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Mongoloid Caucasoids of Mesolithic
  Tatiana Chikisheva
Dynamics of anthropological differentiation in South-Western Siberian population in Neolithic - Early Iron Age
Professorial dissertation, Novosibirsk, 2010

Links

http://www.dissercat.com/content/dinamika-anthropologicheskoi-differentsiatsii-naseleniya-yuga-zapadnoi-sibiri-v-epokhi-neolit (In Russian)

Posting Foreword

For results, scroll right down to Conclusion. Introduction follows Conclusion.

The Literature List demonstrates the gigantic paleoanthropological work that has been done and buried in the repositories of various Academies of the Former USSR. Many materials used in this work were waiting for their hour for 60+ years to be fruitfully used.

The subject of Mongoloidness in Eastern Europe, the cradle of the Kurgan Culture, is a touchy subject for the proponents of the Indo-Iranism (or Arianism) of the Kurgan Culture; one can inventory gravestones in the Andes, and from their names come to a scientific conclusion that Incas were Spaniards, and that it was a proto-Spanish tradition to mummify their deceased and pile them up in caves, similar to the inventory produced for Scythians in the N.Pontic, but then you run into details not covered by omnipotent linguistics. As soon as you touch physical anthropology, odontology, genetics, osteology, lactose tolerance, blood groups, and other mundane details, traits intolerable for patriots of Indo-Iranism (or Arianism) come to light, and there are no intelligible answers from the Arain department, whose only arguments are name-calling and accusations in Pan-Turkism. Worse yet, self-aggrandizing theory was mostly forged by intellectually masculine Arian males, who dreamt up noble riders as their ancestors, but not in a small degree is debunked by contemned females unobtrusively doing their daily work on mundane details, the ickiest offence of which is to find that noble Arian riders had flattish faces, squintish eyes, and Mongoloid admixture.

very important methodological principle in the study of southern Siberia is to examine widest synchronous profiles of the population's anthropological composition against background of diachronic data.

(VI - V . ..)
II . .. - 1- . ..
  Northern Early Metal Age (ca. 2000 BC - AD 300) refers to the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age
Northern Early Metal Age (ca. 2000 BC - AD 300) refers to the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age
35/33 13/11,
, 12 . . . - 300AD

(


1- 4 .- 35/33 .
(26/25 −20/19 . .. .)
20/19 . .. . - 13/12 . . . 10/8 . ..
Period = Epoch = Age

Periodization. Archeological periodization is tricky and understood only by people who pretend that they understand. Anthropologists go by archeological dating, they do not have to understand. Archeological dating is still carrying the flavor of the 19th c. science; if no metal is found, they either used wireless or lived in the Neolithic; if your grandma was interned with gold earrings, she came from Metal Age and probably from Gold Epoch. Typology rules the world, and shyly corrects for any oops. Now, when we have instrumented dating, the use of three stage periodization is a mark of status, like the ability to roll r's after Oxford. However, it helps significantly to cloud the issue, firstly because my Iron Age may be your Stone Age across the creek, which leaves you guessing: are we talking of 1000 BC or 1000 AD in real time, and secondly if my grands were buried in stately kurgans with all travel inventory, and across the creek your grands were laid on a tree platform wrapped in an old shroud, my grands' artifacts will beat your grands' inventory any time. To anchor periodization, a little look-up table provides nominal dates, with a caveat that you still need to figure out what side of the creek is meant in the discourse. Also, since nomadic economy evolved in 6,000 BC, and Early Nomads Period starts in 2,000 BC, apparently 160 generations of Early Nomads' ancestors default to Proto-Early Nomads Period, simple and clear. And if you are buying and using my bronze caldrons and tools, are you living in Bronze Age, or still remain Neolithic people?

Periodization
Neolithic 8000 4000 BCE Neolithic   Neolithic   Neolithic   Neolithic 8000 4000 BCE
Pit Grave   Chalcolithic   Chalcolithic   Copper Age 40 35/33 cc. BCE Chalcolithic 4000 3150 BCE
    Early Metal 20 c. BCE 3 c. CE Bronze 35/33 13/11 cc. BCE Early Bronze 31 23 cc. BCE Early Bronze I 3150 2900 BCE
    Early Bronze II 2900 2600 BCE
    Early Bronze III 2600 2300 BCE
    Middle Bronze 26/25 20/19 cc. BCE Middle Bronze I 2200 1950 BCE
    Middle Bronze II 1950 1550 BCE
Early Nomads 20 c. BCE 1 c. CE Late Bronze 20/19 13/12 to 10/8 cc. BCE Late Bronze I 1550 1400 BCE
Iron   Early Iron 12 c. BCE 300 CE Early Iron 1200 BCE 300 CE

Archeological Cultures.

People, Cultures, and Communities
No Name Phenotype Type Period Time Place
1 Afanasev Culture SEAAF Nomadic pastoralism Late Copper -Early Bronze 3700/3300/25002000 BC Southern Siberia
2 Aldy-Bel Culture   Nomadic pastoralism Iron 800-300 BC Tuva
3 "Andronoid Cultures          
4 Andronov (Fedorov) Culture   Nomadic pastoralism Bronze Age 21001400 BC Western Siberia, West Asia steppes
5 Andronov cultural-historical community   Nomadic pastoralism Bronze Age 21001400 BC Western Siberia, West Asia steppes
6 Begazy-Dandybaev Culture SEAAF ? Mixed pastoralism Bronze Age ca. 2000-700 BC Central Kazakhstan, Sary-Arka river
7 Bolshemys Culture NEAAF Eneolithic Neolithic  - Chalcolithic 4000-3000 BC Katun - Biya - Ob rivers
8 Early Nomads Culture          
9 Elunin Culture NEAAF + Mediterranean Mixed pastoralism Bronze Age 2300- 1700 BC Ob-Irtysh rivers
10 Early Sarmatian population          
11 Irmen Culture SEAAF Mixed pastoralism Bronze Age 900 - 700 BC Middle Ob
12 Karasuk Culture SEAAF Mixed pastoralism Bronze Age 1500800 BC Between Itil & Irtysh
13 Kelteminar Culture Uralic Fishing Neolithic 6th-3rd mill. BC. South Aral area
14 Khvalynsk or Poltavkin Culture SEAAF Nomadic pastoralism Eneolithic (Copper) 5000-4500 BC N.Caspian
15 Pit Grave cultural-historical community          
No Name Phenotype Type Period Time Place
16 Circumpontic Metallurgical Province NEAAF Eneolithic Neolithic  - Chalcolithic 3500-2500BC S.Urals
17 Karakol Culture Nenets Mixed pastoralism Bronze Age 2000-1500BC Altai
18 Krotov Culture SEAAF + ? Mixed pastoralism Bronze Age 1800-1000BC Altai
19 Neolithic historical and cultural community NEAAF Hunting Neolithic 5000-2000BC Western Siberia, West Asia steppes
20 Odinov Culture NEAAF Mixed pastoralism Bronze Age 1800-1600BC Western Siberia
21 Okunev Culture SEAAF        
22 Pazyryk Culture          
23 PitComb Ware Cultural-Historical Community          
24 Scytho-Siberian Cultural Communities          
25 Serov Culture          
26 Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation          
27 Ust-Tartas Culture          

Posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the authors and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes.

Foreword

This is a run-up to the Sarmatians and Scythians of the western writers and Zhou of the Chinese chroniclers. The offered citations from the 2010 dissertation

The offered unique, in the assessment of the authors, work offers materials and analyses of the people labeled Sarmatians and Late Sarmatians, a preliminary genetical preview of whom was produced by Dr. Joachim Burger Mamas of Pokrovka Sarmatians, equipped with maps showing where the people could have come from. The extensive anthropological study of the Pokrovka-10 burials finds the local women occupying a majority of the female slots under kurgans, their male tribesmen buried elsewhere, and their place taken by the migrant newcomers from S.Siberia and Kazakhstan. The genetic analysis of mamas tells that either only most dedicated husbands dragged their sweethearts with them half a way across Eurasia, otherwise finding suitable spouses locally, or that only selected few women belonging to the local highest elite could get a ticket for a place under kurgan. Both works solidly corroborate each other, coming from entirely different directions to identical conclusions, and that include the source of the sample series. However, because Pokrovka is just one of many thousands kurgan burials, it allows only a statistically insignificant peek into history, and can be dismissed as an aberration in the whole picture of some particular-type theories. Much more honest and scrupulous research is needed. Many elements of that work are listed in the Bibliography section of the article.

(VI - V . ..)
II . .. - 1- . ..
  Northern Early Metal Age (ca. 2000 BC - AD 300) refers to the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age
Northern Early Metal Age (ca. 2000 BC - AD 300) refers to the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age
35/33 13/11 . . .,
,

(


1- 4 .- 35/33 .
(26/25 −20/19 . .. .)
20/19 . .. . - 13/12 . . . 10/8 . . .

Posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the authors and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes.

   
T.A.Chikisheva
Dynamics of anthropological differentiation
of South-Western Siberian population
in Neolithic - Early Iron Age

Contents

Introduction
Chapter 1. Material, methods and research methodology
1.1. Paleoanthropological database of southern Siberia and adjacent territories in the study
1.2. Methods used
1.3. Methodology of the study. Main factors in transformations of human anthropological composition
1.3.1. Anthropological discreteness of humanity
1.3.2. Anthropological differentiation structure of humanity
1.3.3. Environmental variability of human populations as leading factor in anthropological differentiation of humanity
1.3.4. Social factors of anthropological differentiating of humanity
1.3.5. Anthropological differentiation of mankind as a historical process
Chapter 2. General geographical, historical, cultural, and anthropological assessment of the Western Siberia southern area
2.1. Ecological and geographic characteristics of the Western Siberia southern region and the dynamics of physical and geographical conditions of the environment in the Neolithic - Early Iron Age
2.1.1. Interactive peculiarities of the geographical environment and human populations
2.1.2. Review of modern landscape in the Western Siberia southern region
2.1.3. Dynamics of paleoclimatic changes in some areas of the Western Siberia southern region
2.2. General patterns and regional trends in historical, cultural, and race-forming processes in the Western Siberia southern regions
2.2.1. Stone Age and the transition to the Era of paleometal
2.2.2. Early Metal Period
2.2.3. Early Bronze Age
2.2.4. Middle Bronze Age
2.2.5. Late Bronze Age
2.2.6. Early Iron Age
Chapter 3. Anthropology of the Western Siberia southern region population in the Neolithic and Early Metal Period
3.1. Cranial features in Neolithic of the Western Siberia southern region populations
3.1.1. Population of Altai-Sayan upland
3.1.2. Population of Baraba steppe
3.1.3. Shaping of anthropological composition in Neolithic of the Western Siberia southern region population according to craniology
3.2. Cranial traits of the of the Western Siberia southern region population in the Early Metal Period
3.2.1. Population of Altai-Sayan upland
3.2.2. Population of Baraba steppe
3.2.3. Shaping of anthropological composition of the Western Siberia southern regions in the Early Metal Period according to craniology
3.3. Odontological traits of the Western Siberia southern regions population in Neolithic Era and Early Metal Period
Chapter 4. Anthropology of the Western Siberia southern region population in Bronze Age
4.1. Population of the West Siberian Plain southern area in Bronze Age according to anthropology
4.1.1. Population of Odinov Culture
4.1.2. Population of Krotov Culture
4.1.3. Population of Andronov (Fedorov) Culture
4.1.4. Population of Irmen Culture
4.1.5. People from so-called Late Bronze Age Culture Old Garden and Preobrajenka burials
4.2. Population of the Middle Bronze Age Altai Mountains according to anthropology
4.2.1. Population of Karakol Culture
4.2.2. Individuals from Bertek burial complex
Chapter 5. Anthropology of the Altai-Sayan highlands population in Early Iron Age
5.1. Anthropological description of the Altai Mountains Early Nomads
5.1.1. Composition of surveyed paleoanthropological material from Pazyryk Culture and its paleodemographic description
5.1.2. Craniometric traits variations of the Altai Mountains Early Nomads
5.1.3. Odontological features of Gorny Altai Early Nomads
5.1.4. Shaping of Early Nomads' anthropological composition in Gorny Altai
5.2. Anthropological description of Tuva Early Nomads
5.2.1. Composition of surveyed paleoanthropological material on Early Nomads of Tuva and its paleodemographic description
5.2.2. Variations in craniometric traits of Tuva Early Nomads
5.2.3. Odontological features of Tuva Early Nomads
5.2.4. Shaping of Early Nomads' anthropological composition in Tuva
Chapter 6. Regional and local territorial aspects in shaping anthropological composition of Southern Siberia ancient population in the light of anthropological and paleogenetical studies
 

Conclusion.

The analysis of cranial and odontological distinctions of paleoanthropological material in the context of culture-forming processes in the Altai-Sayan highlands and adjacent southern forest-steppe regions of the West Siberian Plain led to several important conclusions on the dynamics of anthropological composition of the ancient inhabitants of this region. In turn, the results of anthropological research presented facts on that draw attention in interpretation of purely archaeological facts, and based on them reconstruction of scenarios on the genesis of the historical and cultural phenomena.

The chronological range selected for the study is very wide, from the Neolithic Era (according to modern radiocarbon dating from the 6th - 5th millennium BC) until the turn of eras. Not all stages of the regional culture-forming dynamics are reflected evenly, and this situation is due not so much to the level of representation of the used paleoanthropological series as to the substrate role of the anthropological component in the historical and cultural development within the follow-up processes of ethno-cultural genesis. Much attention is paid a modest in scope collection of the Neolithic paleoanthropological finds. But the major autochthonous population's genetic origins of the region archaeological cultures ascend to the Neolithic stage. Moreover, from the Neolithic foundation of the anthropological build-up, under influence of the factors of intra-population interactions and inter-population transformation, began to take shape the modern anthropological structure of humanity.

No less important is the Eneolithic period (or Early Metal Period) (2nd mill. BC - 300AD), which initiated fundamentally new technologies for the population's livelihood and for the inevitable intra-tribal and intra-clan rearrangements of social relations, in turn ted through the system of demographic adaptations, the biological anthropological traits of populations.

In that historical and cultural period (Eneolithic, 2nd mill. BC - 300AD) is recorded a first transcontinental migration of a compact population group (people of Khvalynsk or Poltavkin Culture), that spun-off from the Pit Grave cultural-historical community and created a new very viable archaeological phenomenon in the Altai-Sayan region, the Afanasev Culture. In the Eneolithic period are actively forming autochthonous cultures, in the inventory complexes of which are found objects (mostly bronzes) demonstrating links with geographically very distant cultures of the emerging Circumpontic Metallurgical Province (Eneolithic, 3,500-2,500BC). The Early Metal Period for the indigenous cultures is saturated with unresolved issues of intercultural interactions. Therefore, the search of their reflection in the paleoanthropological materials makes it very important as an archaeological source, although its numbers are very small.

Analysis of Neolithic and Eneolithic paleoanthropological materials in comparative aspect using available comparative data on synchronous cultures led to a very important conclusion that in the Neolithic Era and at the turn of Neolithic-Chalcolithic in the anthropological composition across Eurasia dominated morphological complexes with incomplete differentiation into consolidated Mongoloid and Caucasoid complexes of the main (geographical) races.

Incomplete means neither Mongoloid nor Caucasoid, or both Mongoloid and Caucasoid, and maybe Negroid and Australoid etc. According to the author, history of racial complexes does not have a single direction - it is not an evolutionary process leading entire population to the modern races; thus incomplete in respect to the modern primary races is not applicable. Rather, the phenotype of the population does not fit into today's classificatory notions.

V. Bunak identified one of unconsolidated complexes in varying anthropological variations in the Eurasian north-western forest zone as a separate racial community, which he called Northern Eurasian Anthropological Formation (Bunak, 1956, p. 101). To that anthropological community belong the Neolithic population groups of the Baraba steppe adjacent to the Altai-Sayan upland (Creek, Sopka-2/1) (Sopka is a name for volcanic vent pyramid, also applied to rounded-top hills). The area of  the Northern Eurasian Anthropological Formation enormous area: the main finds were obtained in the north-western (Onega lake, southern basin of the White Sea, Karelia, Baltics) and southeastern (northern Baraba) fringes, and also in the northern forest zone of the East European Plain (PitComb Ware Cultural-Historical Community) (held to be Uralic, calibrated time range 5600 2300 BC ).

During Neolithic period in the Altai-Sayan region is allocated another unconsolidated craniological complex, characterized by a meso-brachicranial form of medium height skull, with a complex mix of Mongoloid and Caucasoid proportions of cranial parts, moderate flattening of the medium in height facial portion, high nose bridge with moderate protrusion of the nasal bones over the overall line of orthognathic (without projecting jaw) facial profile. This complex is visible in the crania of Neolithic period: female skull from a burial in the Hearth cave in the Altai Mountains, a series from Solontsy-5 burials in the foothills of the Altai forest-steppe, skulls from Bazaikha and Long Lake burials in the Krasnoyarsk-Kan forest-steppe and a burial near village Bateni in the Minusinsk Basin. By analogy with the defined by V.V.Bunak Northern Eurasian Anthropological Formation in the transitional zone of the northern Eurasia, this author proposed a status of Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation for the ancient morphological layer in the transitional zone of southern Eurasia.

From the standpoint of the ancient protomorphic anthropological communities in Eurasia notable for their distinct intermixed Caucasoid-Mongoloid racial complexes, it became possible to explain similarities between spatially distant groups not only by migrations, but also by convergent origin of morphological complexes with partially similar traits, which is especially typical for the Neolithic time (6th - 5th mill. BC).

The idea of  Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation proved to be extremely fruitful, it enabled to explain the morphological idiosyncrasies and reasons for anthropological similarities in the populations of some cultures of the Okunev and Karasuk circle, the so-called "Andronoid" Cultures of Western Siberia, the Early Nomads Culture of the intermountain valleys of the Altai-Sayan upland and foothill-mountain systems of the Dzungaria and Tien Shan. For at least four millennia the Southern Anthropological Eurasian Formation has been a main substrate core in the anthropological composition of the Altai-Sayan population. It was possibly an anthropological base not only among the early nomads of Tien Shan and Dzungaria, but also of some prior population groups, otherwise has to be assumed their migration from the eastern area of the Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation.

The Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation was the anthropological substrate of all known to date autochthonous cultures in the Altai-Sayan region. It became a part of some Afanasev Culture populations. Its introduction allowed to differentiate clearly the migrant components. Against its background, it became apparent that the impact of migration on the formation of anthropological composition of the Altai-Sayan populations was somewhat exaggerated. Archaeological materials show a great geographical scale of the population's cross-cultural contacts, while the anthropological materials provide a base for fairly conservative model of the race-forming, anchored on intra-population transformations of its anthropological structure and greater magnitude of local territorial interactions of the population groups.

The results of craniometric and odontological studies are in agreement with the results of mitochondrial analysis of the genetic samples from the Gorny Altai ancient population, confirming importance of the local intra-regional interactions between the populations. That allowed to view the Altai Mountains as a kind of refugium,where for several epochs endured a layer of ancient and protomorphic anthropological community. The role of the refugium can be extended only to the inner mountainous region of the Altai-Sayan upland. Its open to the north forest-steppe foothills and steppe valleys experienced great influence of inter-regional scale.

The results of the study demonstrated the Neolithic Era intensity of cross-cultural relations in the Altai and Sayan foothills. Convincing anthropological evidence indicates direct influence of the Neolithic Serov tribal Culture in Baikal area on the groups of Altai and Sayan people. The south-western connections of the Neolithic population in the southern Western Siberia, mainly detected for Bolshemys and Kelteminar Cultures from archaeological sources, was not corroborated by anthropological study as a migration impulse, and can be explained by existence in a distant past of common genetic (anthropological) substrate of the population, which probably preserved intercultural contacts of the offsprings.

In the Early Metal Period (ca. 2000 BC - 300 AD), in the southern region of the Western Siberia were actively forming cultures whose genesis involved many problems. Within the boundaries of their areas endured two core anthropological communities, which formed the fabric for the morphological traits of the Early Metal Period population. Studies found anthropological continuity between the people of the Neolithic and Ust-Tartas cultures in the Baraba steppe. Some migrant Afanasev Culture groups in the Altai territory display morphological features pointing to marital interaction with the indigenous population. Evidence indicates an impulse of Bolshemys Culture from the Barnaul-Biysk-Ob area or their descendants into the anthropological milieu of Ust-Tartas Culture of the Baraba province.

The obvious migratory impulses of animal husbandry population from Middle East or Middle Asia from the south to the territory of the Altai Mountains are traced by anthropological markers starting from the 2nd mill. BC, and increase in the Early Nomads Era (2nd mill. BC - 1st c. BC).

The population of the Baraba steppe in the Early Bronze Age (32 c. - 23 c. BC ) retained capacity of the indigenous anthropological substrate, having assimilated the impulse of the migrant Bolshemys Culture. The anthropological complex of the Odinov Culture, which replaced the Ust-Tartas Culture, displays features specific to the Neolithic people of the area. At the classical stage of the Krotov Culture, which replaced Odinov Culture, the anthropological composition of the population contained only autochthonous morphological complex.

Noticeable changes in the anthropological composition of the Baraba province's population occurred at the final stage of Krotov Culture, which was a period of its coexistence with Andronov (Fedorov) Culture people. The new morphological features are not associated with the population of Fedorov Culture and strikingly contrast with the distinctive features of Elunin Culture. Apparently, the migration wave of the Andronov cultural-historical community tribes pushed the inhabitants of the Altai-Sayan foothills to the north into the pre-taiga and southern taiga zones, where conflating their physical type (which ascended to the Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation) with local tribes (which anthropologically ascended to the Northern Eurasian Anthropological Formation) went on a process of Andronoid Cultures' ethnogenesis. The same component (Andronov ?) became an ingredient in the late stage Krotov Culture population.

Judging by the complexity of the Fedorov culture people anthropological composition in the southern Siberia, the migration impulse by the Andronov cultural-historical community tribes impacted many cultures. In most active form the ethnic-racial interaction between migrants and indigenous population groups went on in the Baraba steppe and Upper Ob right bank. In the steppes of Altai and Minusinsk Basin, Fedorov Culture retained proto-Caucasoid anthropological type (in its Andronov version), which was probably typical for the founders of the Fedorov cultural traditions.

Anthropological base of the Irmen Culture population was composed of morphological variations within the Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation. The population of all local-regional variations of the Irmen Culture was formed by the West Siberian Andronov group. The influence of the anthropologic component of the Karasuk Culture is noted at the population of the Tomsk variation of the Irmen Culture, it can be also traced in the female subgroup of the Baraba and Insk versions.

In the cranial series from the burials that were suspected in connection with Begazy-Dandybaev Culture, the male subgroup showed a morphological similarity with people of Andronoid cultural traditions, the female subgroup showed a morphological similarity with Andronov cultural-historical community of the northern Kazakhstan. Such structure of anthropological composition may be indicative of autochthonous Western Siberian substrate of this population and of structure of its marital relationship, suggesting influx of women from the Begazy -Dandybaev Culture, who in anthropological terms apparently were similar to the Andronov population of the northern Kazakhstan.

In the mountainous regions of the Altai and Sayan Mountains (central Tuva), the anthropological substrate of Early Nomads was comprised of the autochthonous protomorphic anthropological community, ascending to the Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation. Changes in the anthropological composition of the population mainly occurred in the second half of the 6th c. BC. In the anthropological composition of the Pazyryk Culture in the Altai Mountains was found a Caucasoid component, genetically ascending to the cattle-breeding population of the northern regions of Asia Minor and southern regions of Central Asia. At the final stage of the Aldy-Bel Culture of Tuva was noted a component associated with the milieu of Early Sarmatian population, and at the end of the 3rd c. BC in that area is noted impetus from the Northern China population.

The large-scale transcontinental migrations at the beginning of the Metal Epoch (after 40th c. BC including Copper Age, after 31th c. BC beginning with Bronze Age) (Afanasev migration) (3700/3300/25002000 BC) and in the Middle Bronze Age (26/25 20/19 cc. BC) (Andronov migration) (21001400 BC) had no significant modifying effect on the anthropological composition of the indigenous population in the southern region of the Western Siberia. For the pre-taiga areas of the West Siberian Plain, and for the mountain areas of the Altai-Sayan highlands, in the formation of anthropological composition more important are the internal local interpopulation interactions. That is evidenced by the stability of the typological trait combinations of two of anthropological communities - the Northern and Southern Anthropological Formations, which zones are not isolated neither in spatial geographical, nor historical and cultural relations.
345

 

Introduction:

The aim of the study is to research processes of morphological differentiation among the ancient inhabitants of southern Siberia in chronological, historical, cultural, and geographical aspects.

The object of the study are culture-forming processes in the Altai-Sayan region of Eurasia in the cultural and chronological range from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age, inclusive.

The subject of anthropological research are the features of the historical and cultural groups in the Altai-Sayan upland.

By the mid-20th century were developed several schemes systematizing morphological diversity of humanity. All of them are based on appearance of the living people. A number of craniometric parameters are taxonomically important analogues to salient race-diagnostic cranial and facial features (cranial diameters, size of the skull facial part, horizontal and vertical angles of face profile, angle of the nose protrusion), which are successfully used for racial typology of the craniological material [Debets, 1951].

In today's nomenclature, substitute for race is phenotype, which is not only less offensive, but also closer to reality, where all salient race-diagnostic cranial and facial features are arbitrarily selected segments of the continuous range, arbitrarily ascribed to a particular race. The same segments found in a different race would not be considered to be salient, but rather discounted as aberration.

Bio-archeological research focuses on various life aspects of the studied population (nutrition, physical activity, injuries, illnesses, episodic physiological ontogenetical stresses, human body manipulation methods for ritual or medicinal purposes, etc.). The methodology uses chemical analysis of bone tissue, description of its histological structure, computer tomography, and bone radiography. This work summarizes common anthropological features to determine their origin.

In the late 1990s the Laboratory of Human Genetics at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Brunch of the Russian Academy of Sciences joined research on reconstruction of main vectors in the genetic relationships of the Gorny Altai population at different stages of historical and cultural human development. They analyzed mitochondrial DNA samples from ancient populations of Gorny Altai, i.e. of the people of Neolithic historical and cultural community, Afanasev and Karakol Cultures, and historical-cultural community of the Early Nomads. The thesis reflects results of correlation between traditional anthropological group-differentiating complex of craniometrical and odontological traits with the markers of mitochondrial DNA.

A clinal distribution of genetic markers or anthropological features in the Asian part of Eurasia was disrupted by historical events that caused movements of large groups of people, and for the most part these events do not have written information. We only have elements of material culture, often borrowed from neighbors and not always indicative of the change in population, and morphology of the humans, i.e., the anthropological type, the arrival of which outside the range of its formation is the most accurate evidence of migration. The study conducts:

1. Generalization and systematization of paleoanthropological material of archaeological cultures in accordance with the present state of archaeological sources.

2. A detailed account of the studied ancient Altai-Sayan highlands population groups by two systems of physical traits - odontological and craniometrical. This portion of the study fills gaps in the factual material needed for reconstruction of the race and culture forming processes reflected in the anthropological evidence in the unique historical, cultural, and geographical region.

3. Determination of population and super-population epochal and local trends in variability of anthropological traits and their complexes in the southern region of Siberia.

4. Identifying anthropologically close groups in terms of craniometric and odontological traits to determine geographical, historical, and cultural space where flowed common race-forming processes.

5. Isolation of main morphological components, i.e. craniological types, of the Altai-Sayan highlands' population within anthropological composition of the Southern Siberia region, and their taxonomic assessment.

6. Comparison of the paleoanthropological analysis findings with conclusions of the archaeological research.

Investigation studied paleoanthropological materials found in the past two decades in the Southern region of Western Siberia for Neolithic (6th - 5th mill. BC), Early Metal (2nd mill. BC - 300AD), Bronze (35/33 13/11 cc. BC) and Early Iron Age (12 . . . - 300AD).

Paleoanthropological material for the ancient population of southern Siberia varies for the archaeological eras of their cultural and chronological periods and individual cultures. For the Neolithic period (6th - 5th mill. BC) is typical dispersed distribution of single fragmentary finds in a wide chronological range across the whole region, originating in single burials or small cemeteries. Such material is difficult for traditional anthropological analysis. Researcher is forced to accept typological characteristics of individual findings and often attribute them to the individual characteristics of a hypothetical group (paleopopulation or a group of paleopopulations) as a whole. There are problems in applying methods of group comparison by statistical analysis, since a sample formed from singular and scattered over a vast area materials does not meet representation criteria. They also rather are not probabilistic, i.e., based on random and equiprobable selection of individuals from general population (paleopopulation or a group of paleopopulations) that allow production of more or less accurate conclusions about population as a whole. Therefore, a special attention is paid to the formation principles of the Neolithic samples (6th - 5th mill. BC) fir the analyzed and compared material.

In the post-Neolithic Era (post-5th mill. BC), the situation for the researcher improves. The cultures discovered by the present in the region and adjacent areas are mainly represented by skeletal material from large and fully excavated burials, which allows use of population-based approach in the methodological toolbox.

The territorial scope of the study includes forest-steppe regions of the West Siberian Plain, and some of the Altai-Sayan mountain country. The territories of archaeological cultures in this study are geographically located in the landscape region of forest-steppe zone between Irtysh and Enisei, punctuated by areas of steppes and mountains. Territories have continental climate. The contact region of modern continuous taiga and forest-steppe zone can be taken as a conditional northern boundary of the region. The paleoanthropological material retrospectively and modern comes from multiple zones. The forest-steppe zone extending from the Urals to Enisei is punctuated by areas of steppes in the West Siberian Plain, in the Altai foothills, and in the Kuznetsk Basin. Mountains separate the steppes between Ob and Enisei, namely the Biy, Kuznetsk, Achinsk, Minusinsk, Abakan, Krasnoyarsk, and Kansk steppes, into separate island sections. The steppes are located at different topographic levels, with a variety of morphological and climatic conditions, so they are very different one from another. At the western foothills of the Altai and Salair ridge ends the latitudinal extension of the steppe and forest-steppe zones, and begins to appear the high-altitude zone. In the Altai-Sayan mountains high-altitude belt occupies a large mountain area, with significant differences in this belt between the Altai, Sayan, and Eastern Tuva Highlands.

The local landscape variety in the Western Siberia southern region largely predetermined development of ethno-cultural processes and facets of anthropological outcome in the different regions which produced paleoanthropological materials: Baraba province of the West Siberian Plain, Altai area of the Altai-Sayan mountain1233 country, Sayan-Tuva area of the Altai- Sayan mountain country.

Justification for the choice of this region is in numerously proven connection across its space of the cultural, ethnic, political, and race-forming processes. Therefore, the targeted study of the dynamics in anthropological composition of southern Western Siberia population, if possible, considers this process in the context of synchronic and diachronic race-forming ethnogenetic events in this region and in the adjacent territories. To implement this aspect of the study, the author can rely on personal anthropological examinations of a number of groups that represent population in a fairly wide range of archaeological cultures within the southern regions of Siberia (a registry of studied and used paleoanthropological materials is compiled in tabular form). The comparative anthropological parameters from other researchers, obtained from publications, is compiled as a listing with indication of archaeological context.

Accumulated to date experience in research of the southern Western Siberia archaeological cultures, and dispersion and dynamics of the population's anthropological composition indicates that differentiation of craniological complexes and culture-forming processes in this region were zonal. Consequently, the areas of the synchronously developing cultures, and the areas of the anthropological communities were overlapping and interlaced, and sometimes stretched widely, not only across the whole Siberia (e.g., cultures of Okunev and Karasuk circle) but also across the entire Eurasian continent (cultures of Andronov and Scytho-Siberian Cultural Communities). This conditioned the multipartite composition of the cultures and anthropological conglomeration of their people. Therefore, very important methodological principle in the study of southern Siberia is to examine widest synchronous profiles of the population's anthropological composition against background of diachronic data. Only in that case can be achieved anthropological reconstructions that objectively reflect dynamics of the race-forming processes associated with stability, evolutionary transformations, or blending of different physical complexes.

Methodology of the study. Anthropological study of population's composition in any region with complicated ethnic and cultural history at least on some stages requires to sort out taxonomic problems. The analyzed populations are classed according to their morphological similarity, that is they are systematically classified. From the classifications are built hypotheses on the origin of the population exemplified by paleoanthropological material in the study area and in the study period. The possibility of taxonomic analysis for the modern samples of Homo sapiens is supported by an assumption of anthropologically (morphologically) discrete composition of humanity. Before the end of the 1950s, that was a basic tenet in the methodology of the anthropological science. At present, many aspects of the mankind intraspecific differentiation are the subject of debate.

The assumption of anthropologically (morphologically) discrete composition of humanity has never crystallized into concise definition of any race, on every race coexist many conflicting definitions, and the absence of discrete morphological composition is predicated on the absence of discrete genetical composition. Every parameter advocated as defining for a race spills over into other races, or is not universal in the ascribed race, invalidating it as a scientific criteria. And because race is defined as a set of certain parameters, the combination of non-discrete parameters results not in a point, but in a cloud of indeterminable size.

Of great importance for overcoming the negative attitude of anthropologists (referring to anthropology in a broad sense as a general science of mankind that combines knowledge of a variety of the natural sciences and the humanities) to the idea of  biologically discrete humanity are the results of anthropo-ecological direction of research. Formation and development of this direction in the domestic anthropology is associated with the name of Tatyana Ivanovna Alexeeva (1928 2007). In the anthropo-ecological perspective, the evolution of humanity as a whole, the history of human populations, and even the lives of individuals are seen as a series of dynamic adaptation processes to the changing environmental conditions, which determine the polymorphism of the Homo sapiens species. The methodological principle of ecological variability of human populations as a leading factor of the anthropological differentiation of humanity is the basis for this research.

The concept of environmental adaptation was formulated by T.Alexeeva in 1964, and was actively developed afterwards, but went out of use with the emergence of modern genetics and understanding the genetic nature of the inheritance mechanism. On the timescale of this work, environmental adaptation as a race-forming mechanism is negligible. For example, even such minor modification as the development of the critical for the survival of horse husbandry nomads lactose tolerance deviancy took 6,000 years, or 240 generations, to extend to more than 50% of the population. To reach 50% of the population over 240 generations, half of the people had to die of starvation without propagating their normal intolerance. And if it took 120 generations to double the proportion from 25% to 50%, hypothetically it would take another 120 generations to go from 50% to 75%, provided that all environmental effects remain the same, which is a wildly unrealistic assumption. With the role of milk as a remedy from starvation exhausted, the proportion of lactose tolerant people would remain stable indefinitely long, as long as conditions remain the same, which in reality they never are.

And lactose is a simplified example, dependent on only on a single mutation. The color of the skin and eyes is much more complicated, involving at least four independent mutations. After 150,000 years of travel out of Africa, or 6,000 generations, we still have way more brown eyes then blue eyes, and no magenta.

Essentially, the idea of of environmental adaptation down to individual level was an extension and perversion of the Marxist social postulate that social status determines consciousness on a class and individual level.

One of the major questions in anthropological study of mankind is linked with a role of social factors in the differentiation. From the point of view of many researchers in both physical and cultural anthropology, with the development of the material culture the feasibility of race formation (i.e. formation of discrete complexes of anthropological traits) with the increasing role of the artificial environment is decreased, and at the end, in historical times, this process has stopped. Standardization of the artificial environment that largely replaced natural surroundings of humanity promotes biological integration of humanity. Change in the boundaries of the modern human populations, and growth of the racial mixing processes leads to gradual erosion of the mankind's morphological differentiation boundaries in the racially mixed group that. emerged in the historical period do not have new features, occupy interte position between the original types, and therefore can not be races.

This is another extension and perversion of the Marxist social postulate, probably influenced by racist and religious ideas on  us as a pinnacle and them as lesser creatures, applied to biology. In the example of lactose tolerance, the totally intolerant race is separated from 50% tolerant race by 240 generations; every generation could have claimed to be a pinnacle of evolution where evolution stops. But it never did. Geographical isolation was a temporary event in the history of any group of people, it had a start, and it inevitably had an end, returning to the evolutionary status of racial mixing. We all occupy interte position between the original types, whatever they are, and therefore can not be races.

A particular point of view on this problem was developed in the mid-1970s by Valery Pavlovich Alekseev (Alexeev, 1976, 1977). It was the fact that social factors - in particular the level of development of productive forces and associated level of social development, social stratification of society, prevailing in different societies marriage traditions, ethnic boundaries, political boundaries, socio-psychological patterns of behavior - contribute to the humanity biological differentiation predicated by genetic barriers they create. Inside the mixing or mixed populations the insulating factors grow more effective, and stable complexes heritable morphological traits are formed. This view has been subjected to criticism, which denied conceptually any chance for race formation at the present stage of human development. In reality, we do observe epochal changes in the anthropology of humanity, finding physical types that emerged relatively recently - in the Middle Ages.

The differentiating role of social factors in anthropological divergence of humanity is laid as the basis for this work, as one of the most important methodological principles.

If that was true, it would wrongly invalidate the whole study.

At a stage in investigation, inevitably comes up a problem of finding physical markers for the detected complexes that correspond to segments in the anthropological classifications. In this regard is important understanding of the race or physical type (phenotype) as a historical category, as an episode of emerging form existing at a particular time interval. It is important to emphasize that the paleoanthropological material can neither be limited to the scope of contemporary racial diversity of humanity, nor reduced to the major adaptive complexes of the Upper Paleolithic - Mesolithic (primary races). The history of racial complexes does not have a single direction - it is not an evolutionary process leading entire population to the modern races: some races have disappeared, some have survived, but carry features of epochal shifts (gracilization, brachiocephalization), there are races resulted from mixing of formerly existing distinct racial complexes, and finally, there are races that have survived unchanged for millennia.

The concept of primary races is resting on the vision of contemporary racial diversity of humanity projected back into the Upper . Probably, the Paleolithic - Mesolithic people would define primary races quite differently.

And it is logical that sooner or later, unveiling potential inherent in the paleoanthropological materials raises a need to define new taxons to systemize the ancient cranial types. This issue arose before the author in interpretation of paleoanthropological parameters from the territory of Siberia. A methodological approach to solving the issue became an understanding of race or physical anthropological type as a historical category.

Correction of the existing anthropological classification for ancient cranial types, inevitable with the spectral expansion of the morphological trait complexes, is needed in principle, and also in respect to the application: without a corrected system, researchers often do not understand each other, embedding in the same formulations quite different meanings.

This paper summarizes new materials on paleo-anthropology of the southern region in Western Siberia. It identifies epochal, regional, and local trends in formation of a wide range of anthropological cultures. It introduces into scientific circulation new anthropological data, and obtained from its interpretation results extend the possibilities for the studies of race- and ethnogenesis of indigenous peoples of Siberia, allowing forge an objective foundation for many reconstructions related to the formation of the archeological cultures. These materials are a valuable base for improving morphological diversity classification for ancient and modern human groups.
 

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Abbreviations (not proofread)

ASU Altai State University
AJ - Anthropological Journal
AD - archaeological discoveries
SPU Barnaul State Pedagogical University
VDI Bulletin of ancient history
BAH. BA Anthropology Matters
IEA Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology
KZIA Brief reports of the Institute of Archaeology
KZIE Brief reports of the Institute of Ethnography
BZIHMC Brief reports of the Institute of History of Material Culture
IFSP Institute of Northern Development
MSU Moscow State University
MIA materials and research on the archeology of the USSR
MNEPU International Independent Ecological-
RIYLL Research Institute of Language and Literature History
OSU Omsk State University
RAJ Russian anthropological jurnal.
SA Soviet arheology.
SE Soviet ethnography
TGU Tomsk State University
TIE Proceedings of the Institute of Ethnography
STACE South Turkmenistan Archaeological Complex Expedition

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