Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
The Huns in Chinese annals
Synopsis of Eastern Hun history
V.S. Taskin (1917-1995)
USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies
MATERIALS ON THE HISTORY OF NOMADIC PEOPLES IN CHINA
3 - 5 cc. AD
Jie (Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)
Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1990, Print 1000 copies, ISBN 5-02-016543-3
http://www.i-u.ru/biblio/archive/sima_2/12.aspx (Biography, in Russian, find Òàñêèí on page )
The posting's introduction is given on the author's introduction page. Jie is an offshoot of the Türkic tribe Kiyan, also known as Kiyat, probably with the Mongolian plural ending. The Russian derivative word of the Türkic koch (English coach) “kohevie” ~ “êî÷åâüå” that refleted the Chunese “bu”, is translated as horde. In this use the horde is an economical-social subdivision of a state, a tribal union, or a tribe, associated with certain ancestral pasturing route or pasturing territory, semantically different from the homophonic horde = army. Horde is a self-contained community united by traditional social ties like kinship or marital union, and generally is a conglomerate consisting of extended families belonging to the same ethnic group and able to propagate their possession of the pasturing route. Except for the introductory part, where is given the origin of the Jie branch and the origin of their Chinese name, the Jin shu annals refer to Jie almost exclusively as Hu and Huns.
* * *.
The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes. Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue. Highlighted comment numbers bring attention to the subjects more relevant to the Türkic history then to the Chinese history. Bibliographic references are numbered and listed in the Bibliography Section. Where possible, the author's Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcriptions were changed to Pinyin, to facilitate search, but because a switch to Pinyin coding frequently distorts or makes phonetics ambiguous, the phonetization of the original is generally retained also. It was noted that the annals, even composed by a single author like Sima Qian, use different expressions for the same phenomenon, in case of the Huns they are interchangeably called Hu and Hunnu (Hu 胡 and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴), and in reference to Jie they are interchangeably called Hu, and Hunnu, and occasionally Jie (Hu 胡, and Pinyin Xiongnu 匈奴, and Pinyin Jie 羯); personal and geographical names also come in variety of spellings; where appropriate, the Chinese form is given to facilitate search and verification, and possibly catch inaccuracies in translation. The identification of the Chinese 匈奴with the historical Eastern Huns is beyond any doubts for better then half a century, and this posting replaced all incarnations of Chinese-derived appellations with their modern appellation Hun, but attempts to retain the original formulation. Where direct correspondence between the Cyrillicised Wade-Giles transcription of V.S.Taskin and their Pinyin counterparts has not been found, a putative Pinyin reconstruction used the following conventions: Ts = X or Q, Tsz = J, S = S or X, all without any systematic rules. In most cases, reconstructed spelling follows the Wikipedia Cyrillization of Chinese, except where it conflicts with the implied intent of the author.
MATERIALS ON THE HISTORY OF NOMADIC PEOPLES IN CHINA
3 - 5 cc. AD
Jie (Jie Huns 羯 匈奴)
HISTORY OF JIN DINASTY (Jin shu), Ch. 105
Shi Le. Part 2.
Shi Le sons - Shi Hun (pin. Hong 石弘) and Zhang Bin (張賓)
In the second year of the Da-xin reign era (319 AD), Shi Le illegally declared himself Zhao-wang. He pardoned everyone, starting from those sentenced to beheading, equalized arable land tax levied on people, reducing it by half, and provided canvas to the orphans left behind by those killed in the line of duty, dutiful to their parents and younger brothers, and working hard in the field, 1 [to each] according to the merit of the deceased, and to the orphans, elderly, widowers and widows [granted] grain in quantity of three dans each. Were organized great feasts lasting for seven days 2. According to custom that existed in the realm during the Chun-Qiu period and during the first rulers of the Han dynasty, when each ruler established a period of his reign, Shi Le established a first year of the Zhao-wang reign. He was the first who finished the altar for sacrifices to the spirits of the Earth and crops, the Ancestral Temple, and premises for the eastern and western offices.
The clerk of the military leader Pei Xian
(裴獻) and Military Advisers Fu Zhang
(苻萇), and Du Ku were appointed aldermen 3 for
those studying classical books, Military Advisers Oyui Xien and Yui Jing were appointed
aldermen for those studying laws, Ren Bo and Cui Chun were appointed aldermen for those studying
history, Zhi Xiong (orig.: Syun), who had a rank of commander of the middle army, and
Wang Yan g with the title of commander
of light shock troops were appointed aldermen for the
officials at the gates who were adjudicating conflicts between the Hus (胡), and Zhang Li, Zhang Liang,
Liu Qun and Liu Mo were appointed chief clerks for the court officials and were in charge
of issuing orders
to the Hus (胡), reception of petitions from them, tightening of restrictions for the Hus (胡),
[according to which] they were not allowed to offend Xias (Chinese. - V.T.) who
hats, and monitored that the Hus (胡) were called gozhen - countrymen.
Shi Le sent officials to travel to the provinces and counties in order to convince population to engage in farming and cultivation of mulberry tree.
Shi Le also appointed Zhang Win a Great Guardian of the Law and assigned him to direct the policies of the court, installing him in charge of all officials. Shi Le appointed Shi Jilong a Shanyu, gave him a title of a First Assistant 4, and appointed him to the post of the Chief Commander of all military affairs of his personal guard.
Shi Le ordered the Chancellery scribes Zou Minjie and Cheng Ji to compose “Record of Shangdang possession” 5; the palace advisers 6 Fu Biao, Jia Pu and Jiang Gui to compose “Records of acts and leisure of the Great Military Leader” 7; the Military Advisers Shi Tai, Shi Tung, Shi Qian and Kun Lun to compile “Records of the Grand Shanyu”. From that time on at the audiencies at the palace and at the feasts Shi Le began using etiquette and music of the Son of Heaven, and his entourage wore appropriate headgear and behaved with admirable dignity.
The dignitaries turned to Shi Le with a request to discuss the accomplished exploits. Shi Le said: “16 years passed since I raised the troops. The civil and military officials that accompanied me in the campaigns, commanders and warriors hurledthemselved forward, despite incoming arrows and rocks, and endured incredible hardships. Especially remarkable feats were accomplished in the battle at Gepo, and they should be awarded in the first place. Those who remained alive shall be awarded titles according to the deeds performed, and the orphans of those killed shall be raised in position by one grade. I hope this is enough to console the living and the dead, that is my sincere desire.
Then Shi Le published a paper where he forbade his countrymen (i.e. the Hus (胡).- B.T.) to marry wives of the deceased older brothers 8 and to marry at the time of mourning, but following the custom allowed incineration of the corpses of the deceased.
Kun Zhang attacked 11 separate encampments of Shao Xu and took them. Soon, Shao Xu was captured by Shi Jilong and sent to Xiangguo (襄國, in modern county town Xintai in the Hebei province, orig.: Siango) 9.
In Luoyang, the warlords Liu Yao, Yin An, and Sung Shi surrendered to Shi Le.
The Jin ruler of the Xuzhou province Cai Bao defeated Xu Kan (徐龕) 10, then
Xu Kan sent to Shi Le
a courier, proposing a plan to punish Cai Bao. Shi Le sent a commander Wang Budu,
ordering him to be in the Xu Kan's vanguard, and ordered Zhang Jing to follow him heading
riders. When Zhang Jin arrived to the Dunpin district
11, Xu Kan suspected
that Zhang Jing can suddenly attack him, and therefore, hacking more than 300 warriors of
the Wang Budu detachment, again expressed his submission to the Jin dynasty. Coming into a
terrible rage, Shi Le ordered Zhang Jing to occupy important strategic points of Xu Kan, and
observe his actions from there.
Started prolonged heavy rains, especially strong in the Zhongshan and Chanshan districts, and the river Hutou 12 had flooded. Water streams were destroying slopes on mountain gorges and felling huge fir trees, which rafted east in the Hutou river to to the Bohai district, and in vast lowlands the tree trunks piled into mountains.
Shi Le was the first who introduced musical instruments he hung on stands on three sides of a square 13, dancers arranged in rows of eight 14, provisioned great imperial chariots decorated with gold, chariots with yellow canopy and a standard on the left side. So, he became an owner of chariots, standards, musical instruments, and began to follow the rules of conduct prescribed for the Son of Heaven (Ch. 天子 tianzi).
Shi Le sent Shi Jilong in the head of 40 of thousand infantrymen and horsemen to punish Xu Kang. Xu Kang sent to Shi Le a senior official Liu Xiao aking to surrender, he surrendered as hostages his wife and son. Shi Le accepted Xu Kan.
At that time, Cai Bao was with the troops in Qiaochen 15. Shi Jilong attacked him, and Cai Bao fled at night, and Shi Jilong has built around Fenqiu wall and returned with victory. Over three hundred aristocratic families, starting with those whose members were helping high court officials in the affairs of governance and to more noble, were relocated to the Chunjenli quarter 16 in Xiangguo, and senior officials of the Shi Le clan were appointed to govern them.
When palace premises were built for Shi Le, and they were surrounded by the gates, were imposed very strict rules, and in particular was especially strictly forbidden to use the word “Hu (胡)”. Once a drunk Hu (胡) on a horseback broke through the Zhichemeng gate 17. Very angry, Shi Le told Feng Zhu, a junior law enforcing official at the gate: “When a ruler gives order, he hopes that his order will be respected throughout the Celestial, especially in. the space between the palace and the gate. Just now a man rode his horse through the gate - why did not you arrest him?” Terribly frightened, Feng Zhu said, “It was a drunken Hu (胡) on a horseback who galloped through the gate, I shouted loudly to apprehend him, but it is impossible to talk to him”. Shi Le replied with laugh: “With Hus (胡) I myself too am having difficulties to talk”, and he did not punish Feng Zhu, but forgave him his offense.
Shi Le sent Shi Jilong to attack Jyuedon, a leader of the Tohou horde, located
north of the Qianshan Mountains (Qianshan Mountains 千山, a branch
of Changbai or Baekdu Mountains or Ohnan Mountains on the Korean border, 42.2°N 128°E, at
a distance of 1,100 km or 700 mi from Xiangguo located at 36°N 117.8°E)
18. Shi Jilong inflicted a severe defeat on Jyuedon, capturing
more than 200 thousand heads of cattle and sheep (This number
allows to estimate the size of the Tohou horde. Allowing for avarage 130 heads of
livestock per family of 7, it would take 1,500 families and 11,000 total population of
the Tohou horde. Its location near Qianshan Mountains allows to suspect that Tohou were
associated with either Mongolian or Tungus tribes).
Shi Le established five service grades, assigning Zhang Bin to head the attestation of the officials, but then he again restored the system of nine grades, appointing. Zhang Bin a Left Guardian of the Law, and Man Cho a Right Guardian of the Law. The edict stipulated that the members of the noble houses could be appointed to the post only after a selection process, and all officials, provinces and districts were required to nominate each year one xiutcai 19, very respectful of his parents, thrifty and selfless, wise and virtuous, truthful in speech, courageous and brave. Were established and made appointments of the officials for the pasturing route unions, each of whom was in charge of the affairs of a single pasturing route union; if he was in charge of the affairs for the pasturing route unions in the entire province, his salary was set at two thousand dans of grain per year, and the position equated with the position of a legal defender at the first assistant to the emperor 20.
Shi Le gave an order which stated: “Last year, the river brought countless wood, which piles in mountains. Apparently, the Omnipotent Sky wants me to build palace premises. Should be erected a palace hall Jiandedian modeled after the palace hall Taijidian in Luoyang. Having said that, he sent a clerk of the military leader Ren (Jen) Wang in the head of the 5 thousand workmen for purveying lumber for the construction work.
The wife of Chen Wu from the Lian county gave birth to three boys and one girl. Chen Wu, together with his wife and children arrived in Xiangguo and presented a report which described what had happened. Shi Le published a paper which stated that the birth of children is due to the harmony between the Heaven and Earth, their mutual consent, and ordered to grant the parents a wet nurse, 100 dans of grain and 40 pieces of different silks.
Shi Jilong attacked the Duan's leader Pidi, who was in Yantsi 21, and Kun Chang, on a campaign to punish the cities in the territory of the Pidi horde, occupied them. Caught in a bind, Pidi came out heading his subordinate officials to surrender to Shi Jilong, behind him was following a carriage with a coffin [as an expression of complete submission]. Shi Jilong sent Pidi to Xiangguo, where Shi Le appointed him a Commander Exceeding in Ability All in the Troops.
The younger brother of Pidi, Wenyang, and assistant commander Wei Lin were appointed a Left and Right chiefs of the bodyguards, and received gold seals on dark red cords 22. Over 30 thousand of captured fugitive households were released and returned to their former occupations, and officials were appointed to control them. After that, all settlements in the Jizhou and Bikzhou provinces, and in the Lyaosi and Busy districts surrendered to Shi Le.
At that time, Ju Ti, who received from the Jin dynasty à title of Commander Punishing
North, was in the Qiao district 23 and intended to pacify the
Ju Tiwas skillfully
attracting affection of the surrounding him, so most of those south of the Huanhe
broke with Shi Le and submitted to Ju Ti, which scared Shi Le, and he did not
dare to continue marauding raids.
After that, Shi Le issued paper, which said: “Ju Ti has repeatedly caused disaster on the borders. Ju Ti was born in the province located in the north, where hopes are high for him, and he may suddenly sprout a thought to extend his head to his native hill 24. It is needed go to the Yuzhou province and repair kurgans on the graves of the Ju clan, and to appoint two families to care for them. I hope that Ju Ti, upon learning about the grace afforded to him by the House of Zhao, would stop violence”. Upon hearing this, Ju Ti was very pleased and sent to Shi Le as an envoy a Military Adviser WangYu to deliver gifts consisting of local products, and establish friendly relations. Shi Le generously rewarded envoy, and reciprocated sending as an envoy Tung Shu, who had a post of a left palace servant 25, with rsponse gifts, consisting of 100 horses and 50 jings of gold. From that time, in the Yanzhou and Yuzhou province predominated peace, and the population was able to rest.
A clerk of the military commander Liu Ao was negligent leading the construction of the palace Jiandedian hall, so the columns tilted, and he was beheaded in the palace. Soon repenting of his deed, Shi Le bestowed posthumously on Liu Ao Chief the posts of a head of the ceremonial department and a bailiff of the Jiandedian palace.
Wang Ho dug up a round stone with inscription: “A stone for determination of weight, weight four jun, intended to determine weight, made during Xin dynasty 26. Those who discovered the object did not know what it was, and some took it for a happy omen. However, the Military Adviser Xu Xian said: “This is an object from the Wang Mang time.” At that time, after the turmoil wars, the standard measurement units were destroyed, so it was ordered to give the stone to officials monitoring compliance with the rules of conduct, as a firmly established model.
Then was found a tripod with capacity of 4 sheng, where were 30 large coins with an inscription
“100 is equal to 1000, 1,000 is equal to ten thousand.” On the tripod was an inscription of
13 characters, written in Zhuang style, they could not be read, and the tripod was placed in
the Yunfencang storage. Was issued an order which allowed circulation of coins cast by
both the authorities and private individuals, but it gave no joy to the people. Then,
to determine the value of the coins, the authorities issued silk, and the price of the medium quality
silk piece was limited to 1,200 coins, and the price of a lesser quality silk piece was
800 coins. However, the population was buying a piece of medium quality silk for 4
thousand coins, and lower quality for 2 thousand coins. Those who could skillfully
extract profit were buying coins cast by private individuals at a cheap price, and traded in silk
at higher price than was set by the authorities. For that, more than a dozen
people were executed, but the coins still did not gain circulation.
Shi Le moved from Luoyang to Xiangguo copper horses and two Wenzhong statues 27, placing them at the Yunfenmen gate.
Tong Jian, on staff of Ju Ti, 28 killed the head of the Xintcai district Zhou Mi, and sent a courier to Shi Le, expressing a desire to surrender. Shi Le beheaded the courier and sent his head to Ju Ti with the words: “We hate the same in the Celestial. Your rebellious servants and turncoat officials are my worst enemies, those who you, commander, are hating I also hate. Ju Ti sent to Shi Le an envoy with an expression of gratitude. After that Ju Ti stopped receiving the heads of the places rampart-fortified [that were located] in the lands between the Yanzhou and Yuizhou provinces who rebelled against Shi Le, so those in these two provinces submitted either to Shi Le, or to Ju Ti.
Shi Le ordered the elders who lived in the Wuxiang county (the birthplace countyof of Shi Le. - V.T.) to come to Xiangguo, and when they arrived, he seated them by their age and drank wine with them, indulging in merriment and discussing everyday matters.
It should be mentioned that earlier Shi Le lived next door with Li Yang, and every year conflicted with him in disputes and fights over a pond where hemp was soaked. So, turning to the elders, Shi Le said: “Li Yang is a valiant man, why he did not come? When I was still wearing linen clothes, I hated him because of the pond where hemp was soaked, but now, enjoying respect and trust of the Celestial, I can not quarrel with a commoner!” Having said that, he sent a courier to summon Li Yang. When Li Yang arrived, the tipsy Shi Le began joking with him, and said, pulling his shoulder and with a laugh: “From a long past, I am fed up by your strong fist, and you have tasted enough my tough hand”, then gave Li Yang an estate like those of the noble families, and gave him a title of a Military Adviser-Chief Commander. Then Shi Le ordered: “For me the county Wuxiang is a town Feng in the Pei county 29. After my death of my soul would return there, I am exempting Wuxiang from taxes for three generations”.
Because people had just returned to their affairs and did not have large reserves, Shi Le strictly forbade to ferment wine, so for the sacrifices in the temple of the ancestors was always used an one-day wine; that lasted for several years, and nobody fermented wine.
Soon Shi Le, appointing Shi Jilong a commander in charge of chariots and cavalry, sent him to lead 30 thousand horsemen to punish the Syanbi leader Yuizhou (apparently, this is a functional description of the poosition, after the name of the province, an equivalent of today's “Leader of Henan Province”, not a personal name of the Syanbi leader or his native title), who was in Lishi 30. Shi Jilong seized over 100 thousand head of cattle and horses, Yuizhou fled to the Wuhuans, and all cities belonging to him were forced to surrender.
Before all that died Ji Xin, a son of Shi Le, who was his declared heir, so at the
time of the described events Shi Le declared his son Shi Hong
(石弘, pronounced Hun, 313-334, native Hunnic name Daya 大雅, pinyin Hong) as his heir, and appointed him to head the palace troops 31.
Shi Le sent appointed Shi Jilong a commander of 40 thousand selected men recruited both from his own lands and from beyond them, and sent him to punish Xu Kan. Xu Kang was stubbornly defending, without entering a battle, so Shi Jilong began building houses and started tilling the land, 32 surrounding Xu Kan by long earthworks.
Liu Wei with a title Commander-Ruler of the North received from the Jin dynasty, surrendered to Shi Le, who granted him a title of Commander-Ruler of the South and raised to the title of le-hou (What is north for Jin is south for Later Zhao, in essence Liu Wei remained in place as is, just changed his allegiance).
Shi Jilong undertook a storm, captured Xu Kan, and sent him to Xiangguo. Shi Le ordered to shove Xu Kan in a bag and bring him to a 100 chi high tower, accompanied the sack up, and cast it down, thus finishing with Xu Kan (徐龕). He ordered the Wang Budu's wives and children and others to chop up the corpse into pieces and eat the meat up, and Shi Le buried alive 3 thousand Xu Kan's soldiers who have surrendered (Apparently, Xu Kan was an ethnically Chinese general commanding ethnically Chinese infantry, with perfidious ruts. Apparently, Wang Budu was also an ethnically Chinese who headed the Chinese infantry, and he was held responsible for the loss of the Hun's cavalry sent as allied force to the Xu Kan's assistance. The canniballistic treat, recorded in the Chinese annals as an outstanding event appears to be intended as a subject lesson to his Chinese officers on the despicability of perfidy. It echoes another Hunnic and ancient Türkic belief that the valor of a fallen worthy enemy would be physically transfered to those who drink from his skull. The Chinese soldiers were punished for participation in the perfidious acts, showing that they were credited with a freedom of choice, a conventional trait that can't possibly be stifled among the mobile nomadic mounted troops, but is unapplicable to the Chinese infantry troops.
The feasibility of burying alive thousands of people seems not have been studied; from the empirical data of the German, Japanese, and Soviet practises of mass murder, even burrying en mass of the already dead raised problems on a state scale in the 20th c.; somewhat like projects of building kurgans have been estimated and resulted in huge expenditure of manpower efforts; however the scale of human ingenuity can not be underappreciated. Herodotus (7.114.1) asserted that it was a Persian nomos to bury alive, presenting this as a Persian custom, and Chinese record in their annals that they were burying people alive, but there is no other historical testimony, including on Eurasian nomads. Considering that the Chinese peasants were forcibly drafted, and were more sitting ducks then the armies, the mass killings of the prisoners would be clearly counterproductive, giving the enemy soldiers an only impetus to resist, which is illustrated by massive peaceful surrenders. All five references in Jin-shu on mass executions by the Huns do not appear real, are inconsistent with other Chinese annals, and more closely reflect the Chinese practices of mass murder then the nomadic practices).
The scared ruler of the Jin's Yanzhou province Liu Xia retreated from the Zuoushan county 33 and encamped with the troops in the Xiapei 34. A governor of Lanie district Sun Mo raised a revolt against the Jin dynasty, leading the county population, and surrendered to Shi Le, after which most of the leaders of the rampart-fortified towns in the Xuzhou and Yanzhou provinces sent hostages to Shi Le with a request to allow them to surrender; and they were appointed to the positions of the local officials (I.e. they were confirmed in their existing positions, with allegiance to Shi Le, a normal procedure among the Türkic tribes, and most frequent in the course of the Türkic conquests. In the historical narratives, this confirmation of the status quo is ofter phrased with pretentious formulation a la “He assigned, he placed, he arranged”, etc. In the consequent Rus and Russian expansion, that was a standard methhod of conquest).
Zhang Pi, a native of Qinghe county, was a senior officials at Cheng Xia, and Cheng Xia maintained friendly relations
with him, trusting him very much. Zhang Bin recommended Zhang Pi
for the post of assistant governor of the province, 35 and suggested
him for the discussion of public affairs. This aroused an envy of Cheng Xia,
who feared that Zhang Pi may push him away over, besides he hated Zhang Bin for the
great influence he enjoyed. The Shi Le's crown son Shi Hun
(石弘, 313-334, native Hunnic name Daya 大雅, pinyin Hong)
was a nephew of Cheng Xia, so
in a belief that he has support Cheng Xia wanted to gain prestige at
the court, for which he persuaded the Shi Hun mother (and his
sister) to slander Zhang Pi, saying: “Zhang Pi and Zhang Bin have wide
connections, are always ready to help each other, every day to them come
more than a hundred wagons with guests, all are pinning their hopes on them, and all
are obeying them, and that is hurtful to the altar for sacrifices to the spirits of the
Earth and produce. In the interest of the state Zhang Pi should be inactivated”. Shi Le found
that to be right. At the time of the described events Zhang Pi received an urgent summon to the
palace, but was too late to appear, and was killed under that pretext. Zhang Bin,
knowing that Cheng Xia is contriving against him, did not dare to intercede for Zhang Pi.
Soon Cheng Xia was appointed a right senior official, and concentrated in his hands the whole policies of the court. Since then the
courtier high officials rushed to switch sides (Being a brother
of Khanum, and at least a de-facto senior member and head of the Khanum tribe, in the
Türkic state structure Cheng Xia's rightful position was a Right [Western] Jükü Bek, in
Chinese lingo Right Wise Prince/Right Tuqi Prince/Right Tuqi Wang/aka “right senior official”, that was a position of a Prime Minister and Superior Judge combined, and anybody else
occupying that position was either impostor or usurper. The Chinese annals betray their
confused understanding of the motives, causes, and effects within the Türkic state
structure, and depict the triumph of the legitimate organization as a result of the
Chinese-style coup-de-tat. However legitimate in respect to the actual state hierarchy
the situation is, it remains profoundly illegitimate within the overall Hunnic society,
since Shi Le belonged to the maternal dynastic tribe of Kuyan, whose male offsprings do
not have a right of succession to the supreme position of the Shanyu; Shi Le himself was
an imposter, and accordingly his Right [Western] Jükü Bek from a newly created dynastic
tribe called Cheng by the Chinese is an imposter too. Apparently, in the previous two
centuries of the Chinese intervention in the traditional structure within the Southern
Huns, and a rise of a number of legitimate Shanyus severely blurred the lines of
legitimacy and legitimacy, creating new realities on the ground).
At that time Ju Ti died, and Shi Le began raiding the border garrisons
On the territory under Shi Le control flared a deadly disease, from which of each a ten died 2-3 people, and therefore was discontinued the construction of the Huiwendian palace.
Shi Le sent a commander Wang Yan to encamp with the troops in Yuizhou province and seek breaches to start actions, so the military burdens were increasing with each passing day, and the population in the Liang and Cheng lands was agitated.
Then Shi Le sent Shi Jilong to punish Cao Yi (曹佾), putting him in charge of 40 thousand infantry and riders recruited in the land under his control and outside of it. Prior to that, Cao Yi discussed question of moving to the Genyushan mountain located at sea, but due to the strong deadly disease he was not able to start implementing the plan. When Shi Jilong surrounded the Guang city 37, the Dunglai district governor Liu Ba and head of the Changguan county Lu Pi headed counties surrendered to him with their districts.
After giving Shi Ta rank of Commander Punishing the east, Shi Le sent him to attack the Tibetans (Qiang, with Kiyan twist), who lived in the lands west of the Huanhe, and sent Shi Tin with the rank of Commander of the Left Wing to help the troops besieging Guangu. When Cao Yi surrendered, he was sent to Xiangguo, where Shi Le killed him and buried alive 30 thousand of his soldiers.
Shi Jilong wanted to kill the whole people of Cao Yi, but the governor of the Qingzhou province Liu Zheng said: “You are leaving me, Liu Zheng, here to rule over the people. Who I am going to rule if there are no people, it is better for me to die”. Then Shi Jilong left 700 men and women, gave them to Liu Zheng, and directed him to stay in Guangu. All rampart-fortified places in the Qingzhou districts and counties surrendered to Shi Jilong.
Shi Le's governor of of the Sizhou province
38 Shi Sheng attacked in Yandi 39
commander Guo Sung with the title of Commander with Thunderous Military Valours, but was unable to take the city. Then he made a raid on Xiangchen,
captured more than a thousand people and returned.
Shi Le promoted his Military Adviser Fan Tan because he led a poor but honest life, raising [appointing] him to the post of the governor of the Zhanu province. Soon Fan Tan came with intention to resign; Shi Le saw him in shabby clothes and tattered hat, and exclaimed in utter amazement: “Why are you, the Military Adviser Fan Tan, so poor?” Fan Tan, distinguished for his truthfulness, hastened to reply: “Recently I encountered the injustice of the Jie (羯) robbers, and completely lost my property. Shi Le said with a laugh: “Were you really robbed by bandit Jies! Now I must reward you accordingly”. The frightened Fan Tan began genuflecting the bows and tearfilly devolving of the office. Then Shi Le said: “I always defend myself against ordinary scholars and do not grapple with fossilized bookworms like you”, and then gave Fan Tan a cart and a horse, clothing, and threefold 10 thousand coins for travel expenses, in order to awaken in him a love for valuables.
Shi Zhan served Shi Le with the rank of a Chief Commander of the Troops, made a foray into the district Xiapei and defeated a Jin commander Liu Chanxu. Then he attacked district Lanling and again defeated the ruler of the Pengcheng district Liu Xu. The governor Chu Chzhen of the Dongguan district and the governor Xiao Dan of the Donghai district raised a rebellion [against the Jin dynasty] at the head of their districts, and surrendered to Shi Le.
Shi Le personally visited the lower and higher schools, where he tested the students' knowledge of classical books, and awarded the best for their success with fabrics.
Shi Le loved literature, and even during military campaigns he often ordered the scholars to read historical works, while he attentively listened. Every time he expressed his opinion about good and bad deeds of emperors and rulers of antiquity, and having heard his opinion all the court sages and scholars expressed their admiration. Once Shi Le had them to read “History of the Han dynasty”, and hearing that Li Yiji 40 was arguing “to install in power the descendants of the rulers of the six possessions, alarmingly said: “It's a wrong approach, with it the Celestial can not be united!”, and then on hearing the exhortations of Liu Hou, he said: “I can rely on them!” This shows how much an outstanding personality Shi Le was by nature.
Shi Le drafted troops from the Xuzhou and Yangzhou provinces, ordering them to join with the Shi Zhan troops, who were in the Xiapei county, after which the scared Liu Xia fled from the Xiapei district to the bend of the river Sishui 41.
Shi Sheng in Xinan 42 attacked Yin Ping, whom Liu Yao appointed
a governor of the district Hengei, beheaded him, took more than a dozen rampart-fortified villages, captured
more than 5 thousand households, and returned. Since then between Liu Yao and Shi Le
ensued a feud, armed clashes were happening every day, and the people in the Hedun and Hunnun
districts did not know on whom to lean.
Shi Le appointed a right palace servant Ho Hao a palace adviser on promoting development of agriculture, and he, together with Zhu Biao, an ambassador in charge of agriculture, and Lou Chun in the post of Chief Commander Encouraging Agriculture, went to tour thge provinces and districts, approved census lists, took measures to promote farming and raising of mulberry trees, with those achieving major successes bestowed a title udafu 43.
Shi Le ordered Shi Sheng to pass through the Yanshou-guan gate 44 and raid the districts Xuchang and Yinchuan, where he captured more than 10 thousand people, while the number the surrendered was 20 thousand people. After that, Shi Sheng stormed the city Kanchen 45. The Jin commander Guo Sung overtook Shi Sheng, and inflicted a severe defeat, killing over a thousand men, then Shi Sheng gathered the disperced warriors and encamped with them in the Kancheng. Shi Cong, appointed by Shi Le as a governor of the Jijun district, hearing about the defeat of Shi Sheng, hastened to his aid and attacked a [Jin] commander Guo Mo, capturing more than two thousand men and women. Then Shi Cong attacked the Jin generals Li Ju and Guo Mo and defeated their troops.
Shi Le was going to a hunt in the vicinity of the capital, but registrar Cheng Lang said, cautioning him: “Mounted prickers 46 of Liu Yao as numerous as trees in a forest are scattered nearby, at any moment may happen unexpected events, and you will encounter just a single enemy. How can be forgotten the calamity that fell to Sun Ce 47? Moreover, even dry wood or rotten trunk can injure you, and so about overindulging in fast gallop was warned both in antiquity and now”. Shi Le curtly retorted: “I know what to do, and can gauge my actions! Keep to your papers and shut up!”
On that day, when Shi Le was pursuing a beast, his horse was killed running into a tree, and he himself barely missed a death. Then Shi Le said: “I did not listen to my loyal servant, and that was my mistake”, and then awarded Cheng Lang courtly dress, silk, and bestowed on him a title of hou without provision of land ownership. From that time on, the court officials began competing in delivering loyal speeches during audiences.
The Jin chief commander Lu Qian rebelled [against Jin dynasty], and in the head of the Xuchang county surrendered to Shi Le. Shi Zhan attacked in the Zuoushan the Jin governor of the Yanzhou province Tan Bin, took the city by storm, and killed Tan Bin.
Wang Sheng in Shi Le's service with a rank of a head of the western alien bodyguard
security, suddenly attacked the governor of the Bingzhou province Cui Kun and
killed him (The “western alien” people must be a Chinese lingo, for Shi Le these Xi Hu
or Xihu (西胡) were his own Hun tribesmen, and no “aliens".
Notably, the Shanyu's own “center” force had enough muscle to attack a provincial army,
its force was measured in tumens, or multiples of 10,000 cavalry).
The governor of the Shangdang district Wang Sheng raised in the Binzhou province a rebellion against Shi Le. Before that, Shi Jilong attacked in Shilian a Liu Yao commander Liu Yue. At the time of the described events the garrison in Shilian disperced, and the captured Liu Yue was sent to Xiangguo. After that, Shi Jilong attacked Wang Sheng in Bingzhou and killed him. Frightened by the Liu Yue defeat Li Ju fled fled from Xinyan, and his senior official Cui Xuan in the head of 2 thousand troops surrendered to Shi Le. Thus, Shi Le acquired all the lands in the Sizhou and Yanzhou provinces, and the districts and counties along the river Huaishui in the Sizhou and Yuizhou provinces surrendered to him on their own.
Shi Le ordered to transport from Loyang to Xiangguo sundial clock and install it in the courtyard in front of the Shanyu house (This is the only direct record that Shi Le was a Shanyu of the Southern Huns for the Huns, and Emperor for the Chinese and possibly others). Carving stone boxes with the names of 47 meritorious high officials who helped to create the State, Shi Le arranged boxes in front of the front hall of the Jiandedian palace. In Xiangguo was planted a garden of mulberry trees and catalpa (This seems to be a earliest direct record about the estate of the Shanyus and associated gardens, which are traceable from that first mentioning through the millennia and for all Türkic monarchs, most notable of those were the newly planted gardens in all capitals of the Moghul Türks in Afganistan and India. Without exception, all Türkic palaces included gardens, and they brought to us the words pavilion and kiosk, the main jewels of the garden architecture. It may be apropos noted that neither pavilion nor kiosk are etymologyzed from the Persian, nor from the Latin, and their spotty distribution in the host languages atrtest to their cultural loanword status).
One night, dressed in simple clothes, Shi Le went to check the protection of the palace and began offering the guard at the gate silk, gold and silver, asking to let him in. Wang Jia, a guard at the Yunchanmen gate, tried to apprehend Shi Le, but appeared cortege, and he abandoned his intention. The next morning Shi Le summoned Wang Jia, granted him a title of Chief Commander with Attested Dedication, and the title of hou without a provision of land ownership.
Going to Yuanxiang, Shi Le summoned the Military Adviser of the Chancellery Xu Guang , but being drunk, Xu Guang did not come. Since Shi Le remained often dissatisfied with Xu Guang reports about the status, that angered him, and he demoted Xu Guang, [appointing him to] the position of the staff official. When Shi Le was on his way from Yuanxiang to E, Xu Guang on his duty service stood with upset face, shaking his rolled up sleeves and looking up, ignoring the Shi Le. Shi Le grew angry and cried, rebuking Xu Guang: “What am I guity before you with, that are demonstrating such dissatisfaction?”, and then jailed Xu Guang, his wife, and children in prison.
Shi Le decided to have a palace in the E, and wanted to install his son Shi Hun
(石弘, 313-334, native Hunnic name Daya 大雅, pinyin Hong)
a ruler of E,
therefore he secretly discussed this matter with Chen Xia. But Shi Jilong, believing
that he has great merits and was relying on E as his base, did not want to leave the city.
When the construction of the Santai palace was finished and Shi Hun family settled there, Shi Jilong
out of deep hate for Cheng Xia, sent at night a few dozen of his entourage,
and they entered the house of Chen Xia, raped his wife and daughters, stole things and
Shi Le installed Shi Hun a ruler in the E, and gave him 10 thousand warriors from his own personal guards, and also 54 military camps that were under Commander of Chariots and Horsemen, and ordered Wang Yan with a title Commander of Brave Riders, who held position of a wine cupbearer at the gate officials, to help Shi Hun leading six alien tribes (Here again the tribes are alien from the Chinese perch, for the Huns they were a combination of kinfolk Huns, now under new dynastic union of Kiyan/Cheng tribes, Jie/Kiyan Huns themselves, kinfolk Tele Dis, partial kinfolk Tibetans/Qiangs, partial kinfolk Syanbi/Duans, and partial kinfolk Tele Dis/Mans. The tribes of Qiangs, Duans, and Mans included either Huns or Dis as either dynastic or socially dominating component).
Shi Cong attacked the city Shouchun, but could not take it. Then he forayed into Qiunqiu 48 and Fuling 49 counties, killed and captured over 5 thousand people, which caused great worry in the [Jin] capital.
The [Jin] ruler of the Jimin district Liu Kai and commander Zhang Ho revolted [against the Jin dynasty] and killed a Xiapei district governor Xia Jia, then they surrendered to Shi Shen at the head of the Xiapei district.
Shi Zhan attacked in the Zhu 50 the [Jin] governor of the Henan district Wang Xian, and took the city by storm. Wang Guo with a title of Commander Rising up to the Sky Like a Dragon, raised a rebellion against [the Jin dynasty] and surrendered to Shi Le at the head of the Nanjun district. The governor of the Jin's Pengcheng district Liu Xu occupied again the city Shicheng in the Lanling county, but Shi Zhan attacked the city and took it by storm.
Shi Le ordered provinces and districts to investigate and view as a crime if someone would dig up a grave and leave it open; [he ordered] counties to stock coffins and shrouds for the bones lying about under open sky.
Shi Le appointed a military commander of his headquarters Wang Bo as a military advisor of the chancellery, ordered him to govern the nine philosophical divisions 51 and for the first time introduced a system of examination on the knowledge of classic books, which give a right to receive degrees of xiucai and xiaolian 52.
Shi Huang, a governor of the Zhiping county, caught a black rabbit and presented it to Shi Le. Cheng Xia and others found that it is a happy omen, saying that Shi Le would ascend like a dragon, and would change the ruling dynasty, because in the place of the metal element that is patronizing the Jin dynasty, must come the element of the water, because the hare is a creature that represents the dark beginning, and black color is a color of water. The capture of the black rabbit supposedly shows that Shi Le should move sooner to meet the desires of the Heaven and the people. Therefore, Shi Le announced a wide amnesty and changed the third year of the era of Xian-ho reign (328) to the first year of the era of Tai-ho reign 53.
Shi Kang attacked in Shouchun the Jin governor Cu Yao of Yuizhou province, and
staged the troops on the Huaishui river. [The Jin's] Wang Guo, who had the rank of
Commander Rising up to the Sky Like a Dragon, rose in revolt against [the Jin dynasty]
and surrendered to Shi Kan heading the Nanjun district 54. The chief commander in Nanian Tung Yu rebelled
[against the Jin dynasty] and the population led Xianyanz Chief commander in Nanyane Tung Yu rebelled against [against
the Jin dynasty], and heading the Xianian population surrendered to Shi Kan.
All Zu Yao's high officials secretly sent a courier to Shi Le, expressing their desire to join him. Shi Zun and Shi Kang, crossing the Huaihe, stormed Shouchun, after which Zu Yao fled to Lian, 55 while the residents of the Shouchun numbering more than 20 thousand households were captured by Shi Cong.
Liu Yao defeated Shi Jilong at Gaohou, then surrounded Luoyang. Designated Shi Le The Xinyan district governor Yin Ju and Evan district governor Zhang Jin surrendered to Liu Yao, which caused a great excitement in Xiangguo. Shi Le wanted to come personally to the aid of Luoyang, but Guo Ao and Cheng Xia, the Left and Right senior officials (i.e Left and Right Juku/Tuqi/Xian Princes), who commanded the troops, persistently tried to convince him not to do that, saying: “Liu Yao is flushed with victory, is very strong, it is difficult [to expect to win, if to] cross weapons with him, but in the Jinyun city 56 are large stores of grain, and if he even attacked the city, he would not be able to quickly take it. Torn off from the main forces for a thousand li, the troops of Liu Yao penetrated deeply into our land, and he would not be able to maintain their strength for a long time. You should not personally engage in the campaign, if you would set out you would subject yourself to danger and ruin your great work.
Very angry, Shi Le, stroking his sword, shouted at the Cheng Xia and others, ordering them to leave. After that, he pardoned Xu Guang, called him closer and said: “Liu Yao, using the victory at Gaohou, surrounded Luoyang. Everybody who has a mind of ordinary people say that it is impossible to resist his onslaught. However, Liu Yao, with 100 thousand dressed in armor soldiers, is attacking only one city, but can not take it already for a hundred days. His troops are tired, the soldiers grew negligent, and if I would attack them with fresh forces, I'll all capture them all in a single battle. And if we are unable to protect Luoyang, Liu Yao will undoubtedly seek his death in the Jizhou province, 57 and gathering all his forces in the lands north of the Huanhe he would stream to the south, and then my cause will die. Cheng Xia and others do not want me to personally lead the campaign. What do you think?”
Xu Guang responded: “Although Liu Yao uses the victory gained at Gaohou
58, he he did not approach Xiangguo, and began besieging Jinyun. That shows that he can not undertake anything. His soldiers, cut off from the main forces and deprived of
possibility to return to the farmwork, for the past three years have forgotten about
advantages that the offensive war brings, so as soon as they see your Imperial standard with embroidered
Luan bird they would immediately disperse. The plan for tranquilizing the Celestial depends
only on a single step, and now you have to commit it, you received a chance of which we can say that
it is awarded by the Heaven itself. If you do not accept this heavenly gift of the Sky,
you would bring misfortune upon yourself”. Shi Le responded with a smile: “Xu Guang says truth.”
Fotu Den 59 also told Shi Le: “If your main forces launch a campaign, you're sure to capture Liu Yao”, pleasing Shi Le even more. He ordered everyone to go to high alert and announced that anyone who would dare to discourage him [from the campaign] will be beheaded.
Shi Le ordered Shi Kang, Shi Cong and the ruler of Yuizhou province Tao Bao to gather at Xinyang heading their troops, Shi Jilong to set out [for the campaign] and take Shimen 60, appointed the commander of the left guard detachment Shi Sui (石邃) a chief commander of middle army military operations, and heading 40 thousand infantry and riders streamed to Jinyun and crossed Huanhe at the Dae crossing 61.
Prior to that Huanhe was covered with floating ice, was blowing strong wind, but when the Shi Le troops reached the river, the ice melted, and settled clear weather, as soon as the crossing over, the ice again was densely floating. Shi Le, believing that the spirits helped him, named the crossing Lingchangjin - “Crossing promising prosperity by the will of the spirits”.
Turning to Xu Guan, Shi Le said: “For Liu Yao, the best is to gather a great many troops at the outpost in the Chengao district; to try to stop us at the Loshui river is slightly worse, and if does nothing and keeps laying siege to Luoyang, he will be my prisoner”. When the Shi Le troops gathered in the Chengao district, their number reached 60 thousand infantrymen and 27 thousand horsemen. Seeing no Liu Yao troops at the outpost, Shi Le was very pleased, and pointing first to the Sky, and then to his own forehead, he said: “[This arranged] the Sky!”, and then ordered the warriors to tie up their armors, plug their mouths with gags, and proceed by the shortest road, making two day trips a day; [soon he] came to the Zi area in the Gong county 62.
On learning that Liu Yao staged his troops, numbering more than 100 thousand soldiers, to the west of Luoyang, Shi Le rejoiced still more, and having said to his coutriers: “You can congratulate me”, in the head of 40 thousand infantry and riders entered Luoyang via Xuanyanmen gate and rose to the front hall of the former Taijidian palace.
Shi Jilong's thirty thousand infantry moved west from the point north of Luoyang and attacked Liu Yao middle army, while Shi Kan and Shi Cong, each heading 8 thousand horsemen, moved north from the point west of Luoyang . They attacked the Liu Yao vanguard, and joined a battle with them at the Xiyanmen gate. Shi Le donned armor and a helmet and exited through the Chanhemen gate, and the enemy came under attack from all sides. The Liu Yao troops suffered a crushing defeat. Shi Kang captured Liu Yao and brought him to Shi Le, who circled the troops showing them [the captive].
In total were hacked up more than 50 thousand troops, and their corpses filled the
Jingu valley 63.
Shi Le issued an order which said: “I wanted to capture just one man, and I have caught him. He is ordering his commanders and warriors to lower down tips of the swords, lower the spears, and express submission to me”, after which turned back with a victory, ordering Shi Xu with a rank of Commander Punishing the East to head the horsemen guards for Liu Yao, and bring him over to the north.
By that time the troops raised by Cu Yao were defeated, and he surrendered to Shi Le. Shi Le ordered Wang Bo to express to Zu Yao the following rebuke: “You committed a greatest treason, and only now, falling into a desperate situation, you came to me with the expression of humility, but is my Court a safe haven for fugitive criminals? Nevertheless you dared to show up with an embarrassed face”. Then Cu Yao was shown urgent dispatches that were sent about him at different times and was pardoned.
A Liu Yao son Liu Xi left Chang'an and fled to Shanggui 64, where Shi Le sent Shi Jilong to punish him.
Shi Le went to visit the districts of the Jizhou province, and receiving the aged scholars, the reverent to the parents, and the diligent in the field, granted them grain and fabrics, each according to his merits. He ordered the governors of distant and close provinces and districts to announce in their respective cities that everyone who wants to tell anything without reservations can inform his court and report the whole truth.
Shi Jilong, having won in the Shanggui county 65, sent a registrar Zhao Feng to deliver to Shi Le one jasper transfer seal, one metal imperial seal, and one jasper seal of the heir to the throne.
Shi Jilong attacked a Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) Jimuju horde west of the Huanhe, and gained a victory, capturing several tens of thousand people, then the Jinzhou and Lunzhou provinces were completely quelled. The scared ruler of the Liangzhou province Zhang Jun 66 sent a messenger to express his desire to become a Shi Le servant and bring tribute of products manufactured in his lands; 150 thousand Di and Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) yurts were resettled in the Sizhou and Jizhou provinces (This early reference to Qiangs already assocites them with the Di Tele).
Shi Le high officials, exchanging their views, decided that Shi Le performed great feats;
appeared a number of prophetic omens, so the time came to change the title, because
it reflected the wish of the Heaven and Earth. Therefore, Shi Jilong and others conveyed
to Shi Le the imperial seal with a cord and a title. Shi Le was not agreeing to accept the title,
but high officials stubbornly insisted on their request. Then in the fifth year of the Xian-he reign era (330,
咸和, 326-335) Shi Le illegally assumed a title of Zhao Tien Wang,
i.e. “Wang, ruling possession Zhao by the will of Heaven”, took upon himself performance of imperial affairs,
presented to his grandfather E (Eiyuyu. - V.T.) (耶奕于)
a posthumous title Xuan Wang, to his father Zhou (Zhougezhu. - V.T.)
(周曷朱) a posthumous title Yuan-wang, declared his wife,
a born Liu, a Princess, and his eldest son Shi Hun (石弘) a heir to the throne
(Shi Hun's mother is identified both as Liu and as Cheng,
apparently both fake Chinese monikers substituting for true tribal name).
Shi Le announced his (second) son Shi Hun (石宏) to be an imperial ambassador, appointed him to the positions of the Cortege Rider Serving at the Court, and Chief Commander of all military affairs in the capital as well as outside of it, and gave him a title of a Great Military Leader Commanding Strong Cavalry, gave him titles of the Great Shanyu and Qin-wang; his son, Shi Bin, who had the rank of commander of the garrison left, received the title of Taiyuan-wang, the younger son, Shi Hui (apparently named after his Hui = Uigur mother), received a rank of Commander Helping the State, and the title of Nanyang-wang.
Shi Jilong, who had the title of Zhongshan-gun (中山), was appointed a Great Commander, a Head of the State Chancellery, and received the title Zhongshan-wang (中山王). Shi Sheng received a title Hedung-wang (Hedong 河东), and Shi Kang received a title Pengchengg-wang (湓城王). A Shi Jilong son Shi Sui was appointed a governor of the Jizhou province and received a title of the Qi-wang (圻王) with a additional position as a Cortege Rider Serving at the Court, and a title of Commander of Armed Guards, [the other Shi Jilong son] Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) received a rank of Left Wing Commander; [a third Shi Jilong son] Shi Ting (石挺) received a post of a courtier and a title Liang-wang (涼隱王; that appointment indicates that the Gansu corridor, aka Former Liang, aka Hexi corridor 河西走廊, recognaised Shi Le leadership, and should be marked in green on the above Later Zhao map; and that the reconstituted Hunnic state retained control of the Silk Road and profits from it).
The Left senior official Guo Ao was appointed a left assistant of the chief of the State Chancellery, the Right senior official Cheng Xia was appointed a right assistant of the chief of the State Chancellery and a head of the rank assignment department (these appointmets indicate that Guo Ao belonged to the Shanyu male dynastic line, and Cheng Xia, consistent with the previous records, was a head of the female dynastic line of Liu/Cheng); The Left Troops Commander Kui An, The Right Troops Commander Guo Yin, a clerk for the Commander Li Feng, and former Chief of the Security Guards Pei Xian appointed officials of the State Chancellery departments. The Military Adviser Xu Guang was appointed a chief of the palace secretariat 57 and an Acting Inspector of the palace secretariat. In accordance with theit merits, 21 civilian and military officials received a title Kaiguo jun-gun, i.e. “District Gun who Participated in the Creation of the State”; 24 people received a title Kaiguo-hou - “Hou who Participated in the Creation of the State”, 26 people received a title Xian-gun, 58 22 people received a title Xian-hou, 59 the other civilian and military officials received titles by their merits.
The courtir Jen Bo (pin. Ren) and others, having discussed
everything, decided that the house of Zhao is patronised by the
element of water that came to replace the element of metal, so the color of the flag
should be black, the sacrificial animals should be white hue, the sacrifices to the spirits of the
Earth must be made on the day with the sign of Zi, and the sacrifices to theanscestors
must be made on the day with the sign of Chou. Shi Le accepted this recommendation. Shi Le
issued a paper which stated: “From now on, in the
event of difficult cases eight highest officials 70 and their aides must
report tothe Eastern Hall 71 for a detailed report and making
a right decision. When there are significant military and state problems they must be reported, and
the Head of the State Chancellery and his aides must report with debriefings, in cold, in heat,
in the evening, or at night”.
For the lack of loyalty, Shi Le executed Ju Yao together with his sons, nephews, and relatives, altogether over a hundred people.
The high officials repeatedly asked Shi Le to take a title, and he illegally ascended the throne, declared a large amnesty in the territory under his jurisdiction, changed the name of the rule era to Jian-ping (建平 330-333) and moved the capital from Xiangguo in Linchzhan 72. To his great-great-grandfather Shi Le imparted a posthumous title of Shun Huang Emperor, to his great-grandfather [he imparted a posthumous title] of Wei Huang Emperor, to his grandfather [he imparted a posthumous title] of Xuan-Huang Emperor, to his father [he imparted a posthumous] temple title Shi-zong and posthumous title Yuan-huangdi, to his mother [he imparted a posthumous title] Empress Dowager Yuan-zhao, and raised the civil and military officials in the titles and positions depending on the merits of each.
His wife, the born Liu, Shi Le Empress declared an Empress, and in addition established that the ranks of concubines zhao-yi 73 and fu-jen 74 are equal in the status to the upper officials, and the ranks of gui-bin and gui-jen are equal to le hou, with a provision that each grade may be assigned to only one woman. The grades of the concubines san-yin and ju-hua were equated to the title bo, shu-yuan and shu-yi to the title zi, jung-hua and mei-jen to the title nan, [were also established the ranks of] wu-jian and xian-shu, and the number of concubines with these grades was not limited.
Appointed by Shi Le military inspector 75 Guo Jing and Southern Mans' bailiff Dung Yu raided Xiangyang district. Shi Le urgently sent a courier, ordering Guo Jing to retreat and stop in Fanchen, prescribing to remove and hide flags and maintain calmness, like if the city is deserted. If the enemy would send observers, they should be told: “Prepare for a dogged defense, here is coming a large number of riders in seven or eight days, then we would consult with them what to do in order that you were not able to flee”.
Guo Jing ordered to bathe horses at the crossing, and once bathing ended, it was
started again, and so it continued without interruption day and night. Scouts reported
on that to the chief of the southern security guards Zhou Fu, who decided that came large Shi Le
troops, got scared, and fled to Wuchang. Guo Jing entered the main city of the Xiangyang
county, his warriors did not engage in looting, which reassured the
county population. Wei Xia, a younger brother of the Jin [commander] Bei Gai with a rank of
Commander-Pacifier of the North, passed at the head of the troops through the Shicheng
76 and surrendered to Guo Jing. Guo Jing destroyed the city Xiangyang, relocated the inhabitants
northern bank of the Mianshui river, walled the Fanchen city, and garrisoned in it the
troops of Wei Xia.
A Chief of the Xiuchu (秀楚) horde in the Qinzhou (秦州, 34°N 105°E) province by the name Qiang (probably named Qiang, in Chinese rendition, after the tribe of his mother, since most likely he was a Hunnic or Di noble and an offspring of a royal line, judging by his ruling position) raised a revolt against Shi Le, so the governor of the (Qinzhou) province Lin Shen (林沈 ?林深 ?) sent a troop commander Guan Guang to head the provincial regional forces and to punish him. Qiang defeated Guan Guang, but then in the lands west of the Longshan mountains (pronounced Lunshan) 77 flared great turmoils, and all Di and Tibetan (Qiang, with Kiyan twist) tribes raised a rebellion (I.e. the Gansu corridor was a land of Di and Tibetan tribes). [To pacify the rebels] Shi Le sent Chi-Sheng, who occupied the city Lungcheng (Dragon City/Well, Lungchang /Longchang, 隆昌[Jin'e 金鵝]) 78. The Qiang elder brother's son Zhuo was hostile with Qiang, so Shi Sheng bribed him with gifts, and they attacked Qiang from two sides. After being defeated, Qiang fled to the Liangzhou province (38°N 102,6°E, in the Gansu), and over 5 thousand of influential alien households were resettled in the Yongzhou and Qinzhou provinces (The 5,000 “influential” families must be the nobility of the Xiuchu 秀楚 horde.The Xiu/Hui/Sui/Yui people are Uigurs, in this record called Di, and the horde appears to be a symbiotic association of Uigurs, Tele Dis, and Tibetans, under a leadership of the Xiu tribe. The second part of the name Xiuchu 秀楚 point to the Chu 楚 tribes, known from the Chinese earliest historical records under a few names, Chu 楚 1030–223 BC = Jing 荆 = Jingchu 荆楚, and in the Late Antique time also known as the Chu tribes. Once the evacuees are in control of the suitable and avilable pastures, their tribesmen would rejoin them, and they would reconstitute their horde in the new ranges. The other side of this policy is well known, to make room for the pastures the Chinese peasants were displaced, and merged to the Jin territory, significantly reducing the proportion of the Chinese population in the states under the Southern Hun control. The term alien here is used from Chinese viewpoint, meaning non-Chinese. The internal social and political status of the Xiu and Di tribes, their ruling hierarchy, and their ranges remained outside the intersts of the Chiunese annals, and their history can only be known in some spots).
Shi Le published a paper which stated: “From now on, the introductory articles of the Basic Law shall guide how to determine panishments in all casesd. If in a fit of anger I sentence to death, and taken with rage, declare my will, in those cases where it applies to people of high virtue, or to upper [officials], my will should not be interpreted as a measure of punishment, and when meeting by chance I subjected to punishment an orphan whose [parents] served diligently and died in the name of the state, let everybody at my court report on this, and I, having thought over the report, would select the appropriate measures”.
A wife of Chen Zhu, a native of the Tanyan county, bore three boys, and Shi Le presented to father clothes, fabrics, food, a wet nurse, and freed him for three years from payment of taxes.
At that time the [possession] Gaojuli and Sushens 79
presented to Shi Le arrows with shafts of the ku wood, Yuwen Ugu presented famous horses, and
a pastor Zhang Jun of Liangzhou province sent
a senior official Ma Shen, who presented a map [of Liangzhou] lands, and the ambassadors of the possessions Gaochang, 80 Yutian,
81 Shanynan, 82 and Davan (Fergana. -
V.T.) accompanied himwith presents of the objects produced in their lands. The shepherd
Tao Kang of the Jin province Jinzhou sent to Shi Le with a friendly visit Wang Fu, who held
a part-time post of a senior official, presenting rare precious jewelry and amsing animals
from the land south of
the Yangtze. The Qinzhou province presented a white beast and a white deer, and the Jinzhou
province presented a white pheasant and a white hare. In the Jiyin county fused branches of two
trees, and in the Yuanxiang fell sweet dew 83.
Because happy omens were appearing one after another, and distant countries expressed admiration for his fairness, Shi Le pardoned everyone starting with those sentenced to three years of punishment, leveled the homestead tax arrears accumulated last year, in the Liangzhou province declared amnesty for everyone up to the sentenced to death, in the Liangzhou province granted the officials in charge of household census and taxes the bodyguard post 84, and gave each 10 pieces of silk and 10 jins of cotton wool.
During sacrifice, which Shi Le performed in the southern suburbs of the capital, 85 from the altar to the sky rose a white cloud of smoke. That greatly pleased Shi Le, and upon returning to the palace, he pardoned all those sentenced to up to four years' conviction.
Shi Le sent an ambasador to elevate Zhang Jun to the title of Wuwei jungun, and granted him a sustenance right feed from all districts of the Liangzhou province.
Shi Le personally participated in plowing the field that people are tilling for the ruler, 86 and upon returning to the palace pardoned all those sentenced to up to five years' conviction, and awarded officials upto the most high with gold and fabrics depending on the merits of each.
Because of the sun eclipse Shi Le avoided visiting the main palace hall for three days, and ordered all officials to submit a sealed envelope with a confidential report indicating errors he commited.
Shi Le prohibited the provinces and districts to have temples honoring anscestor or eminent people, ordering to destroy them, except for those canonised. In the place of those temples that have helped induce clouds and rain and benefit the people; the districts and counties were to build new temples, plant around beautiful trees, and determine their significance, similar the significance of the five peaks and four large rivers 87.
Shi Le was going to begin a construction of a palace in E, but the head of the judicial department 88 Xu Xian (pronounced Sui Syan; the “Head of the Judicial Depatment” is a Superior Judge, a position held by the Right Juku/Tuqi Prince, Ch. pin. Yu Xian-wang 右贤王 and Yu Tuqi-wang 右屠耆王, Right Wise Prince, a father of eldest brother of the Hatun queen, a statutory head of the Hatun dynastic tribe; his Sinified tribal name Sui points to Sui/Hui/Yui Uigur tribe; the same for his personal name Syan; ) presented a report which strongly urged him to abandon this step. Extremely angried, Shi. Le exclaimed: “If this old servant is not beheaded, the construction of my palace will not be finished” and ordered the censor to seize Xu Xian. Then stepped up a chief of the palace secretariat Xu Guang (Must be from the same Right Wing clan) and said: “You, Your Majesty, possess a wisdom given to you by Heaven, and in it surpass Tang 89 and Yu 90, but at the same time do not want to hear the speeches of the devoted courtier, are you as a ruler like the Gui 91 of Xia or 92 Xin of Shan? The useful from what was said may be used and should be used, and the useless should be excused. Is it saintly to kill high officials for their truthful speeches!”
Shi Le replied with a sigh: “The ruler must not act on a whim. Do I not know that Xu
Xian's words were dictated by his loyalty? I only made fun of him. When an ordinary
person has property valued at one hundred pieces of cloth, he wants to buy a separate
house, so what to expect from that who has the riches of the Celestial, and holds a high
position which allows to have ten thousand chariots! 93
In the end I would have to put the palace in order, but for now I will order to suspend work, to exalt the spirit that engulfed my honest servant. After that, Shi Le presented Xu Xian with 100 pieces of silk and 100 hu of rice.
Shi Le issued paper which ordered the upper officials and all officials to recommend to the court annually one man, wise and virtuous, honest and direct, truthful in speech, distinct with a special talent, extremely respectful to his parents, thrifty and altruistic, and appoint those, who show in the tests the best results, the think tank officials 94, appoint those who show medium results the bodyguards, and appoint those who show worse results the court attendants. Those recommended to the Court had a right to recommend worthy others, which expanded possibilitiesfor attracting the wise.
Shi Le built west of Xiangguo a Mingtang Hall 95, a Biyung school 96 and a Lintai tower 97.
At that time happened prolonged heavy rains, which caused the flows of raging water in the northwest of the Zhongshan district to carry more then thousands of thousands of huge trees, which settled on the south bank of the Tanshui river. Very pleased, Shi Le told his high officials: “Do you know what's on? This is not a natural disaster, but a will of Heaven, which wants me to build the capital Edu”. Then he ordered the warden of small storeroom 98 Ren (Jen) Wang and steward of water 99 Zhang Jian to monitor the construction of the palace in the E, and personally handed them a plan of the structure.
The Southern Bas, who lived in three counties, Zitun, Jianping and Hangu, and in the Shu land, surrendered to Shi Le, so Shi Le, in a belief that Chenzhou 100 is located in the middle of the land and is an old capital of the Han and Jin, wanted to move the capital again, and began calling Luoyang a Southern Capital, he established in the Luoyang field administration, and appointed a court censor to be in charge of the office operations (The concept of a southern capital vs. a northern capital is a reflection of the need of the nomadic lifestile with meridional pasturing routs. In the mountanous environment, this need is more local, between the alpine medows and foothill pastures, and therefore is not oriented north-south, unlike on the plane. A typical pasturing route traverses 500-1,000 km and has two permanent staging areas, a kishlak in the south and an aul in the north. Typically, the southern camps were at a major body of water, including Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Aral Sea, Amudarya, Syrdarya, Balkhash, Issyk, Orkhon, Tulu, Kerulen, and the routs went north from the winter kishlaks along meridional rivers and rivulets to the stationary auls. The two centers are invariably recorded in numerous chronicles, and Türkic myths and folklore. By association, the mythological and religious creatures usually also have two home bases, one primary, and the other secondary. The presence of the two-capital concept among the sedentary population is a good indicator that the ruling elite has nomadic descent).
In a feast in honor of the envoys, who came from the possessions Gaojuili
(Gaoju = Dinlin = Dili = Chile = Chidi = Tele = Di, i.e. the
Tele tribes) and Yuwen Ugu (Yuwen - a horde of 12
mostly Syanbi tribes headed by a Hun (匈奴) tribe Yuwen, politically associated with
tribal confederation), having gotten drunk with wine,
Shi Le asked Xu Guang: “Who of the rulers of antiquity that laid foundations of a state I can
be compared with?” Xu Guang said: “With the wisdom and power, abilities
to develop plans, you Sire, surpass the founder of the Han dynasty, the Emperor Gao-zong;
courage and talent, outstanding qualities that elevate you above the others, you surpass the
founder of the Wei dynasty, beginning with the three rulers 101, there is no one with
whom you could be compared. Perhaps, you yield oly to Xuan-Yuan
Shi Le said with a smile: “The man himself knows what he is, and your words are full of exaggerations. If I had an opportunity to meet with the Emperor Gao-zong, I would stand before him facing the north and would serve him, afraid to lag behind Han Xin and Peng Yue 103, and if I had a chance to encounter the Emperor Guang-wu 104, I would gallop with him over the Central Plain, and it is not yet clear from whose hand would the deer have died 105. A noble man should shine with luster in affaires, like the Sun and the Moon, he would never hurt orphans and widows, or to charm others like a fox, as did Cao Mende 106 and Sima Zhongda 107 with their sons, attempting to acquire the Celestial. I should be placed between two representatives of the Liu 108 family, but I can't be compared with Xuan-yuan”. All officials, genuflecting low, proclaimed many years of life for Shi Le.
The Jin commander Zhao Yin attacked Matou 109 and took the city. For Matou assistance Shi Kang sent the commander Han Yung, but when he came to the town, it was too late. Then Han Yung raided the counties Nansha 110 and Haiyu 111, where he captured more than 5 thousand people.
It should be said that in the past, after Guo Jing retreated to Fancheng, the (Jin) imperial troops again garrisoned in Xianyang, but at the time of these events Guo Jing took Xianyang by storm, leaving a garrison there, and returned back.
Hit a storm with heavy rain, a lightning struck the main, southern gate. in the Jiandedian Palace, at the western city gate in Xiangguo were killed five people. On the mountain Jieshan 112 laying on the west bank of the Huanghe fell hail of a hen's egg size, in the flat places it laid with a thickness of 3 chi, and in the lowlands it was thicker than 1 zhang (2.3 m). Several tens of thousands of travelers, birds and animals were killed by the hail. In an area of more than a thousand li in the districts Taiyuan, Leping, Wuxiang, Zhaojun, Guanping, Julu were broken trees and laid down cereals.
Shi Le came in dress clothes to the Eastern Hall to inquire Xu Guang on that event: “Did such natural disasters
happen over the past centuries?” Xu Guang replied: “They also happened during Zhou, Han, Wei, and Jin
dynasties, and although it is a common event sent
down by the Heaven and Earth, the [former] wise rulers never initiated any changes at the beginning of
reign, and prevented the wrath of the Heaven. Last year was imposed a ban on a custom of eating cold food, but Jie Tui 113 is
a spirit of your homeland,
my emperor, he was revered for many generations, and as some believe, it should not
be discarded. Indeed, if just one person would sadly sigh, the rule based on benevolence is
affected, so could not the grumble of the spirits fail to displease the Supreme Lord! The whole Celestial
should not be ordered to do the same, but the lands around the Jieshan mountain were
granted [to Jie Tui] by the Jin ruler Wen-gun, so the people should be allowed to revere
[Jie Tui].” (A use of cold food, methods of food preservation,
and food consevation as a separate and celebrated activity is a nesessary part of the
nomadic economy and lifestyle, dictated by frequent and continuous periods of
transhumance. Most of the conseved products are obtained from the animal husbandry (牧),
starting from the hides and guts of the animals used as containers, continuing with the
development of cooking, pickling, salting, honeying, and fermentation methods, and
resulting in preparation of portable cheeses, cold meats, sausages, koumisses, airans,
kefirs, arakas, and dry pies, all based on the use of animal-derived products and
gut--derived bacteria, and frequently introduced into the dietary traditions of the
neighboring sedentary societies, at times recorded in the written histories and often
named after or with terms borrowed from their nomadic source. From the line of
argumentation, it is clear that Xu Guang was appalled by the arbitrary Sinization edict
that infringed on the liberties, traditions, sensitivities, and economies of the native
population, and exploited a superstition of the illiterate ruler to achieve his own ends)
Shi Le issued paper which stated: “The use of cold food is an old custom in the Bingzhou province (historical western homeland of the Hunnic tribes), but this custom was not familiar to me, and I could not condone it. Earlier, during a discussion outside of the court, was found that Jie-tui was a servant of the possession's ruler, so the emperor should not bear fear of him, and I agreed with that opinion. But possibly that cased the disaster. Although Jie-tui is a spirit of my homeland, those rejecting the established custom of eating prescribed food should not confuse the issue. Let the heads of the departments to check urgently the old laws, come to a final decision, and report back to me”.
The respective authorities reported: “Since Jie-tui is revered for many generations, we are apealling to restore everywhere the custom of using cold food; in addition [we are apealling] to plant beautiful trees, and build temples in his honor, so that the people can bring sacrifices there.”
Opposing to that, the Shi Le chamberlain 114 Wei Xiao said: “Judging from the historical writings, if the ice is stored inproperly, it emits vapors of dark element, which form hail. Why was hail falling before Jie-tui? It always was caused by the dark and light elements being in the wrong places. In addition, Jie-tui was wise, and therefore could not cause such disasters. If to perceive, the wishes of the late [Jie-tui] were exactly those. Although now are built facilities for storing ice, but I am afraid the ice is not where the dark element is reinforced, and where everything is seized with frost. Most of [these depots] are located near mountains or along the rivers, the vapors originating from them turn into a hail. Since Jie-tui was distinguished with fidelity and wisdom, please allow to worship him in the lands between the Mianshan and Jieshan mountains, and then this custom would not spread to the whole Celestial“. Following that advice, Shi Le moved the ice depots deep underground, where the cold is accumulating, and restored in the Bingzhou province the old custom of using cold food without any changes.
Shi Le ordered his son Crown Prince [Shi Hun] to review and approve the reports of the Head of the State
Chancellery [Shi Jilong], ordered a palace servant Yan Zheng to approve or reject the reports,
and ordered to report to himself only on the decisions for important matters related to punitive
expeditions or executions. Since then Yan Zhen acquired greater power than the chief
assistant to the emperor [Shi Jilong], and at the gates of the Shi Jilong house could be set snares
for catching birds 115. This enraged Shi Jilong
and caused his discontent .
Guo Jing forayed into the lands south of the Yangtze river and the Jin's head of the southern bodyguard security Huan Xuan (the guards in China traditionally consisted of the service nomads, so this kind of names derived from the ethnic descent are not unusual, both parts derived from Hu and Sui versions), taking advantage of his absence, attacked Fanchen, captured the city inhabitants, and left. Guo Jing turned the troops to help Fanchen, and caught up with Huan Xuan, joined the battle with him at the river Neshui, but his advance units suffered a severe defeat. However, Huan Xuan lost more than half of his warriors killed and wounded, so barely recapturing the loot seized by Guo Jing, he first paused, and then took the southern city Xiangyang and left in it a garrison for protection.
Shi Le arrived to E, visited the Shi Jilong house, and told him: “Grand things can not be done simultaneously. After completing the palace, I will continue with building an estate for you, so do not despare because of poor housing”. Taking off his hat, Shi Jilong thanked Shi Le with a bow, but Shi Le said: “We both own the Celestial, what to thank [me] for!”
A falling star the size of an elephant and with a tail like a snake with legs flew over 50 zhang (100 m) south-west of the northern Polar Star, illuminating the land with bright light, and fell into Huanhe, and the sound of its fall could be heard at a distance of more than 900 li.
In the E in the well appeared a black dragon, seeing which Shi Le made happy.
During an audience in the E Shi Le received officials and ordered to appoint officials in the districts and possessions responsible for education, and in each district. install two scientist cupbearers, recruit 150 young people for training, and those who after three examinations will succeeed in education, present to the Court 116. After that, Shi Le appointed five students from the higher school to the position of the Compilingng Bureau Assistant Chief 117, so that they keep records of the current events.
At that time occurred a severe drought, and Shi Le personally visited the chief of the court department, selected prisoners sentenced for a term of five years or less, and imposed a lighter sentence on them. To those who were subject to severe punishment, Shi Le accorded wine and food, allowed to bathe, and told to wait for the sentence in the fall. Even before Shi Le returned to the palace poured a desired heavy rain.
Shi Le left to the Fenshuigun palace, but fell very ill and returned. He called Shi Jilong,
his Crown Prince son Shi Hun, and a palace servant Yan Chen, to wait on him in the
palace during the illness. However, Shi Jilong issued from his name a forged decree that
dislodged Shi Hun, Yan Chen, all officials and relatives, so nobody learned anything of the
disease. Then, again forging a decree, he summoned Shi Hun
and Shi Kan to Xiangguo.
Having recovered a little, Shi Le saw Shi Hun and in amazement asked: “Why are you here, Qin-wang? I did send you to rule the lands that serve for me as a shield, to be ready for the unexpected. Someone summoned you, or you've come on your own? If someone summoned you, I executed him”. The frightened Shi Jilong said: “Qin-wang, thinking of you with love, come back for a short time. Already today, however, respectfully executing your will, I'll send him back”.
A few days later Shi Le inquired again about Shi Hun, and Shi Jilong responded: “Having received your instructions, I immediately sent him back, and now he is already halfway to his place”, although in fact he told Shi Hun to hang out outside of the [limits] palace, and did not send him back at all. In addition, locusts appeared in the Guan'a county, and Shi Jilong, taking advantage of it, secretly ordered his son Shi Sui to head three thousand men riding about the places where it appeared 118.
The planet Mars came into the Pleiades constellation. 60 li north-east of the E fell a star. Prior to that, red, black and yellow clouds of a few dozen pieces of fabric 119 in length mixed up, were heard sounds resembling thunder, the hot as fire vapors descended to earth, and dust rose up to the sky. When those working at that time in the field went to see [the place where the star fell], they saw that the earth is like a burning or boiling, and is lying a stone in size greater than one square chi, black in color and light in weight, on a strike emitting a sound like the sound made by a stone mallet.
When his disease worsened, Shi Le issued a deathbed edict which stated: “Bury me on the third day after the death, the officials at the Court and outside of it should remove mourning garments after the funeral, do not forbid weddings, sacrifices, and wine and meat; the generals with punitive functions 120, the pastors of the provinces (jian mu 监牧 - shepherd/pastor; official with responsibility for animal husbandry; erroneously ascribed as originating during Tang dynasty) and district governors should not leave their stations to attend the funeral, I should be laid in a coffin in ordinary clothes, the coffin should be laid on an ordinary cart, do not place the gold and jewels, utensils and trinkets [in the grave]. I am afraid that Daya 121 will not be able to successfully implement my plans. All offices, starting with those reporting to Zhongshan-wang (the title of Shi Jilong. - B.T.), shall not violate my will. Dai and Shi Bin should live in harmony and help each other: the example of House of Sima 122 should serve as a lesson for them, and they should strive to strengthen their friendly relations. Zhongshan-wang should deeply reflect trice on the behavior of Zhou-gun 123 and Huo Guang 124, and not create grounds for hearsay”.
In the seventh year of the Xian-he era of reign (332 AD) Shi Le died at an age of 60
years old, after holding the throne for 15 years. At night his body was buried in a mountain
valley, but the burial place remained unknown. Then were prepared ritual objects and staged fake
funerals, giving the cemetery the name Gaopingling, and Shi Le was illegally bestowed a
posthumous title of Emperor Ming Huang, and the temple title Gao-zong.
|Shi Hun (pin. Hong 石弘, 313-334)|
Shi Hun, nicknamed Daya (Daya 大雅 ; the Chinese have a collection of funny conventions about names, and within that system the authentic native names are called nicknames, i.e. surrogate names, and the fake names that are given to very dead people are called names. Chinese are not alone in this exercise in history, the same remaking was going on for millennia in the Christianity, for example. V.Taskin translation phoneticizes 弘 as Hun/Õóí, Wade-Giles hung2, Yale hong, Hanja hang[eul]), was a second son of Shi Le. From the childhood, he showed deference to his parents, behaved politely and modestly, studied classics with Du Gu, and studied how to read poems with Xu Xian. Once Shi Le said: “In this turbulent age one can't learn only literature and art”, and ordered Liu Chen and Jen (pin. Ren) Bo teach Shi Hun military treatises, Wang Yang hacking and thrusting strikes, then pronounced [Shi Hun] a Crown Son and appointed to head the palace troops. Shortly thereafter, Shi Hun was appointed a commander of the guard unit, and he was ordered to summon and appoint officials in the offices of the high officials, and later he governed the city E. After Shi Le illegally ascended the throne, Shi Hun was confirmed as a the heir to the throne. He sincerely loved pundits, had a penchant for literature, and all his close friends were simple Confucian scholars.
Shi Le told Xu Guang: “Dai is too soft, he is very unlike a son of a commander”. Xu Guang replied, “The founder of the Han dynasty gained the Celestial on a horseback, and the Emperor Xiao-wen ruled it doing nothing, keeping a deep calm. After appearance of omniscient necessarily passes one generation, after which the brutality is defeated, this is a path bespoked by the Sky “126
These words very pleased Shi Le, and Xu Guang, taking advantage of that, continued: “The heir to the imperial throne [Shi Hun] is humane, respectful to his parents, gentle and polite, while the Zhongshan-wang (the title of Shi Jilong. - V.T.) is cruel and very cunning. If one day you inevitable happens to you, I am afraid that necessarily will arise a risk to the altar for sacrifices to the spirits of the Earth and plants, so you should gradually obviate Zhongshan-wang's authority and command the heir to the throne to participate sooner in the discussions about policies of the Court”. Shi Le accepted this suggestion.
Then Cheng Xia also told Shi Le: “Zhongshan-wang is brave and cunning, no official can
be compared with him. Watching his aspirations, it is clear that except for you, Sire, he
looks at evrybody with contempt. In addition, for many years he headed punitive expeditions and shook
the earth with his power within our country and beyond its limits. In addition, by the nature
Shi Jilong is not distinguished by humanity, is merciless and shameless. All his sons are
grown up and have military power. While you, Sire, are alive, nothing would happen, but I
[after your death] malcontent Shi Jilong will not help the underage ruler. In the interests of your great plans
is needed to remove him as soon as possible”.
Shi Le replied: “The Celestial was not yet quelled, the military disasters have not ceased yet. Daya is small in years, so should be appointed his assistants. Zhongshan-wang is a deserving high official who assisted in the creation of the state, he is with me in the same relationship that had the rulers of the possessions Lu and Wei 126 (I.e. brotherly), I transfered to him the duties of Yi-yin 127 and Huo Guang, and he would not be able to reach what you are talking about! You will faithfully assist the young ruler, so that [Shi Jilong], as an Emperor's uncle, was not able to seize the power, and therefore I have to enter your name in my will also, you should not be worrying too much”.
Cheng Xia objected with tears: “What I said is perfect truth, but you, Sire, for personal motives, have honored my proposal with rejection. Is it how a wise ruler reveals his heart, is it how we receive the speach [of the subjects], and how can a loyal officeholder do his duty in such circumstances! While the Dowager Empress (Reference to the Shi Le mother, a wife of his father Zhouhezhu 周曷朱; her name is not given in the annals, and she is mentioned under generic non-informative conditional Chinese name of Lady Wang 王氏, something akin to Lady Royal Grandma, or Lady of the Royal Clan; since Zhouhezhu was a minor tribal leader, he did not engage in polygamy, and there was no reason to name her children after her tribal affiliation, as is typical for royal polygamy cases, so that her tribal descent remains unknown. A fraction of the Kiyan women could have married men of the Luanti dynastic tribe, but the rest of the Kiyan women and all Kiyan men could not marry up, and had to have a marital partner tribe, not yet determined, which most likely was their dependent tribe, or kyshtym, which supplied both men and women for theKiyan marriages, that would be a likeliest source for the Shi Le mother origin; depending on circumstances the Kiyan marital partner could be Hun, Di, or Saka Türks, Qian Tibetans, Mongols, or Tunguses) brought up Zhongshan-wang, he is not your direct blood relative, and therefore the family hopes can not rely on him. Acting on your amazing foreshows, like a hunting hawk or hound, he achieved insignificant results, for which you, Sire, commended him and his sons with grace and honor, that is quite enough. [Do not forget that the] Emperor of the Wei dynasty appointed Sima and his sons to the positions, and the imperial throne after that collapsed and passed into other hands. Now you judge for yourself whether Zhongshan-wang will be able to bring some benefit in the future? The fate has blessed me with happiness, I rely on kinship ties with the Eastern Palace (Reference to the Gansu corridor with Di and Qiang Tibetians population), and if not I, who would report to you, Sire, on everything! If you, Sire, do not sack Zhongshan-Wang, then, and it is obvious to me, the altar for sacrifices to the spirits of the Earth and plants would be left without blood sacrifices”. Shi Le did not heed to the advice.
Retiring from Shi Le, Cheng Xu relayed to Xia Guang: “That's what the ruler told me, which
means that over the heir to the throne is undoubtedly hanging a threat. What shall we do?” Xu
Guang responded: “Zhongshan-wang always treats both of us gritting his teeth with hatred, I
fear that danger is threatening not only the state, our families are also threatened with trouble.
Should be developed a plan that would bring peace to the state, and to our families, we can not
sit and wait until a misfortune falls” (In this dialog
participate a Hunnic Prime Minister from the Cheng/Liu tribe, of likely Luanti descent,
and a Military Adviser of the Chancellery apparently ethnically Uigur Xu [Pronounced Sui,
i.e. Uigur, by what line is not stated] Guang, both of Hunnic Türkic extraction, and
apparently both holding their positions due to their status in their respective tribes
and their respective not necessarily blood kinship relation with the Shanyu; in case of a
coup, their heads and the heads of their family members were in a grave jeopardy).
Then, having chosen an opportune moment, Xu Guang told Shi Le again: “You, Sire, cleared and quelled eight provinces, are ruling as an Emperor the lands between four seas, but why your look is not joyful ?” Shi Le said: “The lands of Wu and Shu were not quelled, the book titles and track width for the carts are different 128, the House of Sima in Danyan 129 is still not destroyed, I am afraid that in future people would think that I came to the throne against prophecies. Every time when I think about it, my thoughts are unconsciously reflected in my face”.
Xu Guang replied, “I am your servant, I grieve in your best interests about the troubles that are similar to the diseases of inner organs, and I do not have time to also grieve about the troubles similar to the illness of the four extremities. Why? When a fate favorable to the Han dynasty began influencing the Wei dynasty, its rulers became emperors who established a new chronology system. Although Liu Bei had inherited the throne, and uprose in the lands of Ba and Shu, but nevertheless it can't be said the Han dynasty survived; although the Wu realm occupied lands in the lower course of the Yangtze River, it was powerless against the heyday of the Wei dynasty! And you, Sire, possess two capitals (i.e., Chang'an and Luoyang .- V.T.), and are an emperor of the Middle State, but with the Sima House different from the Xuan-de 130, while the Li clan is similar to Sun Quan 131. So whom else, Sire, but you apply the predictions? The thoughts of this are only minor troubles, comparable with the diseases of four extremities.
At the same time about Zhongshan-wang, who received your wise guidance, in the Celestial are saying that his wisdom and military talents are second only to you. Besides, he is cruel, very tricky, on seeing profits he forgets about duties, he does not have the loyalty of Yi-yin and Huo Guang. He and his sons have high titles, occupy important positions, and harm the Imperial House using his high position. If to look into his troubled behavior, it is visible that he is incessantly dissatisfied. Recently, during an informal banquet in East Palace he treated with disdain the heir to the imperial throne, but you, Sire, hiding your feelings, left that unattended. I am afraid that after your death the temple of your ancestors would certainly overgrow with thorns, and that is already a trouble comparable with a grave illness of the internal organs. Think about it, our Lord!” Shi Le remained silent, and did not accept the Xu Guang's advice.
When Shi Le died, Shi Jilong forced Shi Hun to sit not in the throne hall, but in
front of him,
ordered the seize Cheng Xia and Xu Guang and turn them over to the chief of the judicial
summoned his son Shi Sui for him to head the night guard in the
palace, after which all civil and military officials had fled. A frightened Shi Hun
started yielding the throne to Shi Jilong. Shi Jilong said: “After the death of the ruler to the throne
ascends his Crown son, I do not dare to disturb the established order”. Shi Hun in tears
continued insisting to yield the throne, and then Shi Jilong angrily exclaimed: “If you are
unable to take the throne, then naturally the Celestial should discuss this question, but
why to talk about it prematurely!” Then, on the seventh year of the Xian-ho rule era
(332 AD) Shi Jilong forced Shi Hun to ascend the throne, and the name of the
reign era was changed to Yan-xi, and the civilian and military officials were
promoted one grade.
Shi Jilong executed Cheng Xia and Xu Guang.
Shi Hung issued a decree appointing Shi Jilong an emperor's chief assistant, granting him a title Wei-wang and the Grand Shanyu, about additional granting of nine awards, about granting in possession of 13 districts, including a district Weijun, and about turning over to him a governance of all state affairs. With mock stubbornness Shi Jilong was refusing to accept the appointments, but after a long period accepted the decree.
Then (330 AD) Shi Jilong announced an amnesty for everybody, up to thise sentenced to death, in the territory under his jurisdiction. Shi Jilong's wife, born Zheng, was elevated to the title Wei-wang-hou “Wei-wang spouse”. Of the Shi Jilong sons Shi Sui (石邃) was declared a Crown Prince in the Wei, with additional provision of the rank of Plenipotentiary Imperial Ambassador, a post of courtier, Grand Chief Commander of all military affairs in the capital and beyond its limits, a Great Commander and Governor of the State Chancellery; Shi Xuan (石宣, orig.: Suan) was appointed Plenipotentiary Imperial Ambassador, a Great Military Commander, Commander of Chariots and Cavalry, a ruler of the Jizhou province, and elevated to the title Hejian-wang; Shi Tao (石韜) was appointed a Commander, Commander of the Vanguard, a Bailiff for Criminal Cases 132, and was elevated to the title Le-an-wang; Shi Zun (石遵) was elevated to the title Qi-wang, Shi Jian (石鑒) was elevated to the title Dai-wang, and Shi Bao was elevated to the title of Leping-wang. The title of Shi Bin (石斌), Pingyuan-wang, was changed to Zhangwu-wang.
All old Shi Le civilian and military officials received appointments to nominal position of Left and Right Assistant of the Chief Assistant of the Emperor, while the officials from the Shi Jilong staff and his old friends were appointed to key positions at the State Chancellery.
Shi Jilong ordered to call the palace of the Crown Prince a Chunxungun Palace - “Palace of
reverence to the teachings” and moved everybody to it, including Shi Le wife,
the born Liu (Traditionally, Khatun has her own independent
estate, in a number of cases called a city for its numerous population, at least a
palace. She also has a right to marry the next monarch, to preserve her social position.
To deny her her own estate is a torture in itself). Selecting beautiful concubines and best chariots, horses, jewelry and
clothing that belonged to Shi Le, Shi Jilong took them for himself. Then he appointed Kui
Ann, who had a title chzhenjun chang-jung, a Left Assistant of the Chief of the State Chancellery, and
the Chief of the State Chancellery Guo Yin he appointed a Right Assistant of the Chief of
The born Liu told Shi Kan: “Until the death of the imperial throne remains short time, what do you wang think?” Shi Kan replied: “All old officials of the late emperor were already dismissed, the troops are no longer under my command, in the palace I would not find any way out. Please allow me to escape to the Yanzhou province, capture the Linqiu city, help Nanyang-wang 133 to become a head of a union, announce to the provintial pastors, district commanders, and commanders with punitive functions a decree of the Empress Dowager ordering all in the head of those who are fighting for justice to act jointly and to punish the cruel rebel, only then a success will certainly be achieved”.
The born Liu said: “It is extremely serious affair, you should leave sooner, otherwise I am afraid everything will be found and may occur all kinds of surprises”. Expressing agreement, Shi Kang changed into the commoner clothes, heading lightly armed horsemen suddenly attacked the Yanzhou province, but because he began acting too late, could not succeed and fled south to Qiaochen. Shi Jilong sent a commander Guo Tai and others to catch up with Shi Kan, who was captured in Chenfu 134 and taken to Xiangguo, where he was roasted on a fire.
Shi Jilong summoned Shi Hui to Xiangguo. Because the plans of the born Liu were discovered, Shi Jilong killed her. Shi Jilong elevated Shi Hun's mother, the born Cheng, to the title of the Empress Dowager.
At that time Shi Sheng, ruling the Guanzhun lands, and Shi Lan, ruling the Luoyang, raised their troops [against Shi Jilong]. Shi Jilong left his son Shi Sui (石邃) to protect Xiangguo, and attacked Shi Lan in Jinyun with 70 thousand infantry and riders. The Jinyun troops fled, Shi Jilong captured Shi Lan, chopped off his legs, and then beheaded him. Redirecting troops to Chang'an, Shi Jilong appointed Shi Ting (石挺) a chief commander of the advance units. To repell him, Shi Sheng sent a commander Guo Quan, who headed the Syanbi leader Shegui's vanguard of 20 thousand warriors. Behind him, heading the main forces, advanced Sh Sheng, who stopped in Pufang. At the checkpoint Tunguan took place a major battle between his vanguard troops and those of Shi Ting, Shi Ting was defeated and killed in battle, along with a senior official of the emperor (i.e., Shi Jilong .- V.T.) Chief Assistant Liu Wei. Shi Jilong hastily fled to Mianchi, strewing the road with corpses of his warriors for more than 300 li.
However, after that the Syanbis secretly established contacts with Shi Jilong,
abandoned Shi Shen, and attacked him. At that time Shi Sheng stayed in Pufang, and not
being aware of the Shi Ting's death, got scared, and fled to Chang'an alone. Then Guo Quan
collected again 3 thousand warriors, and staged in the bend of the Weishui river across Shi Kuang
with a rank of
Commander of Mounted Warriors Exceeding Ability of Others
135 (This is a most interesting tidbit, see note 135).
Shi Sheng left Chang'an and hid in the Jitoushan mountains. His commander Jiang Ying decided to doggedly defend Chang'an, but Shi Jilong, hearing about the Shi Sheng's flight, moved his forces within the outposts, attacked Chang'an, ten days later took it by storm, and beheaded Jiang Ying. Following that, Shi Jilong sent his commanders with the troops along the Qianshui river and drove more than 100 thousand Chinese and alien households from the Yongzhou and Qinzhou provinces to the lands east of the Hanguguan outpost.
Shi Sheng's subordinates killed him in the Jitoushan mountains. Shi Jilong upon his return to Xiangguo, declared an amnesty and hinted to Shi Hun to order him to organise an office following the example of Wei-gun, who was helping the Han dynasty 136.
After the Chi Sheng defeat, Guo Quan in district Shang his submitted [to the Jin dynasty], and therefore the (Jin) Emperor issued a decree appointing him Commander-Ruler of the West and governor of the Qinzhou province. Then the example of Quan Guo followed the districts Jinzhao, Xinpin, Fufeng, Fenyi and Beidi. Shi Guang, who served Shi Hun with the rank of Commander-Ruler of the West, joined with Guo Quan in the battle, but was defeated. Then Shi Jilong sent Kuo Ao and his son Shi Bin, leading 40 thousand infantry and horsemen to punish Guo Quan, encamped in the Hua-yin 137, there the influential families in the Shanggui district killed Guo Quan and surrendered (to Shi Jilong). Over 30 thousand households were relocated from the Qinzhou province to various districts in the Qingzhou and Bingzhou provinces. Yang Nandi and others, related to the southern Dis, sent [to Shi Hun] hostages to establish friendly relations.
A native of Chang'an Chen Lyanfu fled to the Black Qians (Tibetans ~ Qiangs) where
he enticed a leader of
the northern Qiangs Bo Goud with a title Siziao-wang to attack the Beidi and
Feni districts and resist Shi Bin. Shi Tao and others led the riders to striket Bo Goud from the rear,
and together with Shi Bin who attacked from the other side, inflicted a defeat, after which
Bo Goud fled to the Malanypan mountains. Guo Ao broke off from the main forces in pursuit
the fugitives, but was defeated by Qians, losing seven-eight warriors
killed out of each ten. After that Shi Bin gathered the troops and returned to Sanchen. Upon
hearing this, Shi Jilong grew furious and sent a courier to kill Guo Ao. That caused Shi
Hun to grumble, and Shi Jilong imprisoned him in jail.
Shi Hun took the imperial seal with a cord, personally went to Shi Jilong, and announced his intention to turn the throne over to him. Shi Jilong exclaimed: “This issue should be discussed by those who live in the Celestial, why are you saying that yourself!” Returning to the palace, Shi Hung tearfully told his mother: “The late emperor really is going have no descendants!” Soon Shi Jilong sent to Shi Hun a chief assistant to the emperor Go Yin equipped with a credentials badge, who relegated Shi Hun to the title Haiyang-wang. Shi Hun slowly proceed to the chariot, keeping usual facial expression, and turning to the officials, said: “I was not able to retain the inherited imperial throne, I am ashamed, but such is the will of the Heaven, what is there to say!” All officials were in tears, and the palace servants wept.
In the first year of the Xian-kang reign era (335) Shi Jilong imprisoned Shi Hun, the born Cheng, and Shi Hui in the Chunxungun palace, and soon killed them. Shi Hun, when he occupied the throne, was 22 years old.
|Zhang Bin (張賓)|
Zhang Bin (張賓), nicknamed Mengsun (孟孫), was a native of Chung-Chiu county in the Zhaojun district. His father Zhang Yao served as a governor of the Zhongshan district.
In his youth, Zhang Bin loved to study, knew well classical and historical works, [fluently] read texts without indication of paragraphs and phrases, was distinguished by broad purview and high moral standing. He often told his brothers: “I would argue that in the art of planning and in my knowledge I would not yield Zu-fang (i.e., the Han high official Zhang Liang .- V.T.), but I can not meet with Gao-zong”. Zhang Bin served as Chief Official at Zhongqiu-wang, but he did not like the service, and he resigned on a pretext of illness.
During the great turmoil in the era of Yung-jia rule Shi Le, who received from Liu Yuanhai a rank of commander helping Han dynasty, along with other commanders arrived in the lands east of the mountains. Speaking to those surrounding him, Zhang Bin said: “I have seen many military leaders, but only with this commander of the Hu (胡) descent can be successfully completed a great task”, came with his sword to the gate of the [Shi Le] military encampment, and loudly asked for a meeting. [At first] Shi Le did not find anything impressing in Zhang Bin, but later, when Zhang Bin gradually started submitting plans, Shi Le began to be impressed, and made him his chief planner. Zhang Bin never missed an opportune moment for action, in the proposed plans did not allow any slips, and that the enterprise started by Shi Le ended successfully is an achievement of Zhang Bin.
Later, Zhang Bin has held positions of the right senior official, the great guardian
of the law, was elevated to the title of Puyang-hou, he has trusted with most important tasks,
and he enjoyed a greater love [of Shi Le] than anyone else. Despite this, Zhang Bin behaved modestly
and respectfully, was receiving lower officials with an open mind, and all officials, smart and stupid, experienced his [kindness]. He was clearing the ranks of officials, sacked the favorites, attended the palace and gave there speeches on morals that could serve as a model for others, and
was praised [for the speeches] when he was leaving the palace.
Shi Le greatly appreciated Zhang Bin, and because of him took at each audience was taking imposing looks and chose the answers carefully. Zhang Bin was called a Right Hou without mentioning his name, and at the Shi Le court nobody could equate with him.
After the Zhang Bin death, Shi Le personally came to his coffin to mourn, toughed with his sorrow everybody around, and bestowed to the deceased a post of the cortege rider serving at the court, a right palace adviser, a right to use the same ceremonial as the three highest officials, and a posthumous name Jing . During the funeral, Shi Le accompanied the coffin to the Zhenyanmen gates, and was dropping tears seeing it off. Glancing at the surrounding people, Shi Le said: “Apparently, the Sky willed that my case was not completed successfully, otherwise why did it deprive me of the right hou so early!”
[After the death of Zhang Bin] Cheng
Xia took the position of the right senior official. If Shi Le differed with him in
opinion when discussing affairs, he said each time with a
sad sigh: “The Right Ho has left me, so I have to deal with such man, how cruel this is!”
- And he cried the whole day.
HISTORY OF JIN DINASTY (Jin shu), Ch. 104
Shi Le. Part 2.
Shi Le sons - Shi Hun (pin. Hong 石弘) and Zhang Bin (張賓)
1. Respectful to his parents and younger brothers, and hardworking in the field - means village officials teaching agriculture to the people. This post was established by the Han Empress Gao-hou, who in 187 BC “for the first time appointed one respectful to his parents and younger brothers and hardworking in the field with a salary of 2 thousand dans of grain a year.” According to the Yan Shigu commentary, assigning such a large salary the Empress wanted to encourage everyone to engage diligently in the major activity, i.e. agriculture [4, Ch. 3, p. 1-b] (Empress Gao-hou was ahead of Mao Zedong not only by 2,200 years, but also in the art of organizing producing agricultural society).
2. By law, organization of large feasts without sufficient reason was prohibited. For example, during the Han dynasty, gathering and partying of more than three people was fined in the amount of 4 gold lians of gold. The great feasts were permitted only in connection with particular special occasions, and such occasion was the adoption by Shi Le of a title Zhao-wang (No wonder China had to surround itself with the walls, no such restrictions ever existed in the Hunnic society, and the Chinese knew about it).
3. Cupbearer (jijiu). - The Jin Emperor Wu-di (265-290) established a school for the sons and younger brothers of the upper officials, which received a name gojixue, “a school for the sons and younger brothers of the highest officials”, which later was also known as goxue or taixue . At the head of the school was Boshi jijiu, lit. “scientist performing libation of wine as a sacrifice to the spirits.” According to the existing in China ancient ritual the invited guests were choosing from their midst an elder who was given a right to raise and sacrifice the first cup of wine [21, Ch. 115, p. 21-a]. Because of that, the word jijiu became to be used as a honorable term for elderly man enjoying universal respect. Numerous examples of this kind are cited by the Qin scientist Zhao Yi (1728-1814) in his book “Collection of idle notes” (Gaiyu cunkao) (This timeless ritual is known practically among all people bordering on the Great Steppe, it is still engrained in the traditions of many peoples who use wine for celebrations, in the Caucasus, in Siberia, in the Balkans, etc. It is also a feature of the Tengrian service in the Modern History, the Tengrian services do not have clergy, they are officiated by elders).
The term jijiu entered the name of the various positions, meaning a senior among equals in rank and status. For example, in the Late Han, in the sacrifice department existed one position of cupbearer, and 14 positions of scientists, and for all was set the same salary of 600 dans of grain per year [21, Ch. 115, pp. 2-a, 2-b]. No difference in pay indicates that the term jijiu was added only in order to denote a most respected scholar among his colleagues. The term in our text should be understood in this sense.
4. First Assistant (yuanfu) refers to the zaixiang position, its occupants were responsible for the work of senior government organizations and were main aides of the emperor. The hieroglyph zai means “butcher”, and xiang means “help”, and apparently, the name zaixiang arose from the fact that those with this title were like preparing food for the emperor and helping in affairs. During Qin and Han the term zaixiang denoted three upper officials of the empire: the chief assistant of the emperor (chenxiang), the great governor (taiwei) and the Chief Censor (yushi dafu), and during the Later Han dynasty denoted the Prude (situ), the Great Governor (taiwei) and the Chief of Public Works (sikun) (The lake Zaisan in the Altai, aka Tele lake, with undisclosed etymology, connects the Late Middle Age/Modern Tele tribes with this Chinese title. Russian colonial explorers in the 17th c. in their argo used the term Tele lake for the lake Zaisan, because it was a center of the Tele tribes that dominated all local tribes. Tele were practically exterminated by Chinese in that same century. “Zaisan” probably designated the Zaixiang Chancellery office of the Tele Khan, testifying to the use of Chinese terminology in the Tele realm).
During Northern Wei, when the three high officials practically lost power, the term zaixiang became used for the Director of the Affairs at the State Chancellery, so zaixian can be conditionally translated as “Chancellor”, under which term during the Middle Ages in Europe was meant a head of the royal office and archive.
5. It was mentioned earlier that Liu Cong granted Shi Le a title of Shangdang jungun and that he also conferred on his mother a title Shangdang-gou tai fujen - “Great Wife of the Late Ruler of the Shangdang Possession” and on his wife a title Shangdang-gou fujen - “Spouse of the Ruler of the Shangdang Possession”, that the Shi Le elder son Xing (石興) was given a title Crown Prince of the Ruler of the Shangdang Possession. Therefore, the Shangdang district was identified as Shi Le's possession, and giving orders to make “records about the Shangdang possession”, he wanted to record his first steps on the historical arena.
6. Palace adviser (zhong dafu) is a position that existed in the department protecting the inner gate of the Imperial Palace. Its occupants belonged tgo the group of officials collectively known as dafu. In their position dafu followed the heads of the departments, of which in the Han period were nine. The dafu functions were to discuss various issues at the Court. Thus, they formed a special council at the emperor. The Council had no particular name and permanent composition, since the number of the court advisers varied, in some cases reaching several dozen people. The palace advisers were divided into three categories: Senior Palace Advisor (tai zhong dafu), a Palace Advisor (zhong dafu) and Advisor Councelling the Emperor (jian dafu) [4, Ch. 19-a, l. 6.5].
7. Great commander - Shi Le rank. By then existing rules, when an emperor came to the palace, facing him stood two officials who listened to the orders, and after leaving the palace, recorded them and turned them over to the office compiling history. They included in the record not only the orders of the Emperor, but also the received reports, the appointments made, reports about a death of the high high officials, etc.
8. Prohibition to marry wives of the deceased older brothers point to the existence among the Hus (胡) of the levirate, i.e. a custom by which a widow is obliged or entitled to marry a brother of her deceased husband. The levirate was widespread among many nomadic peoples, in particular among the Huns (Xiongnu 匈奴) (In the areas that escaped heavy Islamic compliance, the levirate tradition survived to modernity; for example, during the famines instituted during collectivization, the Soviet conquest of the Middle Asia, and during the WWII, many Türkic families and children in the Urals, Kazakhstan, Siberia, Altai etc. survived only due to the levirate tradition and assistance of the surviving relatives. Chinese annals demonstrate the necessity of levirate in the society where all men are soldiers, in some battles the losses numbered in tens of thousands, creating tens of thousands of orphaned families, and levirate was a difference between life and death. This aspect of the levirate tradition is missing in most scholarly descriptions).
9. These events are described in detail by Sima Guang: “The Duan leader Mopi attacked another Duan leader Pidi, and inflicted a defeat. Pidi turned to Shao Xu: “I, who belonged to the barbarians (what of the Chinese “barbarians” he classed himsef with?), lost my possession besause of a desire to perform a duty of loyalty [to the Jin dynasty]. If you have not forgotten our old treaty, please join me in attacking Mopi”. Shao Xu responded positively, and rushing with Pidi in pursuit of Mopi inflicted a severe defeat on him. Then Pidi and his younger brother Wenyang attacked [the belonging to Shi Le] Ji city.
The ruler of the Later Zhao dynasty Shi Le, knowing that Shao Xu remained alone, sent Shi Hu (Shi Jilong .- V.T.) with a title Zhongshan-gun heading troops, which besieged Yantsi, while Kun Qiang attacked Xu Shao's eleven separate encampments and occupied them. In the second moon, Xu Shao turned to attack Shi Hu. Shi Hu riders concealed in ambush cut off a retreat for Shao Xu, took him prisoner, and demanded him to order the city Yantsi to surrender. After they approached the city walls, Schao Xu shouted to the son of his elder brother Shao Zhu and others:. “I wanted to give all my strength to serve the state, but unfortunately fell in captivity. Treat Pidi as your ruler, do not exhibit duplicity!”
Pidi retreated from Ji, but did not yet reach Yantsi when he heard about the Xu Shao defeat. His scared troops began fleeing, but came under Shi Hu attack. Wenyang led several warriors in hard fight, which allowed him to enter Yantsi where, hidden behind city walls, he started defending hard together with the Zhao Xu son Shao Jie, and the sons of Zhao Xu elder brother Shao Cun and Shao Zhu.
Shi Hu sent Shao Xu to Xiangguo. Shi Le, finding that Xu Shao showed devotion to the ruler, freed him and appointed to the clerk position at the military leader” [17, Ch. 91, p. 2876].
10. Xu Kan (徐龕) served as governor of the Jin's Taishan district . In 318, a governor of the Jin's Pengcheng district Zhou Fu reblled and joined Shi Le. Liu Xia was appointed to his post and ordered, together with Xu Kan, to punish Zhou Fu. Zhou Fu troops wer defeated, and he himself was assassinated by the Kan Xu's commander Yu Yao, but at the conferring of the awards the highest award received Liu Xia. The enraged Xu Kang rebelled, joined Shi Le, declared himself a ruler of the Yanzhou and encamped in a rampart-fortified camp.
In 319, when Shi Jilong attacked Xu Kan, the latter submitted to the Jin dynasty, but soon raised a new revolt. To help Xu Kan, Shi Le sent several hundred riders led by a commanders Wang Fudu (in the text he is mentioned under a name Wang Budu) and Zhang Jing. In response the Jin Emperor Yuan-di sent against Xu Kan troops, who inflicted on him a defeat in Tanqiu, then Xu Kan asked Shi Le for more assistance, but received a refusal. In addition, Wang Fudu behaved very arrogantly, so Xu Kan killed him and again submitted to the Jin dynasty [20, Ch. 81, pp. 2-a - 2-b].
The continuous reneging of Xu Kan to one or the other side angred both the Jin (晉) Emperor Yuan-di (元帝), and Shi Le. Shi Le ordered Shi Jilong to attack Xu Kan, who found himself in a hopeless sitution, and surrendered to Shi Le, furnishing his wife and son as hostages. Later, Xu Kan apparently again reneged on Shi Le, because Shi Le sent against him troops led by Shi Jilong. Xu Kang was captured after a defeat. Shi Le killed the prisoner by putting his body in a sack and casting it off from a high tower.
11. Dunping - district with administrative center during the Jin dynasty in a provincial town Xuchang, 15 li north-west of the modern county town in Dunping in the Shandong province [15, p. 1043].
12. Hutou - river, originating in the Taixishan mountains, east of the modern county town Fanzhi in the Shanxi province. It cuts through the Taihan-shan mountains, comes to the plain in the Hebei province, in the Xianxian county merges with the river Fuyanhe, then takes a name Ziyahe, and near Tianjin falls into Beiyunhe.
13. Musical instruments hanging on the stands on three sides of the square - As indicated in the Zhou-li, musical instruments (bells and ch'ings) of the wang hung on stands, set square, and called gupxuan, and the musical instruments zhuhou (zhuhou 諸侯 - hereditary nobles, aristocracy, court officials, local warlords, seigneurs, dukes) hung on supports installed on three sides square, and with opening on the southern side [25, Ch. 23, p. 838].
14. The dancers line up in rows of eight . - Commentator Du Yu (222-284) points in the Zuo Zhuan that the Son of Heaven had 64 dancers, lined up in eight rows with eight dancers in a row, the ruling princes had 36 dancers lined up in six rows of six dancers in a row; the high officials had 16 dancers lined up in four rows of four dancers in a row, and the (ordinary) officials had four dancers arranged in two rows of two dancers in a row [27, Ch. 3, pp. 146-147] (With such rigid regimentation, no wonder that China had to surround itself with the walls, no such nonsense ever existed in the freedom-loving Hunnic society, and the Chinese knew about it).
15. Qiaochen - city 30 li north of the modern county town Syayi in the Henan province [15, p. 879].
16. Chunjengli (literally, “quarter for reverence of humanity”) - was created for the families of the Jin officials who surrendered to Shi Le [17, Ch. 91, p. 2883].
17. Zhichemeng (literally, “gate for stopping of the carts”) - refers to the gate where the arriving carriages had to stop.
18. Qianshan - mountains in the south-west of the modern county Lungxian in the Shaanxi province.
19. Xucai (literally, “beautiful talent”) originally referred to unusually gifted people. Starting with the Han dynasty, xucai is the name of the first degree awarded after passing prescribed examinations.
20. Human rights defender at the first assistant of the emperor (chenxian sizhi). - The hieroglyph si means to “govern”, “manage”, “be in charge”, and zhi means “justice”, “honesty”, which together can be translated as “chief justice”. The occupants of that position were in fact judges, on the basis of law they determined what was right and wrong, where was truth and fiction. For the term sizhi is used a conditional translateion “human rights defender”. The position of defender was established in 118 BC, its occupants were equated with the high officials who received sustenance allowance of 2 thousand dans of grain per year, and they reported to the chenxian Chief Assistant of the Emperor, helping him to detect an offense. Consequently, they were called human rights defenders at the Chief Assistant of the emperor chenxian sizhi. During the Later Han, this post was called “human rights defender at the prude” situ sizhi. Its occupants checked the worthiness of the candidates for the positions submitted by the provinces and districts.
21. Yantsi - county with a main town 50 east of the modern county town Huimin in the Shandong province [15, p. 126].
22. Golden seal on dark red cord is a seal given to the high officials of the second grade and higher, such as chief aide for the emperor, military commanders, etc.
23. Qiao - district with administrative center located in the same-named provincial town on the site of the modern county town Boxian in the Anhui province [15, p. 879].
24. Extend his head to his native hill - expression associated with the ancient proverb “fox die with its head to the hill is her hole” referred to in Li-ji [11, Ch. 7, p. 293]. The meaning is that, although fox has to die as its fate dictates, before her death she expresses a desire to be buried in its native place.
25. The palace servant (changshi) is a position also called zhong changshi. The hieroglyph zhong means “middle”, or “at the court”, chang means “constantly”, shi -" wait”, i.e., “always waiting on at the court”, and for this position is used translation “palace servant.”
26. Xin - dynasty founded by Wang Mang (45-23 BC), who overthrew the Han dynasty.
27. Wenzhong - according to the legends, that was a man of colossal height during the Qin Dynasty. In 237, the Wei Emperor Ming-di cast two huge copper statues and named them the statues of Wenzhong [31, Ch. 30, p. 10], apparently they are to be about them and referred to in this text,
28. Headquarters (yamen) .- The hieroglyph ya ("tooth”, “toothed”) came into this word because of a custom in use in China, where military commanders posted a flag with toothed hem at the entrance to the headquarters. These flags were called yaqi (pronounced yatsi) “toothed flags”. Because of that, the gates leading to the headquarters of the commander were called yamen “toothed gates”, i.e. the gates with toothed flags. Gradually, the term “toothed gate” spread to the whole headquarters of the commander, and then to the civilian agencies, and came to mean government offices in general [24, Ch. 21, p. 413].
29. Town Feng in the Pei county is a birthplace of the founder of the Han dynasty Liu Bang. According to Sima Qian, Liu Bang “was a native of the village Zhungyan, near the Feng town, Pei county” [18, Ch. 8, p. 1-a].
30. Lishi - a county with its main town on the site of the modern county town Lishi in the Shaanxi province.
31. The head of the palace troops (zhonglingjun) .- In 199 AD Cao Cao, a chief assistant to the emperor, established in his commandery a position of lingjun, a commander of the troops, which was soon called with a new name zhonglingjun commander of palace troops. the commander of troops headed the most reliable military detachments, which in fact were guards.
32. Shi Jilong began building houses and tilling the land, wanting to show that the siege would be long and he would not leave until until gained victory over Xu Kan.
33. Zuoushan - a county with main town 26 li south-east of the modern county town Zuouxian in the Shandong province [15, p. 938].
34. Xiapei - a name of a county with main town located 3 li east of the modern county town Peyxian in the Jiangsu province [15, p. 17].
35. Assistant governor of the province (bejia - lit. “a separate vehicle”). - This name arose from the fact that the assistant governor of the province accompanied the governor during his visits riding in a separate carriage.
36. Zuan - county town lying south-west of the modern county town Yunchen in the Henan province [15, p. 945].
37. Guangu - a city built by Cao Yi 8 li north-west of the modern county town Yidu in the Shandong province [15, p. 326].
38. Apparently, an error in the text, of, instead of the Sizhou province name was written sima - troops commander.
39. Yandi - a county town on the site of the modern county town Yuxian in the Henan province [15, p. 1,006].
40. Li Yiji (? -203 BC) was a native of the Gaoyan county in the Chengdu district. He served as an official overseeing the village gates, and lived in great poverty. Then he joined Liu Bang, who led a rebellion against the Qin dynasty, and became his adviser. In 203 BC a Liu Bang's rival, Xiang Yu, beseiged him south of Xinyan. Finding himself in a very difficult situation, Liu Bang asked Li Yiji for advice, how to weaken the the Chu possession, created by Xiang Yu. Li Yiji suggested: “In the past Tang, having punished Jie, granted his descendants the lands in Qi, and Wu-wang, having punished Zhou, granted his descendants the lands in the Song. Now the Qin dynasty lost virtues and abandoned the notion of duty, and attacked the altars of the possessing princes for sacrificing to the spirits of the Earth and plants, destroying the descendants of the rulers of the six possessions, so that they do not have a piece of land to stick an awl in.
If you, Sire, can actually put in power in the six possessions the descendants of their rulers, and would yourself give them seals, then the rulers and their servants and the people, honored by your benevolence, would necessarily, like under a gust of wind, bow down to your justice and become willingly your slaves. When virtue and justice prevail, you Sire, can turn your face to the south and call yourself a hegemon, and the ruler of the Chu possession would necessarily lift the skirts of his clothing and hurry up to your audience. Liu Bang replied: “Fine. Hurry up to etch the seals, go as an ambassador, and hand them to the rulers, so that they wore them”.
Soon to Liu Bang came his comrade Zhang Liang with a title Liu-hou, whom he told about the decision. Zhang Liang asked: “Who suggested you this plan, Sire? Your case, Sire, is lost!” On a question: “Why?” Zhang Liang responded: “In the past Tang having punished Jie, granted his descendants the lands of Qi in the hope that he would be able to hold their their lives in his hands. And can you, Sire, hold in your hands Xiang Yu's life?” “I can not”, replied Liu Bang. “This is the first defect of the proposed plan”, said Zhang Liang.
Wu-wang punished Zhou and granted his descendants lands in the Song, hoping that he would be able to get Zhou's head. And now can you, Sire, to get the head of Xiang Yu?” “I can not”, said Liu Bang. “This is the second flaw of the proposed plan”, - said Zhang Liang.
“Entering the lands of the Yin dynasty, Wu-wang wrote about the Shang-jung's (period of Di Yi of Shang 1101-1076 BC, Pin. Shang Rong 商容, 商 means “adviser”; 容 is phonetically identical with 戎 Jung, phonetically reinterpreted in the pinyin to Rong, and 戎 Jung stands for Hun, later Xiongnu 匈奴; the whole name means “Hun Adviser”. Shang-jung's name is connected with the early depiction of the Hun name in the form Kun 昆 Barbarians 夷 found in the Bamboo Annals, with Yi 夷 Barbarians graphically representing Great Archers 大 + 弓, and Kun 昆 graphically representing “elder brother, descendants”, thus the Bamboo Annals in the 11th c. BC faithfully rendered the Hunnic/Türkic word Kun/Hun meaning in English Kin.)
Wu-wang distributed the grain stored in Juqiao, and distributed money stored in Lutai to help the poor. But can you, Sire, distribute what is stored in the storerooms to help the poor?” “I can not”, said Liu Bang. “This is the fourth flaw of the proposed plan”, - said Zhang Liang.
"After performing sacrifices to mark the accession to the throne, Wu-wang renounced the military chariot, replacing it with a chariot for routine trips, put aside his shield and spear, wrapping them with tiger hides to show the Celestial that he would no longer use weapons. But can you, Sire, renounce military force, switch to civilian rule, and not use weapons any more?” “I can not”, said Liu Bang. “This is the fifth flaw of the proposed plan”, - said Zhang Liang.
“Wu-wang let horses rest on the southern slopes of the Huashan mountains, desiring to show that they are not needed. But can you, Sire, let horses to rest, showing that they are no longer needed?” “I can not”, said Liu Bang. “This is the sixth flaw of the proposed plan”, - said Zhang Liang.
“Wu-wang let the bulls graze on the northern slopes of the Taolin hills to show that no longer will military provisions be transported. But can you now, Sire, let the bulls to pasture, to show that no more will military provisions be transported?” “I can not”, said Liu Bang. “This is the seventh flaw of the proposed plan,” said Zhang Liang.
“In addition, the wandering scholars in the Celestial separated from their families, abandoned their native graves, abandoned their old friends, and followed you. Day and night they are only dreaming how to receive land closer to you. If you restore the six possessions and install in power the descendants of the possessions Han, Wei, Yan, Zhao, Qi, and Chu rulers, the wandering scholars of the Celestial will again return to serve their rulers, reunite with their relatives, return to the old friends and family graves, and with whom you will then fight for the possession of the Celestial? This is the eighth flaw of the proposed plan.
The Chu possession should not be strong, [if it is strong] the power of the rulers of six possessions would again weaken and they would submit to him. How would you, Sire, make them your servants? Indeed, if you use the proposed plan, your case will perish!”
Interrupting his meal, Liu Bang spat and with insultingly cried: “Silly scholar, he almost ruined the endeavor of his master!”, and ordered to destroy the seals immediately [4, Ch. 40, pp. 5-a - 6-b].
41. Sishui - river originating in the Peiweishan mountains in the Sishui county in the Shandong province. It flows through south-eastern part of that province.
42. Xin'an - county with main town on the site of the modern Tanizhen settlement, located east of the county town Mianchi in the Henan province [15, p. 397].
43. Udafu - a title for lower nobility, established still during the Qin dynasty. In the Qin twenty-grade hierarchy, udafu was a ninth-grade title.
44. Yanshouguan - outpost 25 li south-east of the modern county town Yanshi in the Henan province [15, p. 334].
45. Kanchen - county with main town 30 li north-west of the modern county town Yuxian in the Henan province [15, p. 322].
46. Pricker (cike). - In China during the Zhan-guo period was widely used a practice of political assassinations. To designate the executants of such orders, assassins by profession and adventurers by nature, serving the highest bidder, emerged a special term “pricker”. Under Liu is meant Liu Yao, the Emperor of the Former Zhao dynasty.
47. Sun Ce was an elder brother of Sun Quan (182-252 AD), a founder of the Wu kingdom. After his father's death in battle with the Jinzhou province governor, Sun Ce led the troops and soon restored calm in the lower course of the Yangtze. Even before that Xu Gong, a governor of the Wujun district, sent a report to the emperor, where noting the courage to Sun Ce he warned that in future from him may come all misfortunes, and asked for a transfer of him to the capital. The report fell into the hands of Sun Ce. He called up Xu Gong and killed him. The supporters of Xu Gong caut up with Sun Ce during a hunt and badly wounded him with an arrow. When Sun Ce was dying, he called up his younger brother Sun Quan, and willing him the power, said: “In the struggle for the power in the Celestial you are yielding to me. but in the nomination of the wise, in the appointments of the capable who are giving all their thoughts to the service, which helps to retain the lands in the lower course of the Yangtze, you are better then me” [19, Wu-shu, ch. 46, pp. 8-a - 16-b].
48. Qiunqiu - county with main town 45 li north-east of the modern county city Hefei in the Anhui province [15, p. 574].
49. Fuling - county with main town 15 li east of the modern county town Quanziao in the Anhui province [15, p. 989].
50. Zhu - the county with main town 20 li north-west of the modern county town Huanggang in the Hubei province [15, p. 928].
51. Nine philosophical divisions (jiu liu) - refers to the philosophical concepts created by Confucians, Taoists, natural philosophers, legists, nominalists, moists, eclectics, philosophers of different orientations and agrarians.
52. Xiaolian (lit. “respectful to parents and unselfish”) - a scientific degree that first appeared during the Han dynasty, it was awarded at the district exams.
53. During the Zhou dynasty (1,100-221BC), had already formed ideas about interdependency of events, about fighting of the various forces in nature. These views were reflected in the theory of Five Primoelements, or Five Elements: earth, wood, metal, fire and water. The natural events were viewd as a result of the ongoing struggle of five elements, where they indefinitely mutually destruct and mutually regenerate each other (About 25 centuries before G.W.F. Hegel, d. 1831, a founder of dialectic materialism and a substrate of Marxism, in furtherance of which were killed millions in Russia, China, Cambogia, and numerous other states). A philosopher Zou Yan (336-280 BC) (305-240 BC ?) extended this theory to human life and social events. He believed that the fate favors this or that ruler so long as his patron element remains dominant. When this element is defeated, the rule declines, and with the advent of the new element appears a new ruling House (Very cute observation or deduction, not any worse then the "when the lower can't stand it any more, and the upper can't hold it any more". The result is the same, we change the House, in the benign situation it is the House of Reps).
54. Above was already mentioned the Wang Guo switch to the Shi Le side, therefore according to Wang Mingsheng, this phrase is a repeatition [6, Ch. 52. p. 472].
55. Liyan - a county town on the site of the modern county town Hexian in the Anhui province [15, p. 516].
56. Jinyun - city 25 li east of the modern county city Luoyang in the Henan province [15, p. 956].
57. The Shi Le capital Xiangguo was in then Jizhou province.
58. In 328 Shi Jilong led 40,000-strong army through the Zhiguan checkpoint (15 li north-west of the modern county town Jiyuan in the Henan province) and attacked Hedun district belonging to Liu Yao. More than 50 counties east of Huanghe supported Shi Jilong, then he advanced to attack Pufang (county town south-east from the modern county city Yongjia in the Shanxi province). Liu Yao moved to help Pufang. Frightened Shi Jilong started withdrawing troops. Liu Yao caught up with retreating Shi Jilong near Gaohou and in a great battle defeated him, beheadining a Shi Jilong commander Shi Zhang, and strewing the ground with corpses for over 200 li, and seized weapons in quantity of thousands of thousands pieces. Shi Jilong fled to Chaoge. After that Liu Yao crossed Huanhe at Taiyan (county town north-east of the modern county town Piklu in the Shanxi province), attacked Sh Sheng in Jinyun, and destroyed the dam Qian-jinhe to flood the city with water [20, Ch. 103-l. 12-a].
59. Fotu Den - Indian Buddhist monk in the service of Shi Le.
60. Shimen (literally “stone gate”) is a gateway built by the Han Emperor Ling Di (168-189) north-west of the city Aochen, at the mouth of the channel Jiuniqu, near the modern Kaifeng city in the Henan province [17. Sec. 94, p. 2963].
61. Dae - another name for the Yanjing Huanhe crossing, which was in the Dae county in the modern Henan province.
62. Gun - a county with main town 30 li south-west from the modern county town Gunxian in the Henan province [15, p. 1038].
Zi - the area south-west of the modern county town Gunxian in the Henan province [15, p. 876].
63. On the Liu Yao debacle at Luoyang, the records about him tell: “Hearing that the advancing Shi Jilong took Shimen, and then learning that Shi Le crossed Huanhe with large forces, Liu Yao started discussing an increase of the troops in Xinyan and closing Huanmaguan checkpoint. Soon the (Liu Yao) patrol riders captured one Jie (羯) at the Loshui river in a skirmish with Shi Le advance units, and took him to Liu Yao. Liu Yao asked the Jie (羯): “Is it true that the Great Hu (胡) came personnally? What is the strength of his troops?” The Jie (羯) said: “The Great Hu (胡) came personnally, he has numerous troops that can not be resisted.”
Changing in face, Liu Yao ordered to cease the siege of Jinyun and position troops on the west bank of the Loshui river, and their camp stretched for more than ten li from north to south.
Still in adolescence, Liu Yao abused wine, but in recent years this passion has increased. When Shi Le approached, Liu Yao was preparing for a battle, and he drank a few dou of wine. Liu Yao usually rode a reddish horse, which for no apparent reason suddenly went lame and could not raise its head, so Liu Yao changed to a small horse. Before departure, Liu Yao drank again more then a dou of wine. When Liu Yao arrived at the Xiyanmen gate, he waved his hand, giving his troops a sign to come out to a level plain. The Shi Le commander Shi Kang took advantage of that, and Liu Yao's troops took to flight. The drunk Liu Yao escaped also, but his horse fell into a ditch barely covered with stones, he fell on ice, received more than a dozen wounds, three of which were through wounds, and was captured by Shi Kan, who took him to Shi Le” [20, Ch. 103, p. 12-b].
64. Shanggui is a name of the county with the main town located south-west of the modern county city Tianshui in the Gansu province [15, p. 12].
65. Shi Jilong's victory in the Shanggui county is described in more detail by Sima Guang:” [In the 329 AD] in the fall, in the eighth moon, Liu Yin with title Nanyang-wang at the court of the Former Zhao dynasty went from Shanggui to Chang'an heading several tens of thousands warriors. All aliens (non-Chinese natives) and Chinese in the Lundun, Wudu, Andin, Xinpin, Beidi, Fufeng and Shiping districts took up arms and supported him. Liu Yin encamped with the troops at the Zhongqiao bridge, and Shi Sheng switched to defense behind the city walls. Shi Hu (Shi Jilong .- V.T.), who had a title of Chungshan-gun at the Later Zhao court, set out for Shi Sheng assistance heading 20 thousand horsemen.
In the ninth moon Shi Hu defeated in the Yiqu county Liu Yin's troops, after which Liu Yin fled back to Shanggui. Taking advantage of their victory, Shi Hu pursued the fleeing, strewning the ground with corpses for over a thousand li. The Shanggui city fell without resistance, and there Shi Hu seized and killed more then 3 thousand people, including the Crown Prince Liu Xi of the Former Zhao dynasty, Liu Yin with a title Nanyang-wang, military commanders, wangs, and upper ranks. Then he moved to Xiangguo more than 9 thousand people, including civil and military officials of the State Chancellery, everybody who fled from the lands east of the Hanguguan outpost, and influential houses from the Qinzhou and Yongzhou provinces. Additionally, more than 5 thousand of Chuge in five districts were buried alive” [17, Ch. 94, p. 2971] (Chuge aka Xiuchuge is a separate Hun tribe first cited in history in 158 AD in Hou Han Shu Ch. 65, p. 2139 (8a), and then gaining considerable prominence in the Chinese northern frontier region).
66. Zhang Jun (307-346) a fourth ruler of the Former Liang dynasty (301-376), ruling western and northern part of the today's Gansu province and eastern part of XUAR (East Turkestan). His grandfather Zhang Gui and father Zhang Shi, ensconcing in Guzang (modern county town Wuwei in the Gansu province), the main city of the Liangzhou province, without breaking relations with the Jin dynasty, established possession that was an only possession created by Chinese during the Sixteen States of Five Northern Tribes period. Zhang Jun enlarged the inheritance left to him, forced a number of Western Region states to pay him tribute, and established facilitated administration, so that during his time Former Liang reached a highest thriving point. Under Zhang Chun successors the dynasty began declining and in 376 AD was destroyed by the Qin dynasty.
67. Palace secretariate was an institution that undergone long evolution. During the Qin and early Han dynasties the person performing the work the imperial clerks, i.e., who handled the official papers, were called shangshu (literally, “in charge of papers”). The Emperor Wu-di (140-86 BC), who spent much of his time in the women's palace, for reasons of convenience started appointing eunuchs to that position, who were named zhongshu echje, i.e., the “speaker in charge of papers in women's palace”.
A major high official Xiao Wangchzhi (106-47 BC) argued against appointment of eunuchs to the state service, he contended that firstly, in antiquity the eunuchs were never used in service, and secondly, by the then rules those who became handicapped as a result of punishment (i.e., subjected to castration), can not be, as described in Li-ji [11, Vol. 2, p. 530], Emperor's courtiers [4, Ch. 78, pp. 11-a, 11-b]. The Xiao Wangchzhi proposal was carried out only in 29 BC under Emperor Cheng-di, who discontinued the services of eunuchs and abolished the post zhongshu echje, and appointed five clerks (shangshu), each of whom had well-defined responsibilities [4, Ch. 10, pp. 4-b - 5-a].
During the Three Kingdoms period (220-280), Wei emperor Cao Cao established instead of the post of clerk a post of Chief of the Secretariate (mishuling) and his assistant (mishu shaojian) that the next emperor Wen Di respectively renamed zhongshu jian - “inspector of the palace secretariate” and zhongshu lin - “head of the palace secretariate”. That was a beginning of the office known in later Chinese history under a name zhongshushen - “office of the palace secretariat”.
Soon the heads of the palace secretariate, as an emperor courtiers engaged in the most important affairs of state, became the highest officials in the state. In fact, the palace secretariate determined the internal and external policies of the country.
68. Xian-gun - a title that appeared during the Jin dynasty. Originally, Xian-guns was a name for the highest provincial officials in the Chu kingdom.
69. Xian hou (county hou) .- According to the system that existed under the Han dynasty, those who were not related to the imperial family but given the title hou, had a general name le-hou. Le hou with great merits were given for sustenance counties, and who had smaller merits were given from regions (xiang) to parishes (tan) [21, Ch. 118, pp. 14-a, 14-b]. During the Jin dynasty all who had titles hou, po, zi and nan were given counties for sustenance. Thus, xian hou can be translated as “county hou”.
70. Eight highest officials - during Jin dynasty to the eight upper officials belonged: Head of State Chancellery, two his assistants and five department heads of the State Chancellery.
71. Eastern Hall (dungtang) so was called during Jin dynasty the main hall of the Imperial Palace.
72. Linzhan - is meant the town E, so named during the Jin dynasty. It was located south-west of the modern county town Linzhan in the Henan province [15, p. 944].
73. Zhao-yi - highest rank of imperial concubines, established by the Han Emperor Yuan-di (48-32 BC). By the Tang commentator Yan Shigu explaination, the character zhao means “clear”, “display”, and yi - “appearance”, “manners”. This term is used in order to emphasize the majesty of concubines. The position of the zhao-yi equated to the Chief Assistant of the Emperor, and the rank equated to the persons who had a title of Wang [4, Ch. 97-a, l. 2-a - 2-b]. Originating during the Han dynasty, the term was used until the Sung dynasty. During Northern Wei were Left and Right zhao-yi.
74. Fuzhen - the title of the concubines of the Son of Heaven. Mentioned in Li-ji [11, Ch. 1, p. 185]. By Kun Inda, the character fu has a meaning of the character fu - “to help”, “support”. In that connection, the term fu can be explained as “supporting the ruler”.
75. Military Inspector (jianjun).- In the Chun-Qiu era (770-403 BC) Jing-gun, a ruler of the Qi possession, on hearing about the Sima Janju talents, appointed him to command forces operating against the Yen and Jin possessions. Sima Janju lived in a village and did not hold any official post. Fearing that he would not gain authority among the warriors, Sima Janju asked Jing-gun to appoint some of his favorite high officials respected in the state to control troops. Agreeing to that request, Jing-gun ordered Zhuang Gu to take newly established position of military inspector [18, Ch. 64, pp. 1-a - 1-b].
Originated in ancient times, the post of military inspector continued to persevere later on. The duties of the military inspector were not only in the control of the troops, but also in monitoring the actions of the commander.
76. Shicheng - outpost located 25 li west of the modern county town Jianshi in the Hubei province [15, p. 705].
77. Lands west of the Longshan (Lungyu) (隆山, Long 陇 / 隴) mountains is a common name for the lands in the Gansu province, located west of the Longshan mountains.
78. Lunchen .- provincial city 100 li north-east of the modern county town Qinan (Qingyang ?) in the Gansu province [15, p. 1011].
79. Gaozuli or Koguryo, in ancient times one of the Korean tribes, later - one of the three Kingdoms of: Koguryeo, Paekje, Silla, defeated in the 7th c. by the Chinese Tang dynasty troops in alliance with Silla.
Sushen (玄夷) - the ancient name for the people of the Tungus groups who inhabited north-eastern region of present China. Chinese sources take the tribes Yilou during the Han and Jin dynasties, Wuji during the Southern and Northern dynasties, Mohe during the Song dynasty, and Tang and Shoizhen during the Five dynasties for the descendants of the Sushens.
80. Gaochang - possession that existed from the mid 4th to the mid 8th c. AD in the Turfan basin. The emergence of possession is connected with the Han dynasty time, when in the 1st c. BC was built a fort Gaochanbi, also called Gaochanlei, surrounded by ramparts and garrisoned with troops. Later with the unrests in China there moved many Hans, and in the middle of 4th c. Liang dynasty oraganised there a Gaochang district. After the fall of the Liang dynasty under blows of the Northern Wei dynasty, many of the Liang former (nomadic) subjects fled the Gaochang district, destroyed the Cheshi possession in its territory, and in the 450 was pronounced a new possession Gaochang. A presence of a (relatively) large number of the Han people, links with the west and north turned Gaochang into a confluence of different cultures. The possession was destroyed by the Tang dynasty, which created in its lands a Xizhou province, divided into five counties.
.81. Yutian 於闐 or Khotan/Hotan/Hetian /和田 is an old possession in the southern part of the Tarim Basin, known to the Chinese from about 2nd c. BC. It occupied a small territory, practically a large oasis, irrigated by the waters of rivers Yurunkash and Karakash, coming down from the Kunlun ridges. During the Han dynasty the possession's capital was located in the western town (Xicheng), at a distance from Chang'an of 9,670 li. The population numbered 3,300 households, or 19,300 people [4, Ch. 96-A, p. 8-a].
82. Shanshan - a small possession that occupied territory south from the Lop Nor Lake. Initially it was called Loulan, but during the Han Emperor Zhao-di it was renamed Shanshan. A capital of possession was at a distance of 6,100 li from Chang'an. Population during the Han dynasty was 1,570 households, or 14,100 people [4, Ch. 96-A, p. 3-b]. Currently, the territory of possession became a desert, but archaeological finds, especially the discoveries of A. Stein (1862-1943), testify of the past prosperity of this property.
83. The fused branches of two different trees and sweet dew point to the establishment of harmony between dark and light elements, which bodes wellbeing and prosperity.
84. The term lanzhun, translated with a Russian word for “bodyguard”, meant one of the civil service jobs that existed in order to protect the inner gate of the Imperial Palace. The hieroglyph lan, used in this case instead of the hieroglyph lan - “terrace”, “gallery”, indicates that the people occupying that position served to the Son of Heaven in the galleries surrounding the palace, and guarded him in the same way as the galleries protect the palace buildings.
The lanzhuns were a fairly large group of officials under a common name languan (literally, “officials in the galleries”), were receiving an annual sustenance allowance of 300 dans of grain. As the bodyguards of the Emperor and forming a sort of a guard batallion, they performed various duties. Depending on the type of occupation, were the following lanzhuns: chelan - bodyguards at chariots, who followed the emperor's chariot; hulan - bodyguards at the gate guarding the palace gates; zilan - mounted guards who were guarding the emperor in the palace and were following with him during his outings and campaigns.
85. Sacrifices on the southern outskirts of the capital (nanziao) .- According to Li-ji, “on the first day of summer, the Son of Heaven personally, at the head of three guns, nine high officials, and dafu was meeting the arrival of the summer in the southern outskirts of the capital” [11, Ch. 15, p. 727] (In this case the Son of Heaven is a Jie/Kuyan Hun Shi Le in the status of the Emperor, and he performs a traditional Hunnic religious rite of meeting the arrival of the summer, the same rite that is performed by all nomadic Türkic rulers until a switch from Tengriism to another religion; the tradition survived to Modern Times in practically identical form, with local variations always present to some degree; in a number of cases the tradition survived with the new religions, where religious tolerance allowed syncretic symbiosis).
86. The field tilled by the ruler with work of the people (jietian) .- The hieroglyph je corresponds to another hieroglyph je - “hold”, “to use” and indicates that the ruler tilled the field (tian) not by himself, but used for it the force of the people. This interpretation agrees well with the Guo Yu text [8, Ch. I, p. 5-7], which states that the wang held a solemn ceremony in the beginning of the field season, and plowed only a first furrow, while most of the work was done by the ciphers. Such fields, and participation of the ruler in their handling were designed to show the importance of agriculture (There is no point in preacing to converted, and the Chinese Hua and Xia, and most the previous people that they incorporated were inherent farmers with no use for royal endorsement. The royal commendation could only be addressed to the animl pastoralists who saw the productivity of the land in the grass for the animals, not in fodder for people. That the Hunnic ruler may be interested in curbing his pastoral brethren is quite logical, half of his subjects were organized in hordes that allowed only nominal control, but the existence of the first furrow ritual in prior Chinese states indicates a continued influx of unruly nomadic pastoralists that needed that exasmple).
87. Five mountain peaks and four large rivers .- The five mountain peaks refer to the Sunshan mountains in the Denfen county in the Henan province (Central peak), Taishan mountains in the Shandong province (Eastern peak), Huashan mountains in the Huayin county in the Shanxi province (Western peak), Hengshan mountains in the Hunan province (Southern peak), and Hengshan mountains in the Hebei province (Northern peak).
Four large rivers are the Yangtze, Huanhe, Huaihe and Jishui.
88. Head of the judicial department (tinwei) was in charge of the “laws on punishment”, leading one of the nine departments that existed during the Qin and Han dynasties. According to the Yan Shigu explanation, the character ting with the meaning in this case “impartial”, “just” got into the title because in ajudicating legal cases above all was held a justice.
The chief of the judicial department had three assistants: zheng jian - a chief warder, zuo jian - left warder, and yu jian - right warder, each of whom was receiving sustenance allowance of 1,000 dans of grain a year.
In 144 BC Emperor Jing-di renamed tinwei to da li, but in 137 BC was restored the former name of [4, Ch. 19-a, l. 7-b].
89. Tang (唐) - means legendary virtuous Emperor Yao (堯, legendary 2358 - 2258 BC), a son of Emperor Ku, who initially was granted the Tao possession, then the Tang possession. After the name of the Yao possession he was called Tang (Tang Yao 唐堯).
90. Yu (禹) - the name of the tribe headed by Shun (舜, legendary 23rd-22nd century BC). After the name of the tribe, Shun is called Yu (Yu Shun 虞 / 禹 舜). On the recommendation of his aides Yao (尧, legendary 2358 - 2258 BC) inviteded Shun, and reaching an old age, delegated to him to run the state affairs on behalf of the Son of Heaven. After the death of Yao, Shun succeeded to the throne, and thanks to his inherent virtues led the country to prosperity (Although grossly misdated, and clouded by undefined ethnically-derived names, the succession sequence described in the Chinese annalistic records is remarcably consistent with the Hunnic/Türkic traditional Lateral Succession order. Yao may or may not have blood lineage connection with Shun, but as later examples show, the Prime Minister/Chancellor position is not given to strangers, in Türkic tradition Shun would be a leader of the Khatun female dynastic tribe conveniently called Yu, totally anagolous to the later Huns' Shanyus with their female dynastic tribe Yui/Hui/Sui ~ Uigur; the position of the Prime Minister/Chancellor in the Türkic nomenclature is Right Juku/Wise Beg/Prince ~ in Chinese Right Tuqi/Xian Wang/Prince. In the Lateral Succession order after Yao reigned his younger brothers, and then Yao's sons, who may or may not have existed, completely shadowed by the reigning Prime Minister Shun; as has happened in all cases of female-side usurpation, the throne is passed to the next in line within the female-side line, and here comes a starnger heir Yu, representing the Yu tribe of Shun. The conceptual similarity is striking, further amplified with Shun being the first in the Chinese dynastic line to introduce the enshrined nomadic royal tradition of polygamy indispensable in the nomadic confederations, and other ethnological markers).
91. Xia's Gui (癸, legendary 1728–1675 BC) - refers to the last ruler of the Xia (夏) dynasty Li-gui (Lu Gui 履癸) with a name Jie (桀). Sima Qian briefly reports about him: “While since [the emperor] Kung-jia most possessing princes rebelled against the Xia dynasty, the emperor Jie did not care about virtues, [but on the contrary] he was damaging people with military force, and the people could no longer tolerate that. Jie summoned [Cheng]-tang and imprisoned him in Xiatai, but soon released him. Cheng-tang was perfecting his virtues, and all possessing princes have leaned to his side. After that, Cheng-tang stood at the head of the troops, to punish the Xia's Jie. Jie fled to Mintiao, then was exiled and died” [18, Ch. 2, p. 24-b].
92. Shang's Xin (帝辛) - refers to the last
emperor of the Yin dynasty also called
Zhou (Zhou Xin 纣辛/紂辛; postmortem Zhou 紂 = buttocks). He was known for terrible debauchery.
The Zhou's Wu-wang attacked him and defeated his army,
and Xin committed suicide.
These comments fit neatly into a larger picture, which
depicts ever increasing strength of the Hunnic-circle cavalry at the Hun dynasty
disposal, which at its maximum exceeded 100,000 troops, indicating a Hunnic nomadic
population of 500,000 households; and the use of the term Yu/Yue as the ethnic name for
the distinct tribe or tribes engaged in animal husbandry, most clearly demonstrated in
the Wang Mang's incident with change in the Shunyu seal from "shan Yu" 單于 to "Good or
Kind Yu" 善于 .)
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal Princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
N.Bichurin Hunnu, Oihors, etc
Ogur and Oguz
|10/10/2010 ©2010 TürkicWorld|