificial meat and pass: “Son of Heaven, sacrificed in the temples in honor of Wen Wang and Wu-wang, told me, Kuhn, granted part of the sacrificial meat to his eldest uncle (Huan-gunu. - V.T.).
Ruler of possession Ji wanted to go downstairs and make a bow in gratitude, but Kuhn said: “In addition, there's another order. Son of Heaven told me, Kuhn, said that since his eldest uncle, the oldest in years, it further increases the award, he at one stage, giving the right not to go down for the commission of a bow. “ Huan-gun said: “The greatness of Van, like the greatness of Heaven, not far from me, but at a distance of 8 cuney, or a chi, so, if I, Hsiao-Bai, delighted the order of the Son of Heaven, I dare not go down and not make a bow I'm afraid that he dropped, his dignity and call him a shame for me. So I dare not go down and not make a bow? “Downstairs, he made a bow, rose again on the dais and took the meat [27, Ch. 13, p. 523].
187. Reference to the Xia, Yin and Zhou dynasties.
188. Five hegemons - reference to the five ruling princes in the Chun-Qiu period (“Spring and Autumn Period” of Chinese history, 770-476 BC). Traditionally, they are the Huan-gun of Qi (齐桓公), Wen-gun of Jin (晋文公), Mu-gun of Qin (秦穆公), Xiang-gun of Song (宋襄公) and Zhuang-wang of Chu (楚莊王).
189. Liu Bei (162-223), with a nickname Xuan-de, a founder of the Shu-Han dynasty. In his youth he lived in poverty, producing with his mother footwear and straw mats for sale. At the end of the Han dynasty he took part in quelling the “Yellow Turbans” rebellion, where he served as a commander in the Anxi county and a governor in the Gaotan county. Later he was appointed a governor of the Xuzhou province (pronounced Suidjou). In the 208, together with Sun Quan, a founder of the Wu kingdom, he defeated Cao Cao troops at Chibi, and then occupied the Yizhou and Jinzhou provinces and Hanzhong lands (modern county Nanchzhen in the south of the Shaanxi province).
In 221 AD, after Cao Pi deposed the last Han emperor Xian-di(pronounced Siandi) and established a Wei dynasty, Liu Bei pronounced himself an emperor, naming his dynasty Han, in history it is known as Shu-Han (221-263).
190. Wei-wang - was a title of Cao Cao, whose son Cao Pi announced in 220 AD the establishment of the Wei dynasty.
191. Yu-gun (, lit. “offerings, established by Yu”)(actually, not literaly, but very metaphorically, 大禹謨 ~ Great Yui Plan) - the title of chapter in the Shang-shu (尚书), compilation of which roughly belongs to the period at the junction of Zhou and Qin dynasties. It describes physical boundaries of the nine regions into which the China was divided, the quality of the soil, kinds of the tributes, ways of their delivery, the main mountain and river systems.
192. It is believed that the Jinzhou province occupied territory of modern Shanxi province, north-western part of the Hebei province, the northern part of the Henan province, and the westernpart of the Liaonin province.
193. Menjin - a crossing on the Huanhe in the modern Menxian county in the Henan province.
194. Lunmyn - lit. “Dragon Gate”, the name of the famous Huanhe gorge in the Shanxi province. According to the legend, the fish gather in that gorge, and those who are able to pass it turn into dragons.
195. Saiyuan - a general name for the border areas along fortified line.
196. People in the lands levied with duty to contain the barbarians (baiman) .- According to the system described in Zhou-li, in antiquity in the center of China laid the possession of the Son of Heaven, around it were nine belts the inhabitants of which were levied with various burdens in respect to the Son of Heaven . The sixth zone was called manji - lit. “possession containing the barbarians”.

In Russian
Contents Tele
Contents Huns
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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