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Shamsiddin Sirojiddin ogly Kamoliddin
The Samanids
The First Islamic Local Dynasty in Central Asia
LAP Lambert Acad. Publ., Tashkent, 2011, ISBN 3844320989, 9783844320985
2011 Kamoliddin Shamsiddin Sirojiddin Ogly, 2011  LAP Lambert Acad. Publ.
Links
https://books.google.com/books?id=teLSygAACAAJ
Download
Ancient Türkic Toponyms of the Middle Asia, 2006, Download English version and Russian zip file
Posting Introduction

Sh. S. Kamoliddin digs into the layer few researchers ventured to investigate, and wields a shovel few researchers attempted to lift. Even now, few of the researchers digesting Chinese annals connect the Chinese calque Da Yuan 大宛 with its original name Greater Ionia, an Alexander Macedonian's creation in the land of the Saka Scythians. The tiny Greek colony, amalgamated with the surrounding largely ranching Türkic population, grew to become Dayuan and Dawan and Davan of the Chinese aspirations, and the Türkic Fergana, the name still carrying an echo of the Ionians that nearly vanished from the Greek memories. The tiny Greek offshoot blossomed under umbrellas of Kangars and Huns, played a significant role in their fates, and withstood vicissitudes of fate that brought it to the apogee in the Central Asian history, ruling its Persian provinces from the centers in Bukhara and Samarkand.

Reading form the agitprops of the self-admiring pundits, a reader would never have a chance to catch on to the real history, to learn the who-is-who of the personalities that shaped much of the regional history and its impact on the global events. As is often the case with any slogan-driven depictions, the picture is not just distorted, it is also robbed of the beauty, complexity and intricacy, turning a mosaic of volume, color, and forms into an iconic flat caricature. The extent of the Samanid Empire far exceeds its footprint in Central Asia, Afganistan, and Persia, it rises into cultural, linguistic, literary, and religious spheres of the entire area, it gives the Arab Caliphate its staying power, it shaped ideology of rule that still governs the area and drives the modern events. It paved a path from the Early Middle Age to the modern Neo-Middle Age isles. The seeds sown by the Late Antique ambitions of adventurists and misfits created opportunities for the later adventurists to give a shine to the pages of history. The work of Sh. S. Kamoliddin returns some shine to the withered icons.

A tracing of the personal origin is bringing to light previously asserted but unadvertised gems. They are connected with the real origin of the examined leadership, real fabrics of the cultural, linguistic, literary, and religious developments. That fabrics carries distinct imprint of the Türkic culture, and within the immediate circle of the closely-knit society, of the Türkic traditions and attitudes. In an hour of trouble, a reverse flow finds safety in native penates. The work of Sh. S. Kamoliddin is a best illustration of the immortal adage No Türks without aliens as no hats without a head (Mahmud Kashgari II 281).

A reader will encounter too many insights to list. Among the most interesting are:
  For the Middle Age Türks, Middle East was not a separate landmass, as was perceived by certain protagonists, it was a part of their Eurasian belt with first historically described major players As-Kuzu Scythians, then Parthians and the Partho-Sassanian confederacy, Samanids, Horezmian confederacy, and then Mongolian and Seljuk empires;
  The Dark Ages-cum-Middle Ages was the era of the Türkic world order, where Inner Asia formed the core and the Europe, China and the Middle East merely a periphery;
  No Sinocentric or Eurocentric writer could ever admit that in the grand scheme of things their world was of secondary importance and that their despised nomadic steppe barbarians were at one stage their superiors and overlords
  Sh. S. Kamoliddin cracks open a curtain into the world of sedentary Türks, to the decrepitly explored world of settled economy that was an organic continuation of the world of pastoral economy, the world distinct and self-contained, free and dynamic, the world with unique skill in running two-legged and four-legged creatures.

Page numbers are shown at the end of the page in blue. Posting notes and explanations, added to the text of the author, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes, or highlighted by blue headers. The academic text follows a combination of precedent academic conventions and modern colloquial pronunciation that straddles the wall of accessibility, to help that, the unusual forms are translated to pronounceable English and shown in parentheses in (blue italics): Khwarazm (Horezm) etc.

CONTENTS
Preface 5
Chapter 1. Saman-Khudat
The Sasanids and the Türks 9
Bahram Chubin 19
Genealogy of Saman-Khudat 26
Saman-Khudat 34
Balkh 41
Pre-Islamic cults in Central Asia 50
Symbolics of the Samanids 61
Anscestral possession of Saman-Khudat 71
Djabba-Khan 74
Medallion of Mansur ibn Nuh 79
Saman-Yabgu 87
Saman-Khudat's Father 91
rquq 96
Kakuldar 99
Chapter 2. The Samanids  
Samanids and the Oguz Türks 105
Samanids and the al-Shuubiyya movement 110
Samanids and sacred wars against the Türks 118
Samanids and the Shiites 129
Chapter 3. Bukhara a capital of the Samanids  
Pre-Islamic rulers of Bukhara 139
Etymology of the place-name Bukhara 147
Ancient Turkic toponymy of the Bukhara oasis 152
Ethnic situation in Bukhara oasis during Early Middle Ages 155
Material culture of Türks in Bukhara 161
Arab conquest 164
Ethnic situation in Central Asia during Samanid epoch 169
Concept Türk in medieval sources 182
Chapter 4. Samanid Government  
Samanid Administration 189
Samanids and local nobility 192
Türks in Samanid administration 195
Legal status of Samanids 202
Expressions of statehood 208
Relations of Samanids with Caliphs 217
Titles of the Samanids 219
Chapter 5. Central Asian Literature during Samanid rule  
Islamic Renaissance Epoch 231
Samanids and Persian culture 234
Türks and Persian culture 239
New Persian language and literature 243
Turkic rulers and development of the New Persian literature 249
Arabic language and literature 255
Local languages and cultures 257
The Turkic language 263
The Türks and the Islamic culture 268
Türkic-Islamic literature 274
Conclusion 281
References (Bibliography) 287
Abbreviations 369
Transliteration 374
Appendix  
Sources on Samanid genealogy 375
Family tree of Bahram Chubin 377
Family tree of Saman-Khudat 379
Family tree of the Samanid dynasty 380
List of recent publications on Samanids 381
Indexes  
Index of geographical and topographical names 384
Index of proper names 409
Index of clans and dynasties 441
Index of titles and honorific names 444
Index of ethnic names 452
Index of religions and religious communities 460
Index of terms and untranslated words 463
Index of titles of compositions 476
   
Shamsiddin Sirojiddin ogly Kamoliddin
The Samanids
The First Islamic Local Dynasty in Central Asia

5

PREFACE

In a medieval history of Central Asia, as it is known, a special place belongs to the Samanid dynasty, whose numerous members in the 3rd4th/9th10th centuries ruled in Bukhara and other cities and areas of Khurasan (Khorasan) and Mawaraan-nahr [Frye 1993: 136161; Bosworth 1971: 145147; Negmatov 1977]. There is plenty of historical data in textual sources on the reign of the Samanids, on political, economical situation, and cultural life of that period. However the origin of this dynasty till now remains uncertain [Frye 1993: 136]. Many researchers consider that the dynasty of the Samanids is of the Persian origin [Bosworth 1995: 1025; Belenitsky 1999: 1924; Browne 1997: 207, 352; Lane-Poole 1899: 107] and originated from the Sasanid dynasty [al-Zirikli I: 290; Gafurov 1958: 5155; Gafurov 1957: 23]. It is reflected in the works of other researchers [Perry 2003: 118; Manz 2003: 80; Golden 1992: 192] and almost in all encyclopedic editions [Samanids 1948: 40; Samanids 1956: 916917; Samaniden 1996 XIX: 75; Samanides 1964: SAL; Buchner 1997: 140; Daniel 1988: 371]. Some researchers called them a dynasty of local [Sourdel 1996: 728] or Türkic-Iranian (Afghani) origin [Louis 1984: 41]. Therefore definition of a true and real origin of the Samanid dynasty is one of the most actual problems both for the historical science of Uzbekistan, and for the world's historical and oriental studies.

Information about Samanids could be found almost in all of the Arabian and Persian textual sources on the history of Central Asia of the pre-Mongol period.1 There is a lot of valuable data about Samanids in geographical and biographical works of 4th6th/10th12th centuries2 and other textual sources.3 There is information about existence of a special work devoted to the history of the Samanid dynastyTarikh Al-i Saman (History of the House of Saman) which did not survive till the present day [Bayhaqi: 175; Hafiz-i Tanish I: 222]. Some important data about Samanids can be found in some sources of the post-Mongol period.

1 For example, in such historical works as Tarikh-i Bukhara by al-Narshakhi, Tarikh Murudj al-Dhahab wa Maadin l-Djawhar by l-sudi, djarib l-Umam by Ibn Miskawayh, Zayn al-Akhbar by Gardizi, Tarikh al-Yamini by al-Utbi, Chahar Maqala by Nizami Arudi Samarqandi, al-Kamil fi-l-Tarikh by Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh-i Masud by Abu-l-Fadl Bayhaqi, Tarikh al-Rusul wa-l-Muluk by al-Tabari and its continuations (dhayl), the Persian translation and additions of al-Balami to the work of al-Tabari, Lubb al-Albab by Awfi, etc.
2 These are the works of the Arabic geographers of 4th/10th century: Kitab al-Buldan by Ibn al-Faqih, Kitab al-Kharadj by Qudama ibn Djafar, Masalik al-Mamalik by al-Istakhri, Surat al-Ard by Ibn Hawqal, Ahsan al-Taqasim ila Marifat al-Aqalim by al-Muqaddasi, and also Hudud al-Alam, al-nsab by Abu Sad al-Samani, al-Qnd fi Dhikr Ulama Samarqand by Abu Hafs al-Nasafi, Mudjam al-Buldan by Yaqut al-Hamawi, al-Lubab fi Tadhhib al-Ansab by Ibn al-Athir, etc.
3 For example, al-Athar al-Baqiya ani-l-Qurun al-Khaliya by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Fadail-i Balkh by al-Balkhi, Siyasat-Nama by Nizam al-Mulk, Kitab al-Dhakhair wa-l-Tuhaf by Ibn al-Zubayr, etc.
6

Many of them are valuable, because they were borrowed from earlier textual sources, which have not survived.4 In the work on a general history Rawdat al-Safa by Mirkhwand (9th/15th c.) there is special section devoted to the history of the Samanids [Mirkhwand]. Valuable information about Samanid dynasty also comes from their rich numismatics, which, being a documental source, provides supplements and corrections for the data of the textual sources.

The ancestor of the dynasty Saman-Khudat has appeared for the first time on the political arena in the first quarter of the 2nd/8th century, when he came from Balkh to Marw to the Arabian governor of Khurasan (Khorasan) Asad ibn Abd Allah al-Qasri (or al-Qushayri)5 and asked him to help against his enemies in Balkh. His enemies could be the Turgash (Turgesh) tribes in the vicinity of Balkh [Daniel 1988: 371372]. Having received from him the required help and having restored his position, Saman-Khudat with his assistance accepted Islam and named his son Asad in his honor. Later, together with his son, he took part in the revolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan (Khorasan) [al-Zirikli I: 290; Frye 1993: 136]. Subsequently, his son Asad served at the court of al-Mamun6 during his stay in Marw as a governor of Khurasan (Khorasan). Together with him in the court of al-Mamun also served the descendants of the pre-Islamic kings of the Sughd (Sogd)al-Ihshid al-Sughdi and Shabib ibn Bukhar-Khudad al-Balkhi [al-Djahiz: 75]. The grandsons of Saman-Khudat, the sons of AsadNuh, Ahmad, Yahya and Ilyas took part in suppression of the Rafi ibn al-Layth revolt (190195/806810) in Central Asia [Narshakhi: 69] and have persuaded him to surrender to the authorities. For these merits, before his departure from Marw to Bagdad, al-Mamun has ordered to appoint them as governors. So, in 204/819-20 they were appointed as viceroys in some cities of Mawaraannahr: Nuh in Samarqand (Samarkand), Ahmad in Farghana (Fergana), Yahya in al-Shash (Chach, Tashkent) and Ustrushana, and Ilyas in Harat (Herat) under the Tahirids, the governors of Khurasan (Khorasan) [Negmatov 1977: 18]. Ilyas ibn Asad was outstanding military commander, he played an important role in the army of the Tahirids and in 212/827-28 was appointed a viceroy of Alexandria in Egypt [Bartold 1963a: 267; Bartold 1963a: 223].

4 From such sources, for example Bahr al-Asrar fi Manaqib al-Akhyar by Mahmud ibn Wali, Tarikh-i Guzida by Hamd Allah Qazwini, Habib al-Siyar by Khwandamir, Mirat al-Adwar wa Marhat al-Aghyar by al-Lari, Abd Allah-Nama by Hafiz-i Tanish, Oguz-Nama by Rashid al-Din, Waqf (Nasab)-Nama of Ismail ibn Ahmad al-Samani, al-Nudjum al-Zahira by Ibn Taghri-Bardi, etc.
5 Abu Mundhir Asad ibn Abd Allah al-Qasrigovernor of Djurdjan (Gurgan, Hyrcania) in 98/716-17, and then of Khurasan (Khorasan) in 106109/724728 and 117/735; died in 120/737-38.
6 al-Mamun the son of Harun al-Rashid, in 182198/798812 the governor of Khurasan (Khorasan) with residence in Marw, and in 198218/813833 the Caliph with residence in Bagdad.
7

In textual sources is mentioned one more son of Saman-KhudatIshaq ibn Saman, who was in the service of Zuhayr ibn al-Musayyab al-Dabi7, the military commander of al-Mamun, who appointed him a viceroy of Sistan before Shawwal of 193 AH/July of 809 AD [Tarikh-i Sistan: 180, 495]. Other medieval sources do not mention his name. Possibly, he took part in the suppression of Kharidjit revolt in Sistan led by Hamza al-Kharidji (179195/795811) and was killed. In medieval sources is also mentioned a certain Salama ibn Saman al-Bukhari, and in medieval Bagdad a site was called with his name. There was a mosque al-Bukhariyya (i.e. of the Bukharians) with a green minaret [al-Jakubi: 247; Tskitishvili 1986: 80].

The clan name of the Samanid dynasty is connected with the name or the title of their ancestor Saman-Khudat, who was the founder and the owner of the settlement called Saman (سامان) located, according to sources, in the Balkh region [Hamzae Ispahanensis: 237; Narshakhi: 132], or Samarqand (Samarkand) [al-Moqaddasi: 337338; Jaut III: 13] or Tirmidh [Semenov 1955: 311].

7 Zuhayr ibn al-Musayyab al-Dabi the son of al-Musayyab ibn Zuhayr, who in 130/747-48 was military commander of Qahtaba ibn Shabib, one of the colleagues of Abu Muslim, and in 163/779-80 he was the governor of Khurasan (Khorasan).
8, 9

Chapter One SAMAN-KHUDAT

The Sasanids and the Türks

Textual sources contain conflicting information on the origin of Saman-Khudat. According to some information [Masoudi II: 5; al-Moqaddasi: 337338; Jacut III: 13], he was a descendant of the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Bahram V Gur (r. 420438 AD)8 or Khusraw I Anushirwan (r. 531579 AD) [al-Zirikli I: 290]. However a majority of the sources ascend his genealogy to Bahram Chubin (6th century AD) [Hudud al-Alam: 102; al-Istakhri: 143, 292; Ibn Haukal: 468; Narshakhi: 133; Mirkhwand: 113; Gafurova 1992: 63], who was a military commander of the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Hurmazd9 IV (r. 579590 AD) and initially was a Marzban of Arminiya and Adharbaydjan (Azerbajan) [al-Dinwari: 81]10, and then of Rey and Khurasan (Khorasan) [Masoudi: 213]. There is also information that Bahram Chubin was of a Turkic origin of the Oguz Türks in the service of Sasanids [Gumilev 1967: 162; Rizo 1955: 152].

It is known that Bahram Chubin claimed to be a descendant of the Arshacids from the noble Parthian family Mihran11 from Rey [l-Masudi: 102, 155; Firdausī 1952: 282], and had a second name Mihrbandak [Shahbazi 1989: 519], i.e. the slave of Mihr (in the Armenian sourcesMihrevandak [Ter-Mkrtichan 1979: 58]). Bahram Chubin was a son of Bahram Gushnasp [Shahbazi 1989: 520] Djushanas [Biruni 1957: 52], Djushnas [al-Dinawari: 81], Djashnas [Ibn Haukal: 472], or Hasis, the son of Kuzak [Gardizi: 62]), who was a Marzban of Adharbaydjan (Azerbajan) during the reign of Khusraw I Anushirwan (r. 531579 AD). According to other data, he was a descendent of Bahram IV Kirman-Shah [Tarikh-i-Guzida: 120].

Kuzak, Kazak, Cossack - Türkic  generic for freelancing mercenary
Kirman - Türkic for fortress, fortification

8 Bahram Djur the name accepted in the Islamic tradition for the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Varahran V Gur (r. 420438 AD). The Middle Persian (Pahlavi) name Varahran originated from a name of the Avestian god of victory Varathragna. In the Middle Ages the name of Bahram was widespread among the Türks too [Shami: 54, 70].
9 In medieval sources this name is cited in the form of Hurmuz or Hurmuzd; in the scientific literature it is accepted in form Hormizd or Hormuzd. As this name occurs on behalf of Ahura Mazda, the Supreme deity of the Zoroastrian pantheon, in our opinion, it should be read in form of Hurmazd.
10 Nizam al-Mulk called Bahram Chubin as wazir of the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Khusraw II Parwiz (r. 590628 AD) [Siyasat-Nama: 75].
11 In the ancient Parthia except the Arshacids were 7 other noble familiesren Pahlav (in Nihawand), Suren Pahlav (in Sistan), Ispahpat Pahlav (in Gurgan), Spandiyat, ihran (in Rey), Zik and some others, who saved their high position during the Sasanids reign too [Simokatta: 93; Diakonov 1961: 195, 283].
10

According to the Byzantine sources, Varam, the son of Bargusn (i.e. Bahram Chubin) originated from Razaken (Rey), from the house of Mirram (Mihran) of the Arshacids family. In the beginning of his career he served in the detachment of Shahan-Shah royal body-guards, later he commanded a cavalry squadron, and took part in military campaigns of Khusraw I Anushirwan against Babylon and Armenia. He became famous because of his military feats during the war. Then he was appointed as a general commander (commander-in-chief) of the Persian army and was honored by a high title Darigbedum of the kings table [Simokatta: 9394].

The origin of the Arshacids is connected with the Central Asian nomadic tribes of the Scythian circle [DA: 90; Bartold 1971: 422], in antique sources they were known under a general name Dahae (i.e. the Dahs) (Tokhars, Tuhsi) [Pigulevskaya 1958: 28]. The Dahae tribes were also mentioned in the ancient Persian inscriptions as one of the tribes of the Saka confederation, in the Syr-Darya lower basin, in the 3rd century BC they expanded to the south, to the borders of Parthia [Vaynberg 1999: 207, 261] (There was no Parthia when Parthians expanded). The Chirik-Rabat material culture along Jana-Darya in the Eastern Aral region was attributed to the Dahae tribes [Mambetullaev 2004: 100101]. Their initial territory corresponds to the land of the Saka Tigrahauda, i.e. the Sakas with bonnet hats, mentioned among the Persian subjects in the area of Aral Lake, identified with the Massagets of the ancient Greek authors [Piankov 1968: 16].

Having come to power in Parthia, the Arshacids have not lost their ties with nomadic steppe, just the opposite, they actively supported them with political marriages and alliances, moreover, some of the Arshacids emphasized their origin from nomadic milieu [Olbrycht 2003: 98]. The Arshacid coins frequently feature a sitting man in nomadic dress with a bow in outstretched right arm [Lapshin 1999: 80, 86]. The bow type is close to the Hunnic bows, the best bows of the end of the 1st millennium BC.12 Under Arshacids, the base of the Parthians army consisted of Central Asian mercenary nomads [Nikonorov 2005: 142].

The Sasanids, just as the Parthians, widely practiced involvement of military forces of the neighboring Barbarian tribes. The use of the nomads' military potential provided at the same time a continuous control over them [Wright 2005: 1531]. There is some information about the Türks taking part in military campaigns of the Ahemenids against their enemies.13 In the 4th century AD the Sasanids used Khionites in the war against Byzantine.

12 Such type of bows is also called Hunnic-Parthian bow [Kradin 2000: 10].
13 Ancient Türks, who had rich traditions in the art of war, served as mercenaries in the armies of different countries. According to the Armenian sources, the Ahemenid king Cyrus army partly sonsisted of the Turkic troops [r-krtichyan 1985: 66]; according to the Hebrew manuscript from the ancient city Yeb (Elephantine, 494407 BC) in Egypt, the 5th century BC Achaemenids' military campaign against Egypt was headed by a Khwarizmian (Horezmian) Türk called Dragman, a son of Kharchin [Meyer 1912: 28; Togan 1981: 416, n. 124].

Karaşin is still in use as a surname, there is even a historical "beylik" with similar name, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karasids, its etymology is speculative, with a few options.

Dragman...? Toraman, Tarkan, Tonga..  some common Turkic names for princes, etc.

11

In 502 AD, the Shahan-Shah Kawad in alliance with Hephtalites (Ephtalites) troops campaigned against Byzantine again, and in 503 AD Hephtalites (Ephtalites) fought against Huns in the Caucasus. In 527532 AD Sasanids used Sawir (Savir, Suvar) tribes in war against Byzantine. Khusraw I Anushirwan also widely practiced settling of warlike tribes on the borders of the empire to create permanent barriers to aggressive nomads [Kolesnikov 1981: 53; Diakonov 1961: 312]. So, according to al-Masudi, he has built the city of Bab al-Abwab (Darband), and also a 40 farsakh-long (7km/farsakh, 300 km long, an unreal statement for a really short wall) wall against infidels and has settled near each of its gates the tribes of Khazars, Alans, various Türk clans, and al-Sarir tribes (probably, Sawir (Savir, Suvar)) (Sary, of Alan/Sarmat circle, the once leading tribe of the Onogur confederation) for protection from aggressive nomads [Masoudi II: 2].

The Masudi's interpretation is faulty, and repeating it without disclaimer is not couth. Masudi describes warlike nomadic tribes as hapless peasants that can be showed around, settled, and resettled, and in the same sentence calls the same nomadic tribes aggressive nomads. The Türkic nomadic tribes of Scythians, Masguts (Massagets, Alans), Huns, Kayis, Khazars, and Sary (Sary Ogur) controlled S. Caucasus long before Kawad's intrusion, they had a long-established system of interdependencies and hierarchy long before Kawad ventured to push them out from their land. Kawad's seeding strife between Persia and its nomadic neighbors froze a conflict that eventually made Persia vulnerable to the conquest by a far inferior intruder.

Sawir (Savir, Suvar) of Sabir tribes (Savirai) are mentioned in the geographical work of Cl.Ptolemaeus [Petrov 2004: 84]. Michael the Syrian (12th c. AD) blamed the fateful practice of the Persian kings of attracting Turkic groups as mercenaries, because after returning home they aroused their compatriots by stories about the riches of the Near East cities and provoked bloody nomadic invasions [Mokrynin 2004: 69].

Michael the Syrian (12th c. AD) probably was not aware that in the 7th c. BC the same nomads ruled most of the Near East, and were quite familiar with its geography and capabilities. The international reach and experience of the Türkic nomadic tribes is well documented by the Classical writers.

The Arabian writer al-Djahiz wrote that in their country, Türks fight not for their religion, not for their king and not for al-kharadj (tax on agricultural land, i.e. sedentary peasants), not for tribal unity or for possession of women, not for defense of native land ot their houses, and not for money, but solely to extract war booty [al-Djahiz: 82]. According to Ibn Hawqal, a part of the Türks from the Badjnaq (Bechen, Bosnyak) (بجنق) tribe in ancient times left their country and went to al-Andalus (الاندلس), then they came to al-Bardzaa (Barza) (البرذعة), i.e. Parthia [Ibn Hawqal: 15]. In that, can be seen an echo of the real events that took place in the ancient times, namely during a formative epoch of the Parthian kingdom founded by the nomadic tribes at the end of the 3rd century BC.

 Barza (البرذعة) is also a toponym in proximity to lake Uremia, and probably refers to numerous other locations. A group of Goths-Alans in the 5th c. from Africa may have reached Persia, a more likely scenario.

The viceroys of the frontier regions where Iranian were not in majority (Khionites, Hephtalites (Ephtalites), Khazars, Türks, Armenians, Georgians, etc.) had a high Iranian title Marzban defender of the border, and belonged to the estate of high military officials at the Sasanid court [Kolesnikov 1981: 49, 54, 55]. One of the most closed confidants of Khusraw I Anushirwan was an Hephtalite (Ephtalite) called Katulf [Trever 1950: 141]. The Anushirwan's court included emissaries from various kings: Türks, Chinese, and Khazars [at-Tabari II: 899]. The bulls of the Sasanid high officials with bulla seals of the 3rd beginning of the 4th centuries AD from the Balkh settlement Djiga-Tepa depicted Türks [Kruglikov 1984: 141151].
12

Some of the Sasanid seals of the 5th7th centuries AD depict typical Turkic faces and Turkic symptomatic accessories,14 and also scenes in the so-called animal style, assuredly not typical for Iranians, but typical for the Türkic people.15 In the 4th/10th century the Turkic tribes Khalach and Kandjina in Tukharistan (Tokharistan) were considered to be the descendants of the Hephtalites (Ephtalites) (al-Haytal) [al-Horezmi: (al-Horezmi) 119].

There are no doubts that Kushans, Khionites, and Kidarits, like the Hephtalites (Ephtalites) and the Türks were related people of the Central Asia and adjacent territories. In the Avesta, the enemies of the of Zarathustra (Zoroaster) religion are called Khionites, who have appeared only in the 4th century AD. Obviously, the Avesta text originally used another ethnographic name. In this respect, the Iranian (i.e. Persian) epos went even further, and in the 6th century AD replaced the Khionites with the Türks. Another version, attributed to the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, instead of the Türks still used the name Khionites [Bartold 1971: 390392].

It is known that Khusraw I Anushirwan was married to a Turkic princess called Kayen [Ter-Mkrtichian 1979: 57], a daughter of the Türkic Kagan [at-Tabari I: 899]. This marriage was concluded in 554 AD as a result of several Persian embassies to the (Ashina) Türks [Mokrynin 2004: 72]. The name of this Kagan is stated in the medieval sources as Kökem Kagan [Ibnul-Balkhi: 24, 94, 98], who was identified as the first Kagan of the western part of the Türkic Kaganate, the Istami (Istemi)-Kagan Dizavul, who in 568 AD sent an embassy to the Byzantine. The same Kagan is mentioned in Oguz-Nama by Rashid al-Din as Kukem Yavkuy  [Rashid al-Din 1987: 94], in the works of Abu-l-Ghazi it is Kukem Bakuy [Kononov 1958: 69] and at al-Tabari it is Sindjibu (Sir-Yabgu) [Togan 1981: 112]. The name of this Kagan, rendered in the Byzantine sources in the form of Dizavul, was reconstructed as Sil-Zabul, i.e. Sir-Yabgu [Zuev 2002: 189].

Unlike his predecessors, Khusraw I Anüshirwan abandoned the ideas of religious fanatism that dominated orthodox Zoroastrianism, and advanced a policy of toleration in respect to the Christians16, followers of Mazdaism, and other religious groups. The mother of Khusraw I Anushirwan was a daughter of some dihqan (land-owner) whom Shahan-Shah Kubad married during his campaign to Turkistan [Bayhaqi: 896]. From that follows that Khusraw I Anushirwan was half non-Iranian (non-Persian?) and probably had a Turkic blood that was his main divergence from his predecessors on the Sasanid throne. That possibly explains his marriage to the Turkic princess.

14 For example, a portrait with Mongoloid features and a headdress in a form of bull horns (similar to the Norse/Germanic idiosyncrasy) [Frye 1971: pl. XV, fig. 81].
15 Images of a she-wolf feeding two human babies, a horseman, an elephant, a lion, a horse, a camel, a bull, a deer, a wild boar, a goat, an eagle, a pheasant, a crane and other animals and birds [Frye 1971: pl. XXXIX, XLVILIV; Bivar 1968: 69101; 1968b: pl. XV, XXXXIV; Gignoux 1982: 87117; Gyselen 1995: 39, 43].
16 nushirwan held a contempt for the Christians because his son Anushak-Zad from his Christian wife followed belief of his mother and raised a revolt against him. However, despite of that, Anushirwan did not treat Christians with hostility, and yielded them adequate conditions [Browne 1997: 136, 168, 181].
13

Khusraw I Anushirwan was known for his educational activities, he spent many efforts for development of secular science and culture.17 For that, he was called Anushirwan the Just and Immortal Soul.18 It is known that in his reign into the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) language were translated the sacred book of the ancient Türks Oguz-Nama, authored by certain Ulug-Khan Ata Bitikchi and some other Turkic storytellers.19 The Buzurg-Mihr Bakhtagan, a vizier of Khusraw I Anushirwan, owned a manuscript of that book [Korogly 1976: 38].

It is held that the earliest Oguz-Nama is Rashid-al-Dins (d. 1318) Jame al-tawarik, which contains two versions of  Oguz-Nama. The Ulug-Khan Ata Bitikchi's version, written during the reign of Khusraw I Anushirwan (r. 531579), would predate that oft cited date by more than 7 centuries. It would predate the migration of the Oguz tribes to the Aral basin (Oguz Yabgu state, 7501055), and the personalities of its founders that are often described as physical founder persons of that state.

The work of the Jewish historian Rashid-al-Din of Hamadan is interesting for its history of the Agach Eri people, the Scythian Acathyri, the Hunnic-time Akathirsi, the Türkic Agacheri, the Slavic Drevlyane, and the Persian Agajari.

Anushirwan's successor on the Sasanid throne prince Hurmazd IV (579590) was half-Türk, for that he was nicknamed Turkzada, i.e. a descendant of the Türks. In continuation of the policy of his father, he ruthlessly fought against Iranian nobility and priests, continued the peaceful policy toward Christians, and relied on common people [Pigulevskaya 1946: 8485], a considerable part of which were Hephtalites (Ephtalites), Türks and other non-Persian people.20 He purportedly phrased a slogan, Like a throne cannot rest only on its front legs, so a state cannot base only on Zoroastrians [at-Tabari I: 990]. During Hurmazd IV reign were minted silver drachmas with a clear image of a cross next to the Zoroastrian symbols. These coins were minted not only in the cities in the eastern part of the Sasanid empire, such as Abarshahr, Gurgan, Marwrud and Rakhwad (al-Rukhhadj), but also in the mints of Stakhr, Bishapur, Darabgerd and Ardashir-Khwarra, the central cities of Persia, a cradle of the Sasanids statehood. Also are known Varahran VI (Bahram Chubin) drachmas with the image of a cross, minted in 591 AD in Abarshahr, Harat (Herat) and Marw [Kolesnikov 2005: 114115].

17 In 532 AD he invited from Byzantine to his court Neo-Platonist philosophers, who engaged in translation of philosophical and scientific works from Greek and Syrian to Middle Persian (Pahlavi), he was also a founder of the first Persian university in Djundishapur (Khuzistan) (circa 550 AD), to study philosophy and medicine. These traditions were continued later, at the Abbasid time, by establishing in Bagdad of an Islamic Academy of Sciences (Bayt al-Hikma) [Browne 1997: 167, 305, 419].
18 In Middle Persian (Pahlavi) the name Anushirwan means Immortal Soul (Anushak-ruban) [Browne 1997: 107, 135].
19 This information is cited in composition Durar at-Tidjan wa Tawarikh Ghurar al-Zaman (Pearls and Dates of the Glorious People) by Abu Bakr Abd Allah ibn Ay-Bek al-Dawadari (8th/14th c.), who writes that in 211/826-27 a Syrian-Nestorian scholar Djibril ibn Bakhtishu, who served at the court of five Abbasid Caliphs from Harun al-Rashid (r. 170193/786809) to al-Mutawakkil (r. 232247/847861) [Ibn al-Nadim II: 969], has translated this book to Arabic, and that he personally saw the Arabic version of Oguz-Nama translated by Djibril ibn Bakhtishu [Köprülü 1976: 2526, 249251; Dede Korkut I: 3537].
20 During the reign of Shahan-Shah Hurmazd IV Turkzada, were executed 13 thousands members of Persian aristocracy [Belami II: 248].
14

The marriage of the Turkic princess (Khatun) with the Shahan-Shah was a mutually advantageous political step. Sasanids were interested in it to have an ally against Hephtalites (Ephtalites), and the Türks wanted to influence the Sasanids' politics. There is an opinion that precisely to this Türkic Kagan, who established a kinship with Sasanids, ascends the genealogy of the Samanid dynasty [Togan 1972: 112], which alternate sources also ascend to Khusraw I Anushirwan [al-Zirikli I: 290].

 The marriage made Kagan a Shah's father-in-law, establishing his seniority in the family and in the politics. The son-in-law/father-in-law relationship was a customary tradition within the Türkic milieu, a complete opposite to the IE tradition, where women occupied subservient position, and respect for relative and absolute age meant little in social organization. The Türkic tradition of extreme exogamy and marital unions made Persian males (or a dynastic tribe/strata of the Persian society) instantaneous permanent marital partners in the marital union, also a tradition contrary to the Persian customs with their routine marriage to the blood relatives. The Türkic-Persian marital union can be observed in the sequence of four-generations' marriages.

Another tradition concerns the male grandchildren of the Kagan. His duty and right is to educate his grandson after he can be separated from his mother, at about 5 years of age. The Persian princes grow and get educated at the court of the Kagan. As a minimum they are bilingual and grow in the saddle. When it is time to take on the reigns, they are skilled in arms, tactics, customs, traditions inclusive of religion, statesmanship, and court etiquette. That is how the princes grow in religious tolerance and wisdom that feeds it.

In the beginning of the 3rd/9th century a native of Sughd (Sogd), a known Arabic-speaking poet Ishaq ibn al-Hasan al-Khurrami (d. 200/815-16) asserted in his verses that Khusraw ibn Hurmazd (i.e. Khusraw II Parwiz) and Kagan were cousins of his father Sasan [Browne 1997: 267]. According to some information, Khusraw Abarwiz (Khusraw II Parwiz) also married a Khatun (خاتون), a daughter of the Türkic Kagan, who bore the successor to the throne, the Shahan-Shah Shiruye [al-Djahiz: 100101].

Thus, at least four Persian Shahan-Shahs (Khusraw I Anushirwan, Hurmazd IV Turkzada, Khusraw II Parwiz and Shiruye) had family ties with the Türkic Kagans. In the Persian history are known only two ruling queens. One of them, Buran (-dokht) (Storm-daughter, a Turkic-Persian compound), was a daughter of Khusraw II Parwiz (590627 AD) from Maryam, a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Mauritius, and she ruled only for one year and 4 months (630631 AD). The second, Azarme (-dokht) (Bolting-daughter, or Mazed, Mixed-up-daughter, a Turkic-Persian compound), ruled for only few months [Bayani 1973: 50]. Rise to the throne and reign of these two queens contradicted traditions of the Sasanid Persia, and most likely was connected with the Türkic statecraft traditions where women occupied high position in the society, and a wife of the Kagan (Hatun) was active in state affairs [Kamoliddin 2005: 1624].

Although wives and concubines may be many, Hatun is only one. She presides during interregnums, till the next Kagan is raised. She is not raised (literally, on a wool carpet or a bag of wool), but occupies a regent position (Ilchibika - fem., Ilchibek, Kushtan - m.) by default. If the Hatun-emeritus is alive, she may be the regent. The main task of the regent is to organize and conduct Kurultai (lit. be cured (family) ties) and elect the next Kagan. The female regency was entirely non-Persian procedure.

According to al-Narshakhi, one of the descendants of Khusraw I Anushirwan called Shapur settled in Sughd (Sogd), after a quarrel with his father he fled to Bukhara. The Bukhara ruler, titled Bukhar-Khudat, received him well and allocated him a land possession. Shapur built there canal, which then was called Shapurkam (i.e. canal of Shapur) and founded on its banks a few settlements, including the settlement Wardana on the border with Turkistan. Later, these possessions inherited his descendent Wardan-Khudats [Narshakhi 23, 3435].

There is testimony that during Khusraw I Anushirwan reign for some time21 Persian relations with the Türks were close. So, Ibn Khordadhbeh cites a legend that Khusraw I built in the territory of the Khazar Kaganate the cities Balandjar (aka Varachan, from bulun tributor + jar center, headquarters, the Masgut capital after Persian conquest displaced Masguts/Massagets/Alans from Shirvan and Agvania) and Smndr (Hunnic capital, both capitals precede the Khazar rise) [Ibn Khordadbeh: 123].22

21 Before the deterioration of relations had occurred after unsuccessful Türks' embassy headed by the Sogdian Maniakh to the court of Khusraw I Anushirwan
15

The inhabitants of these cities were possibly the Türks-Balandjars and Khazars [Romashov 2000: 219338] (What a screaming ignorant nonsense). Foundation of some cities in the Türks' country is attributed to Bahram Chubin also. So, according to the legend, he established the city Sarir al-Dhahab (Golden Throne), a capital of the Türkic Kagan. It was located in the Khazar steppe north of Bab al-Abwab (Darband), and during Late Middle Ages it was known as Sarai Batu [Mahmud ibn Wali: 41] (Sarai Batu - Batu palace was a name of the Batu court in the city Saksin). In the 4th/10th century is mentioned an area called al-Sarir (السریر), located 4 days of travel from Bab al-Abwab (i.e. Darband), its inhabitants were Christians (Sarir is the mountain location of Sary Oguz refugees). According to the legend, the king Filan-Shah of this city was a Christian from Bahram Gur descendants. When the last Persian king Yazdigird III fled from the Arabs to the Türks, he gave a gold throne, treasury, and property to one of the descendants of Bahram Gur to induce him to come to that country [Masoudi II: 41]. According to other sources, this man was a descendant of Bahram Chubin [al-Istakhri: 223; Grigoriev, Frolov 2001: 260, 280].

During the rule of the Caliph al-Wathiq (r. 227232/842847) the ruler of al-Sarir is called a king of Alans with a title Tarkhan [Demidchik 1977: 120]. To Bahram Chubin is also attributed a foundation in the Türks' country of the city Sarwast (سروست) [Mustawfi-i Qazwini: 121]. In the Kimak country is mentioned a settlement Dih-i Chub [Hudud al-Alam: 100]. These details allow to suggest that before Bahram Chubin was killed after his flight from Persia, he stayed with the Türks for a long time.

However, that should have happened not later than the beginning of the 7th century AD, because Bahram Chubin is not mentioned any more when in 611 AD the Djik (Zik, Shikh)-Kagan came to power, in alliance with Hephtalites (Ephtalites) won a big victory over Sasanids, and established his rule over the whole eastern part of Persia up to the Rey and Isfahan.23 Though subsequently the Türks withdrew their armies back to Amu Darya, they continued to play an important role in the subsequent history of the Sasanid Empire.24 So, according to the Chinese sources, the killing of Khusraw II Parwiz (Ko-su-ho) and raising to the throne of his son Shiruye (Se-li) was staged by Tun Yabgu-Kagan [Chavannes 1903: 171]. After that, the Sasanid Shahan-Shahs were ruled by the Türkic Kagans [Togan 1981: 7374]. In 629 AD, after Shiruye and his son Ardashir, to the Sasanid throne was raised Khusraw Kharkhan (Kharmaz), a son of Arslan, a son of Bayunchur, who was one of the descendants of the Sasanid line from the Türks' country [Ibnul-Balkhi: 24, 109].

22 According to the legend, the name of Balandjar had one of the sons of Yafath ibn Nuh (Bibl. Iaphet son of Noah) [Ibn al-Fakih: 289].
23 In the Forughi collection of the Sasanid seals (Iran) are two seals with Middle Persian (Pahlavi) and Turkic Runic legends with the name of this Kagan (Djik (Zik, Shikh)-Kagan), and a medallion with his image in profile and Middle Persian (Pahlavi) legend with his name. Speculatively, the seal was made to administrate the captured territory, and the medal was minted in memory of his victory [Harmatta, Litvinsky 1996: 369].
24 In our opinion, this calculated process started with the reign of Khusraw I Anushirwan, who married the daughter of the Türkic Kagan.
16

According to the legend, in Farghana (Fergana) Khusraw I Anushirwan also founded a city, relocated there people from each (noble?) house and named that place Har Khana (z har khana), i.e. from each house [Ibn Khordadbeh: 30]. This legend in full version is in the work of Ibn al-Faqih25 and later sources [Mahmud ibn Wali: 64; Bakran: 51; al-Bakuwi: 96]. According to al-Masudi, the city founded by Khusraw I Anushirwan in Farghana (Fergana) was called Quba (قبا) (Kuba) [Masoudi IV: 507; VIII: 701].

The stability of this legend in the folk tradition attests that during the reign of Khusraw I Anushirwan could have really been established a Persian colony in Farghana (Fergana), and that some Persian population could have been moved there. This supposition is supported by the al-Tabari's information that Khusraw I Anuushirwan, after conclusion of an alliance with the Türks, campaigned against Hephtalites (Ephtalites)26 and reached Farghana (Fergana), where he left his army [at-Tabari I: 899]. The last period of Bahram Chubins life after his flight to the Türks also was connected with Farghana (Fergana) [Gumilev 1960: 229230].

The last Sasanid Shahan-Shah Yazdigird III (r. 632651 AD), having fled from the Arabs to the Türks, resided in Farghana (Fergana) [HC: 1b; at-Tabari I: 2689, 2692]. The al-Tabari's composition noted that in 29/649-50 the Caliph Uthman (r. 2335/644656) sent to Khurasan (Khorasan) Umar (Umayr) ibn Uthman ibn Sad, who crossed Djayhun (Djeyhun, Jeyhun, Amu Darya) river and came to Farghana (Fergana) [at-Tabari I: 2829]. bu Ali Balami in his addition to the History of al-Tabari dates this event by 31/651-652. Possibly, this first Arab reconnaissance campaign searched for Yazdigird III [Djalilova 1991: 7]. In the beginning of the 2nd/8th century are mentioned Persians (al-'Adjam)27 living in Farghana (Fergana) and in the Türks' country [HC: 167]. From circle of the Persian immigrants apparently descended the Sasanid's Khusraw Kharkhan (Khrmaz), the son of Arslan, the son of Bayunchur, who lived in the Türks' country, and in 8/629-30 with the support of the Türks was installed on the Sasanid throne after Shiruye and his son Ardashir [Ibnul-Balkhi: 24, 109]. The echo of these events remained in the folk legends, according to which, after the Arabs conquered Persia (al-'Adjam), Persians fled and settled in Farghana (Fergana) [Shah Hakim: 17].

25 Cited in the composition of Zakaria Qazwini, who refers to Ibn al-Faqih [Demidchik 1977: 122].
26 Event took place in 554 AD [Trever 1950: 129].
27 In the al-Tabari work this place reads: one non-Arab (al-'Adjam) from the inhabitants of Khurasan (Khorasan) said... [at-Tabari II: 1300].
17

One of the Yazdigird III's descendants, a dihqan Kamkar, lived in the vicinity of Marw [Ibn al-Athir VIII: 44]. The celebrated Muslim lawyer (al-faqih) Abu Hanifa al-Numan ibn Thabit ibn Kamkar ibn Yazdidjird ibn Shahriyar (d. 150/767), a founder of the al-Hanafiyya law school (al-madhhab), was Yazdigird III's 4th generation descendant [al-Karshi: 63].

Qutaiba ibn Muslim during his conquest of Mawaraannahr fought with the son Firuz of Yazdigird III [al-Masudi: 101]. He has captured his daughter Shah-Farind and sent her to al-Hadjdjadj ibn Yusuf, and that forwarded her to the Caliph al-Walid, from whom she gave birth to al-Yazid [at-Tabari II: 1247]. She had a case with a book in Persian [Ibn al-Fakih: 209]. Chinese sources mention a grandson of Yazdigird III called Nerse (Ni-huan-shi), who in 58/677-678 was at the court of the Chinese emperor, and then headed an anti-Arab revolt in Tukharistan (Tokharistan) [al-Tabari 1988: 17, n. 16]. In 110/728-29 a son of Yazdigird III called Khusraw participated in the battle at Kamardja on the side of the Türkic Kagan [at-Tabari II: 1518]. A chronicle under 720 AD tells about arrival to Japan in the second half of the 7th century AD of the Tukharistan (Tokharistan) people of noble origin with Iranian names. It is suspected that they were Yazdigird III's descendants [Gikio 1979: 5563]. The founder of the Ghaznawid (Ghaznavid) dynasty Sabuk-Tegin was a Qarluq (Karluk) from the city Barskhan near the Isyq-Kul (Issyk Kul) lake, not far from the city Atbash where ostensibly settled the last Shahan-Shah Yazdigird III [Bosworth 1962: 220; Bosworth 1963: 3940].

From the above, it is possible to suspect that it was Farghana (Fergana) that was the native land of the Türkic Kagan with whom Sasanids established marital ties.

The Turkic ruler El Arslan (Shir-i Kishwar, Sawa-Shah) of Bukhara was a relative by the maternal side of the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Hurmazd IV Turkzada [Belami II: 248]. When Bahram Chubin in 589 AD has taken his son El-Tegin (Parmuda, Nili-Khan) a prisoner in Baykand and sent him to Hurmazd IV, the last accorded him a sumptuous welcome and after a conclusion of a peace released him with honor [Belami II: 265; Firdausī VI: 656657]. Alternatively, El-Tegin (Parmuda) has not been taken prisoner, but went voluntarily to the Shahan-Shah Hurmazd IV for negotiations [Gumilev 1969: 132]. From this story follows that Shir-i Kishwar (Sawa-Shah) was a nephew of Istami (Istemi)-Kagans daughter, a wife of the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Khusraw I Anushirwan.

In the 4th/10th century, in Nishapur lived an expert on the al-Hadith (Acts of the Prophet Mohammad) Abu Mansur Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Dayzil al-Djallab al-Farisi al-Dayzili (d. 345/956-57), who had a nisba ascending to his ancestor Dayzil. According to Abu Abd Allah al-Hakim al-Hafiz al-Naysaburi, which book cites al-Samani, his clan had a very ancient origin, but he always preferred solitude and avoided people.
18

First he lived in Bagdad and then moved to Nishapur [al-Samani V: 399]. The name of this ancestor is probable should be read as Dizabul (ديزبل) instead of Dayzil (ديزيل) neither among the Arabs, nor the Persians have such a name. Therefore it is possible to presume that he was one of descendants of the first Kagan of the Western Türkic Kaganate mentioned in the Byzantine sources as Dizavul. Among Türks, children were given names of their distant ancestors, especially if they were famous people. The name of this Kagan, who in 568 AD sent an embassy to Byzantine, was reconstructed as Sir Yabgu (from Sil-Zabul) [Zuev 2002: 189]. One of his descendants, namely the Crown Prince son of Tun Yabgu-Kagan, also used a name Sir Yabgu.

In 3rd/9th century in Bagdad lived certain Kagan (d. 234/848-49), who was a descendant of the pre-Islamic kings of Farghana (Fergana) [al-Jakubi: 258, 266; al-Suli: 104]. His sons and the grandsons, who accepted Islam, were high-ranking officials, important military leaders, viceroys, viziers, and closest people to the Abbasid Caliphs.28 To his clan belonged such known persons as al-Fath ibn Kagan (d. 248/862-63), Yahya ibn Kagan (d. 240/854-55), Baglavur ibn Kagan, Takin ibn Kagan, Abu-l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Kagan al-Farghani, etc. [al-Suli: 63, 104, 117, 127; Ibn Miskawaih: 68, 69, 174, 420, 421, 424, 561; Ibn al-Nadim I: 116; l-Masudi: 362, 379]. From Balkh originated the al-Hadith expert Muhammad ibn Kagan al-Baruqani al-Balkhi [al-Samani II: 176]. In the 3rd/9th century are also mentioned certain people called Kagan al-Khadim al-Turki, Kagan Atrudj [al-Jakubi: 258; al-Masudi: 190, 191], Kagan ibn Ahmad and Kagan al-Aflahi [Ibn Miskawaih: 115, 225, 244], who served in Bagdad at the court of the Caliphs. srur al-Farghani was a bodyguard and a close friend of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid [al-Isfahani: 419]. Azku-Tegin ibn Asa-Tegin, a military leader of the Caliph al-Muwaffaq also The was a Farghanian (Fergana) [Ibn al-Fakih 1968: 59]. An al-Hadith expert Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Farankadik Hadjib ibn Malik ibn Arkin al-Turki al-Farghani (d. 306/918-19) ascended his genealogy to one of the kings (mlik) of Farghana (Fergana) [Jacut IV: 931]. ughdj ibn Djaf ibn Djaf ibn Yil-Takin ibn Fawran ibn Furi ibn Kagan al-Farghani and his son Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Tughdj al-Farghani [Ibn Miskawaih V: 508, 553, 577; Ibn Khallikan I: 4144], the founders of the Ihshid dynasty, ruled in the 4th/10th century in Egypt and Syria [EI IV: 418; Bosworth 1971: 76], they held themselves descendants of the Ihshids, the pre-Islamic kings of Farghana (Fergana) [al-Masudi: 194, 371; EI III: 1060]. It can be supposed that they were descendants of the Kagan El-Tegin, at which court Bahram Chubin spent his last days.29

28 His descendants referred to him with a nisba al-Hakani [al-Samani V: 22].
19

Genealogy of some members of the Ihshid dynasty names among ancestors a certain Bighdjur al-Ihshid [Ibn al-Nadim I: 173, 174, 235; al-Zirikli I: 165]. In 268/881-82 on the post of the viceroy of al-Basra in al-Iraq was appointed a certain Qaysar, a descendant of Arkhuz, the Ihshid of Farghana (Fergana) [at-Tabari III: 2016]. According to other sources, during the Arab conquests, the Ihshid of Farghana (Fergana) used a Turkic name Suvar-Takin [al-Horezmi: 119; Ibn al-Nadim I: 280]. His descendant possibly was Wasif ibn Suvar-Takin al-Khadim al-Biktamiri, who lived in Bagdad [Ibn Miskawaih: 48, 56, 64, 116, 119, 125, 162, 270]. Al-Tabari composition mentioned the pre-Islamic kings of Farghana (Fergana) al-Tar or Alatar, Balaz and Djur [at-Tabari II: 1440]. In the Middle Ages, a large channel south of the city Andidjan [Babur-Nama: 77, 121] and one of the Andidjan city gates [Babur-Nama: 121, 122] were called Hakan.

Bahram Chubin

After the well-known Bahram Chubin victory over of the Hephtalite (Ephtalites) army and the Türks in 588 AD30, the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Hurmazd IV gave him Balkh and all of the Khurasan (Khorasan).31 After a murder of Chol-Kagan32, his son Yil (El)-Tegin33 hid in the of Paykand fortress.34 Bahram Chubin laid siege to the fortress, forced him to surrender, and seized a great booty. He sent to Hurmazd IV only a part of it, and held on to the rest.

29 Besides, textual sources mention other Kagans of that time: Manush-Hakan, Fayruz-Hakan, Khaylub-Hakan, etc. [Ibn Khordadbeh: 4041].
30 As a result of this war the Türkic Kaganate weakened and split into two Kaganates the East and the Western [Harmatta, Litvinsky 1996: 368369].
31 According to Middle Persian (Pahlavi) sources, Spandiyat, the son of Vishtasp, built in Pahl (Balkh) a splendid capital Nawazak and founded there a miraculous Vahram fire [Markwart 1931: 10].
32 This Kagan was identified with El Arslan, the son of Tardu-Kagan (in 576587 AD Kagan of the Western Türks; in 587603 AD Kagan of the East Türks) and grandson of Istami (Istemi)-Kagan (r. 562576 AD). The al-Narshakhi history mentions him under a name Shir-i Kishwar [Frye 1954: 108, n. 28]; Chinese sources Yang-Su Tele (Tegin), Arabic sources Shaba or Shiyaba [Ibn Khordadbeh: 40], and Persian sources Sawa-Shah or Sawkh [Gumilev 1967: 115, 132]. The Asilan Dagan (Arslan Tarkhan) of the Chinese sources is also identified with him [Chavannes 1903: 149; Zuev 2002: 200].
33 Yil-Tegin or Il-Tegin, i.e. El-Tegin. Chinese sources mention him under a name Nili-(Khan), and Persian sources Parmuda or Narmud [Togan 1981: 72]. With him is connected the construction of a Buddhist temple in Kashmir and the penetration of the Buddhism into Bukhara region [Stavisky 1960: 115]. The name Parmuda is an Iranian calque of the Turkic name Sawa Buyuruq [Gumilev 1967: 132].
34 According to Firdausī, this fortress was called Awaza [Firdausī 1952: 68].
20

This angered the Shahan-Shah, and he was sacked from his post [Masoudi II: 213214; al-Dinwri: 8485]. According to other sources, after defeating Türks in Baykand, Bahram Chubin was sent to the Caucasus, where he fought against Byzantine army. In that war, Bahram Chubin lost and then he was sacked from his post [Simokatta: 7780].35 However, he had refused to obey Hurmazd IV, and has revolted in Balkh in 590 AD [Harmatta, Litvinsky 1996: 368369]. Concluding an alliance with the Türks, he took command of military units of Turkic volunteers, and with a joined army moved to Ktesifon, the Sasanid capital.36 He also was supported by the majority of the local population [Guseynov 1960: 35]. Meanwhile, the local nobility has deposed Hurmazd IV and enthroned his son Khusraw II Parwiz. In the summer of 590 AD, Bahram Chubin entered Ktesifon with his army and has proclaimed himself a Shahan-Shah. Before that, he has been crowned near Tirmidh. He declared the Sasanids to be usurpers of the legitimate power which by right belonged to the Parthian Arshacids, and himself a lawful successor of their power [Shahbazi 1989: 521]. Khusraw II Parwiz fled from the capital to Byzantine to the emperor Mauritius. Having usurped the supreme power of the Sasanids, Bahram Chubin ruled for more than one year and even minted coins with his image.37 In 591 AD a joined Sasanid army with a support of the Armenian, Georgian, and Byzantine troops, defeated Bahram Chubin army near a river Baliarat in Armenia, and captured many Türks with a cross sign on their foreheads [Simokatta: 131]. After that, Bahram was forced to flee east, to the land of the Türks, and settle in Farghana (Fergana) [Gumilev 1960: 229 230].

35 This battle between Bahram Chubin and Byzantines is known only from the Byzantine and the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) sources used by Firdausī. Other Arabic and Persian authors of the Middle Ages know nothing about Bahram Chubin's defeat from Byzantines [Diakonov 1961: 315, 413, n. 195]. Possibly, the reference there is to the military operations Persians, with support of the Byzantines, conducted in the Caucasus against Khazars [Pigulevskaya 1946: 81], and a commander who fought with them was not Bahram Chubin, who at that time was still in Khurasan (Khorasan) engaged in a war with the Türks, but another commander called Bahram, a son of Siyawush [al-Dinwari: 86; Ibnul-Balkhi: 102; Gumilev 1960: 228229].

The reference to the Khazars in the Arabic sources here and elsewhere is anachronic, since Bahram Chubin was killed in 591 while the Khazars appeared on the N. Caucasus scene 3 generations later, in 660s. The fight of the 580s in the S. Caucasus was between Agvania and Armenia on one side and Persians on the other side, with Hunnic troops fighting on behalf of the Agvanian Masguts and Armenians.

36 Bahram Chubin's army included numerous Türks, the sources relay that with him went many brave and war-like Eastern people, and Khusraw II Parwiz personally killed three Turkic knights in service of Bahram Chubin [Gumilev 1960: 237239]. Among prisoners were many Türks, Khusraw sent them to the emperor Mauritius as victory gifts. On the captives' forehead was incised a Christian cross that they have received from their mothers [Simokatta: 130131].

Cross was a Manichaean symbol when at the end of the 3rd c. Manichaeans sought shelter among tolerant Türkic people, where they gained many adherents. Cross was adopted as a Christian symbol later, at first sparingly and reluctantly sometime during the 4th century, it had to supplant the already traditional Christian symbology. The Khorasan Türks of the 6th c. were much more likely Manichaeans than Christians, first because Manichaeans brought over their symbol first, secondly because Nestorian Christian refugees fled and settled with the Jeti-su Türks and not the Khorasan Türks, and thirdly because Nestorians were not about to adopt the tenets and symbology of the Church that was merciless in persecuting them. In carrying symbology over, there is a place for the role of the Manichaean fathers switching sides to become prominent Early Christian apostolic fathers.

37 There are known drachma and dinars with his image and with inscription Var(a)hran [Göbl 1971: 80; pl. 12, No. 203204; Nöldeke 1879: 282].
21

He became a friend and an adviser to the Türkic Kagan Parmuda (El-Tegin) [Mustawfi-i Qazwini: 121],38 and married his daughter.39 Some time later he was killed by a hired agent sent by Khusraw II Parwiz [Chavannes: 242245; Gumilev 1967: 131132; Usanov 1995: 29].

There is an opinion that that story tells not of a supreme Türkic Kagan, but about a Hephtalite ruler of Balkh with a Bactrian title šawa (ruler), and of his son titled pariowk (parmowk), whose descendant Barmakids also were the owners of the Naw-Bahar temple.40 In that case, the Shawa-Shah and Chol-Kagan, and the Parmuda and El-Tegin should be different persons fighting together against Sasanids.

El-Tegin is also mentioned in the Armenian sources of the 7th century AD [Gukasian 1971: 250]. Considering that after defeat of the Hephtalites (Ephtalites) and Türks in 590 AD a large part of Tukharistan (Tokharistan) was occupied by the Sasanid army, Bahram Chubin could have escaped from the Sasanid pursuit only out of the country, most likely in the north,41 i.e. at the Hakan of Chin Parmuda (El-Tegin), a relative of the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Hurmazd IV Turkzada on a maternal side [Belami II: 248, 265; Firdausī VI: 656657; Firdausī 1952: 291294] because his father Shir-i Kishwar (Shawa-Shah) was a nephew of Istami (Istemi)-Kagans daughter married to the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Khusraw I Anushirwan.

The new family ties of Bahram Chubin were most likely connected with Farghana (Fergana), where later lived his descendants who held themselves the holders of royal blood [Kamaliddinov 1996: 116117] and pretended to the supreme power in the Sasanid Persia.42

Numismatic sources add to this picture some details. Silver drachmas with abbreviation SML (Samarqand (Samarkand)) were minted in the second year of the Hurmazd IV rule (i.e.  580581 AD) and from the third till the fifth years of the Khusraw II rule (i.e.  592594 AD).

38 According to al-Dinawari, the Türkic Kagan honored him, and built for him and for his people a city and a palace. When Bahram Chubin in an honest duel has killed the Kagans antagonistic brother, the Kagan ennobled him even more [al-Dinwari: 98102].
39 He saved a Kagans daughter on walk from an attacking wild animal (dragon-lion), then Kagan gave him his daughter and a kingdom [Masoudi II: 223224; Firdausī 1952: 302; Mustawfi-i Qazwini: 120121].
40 The word pariowk (parmowk), barmuka in the Armenian rendition and Barmuda in the Arabic rendition, reflects the Buddhist title Pramukha [Harmatta, Litvinsky 1996: 371; Frye 1956: 122].
41 According to Firdausī, in case if Sawa-Shah would not extend his protection to him, Bahram Chubin planned to leave to the south to Hindustan [Firdausī 1952: 295].
42 The medieval sultans of Shirwan also held themselves to be descendants of Bahram Chubin [Nawai: 204].
22

The Hurmazd IV drachma dated by the sixth year of his rule (i.e. 584585 AD) indicates in full the name of the Chach (čač) area. Only during the rule of Hurmazd IV (581, 584, 586588 AD) were minted drachmas in the Khulm (XLM) mint, located east from Balkh [Kolesnikov 2005: 114]. This indicates that Bahram Chubins army military advance of against the Türks was more extensive than was believed earlier, and extended not only to the areas of Balkh and Bukhara, but also to the more remote areas of the Türkic Kaganate, including Samarqand (Samarkand) and Chach.

These is a synopsis of the data about life and activities of Bahram Chubin in the Byzantine, Armenian, Middle Persian (Pahlavi), Arab-Muslim and other sources.

It was thought that the second part in the name of Bahram Chubin, Chubin or Chubina43 had a meaning of a raven (or a crow) in the later Sasanid Middle Persian (Pahlavi) [Wolf 1953: 301]44, and that it was a Bahram's nickname in a court slang at the time of Shahan-Shah Hurmazd IV (r. 576590 AD) [Firdausī VI: 654655]. In a geographical treatise of the second half of the 8th century AD translated to Tibetan, among the Turkic tribes and people inhabiting Central Asia at that time is mentioned a tribe called Gar-rga-pur in the neighborhood of the tribes Yan Ti (the Kushans) and He-bdal (the Hephtalites (Ephtalites)) [Gumilev 1967: 162; bdurasul Ogli 1997: 72]. Apparently, those were the people in the Tukharistan (Tokharistan), which at that time was a part of the Western Türkic Kaganate. There is an opinion that ethnonym Gar-rga pur consists of two words: Turkic gar-rga (raven)45 and Persian pur (son)46, the first of which is a calque of the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) word chubin (raven). It was the name of the descendents of Bahram Chubin in the Balkh, given to them by the Türks [Gumilev 1967: 162].

The antique sources mention Gargars among the people of the Eastern Caucasus, along with Albans and Caspians. In the Adharbaydjan (Azerbajan) territory still remain a hydronym Karkar and toponym Kharkhar [Aliev 1974: 178]. One of the Sogdian documents from the Mugh mountain (beginning of the 8th century AD) mentions a Turkic governor called Chubin Chur Bilga (V.A.Livshitz reading) who was a governor of the city Panch (Pandjikent) for 15 years, and a mountain area Kasht (or Bakht) [Smirnova 1963: 11].

Kas is Rockies, Cliffs in Türkic, quite a suitable name (cf. Caucas White Rockies), but what is Bakht?

43 Various sources mention this name in different forms: Chobin, Chopin, Chupin, Djubin, Shubin, etc. Some late sources also give a form Chuba [Azimov 1999: 26, 158, 160].
44 In the New Persian the word chubin (چوبین) means wooden, and the word chubine  (چوبینھ) means a crane [PRS I: 480]; for raven in the New Persian is used the word kulagh or zaghan [RPS: 91].
45 In Old Turkic the word karga meant a raven, a crow [DTS: 426]. Modern Turkic languages use forms kurgun (a raven) and karga (a crow) [RTS: 103].
46 According to some information, the word pur originated in Farghana (Fergana), where the Chinese emperor as the son of the sky was called bghpur or faghfur [Bartold 1963: 215].
23

This document confirms the fact of the spread of the name Chubin among the Central Asian Türks during the Early Middle Ages epoch.

The raven or a crow is a central character in the mythologies of the people of Siberia and Indians of the North America, appearing as primogenitor, cultural hero and a mighty shaman [Melitinsky 1991: 245]. For the ancient Türks the Raven was a symbol of a rising Sun, which along with the morning blue Heaven, personified the Supreme deity Tangri. An image of a Red Raven, in a form of an eagle with spread wings, is depicted on the tiara of the pre-Islamic Turkic prince Kül-Tegin [Zuev 2002: 24, 226]. Similarly, Kirgiz epos has an image of a Kara-Kush bird (Blackbird) that affords help to the people. In Iranian epos this bird is called Semurg [Korogly 1983: 53]. During Middle Ages, among the Türks was popular a name Kara-Kush (Blackbird) [Ibn al-Athir XI: 169]. The obverse of the Kara-Khanid coins had images of a pigeon, a cock, a bird with a chick, a bird with a flower, etc. [Kochnev 1993: 14]. According to the Chinese sources, a totem of the ancient Turkic tribes U-shi, i.e. Usuns, also called Huns, was a raven [Zuev 1960: 1113]. In the art of the Central Asian people was widespread an image of a bird of prey (an eagle, a horned owl, etc.) in gold or bronze, it connected a symbolical image of the sun or the Farn incarnation [Vorobieva 1988: 4142]. The mythology of the Siberian people, dubbed Shamanism, was closely connected with the image of eagle, whence the kind spirits of the Heavens sent a king of eagles (two headed eagle) to the earth to help people. The eagle descended to the earth and copulated with a woman sleeping under a tree. As a result of that union was born a first shaman. The eagle initiated a spiritual beginning of the mankind, for whom the eagle is a bird of the Sun. The eagle and nomad was a popular theme in the Kushan art. The Arshacid's eagle also belongs to that pantheon, though its milieu is a somewhat different tradition [Mustanmidi 1972: 81, 83]. In the Middle Ages, among Türks were iniquitous names related to birds, such as Ak-Kush (White Bird), Kara-Kush (Black Bird), Ala-Kush (Motley Bird), Boz-Kush (Grey Bird), Tun-Kush (Night Bird), Lachin (Falcon), Sunkur (Falcon), Sunkurcha (Small falcon), Ak-Sunkur (White Falcon), Kara-Sunkur (Black Falcon), Togan (Raptor), etc. [Tardjuman: 6062].

In the mythological traditions of the Near East, North Africa, Europe, and India, the raven is a demonic character, it personifies misfortune and is an evil omen [Melitinsky 1991: 245]. In the Sasanid Persia, the image of a raven was frequently seen as an appellative for hostile strangers.47

47 In one story an Arabian prince complained to Kusraw I Anushirwan that his land was seized by ravens; and the last asked: What ravens, from Abissinia or from India?, on which the Arab answered: the Abissinian [Browne 1997: 179].
24

Supposedly the name designating a raven could be given to such a person as Bahram Chubin48 only among the people who held this bird to be a positive hero.49 After Asad ibn Abd Allah in 107/725-26 rebuilt the Balkh city, its inhabitants, with a majority of Hephtalites (Ephtalites) and Türks [al-Idrisi IV: 483; Gibb 1923: 89], nicknamed him a Raven (al-Zagh) [HC: 210b]. The image of raven appears on the Sasanids seals [Frye 1971: pl. 46, fig. 139; pl. 47, fig. 143] that, along with some others [Frye 1971: pl. 39, fig. 77, 78, 78a; pl. 47, fig. 79, 81; pl. 52, fig. 198, 199], belonged to people of obviously non-Persian origin.

It can also be expected that the Bahram Chubin nickname reflected his belonging to the above mentioned tribe Kar-rga (Karga). According to available sources, one of Bahram Chubin's ancestors was called Chubin ibn Milad. He was from Anush clan50 known as al-Ram [Masoudi II: 213]. Hence, the name Chubin of Bahram Chubin could be a Persian calque of the Turkic original clan name Karga. The same Chubin ibn Milad, an ancestor of Bahram Chubin in 19th generation (ca 475 years, or ca 100 AD), in other sources is mentioned under a name Karkyn [Usanova 1995: 27], Kargin ibn Milad [Gardizi: 62] or Gargin ibn Milad [Mustawfi-i Qazwini I: 94, 120]. Firdausī Shah-Nama mentions Gargin, a son of Milad, among knights and military leaders of an ancient Persian king Kay-Kawus (Kay Kavus) [Firdausī I: 353, 355, 390, 399, 403, 413, 419, 442, 448, 450], he is described as war-like, brave, battle-tested, fearless and proud hero [Firdausī III: 29, 82, 114, 117, 198, 214, 360, 436], although he perpetrated a treachery and turned over his companion in arms to Afrasiyab [Bertels 1960: 225226]. His father, Milad, also was one of the Persian heroes and braves, and a head of the country during the Iranian king Kay-Kawus (Kay Kavus)'s campaign from the Balkh to the Mazandaran (Gurgan, Hyrcania; Hyrcania of the Sasanid times; Mazandaran became a name of the Persian province in 1914) [Firdausī I: 360; III: 114, 117, 404]. In the Hamadan area is mentioned a settlement Milad-djird [Mustawfi of Qazwin: 72]. The Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions of the Sasanid seals mention Gargarayan, a city in al-Iraq [Gyselen 2002: 153].

48 Bahram Chubin's image remained in people's memory as a national hero, and during Sasanid time a historical novel Bahram Choben-Namak (Book about Bahram Chubin) was composed in Middle Persian (Pahlavi) about him, and subsequently it laid down a base for the legends about Bahram Chubin immortalized in the works of medieval Arabic and Persian authors [Browne 1997: 108; Diakonov 1961: 20, 316].
49 In an environment where raven personified a demonic being boding misfortune and evil omen, such famous hero as Bahram Chubin, with circulating popular folk legends about his feats, could not be called by that name. On the process of transformation of the Bahram Chubin image into a figure of a national epos hero see: Czegdely 1958: 2143.
50 According to the legend, Anush was one of the first people on the earth, a son of Shith (Seth) and a grandson of Adam [al-Dinwari: 3]. Khusraw I Anushirwan was nicknamed Anushak-Ruban, which in the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) means Immortal Soul. His son from his Christian wife was named Anush-Zad, i.e. a descendant of Anush [Browne 1997: 107, 135, 181, 168]. The same name had Anush-Tegin Gharchai (Anush-Prince Kara-chai Black River), the ancestor of the Khwarazm (Horezm)-Shahs dynasty (circa 470490/10771097) [Buniyatov 1986: 223].
25

Among the ancestors of the mythological Türkic Kagan Afrasiyab in his genealogy is mentioned Karkyn who was a son of Yafath ibn Nuh (Bibl. Iaphet) (Yapheth son of Noah) [al-Karshi: 101]. Another genealogy of Afrasiyab instead of the name Karkyn gives the name Türk as a son of Yafath ibn Nuh [al-Karshi: 63].

Among the medieval Turkmn (Turkmen)-Oguz nomadic tribes is mentioned a tribe (el) Karkyn [Kononov 1958: 68, 72]. The name Karkyn (Qarqyn) had one of legendary ancestors of the Oguz Türks who, according to their genealogy, was a fourth son of Yulduz-Khan, a third son of Oguz-Khan [Rashid al-Din 1946 I: (1): 8889; Rashid al-Din 1987: 6566], and also another Oguz ruler Karkyn Konak-Alp [Kononov 1958: 78]. According to the legend, the name Karkyn meant feeding hungry or hospitable, and his ongon, i.e. a sacred bird,51 was a hawk or a water (river) golden eagle (su barkuti).52 According to the Persian dictionaries, the name Chubinak  (چوبینک) also means water bird (murgh-i abi) or river bird (murgh-i daryai) [Rizo 1955: 150]. Very probably, such semantic coincidence of these names (Karkyn and Chubinak) is not accidental, and quite possibly the second of them is a calque of the first.

This ongon can be compared with the image of Burkut-Baba with intertwined features of ancient agricultural and shamanistic deities. According to mythological etiology of the Turkic people, Burkut-Baba was a patron of a rain and was dispersing clouds with a whip, producing thunder and lightning preceding a rain [MN I: 195]. That bird, associated with water or rain, was an ongon of a Turkic tribe, it could also be a crane that lives in bogs and lakes adjoining agricultural areas [Brem 1992 II: 205]. In oral tradition, the word chubine (چوبینھ) means crane [PRS I: 480]. Still recently, in the Turkmn (Turkmen) oral tradition was a custom of sacrificing in drought years a kid goat to Burkut-Ata, a patron of rain, whom they envisioned as the patron of rain Dede Korkut.53

It appears that ancient agricultural deities are not shamanistic by definition, not because there is any difference, but for some other reason. Agricultural is an economic term, shamanistic is religious term, agricultural vs. shamanistic is cabbage vs. religion.

51 According to the shamanist mythology of the Türk-Mongolian people, an ongon personified spirits of totemic (wolf, bear, horse, etc.) and anthropomorphic  deceased ancestors [MN II: 255256]. Many clan names of the Siberians and American Indians ascend to totems (wolf, bear, eagle, snake, etc.) [Nikonov 1970: 17].
52 According to Rashid al-Din, the ongon of Yulduz-Khan all four sons was a bird called twshanjil, i.e. a hawk [Rashid al-Din 1987: 66], and according to Abu-l-Ghazi ongon was a white falcon, a buzzard, a raven and a golden eagle [Kononov 1958: 53].
53 The tomb of Burkut-Ata was located in eastern suburb of Ashgabad (Ashgabat) and was a revered place in the past [Zhirmunsky 1962: 169170].
26

The name of the Turkic clan or tribe Karga has also remained in the Central Asian historical and modern toponymy. So, in Khurasan (Khorasan) during Middle Ages is mentioned a settlement Kargali-Ilik [Kononov 1958: 77]. Among the Turkic clans of the Uzbeks, Kara-Kalpaks, Kirgizes, Bashkirs and other Turkic people are mentioned such clans as Kargyn [Sultanov 1977: 167], Kargar [Aliev 1975: 178], Karga [Karmysheva 1976: 97, 213, 216], and Gargaly, their names have survived in the toponymy of the Farghana (Fergana) valley, Khwarazm (Horezm), Zarafshan and Kashka-Darya valleys54, and also in Adharbaydjan (Azerbajan), Volga (Itil) region, Southern Siberia, Mongolia, and other places inhabited by Turkic people [Karataev 2003: 99100].

From the above, it appears that the ancestors of Bahram Chubin originated from one of the Central Asian Turkic tribes with a bird ongon, i.e. a raven, a river golden eagle, or a crane.55 In the ancient times that tribe could belong to a circle of the Parthian tribal confederation, and then along with the Khionites, Kidarits, Hephtalites (Ephtalites) and Türks it was in the service of the early Sasanids and the later members of that dynasty.

Genealogy of Saman-Khudat

Bahram Chubin had 3 sons: Nawshard, Mihran, and Shapur. Saman-Khudat was his descendant his elder son Nawshard.56 According to the cited in medieval sources Saman-Khudat genealogy, he was a descendant of Bahram Chubin in fourth or fifth generation. The names of his ancestors are given differently in various sources:

54 Karga qishlaqs (settlement) (kishlak, kyshlak) in the Kagan tuman (small district) of the Bukhara wilayat (area) (vilayet),
in Uzbekistan  a tuman of the Farghana (Fergana) wilayat (vilayet);
Kok-Karga and Kargali qishlaqs (kishlak) in the Narpay tuman of the Samarqand (Samarkand) wilayat (vilayet),
Ala-Karga a qishlaq (kishlak) in the Yakka-Bagh tuman of the Kashka-Darya wilayat (vilayet),
Kargalar qishlaqs (kishlak) in Gurlan and Hazar-Asp tumans of the Khwarazm (Horezm) wilayat (vilayet),
Karga-Tepa a qishlaq in the Khatirchi tuman of the of Samarqand (Samarkand) wilayat (vilayet),
Karga-Owul a qishlaq in the Bulungur tuman of the of Samarqand (Samarkand) wilayat (vilayet), etc. [Koraev 1978: 168; khunov 1994: 7071].
55 The tribal ongons could be changed with changes of political situation (loining a new confederation, political change, etc.). Besides, the Turkic word karga could be have wider meanings, not only a raven or a crow, but also some other black-colored birds [Clauson 1972: 653].
56 It is known that he also had a brother called Mardansina, a sister called Gordiya, and one more sister with unknown name [EPersia III: 520].
27

(The Arabic transcriptions may not be accurate)
Saman ibn Djuba or Djabba (خثا ) ibn Niyar ibn Nawshard ibn Tamghath ibn Bahram Chubin [al-Samani VII: 12];
Saman-Khuda ibn Djuba (Djaba, Djuta, Khuta) ibn Tamghath ibn Nawshard ibn Bahram Chubin [Jacut III: 13; Dictionnaire: 297];
Saman ibn Djimathyan (نايثميج ) ibn Nawshard ibn Samtaghan ibn Bahram al-Malik [al-Nasafi 6284: 64];
Saman-Khudat ibn Djathiman (ناميثج ) ibn Taghmath ibn Nawshard ibn Bahram Chubin [al-Biruni: 39; Biruni 1957: 52];
Saman-Khuda ibn Djithman (نامثيج ) ibn Taghmath ibn Nawshard ibn Bahram Shubin57 [Ibn Haukal: 472];
Saman ibn Hamitan (ناتيمح ) ibn Nawsh ibn Tamghasp ibn Shawl58 ibn Bahram Chubin [Gardizi: 62];
Saman ibn Djuthman (نامثج ) ibn Tamghath ibn Nawshard ibn Bahram Chubin [Ibn al-Athir VII: 110];
Saman-Khudat ibn Djuthman (نامثج ) ibn Taghmath ibn Nawsard ibn Bahram Chubin [Mustawfi-i Qazwini: 379];
Saman-Khudat ibn Hamita (اتيمح ) ibn Nawsh ibn Tamasf ibn Shadal ibn Bahram Shubin [al-Karshi: 98];
Saman ibn Khudat (ادخج ) ibn Taghan (طغاْ ) ibn Bahram ibn Bahram Chubin [Usanova 1995: 26];
Saman ibn Sasan (عاعاْ) ibn Bahram Chubin [Tabaristanensis I: 11];
Saman ibn Djothman ibn Toghmath ibn Noshrad ibn Bahram Chubin [EPersia III: 520].59

Some of these names in the Saman-Khudat genealogy, in particular Tamghath (طمغاث) (Tamghasp, Tagmhath, Tamgharth, Tamghat, Samtagan), might be identified with the title Tamgach (طمغاج) (lit. seal holder), with a Turkic origin [Togan 1964: 61]. The other names of the Saman-Khudats ancestors cited in his genealogy, Shawl (شاول), Taghan (طغان), and Djabba (خثا) can be compared with names or titles of Sul (Sawl), Tughan (Toghan) and Djabgu (Yabgu), widespread among the ancient and medieval Türks.

Other names in the Saman-Khudat genealogical tree can be etymologized from the Iranian languages. However, it is known that a name of a person is not always connected with the ethnic origin, much more often it is connected with religious or cultural affiliation [Nikonov 1974: 8890].

57 In another place this name is written as Djubin (جوبین) [Ibn Haukal: 468].
58 This name can also be read Shadil (شادل) [Mukhtarov 1999: 285].
59 Later sources also have somewhat different genealogy: Bahram Chuba Saman Siyawush Haman Asad etc. [Azimov 1999: 26, 158, 160]. There apparently is a copyist or compiler error, which switched the names of Saman (سامان) and Haman (هاما), and omitted two links between them.
28

For example, the names of the Christian Arabs totallly differ from names of the the Muslim Arabs. The Arab Islamic names are widespread in all Islamic countries. The ancient Türks followed many world religions. Before the Arab conquest, among the Türks of Central Asia and Zoroastrian Khurasan (Khorasan) were widespread Iranian names and titles [at-Tabari I: 167168; Nikitin 1986: 8288; Sims-Wiliams 1997: 89] and later, among the Türks professing Buddhism (Uigurs, Altaians, Tuvinians, etc.), Judaism (Khazars, Karaims), and Christianity (Armenian-Oipchaqs (Kipchkas) , Gagauzes, Polovetz-Qipchaqs (Kipchkas), Nestorian Türks, etc.), in addition to the native Turkic, were frequent names of the Buddhist, Judaic [Mikhaylov 1999: 7879], and Syrian-Christian origin [Nikitin 1984: 124125; Baskakov 1981: 2126; Djumagulov 1971]. Besides, medieval sources frequently use names or nicknames of many Turkic rulers, military leaders and other historical personalities used by the Arabs and Persians (for example, Afrasiyab, Shir-i Kishwar, Parmuda, Abu Muzahim, Firuz-Kagan, etc.). And the Türks had a custom to name their children after their birthplace in a foreign land. For example, Sultan Sandjar (Sindjar) received his name after the name of the city Sindjar in Syria where he was born [al-Samani VII: 159]. Hence, it is impossible to attribute an origin of any historical personality to the Iranian ethnicity only because his name is of Iranian type. For example, the names of the Cimmerian leaders were Iranian. However, this does not attest that they were Iranian in origin, like also for the whole Cimmerian people. It is known that rulers of the non-Iranian Mitany (Mittani) and Khurrit (Khurite) people also used Indo-Iranian names [Chlenova 1971: 331].

The judgment of Russian and ethnocentric European linguists can't be taken too seriously because of the bias in attribution and refusal to consider alternatives. Among most notorious characters are V. Abaev and M.Vasmer, who would step over obvious to prove their thesis.

The name of Nushard or Nawshard (var. Nush or Nawsh)60 in the genealogy of Saman-Khudat originated from the name of mythical persona Anush ibn Shith (Seth) ibn Adam [al-Jakubi I: 6]. It can be compared with a name of the ancestor of the Khwarazm (Horezm)-Shahs Anush-Teginids (Prince Anush, Tr. tegin prince) dynasty Nush (nush)-Tegin Gharchai from the Oguz clan Bekdili [Toshov 2004: 15], with the name of the Saljuq (Seljuk) military leader Nush-Tegin [Ibn al-Zubayr: 86], and also with the name of the city Nushdjan (Nawshdjan), located in the region of the Isyq-Kul (Issyk Kul) Lake, near Atbash in the Tughuz-Ghuz (Tokuz-Oguz) Türks country [Ibn al-Fakih: 328; Ibn  Khordadbeh: 30; Kodma: 209]. In the 3rd/9th century among the  Central Asian Turkic rulers is mentioned a Kagan called Manush (nush)-Kagan [Ibn Khordadbeh: 40]. The name Nush also used one of the rulers of the Qara (Kara)-Khanid dynasty [Kochnev 1993: 10].  An image of a lion with a runic inscription-monogram legend n + uš (ush) is depicted on the reverse of the coins minted in Utrar (Otrar) in the Lower Syr-Darya [Smirnova 1981: 56]. On the site of an ancient settlement Yer-Kurgan in the Kashka-Darya valley on the inside of a 5th6th century AD bowl was found an impression of a seal with a Sogdian inscription reading Anush (n+wš) and is a part of a personal name [Isamiddinov 1978: 216; Iskhakov 1983: 43].

60 The name nwš (nawš) can be an Iranian loanword in Turkic meaning drink, wine [Nosirov 1994: 70].
29

Among Sogdian Ihshids ruling in the beginning of the 8th century AD is mentioned a certain ruler Mastich from Unash clan (m'stč 'wnš MLK), [Akhunbabaev 1986: 85]. The name of Unash (wnš), also encountered in the wall painting inscription in the palace hall of the city Afrasiab ruins, was a clan name of the Ihshid dynasty in Samarqand (Samarkand) [Livshits 1973: 2325] of the Turkic origin [Kamoliddin 2003: 6368]. Probably, the name Unash is one of versions of the name Anush.

In the medieval period the name Bahram was also widespread among the Türks, particularly among some rulers of the Ghaznawid (Ghaznavid), Saldjuqid (Seljukid) and Qara (Kara)-Khanid (Karakhanid) dynasties [Bosworth 1971: 162, 237; Kochnev 2000: 252]. The above allows to assert on sufficient grounds that the oldest forbear of the Saman-Khudat Samanids, and of Bahram Chubin had Turkic origin. In any case, at the present stage of research can be asserted that the Samanids' origin is not known [Frye 1993: 136], and to resolve this question needed a wider range of sources [Treadwell 1999: 88 - 89].

According to al-Istakhri, Samanids were Persians (al-furs), and the Islamic world had no other kings who had so deep reigning roots (al-mulk), which they passed along in inheritance still from the non-Arab times (al-'Adjam) [al-Istakhri: 293]. In the description of the al-Fars region, al-Istakhri stated that Samanids were Persian kings who ruled outside of the al-Fars region. They were descendants of Bahram, and Bahram came from noble people of Ardashir-Khwarra (Khurr) and lived in al-Rai [al-Istakhri: 143]. Ostensibly, this indicates that the Samanids were Persians in origin. However, some small, but very important clarifications within the Ibn Hawqal's text allow to better understand the substance of the al-Istakhri's words. Accordingly, Samanids originated from noble Persians (al-furs) because they were descendants of Bahram Chubin ibn Bahram Djushnas [Ibn Haukal: 472]. Thus, in Islamic tradition of the 4th/10th century, Samanids were held for Persians only because they were descendants of Bahram Chubin, who was known to medieval historians as a Persian commander.61 Besides, that is not corroborated by other medieval sources.

The peculiar perspective of the Islamic sources is illustrated by the grotesque descriptions of the Arab conquest of the Caucasus, where the backward projection of the anachronic Khazars blotted out the real participants of the confrontation, the Huns, the Savirs, the Masguts, the Kayis, the Bulgars, and other Caucasian people. A literal reading and interpretation of the Islamic sources clouded minds of the generations of historians who were mechanically citing and reciting the faulty storyline.

The valuable indication in the texts of Ibn Hawqal and al-Istakhri is that Islamic countries had no other kings with so deep reigning roots (al-mulk) as had the Samanids, who wielded power from the non-Arab (al-'Adjam) times, i.e. since pre-Islamic times.

61 More details below.
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That message probably alludes to the kings of the Arshacids dynasty, to which ascends the Bahram Chubin genealogy [Gardizi: 62].62 However, the subject of the text is uninterrupted royal succession from the pre-Arab times. In our opinion, the pre-Islamic Samanid ancestors who conveyed royal power in succession, could not be the kings of the al-Fars region. Firstly, Bahram Chubin as an ancestor of the Samanids was not a king, but a Sasanid military commander and a short-time usurper of their throne. Secondly, the pre-Islamic Samanid's ancestors, the descendants of Bahram Chubin, ruled not in al-Fars region, but in Farghana (Fergana), Balkh, Bukhara and Chach. Hence, the kings who held the power from the non-Arab times most likely were the supreme Türkic Kagans to whom Bahram Chubin was related, and it were his descendants from the marriage with the Turkic princess who were the Samanid's ancestors.

A number of previous researchers have already expressed an opinion of the Turkic origin of the Samanids, for example, at the end of the 19th century AD a Russian scholar A.G.Tumansky [Tumansky 1896: IV]. Sayyid Hasan Taqizada asserted that the mentioned in textual sources name of one of the Saman-Khudat ancestors (Tamghath, Tamghasp, Tamgharth, etc.) probably is Turkic in origin and reflects a Turkic name Tamghach/Tabghach [Togan 1972: 112]. R.Frye also suspected that the Samanids could be of a Turkic origin, because in the Balkh, whence they came, Türks were an overwhelming majority [Frye 1993: 136]. According to A.Z.Validi Togan, the ancestors of Saman-Khudat not just belonged to the dynasty of the Tukharistan (Tokharistan) Qarluq (Karluk) Djabghu (Yabgu), but were descendants of the supreme Türkic Kagan Kukem-Khan of the sources63 who ruled the Oguz branch of the Türks in his name [Togan 1981: 112]. The founders of the Turkic Yabgu dynasty that with interruptions ruled Tukharistan (Tokharistan) for about 200 years were offsprings of the Turkic Ashina line, the founders of the First Türkic Kaganate.

According to the researchers Yahya al-Khashshab and Ali al-Sabi, Samanids were relatives with Ghaznawids (Ghaznavid) and like them, they were of purely Turkic origin, and before Samanids appeared on the historical arena, nothing was known in Persia about their line [al-Sabi 1965: 129]. The same opinion held M.S.Günaltay [Günaltay 1938: 7677], N.Togan [Togan 1964: 6164], and R.M.Shukürova [Rashid al-Din 1987: 115, n. 241].

62 In the genealogical tree of Saman-Khidat were enumerated 36 generations of Bahram Chubin's legendary ancestors.
63 Rashid al-Din mentioned the name of this Kagan as Kukem Yawkuy, Abu-l-Ghazi as Kukem Bakuy, Ibn al-Balkhi as Qaqim Kagan, and al-Tabari as Sir Yabgu, all of which are identified with Istami (Istemi)-Yabgu Dizavul. His daughter was a wife of Sasanid Shahan-Shah Khusraw I Anushirwan and a mother of Shahan-Shah Hurmazd IV [at-Tabari I: 899; Ibnul-Balkhi: 24, 94, 98; Rashid al-Din 1987: 94; nonov 1958: 69].
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E.Browne cites verses of Arab poets deriding local governors of Mawaraannahr and Khurasan (Khorasan), i.e. the Samanids, accusing them of illegitimate claims of pre-Islamic noble origin.64

.Metz believed that Samanids had no relation neither to the Persians, nor to the Sasanids, and misrepresented themselves to appear to be legitimate rulers of the areas of Persia they controlled [Metz 1966: 27]. E.Daniel also expressed doubts in accuracy of the Saman-Khudats genealogy, and believed that it was faked to protect them from assaults on their rule [Daniel 1988: 371]. The Samanid policy of enforced Persification also could be connected with efforts to overcome centrifugal aspirations of rebellious provincial governors (Chaganiyan, Tukharistan (Tokharistan), Khurasan (Khorasan), Khwarazm (Horezm), etc.) and the claims of their Turkic military leaders [Meisami 2002: 368].

When Samanids started advancing their genealogical claims is not known. The line on the Samanid origin from Bahram Chubin for the first time has appeared in a composition of Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al-Istakhri, who edited between 318321/930933 a geographical composition of Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, written circa 309/921-22, i.e. right after the Saffarid's lands were annexed to the possessions of Ismail ibn Ahmad al-Samani.65 The earlier sources, for example, the al-Tabari's history, which ended with the to events of 303/915-16, do not mention such connections.66 Since al-Istakhri he is the only author who called Samanids Persians (al-furs), quite possibly he, himself a Persian, ascribed to the Samanids a Persian origin [al-Istakhri: 143, 292].67

The Arabic geographer Ibn Hawqal has met with al-Istakhri and charged him with inaccuracy in relaying information, and then under his request undertook to edit himself the work of Abu Zayd al-Balkhi. In fact, a comparison of the works of these two authors allows shows to ascertain that in places contents of al-Istakhri contradict the contents of Ibn Hawqal, and thus the contents of Ibn al-Balkhi, because Ibn Hawqal, working with both works of Ibn al-Balkhi and al-Istakhri, could compare them. So, speaking about the city of Ūsh (Osh), al-Istakhri writes that its fortress adjoined a mountain with a guard post against the Türks [al-Istakhri: 333].

64 The Arabian poets in their verses have wrote: They (i.e. non-Arabs) have already forgotten as broke stones in stone quarries of al-Halani, and as carried cargoes in skirts of the dresses. Now, when they became rich began to shout impudently: We are notable people, sons of dihqans. If somebody doubted in this and asked the most impudent and vulgar of them, he with arrogance will answer: I am a son of Bahram Chubin and will add: Khusraw has left for me his riches and has made me the successor. Who will dare to oppose me? [Browne 1997: 265267].
65 The first occupation of Khurasan (Khorasan) by the Samanids took place in 298/910-11, and the secondin 300/912-13 [Bosworth 1971: 148].
66 For more details about this see also: al-Biruni: 4546; Minorsky 1956: 176179; Meisami 2000: 357.
67 Ibn Hawqal named them only descendants of Bahram Chubin [Ibn Haukal: 468].
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Ibn Hawqal's text has a small but essential distinction that radically changed the meaning and the essence of the message. He says that the Ūsh (Osh) fortress adjoined a mountain with a guard post of the Türks, where they guard their cattle and grazing herds [Ibn Haukal: 513]. The same sense is also relayed by the text of al-Idrisi [al-Idrisi IV: 508].

Other kings and local rulers of the Islamic period also raised claims for the thrones of the pre-Islamic kings. First such claims were raised by Umayyads. One of the last Umayyad Caliphs, Yazid III ibn al-Walid (r. 126/743-44), born from the daughter of the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Shiruye, stated: I am a descendant of the Persian emperor, my ancestors were Marwan and also the Byzantine emperor68 and the Türkic Kagan69 [al-Djahiz: 101; Bosworth 1973: 53]. When he wanted to brag of his bravery and military aptitude, he was mentioning only the Kagan [al-Djahiz: 101].

he Tahirids, although they were descendants of the pre-Islamic Persian nobility, were strongly Arabised and tried to ascend their genealogy to the Arabic tribe al-Khuzaa, a client (mawla) of which was their ancestor Tahir ibn al-Husayn. The early Samanids adopted many Tahirid customs, and imitating them, tried to portray themselves as descendants of pre-Islamic Iranian nobility and faithful followers of the Sunni tradition [Bosworth 1973: 54, 56]. In the 4th/10th century, the Iranian Saffarids ascended their genealogy to the Sasanid Shahan-Shah Khusraw II Parwiz, and the Buwayhids run it to the Shahan-Shah Bahram V Gur [Tarikh-i Sistan: 203]. The amir Adud al-Dawla had even visited the ruins of the ancient Persepolis, the Achaemenid capital, and kept a found there peice with a Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscription. The rulers of Khuttalan also ascended their genealogy to Bahram V Gur [Bosworth 1973: 57, 59].

Abu Mansur Muhammad ibn Abd al-Razzaq al-Tusi, a Samanid governor of Khurasan (Khorasan), led his genealogy from Khusraw II Parwiz. The founder of the Ghaznawid (Ghaznavid)s dynasty Sabuk-Tegin, originally from the Qarluq (Karluk) tribe Barskhan in the Isyq-Kul (Issyk Kul) Lake area, tied his genealogy to the family of the last Sasanid Shahan-Shah Yazdigird III, who ostensibly resided in that city after his flight from the Arabs to the Turkistan [Bosworth 1962: 220; Bosworth 1963: 3940]. Those claims were connected with the pro-Persian policy of the early Ghaznawids (Ghaznavid), used in the period of their struggle against the Turkic Qara (Kara)-Khanids (Karakhanid) [Bosworth 1968: 40].

68 Shiruye was married to Maryam, a daughter of Mauritius, a Byzantine emperor.
69 Shiruye was a descendant of Khusraw I Anushirwan from his marriage with the daughter of Istami (Istemi)-Kagan.
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In a letter that come to him (Sabuk-Tegin, from the context) in 418/1027-28 from the king of al-Sin (ملك الص) (aka Khitai, Khitan, Khitan-Liao, Kara-Khitan, an Uygur state) he is called the ruler of Khurasan (Khorasan) Mahmud Qara (Kara)-Khan [Bosworth 1962: 220]. As is known, the Qara (Kara)-Khanid Kagans originated from the same Qarluq (Karluk) tribe, but in contrast with the Samanids and their successors Ghaznawids (Ghaznavid), they ascended their genealogy to Afrasiyab, the mythological king of the Türks, who is also one of the main characters of the Shah-Nama, a legendary history of the Persia and Turan. The Saldjuqids (Seljukid), like the Qara (Kara)-Khanids (Karakhanid), unlike the Ghaznawids (Ghaznavid), descended from the free Türks. Therefore they held themselves of royal blood, and led their genealogy to Afrasiyab [Bosworth 1973: 6162].

All these claims for kinship ties with pre-Islamic kings were caused by the desire of the rulers to prove the legitimacy of their rule in the territories they possessed. Therefore Buwayhids, Samanids and Ghaznawids (Ghaznavid) in the possession of the Khurasan (Khorasan) and Iran lands portrayed themselves as descendants of the Sasanids, and Qara (Kara)-Khanids (Karakhanid) with the possession of the Turkistan lands portrayed themselves as descendants of Afrasiyab. Actually the Ghaznawids (Ghaznavid) and Qara (Kara)-Khanids (Karakhanid) originated from the same Qarluq (Karluk) tribe, they split between themselves the lands of another Turkic dynasty of the Oguz origin, i.e. the Samanids. For the same reason the Samanids, and then other Turkic dynasties, patronized the New Persian literature, ushered at the court of the Iranian Saffarids70, and opened a way for the New Persian language (Dari) that formed at the Sasanid court and became a lingua franca for the entire eastern part of the Persian world [Frye 1975: 99].

When Samanids in 298/910-11 defeated Saffarids and captured Khurasan (Khorasan), among the local population their authority soon became unpopular, and the inner opposition rose against occupying troops. A culmination was a revolt of the local patriotic forces headed by a 10-year-old member of the Saffarids family, a great-grandson of Amr ibn al-Layth. As a result of the revolt, in 299/911-12 the Samanid ruler was deposed and the young Saffarid prince was proclaimed an mir of Khurasan (Khorasan). The actual power seized one of military leaders, Muhammad ibn Hurmuz, who broke communications both with the Saffarids and with the Samanids, and recognized only the Caliph of Bagdad as his suzerain71.

The same may be a case with the Bulgars' dynastic clan Dulo, claimed in the Nominalia of the Bulgar Khans. The line from Bülümar to Ernik may be either unrelated or related only indirectly to the post-Ernik and pre-Kurbat rulers. The Nominalia does list intervening dynasties Vokil/Ukil/Ugain for the latter times. The name Dulo is conjectured to mean Tele, one of the tribal alliances within the Eastern Hunnic confederation. The Huns that fled to the Altai-Dzungaria were headed by dynastic Luanti, but from the Upper Itil - Aral basin came out dynastic Dulo.

A Persian poet of 8th/14th century in his poem compares cruelty of a contemporary ruler with standard epithets for some (pseudo-) historical personalities that remained in the folk memory due to their evil deeds.

70 There are known names of several Persian poets who served at the court of Rafi ibn al-Layth [Tarikh-i Sistan: 211].
71 He minted a dirham that mentioned only his name and the name of Caliph al-Muqtadir. Minting of that coin was a display of his independence from the Samanids [Bosworth, Rispling 1993: 215217].
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For example, haughtiness of the Pharaon, violence of Shaddad, hubris of Nimrod, bloodthirstiness of Zakhkhak, rebelliousness of Piran, treatury of Garsiwaz, rage of Kawus, ignominy of Tus, murders of Nawuhodonosor, debauchery and immorality of the Lot's, tribe polytheism and revelry of the Khud's relatives, villainy of of Ad and Samud tribes, etc. Along with others, he also mentioned deceit of Saman [Barnabadi: 150].

This leads to deduction that Samanids' ancestor remained in the folk memory as a character famous for deception used in his political activity. It is known that in the middle of the 2nd/8th century, when for the first time Saman-Khudat has appeared on a political arena of the Arab Caliphate, in Mawaraannahr rose a large revolt of the local population [Belenitsky 1973: 155], and Abu Muslim annihilated a local nobility of Sughd (Sogd) and Bukhara [at-Tabari III: 7980], of which a majority were local rulers and dihqans of Mawaraannahr. Thus were ended attempts of local rulers to involve China in the struggle against Arab conquerors [Karev 2000: 209210], and ensured a recognition of the Muslim victory at Talas over the Chinese army [Bolshakov 1980: 132136]. By the same time is dated a liquidation of monetary mint by all local dynasties (the only attribute of their nominal power) and the final victory of Islam and Arab language in Mawaraannahr [Karev 2000: 205218]. Abu Muslim became famous for his bloodthirstiness, and he was held as one of four Muslim commanders who have killed more than one million people each [al-Thaalibi: 72]. Thus, it is logical that Saman-Khudat took advantage of political situation in Mawaraannahr in the middle of 2nd/8th century, when the majority of local dynasties in the Sughd (Sogd) and Bukhara was wiped out and their property was confiscated, and he declared himself a descendant of the pre-Islamic kings of Mawaraannahr.72 Probably Saman-Khudat accepted Islam and participated in suppression of this revolt, just as later his grandsons Nuh, Ahmad, Yahya, and Ilyas, the sons of Asad, participated in suppression of the revolt headed by Rafi  ibn al-Layth.

Saman-Khudat

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CONCLUSION

Complex research of the medieval written sources in conjunction with archeology, numismatics, ethnography, and other related historical sciences allows to come to the following conclusions:

Sufficient records lead to assert that Bhram Chubin was a native from the ukharistan (Balkh) circle of the Oguz Türks in the Sasanid military service with foisted veneer of superficial Persification.

The ancient ancestor of the Samanids, Saman-Khudat was a descendant of Bahram Chubin in fourth or fifth generation from his marriage with a daughter of the Supreme Türkic Kagan El-Tegin (Parmud) with a court in Bukhara. El-Tegin was also a founder of the ukharistan (Tokharistan) Turkic Yabgu dynasty. The motherland of the Saman-Khudat ancestors was Farghana (Fergana), with it was connected the last period of the Bahram Chubin's life. The Saman-Khudat birthplace was Chach (Tashkent) where for some time his father Djabba-Khan was a ruler.

The title Supreme Türkic Kagan alludes to the devaluation of the title Kagan, which followed a devaluation of the title Tarhan (Shanyu), initially a title meaning Supreme Khan. With time, numerous positions gained a title Kagan, like the Lesser Kagan, Greater Kagan, and the like, necessitating introduction of a title denoting an absolute superiority.

At the same time, on the maternal side Saman-Khudat via (the Türkic Kaganate viceroy) El rslan (Shir-i Kishwar) and (his son the Türkic Kagan) El-Tegin (Parmud) was a relative of the Sasanid dynasty scions, Khusraw I nushirwan and his son Hurmazd IV urkzada, who were in kinship with the Türks.

The maternal dynastic side in the Türkic Kaganate was the tribe Ashide, which statutorily was the owner of the Türkic Kaganate. The paternal dynastic side in the Türkic Kaganate was the tribe Ashina, which statutorily was supplying candidates for the post of presiding Türkic Kagan in accordance with the traditional Lateral Succession order. The sons of the Ashide mothers (Bahram Chubin's offsprings) statutorily belonged to the father's line, tribe Karga clan Anush. That at best could be a princely line of a second echelon, eligible for dynastic succession only on a local tribal level.

Before acceptance of Islam, Saman-Khudat, like his ancestor Djabba-Khan and the Türkic Kagans, professed Manichaeism. He had a Turkic name rquq and a Buddhist-Manichaean name Saman. Per the Türkic custom, he braided his hair into a long plait, for that he was nicknamed akuldar. Like his father Djabba-Khan, he had a title Yabgu (Djabgu), a dynastic title of the Turkic ruler of ukharistan.

The Türkic brand of Manichaeism still remained Tengriism, as was the Türkic brand of Buddhism, because Buddhism, and later Manichaeism, syncretized with Tengriism. By the time of the Manichaeism's diffusion, Tengriism was solidly syncretized with Buddhism. The newcoming Manichaean etiology fused with Tengriism seamlessly, because Manichaeism was a syncretic product of Buddhism.

The title Yabgu (Prime Minister and Judge) is consistent with affiliation with the maternal dynastic side, on a confederation (tribal unoun) or federation (Kaganate) level depending on stautory ranking.

The appearance of Saman-Khudat on the Arab Caliphate's political arena was connected with cultural-political movement ash-shu 'ubiyy, which arose in Khurasan (Khorasan) in the first half of 2nd/8th century, i.e. on the eve of the political propaganda in favor of the bbasids, the main movers of which were the Khurasan (Khorasan) Oguz Türks along with the Persians. Its role can be compared with that of salient figures of that time as the pre-Islamic ruler of Djurdjan (Gurgan, Hyrcania) Sul-Tegin and the great scholar-encyclopaedist bd Allah ibn al-Mubarak al-Marwazi, who were also extracts from the Khurasan (Khorasan) Oguz Türks and who served for the Arab conquerors.

The descendants of Saman-Khudat trodded the line of their ancestor and in close co-operation with the Arab conquerors actively participated in suppression of the local revolts against the Arabs, and then in administrative capacity.
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 The Samanids rose to power with the help of the bbasids, and as their proteges were active pursuers of their policy in Central Asia. They became zealous fighters for faith and waged continuous sacred wars against the so-called infidel Türks, i.e. those Türks who were viewed as enemies of Islam. The early Samanids were deeply religious and had close relations with clergy. As the Islam was injected into the Türkic milieu largely via Persian language, the role of the New Persian (Farsi) language and the Arabic script began to increase in the religious life of the Central Asian local Türkic population.

The author asserts that as late as 810s, in Balkh and Khorasan, the areas advertiized as core Persian lands, Persian was a foregn language. That is consistent with the appellation Tajik for Islamic proselytizers, who in the Türkic lands were primarily Persian converts promoting the Arab religion, which gained a sobriquet after the name of the Arab tribe Tazzik. The name of the Arab tribe then became a Türkic sobriquet for Islam and its converts, and by extension for the Persian-speakers at large.

The Samanids chose Bukhara as their capital because it was the residence of their ancestors El rslan (Shir-i Kishwar) and of El-Tegin (Parmud) before he became the Supreme Türkic Kagan. The historical-linguistic analysis of the Bukhara oasis' historical toponymy shows that Türkic names are some of the most ancient names in that territory, which in turn attests that Türks lived there from extreme antiquity, making a part of the local settled population. The name of the city Bukhara originated from a Türkic word buxar which means Buddhist temple (Buddhist term, loanword). The origin of this name was connected with construction in 6th century AD of the Buddhist-Manichaean temple, the founder of which was the Türkic governor of Bukhara El-Tegin (Parmud), son of El Arslan (Shir-i Kishwar).

During early Middle Ages the Bukhara oasis was populated by sedentary Türks and Turkisized Sogdians. The Türks not only held political and administrative power, but also were a considerable part of the Sughd (Sogd) urban population. Therefore already in the early Middle Ages population of cities was bilingual. Sogdians were very close to the local Türks due to the mixed marriages, not only genetically, but also culturally. The Arab conquest undoubtedly influenced the ethnic situation in the Central Asia, and caused some reduction of local population as a result of mass extermination and forced expulsion of a part of the Sogdians and Türks to beyond the Arab Caliphate borders and settling in their place immigrant and colonizer newcomers of Arab and Persian origin. However, some sources atttest that after the Arab-Persian invasion not all Türks have left their lands and moved east, as was speculated earlier, but on the contrary, after accepting Islam they increased both their numbers and their influence in the society. In the 3rd4th/9th10th centuries, like before that, the Türks, and also the Turkified Sogdians, Khwarazmians (Horezmians), and Bactrians made the major part of the urban and sedentary-agricultural population of the Central Asia.

After uniting Khurasan (Khorasan) and most of the Persia to the Samanid possessions, Samanids aspired to emphacize their Persian origin, to be real fathers for the subdued areas of Central Asia and Persia, and tried to look Persian at all costs, linking the origin of their line to the Sasanid epoch. Therefore they orchestrated favorable conditions for the Islamic culture in the New Persian (Farsi) language to prosper.
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At the same time, Samanids did not forget their Türkic origin, that is traceable during the entire life of their dynasty. Almost their entire stuff in the capital city Bukhara, i.e. the great nobles, politicians, and military leaders in service of the Samanids were Türkic. The majority of the provincial governors the Samanids appointed in the controlled area were also Türkic. Many Samanids intermarried with them. Samanids allowed Oguz Türks to move into the vicinity of Bukhara, counting on their support in a moment of need. Therefore the last people who assisted Samanids after they lost power in Bukhara were the Oguz Türks, who held them as their rulers.

The Samanid administrative system was fashioned on the Abbasid model, which in turn was fashioned after Sasanid state traditions. The Samanid administrative system was a crisp and perfect system that embraced most advanced achievements in the field of statehood of that time. However, because the term statehood is a legal concept, its definition also should be stated in legal terms. From the ludicial point of view the Samanid administrative system and their rule cannot be classed as that of the independent state. Hence, rule of the Samanids in Central Asia should be classed not as an independent sovereign state, but as rule of a dynasty of local rulers appointed by Bagdad as viceroys in charge of relatively independent internal policy using certain powers delegated by the Abbasid Caliphs. Formally, the Abbasid Caliphate finished its existence only with the Mongol conquest, before that it still was a confederation of Islamic countries united under a nominal power of the Bagdad Caliphs, although after 334/945-46 the real power in Bagdad at first was in the hands of the Buwaihids (), and after 448/1056-57 in the hands of the Saldjuqids (Seljukids).

During the life of the Arab Caliphate Türks actively participated in the cultural life of the Islamic society. The time of Islamic revival brisles with mergers of various cultural traditions, first of all of the Arabs and Persians. Not a smaller in importance role in this process was also attained by the Türkic people. The fluorishing of the Islamic science and culture went on marked by activization of the Türkic penetration not only into the Central Asia, but also across the whole Near and Middle East. This in many respects explains the formation of the Türk-Persian symbiosis, and also brings attention to the Türkic role in the development of the Islamic science and culture.

Even before converting to Islam, the Türkic people were under cultural influence of their nearest neighbours, the Persians, and due to them were converting to Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism. Especially strong cultural influence on the Türks rendered the Sogdians, with whom  they had close ethno-cultural contact called a Türk-Sogdian symbiosis.
284

As a result of natural processes of mutual influence and amalgamation of these two people, Sogdians completely assimilated among the settled Türks of Central Asia and Eastern Turkistan.

At the dawn of the New Persian (Farsi) literature stood not the Persians and not the Sogdians, but the Arabs and the Türks constituting a part of the Sasanid Persia population. The development of the Persian literature and culture, that begun at the court of the Persian Sffarids, continued at the courts of the Türkic rulers Samanids, Qra-Khanids, Ghaznawids (Ghaznavids), Saldjuqids (Seljukids) and Khwarazm (Horezm)-Shahs, who patronised the best poets of the Persian poetry. The New Persian literature had a large influence on the culture of the Türkic people, and is refleed in their literature.

The Türkic rulers did not try to introduce Türkic language into the life of the countries they ruled. They did not use it even as a court language, which could raise its role as a language of administration. On the contrary, at their courts they used Arabic, and even more so the Persian language. The Türks were the first who began to use in the office along with the Arabic the New Persian (Farsi) language.

At that time, the Türkic language has not adapted to the Arabic graphics yet, although at the end of the 2nd/8th beginning of 3rd/9th centuries some Türkic words were used as explanatory material in the works of some Arabic-speaking authors. There also are indicators that allow to deduce that the first work in Türkic language with the Arabic script was done not in the 5th/11th century, as was thought earlier, but in the second half of the 2nd/8th beginning of 3rd/9th century.

After uniting Khurasan (Khorasan) and most of the Persia to the Samanid possessions, Samanids aspired to emphacize their Persian origin, to be real fathers for the subdued areas of Central Asia and Persia, and tried to look Persian at all costs, linking the origin of their line to the Sasanid epoch. Therefore they orchestrated favorable conditions for the Islamic culture in the New Persian (Farsi) language to prosper.

The oldest ancestor of the Samanids, Saman-Khudat, like his ancestors, was an extract of the Central Asian sedentary Türks, who had ancient traditions of agricultural and urban culture. The descendants of the ancient and medieval sedentary-agricultural and urban Central Asian Türkic-speaking population were known at the beginning of 20th century AD under a name Sart (Türkic trader, merchant), they differed both from the nomadic Türkic people and from the settled Persian-speaking people of the Central Asia [Kamoliddin 2004: 6364]. After the administrative-territorial division the Bolsheviks carried out in 1924, they formed a core of the modern Uzbek people [moliddin 2004: 3441]. Hence, in light of the stated above, there are all reasons to assert that the rule of the Samanid dynasty in Central Asia is an integral part of the statehood history of the Uzbek people.
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Abbreviations
Literature
Ζ
Ж
Җ
ז
Ȗ
ϖ
і
Ζ
Ӗ
Ȗ
ʖ


ʖ
Җ
Җ

і


ݖ
–
Ӗ /

і----
–
Ȗ
–
370
і-
і

і-
і-

–
̖
Ζ

͖
Ԗ
Җ
ݖ
і
Ė
ʖ
і
і-
–
AAArabskiy Anonym
AEMAArchivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi
AIAnnales Islamologiques
AIArxeologicheskie Issledovaniya
AOASHActa Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
BEBrochaus die Enzyklopadie
BGABibliotheca geographorum arabicorum
BSOSBulletin of the School of Oriental Studies (London University)
BSOASBulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
CACCahiers dAsie Centrale
CAJCentral Asiatic Journal
CHIThe Cambridge History of Iran
CHIsThe Cambridge History of Islam
371
CRSChuvashsko-Russkiy Slovar
DADrevnie Avtory
DTSDrevnetiurksky Slovar
EAEtnicheskiy Atlas
EBEncyclopaedia Britannica
EIThe Encyclopaedy of Islam
EIranEncyclopaedia Iranica
ERSEthnic and Racial Studies
GLEGrand Larusse encyclopedique
GMSGibb Memorail Series
HCCAHistory of Civilizations of Central Asia
HJASHarvard Journal of Asiatic Studies
IAIslam Ansiklopedisi
IDIziskanny Dar
IJCASInternational Journal of Central Asian Studies
IJMESInternational Journal of Middle East Studies
HCHistory of Chaliphs
ISIranian Studies
ITEDIslam tetkikleri Enstitusu Dergisi
JAOSJournal of the American Oriental Society
JRASJournal of the Royal Asiatic Society
JTSJournal of Turkish Studies
KDKniga Deyaniy
KIKultura i Iskusstvo
MHCKMaterialy po Istorii Kyrgyzov i Kyrgyzstana
MKKoshghariy, Mahmud
MNMify Narodov
MOManuscripta Orientalia. International Journal for Oriental Manuscript Research
MSManuscript
MWThe Moslem World
NCThe Numismatic Chronicle
NEThe National Encyclipaedia
NSNovaya Stranitsa
NSANarody Sredney Azii
OHOrientwissenschaftliche Hefte
372
OMAOzbek Mumtoz Adabiyoti
OOOshskaya Oblast
OOOrta Osiyolik
PFEHPapers on Far Eastern History
PhDPhilosofy Doctor
PKIPamiatniki Kultury i Iskusstva
PRSPersidsko-Russkiy Slovar
PSPehleviysko-Persidsko-Armiano-Russko-Angliyskiy Slovar
RPRRussko-Persidskiy Slovar
RTSRussko-Turetskiy Slovar
SFSogdiyskie Fragmenty
SIStudia Iranica
SOStatisticheskiy Obzor
SOFStatisticheskiy Obzor Ferganskoy Doliny
SOPStudies Oriental Pedersen
TATurk Ansiklopedisi
TKTopografiya Kladov
UMAUzbek Mumtoz Adabiyoti
VIRVseobshaya Istoriya Religiy
VTVostochny Turkestan
ZDPZhivopis Drevnego Pendjikenta
Institutions
͖
̖
ݖ
–

ݖ ,

Ζ
Ӗ
Ӗ

373
͖
͖
ʖ
ݖ-
ݖ
Ж
Ζ
Ӗ
ݖ
ݖ-
AGSThe American Geographic Society
ANSThe American Numismatic Society
BSOASBulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
IACASInternational Association of Central Asian Studies
NBUNational Bank of Uzbekistan
NUUzNational University of Uzbekistan
RIIASResearch Institute for Inner Asian Studies
UNESCOUnited Nations Economical Scientific Cooperation Organization
374

Transliteration
A a long vowel (Arab. alif)
I i long vowel i (Arab. yay)
Ū u long vowel u (Arab. waw)
ō long vowel
ē long vowel
dh interdental sound (Arab. dhal)
q hard consonant sound (Arab. qaf)
gh hard consonant sound (Arab. ghayn)
th interdental sound (Arab. tha)
kh hard consonant sound (Arab. kha)
 - Arab. yn
- Arab. hamza
č ch
h soft sound (Arab. ha)
χ Greek., hard consonant
δ Greek., interdental sound between d and z (like the Arab. dhal)
ŋ Greek., the sound which gives combination of n and g.
γ Greek., hard consonant gh
š sh (Arab. shin)
ž zh
375

Sources on Samanid genealogy
Sources Tracing Samanids' Origin to Bahram Chubin
1. bu Ishaq l-Farisi l-Istakhri (4th/10th c.). salik al-Mamalik (The Ways of the Countries).
2. bu li Balmi (4th/10th c.). Preface to the Persian Translation of Tarikh al-Tabari (The History of al-Tabari).
3. Hudud al-Alam (The Regions of the World) by unknown author of 4th/10th century.
4. Ibn Hawqal (4th/10th c.). Surat al-Ard (Configuration of the Earth).
5. Shams al-Din al-Muqaddasi (4th/10th c.). Ahsan al-Taqasim ila Marifat al-Aqalim (The Best Division in Knowledge of Climats).
6. bu Bakr Djfar ibn uhammad l-Narshakhi (4th/10th c.). Tarikh Bukhara (The History of Bukhara).
7. bu Sid bd l-Hayy Gardizi (5th/11th c.). Zayn al-Akhbar (The Best of Annales).
8. bu Rayhan al-Biruni (5th/11th c.). l-Athar al-Baqiya n il-Qurun l-Khaliya (The Monument Remained from the Passed Times).
9. bu Hafs Umar l-Nasafi (6th/12th c.). l-Qand fi Dhikr Ulama Samarqand (The Sweet of Information about Scholars of Samarqand).
10. bu Sd bd l-Karim ibn uhammad l-Smani (6th/12th c.). l-nsab (The Genealogies).
11. Yaqut al-Hamawi (7th/13th c.). udjm l-Bildan (The Collection of Countries).
12. Ibn l-thir (7th/13th c.). l-amil fi-l-Trikh (The Complete Book in the History).
13. Djamal l-Qarshi (8th/early 14th c.). l-ulhaqat bi-l-Surah (The Additions of the Evident).
14. Hamd llah Qazwini (9th/15th c.). Tarikh-i Guzida (The Select History).
15. irwkhand (9th/15th c.). Rawdat al-Safa (The Garden of Purity).
16. The Nasab-Nam (The Genealogy) of Ismail ibn Ahmad al-Samani (11th/17th c.).
376
Sources with Direct or Indirect Indications on Turkic Origin of the Samanids
1. Shams l-Din l-uqaddasi (4th/10th c.). Ahsan al-Taqasim ila Marifat al-Aqalim (The Best Division in Knowledge of Climats).
2. bu-l-Fadl Bayhaqi (5th/11th c.). Tarikh-i sud (The History of Masud).
3. bu Sd bd l-rim ibn uhammad l-Smani (6th/12th c.). l-nsab (The Genealogies).
4. bu Bakr bd llah ibn Umar ibn uhammad l-Balkhi. Fadail-i Balkh (The Merits of Balkh).
5. Hamd llah Qazwini (9th/15th c.). Tarikh-i Guzida (The Select History).
6. sahh l-Twarikh (The Trueast Annales) of the unknown author (7th/early 13th c.)
7. Yaqut al-Hamawi (7th/13th c.). udjm l-Bildan (The Collection of Countries).
8. Ibn l-thir (7th/13th c.). l-Lubab fi Tadhkhib al-Ansab (The Pure in Classification of the Genealogies) and l-Kamil fi-l-Tarikh (The Complete Book in History).
9. Rashid al-Din (7th/13th c.). ghuz-Nama (The Book of the Oguzes) and Djami l-Twarikh (The Collection of Histories).
10. uslih l-Din uhammad l-Lari (9th/15th c.). irat l-Adwar (The Mirror of Epochs).
11. Hafiz-i Abru (9th/15th c.). djmü (The Collection).
12. Ibn ghri-Bardi (9th/15th c.). l-Nudjum al-Zahira fi Muluk isr w-l-Qahir (The Appeared Stars in the Kings of Egypt and Cairo).
13. Khwandamir (10th/16th c.). Habir al-Siyar fi Akhbar Afrad l-Bashar (The Favourite of the Biograpies in the History of the People)
14. Hafiz-i nish Bukhari (10th/16th c.). bd llah-Nam (The Book of Abd Allah).
15. hmud ibn Wli (11th/17th c.). Bahr l-Asrar fi Manaqib l-Akhyar (The See of Secrets on the Valours of the Devouts).
16. bu-l-Ghazi Bahadur-Khan (11th/17th c.). Shadjara al-Trakima (The Tribal Tree of the Turkmens).
17. Sdiya of the unknoun author (11th/17th c.).
18. hmad l-Usturlabi l-Sghani l-irmidhi (11th/17th c.). Ilm l-Nudjum (The Astronomy).
19. Nasab-Nam of Ismail ibn Ahmad al-Samani (11th/17th c.)
20. The Medallion of Mansur ibn Nuh al-Samani (4th/10th c.).
377, 378

Family Tree of Bahram Chubin
291
291
This genealogy is cited in the composition Zayn al-Akhbar by Gardizi [Gardizi: 62].
  1. Kayumars
  2. nisha
  3. Farwak
  4. Khushang
  5. skahd
  6. fridun
  7. Iradj
  8. Kuzak
  9. Doser nuchehr
  10. rsatin
  11. Wemam
  12. Frwin
  13. Ikhshin
  14. Beshdad
  15. Sdsd
  16. shrad
  17. Fadan
  18. ihran
  19. rzwan
  20. ras
  21. ilad
  22. Qarghin
  23. Sfrsp
  24. Djerdad
  25. Kuzak
  26. Shasp
  27. Bahram
  28. Sim
  29. Ferawl
  30. Fir
  31. Randjahan
  32. Hadad
  33. Bestar
  34. Char
  35. Djam
  36. Dirkar
  37. Kardar
  38. nfian
  39. Kuzak
  40. Bahram Hasis (Gushnasp)
  41. Bahram Chubin
379

Family tree of Saman-Khudat
292
292 This genealogy is cited in the sources of 4th/10th beginning of 7th/13th centuries (Ibn Hawqal, Balmi, al-Biruni, Gardizi, bu Hafs al-Nasafi, al-Samani, Yaqut al-Hamawi, Ibn al-Athir). The author of Hudud al-Alam, Narshakhi, and some later sources (Hamd Allah Qazwini, irkhwand, Khwandamir, etc.) named only Bahram Chubin as the higher ancestor of Saman-Khudat. Some important specifications to this genealogy contain the works of later authors Rashid al-Din, hmud ibn Wali, uhammad al-Lari, al-Usturlabi, and in the composition Sdiy of the unknown author.
 
  1. Bahrām Gushnasp
  2. Bahram Chubin
  3. Tughrul (Shawul)
  4. Nushrad (Hawsh, nush)
  5. mghach (nghath, mghasp, mgharth, mghat, ghmath, ghan, Smtfghan)
  6. Djabba-Khan (Djuba, Djimasyan, Djasiman, Djisman, Djusman, Hamitan, Haman)
  7. Saman-Khudat (Saman-Yabgu, rquq, akuldar)
380
 
Family Tree of the Samanid dynasty293
293 The complete genealogical tree of the Samanids clan consisted of 55 members [Zambaur 1927: 202].
 
    1.  Saman-Khudat
Balkh (first half of 8th c.)
   
    2.  sd
arw (end of 8th beginning of 9th c.)
   
3.  Nuh
Smrqnd (204/819)
  4.  hmad I
Farghan (204/819)
5.  Yahya
al-Shash (Chach, Tashkent) (204/819)
6.  Ilyas
Harat (Herat) (204/819)
7.  Nsr I
Smrqnd (250279/864892)
  8.  I al-Madi
Bukhara (279295/892907)
   
    9.  hmad II al-Shahid
(295301/907914)
   
    10.  Nsr II l-Sid
(301331/914943)
   
    11.  Nuh I l-Hmid
(331343/943954)
   
    12.  bd l-lik I l-uyyd (al-Rashid)
(343350/954961)
   
    13.  nsur I al-Muzaffar (l-Sdid)
(350365/961976)
   
    14.  Nuh II l-Rida (al-Rashid)
(365387/976997)
   
    15.  II
(387389/997999)
   
    16.  bd l-lik II
(389390/9991000)
   
    17.  Ismail l-untasir
(390395/10001005 )
   

381


List of recent publications on Samanids by Dr. Shamsiddin S. Kamoliddin 2004
2004
1. // . . 8 (Ң). , 2004. . 1315. 2005
2006
2. IXX . () // ѐ . : , 2005. . 231241. (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010) 2006
3. қ // . 2006, 2. . 1418. (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010)
4. - // Moziydan sado ( َEcho of History, ), 2006, 3 (31). . 1417.
5. // Moziydan Sado (Echo of History, ), 2006, 4 (32). C. 1518.
6. // V . . 3. , 2006. C. 206209. 2007
2008
7. // International Congress of Asian and North African Studies (ICANAS) XXXVIII (September 1015, 2007), Ankara (Turkey). Abstracts, p. 299300. 2008
8. , in: Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, 15 (2006/2007), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2008, . 3963. (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010)
9. // . 20042006. . -, 2008. . 1321. (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010)
382
10. // Moziydan sado (Echo of History, ), 2008, 4 (40). . 3741. (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010)
11. . ʔ (Document de travail de lIFEAC), 31-, 2008 ( 31, août 2008). : , 2008. 114 . (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010)
12. On the Origin of the Samanids, in: Abstracts of Papers of the Fifteenth Annual Central Eurasian Studies Conference, March 2223 2008, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, p. 77. 2009
2009
13. // Archivum Eurasiae Media Aevi, 16 (2008/2009), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2009, . 113119. (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010)
14. // / , 2009, 2. . 2231. (the last offprint in Tashkent, 2010)
15. IX XIII . // Uzbek-Japanese Scientific Cooperation: History and Culture of Central Asia. Sources and Methodological Issues (September 34, 2009). Abstracts, p. 67. Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
16. // Asiatica. . . 3 / . . .. .: - .- -, 2009. . 4960. 2010
2010
17. Samanlylarin Gelip Cykyšy Bilen/ /About the Origin of Samanids // Miras (, Heritage), 2010, 2 (38). Ašgabat (Turkmenistan), p. 6482.
18. On the Religion of the Samanids Ancestors // International Symposium on the History of Xinjiang China and the Central Asia. August 1825, 2010. Urumci, China.
19. Samanilar kökeni // Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Kirgizistan-Türkiye Manas Universitesi Yayinlari, Biškek, 2010.
2011
20. // / , 2011, 1. . ( ).
383
Online Publications
2005
21. . 1: // -, 12, 2005, 45 . (http://www.ethnonet.ru/pub/chubin.html )
22. To the Question of the Origin of the Samanids. Part 1: Bahram Chubin, in: Transoxiana, 10 (Julio 2005), 45 . (http://www.transoxiana.org/0110/kamoliddin_bahram_chobin.html).
2006
23. On the Religion of the Samanids' Ancestors, in: Transoxiana, 11 (2006), 16 . (http://www.transoxiana.org).
24. // -, 21, 2006 (http://www.ethnonet.ru/ru/pub/2103-06.html).
2008
25. . ʔ (Document de travail de lIFEAC), 31-, 2008 ( 31, août 2008). : , 2008. (http://www.ifeac.org/fr/publications/doc)
384

Index of geographical and topographical names
A
Abarshahr 13, 14, 48
Abbasids Caliphate 114, 123, 124, 132, 137, 169, 186, 189, 193, 194, 198, 203, 205, 209, 212, 213, 234236, 276, 279, 283, 284
Ab-i Djand, river 93
Abghar 179
Abishir-Say, river 177
Abissinia 23
Adharbaydjan (Azerbajan) 9, 22, 26, 82, 115, 245, 246, 254
al-Adjam 16, 166
Adjina-Tepa, site 47, 48, 72
Afghanistan 157
Afrasiab, site 29, 40, 56, 58, 64, 68, 95, 139, 161163, 178, 232
Africa 23
Afshar (Awshar) 154
Aghaliq, mountains 257
Ak-Beshim, site 145, 259, 260
Akhsikath 64, 171, 179, 200
Ak-Tepa, site 56, 100
Ak-Tobe 259
Ala-Karga 26
Alexandria 6, 118
Almaty 258, 264
Altay 36, 42, 54, 83, 100, 144, 155, 164, 173, 174, 177, 202, 263
America 23, 25, 66, 175
Amu, river 147
Amu Darya, river 15, 35, 46, 96, 141, 150, 152, 159, 165, 178, 205, 212, 260
Amul 176
Amur, river 243
An 140
Anbar (Anbir) 106
al-Andalus 11, 213
385
Andalusiasee al-Andalus
Andarab 171, 199, 209, 210, 212
Andidjan 19
Andidjaragh (Andicharagh) 170, 200
Andkhudh 48, 78
Angor 176
Angren 259
Ankara 86, 87, 93
Ansi 146
Apahtark 158
Arabia 237
Arab Caliphate 34, 70, 72, 86, 91, 92, 93, 100, 110, 112, 113, 116118, 121, 132, 133, 135138, 141, 165, 168, 180, 182, 188, 189, 192194, 197, 203, 204, 206, 207, 209, 212, 214, 215, 218, 219, 222, 223, 226229, 241, 254256, 260, 262, 268, 274, 279, 281283
Arakhosia 80, 83
Aral region 10, 90, 278
Aral, lake 10, 155, 182
Aravan 177
Aravan-Say, river 177
Ardashir-Kwwarra 13, 29
Ariyaq 152
Armeniasee Arminiya
Arminiya 9, 10, 20, 91, 115, 130, 142
Artudj 105, 127
Aruk-Taw 259
Ashgabat 25
Ashnas 92, 93
Asia Minor 63, 64, 118, 145, 157, 194, 233, 278
Ashmolean, museum 79
Astana, cemetery 83
Astana Baba 108
Astiyakand 120
Atbash 28, 127
At-Bashisee Atbash
Awaza 19, 152
386
Awlie-Ata 259
Aywadj 260
B
Bab al-Abwab 11, 15
Bab al-Turk, gate 75
Bab al-Yahud, gate 65
Babylon 10, 46, 53, 191
Bactria 35, 42, 43, 155, 175, 178
Badakhshan 87, 170, 191, 199, 212
Bagdad 6, 7, 13, 18, 19, 33, 55, 59, 69, 86, 96, 112, 113, 115, 117, 121, 126, 131136, 138, 141, 142, 169, 186, 189, 196198, 203209, 215, 217220, 222, 223, 225229, 232, 233, 236, 245247, 256, 267269, 273, 283
Bagh-i Buzurg 76
Bagh-i Khani 76
Baghlan 43
Baharzeh 72
Bahrayn 169, 199, 205
Bakht (?) 22, 112
Balalyk-Tepa, site 58, 139, 147
Balandjar 14
Balasaghun 125, 127, 129, 147, 259, 260
Baliarat, river 20
Balkh 6, 7, 11, 1822, 24, 30, 34, 35, 38, 4148, 50, 52, 6365, 68, 7078, 82, 85, 87, 91, 92, 9599, 101103, 106, 120, 126, 170, 171, 179, 191, 199, 210, 211, 213, 222, 223, 235, 236, 244, 246, 250, 257, 269, 281
Baltic-Caspian way 214
Baltic Sea 214
Bamiyan 66, 74, 170, 199
Bandian, site 150
Barabsee Parab
Bardaq 154
al-Bardhaa 11
Bargin-i Farakh 152
Barmak 71
387
Bars (Baris), ribat 154
Barskat 154
Barskhan 17, 32, 154
Bashkortstan (Bashkiria) 163
al-Basra 19, 113, 124, 205, 255
Baykand (Paykand) 17, 19, 20, 37, 40, 55, 77, 121, 122, 141, 148, 149, 153, 162, 171, 187, 200, 213
Bayram Ali 259
Baysun 178
Bayt al-Hikma 13
Bazar-i Makh 54
Behistun 163
Belukha, peak 144
Berlin 86
Beziklik, site 175
Bik 170
Bilad al-Turk 183
Birmas 154
Bishapur 13
Bish-Balyq 169
Biskand 120
Bitik 155
Bit-Tepa, site 56
Black Sea 214, 264
Botay, site 173
Budakhkath 122
Buhayrat Bukhara 152
Buhayrat Khudjad 152
Bukhara 5, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 30, 34, 3742, 46, 48, 49, 54, 57, 61, 63, 66, 68, 70, 72, 73, 80, 91, 96, 101, 105, 106110, 112, 119, 121, 124, 128131, 132, 138144, 146155, 157, 158, 162, 164, 165, 170, 171, 179, 181, 183, 185, 187, 189, 191, 193, 196, 199, 200, 201, 209, 211213, 216219, 223, 224, 226, 232, 233, 235238, 243, 244, 249, 250, 252, 258, 259, 262, 272, 281, 282, 283
Bukhara Khanatesee Bukhara
al-Bukhariyya, mosque 7
388
al-Bulghar (Bulgharia) 154, 214, 216, 253, 264
Bulungur 26
Bumidjkathsee Numidjkath
Bundjikath 148
Burdj Qishm 171, 199
Burzun 154
Bust 106, 170, 197, 199
al-Buttam 55, 167
Byzantine 1113, 18, 20, 32, 45, 46, 78, 116, 123, 202, 214
C
Caracolsee Karakul
Caspian Sea 51, 119, 131, 155, 192, 214, 278
Caucasus 11, 20, 22, 108, 118, 173, 174, 194, 202, 208, 213, 263, 264
Central Asia 5, 6, 10, 12, 22, 23, 26, 28, 35, 36, 39, 40, 43, 47, 50, 51, 53, 54, 5662, 66, 72, 80, 82, 83, 8992, 100, 101, 108, 109, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 123, 124, 128, 130, 131, 134, 137, 139, 140, 143146, 150, 152, 153, 156169, 171173, 176, 179183, 185188, 193197, 201203, 207, 209212, 215, 217, 222224, 229232, 234, 235, 238241, 245, 252, 254, 256259, 262264, 266270, 276, 278280, 282284
Chach 22, 30, 41, 49, 56, 60, 77, 78, 80, 89, 93, 94, 95, 103, 128, 139, 143, 144, 146, 147, 160, 168, 169, 176, 180, 198, 214, 242, 253, 259, 281
Chaghansee Chaghaniyan
Chaghaniyan 31, 47, 53, 91, 122, 144, 147, 169171, 176, 178, 179, 191, 192, 198, 199, 210, 223, 224, 252, 255
Chanan 174
Characharta 152, 153
Chayan 56
Che-khan-na 53
Chimkent 145
Chin 21, 46, 47, 264
China 34, 37, 38, 42, 46, 54, 62, 66, 123, 142, 149, 152, 156, 158, 160, 165, 173, 174, 176, 177, 187, 202, 213, 215, 222, 231, 241, 265, 266
Chinese Court Yard 174, 177
Chirchik, river 119
Chirik-Rabat, site 10
389
Chon-Kazak 260
Chu, river 112, 163, 164, 182, 233, 259
Chuba-Yuzi 78
Chubin (Djubin) 48, 78, 101
Chubinabad 48, 78, 101
ChzhaoWu 139
Constantinopole 53, 144, 241
Crimea 202, 277, 278
D
Dakhfandun 155
Dalvarzin-Tepa 139, 258
Damascus 213
Danube (Dunay) 241
Darabgerd 13, 15
Darband 11
Darb-i Waqia 75
Dargaz 150
Dar al-Harb 119, 183
Dar al-Ibada 131
Dar al-Islam 119, 183
Dar al-Kufr 183
Darwaza-i Djabba-Khansee Djabba-Khan, gate
Darwaza-i Turksee Bab al-Turk
Davan 176, 177
Dawlatabad 72
al-Daylam 74, 204
Dayr Rabia 196
Dih-i Chub 15
Dih-i Shaykh, gate 76
Dihistan 72, 114, 239, 273
Dilberdjin, site 58
Ding of Arslan-Khan 37
Dingiz, lake 152
Diz-Ruyin 153
390
Djabba-Karan, quarter 78
Djabba-Khan 75
Djabba-Khan, gate 75, 76
Djabba-Khan, quarter 75, 76
Djabba-Khan-abad 75
Djabghukath 89, 93
Djabkhan 77
Djahudhan 65
Djahudhanak 65
Djalalabad 73
Djambul 60, 233, 259
Djand 92, 106, 107, 154
Djand Suyi, river 93
Djankeldi-Biy, mosque 76
Djar-Kurgan 56, 100
Djar-Kutan, site 42
Djayhun, river 16, 46, 168
al-Djazira 115
Djibachi 78
al-Djibal 169, 198
Djidda 213
Djiga-Tepa, site 11, 41, 99
Djizak 40, 177
Dju-i But, channel 41
Djul 260
Djundishapur 13
Djurdjan (Gurgan, Hyrcania)see Gurgan
Djurzuwansee Gurzuwan
Djuzdjansee Guzganan
Dnepr, river 214
Don, river 214
Dumos, river 153
Dun-Huan, temple 39, 66, 143, 158, 162
Dushanbe 259
391
E
East 20, 42, 47, 57, 128, 135, 146, 202, 210, 214, 220, 224, 226, 227, 231
East Asia 63, 237, 241
Egypt 6, 10, 11, 18, 6466, 113, 118, 130, 135, 166, 180, 185, 198, 202, 204, 212, 254, 272, 276, 278
Elam 172
Etil 158
Ershi 177
Euphrates, river 116
Eurasia 70
Eurasian steppes 65, 68, 161, 269
Europe 23, 210, 214, 231, 254, 264
F
Fan-Darya 55
Farabsee Farabr
Farabsee Parab
Farabr 37, 122, 155
Farakhshasee Warakhsha
Far East 263
Farghana (Fergana) 6, 1622, 26, 30, 39, 41, 46, 47, 53, 55, 56, 6165, 68, 71, 72, 85, 90, 93, 96105, 109, 117, 119122, 124, 126128, 143146, 160, 163, 167, 168, 171, 172, 175179, 182, 185, 191, 192, 200, 210, 213, 215, 222, 223, 246, 252, 259, 264, 269
Farkhar 151
Farunkath 184
Farwan 63, 68
Faryab 48, 65, 78
Fashuq 154
Fayaz-Tepa, site 72
Fayy 141, 223
Forward East 232, 279
Frinkent 259
Fustat 170, 199
392
G
Gallery of Arts 109
Gandhara 37, 38, 42, 48, 49, 60, 76, 78, 81, 109, 183, 221, 242
Gaochan 69, 99, 105, 222
Gargarayan 25
al-Gharb 225
Gharchistan 114, 191, 192
Gharkand 154
Ghazna 62, 68, 192, 197, 213, 223, 232, 250, 252, 262, 275
Ghur 114, 191, 192, 258
Ghuz Turkistan 214
Ghuzkent 154
Giperboreys North 214
Gobi, desert 243
Golden Horde 68, 69, 78, 253, 278
Great Wall 46
Greece 66
Gunt, river 261
Gurgan 6, 9, 13, 73, 74, 81, 108, 114, 123, 131, 154, 164, 191, 212, 218, 239, 255, 272, 281
Gurgandj 214
Gurlan 26
Gurzuwan (Djurzuwan) 106
Guzar-i Djabba-Khansee Djabba-Khan, quarter
Guzganan 48, 78, 91, 106, 170, 179, 191, 192, 199, 200, 223, 235, 255
H
Hadda 73
Haft-Deh 120
Halach Mahmud, mosque 93
Halaward 170, 199
Hallur 172
Hamadan 24, 113
Harahvatiš 35
Harat (Herat) 6, 14, 48, 72, 90, 118, 191
Har khana 16
393
Harran 45
Harward University 267
Haybaq 73
al-Haytal 182
Hazar-Asp 26
Hazar-Sum 73
al-Hind 50
Hindustan 21, 36
Hisn-i Kufadj 75
Holland 278
Hoy-He 54
Huang-He, river 173
Hulbuk 170, 178, 200, 233, 234
Hunns Empire 91
I
Iaxartes, river 153, 175
Ilan-Say, gorge 257
Ilaq 64, 167, 169, 198
Ilaq, river 179
India 23, 36, 4347, 57, 60, 65, 66, 72, 82, 109, 123, 125, 172, 185, 213, 215, 216, 231, 247, 258
Infidel Area 182
Inner Asia 123, 160
Persia 1315, 21, 30, 33, 36, 39, 4346, 60, 61, 80, 90, 132136, 150, 157, 161, 164167, 169, 176, 183, 193, 194, 199, 202, 212, 231, 237, 245, 247, 249, 252, 253, 255, 257, 279, 280, 282, 284
Iranshahr 50, 247
al-Iraq 19, 25, 86, 96, 116, 132, 194, 196, 212, 215, 217, 258,
Isfahan 15, 72, 80, 120, 127, 217, 248
Isfara 259
Isfara-Say, river 176
Ishtikhan 51, 139, 147, 179
Iskidjkath 148
Islam Empire 182, 213, 238
394
Ispidjab (Isfidjab) 63, 119, 120122, 125, 127, 169, 171, 191, 192, 196198, 200, 213, 238, 267
Istabayghu 90
Istanbul 86 88, 241, 266
Isyq, kurgan 175
Isyq-Kul (Issyk Kul) , lake 17, 28, 32, 64, 128, 154, 182, 258
J
Jana-Darya, river 10
Japan 17
Jerusalem 66
K
al-Kaba 135
Kabudan 147, 209
Kabul 62, 68, 78, 82, 163, 232, 242, 261, 263
Kadirkan 159
Kafir-Kala 58, 259
Kagan 26
Kala-i Bala 193
Kala-i Kafignigan, site 47, 58, 72
Kala-i Kahkaha, site 57
Kalaly-Gyr 259
Kalkan-Say 155
Kama, river 213
Kamardja 17
Kamashi 260
Kan 39, 51, 52, 58, 61, 100, 162
Kan-i Badam 176
Kanchan 213
Kandj-Deh 126
Kandjida 179
Kangüy 77, 140, 177
Kanka, site 103
Kansu 70, 105, 216, 223
395
Kant 259
Karakul 152
Karakul, lake 152
Karasu, river 152, 153
Kara-Tepa, site 43, 68, 73
Kargalar 26
Kargali 26
Kargali-Ilik 26
Karga-Owul 26
Kargar 26
Karga-Tepa 26
Kargin 26
Karkar, river 22
Karshi 267
Kasan 119, 121, 179
Kasba 261
Kashghar 52, 90, 105, 127, 129, 136, 147, 213, 217
Kashka-Darya 23, 28, 42, 128, 153, 215, 260
Kashmir 19, 38, 70, 73, 82, 109, 150, 236
Kasht (?) 22, 112
Kath 214
Kawusan 46
Kerchevo 95
Khatirchi 26
Katta-Dangi 177
Kazakhstan 98, 163, 164, 173, 174, 233, 259
Kerki 108
al-Khazar 214, 216
Khakas (Kirgiz) Kaganate 243
Khalchayan 145
Khanaqah of Kakuldar 101
Khanate of Bukharasee Bukhara
Kagan, channel 19
Khwarazm 26, 31, 56, 58, 78, 107, 115, 126, 140, 154, 164, 166, 171, 179, 180, 185, 191, 192, 200, 208, 213, 214, 216, 253, 259, 260, 262, 268, 272, 276, 278
396
Kharkhar 22
Khatun, temple 38
Khaylam 98
Khazar Kaganate 14
Khazar Steppe 15
Khitay 225
Khiwa 147
Khudjand 145, 233, 259
Khukandja 122
Khulm 22, 72
Khurasan (Khorasan) 5, 69, 16, 19, 20, 26, 28, 3133, 36, 43, 71, 74, 76, 79, 91, 92, 9698, 101, 106, 108111, 113, 114, 116, 118, 120, 123, 124, 130131, 135138, 150, 153, 154, 164, 165167, 169, 171, 189, 191, 192, 196, 197, 201, 203205, 208, 210, 212, 213, 215, 216, 218220, 224226, 228, 229, 234236, 238, 239, 243, 245, 246, 250, 252, 255, 258, 266, 268, 272, 273, 275, 278, 280282, 284
Khutan 52, 129, 147
al-Khuttalsee Khuttalan
Khuttalan 32, 47, 55, 58, 72, 103, 114, 133, 145, 168, 170, 171, 178, 191, 199, 200, 223, 244
Khuzar 147
Khuzistan 13, 245
Kidan Kaganate 69, 243
Kiev Russia 214
Kimak Kaganate 15, 46, 69, 120, 243
Kirgiz Kaganatesee Khakas Kaganate
Kish 139, 147, 165, 168, 169, 179, 181, 183, 191, 193, 198
Kitab 176
Kirgizstan 100, 240, 259
Kirman 132, 218
Kochkor 100
Kokchetav 180
Kok-Djar 177
Kok-Karga 26
Konya 276
Kou-tou-lo 178
Krasnaya Rechka, site 68, 259, 260
397
Ktesifon 20, 101
al-Kufa 114, 256
Kuk 155
Kukshibaghn 155
Kulab 35
Kulan-Say 240, 259
Kushan Empire 38
Kushaniya 139
Kuyu-Mazar 259
409
L
Ladak 39
Lalma, site 73
Lashkar-i Bazar 234
Latin America 66
Lavandak, site 259
Leiden 278
Loban 167
M
al-Madain 243
al-Madina 111, 114, 124, 126, 244
al-Madina al-Mahfuza 168
Madinat al-Tudjdjar 120
Ma Djand 93
al-Maghrib 213, 226
Makh, temple 46, 61, 73
Makh, mosque 40, 73
Mamastin 37
Mamlakat al-Islam 183, 213
Manchester John Rylands, library 267
al-Maragha 245
Marasmanda 179
Margiana 129
Marguzar, mountains 177
398
Marhamat 177
Mars, temple 45, 66
Marw 6, 14, 17, 39, 43, 48, 71, 92, 103, 114116, 123, 132, 141, 158, 191, 211, 239, 243246, 249, 256, 268
Marw al-Rudsee Marwrud
Marwrud 13, 211
al-Mashriq 213, 220, 226, 227
al-Matira 57
Mawaraannahr 5, 6, 17, 31, 34, 43, 50, 52, 87, 91, 9597, 116, 120, 128, 130, 137, 141, 152, 159, 165169, 172, 179, 183186, 191, 193, 196, 197, 203, 204, 212, 214, 217, 228, 229, 235, 238, 252, 259, 270
Maymurgh 258
Mazandaran 24
Mecca 111, 126, 245
Mercury, temple 46, 66
Mediterranean Sea 253
Mesopotamia 66, 115, 191
Middle East 214, 232, 279, 283
Milad-djird 23
Mirki 127, 129, 184
Misr 118
Miyan-Kal 128, 259
Mongolia 26, 83, 90, 99, 215, 266
Moon, temple 46, 67
Mosul 113, 218
Mugh, mountain 23, 112, 239, 256
al-Muhammadiyya 79, 83, 85, 143
Munchak-Tepa 60
al-Musalla 75
Muslim Worldsee Islam Empire
N
Nakhshabsee Nasaf
Namuna 101
Naqsh-i Rustam 163
399
Narpay 26
Naryn, river 175
Nasaf (Nakhshab) 37, 41, 83, 123, 139, 143, 145, 149, 150, 165, 178, 179, 182, 183, 191, 260, 261
Nasrabad 98, 171, 200
Nasya (Upper) 179
Nasya (Lower) 179
Nawazak 19, 42
Naw-Bahar, temple and monastery 21, 38, 41, 4346, 7073, 7577, 103
Naw-Bahar, gate 40
Nawikath 127, 184
Nawkat 177
Nawqad Sawa 37, 149
Naz-Kul, lake 170, 178, 200
Near East 11, 23, 65, 135, 194, 269
Necessity, temple 45, 66
New Settlement 106
Nihawand 9, 41, 81, 114, 165
Nishapur 17, 126, 191, 225, 250, 255, 256
al-Nizamiyya, madrasah 206
North 224
Nur 106, 110, 149, 154
Nur-Ata 106, 154
Nur-Ata, mountains 162
Numidjkath (Bumidjkath) 149, 152, 187
Nushdjan (Nawshdjan) 28
O
Onions Mountains 139
sia Orkhon 140, 151, 155, 162, 233
Orta-Tagh 177
Oshsee Ūsh
Otrarsee Utrar
Oxford 79
Oxus, river 174
400
P
Pahlsee Balkh
Pamir, mountains 261
Panch 22, 112
Pandj, river 233
Pandjhir 167
Pandjikent 22, 70, 5560, 83, 139, 140, 143147, 175, 239, 241, 261
Parab 126, 127, 179, 182, 238, 274
Parghar 233
Paris 49
Parkhar 35
Parthia 911, 81, 101
Parthian Kingdomsee Parthia
Paykandsee Baykand
Pazyryk 174, 177
Persepolis 32, 248
Persia 13, 16, 127, 133, 135, 235237, 254, 258, 268
Pokrovka 259
Po-li 178
Pukhar (Pughar)see Bukhara
Pu-kho 39
Puqarsee Bukhara
Q
Qala-i Djabba-Khansee Djabba-Khan
al-Qalas 179
Qara (Kara)-Bulaq 100, 163
Qara (Kara)-Darya 153
Qaraghun 154
Qarakhanids Kaganate 203
Qara (Kara)-Kul, lake 152, 153
Qara (Kara)-Su 153
Qara (Kara)-Tegin 257
al-Qarinayn 139
al-Qariya al-Djadida 106, 154
401
Qariya-i Samansee Saman
Qarluq (Karluk) Kaganate 46, 69, 213
Qarshi 153
Qirq-Qiz 97, 99
Qizil-Su 259
Qiz-Qir 37
Quba 16, 47, 53, 61, 63, 68, 72, 102, 145, 260
Qubadiyan 47, 73, 258
Qubbat al-Sulabiyya 218
Qunduz 81, 87, 95, 221, 241
R
Rabad al-Bukhariyya 186, 269
Rabad al-Kwarazmiyya 186, 269
Rabad al-Marawiza 186, 269
Rabad al-Sarakhsiyya 186, 269
Rabad Tardjuman ibn Salih 186
Rakhwad 13
Ramithan 3739, 148, 149, 151, 152, 187
Ramtinsee Ramithan
Ramush 149
Raum, mosque 120
Rawan 70, 71
al-Rayysee Rey
Razaken 10
Rey 9, 10, 15, 29, 72, 80, 96, 123, 134, 154, 181, 196, 218, 247
Rigistan square 46
Riwdad 258
Romesee al-Rum
Rub 72
al-Rukkhadj 13, 106, 170, 197, 199
Rukhsin 261
al-Rum 42, 50
Russian Kingdomsee Russia
Russia 202, 214, 263
402
al-Rum 213, 216, 217, 223
al-Rus 216
Rustaq Bik 178
S
Sabran 128
al-Saghaniyansee Chaghaniyan
Sakistan 247
Sal-Burunsee Saman-Burun
Saman I 7, 36, 7275, 96
Saman II 7, 71, 72
Saman III 7
Saman-Burun 72
Samanchi 35
Samandar 14
Samangan (Simihgan) 72, 73, 103
Samanids Amirate 201
Samanli 72
Samarqand (Samarkand) 6, 7, 21, 22, 26, 29, 39, 40, 46, 5155, 58, 6163, 68, 7274, 97, 99, 100, 108, 112, 114, 117, 121, 123, 124, 126, 131, 139142, 145, 147, 153, 158, 162, 164, 165, 167, 168, 176, 178, 179, 181, 183, 186, 191, 193, 201, 208, 209, 213, 214, 227, 233, 235, 238, 241, 244. 245, 249, 251, 258, 259, 261, 266, 267
Samarra (Sur Man Ray) 57, 117, 169, 189, 199, 232
Samdjan 152
Sam Kwash 152
Sa-mo-kien 39
Samtin 37
Sandabil 70, 105, 216, 223
Sandjarfaghn 39, 73
Sanzar, river 40, 73
Saqmatin 37
Sarakhs 211, 215
Saray-Batu 15
Sardawan 55
Sarigh 68, 258, 260
403
Sariq-Tepa, site 42, 215
al-Sarir 15
Sarir al-Dhahab 15
Sarwast 15
Sary-Tepa, site 260
Sasanid Empire 15, 42, 43, 48, 80, 189
Sasyq-Bulaq 259
Saturn, temple 45, 66
al-Sawad 113
Sawran 98
Sayhun, river 93
Saymali-Tash 177
Sayram 185
Sayyad 233
Shahar-Tuz 260
Shah-Bahar 62
Shah-Fazil, mausoleum 246
Shahr-i Saman 97
Shahristan 57, 58, 259
Shalat (Salat) 120
Shaldji 127, 167, 184
Sham 44, 46
Shapurkam, channel 14
Shargh 148
al-Sharq 226, 246
al-Shash (Chach, Tashkent) 6, 89, 90, 92, 93, 109, 121, 122, 124, 126, 154, 167, 169, 172, 179, 186, 191, 212, 244, 245, 271, 272
Shawghar 119
Shi (Chach) 59, 180
Shibirgan 106
Shihri 186
Shirakath 261
Shiraz 89
Shirwan 21, 254
Shughnan 170
404
Shuman 122, 170, 261
Shurukhan 154
Shurabashat 177
Shutur-Mullo 72
Siberia 23, 25, 26, 35, 151, 160, 163, 164, 175, 202, 215, 263
Sidjistansee Sistan
Sighnaq 92
Silis, river 78
Silk Road 93, 160, 215, 242
al-Sin 33, 37, 50, 52, 55, 70, 105, 214216, 222, 223, 226, 227
Sin Chiang 52
Sind 44, 45
Sindjar 28
Sir Horde 78
Sistan 7, 9, 43, 81, 123, 150, 184, 192, 218, 269
Sitti-Bulaq 100
Skithia 158
Sou-e 99
Sou-e, river 159
Soul, temple 45, 66
Spain 268
St.-Petersburg 79
Stakhr 13
Sughd (Sogd) 6, 14, 34, 37, 39, 41, 42, 46, 51, 52, 54, 55, 58, 113, 114, 124, 130, 141, 143145, 152, 153, 155, 158163, 166169, 174, 176, 178180, 183, 185, 198, 209, 210, 215, 223, 239, 257, 259262, 282
Sulayman-Tagh 98
Sulek 100, 161
Suleymaniya, library 88, 267
Su-li 51, 58
Sultan-Saodat 101
Sun, temple 45, 66
Sün-Sygan 54
Surkhan-Darya, river 56, 259
Surkh-Kotal 43, 139
405
Sutkand 126, 128
Sutkhan 154
Sutrasan 40
Sutrushanasee Ustrushana
Suyab 99
Syr-Darya, river 10, 28, 48, 78, 92, 93, 98, 106, 107
Syria 18, 28, 44, 45, 65, 72, 115118, 130, 135, 194, 198, 223, 271, 276
T
Tabaristan 114, 123, 154, 204, 212
Taht-i Rustam 73
Talas, river 34, 104, 154, 182, 185, 240, 259
Taliqan 65
Talkhar (Talghar) 258, 259
Tandjar 213
Tang-i Azao 243
Tantabigh 240
Taq Manas (?) 186
Taraz 46, 60, 120, 127129, 145, 182, 184, 196, 233, 238, 259
Tarim, river 213
Tash, ribat 154
Tashkent 5861, 64, 109, 145, 163, 259
Tarsus 113, 116, 117
Tavka 58
Tawawis 55
Teke-Tash 177
Telaw 259
Temir Kapig 159
Tepa-i Shah, site 47
Terek-Say, river 240, 259
Tibet 39, 46, 49, 50, 52, 62, 127, 222
Tien-Shan, mountains 128, 155, 163, 167
Tegin-Cha, temple 38
Tik-Turmas 259
406
Tirmidh 7, 20, 34, 42, 43, 56, 65, 68, 72, 93, 96, 97, 99, 102, 103, 106, 126, 136, 147, 170, 176, 183, 199, 211
Topkapu Sarayi 87, 88
Toprak-Kala 58
Tou-ho-lo 53, 178
Toy-Tepa 60
Trans-Baykal region 173
Trans-Caucasia 235
Transoxiana 152
Tsilian-Shan, mountains 139
al-Tubbatsee Tibet
Tughuz-Ghuz 28, 51, 53, 240
Tukfon 55
Tukharistan (Tokharistan) 12, 17, 21, 22, 30, 31, 35, 37, 39, 4149, 53, 58, 68, 7072, 74, 7681, 8489, 100103, 112, 114, 124, 128, 143, 150, 153, 164, 168170, 176, 178, 179, 186, 191193, 195, 197199, 210, 221, 241, 258, 268, 275, 281
Tulpar-Tash 175
Tum(a), river 153
Tum Suyi 153
Turan 33, 110, 173, 176, 213, 253, 266
Turfan 46, 69, 83, 99, 105, 222, 276
Türkic Kaganate 12, 18, 19, 22, 37, 46, 49, 50, 69, 7678, 81, 82, 84, 8789, 100, 109, 121, 123, 139, 141, 150, 151, 157, 158, 160, 162, 164, 165, 167, 184, 187, 194, 203, 221, 241243, 249, 264
Türk-i Djandi 107, 154
Turkey 35, 72, 234, 267
Turkistan 12, 14, 15, 20, 32, 33, 37, 39, 41, 4247, 49, 52, 54, 60, 62, 78, 92, 93, 98, 103, 126, 127, 140, 141, 151, 153, 155, 158, 159, 165, 179181, 184, 185, 214216, 222, 234, 235, 238, 241, 266, 279, 284
Turkmenistan 259
Turwakha (Turakha) 154
Tus 250
Tzao 51
407
U
Uighur Khanatesee Uighur Kaganate
Uighur Kaganate 46, 54, 69, 213, 215, 240, 243
Uighur Turkistansee Uighur Kaganate
Umayyads Caliphate 234
Ural, mountains 35, 95, 163, 164, 214
Ūrasht 119, 121
Urmia, lake 245
USA 267
Ūsh (Osh) 32, 98, 121, 177
Ushtabdiza 39, 73
Ushtur-Mullo, site 47
Ustrushana 6, 40, 52, 5460, 92, 97, 109, 124, 139, 147, 157, 160, 167, 168, 179, 183, 185, 223, 259, 261
Ust-Yurt, plateau 167
Ūtrar (Otrar) 28, 49, 56, 93, 120, 145, 146, 176
Utshund 261
Uzbekistan 5, 56, 62, 267
Uzbekistan, tuman 26
Ūzkand (Ūzgand) 64, 66, 68, 90, 107, 121, 171, 186, 200, 227, 246, 254
V
Ve-li Tele, temple 38
Venus, temple 46, 66
Vienna 86
Volga, river 26, 158, 164, 173, 214, 253, 264
W
Wakhan 167, 261
Wakhsh, river 47, 58, 72
al-Wakhsh 170, 199, 211, 225, 259
Walwalidj (Warwaliz) 153
Warakhsha 55, 58, 66, 91, 139, 143, 145, 146, 148150, 161
Waran 153
Wardana 14, 91, 141, 153, 155
408
Washdjird 121, 126, 258
al-Waziriyya 57
Wazkard 261
West 42, 121, 128, 129, 202, 231
Widhar 179
World Order, temple 45, 66
Y
Yabgu-Davan 90
Yabgukat 89
Yafghu-Art 90
Yaghnob 159
Yahudan 65
al-Yahudiyya 65
Yakka-Bagh 26, 41
Yamama 169, 199
Yangiabad 259
Yarkath 179
Yenisey, river 128, 215, 262
Yer-Kurgan, site 28, 176
Yet 10
Yetisu 39, 46, 49, 60, 128, 129, 146, 158, 160, 163, 165, 182, 184, 186, 233, 259, 260
Yettikent 120
Yughnak 266
Yupiter, temple 45, 66
Yuy-Di 51
Yuz 170, 199
Z
Zabulistan 261
Zamm 108
Zarafshan, river 26, 55, 58, 106, 152154
Zar-Tepa 176
Zong 261

Index of proper names
  Abbreviations  
Abdr.Abd al-Rahman
Al.Abd Allah
A.Ahmad
Ham.Hammad
al-H.al-Hasan
al-Hus.al-Husayn
Ibr.Ibrahim
Ish.Ishaq
Ism.Ismail
Mah.Mahmud
Man.Mansur
M.Muhammad
al-Muz.al-Muzaffar
Sul.Sulayman
Yah.Yahya
Yun.Yunus
Yus.Yusuf
A
A-Lin-ga 139
al-Abbas al-Marwazi 244, 245
al-Abbas b. Said al-Djawhari 270
al-Abbas b. Tarkhan, Abu-l-Taqi (Abu-l-Yanbaghi) 244, 253
Abd a-Aziz b. Khalid 126
Al. B. Aybek al-Dawadari, Abu Bakr 13
Al. al-Khadim al-Turki 269
Al. b. Amadjur al-Turki al-Harawi, Abu-l-Qasim, Abu Abdr. 269, 270
Al. b. Aybek al-Dawadari, Abu Bakr 111, 112, 266
Al. b. Isa al-Khazari 269
Al. b. Khandja al-Dakhfanduni, Abu Ibr. 155
Al b. M. b. Farankadik Hadjib b. Malik b. Arkin al-Turki al-Farghani 18
410
Al. b. al-Mubarak al-Hanzali al-Marwazi, Abu Abdr. 115, 116, 244, 271, 281
Al. b. Tahir 119, 167, 170, 199, 247
Al. b. Uthman al-Wathiqi 219
Abd al-Hamid b. Wasi b. Turk al-Khuttali al-Hasib, Abu-l-Fadl 270
Abu Hanifasee al-Numan b. Thabit b. Kamkar b. Yazdigird 17
Abd al-Malik b. M. al-Thaalibi, Abu Mansur 190
Abd al-Malik b. Nuh 70, 105, 216, 220, 221, 223, 250
Abd al-Mumin-Khan 75
Abd al-Razzaq al-Turki, Madjd al-Afadil 270
Abu-l-Abbas 114, 117
Abu Al. b. Hafs 224
Abu A. b. Chatlagh-Tegin 270
Abu Ali Chaghani 110, 170, 199, 224, 255
Abu Ali b. Sina 232, 248, 250, 251
Abu Bakr, caliph 206
Abu Dawud M. b. A. 170, 199
Abu Djafarsee al-Mansur
Abu Dulaf 70, 105, 216, 223
Abu-l-Fadl ibn Tulun 270
Abu-l-Ghazi 12, 25, 30, 84, 87
Abu Hanifa 135
Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi 277
Abu-l-Khayr-Khan 107
Abu Muslim al-Khurasan (Khorasan)i 7, 34, 94, 98, 110114, 118, 130, 135, 217, 244, 253, 266
Abu Muzahim 28
Abu Nasr al-Hadjib 107
Abu Nuwas al-H. b. Hani al-Kagani 244, 253, 254
Abu Sabuk-Tegin Dastardar 270
Abu-l-Sadj 183, 197
Abu-l-Tayyib ibn Ashnas 270
Afrasiyab 25, 28, 33, 70, 110, 129, 173, 253
A. b. al-Abbas b. Hammad b. al-Mubarak al-Turki 116
A. b. Ali Qilich al-Hadjib 62, 171, 200, 222
A. b. Ali b. Maghdjur b. al-Ihshid 270
A. b. Asad 6, 34, 67, 97, 98, 105, 118, 123, 171, 200
411
A. b. Banichur 170, 199
A. b. Buwayh, Abu-l-Hus. 87
A. b. Djafar b. Abu Djafar 199
A. b. Kagan al-Farghani, Abu-l-Abbas 18
A. b. Ism. al-Samani 156, 218, 254
A.b. Mah. Adib al-Yugnaki 266, 267, 275
A. b. al-Man. 62
A. b. M. Chaghani, Abu-l-Muz. 224
A. b. M. al-Baraqi, Abu Bakr 272
A. b. M. b. A., Abu Djafar 170, 199
A. b. M. al-Saghani, Abu Alisee Abu Ali Chaghani
A. b. Musa al-Bagdadi al-Khazari 269
A. b. Sahl 123
A. b. Tulun 197
A. b. Umar b. Yus. al-Farabi 270
Ahmad-Khan b. Khidr 134, 227
al-Ahnaf b. Qays 235
Ahura Mazda 9, 43
Akatash 36
Ak-Ayghir 69
Ak-Kush 23
Akoman 36
Ak-Sunkur 23
Ak-Tegin 170
Al Samansee Samanids
Ala al-Din M. 78
Ala-Baytal 175
Ala-Kush 23
Ala al-Mulk al-Tirmidhi 208
Alatar (al-Tar) 19
Alexander the Great 185
Ali, poet 277
Ali Aghadji, Abu-l-H. 254
Ali al-Sabi 30
Ali Yazdi, Sharaf al-Din 153
412
Ali b. Al. b. Amadjur al-Turki, Abu-l-H. 270
Ali b. al-H. b. Tarkhan, Abu-l-H. 270
Ali b. Ism. Al-Djawhari al-Kagani al-Munadjdjim 270
Ali b. Wasif Khushknak, Abu-l-H. 270
Ali-Tegin 108, 197
Alidjaq 98
Alim-Khan Abbas 259
Alimov R. 83
Alkunmish 197
Alp Arslan 134, 136, 197
Alp Arslan, artist 110
Alp Bilga 259
Alp Er Tunga 253
Alp Ghazi 125
Alp Kagan Tutuk 145
Alp Qilich Tunga Bilga Turk Tughrul Qara (Kara)-Kagan Husayn 227, 245
Alp-Taghaq 98
Alp-Tegin 74, 197, 255
Alpamish 147
Altun-Tash 197
al-Amin 262
Amr b. al-Layth 33, 86, 96, 204, 206, 218
An Da-man 143
An Tu-han 121
An U-sy-mi (Ozmish) 143
Antiokh I Soter 119
Anush I 24
Anush II 28
Anush (Nush)-Tegin Gharchai 24, 28, 197
Anush-Zad 24
Anush b. Shith b. Adam 24, 28
Anushak Ruban 24
Arastay 36
Ardashir, the son of Shiruye 16
Ardjasp, the son of Afrasiyab 70
413
ArdjaspaAredjat-Aspa
Aredjat-Aspa 173
Arghun-Khan 110
Arkhuz 19
Arquq (Arqaq) 96103
Arslan 69, 197
Arslan b. Saldjüq 107
Arslan-Khan Isee M. b. Sulayman-Tegin
Arslan-Khan II 127
Arslan Yalu (Balu) 107
Artuq 98
Asad b. Al. al-Qasri (al-Qushayri), Abu-l-Mundhir 6, 23, 71, 168
Asad b. Saman 6, 27, 34, 71, 97, 106, 118, 143
Asaq 98
Asdjadi 252
Ashath b. M. 171, 200
Ashnas 190, 197
Ashpara-Yabgu 87
Ashina 42
Ashina Uchebo 87
Asilan Dafodan Fili 142
Asilan-Dagan (Arslan-Tarkhan) 19
Aslzada-Khan 87, 88
Atim-Tegin 171, 200
Atsyz 277
Ayach al-Hadjib 171, 197, 200
Ayash b. al-H. al-Bagdadi al-Khazari 269
Ayba 69
Ay-Bala 69
Ay-Bars 69
Ay-Bek 69
Ay-Degin 69
Aygina 69
Ay-Saly 69
Ay-Savu 69
414
Ay-Tangri 46, 47
Ay-Tash 197
Ay-Temir 69
Ay-Tughdy 69
Ay-Tughdy-Bek 197
Ay-Tughmish 69, 197
Azarme(-Dokht) 14
Azku-Tegin b. Asa-Tegin 18
al-Azraqi 93
B
Baba Naqqash 234
Babek 169, 198, 245
Babur, Zahir al-Din M. 254
Badjkam al-Turki 151, 199
Badjnaq 98
Badr al-Asbagh 197
Badur (Qadr)-Tarkhan 95
Baghatur (He Mo-tszya-to) 158
Baghir al-Turki 197, 232
Baghlawur b. Kagan 18
Bahadur-TudunMohedu-Tutun
Bahram 29, 197
Bahram Chubin 9, 13, 1517, 1922, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 34, 37, 39, 41, 47, 48, 50, 7072, 74, 78, 84, 91, 9598, 101, 102, 107, 109, 135, 141 142, 192, 253, 281
Bahram (Varahran) V Gur (Djur) 9, 15, 32, 35, 133, 253
Bahram Gushnasp (Djushnas) 9, 29
Bahram IV Kirman-Shah 9
Bahram, the son of Siyawush 20
Bakbak 197
Bakhtiyar 107
Bakhtiyar, Muizz al-Dawla 86
Bakhtu-Khan 112
Bakr b. Malik 98
Bakr b. al-H. 64
415
Bakr b. Wail 179
al-Bakuwi 182
al-Baladhuri 170, 199
al-Balami, Abu Ali 251, 255, 267
al-Balami, Abu-l-Fadl 168, 189, 250, 255
Balandjar 15
Balaz 19
al-Balkhi I, Abu Zayd 5, 31, 75
al-Balkhi II 77, 102
Banichur 197, 198
Barah-Tegin 163
Barchin 147
Barchuq 98
Bardjukh 197
Barmak 7072
Barkiyaruq b. Malik-Shah 98, 110
Barmaklik Djosun Billig 71
Barq al-Faqih 278
Barquq 98
Bars (Baris), ghulam 196
Bars (Baris) 154
Bars (Baris) al-Kabir 123, 154
Bars (Baris) al-Saqlabi 154
Bars-Tegin 154
Bartold V.V. 74, 92, 245
Bashshar b. Al. al-Khadim al-Turki 269
Bassam-Kurd (Turk) 245
Batatzi Basilio 152
Bay Behzad Butak 86
Bay-Tegin 197
Bay-Tuz 197
Bayhaqi, Abu-l-Fadl 5, 76, 248, 251
Bayqara 198
Behzad, Kamal al-Din 234
Bek (Bik)-Tash 198
416
Bek (Bik)-Tegin 198
Bek(Bik)-Tuzun al-Hadjib, Abu-l-Fawaris 169, 172, 197, 198, 201, 224
Bek (Bik) b. al-Abbas 170, 199, 200
Bidun 142
Bighdjur al-Ihshid 19
Bilga-Tegin b. Tughrul 171, 197, 200
Bilka-Tegin 171, 199
al-Biruni, Abu Rayhan 5, 35, 42, 45, 46, 52, 124, 153, 163, 182184, 251, 256, 268, 276
Bosi (Boshi) -Te-le 140
Bosworth K.E. 195
Bothisatva 40
Boz-Kush 23
Browne E. 31
Buddha 3941, 43, 46, 47, 59, 61, 62, 68
Buddha-Dasa 39
Bugha al-Kabir 197
Bugha al-Saghir 197
Bughra-Ilik 147
Bughra-Khan 107, 108, 110, 136, 147, 175, 193, 201, 211, 224, 227, 256
Bughra al-Kabir 197
Buitisee Buddha
al-Bukhari 269
Buldja-Khan 88
Bumyn-Kagan 159
Buniyat 142
Buran(-Dokht) 13
Burkut-Ata 25
Burkut-Baba 25
Bursuq 98
Bushtasfsee Gushtasp
Butsee Buddha
Buzuq 98
Buzurdj-Mihr b. Bakhtakan al-Farisisee Buzurg-Mihr Bakhtagan
Buzurg-Mihr Bakhtagan 13, 112, 266
417
C
Chan Chun 54, 99
Chat Viyus 239
Chingiz-Khan 203
ChjaoWu 89, 139
Chol-Kagan 19
Chubin (Chobin, Chopin, Chupin, Chuba) 2224, 27
Chubin (Chakyn) Chur Bilga 22, 58, 111
Chubin b. Milad 24
Chubinak 25
Chulo-Khansee Nigü Chulo-Khan
Chulpan 69
D
Dadjusaq al-Kagani 117
Damansee Taman
Damqaq 98
Daniel E. 31
Daqiqisee M. b. A. Daqiqi
David 64, 67, 222
Dawlat-Shaykh 107
Dawud, prophet 65
Dawud 108, 226
Dawud b. al-Abbas b. Hashim b. Banichur 170
Dawud b. Abu Dawud b. al-Abbas 170, 200
Dawud b. Banichur 170, 199
Dayzil 17, 18
Dede Korkut 25
Desi 51, 52
Devashtich (al-Diwashti) 58, 140, 239, 256
Dib Yawkuy 89
al-Dinawari 21
al-Diwashtisee Devashtich
Dizabulsee Dizavul
Dizavul 12, 18, 78, 84
418
Djabba (Djuba) 26, 27
Djabba-Khan 7178, 8587, 91, 94, 97, 101103, 281
Djabbu-Kagansee Djabba-Khan
Djabghu (Yabgu) 27
Djaff b. Yil-Tegin 117
Djafar b. Abu Djafar b. Abu Dawud 170, 199
al-Djahiz 11, 109, 111, 115, 120, 161, 174, 265, 271
Djahm b. Zahr 56
Djalal al-Din, Khwarazm (Horezm)-Shah 125, 277
Djalal al-Din Mirza (Mirzaev) 100
Djamal al-Qarshi 56, 105, 127
Djandi-Bek 107
Djan-Keldi-Biy 76
al-Djarrah 256
al-Djayhanisee M. Al-Djayhani
Djebu-Kagansee Djabba-Khan
Djeguy (Sheguy)-Kagan 80, 94, 242
Djibril b. Bakhtishu 13, 112, 266
Djidjak 112
Djik (Zik, Shikh)-Kagan 15, 8082, 242
al-Djish (al-Hanash) b. Sabl 56
al-Djubbai al-Mutazili 245
Djubinsee Chubin
Djuchi Buka 107
Djunayd al-Iskaf, Abu Al. 126
Djunayd b. Abdr 120
Djur 19
Djuwayni 38, 148
Dragman, the son of Kharchin 12
Dughd-Ghuncha 239
Duqaq 98
E
El Arslan 17, 19, 21, 28, 36, 37, 39, 48, 49, 84, 96, 102, 140142, 144, 148, 149, 151, 187, 281, 282
419
El Arslan b. Atsyz 110
El-Tegin 1719, 21, 28, 3739, 4850, 70, 73, 80, 82, 8486, 9597, 101103, 140142, 144, 148, 149, 151, 187, 281, 282
Esad Efendi 88
Eukradit 209
F
Fa-Tegin 197
al-Fadl b. M. B. Wasi al-Khuttali, Abu-l-Barza 270
al-Fadl b. Sahl Dhu-l-Riyasatayn 120, 121, 190
al-Fadl b. Yah. al-Barmaki 73
Faiq al-Khassa, Abu-l-H. 64, 65, 129, 224, 225
Faiz (Qain) 75
al-Fakhri 44, 52, 55, 61
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr 124, 254
Faradj al-Khadim al-Turki 113
al-Farghani 124, 269
Farro 44
Farrukh 197
Farrukhi 252
al-Fariyabi, Zahir al-Din 252
Fatah (Qabadj)-Khatun 141
al-Fath b. Kagan b. A. b. Ghartudj al-Turki, Abu M. 18, 115, 118, 170, 191, 199, 270
Fayaz-Bek 197
Filan-Shah 15
Firdausī, Abu-l-Qasim 21, 24, 47, 57, 88, 250, 251, 253, 264
Firuz 197
Firuz b. Qul 239
Firuz (Piruz), the son of Yazdigird III 17
Firuz (Fayruz)-Kagan 19, 28
Flügel G. 273
Forughi 80
Frye R. 30
Fuzuli 254
420
G
Gardizi 51, 248, 252
Gargin b. Milad 24
Garziwaz 34
Ghadairi 252
al-Ghalib bi-llah 204
al-Ghazi 122, 125
al-Ghazzali 207
al-Ghitrifi 210
Ghiyath al-Din al-Ghuri 110, 223, 125
Ghurak 114, 140, 145, 167, 169, 198, 209, 223
de Goje 73
Günaltay M.S. 30
Gur-Khan 91
Gur-Tegin b. Djustan 132
Gushtasp (Bushtasf) 70
H
al-Hadi 115
al-Hadjdjadj b. Yus. 17
Hafiz-i Abru 87, 88
Hafiz-i Tanish 6, 77
al-Hakim al-Fatimi 219
al-Hakim al-Hafiz al-Naysaburi, Abu Al. 17
al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi 227
Halach Mah. 93
al-Halani 31
al-Hamadani, Badi al-Zaman 248
Haman 27
Hamawayh b. Ali 74, 123
Hammad b. al-Mubarak al-Turki 116, 269
Hamza 107
Hamza al-Kharidji 7
al-Harith b. Asad b. Bik 170, 200
Harun al-Rashid 6, 13, 18, 76, 112, 113, 115117, 141, 191, 210, 216, 244
421
Harun b. Ilik-Khan 107
al-H. b. Ali b. Mitran al-Mitrani al-Shash (Chach, Tashkent)i, Abu M. 272
al-H. b. Buwayh, Abu Ali Rukn al-Dawla 79, 83, 84, 85, 228
al-H. b. al-Hus. Al-Alawi al-Balkhi, Abu M. 97
al-H. b. Sahl 121, 216
Hasan al-Amir 96
Hasan-Bayghu 90
Hashim b. al-Abbas 169, 199
Hashim b. Banichur 169, 198
Hashim b. al-M...djur (Banichur?) 170, 199
Hasis b. Kuzak 9
Hastana Oghlisee Yinal al-Shaldji
Hatim al-Asamm 126
Hatim b. Dawud b. Banichur 170, 199
Haydhar b. Kawus al-Afshin 54, 55, 57, 91, 117, 142, 158, 183, 223, 224
Herodotus 163, 173, 185
Hibat Allah b. Kagan 115, 270
Hinayana 47
Hindu Shahi-Tegin 80
Hisham 125
Hisham b. Banichur 170, 199
Hormizd (Hormuzd)see Hurmazd
Huey Chao 47, 52, 177
Humar 112
Humar-Bek 170, 197
Humar-Tash 197
Hunn Ashpara Yabgu 87
Hur (Chur)-Tegin 171, 200
Hurmazd IV Turkzada 9, 13, 17, 1922, 36, 49, 74, 7981, 84, 85, 87, 102, 141, 142, 148, 242, 280
Hurmuz(d)see Hurmazd
al-Hus. b. Ali 96, 133
al-Hus. b. Man. al-Khalladj, Abu Mughith 126
al-Husayni, Sadr al-Din 248
Hyon 37
422
I
Iaphet 15, 25, 88
Ibn Abu-l-Sadj 270
Ibn al-Atham al-Kufi 168
Ibn al-Athir 5, 74, 90, 107, 128, 184, 204, 212
Ibn al-Balkhi 30, 31, 84, 87
Ibn Fadlan 180, 213, 216
Ibn al-Faqih 5, 16
Ibn Farighun 255
Ibn al-Fath 170, 199
Ibn Hawqal 5, 11, 29, 31, 32, 50, 142, 172, 179, 181
Ibn Khaldun 135
Ibn Kagan 115
Ibn Khordadhbeh 14, 244, 271
Ibn Miskawayh 5
Ibn Muhanna 277
Ibn al-Nadim 35, 115, 141, 183, 271, 273, 274
Ibn Rusta 271
Ibn Sina 124
al-Ibn al-Sulisee Ibn al-Nadim
Ibn Taghri-Bardi 6, 77
Ibn Uyayna 168
Ibn al-Zubayr 5, 215, 216
Ibr. b. al-Abbas b. M. b. Sul al-Katib al-Suli, Abu Ish. 272
Ibr. b. Nasr Tamghach-Bughra-Khan 134, 154, 272
Ibr b. A. b. Ism. al-Samani 218
Ibr. b. al-Hus. 226
al-Idrisi, Abu Al. 240, 271
al-Ihshid al-Sughdi 6
Il (El)-Mangu 197
Il-Teginsee El-Tegin
Ilig (Elig) 37
Ilyas b. Asad 6, 34, 118
Ilyas b. Ish. b. A. B. Asad al-Samani 105
423
Imlaq 98
Inadj 197
Inay Tutun Tsiuyle (Inay Tudun Köl) 94
Indjur 197
Inye Dagan 95
Irbis Bolun Djabghu-Kagan 77
Irkin (Kan I-tzin) 158, 162
Isa b. Kuh al-Bagdadi al-Turki, Abu Musa 269
al-Isfahani, Abu-l-Faradj 239
Isfandiyar, the son of Gushtasp 42
Ish. b. al-H. al-Khurrami 13
Ish. b. Ibr. al-Farabi, Abu Ibr. 271, 254
Ish. b. M. al-Samarqandi, Abu-l-Qasim 75, 251
Ish. b. Saman 7
al-Iskafi 256
Ism. b. A. al-Samani, Abu Ibr. 6, 31, 67, 86, 93, 96, 102, 104, 106, 119, 120, 122, 123, 136, 137, 154, 196, 204, 208, 212, 216, 220, 221
Ism. b. Ham. al-Djawhari, Abu Nasr 274
Ism. b. Ish. al-Faqih 115, 271
Ism. b. Nuh al-Muntasir, Abu Ibr. 107, 108, 110
Ism. b. Sabuk-Tegin Ghaznawi 225, 252, 257
Ism. b. Takinak al-Hamidi 269
al-Ismaili 210
Ispahpat Pahlav 9, 81
al-Istakhri, Abu Ish. 5, 29, 31, 32, 50, 172, 181, 271
Istami (Istemi) Yabgu-Kagan 12, 17, 19, 32, 84, 85, 87, 89, 102, 141, 148, 159
Itakh al-Khazari 190, 197
J
Jesus Crist 46
K
Kadfiz 147
Kakuldar 99, 102103
al-Kalimati, Abu-l-H. 126
424
Kambiz 202
Kamkar, the son of Yazdigird III 17
Kan-Tutun (Ton-Tudun) 94
Kanda-Tegin 197
Kandjur 197
Kanishka 43
Kara Bars 154
Kara Kush 23, 69
Karen Pahlav 9, 81
Kara Sunkur 23
Karindjuq 98
Karkyn (Qarqin) 25
Karkyn Konak Alp 25
Katulf 11
Kawad 11
Kawus 34, 46
Kay-Khusraw 247
Kayen 12
Khalid b. Ibr. b. Yus. 275
Khalid b. Ibr., Abu Dawud 210
Khalid b. Sul. Al-Balkhi, Abu Muadh 126
Khalid b. Barmak 190
Khalifa K. 252
al-Khalladj, Abu Bakr 270
Khanakh b. Kagan al-Kimaki 271
Khwandamir 6, 92, 93
Kagan 18
Kagan al-Aflahi 18
Kagan al-Khadim al-Turki 18, 115
Kagan Ghartudj (Artudj) 18, 115
Kagan b. A. 18
al-Kagani 18
al-Khwarazmi I 35, 37, 76, 124, 151, 269
al-Khwarazmi II 275, 278
Khaylub-Kagan 19
425
Khidr 107
Khidr-Khan 134
Khidr b. Ibr. Tamghach-Khan 252
Khodjamshukürova G. 99
Khud 34
Khusraw 197
Khusraw Abarwizsee Khusraw II Parwiz
Khusraw I Anushirwan 9, 1017, 21, 23, 24, 31, 32, 74, 75, 84, 85, 87, 102, 112, 141, 148, 240, 256, 266, 281
Khusraw b. Hurmazdsee Khusraw II Parwiz
Khusraw Kharkhan (Kharmaz), the son of Arslan, the son of Bayunchur 16
Khusraw II Parwiz 9, 14 15, 20, 21, 32, 240
Khuvishka 43
al-Kindi 118
Kir 10
Kisai 250
Kliashtorny S.G. 83
Kongur-At 175
Konrad I. 231
Ko-su-hosee Khusraw II Parwiz
Kubad 12
Kukem Bakuy (Yawkuy) 12, 84, 87
Kukem-Kagan (Khan) 30, 84
Kül El Bilga-Kagan 77
Kül-Tegin 23, 91, 140, 147, 151, 155, 159, 265
Kulan 175
Kün Ay Tangri 46
Kün-Bash 197
Kün-Tughdi 69
Künash 69
Kurchi 239
L
Lachin 23
al-Lari, Muslih al-Din 6, 88, 92, 102
426
Layla b. al-Numan al-Daylami 218
Livshitz V.A. 40
Lurje P.B. 79
M
Mahayana 62, 222
Mahdi 107
al-Mahdi 112, 113, 115, 127, 135, 142, 212, 262
Mah. Ghaznawi 33, 109, 110, 125, 134136, 204, 213, 216, 217, 219, 222, 223, 225, 227, 232, 234, 250232, 255, 256, 258, 275
Mah. al-Kashghari 38, 46, 98, 108, 109, 148, 153, 158, 166, 183, 184, 265, 268, 271, 274, 276
Mah. al-Khwarazmi 270
Mah. Qara (Kara)-Khansee Mah. Ghaznawi
Mah. Tarabi 201
Mah. al-Yugnaki 244, 275
Mah. b. Ali 278
Mah. b. Umar al-Zamakhshri, Abu-l-Qasim 272, 277
Mah. b. Wali 6, 74, 75, 77, 92, 102
Mahuye 114
Makan b. Kali 218
Makh 55, 61
Malik-Shah b. Alp Arslan 110, 134, 206, 217
Malik b. Shukr-Tegin 171, 200, 223
Mamari, Abu Man. 250, 255
Mamradj 197
al-Mamun 6, 7, 91, 92, 113, 116, 117, 124, 130, 131, 141, 190, 209, 216, 236, 244, 245, 247, 270
Mamun b. Mamun, Abu-l-Abbas 107, 110, 219, 262
Mani 46, 47, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58
Mani-Buddha 46, 47
Mani Khayossee Mani
Maniakh 14, 53, 144
al-Mansur, Abu Djafar 97, 112, 113, 115, 117, 190, 217, 249
Man. b. Abu Muzahim Bashir al-Turki, Abu Al. 269
Man. b. Bayqara 171, 200
427
Man. Khalladjsee al-Husayn b. Mansur
Man. b. Nuh al-Samani 6264, 69, 7987, 101, 102, 105, 109, 110, 126, 131, 192, 219, 220223, 232, 250252
Man. b. Qara (Kara)-Tegin 181
Manuchehri 252
Manush (Anush)-Kagan 19, 28
Marida 112
Mars 46, 66
Marwan 32
Marwan al-Himar 244
al-Marwazi 128, 240
Maryam, the daughter of Mauritius 14, 32
al-Marzban b. Türksafi 183
Masrur al-Farghani 18
Mastich 29
Masud Ghaznawi 76, 219, 225, 248, 275
al-Masudi 5, 11, 16, 45, 174, 194, 271
al-Maturidi, Abu Man. 131
Mauritius 14, 21
al-Mawardi, Ali Abu-l-H. 190, 205
Mercury 46, 66
Metz A. 31, 231
Michael the Syrian 11
Mihrsee Mithra
Mihrabandak 9
Mihran, the son of Bahram Chubin 26
Mihrevandaksee Mihrabandak
Milad 47
Mirkhwand 6, 102
Ming Timur-Khan 106
Mirram (Mihran) 10
Mishkan, Abu Nasr 251
Mithra (Mihr) 9, 43
Mo Chjo 53
Mohedu Tutun (Bahadur Tudun) 94
428
Moon 4447, 52, 54, 58, 61, 67, 69
al-Mubarak (femail) 112
al-Mubarak al-Turki 113, 115
Muhammad, prophet 106, 114, 127, 129, 130, 134, 136, 167, 168, 202, 206208, 219
M. Awfi 244
M. al-Djayhani, Abu Al. 189, 271
M. al-Husayni, Abu-l-Mudjahid 63
M. al-Yughnaki 275
M. b. Al. al-Balami 74
M. b. Al. al-Katib 256
M. b. Al. al-Turki, Djamal al-Din 277
M. b. Abd al-Karim al-Samani, Abu Sad 207
M. b. Abd al-Razzaq al-Tusi, Abu Man. 32, 250, 251
M. b. Abdus al-Djakhshiyari 190
M. b. Abu Nasr al-Utbi 5, 74, 107, 189, 193, 248
M. b. A., Abu Dawud 199
M. b. A. Daqiqi 250252, 264
M. b. A. al-Nakhshabi 131
M. b. A. b. Farighun, Abu-l-Harith 106
M. b. A. b. M. Al-Baraqi al-Khwarazmi, Abu Al. 272
M. b. A. b. Simdjur, Abu-l-H. 106
M. b. A. b. Yus. Al-Baraqi al-Khwarazmi, Abu Al. 272
M. b. Ali b. Tarkhan 125, 269
M. b. Ali al-Dayzili, Abu Man. 17
M. b. Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi, Abu Al. 275
M. b. Ali al-Qaffal al-Shash (Chach, Tashkent)i, Abu Bakr 272
M. b. Bais 245
M. b. Djafar al-Narshakhi, Abu Bakr 19, 221, 244, 252
M. b. Djarir al-Tabari, Abu Djafar 5, 12, 16, 30, 31, 53, 84, 87, 116, 141, 142, 168, 183, 203, 239, 244, 251, 255, 267, 269
M. b. Ham. Dankash 190
M. b. al-H. al-Shaybani 257
M. b. al-H. b. Ashnas, Abu-l-H. 270
M. b. Hurmuz 33, 237
M. b. Ish. b. M. b. Yah. b. Al. al-Bagdadisee Ibn al-Nadim
429
M. b. Khalid, Bukhar-Khudat 91, 142
M. b. Kagan al-Baruqani al-Balkhi 18, 115
M. b. Malik-Shah 110
M. b. Man. Marwarrudi 278
M. b. Matt al-Isfidjabi , Abu Man. 197
M. b. M. b. Ūzligh b. Tarkhan al-Farabi al-Turki, Abu Nasr 270, 271
M. b. Musa al-Wasiti, Abu Bakr 270
M. b. Qays al-Razi, Shams al-Din 277
M. b. Sul 114
M. b. Sulayman-Tegin b. Dawud Küch-Tegin Arslan-Khan 37, 87, 125, 175
M. b. Tekish, Ala al-Din Khwarazm (Horezm)-Shah 125, 136, 207, 209, 212, 223
M. b. Tughdj al-Ihshid al-Farghani, Abu Bakr 18, 224
M. b. Wasif 245
M. b. Yah. b. Al. b. al-Abbas al-Katib al-Nadim al-Suli al-Shatrandji, Abu Bakr 112, 273, 274
M. b. Yahya b. Kagan 191
M. b. Yun. b. Mubarak al-Turki, Abu Al. 269
M. b. Yus. Al-Turki 269
al-Muhammadi 210
Muhtadj 169, 198
Muizzi 254
al-Muktafi 112, 208, 224, 273
Munis al-Khadim 191, 197
al-Muntasir I 216, 218
al-Muntasir IIsee Ism. b. Nuh
al-Muqaddasi 5, 73, 74, 102, 182, 213, 261
al-Muqatil b. Ali 112
al-Muqtadir 33, 53, 86, 112, 126, 191, 213, 216, 217
Musa b. Al. 183
al-Musabi, Abu-l-Tayyib 131
al-Musawi 91
al-Musayyab b. Zuhayr 7
al-Musayyabi 210
al-Mustain 191
Mustawfi-i Qazwini 93, 102
al-Mutadid bi-llah 96, 212, 218
430
Mutallib 107
al-Mutamid 134
al-Mutasim 46, 93, 112, 113, 115, 117, 124, 169, 198, 223, 224, 235
al-Mutawakkil 13, 86, 97, 112, 114, 115, 132, 186, 190, 191, 231, 270, 271
al-Mutawwii 122
al-Muti li-llah 212, 227, 270
al-Muttaki 218
al-Muqtadir218, 237, 273
al-Muwaffaq 18, 212
Muwaffaq b. Ali al-Harawi, Abu Man. 251
Muzaffar Kiya 169, 198
N
Nadjibi Farghani 254
Nadr Muhammad-Khan 76
Na-du-ni-li 87
Nanhais 36
Nara 65, 222
Narayana 65, 222
Narmudsee Parmuda
al-Narshkhisee M. b. Djafar al-Narshakhi, Abu Bakr 221, 244, 252
al-Nasafisee Umar b. M. al-Nasafi, Abu Hafs
al-Nasir 112, 207209, 212
Nasir-i Khusraw 213
Nasr, Kagan 108
Nasr b. A. 70, 96, 98, 105, 119, 122, 131, 212, 223, 215219, 221, 223, 250, 251, 253, 257
Nasr b. Ali 64
Nasr b. Ism. 218
Nasr b. Man. 105, 127
Nasr b. Sayyar 55, 124, 168
Nawai, Ali-Shir 254
Nawruz 107
Nawshard (Nushard) 26, 28, 98
Nawuhodonosor 34
Nerse, the grandson of Yazdigird III 17
431
Nidan 239
Nigü Chulo-Khan 38, 149
Ni Huan-shisee Nerse
Nikiforos II Fokas 271
Nili (-Khan)see El-Tegin
Nimrod 34
Nishu Kan She (Shad) 77, 140
Nizak-Tarkhan 42, 114
Nizami Arudi Samarqandi 5
Nizami Gandjawi 254
Nuh (Bibl. Noah) 55
Nuh b. Asad b. Saman 6, 34, 63, 68, 97, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122
Nuh b. Man. al-Rida 6366, 69, 85, 105108, 126, 127, 220222, 224
Nuh b. Nasr b. A. 69, 70, 105, 106, 110, 126, 131, 171, 200, 216, 218, 220, 221, 223, 227, 251, 269, 275
al-Numan b. Thabit b. Kamkar b. Yazdigird 17
Nush (Nawsh) 28
Nush-Teginsee Anush-Tegin
O
Oghul-Tarkhan 140, 155
Oghurdjiq 98
Oguz-Khan 42, 71, 88, 185
Okul Bars 154
Oyunaq 98
Ozmish (An U-sy-mi) 158
P
Pharaon 34
Piran 34
Pi-sha-men 44
Pithagor 66
Plinius 185
Pomponius Mela 185
Po-Shi (Bo-si) Te-le 38, 149, 187
432
Ptolemaeus Cl. 11, 150, 152, 153, 160, 175
Pulad 107
Q
Qabadj-Khatunsee Fatah-Khatun
Qabadjiq 98
al-Qadir bi-llah 204, 218, 219, 225, 227
Qahtaba b. Shabib 7
al-Qaim bi-amri-llah 86, 135, 206, 226, 233
Qainsee Faz
Qalin b. Shahir 215
Qan Tangri 129
Qaqim-Kagan 84, 87
Qara (Kara)-Baytal 175
Qara (Kara)-Bughra 147
Qara (Kara)-Chur 49
Qara Churin Turksee Tardu-Kagan
Qara (Kara)-Khan 69
Qara Qushsee Kara-Kush
Qara (Kara)-Tay 69
Qara (Kara)-Tegin 74, 197
Qaradjiq 98
Qarluq (Karluk) 98
al-Qarshisee Djamal al-Qarshi
Qaysar, descendant of Arkhuz 19
Qaylaq 98
Qazwini, Hamd Allah 6, 91
Qilich Tamghach-Khan Masud 226
Qudama b. Djafar 5, 271
Qultaq 98
Qurdjuq 98
Qushluq 98
Qutayba b. Muslim 40, 54, 55, 96, 113, 115, 119, 124, 164, 166, 169, 255
Qutb 278
Qut-Tegin Khazinadar 106, 171, 197, 199, 200
433
Qutlugh Pantay 83
Qutlugh Tun Tardu 87
R
al-Rabghuzi, Nasr al-Din 278
Rabi b. A. al-Akhawayn al-Bukhari, Abu Bakr 252
Rabia al-Balkhi 257
al-Radi bi-llah 131, 216, 218, 223, 224, 273,
Rafi b. al-Layth 6, 33, 34, 118, 121, 249
al-Rahibi 41, 261
al-Ram 24
al-Razi 252
Riza-Quli Hidayat 254
Rub-Khan 72
Rudhaki 250, 254
Rustam 173, 250
S
Sa-Takin 197
Sabuk 36
Sabuk-Tegin 171, 197, 201, 219, 225, 227, 275
Sabukra (Subkari) 197, 217
Sadacharya 40, 53
al-Saffah 114
Said al-Harashi 168
Said al-Usbanikathi, Abu-l-H. 126
Said b. Humayd 120
Said b. Uthman 124
Sakan (Salan) 142
Saldjuq 98, 107
Salih b. Muslim 119
Saltuq 98
al-Saluq, Abu Djafar 74
Sam (an) 35, 36
Saman I b. Djabba b. Niyar b. Nawshard b. Tamghath b. Bahram Chubinsee Saman-Khudat
434
Saman II 35
Saman Atly 175
Saman-Yabgusee Saman-Khudat
Saman-Yavkuysee Saman-Khudat
Samanchi Oglu 35
Samanchin T. 35
al-Samarqamdi, Abu-l-Qasim 131
Samtagan 27
Sanai 254
Sandjar (Sindjar) 28, 110, 136, 226
Sanghavarma 39
Satachar-Tudunsee Tudun Satachar
Satachari 40
Satuq 98
Satuq Bughra(-Qara)-Khan al-Ghazi 57, 125, 127, 129
Saturn 46, 52, 66
Sawa-Shahsee El Arslan
Sawa Buyuruq 19, 80
Sawkhsee Sawa-Shah
Sayf-i Sarayi 278
Selevk 119
Semurgh 23
Sertkaya O. 83
Sha (Shaya, Shaba?) 140
Shaba (Shiyaba)see Sawa-Shah
Shabib b. Bukhar-Khudad al-Balkhi, Abu Shudja 91
Shaddad 34
al-Shahrastani 45
Shahriyar 240
Shakti 65
Shapur 184
Shapur, the son of Bahram Chubin 26
Shaqiq b. Ibr. al-Balkhi, Abu Ali 125
Shar-Tegin 197
al-Shash (Chach, Tashkent)i 269
435
Shawl 27
Shayban-Khan 107
Sheguy-Kagansee Djeguy-Kagan
Shikh-Kagansee Djik-Kagan
Shiliman Galo 87
Shiva 43, 49, 59, 65, 81, 82
Shu 49
Shubinsee Chubin
Shudja 112
Shukr-Tegin 197
Shukürova R.M. 31
Sian-Shi 38, 149
Sima al-Kabir 123
Sima al-Tawil 197
Simdjur al-Dawati al-Khwarazmi, Abu-l-Qasim 74, 107, 197, 269
Simdjur al-Dawla al-Khwarazmi 124
al-Simdjuri I, Abu-l-H. 224
al-Simdjuri II, Abu Ali 224, 225
Sin-I 39, 149
Siriussee Tishtriya
Siyawush I 50, 59, 253
Siyawush II 27
Sochak 94
Solomon 64, 66, 222
Soul 46, 66
Spandiyat, the son of Vishtasp 19, 42, 81
Sri Khudavayaka 62, 232
Süan Tszan 38, 39, 44, 50, 54, 74, 75, 77, 99, 239
Subashi-Tegin 197
Subkarisee Sabukra
Sul., prophet 65
Sul I 96
Sul II 141
Sul (Shawl) 27
Sul. b. Sul 114
436
Sulayman-Yabgu 89
al-Suli, Abu Bakrsee M. Yahya al-Suli
Sul-Tegin 114, 244, 272, 273, 281
Sun 4446, 52, 54, 58, 60, 66, 67, 69
Sunqar 200
Sunkur 23
Sunkurcha 23
Suren Pahlav 81
Suvar-Takin 19
Sy (Se) Ye-khu (She-khu) Kehan 38, 77, 78, 84, 93, 94
Sy-li Te-le (Sir-Tegin) 77
T
al-Tabarisee M. b. Djarir al-Tabari
Taghan (Tughan) 27, 197
Tahir b. al-Hus. Dhu-l-Yaminayn 32, 92, 103, 209
al-Tai bi-llah 86, 232
Taman (Daman) 38, 149
Tamghach (Tabghach) 27, 30
Tamghath (Tamghasp, Tamgharth) 26, 27, 30
Tamim b. Bahr 51, 239
Tangri 23, 144
Tangri-Berdi Samanchi 35
Taqizada, Sayyid Hasan 30
Tardjuman b. Salih 186
Tardu-Kagan 19, 48, 49, 80, 85, 89, 102, 140, 148, 242
Tardu-Shad 42, 49, 77, 81, 84, 86, 221, 222, 242
Tarnavi 94
Tash al-Hadjib, Abu-l-Abbas Husam al-Dawla 107, 171, 197, 224
Taurech 36
Tayanghu 91
Tekish b. Arslan 208
Te-ša 53
al-Thaalibi 252
Tian-Chji (Fu-Chji) 94
437
Ti Chjo 53
Tegin-Cha 37
Timur 234
Tinsi Oghly 51
Tish al-Awar 53
Tishtriya (Sirius) 52
Togan N. 30
Tokuz (Dukur)-Yawkuy 87, 88
Ton-Tudunsee Kan-Tutun
Ton Yukuk 51, 77, 78
Tort Ayghir 175
Treadwell L. 79
Tudun Satachar 94
Tughan-Tegin 105
Tughshada (Taghshada) 142
Tughdj b. Djaf b. Djaf b. Yil-Takin b. Farwan b. Furi b. Kagan al-Farghani 18
Tughluq 98
Tughrul 88, 92, 102
Tughrul-Bek, Muhammad 86, 108, 135, 206, 226, 233
Tuk-Aspadak 142
Tulun 69
Tumansky A.G. 39
Tun-Kush 23
Tun She-khusee Tun Yabgu-Kagan
Tun Yabgu-Kagan 15, 37, 42, 49, 50, 76, 77, 80, 81, 84, 87, 89, 93, 95, 140, 221, 242
Tuq Shiyadasee Tughshada
Tuqaq 98
Turan-Tash 178, 179
Turdi-Muhammad 107
Turghar 144, 209
Turi Sari 175
Turk b. Yafath b. Nuh 25
Türk-Aspadak 142
Türk-Kagan 223
Tus 34
438
Tuz-Tash al-Hadjib 108, 197
U
Ubayd Allah b. Yahya b. Kagan 191
Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad 113, 124, 141
Uchuq 98
Udjayf b. Anbasa 183
Ughuldjaq Qadr-Khan 56, 105, 127
U-Kun 38
Ulaq 98
Ulkar 69
Ulugh-Khan Ata Bitikchi 13, 112
Umar b. al-Khattab 41, 220, 256
Umar b. M. al-Baraqi al-Khwarazmi, Abu Hafs 272
Umar b. M. al-Nasafi, Abu Hafs 5, 55, 97, 122, 257
Umar (Umayr) b. Uthman b. Said 16
Umay 144, 153
Unash 29
Unsuri 252, 254
al-Usturlabi 102
Ūt-Tegin 239
Ūtamish b. Hur-takin 191, 197
al-Utbisee M. b. Abu Nasr al-Utbi
Uthman b. Affan 16, 56
Uthman b. Masud 183
V
Vahram 19, 42
Vairapani 60
Vaišravana deva 38, 44, 77
Validi Togan A.Z. 30, 76, 84, 88
Varahran V Gursee Bahram V Gur
Varahran VIsee Bahram Chubin
Varam, the son of Bargusn 10
Varathragna 9, 145
439
Vardjayana 62, 222
Varkhuman 178
Vasudeva 80
Ve-li Te-le 38
Venus 46, 58, 66, 69
Vishtasp 45
Vladimir 216
W
al-Walid 17, 113
Waran 36
Wasif b. Suvar-Takin al-Khadim al-Biktamiri al-Turki 19, 190
al-Wathiq 15, 190, 219, 245
Y
Yaba (Yama) 90
Yadikar 69
Yafath b. Nuh 15, 25, 88
Yahya al-Khashshab 30
Yahya b. A. al-Farabi, Abu Zakariyya 274
Yahya b. Asad 6, 34, 92, 118
Yahya b. Kagan 18, 115, 271
Yalbagh 197
Yamal-Payghu 90
Yang Soukh-Teginsee Yang Su Te-le
Yang Su Te-le 19, 36, 84
Yaqub Djandi 262
Yaqub b. al-Layth al-Saffar 245, 246
al-Yaqubi 180, 271
Yaqut al-Hamawi 5, 77, 240
Yarmaq 98
Yasaq 98
Yassawi, Khwadja A. 277
Yazdigird III 1517, 32, 41, 132, 240, 247
Yazid b. Mufarrigh 244
440
Yazid b. al-Muhallab 114, 164
Yazid b. al-Walid 17, 32
Yelbi Ashpara 77
Yetti-Qashqa 175
Yidkiz al-Tatar 223
Yil-Teginsee El-Tegin
Yildyz 110
Yima 35
Yinal (Ibr.) 197
Yinal al-Shaldji Hastana Oghli 129
Yinal-Tegin 197
Yitkar 69
Yolug-Tegin 265
Yulduz 69
Yulduz-Khan 25
Yuluq 98
Yumaq 98
Yupiter 46, 66
Yustin II 144
Yusuf Khas-Hadjib al-Balasaghuni 207, 253, 265, 266, 275
Yusuf b. Sabuk-Tegin 225
Z
Zakariyya Qazwini 16
Zakariyya b. al-Sadji, Abu Yahya 270
Zakhkhak 34
Zambaur E. von 220
Zaratushtra (Zoroastr) 11, 42, 45, 46
Zarech 36
Zib al-Nisa 254
Zik-Kagansee Djik-Kagan
Zoroastrsee Zaratushtra
Zuhayr b. al-Musayyab al-Dabi 7
Zurafa al-Turki 197
441

Index of clans and dynasties
A
Abbasids 13, 18, 69, 71, 86, 96, 111, 112, 114, 115, 117, 120, 123125, 130138, 169, 186, 189, 192194, 196198, 201210, 212, 213, 216219, 221, 224, 227229, 233, 234238, 250, 255, 256, 262, 268, 274, 276, 280, 283, 284
Afshins 57, 58, 168
Ahemenids 10, 11, 32, 43, 118, 119, 167, 202, 217, 249
Alids 212
Anush-Teginids 28, 166
Arshacids 9, 10, 20, 23, 101, 192
Ayyubits 65
B
Baburids 136
Banichurids 169, 170, 191, 198, 199
Barmakids 21, 70, 71, 7476, 102, 103, 169, 192, 236
Bayazid 234
Bukhar-Khudats 58, 142, 143, 145, 209, 211
Buwayhids 32, 33, 35, 69, 79, 84, 86, 86, 105, 118, 129, 131137, 181, 192, 194, 201, 203, 205, 212, 217, 220222, 224, 227, 233, 236, 248, 250, 256, 283
C
Chaghan-Khudats 169
Chingizids 69, 232, 249
Chjow 38, 149
D
Djuchids 68, 69, 107
F
Farighunids 106, 192
Fatimids 135, 205, 219, 224
442
G
Ghaznawid (Ghaznavid)s 17, 29, 30, 32, 33, 61, 62, 106, 109, 110, 125, 132137, 150, 194, 195, 201, 203, 204, 211, 219, 220, 225, 232, 237, 246, 248250, 252, 255, 258, 268, 275, 284
Ghurids 125, 203, 223
H
Han, dynasty 146
I
Ihshidids 19, 198
Ilik-Khans 133
K
Kabul-Shahs 83
Kayanids 45
Kaganids 115
Khwarazm (Horezm)-Shahs 28, 74, 78, 107, 110, 125, 134, 136, 142, 166, 167, 195, 201, 203, 207, 209, 211, 216, 218, 219, 225, 226, 237, 249, 262, 266, 277279, 284
M
Mihran 9, 70, 81
Muhtadjids 169, 170, 179, 198, 199, 255
Muttids (Mattids) 169, 198
O
Ottomans 82, 266
Q
Qara (Kara)-Khanid (Karakhanid) 28, 29, 32, 33, 56, 63, 64, 68, 105, 108110, 125, 127, 128, 134, 136, 137, 147, 169, 176, 181, 193195, 198, 201, 203, 210214, 220, 225227, 233, 237, 246, 249, 252, 254, 256, 266, 272, 276, 284
Qarluq (Karluk) Khans 201
443
S
Saffarids 3134, 86, 129, 192, 208, 212, 236, 237, 245, 246, 248, 249, 279
Saldjuqid (Seljukid)s 28, 29, 33, 63, 64, 68, 87, 90, 107110, 118, 125, 134137, 194, 195, 197, 201, 203, 205207, 210, 211, 217, 219, 220, 225227, 232, 233, 237, 248, 249, 252, 276, 279, 283, 284
Samanids 5, 135137, 141, 142, 154, 169172, 181, 186, 189, 191205, 208225, 227238, 244246, 249257, 262, 263, 272, 273, 275, 279285
Sasanids 911, 1317, 1944, 48, 60, 69, 7476, 7887, 95, 98, 101, 102, 112, 116, 118, 119, 132, 133, 141, 143, 148, 150, 163, 165, 184, 189, 190, 192195, 222, 228, 231, 236, 238, 240, 242, 246248, 250, 266, 279281, 283, 284
Shaybanids 136, 196, 266
Shihab al-Din 125
Simdjurids 171, 192, 201, 255
Sulids 272, 273
Suy 38, 149
T
Tahirids 6, 32, 92, 103, 119, 192, 204, 212, 218, 246
Tang 156, 202
Timurids 35, 136, 196, 232, 234, 249, 266
Tulunids 199
U
Umayyads 32, 113, 114, 120, 125, 132, 141, 190, 212, 233, 343
Umayyads of Spain 205, 220
V
Vey 40
W
Wardan-Khudats 14, 141
Z
Ziyarids 132, 133, 192, 212
444

Index of titles and honorific names
A
Adud al-Dawla 32, 105, 131132, 205. 222, 224, 225, 248
al-Afshinsee Haydhar b. Kawus
Ala al-Dawla 248
Ala al-Din 125
Ala al-Mulk 208
Alambardar 108
Amid al-Dawla 64, 224
Amid al-Mulk 228
al-Amir al-Hamid 219
Amin al-Milla 225, 227
al-Amir 96, 97, 188, 204, 227
al-Amir al-Adil 218
Amir-Malik 223
al-Amir al-Muayyid 218, 221
Amir al-Muminin 135, 217, 220
al-Amir al-Rashid 219, 222
al-Amir al-Rida 219, 222
al-Amir al-Sadid 219
al-Amir al-Said 219
al-Amir al-Sayyid 225
Amir al-Umara 189, 224, 226
Anushirwansee Khusrw I Anushirwan
Ashab al-Atraf 204
Asl-Zada 88
Ayn al-Dawla 219
B
Baha al-Dawla 224
Bakuysee Yabgu
Banu Khalaif 204
Barmudasee Parmuda
445
Bay 146
Bek 86, 107, 108, 135, 169, 170, 178, 197201, 206, 207, 224, 225, 233, 266, 276
Biyaghu (Bayghu, Bayku, Biyghu, Bawghi)see Yabgu
Bukhar-Khudadsee Bukhar-Khudat
Bukhar-Khudat 6, 58, 91, 142, 143, 145, 158, 183, 187, 209, 210, 262
C
Chaghan-Khudat 91
Chubinsee Bahram Chubin
Caliph 13, 1518, 32, 33, 41, 53, 71, 76, 79, 84, 86, 91, 93, 97, 100, 109, 110, 111118, 121124, 126, 127, 130134, 137, 138, 141, 142, 169, 189191, 193, 194, 196198, 201209, 211213, 215220, 224, 225, 227. 229, 232, 233, 235237, 244, 245, 249, 257, 262, 270, 271, 273, 283
ChjaoWu 139
D
Dagansee Tarkhan
Daruga (Dargu) 90
Dhu-l-Kalamayn 228
Dhu-l-Kifayatayn 228
Dhu-l-Riyasatayn 121, 190, 228
Dhu-l-Yaminayn 228
Dihdan 226, 246
Djabghu (Djabghuya)see Yabgu
Djalal al-Dawla 225
Djalal al-Din 125, 277
Djamal al-Din 277
Djamal al-Milla 225
Djebe 78
Dokht 13, 14
F
Fakhr al-Dawla 224
Fakhr al-Umma 228
446
G
al-Ghazi 121123, 125, 127, 137, 220
Ghiyath al-Din 110, 125
Gur-Khan 91
H
al-Hadjib 62, 107, 108, 154, 171, 191, 198, 200, 222, 224
al-Hadjib al-Adjall 224
al-Hafiz 17
al-Hakim 17, 219
al-Hasib 270
Hidjdjat Allah fi-l-Ard 225
Husam al-Dawla 154, 224
I
al-Ihshid(h) 6, 18, 19, 29, 58, 114, 142, 145, 158, 162, 168, 169, 183, 198, 209, 223, 258, 270
Izz al-Dawla 86
Ilik 107, 108, 110, 133, 147
Imad al-Dawla 224
K
Kahf al-Dawla wa-l-Islam 225
Kakuldar 101, 103
al-Katib 256, 272
Kehansee Kagan
al-Khadim 18, 19, 115, 269
Khwadja 107, 277
Khalifat Amir al-Muminin 220, 226
Khan 17, 25, 30, 33, 38, 42, 4850, 53, 56, 71, 72, 7477, 8385, 87, 9194, 96, 97, 101105, 107110, 112, 125, 127, 128, 134, 136, 142, 147149, 154, 175, 185, 193, 201, 203, 207, 211, 224227, 251, 256, 259, 272, 276, 281
Kagansee Kagan
al-Kagan al-Muazzam 226
Khwarazm (Horezm)-Shah 107, 110, 125, 134, 136, 142, 166, 167, 207209, 211, 212, 216, 219, 223, 225, 226, 237, 249, 262, 266, 277279, 284
447
al-Khassa 64, 65, 224
Khatun 14, 38, 120, 140142, 146, 183
Khazinadar 106
Khuda(t) 69, 2731, 33, 36, 39, 41, 48, 51, 7174, 8487, 9195, 97103, 110, 118, 137, 140142, 169, 187, 197, 262, 281, 284
Khunuk-Khudat 91
King of Kingssee Shahan-Shah
Kiya 169
M
Madjd al-Dawla 134
Madjd al-Din 228
al-Malik 27, 220, 221, 223, 226, 227
al-Malik al-Ashraf 223
Malik al-Dawla 220
Malik al-Islam 226
al-Malik al-Kamil 223
Malik al-Khayl 174
Malik Khurasan (Khorasan) 226
Malik al-Maghrib wa-l-Mashriq 226
al-Malik al-Mansur 221, 223
Malik al-Mashriq 220, 226
Malik al-Mashriq wa-l-Sin 226
al-Malik al-Miazzam 221, 223
al-Malik al-Muayyid 220, 221, 225
Malik al-Muluk 220
al-Malik al-Muwaffaq 221
Malik al-Sharq 225
Malik al-Sharq wa-l-Sin 227
Malik al-Umam 220
Malik al-Umara 223
al-Marzuban (Marzban) 9, 11, 101, 114, 183, 239
Mawla Amir al-Muminin 171, 200, 203, 220, 224, 226, 228
Mawlana 217
MLKn MLKsee Shahan-Shah
448
al-Muayyad min al-Sama 224
Muayyid Amir al-Muminin 226
Muayyid al-Milla 226
Mudjtabi Khalifat Allah 227
Muhammi 126
Muin al-Dawla 224
Muin Khalifat Allah 227
Muizz al-Dawla 86
Muluk al-Atraf 223, 224
Muluk al-Tawaif 45, 204, 223
al-Munadjdjim 270
al-Muqanna 53, 54, 128, 141, 258
N
Nasir Amir al-Muminin 220, 226, 227
Nasir al-Dawla 218, 224, 227
Nasir al-Din wa-l-Dawla 225
Nasir al-Haqq 225
Nasr al-Din 278
Nizam al-Din 225
Nizam al-Mulk 5, 9, 96, 217, 228, 248, 252
P
Padishah 226, 246
Pahlawan al-Sharq 226, 246
pariowk (parmowk)see Pramukha
Parmuda (Barmuda)see El-Tegin
Payghusee Yabgu
Pramukha (Barmuka) 21, 48, 70
Q
Kagan 12, 14, 15, 1719, 21, 28, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 39, 41, 48, 49, 51, 69, 7678, 8089, 94, 96, 100102, 109, 110, 115, 120, 121, 123, 125, 136, 140, 141, 145, 146, 148, 150, 151,
449
155, 157160, 162, 164, 168, 187, 197, 207, 221, 225227, 241, 242, 243, 246, 270272, 281, 282
Qasim Amir al-Muminin 135
Qaya (Qiya) 169
R
Rashid al-Din 6, 12, 25, 30, 84, 87, 88, 92, 102
Rukn al-Dawlasee al-H. b. Buwayh
Rukn al-Din 135
S
Safi Amir al-Muminin 220, 226
Safi Wali Khalifat Allah 220, 226
Sahib al-Djaysh 220, 226
Salar 246
Samsam al-Dawla 217
Sarwar-Khudat 91
Sawa (Shawa)see Sawa-Shah
Sayf al-Dawla 224, 225, 227, 228
Sayf Khalifat Allah 220, 226
al-Sayyid (Sayyid) 30, 96, 97, 136, 137
al-Sayyid al-Amir 225
Sayyid al-Gharb 225
Sayyid al-Muluk wa-l-Salatin 227
Shad 42, 49, 76, 81, 84, 94, 140, 142, 221, 242
Shah 15, 17, 19, 21, 28, 36, 37, 39, 48, 49, 62, 74, 84, 96, 102, 106, 109, 125, 140, 148, 149, 172, 195, 201, 206209, 211, 212, 216, 217, 223, 225, 226, 237, 262, 266, 276279, 284
Shahan-Shah 917, 1922, 30, 32, 37, 41, 42, 49, 69, 7477, 7981, 8386, 101, 102, 112, 132, 123, 141, 142, 148, 184, 192, 193, 194, 221, 222, 225, 226, 240, 242, 243, 246248, 266
Shahan-Shah al-Azam 220, 226
Shams al-Din 277
Shams al-Mulk 134
Shaonano-Shaosee Shahan-Shah
Sharaf al-Islam 228
450
Sharaf al-Mulk 228
Sharaf al-Ruasa 272
Shihab al-Dawla 226, 227
Shihab al-Din 153
Shir-i Kishwarsee El Arslan
Simdjur al-Dawla 123
Sinan al-Dawla 224
Sipahdar 78
Sipah-Salar 106, 171, 191, 195, 224, 227, 228, 250, 257
Sultan 28, 86, 105, 135, 136, 172, 204, 206, 207, 209, 211, 216, 217, 219, 225, 226, 249, 252, 255, 276
al-Sutan al-Azam (Sultan Azam) 225, 226
Sultan Buzurg 225
Sultan al-Dawla 226
Sultan al-Islam wa-l-Muslimin 227
Sultan al-Mashriq 227
Sultan al-Mashriq wa-l-Sin 226
al-Sultan al-Muazzam (Sultan Muazzam) 220, 225, 226
Sultan al-Salatin 226
T
Tadj al-Milla 224
Takinsee Tegin
Takin b. Kagan 18
Tamghach 134, 183
Targa 90
Tarkhan 15, 43, 9395, 99, 114, 121, 140, 143, 151, 155, 158, 245, 269271
Te-lesee Tegin
Tegin (Tegin) 1719, 21, 28, 32, 3639, 4850, 70, 74, 80, 82, 84, 85, 87, 91, 9497, 101103, 114, 117, 125, 132, 140, 142, 144, 148152, 155, 158, 159, 164, 169171, 181, 187, 196, 197, 199201, 218, 221225, 227, 239, 244, 255, 257, 270, 272, 273, 275, 281, 282
Tinsi Oγly 51
Tudun 94, 158, 169
Turar-Khudat 91
Turkzadasee Hurmazd IV
451
Tutuk 94, 145
Tutunsee Tudun
U
Ulugh Sultan 226
Ulugh Sultan al-Salatin 226
W
Wali Amir al-Muminin 220, 224, 225, 229
Wali Khalifat Allah 226
Wardan-Khudat 14, 91, 141
Y
Yabgu 12, 18, 30, 42, 49, 53, 71, 74, 75, 77, 78, 80, 81, 8390, 9294, 100103, 107, 114, 120, 128, 139, 140, 168, 178, 192, 221, 264, 281
Yabgu-Kagan 18, 38, 42, 49, 50, 7678, 8082, 84, 87, 89, 9395, 140, 187, 221, 242
Yamin al-Dawla 225, 227
Yawghu (Yafghu)see Yabgu
Yawkuysee Yabgu
Ye-khu (She-khu)see Yabgu
Yugrus 89
Z
Zahir al-Dawla 226228
Zahir al-Din 251, 253
Zayn al-Abidin 96
Zayn al-Sharia 228
452

Index of ethnic names
A
al-Adjam 29, 235
Afhhani 151
Afshar 154
Alans 15, 156, 158
Albans 22
Altaians 28, 36, 43, 54, 82, 90, 174, 263
Andalusians 111
Armenians 10, 11, 20, 157
Armenian Qipchaqs 28, 50, 157
Arabs 2832, 41, 44, 54, 55, 71, 93, 94, 103, 106, 110, 111, 113, 114, 116, 118121, 124, 129, 130, 137, 140, 141, 150, 158161, 164169, 171, 174, 179181, 183, 185, 188, 192, 197, 198, 202, 212, 215, 219, 231, 234238, 242245, 248251, 253, 255257, 261, 263, 265, 267, 268, 271275, 279, 281284
Arghi 185
Arghu 267
Ashina 30, 84, 88, 139, 141, 174, 175
Assyrians 111
Avars 36, 153, 156, 264
B
Bactrians 36, 48, 51, 57, 156, 157, 164, 172, 180, 188, 267, 268, 282
al-Badjnaq 11
Balandjars 15
Banu Hanzala 116
Barbarians 10, 100
Bashkirs (Bashkirians) 26, 174
Bayirghu (Bayghu) 91
Beduins 245
Bozkurt 184
Bukharians 7, 39, 141, 151, 155, 174, 185, 186, 269
al-Bughars 181, 213, 214, 217, 263, 264
453
Buriats 90
Byzantines 20, 50, 111, 144, 185
C
Caratae 175
Caspians 22
Chachians 185
Chaghanians 185
Chenssee Chinese
Chigils 46, 99, 175, 186
Chineses 11. 3739, 44, 47, 5154, 67, 75, 103, 120, 121, 123, 139, 148, 149, 151, 152, 158, 168, 173, 174, 177, 184, 215, 265
Chuvash 78, 263
Comedae 150
D
Dahae 10
Da-shisee Arabs
Daylamits 114, 131, 133, 181, 218, 255
Di 100, 173
Din-Lin 100, 173
Djamuk 155
E
Egyptians 111, 189, 220
English 79
Etrussk 161
European race 83
F
Farghanians 185
Finn-Ughrians 173
al-Furssee Persians
454
G
Gagauzes 28
Gargars 22
Gar-rga-pur 22
Georgians 11, 20, 50
al-Ghuzzsee Oguz
Gilzay 150
Greeks 10, 111, 130, 152, 161, 189, 256, 257
Greek-Bactrians 178, 209
Greek-Byzabtines 202
Greek-Makedonians 101, 118, 119
H
al-Haytal (al-Hayatila)see Hephtalites (Ephtalites)
He-bdalsee Hephtalites (Ephtalites)
Hebrew 10
Hephtalites (Ephtalites) 1114, 16, 19, 21, 22, 24, 26, 42, 49, 75, 8083, 88, 89, 148, 150, 152, 158, 160, 173, 182, 183, 185, 221, 242
Hindu 36, 180
Hunns 10, 11, 24, 78, 82, 83, 91, 99, 139, 156, 164, 173, 175, 185, 263, 264
Hunn-Parthians 10
I
I 173
Indians 38, 39, 49, 81, 82, 161, 184, 249
Indians of America 25, 66, 175
Indo-Arians 173, 263
Indo-Europeans 82, 157, 172, 173
Indo-Iranians 180, 207
Iranians 11, 12, 109, 111, 121, 129, 132, 133, 135, 136, 157, 166, 173, 181, 182, 184, 190, 193, 194, 202, 205, 207, 221, 232, 234, 239, 241243, 248, 249, 253, 268, 279, 283, 284
Isfahanians 127
455
J
Japanese 241
Jews 111, 181, 182
Juns 100, 173
K
Kalmyk 100
Kandjina 12, 150
Kanglysee Qanghly
Kangüy 176
Karaims 28
Kara-Kalpaks 26
Karga 26
Kargali 26
Kargar 26
Kargin 26
Kar-rga (Karga) 24
Karkyn (Qarqin) 25
Kashgharians 185
Kelt-Germans 173
Kets 82
Khakassee Kirgiz
Khalach (Khaladj) 12, 42, 126, 145, 151, 184, 185, 270
Khwarazmians (Horezmians) 11, 51, 100, 156, 157, 164, 166, 172, 180, 184186, 188, 213, 216, 260, 282, 268, 269
al-Kharlukhsee Qarluqs
Khazars 11, 15, 20, 28, 90, 128, 202, 213, 216, 263, 264
Kildji 150
Khionites (Khyon) 11, 12, 26, 36, 150, 151, 160, 185, 264
al-Khirkhizsee Kirgiz
Khitays 109, 125, 127, 153, 204, 216, 225
Khurasan (Khorasan)ians 109, 111, 114, 117, 181, 189, 197, 214, 220, 270
Khurasan (Khorasan)ian Türks 112
Khurrits 28
Khuttalians 185
456
al-Khuzaa 247
Kidans (Qara (Kara)-Khitays) 69, 91, 128, 201, 202, 243
Kidarits 12, 26, 150, 185
Kimaks 15, 46, 69, 90, 120, 184, 240, 242
Cimmerians 28, 162
Kirgizs 23, 26, 35, 46, 69, 126, 128, 167, 174, 178, 184, 240, 243
Kochat 166
Kopts 276
Koreans 241
Kuchians 185
Kumans 36, 156
Kumidji 150
Kurds 111, 130, 245
Kushans 12, 22, 23, 41, 44, 47, 70, 85, 89, 101, 139, 143, 147, 150, 176, 178, 185, 213
M
Marwians 186, 269
Massagets 10, 101, 173
Maya 66
Mediterranean group 84
Merkit 185
Mitany 28
Mongols 5, 6, 25, 41, 54, 69, 125, 175, 184, 201202, 208, 212, 241, 248, 252, 258, 261
N
Nabatians 111
O
Oguz 25, 28, 30, 33, 41, 42, 71, 76, 79, 8284, 87, 88, 90, 92, 93, 105109, 111, 114, 115, 118, 126, 128, 154, 172, 180, 183, 184, 214, 260, 266, 267, 277, 281, 283
Ortokoribanes 163
Ossetins 156
Ottomans (Uthman) 82
457
P
Pamirians 180
Parthians 11, 26, 213
Pecheneg 156
Persians 5, 10, 11, 17, 28, 29, 31, 33, 44, 50, 108, 109, 111, 112, 114, 118, 120, 121, 130, 132, 135, 159, 165169, 180183, 184, 185, 188, 189, 192, 198, 202, 231, 235239, 243245, 247256, 262, 263, 267, 268, 279, 280, 282284
Polovetz-Qipchaqs 28
Q
Qanghly (Kangly) 71, 277
Qara (Kara)-Khitayssee Kidans
Qarluqs 17, 32, 33, 46, 69, 76, 84, 88, 90, 93, 98, 100, 105, 112, 120, 126128, 169, 172. 183, 184, 186, 201, 213, 216, 222, 259
Qipchaqs 79, 82, 109, 175, 180, 184, 276
al-Quraysh 256
R
Roman 185
Rung Di 100, 173
Russians 30, 79, 202
S
Saks (Saka) 10, 163, 264
Saka Tigrahauda 10, 161, 163
Sak-Khotan 89
al-Saqlabsee Slaves
Sarakhsians 186, 269
Savirs (Sabirs) 11, 185
al-Sarirsee Savirs
Scythians 10, 101, 144, 161
Semit 278
Sir 78
Slaves 111, 214, 216
458
Sogdians 39, 51, 54, 57, 100, 121, 123, 124, 141, 145, 146, 156166, 172, 180, 181, 183185, 187, 188, 213, 215, 239241, 258, 259, 262, 263, 265, 267, 268, 279, 282, 284
Sogdssee Sogdians
Spaniards 111, 220
Sughd (Sogd)aqsee Sogdians
Syrians 111, 180, 181, 185, 189, 256, 266
T
Tadjiks 159
Taku 185
Tamim 113
Tangut 185
Tardush 78
Tatars 127
al-Tay (al-Tayy) 111, 245
Tele 78, 91, 174
Tibetans 48, 51
Tou-kuesee Türks
Tughuz-Ghuz 51, 53, 54, 105, 128, 160, 174, 184, 240, 241
Tukhars 143, 150, 158, 185
Tukhsi (Tukhs, Tukh) 112
Turs 36, 173
Turcae (Yurcae) 185
Turkash (Turgash (Turgesh)) 6, 184
Türks 1116, 18, 1928, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 4653, 5658, 67, 6975, 77, 7984, 8790, 9296, 99109, 111132, 134, 135, 137, 139147, 149151, 153169, 171185, 187190, 193197, 200, 202, 206, 207, 209, 214, 216, 218, 219, 223, 225, 228235, 237, 239242, 244246, 249, 253255, 258, 259, 262277, 279, 281284
Türk-Iranian 5
Turkmn (Turkmen) 25, 106, 154, 174, 177, 180, 183
Türk-Sogdians 47, 162, 177, 243, 261, 279, 283
Turkun 240
Tuvinians 28
459
U
Ugrians 172
Uigurs 28, 38, 46, 54, 69, 70, 105, 148, 169, 174, 175, 181, 184, 204, 213, 215, 216, 222, 240, 241, 243, 258, 259, 264, 265
Unash 29
Ural-Altaians 35
Usun (U-Shi) 23, 177
U-Shisee Usun
Ustrushanians 185
Uzbeks 26, 75, 99, 147, 153, 187, 284, 285
Y
Yabaqu 90
Yadjudj wa Madjudj 185
Yaghma 175
Yakut 263
Yan-Ti (Kushans) 22
Yue-Chji 139
Yurcaesee Turcae
460

Index of religions and religious communities
A
abadat al-niran 51
B
Batinism (Batinits) 134
Brahmanism (Brahmanists) 36, 43
Buddhism (Buddhists) 19, 28, 3641, 4353, 5662, 6570, 72, 73, 77, 86, 102, 103, 109, 148152, 156, 176, 187, 192, 222, 236, 241, 258, 260262, 264, 265, 281, 282
Burhanism (Burhanists) 36, 54
C
Christianity (Christians) 12, 13, 15, 20, 24, 28, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 56, 57, 5961, 64, 66, 67, 95, 156, 215, 241, 258, 260, 261, 265
D
Desi 51, 52
al-Din al-Abyad 54
al-Dinawari 51, 53, 55
Dinawarsee al-Dinawari
Dualism (Dualists) 51
G
Gabrakan 261
H
Hanafism (Hanafits) 130, 132, 134137
al-Hanafiyyasee Hanafism
Hanifs 45
Hinayana 47
I
Induism (Induists) 65
461
Islam (Muslims) 6, 9, 13, 1719, 22, 23, 2834, 43, 46, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 62, 64, 66 73, 7578, 84, 88, 89, 91, 92, 9497, 102106, 108111, 113137, 139, 143, 145, 162, 166, 167, 169, 182185, 188, 189, 192197, 201203, 205207, 209, 210, 212218, 220, 223, 225231, 235244, 246251, 253, 254, 256, 258262, 265274, 276284
Ismailism (Ismailits) 131, 133, 134, 135, 220
J
Judaism (Jews) 28, 6466, 222
K
Karramits 131
Khaldeys 45
Kharidjits 7, 136, 220
Khurramits 169, 198
al-Khuzaa 247
M
al-Madjus 51, 133, 239, 240
Mahayana 62, 222
Manichaeism (Manichaeists) 39, 40, 4554, 5661, 6770, 103, 156, 215, 239243, 261, 265, 279, 282, 283
Mazdaismsee Zoroastrianism
Mazdakism (Mazdakists) 12
Mughs (Mughan) 38, 57, 148
Muslimssee Islam
Mutazilism (Mutazilits) 131, 134
N
Nestorianism (Nestorians) 60, 112, 258, 260, 261, 266
Q
Qarmats 131, 220
S
Sabism (Sabians, al-Sabies) 45, 46, 53, 58, 60, 66, 67, 261
462
Shafiism (Shafiits) 136, 269
al-Shafiiyyasee Shafiits
Shamanism (shamanists) 23, 25, 35, 36, 47, 233
Shiism (Shiits) 73, 129138, 205, 206, 220, 221
Sufism (al-Sufies) 116, 136, 268, 271
Sunnism (Sunnits) 32, 69, 73, 79, 84, 130, 131, 133138, 205, 206
T
Tangrism (Tangrists) 23, 51, 129
Tantrism (Tantrists) 62, 65, 222
Taoism (Taoists) 66
Tinap 54
Totemism (totemists) 25, 175
V
Vardjayana 62, 222
W
Wakhi 261
Z
al-Zindiq 51, 53, 239
Zoroastrianism (Zoroastrians) 9, 12, 13, 28, 36, 37, 39, 4146, 4851, 57, 5961, 67, 69, 73, 108, 114, 117, 126, 132, 133, 135, 156, 165, 192, 237, 239, 240, 243, 247, 249, 258, 260, 261, 279, 283
463

Index of terms and untranslated words
A
-abad 165
abadat al-niran ala madhhab al-Madjus 51, 239
abd 124
Abhyaramudra 40, 59
al-adab 273
adanliγ 35
ahl 185
ahl al-kalam 186
al 73
lpw γγn ttwk 145, 146
lymxn ps 259
amal 213
amid al-mulk 191
amil (ummal) 93, 113, 204, 223
amir 32, 33, 6266, 6870, 76, 79, 92, 96, 101, 105110, 114, 126, 127, 131, 133, 137, 141, 171, 189, 191, 192, 199, 204, 207, 209, 215, 217226, 228, 232, 236, 237, 246, 250257, 269, 272, 275
nwšsee nwš
anushak-ruban 13
pgwl 85
aqtaa 194
Arabi 264
al-ard 191
Arghamak 177
ariyak (nariyak) 152
arkhar 177
arkuk 99
arquq kiši 98
arquqlan- (ma:k) 98
arslan 49, 175
464
al-Arud 245
al-ashab 168
ashab al-iqtaat 122
astadan 59
ašim čač 100
al-ayat 267
aydar 100
az har khana 16
B
baghpur (faghfur) 22
bahar (bihar) 40, 62, 148
balbal 56, 83, 100
ba luγat-i but-parastan 148
ba luγat-i mughan 148
b(a)q(e)šeb qiy(u)g(o)ηku 80
barah 272
barmuka 21
bashlyq 144
bay (pay, may) 153
bayghu 91
Bayt al-Hikma 13, 270
bg hutp 85
βγy γγn 95
βγy γγn pny 39, 144, 146
βrχr 148
bitik 155
Bolshevik 284
Brahmi 80
buγra 147, 175
al-buhar 38, 148, 151
bulla 219
buqa 151
buqaraq 151, 158
buqaraq ulus budun 140, 151
465
but-khana 55
but-parast 55
but-parast budand 54, 55
buxar (bukhar, buγar, buqar) 38, 147, 148, 151, 187, 282
buzurg-framadarsee vazurg-framadar
C
chakar 123, 124
chakra 65
Chini 264
chiragh-khana 261
chubin (chubine) 22, 25
cpγu γγn 78, 94
ččnk tdwn 94
čičak 112
D
dabir 256
dahma 43
dar al-ibada 131
dargah 189
Dari 33, 198, 251, 257
Darigbedum 10
al-Dariyya 243
darwaza 75
davgu (damgu) 89
al-dawla 70, 224, 228
-deh 165
dhayl 5
al-dia 191
al-din 224
dibadj 57
dihqan 12, 17, 31, 34, 55, 91, 105. 108, 119, 123125, 132, 137, 141, 169, 171, 191, 193195, 198, 200, 223, 239, 251, 253
al-din al-abyad 54
466
dinar 20, 210212, 225, 226, 250
dirham 33, 40, 55, 62, 79, 120, 143, 172, 181, 194, 205, 210212, 214, 226, 237, 256, 262
diwan 76, 114, 189191, 193, 209
djabbuya (djebu, djeb) 77
al-djami 93
djiba (djibachi) 78
al-djihad 120, 125, 166, 168
al-djizya 159, 192
doppi 163
drachma 13, 2022, 39, 48, 49, 79, 81, 85, 209, 210, 252, 262
drafsa 43
dulab 116
duwayra 115
E
el 25
F
faghfursee baghpur
fals 6266, 85, 181, 194, 209, 211, 212, 222, 223, 226, 262
al-faqih 17, 115, 250, 271
farkhar 149
farn 23
farsakh 11, 71, 213
Farsi 22, 98, 195, 237, 238, 242248, 251258, 262, 263, 266, 267, 272, 279, 280, 282
al-fiqh 116, 250, 252, 269
G
ganch 65, 68, 162
GDH pzwt 81, 85, 221
GDH pzwn zyk 80
gezit 192
al-ghazawat 125, 137
al-ghazi 119, 121123, 127, 137, 224
ghulam 93, 108, 109, 111, 113, 117, 123, 124, 154, 191, 196, 223, 225, 254, 275
467
γγn 95
γttwnh 146
γwβw 91
γwβw tdwn 145
H
al-Hadith 17, 18, 89, 116, 120, 122, 168, 234, 257, 261, 267, 269272, 275
al-hadjdj 126
al-hadjib 107, 154, 169, 171, 198, 200, 218, 224
al-hakim 191
al-hakim 126
Hindi 156
hu-data 91
hudjr 115
hum 40, 64, 68
hwδδ 91
I
ibadat al-awthan 44
idgah 75
al-imam 55, 96, 120, 126, 135, 206, 227
imarat 220
al-insha 191
išin 100
al-iqta 118, 121, 193, 194
K
kaab 163
kadar 95
kah 99
kahkül (kekil, kökül) 100
käjägä (kijägä) 100
kakuldar 99
-kal (-gal) 154
468
kam (qam, xam, γam, sam, šam) 35
-kand 154
kara (qara) 49, 147, 153
karga (kargha) 22, 26
al-katib 272, 273
katib al-kuttab 191
kauri 215
ked 67
khadim 124
khanaqah 53
al-kharadj 11, 119, 192
kharag 192
Kharoshti 41, 62, 85
al-khatib 108, 123
Khatt-i Yabgu 264
khazinadar 191
khuda (khuday) 249
al-khutba 204206, 208, 209, 229
al-kitab 271
kiya 169, 198
koumis 181
kuk I 99
kuk II 155
kulagh 22
kun 167
kunya 219
kurak 167
kurgan 67, 155, 175, 177
kurgunsee karga
al-kuttab 256
L
la ilaha illa-llah wahdahu wa la sharika lahu Muhammadun Rasul Allah 221
lahum khadirat al-Turk 141, 183
laqab 219, 224
469
lashkargah 61
lingua franca 33, 237, 238, 246
M
maabid-i išan ke mawze-i butan 148
al-madhhab 17, 134
al-madina 37
madjma-i ilm 148
madrasah 131, 134, 206, 235, 236, 242
al-malik 18, 91, 141, 171, 200, 220, 223
al-mamlaka 170, 199
mamluk 111, 123, 124, 180, 196, 254, 272, 276, 278
mandala (mandal) 6264, 6668, 85, 222
al-manshur 208
markos (marka) 173
martpat 41
mstč 29
mawla 32, 113115, 121, 123, 124, 166, 217, 238, 244, 247
mawlana 217
mχ 55
mithqal 54
močak (mwčk) 53
al-muadhdhin 55
al-muayyid 221
al-muhtasib 191
al-mulk 29, 193, 220, 228
al-muluk 141, 220, 223
murgh-i abi 25
murgh-i daryai 25
al-musalla 40
musalla-i djadid 75
musalla-i qadim 75
al-mushrifun 191
al-mustawfi 191
al-mutawwiun 122
470
N
Nachklang 130
al-nadim 112, 273
nadjmat 65
namazgah 40
naqib 114
nar 147
naskh 252
naus 60
nava sangharama 44
nisba 17, 18, 41, 71, 115, 122, 170, 199, 244, 261, 269, 270, 272, 273
nwš (nawš, nwš) 28
O
oküz 175
ongon 175
örma sač 100
örüg 100
örüg sač 100
ossuarium 5961, 174
otuz oγlan 70
P
Pahlavi 9, 13, 15, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 32, 36, 4143, 49, 76, 7982, 84, 85, 95, 98, 120, 180, 188, 191, 241242, 247249, 251, 256, 264, 266
Parsi 243, 264
py 146
pqr 147
pur 22
pwγr (pwxr, pwqr) 148, 151
puγar (puxar, puqar)see pwγr
pukhar (pukhyr) 148
471
Q
qabr-i pisar-i padishah-i Khita 148
al-qadi 126, 191, 227, 228
qarasee kara
qara-čor 49
al-qasida 241, 271
qasr min sukkan al-madjus 133
qayraq 257
qishlaq 26, 35, 101, 177, 232, 259261
al-qita 186
qoylaγi 173
qul 167
R
rabad 75, 102, 186, 269
Rabi al-Awwal 122
rahib 41, 261
rakat 169
rais 191
Ramadan 207
ramaka 129
ras 167, 191
ribat 116, 121, 122, 126, 129, 154
rubai 241, 254
rustaq 39, 70, 71, 74, 141, 154, 170, 179, 191, 199, 223, 258
S
sahib al-barid 191
sahib al-shurta (sahib al-shurat) 191, 219
sahman 36
saman I 35, 73
saman II 35, 99
samani 35
al-samaniyya 47
sandjar 40, 44
472
sandjaristan 44
sangharama 41, 73
Sanskrit 36
saqi 167
sarhang 170
Sart 284
sawa (šawa) 37, 49, 149
sdq pqrq 140, 151
sel/selem 78
shah 249
al-shahid 125
shahr-i birun 75
shahristan 37, 75, 76, 148
shaman 23, 35, 36
al-Sharia 203
shawasee sawa
Shawwal 7, 122
al-shaykh 126
shir 49
shuub 110, 274
Shuubits 111
Shuubismsee al-Shuubiyya
al-Shuubiyya 110, 112, 115118, 130, 137, 186, 192, 234, 235, 238, 243, 244, 246, 260, 274, 280, 281, 284
sikka 120
stcr γwβw 94
stcr tdwn 94
stcry 40, 53
stuppa 39, 73
su barkuti 25
sudaršana 40, 52
sufa 261
al-sufi 272
Sughdi 264
al-sura 209
473
suturšan 40, 52
syava 49
šawasee sawa
šw 49
šramana (šamana) 36
T
al-Tafsir 116, 267, 269
tamgha 39, 41, 42, 94, 143145, 162, 174, 175, 241, 261, 263
Tamil 156
al-taq 186
taraku al-Turk ma taraku-kum 120, 168
taraz 120
Tarpan 173
tassudj 191
tawshandjil 25
temir qapiγ 159
tinap 54
Tinsi Oγly 51
tiš 53
titir 147
tuγ 142
tulum 100
tuman 26, 176
turagh 154
türk sir bodum jeri 77
twγr γwβ 143, 150
twrk γwβ 145
twn cpγw γγn 95
U
uaiδi 155
al-udaba 256
al-ulama 76, 130, 131, 133, 135, 228, 238, 256
ulus 151
474
ummalsee amil
ushtab 39, 73
ut 239
uyuq 174
V
vaγnpat 239
Vairapani 60
vazurg-framadar 190
vihara 43, 44, 147, 148, 151
W
al-wala 109
al-wali 189, 204, 219, 228
wali al-ahd 204
al-waqf 40, 67, 102, 154, 191
al-warraq 273
wasif 124
al-wazir 9, 13, 18, 76, 89, 112, 115, 117, 118, 120, 189191, 206, 216, 217, 225, 227, 228, 250, 251, 255, 256, 266, 270, 272, 273
wilayat (vilayet) 26
wnš 29
wrδw γllč 145
X
xalač 150
xatim 65
Y
yabbu (yabu) 77, 90
yabγu (yapγu, yapgu, ybqoy) 89
yabγu bahlikano (ybgw bhlkn) 42, 75, 85
yap 89, 90
yavuga 89
yeb (djeb) 42, 76, 77, 81
475
yepkhou 90
Ymg 89
yurta 67
Z
al-zagh (zaghan) 22, 24
al-zahid 126
al-zidj 240
zik hhn GDH 240
476

Index of source titles
A
Abd Allah-Nama 7
dab al-Wazir 190
djaib Skistan 247
al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya wa-l-wilayat (vilayet) al-Diniyya 205
Ahsan al-Taqasim ila Marifat al-Aqalim 6
Andarz-Nama 252, 253
al-nsab 6, 267
Ardjang 57, 62
Asahh at-Tawarikh 92
al-Athar al-Baqiya ani-l-Qurun al-Khaliya 5
Avesta 45, 91, 249
B
Bahr al-Asrar fi Manaqib al-Akhyar 6
Bahram Choben-Namak 24
Bey-Shi 59, 140, 145
Bible 277
Bulghat al-Mushtaq fi-l-Lughat at-Turk w Qifdjaq 277
The Book of Cry 265
The Book of Sindbad 251
The Book of Songs 265
C
Chahar Maqala 5
Codex Comanicus 277
D
Diwan al-Adab fi-Bayan-Lughat al-Arab w Mizan Kalam al-Arab 274
Diwan-i Hikmat 277
Diwan Lughat al-Turk 265, 271, 274, 275
Diwan Sayf-i Srayi 278
477
Diwan al-Zamakhshari 272
Djami al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Quran 251
al-Djami al-Saghir 257
Djami al-Tawarikh 87, 88
Djawami al-Ulum 255
Durar at-Tidjan wa Tawarikh Ghurar al-Zaman 13, 111, 266
al-Durrat al-Mudiyya fi-l-Lughat al-Turkiyya 277
F
Fadail-i Balkh 5, 75
al-Fihrist 273
G
Ghurar Akhbar Muluk al-Fars 252
Gulistan bi-t-Turki 278
H
Habib al-Siyar 6
Hibat al-Haqaiq 266, 267, 274
Huastuanift 265
Hudud al-Alam 5, 251, 255
Hukama wa Qudat Misr 118
I
Irq Bitig 265
Irshad al-Muluk wa-l-Salatin 277, 278
Irshad al-Talibin 275
K
Kabus-Nama 189
lam fi-l-Shir wa-l-Qawafi 271
lila and Dimna 189, 250, 253
al-Kamil fi-l-Tarikh 5
Khuday-Nama 249
Khulasa 277
478
Khusraw and Shirin 278
itab Baytarat al-Wasil 278
Kitab al-Buldan 5
Kitab al-Dhakhair wa-l-Tuhaf 5
itab al-Idrak li-lisan al-Atrak 276
Kitab al-Kharadj 5
Kitab Khulyat al-Insan w Hilbat al-Lisan 276
itab fi-l-Lughat 271
itab al-Shatrandj 273, 274
Kitab Tardjuman-i Turki w Arabi 276
Kitab Tardjuman-i Turki, Adjami, Mughuli w Farisi 276
Kitab al-Tuhfat al-Zakiyya fi-l-Lughat al-Turkiyya 277
itab al-Wuzara wa-l-Kuttab 191
Koran 251, 256, 267, 275, 277
L
al-Lubab fi Tadhhib al-Ansab 5
Lubb al-Albab 5
M
djma al-Fusaa 254
Madjmua 87, 88
qamat 251
qamat al-Zamakhshari 272
al-Masadir fi-l-Lugha 274
Masalik al-Mamalik 5
tkdn-i Khazar Datastan 247
Mawlud-i Zardusht 247
iftah al-Adl 278
Miradj-Nama 276, 278
Mirat al-Adwar wa Marhat al-Aghyar 6, 88
udjalladat 251
Mudjam al-Buldan 5
unyat al-Ghuzat 278
uqaddimat al-Adab 277
479
uhabbat-Nama 276, 278
uin al-Murid 278N
Nahdj al-Faradis 278
Nasihat al-Muluk 207
al-Nudjum al-Zahira 6
O
Oguz-Nama 6, 12, 13, 87, 88, 111, 112, 266, 276
Q
al-Qnd fi Dhikr Ulama Samarqand (Samarkand) 5
al-Qasida al-Baudhiyya w Ukhra fi Masail al-Ghazzali 272
Qissa Yusuf w Zulayha 277
Qwanin al-Dawawin w Siyasat al-Malik 190
al-Qawanin al-Kulliyya 277
Qisas al-Anbiya 278
Qutadghu Bilig 124, 207, 253, 265, 266, 275, 276
R
Rahat al-Sudur w Ayat al-Surur 252
Rawdat al-Safa 5
Risala fi Manaqib al-Atrak wa Amamat Djunud al-Khilafa 118
S
Sadiya 96, 97, 102
Saldjuq-Nama 252
Shah-Nama 24, 33, 47, 57, 176, 249, 250, 253, 255. 277
Shahristanha-i Iranshahr 247
Sharh Abyat Kitab Sibawayh 272
Siyasat-Nama 5, 189, 248, 252
Surat al-Ard 5
Suy-Shu 52, 58, 59, 146
480
T
djarib l-Umam 5
al-Tafhim li Awail Sinat al-Tandjim 251
al-fsir 255, 267
Tarikh Al-i Saman 5
Tarikh-i Bukhara 5, 252
Tarikh-i Guzida 6
Tarikh-i Masud 5, 248, 252
Tarikh Muluk al-djam 249
Tarikh Murudj al-Dhahab wa Maadin l-Djawhar 5
Tarikh al-Rusul wa-l-Muluk 5, 251
Tarikh-i Tabari 5, 16
Tarikh al-Yamini 6, 248
ibyan al-Lughat at-Turki la Lisan al-Qanghly 277
Tou-kiue-Iuy 265
uhfat al-Umara fi Trikh al-Wuzara 191
uhfat al-Wuzara 191
W
Waqf (Nasab)-Nama of Ismail ibn Ahmad al-Samani 6
Z
Zafar-Nama 153
Zaravah 57
Zardusht-Nama 247
Zayn al-Akhbar 5, 204, 248, 252
Zubdat al-Tawarikh 248
 
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3/1/2015
@Mail.ru θδğñŋɣşšçčāáäææēəð  ï ı öōüūû Türkic ~ Türkic Türkic – confined Persian