Classification of Türkic languages
IE, Arians, Dravidian, and Rigveda
Scythian Ethnic Affiliation
Foundation of the Scythian-Iranian theory
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek
Corded Culture and Craniology
Races of Europe
Carleton Stevens Coon, Harvard University Assistant Professor of Anthropology
New York, The Macmillan Company, 1939
Abstracts related to the
Below follow the excerpts from the book "The Races of Europe" that traced osteological (aka physical anthropological, craniological, osteometrical) history of a branch of the mankind. The author's terminology and some notions of the 80+-years old publication are obsolete, the main subject term in the book is "White man race", which in today's language is equivalent to "Caucasoid", and the word "race" in modern scientific literature was replaced by derivatives of "morphology". Some spellings and terminology are distinctly archaic. Uzbegs are Uzbeks, Turkomans are Turkmens, etc. No doubt the language can be updated, references improved, series expanded, resolution improved, and statistics differentiated and substantiated, but the fundamental facts and observations stay unchallenged. The much later DNA studies indicate a mechanism, that created the observed osteological facts, on the level of micro- and macro-analysis, converging on the picture the author built of scattered specks connecting the dots to create a conceptual depiction. The instrumented dating methods developed later would considerably disambiguate the relative periodization of the author's time, but from a conceptual aspect they would mostly amount to a fine-tuning, without affecting major premises or conclusions. And the later archeological finds neatly fall in the general evolutionary picture drawn by the old bones recited in this book.
Some of C. S. Coon findings and conclusions were anathema during his lifetime, and some still remain anathema in our time, some against all evidence and accumulated knowledge, the others for PC reasons (see Carleton S. Coon link). Of interest to the Turkic history is the observation that Altaic people stem from the same anthropological trunk which generated IE peoples, that Corded Ware Culture was a European branch of the Altaic trunk, that the Turkic linguistical influences in the IE languages ensue from the admixture or influence of the Corded Ware peoples, and that Germanic people are such an oddball variety of the IE bouquet in part because of their proximity to the Altaic peoples. From the linguistic angle, the craniological evidence is convergent with the linguistics-based Mario Alinei "Paleolithic Continuity Theory". Another aspect of interest is the connection of Sumerian and Altaic people from the historical craniology studies, addressed in the C. S. Coon work.
This posting of related extractions has some minor enhancements and simplified conventional explanations for non-conventional specialized lexicon. Please do not be surprised by many simplistic explanations of the specialized terms, and leading pointers given in blue. Translator's comments are in italic blue. In a few cases for simplicity and compatibility with generally used fonts, diacritic letters are replaced with common English letters. Both C. S. Coon and Mario Alinei refer to Gordon Childe 1925 compound chart, displayed below with complimentary Lichardus & Lichardus 1985 compound chart, both color-enhanced to reflect C. S. Coon and Mario Alinei conclusions, to ease with following the author's work.
of the forms of reproductive)
selection is intimately concerned with the complexity of the social
structure. When a population is stratified into social horizons,
this cultural differentiation is often the result of the
conjunction of two or more social and hence ethnic groups, from two
or more geographical sources. It takes time for cultures to blend
and for people who practice these cultures to mix, and if there
exists, at the same time, the idea that one group is superordinate
and the other subordinate in social values, the social mechanism
will often function in such a way as to perpetuate this cleavage.
Thus the mixing process will be retarded, and at the same time a
difference in the reproductive rates of the two Facially identified
social horizons may arise.
As a rule, at least in
modern times, the group which is considered subordinate will
reproduce with greater fecundity than will the superior class. In
this way the upper class will gradually disappear, or else social
mobility will gradually replace the upper from the ranks of the
lower, and the social distinction will remain, but without racial
significance. Thus a differential reproductive rate has, in effect,
a selective value, and one population may quietly replace another.
Whether or not the replacement is complete, the relative numerical
importance of the two genetic strains will have been altered.
So far we have been considering
selection within a geographically immobile group, or rather,
selection at the geographical point under consideration. But there
is still another type of selection which is very important, and
that is mobile selection, operating at the point of emigration, the
source of population supply. We shall see, in our survey of
prehistoric European racial movements, 8
that the Danubian agriculturalists of the Early Neolithic brought a
food producing economy into central Europe from the East. They
perpetuated in the new European setting a physical type which was
later supplanted in their original home. Several centuries later
the Corded people, in the same way, came from southern Russia
(i.e. Ukraine) but there we first find
them intermingled with other peoples, and the cultural factors
which we think of as distinctively Corded are included in a larger
cultural equipment. The Corded people, therefore, who left southern
Russia (i.e. Ukraine) and moved
westward into central and northwestern Europe, were a selected
group of people, chosen from a larger and more heterogeneous human
storehouse. This situation clearly involves the principle that
people who migrate from an old home to a new do not represent, in
most cases, the total or typical physical form of the home land,
provided that the new home is different from the old; but they
represent a special group selected on the basis of their
suitability and opportunity for migrating. This principle can be
clearly seen in the study of modern migrating peoples.
Selective differences in emigration and immigration exist in the
cultural as well as in the racial sense. The Corded invaders who
moved westward into Europe did not carry all the trappings of Asiatic
and south Russian (i.e. Ukraine) culture
with them; they took only those objects which they would find useful
in their new environment, and easy to replace from local materials.
CHAPTER IV. THE NEOLITHIC INVASIONS pp. 78-130
(2) THE NEOLITHIC AND THE MEDITERRANEAN RACE pp. 82-86
First nomadic spread to Europe
...These three (above discussed) movements were the primary
invasions which brought a new, agricultural population into Europe.
Later in the Neolithic there were two other movements of a different
character. One was that of the Megalith builders, who sailed through
the Straits of Gibraltar and skirted the western shores of Europe to
the British Isles and Scandinavia. These seafarers probably
introduced the new economy to the northern isles and Scandinavia.
Then there were the Corded people, so-called on account of the
decoration on their pottery, who came from some mysterious point in
(i.e. Ukraine) or the steppes of western Asia north of the
and who were probably less dependent on farming than on pastoral
nomadism and trade. Just as the Megalithic people carried
civilization to the far western corners of Europe by sea, so the
Corded people introduced the new enlightenment into the north, where
the old hunting and fishing life survived.
Osteological Description and Terminology
(4) Corded: Tall stature, means 167-174 cm.; build linear but muscular, perhaps heavier than the Megalithic; extremely longheaded, 194 mm. mean. Vault of great height, means over 140 mm., exceeding breadth; browridges and muscular markings medium to strong; face very long, and of slight to moderate breadth; mandible deep and chin marked, but narrow through gonial angles. Nose leptorrhine (long narrow nose - Translator's Note), often prominent. (Profile of the skull as seen from above usually takes a form of a long oval with almost parallel sides, which is the Corded type, p. 163 - Translator's Note) This type, in western and northern Europe, approaches in some respects the Upper Paleolithic type with which it mixed.
(5) (Afghanian:) ...A small variety found in Asia Minor Cappadocia, while a larger form commoner farther east, and metrically close to the Corded, may be called Afghanian.
The names given the racial divisions outlined above have been chosen
with the intention of avoiding close reference to living races, since
they are based on the skeleton alone. Mediterranean forms an
exception; it is so well known and firmly established that it cannot
be changed. In this particular case, we may be reasonably sure of the
character of the soft parts, owing to the antiquity of accurate
realistic portraiture in Egypt, Crete, and Mesopotamia, as well as to
The names Danubian, Megalithic, and Corded, have been deliberately
taken from archaeology since, as will be shown, the types so
designated were closely linked, during the Neolithic and even later,
to the cultural entities with which they are thus identified.
Emergence and ancestry
The second type, commonest in Late Neolithic cemeteries of the Kiev government, is of the tall (stature = 171-172 cm.), hyperdolichocephalic variety, usually leptorrhine and highvaulted, which we have called "Corded". Crania of this variety are actually few in number, and probably Late Neolithic in date. Metrically, Corded skulls resemble the earliest Sumerian skulls at el Ubaid.
Sergi, on a visit to Moscow some thirty years ago, measured over seventy male "Kurgan" crania from southern Russia, dating from all periods from the Neolithic to the pre-Christian Iron Age. These, selected as "Mediterraneans," 45 conform to the two types mentioned above. The main group, the smaller variety, fits our "Danubian" type, the larger, the "Corded." In general, the metrical deviation of the total group from Mesopotamian figures is not great.
The result of this south Russian (i.e. Ukraine) inquiry leads to several cumulative if tentative conclusions:
(1) During the Neolithic, all known avenues of approach to Europe, from Gibraltar to the southern limit of the Russian forest, show only variants of Mediterranean or Galley Hill man. The Neolithic culture with its food producing economy, and the Mediterranean race, are, as Sergi said, inseparably linked.
(2) The special "Mediterranean" form, which had apparently brought agriculture to the countries north of the Iranian plateau and Black Sea, was not unlike others found in more southerly regions in which Old World agriculture is supposed to have originated.
(3) The tall, hyperdolichocephalic highvaulted variant of the basic
Galley Hill stock, elsewhere to appear as the Corded people, was
present, at least by the Late Neolithic, in southern Russia
(9) THE CORDED OR BATTLE AXE PEOPLE pp. 107-109
The latter part of the Neolithic period in most of north central Europe is marked by the appearance of an enigmatical group of people, who decorated their pottery, while still wet, with cord impressions, and who also placed in their graves perforated stone battleaxes suspiciously like those of the Fatiyanovo culture in southern Russia (i.e. Ukraine), and other named cultures in the Caucasus. These axes, again, have copper parallels in Sumeria. The limits of the country overrun by the Corded people are the Vosges (mountain range in France) on the west, the Urals on the east, the Baltic on the north, and the Dinaric Alps on the south. 49 Although these invaders were partly agricultural, their graves contain weapons rather than hoes, and, in a few cases, bones of horses, probably of a domestic variety.
Their role in the economic and political picture of Neolithic Europe
remains still in doubt. Although they were equipped for warfare, they
did not fight for the love of battle alone. The location of their
burying grounds near the sources of natural wealth, such as amber,
salt, and later of tin, shows that they were interested in easily
traded commodities of small bulk but high value. They may have been
Neolithic racketeers extorting their share from the drones, or
overlords among peasants, or merely industrious and well armed
peddlers. Whatever their calling, whether peaceful or otherwise, they
were destined to influence the later cultures of Europe in
The most typical aggregation of Corded skulls comes from Silesia and Bohemia, whence a series of twenty nine males may be assembled. 50 (See Appendix I, col. 12.) These belong to a very definite, very distinct physical type. The length of the vault is great, well over 190 mm. in most instances; its breadth is slight, yielding the low mean cranial index of 71; and the height is great, considerably exceeding the breadth. Combined with this exaggeratedly long, narrow, and high vault form is usually found a high, relatively steep forehead; stronger browridges and muscular markings than are usual with the Mediterranean types familiar to us in Egypt, Spain, and the Danube; while the face form includes compressed zygomata, low orbits, and a leptorrhine nose. The face heights are probably great, and the mandible is deep and strongly marked, although usually narrow. Unfortunately, in this series, these facial descriptions are much less certain than those of the vault, for few of the crania retain their facial segments. The long bones are heavier and more rugged than those of the smaller Mediterranean varieties, but the stature, ranging between 157 and 170 cm. in ten male examples, reaches the unimpressive mean of 164 cm. In other Corded series, as we shall see later, it is almost always tall.
The Corded crania are larger than any from Egypt, and are metrically very similar to the Elmenteita skulls from East Africa, the two groups could be combined without loss of homogeneity. In Mesopotamia, they may be favorably compared with the three early dynastic skulls from Ur, although they are higher vaulted than the other early groups.
There has been much discussion over the origin of the Corded people, and many cradle areas have been proposed. Childe, despite several objections which he himself raises, prefers to derive them from southern Russia (i.e. Ukraine), where the typical cultural elements of the Corded people are found mixed with other factors. The so-called boat-axe, the typical battleaxe form which they used, has relatives all the way to the Caucasus and beyond. And the horse, their use of which in the domestic form is not fully confirmed, since the grave examples might conceivably have been wild ones, was first tamed in Asia or in southern Russia (i.e. Ukraine).
On the basis of the physical evidence as well, it is likely that the Corded people came from somewhere north or east of the Black Sea. The fully Neolithic crania from southern Russia (i.e. Ukraine) which we have just studied include such a type, also seen in the midst of Sergi's Kurgan aggregation. Until better evidence is produced from elsewhere, we are entitled to consider southern Russia (i.e. Ukraine) the most likely way station from which the Corded people moved westward.
There is one cautionary remark which must be made here, and that is: there is so far no justifiable reason for assuming that the Corded people were Nordics. Their cranial type, as we know it, does approach one or more of the forms which we know, in later times, to have been associated with blondism; but it also approaches those of the Iranian plateau and of Ur, which were probably brunet. Let us withhold judgment, therefore, upon Corded soft parts and pigmentation, and view these remains in the more scientific but less lively light of a skeletal type.
49 Childe, V. G., The Danube in Prehistory, pp, 145160.
This Corded skeletal type is familiar also in Poland, where it is found in the graves of its associated culture; but that country also contains the more usual Danubian type, associated with a Neolithic agricultural economy, and a certain number of brachycephalic and other crania, which have northern affiliations, and which will therefore be dealt with later. 51
In southern and western Germany remains of the Corded people are again found, and in comparative abundance. In Saxony and Thuringia they flourished especially, and apparently were more stable here than farther east. Out of ten crania which belong to the Saxo-Thuringian Corded culture, 62 four of the seven which can be measured are mesocephalic, and only three dolichocephalic. In the eastern Corded group, the highest index was 75. The three dolichocephals seem to have belonged to the usual type (of Corded group).
The statures of two of them were both 168 cm. The rest of the crania (the other four), as far as one can tell, are normal Neolithic Mediterranean examples, which might have had either a Danubian or a North African derivation, or both. The Corded people in the west and south of Germany had settled down, and had combined with Neolithic farmers.
Before we leave this section, let us move still farther west to Baden, to the Early Neolithic cemetery of Altenburg. 53 Here, in the center of one of the most brachycephalic regions of Europe today, were buried four male skeletons, the crania of which ranged from 65 to 71 in cranial indices, and two female skulls of 77. The long bones are small, the statures short; the skulls are delicate in appearance and purely Mediterranean but remarkable for the narrow vault form of the males. Six other Neolithic male crania, from Worms, are similar. 54 This evidence, while not complete, at least shows that the Corded people, in southern and southwestern Germany, were preceded by an agricultural population of the smaller Mediterranean variety, upon which they superimposed themselves.
51 Lcncewicz, Stanislaw, Swiatowit, vol. 10, 1912, pp. 53-64.
Corded and Long Barrows
The bulk of the Neolithic population of the British Isles seems to have come by sea, 56 with the Megalithic invasions which also passed on to Denmark and southern Sweden. In many parts of Scotland and in Ireland, the Megalithic people may well have been the first bringers of the Neolithic economy. In England, it was their custom to make primary interments under long barrows of earth, unchambered in Yorkshire and Derbyshire, chambered in the counties farther south.
The cranial remains of Long Barrow men, as the occupants of these monuments are called, are abundant. 57 (See Appendix I, col. 13.) Although over 160 skulls represent this group, the geographical distribution is far from even. Wiltshire, Staffordshire, and Gloucestershire account for 120; fourteen only are from Scotland, and one from Ireland. The remaining thirty come from a few counties of England. Wales is unrepresented as is most of Scotland; the few crania found in the latter country were all buried close to the sea. The Long Barrow people, who had come by water, selected open, unforested country to live in. A large .part of the land area in the British Isles was, therefore, either uninhabited or open to the wanderings of earlier human occupants.
The Long Barrow population formed a distinct, homogeneous type; a type different from any which, to our knowledge, had previously inhabited the British Isles since the days of Galley Hill; and one which cannot be duplicated, except as an element in a mixed population, anywhere on the western European continent. One is, therefore, led to conclude that the Megalithic cult was not merely a complex of burial rites which diffused without visible carriers; and also that the bearers of this complex avoided mixture by coming by sea.
56 Childe, who read Chapters II to VII in manuscript before revision,
comments at this point: "I find it hard to believe that the bulk of
the British population came by sea. The Windmill Hill culture is
predominant in the megalithic tombs, but arose earlier." While Childe
is undoubtedly correct as to the importance of the Windmill Hill
people culturally, there is little evidence of them in a physical
sense. This apparent contradiction cannot be explained on the basis
of present data. The fact that small Mediterraneans do appear in the
living British population (see Chapter X) indicates that Childe's
observation may be well founded.
In stature and bodily build, the Megalithic people belong to a large variety of Mediterranean. The stature for a large number of males 58 from England ranges about a mean of 167 or 168 cm.; which is not controverted by the meager evidence from Scotland and Ireland. Four male skeletons from a single burial in Kent 59 may represent, more nearly than most, the Windmill Hill group; they are somewhat shorter than the rest.
The Long Barrow skulls are large for a Mediterranean sub-race, but not as large as those of the Upper Paleolithic peoples. They are particularly long, moderately narrow, and of medium height. Unlike that of the Corded skulls, the height is less than the breadth. In most instances, the occiput projects far to the rear; the parietals are parallel; the forehead is moderately sloping, and, in contrast to the restricted skull width, very straight and broad.
The face is of medium length and of moderate width; the orbits are of medium dimensions, and in many instances slope downward and outward, as if the confines of the face were too narrow for them. The nasion (nose bridge - Translator's Note) depression is of medium depth, underbrowridges of medium development; and the straight profiled nose is leptorrhine. In its totality, the Long Barrow type is both extreme and striking.
In looking for related populations of equal age, we may eliminate at once the smaller, less dolichocephalic branches of the Mediterranean race proper, including the Danubian. A few individual crania in Neolithic Spain and Italy would qualify, but none of the series from these countries. The standard Egyptian crania, as groups, are all too small, as is the single lady from Greece. In one particular feature, the nasal index, the Long Barrow people resemble the Egyptians more than most of the more northerly Mediterraneans, for the Long Barrow crania are leptorrhine.
In their extreme dolichocephaly, the Long Barrow skulls resemble the Corded group, but the comparison does not hold for all features. The Long Barrow skulls are slightly longer, considerably broader, and much wider of forehead, than the Corded specimens, and, of course, the vault of the Long Barrow skulls is much lower. 60 As far as one can tell, the orbits in the two series are much the same, while in regard to the faces, there is not enough evidence in the Corded group for a valid comparison.
58 Calculated by the Pearson formulae on femora from several series,
including some eighty six individuals from England, of which many may
be duplicates; three from Scotland, and one from Ireland. Sources:
Crania, Britanica; Thurman, J.; Garson, J. G.; Mortimer, J. R.; Keith
and Bennett; Edwards, A. J. H. and Low, A.; Laing, S., and Huxley, T.
H.; and Bryce.
A true and valid similarity, however, may be found between the English Long Barrow series and the early skulls from al Ubaid in Sumeria, which, whether belonging to the fourth or third millennium B.C., are in either case older than their British counterparts. The only difference, which prevents identity, is that the Mesopotamian faces and noses are somewhat longer.
The current idea that the Long Barrow people were directly derived from the Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Britain is clearly erroneous. The Long Barrow skulls are definitely smaller, shorter, and narrower than those of the Upper Paleolithic group, but of equal or greater height; they have the same forehead breadth, the same upper face height, but a smaller jaw, a much narrower face, and narrower orbits. There is probably a genetic linkage, over a long period of time, between the Long Barrow or Megalithic type and an early Galley Hill or Combe-Capelle variety of European man, but the continuity could not, for historical reasons, have taken place in England.
The few crania from the Scottish seashores belong to the standard Long Barrow type, and the same may be said of the one surely Neolithic specimen from Ireland, the male vault from Stoney island, Portumna, County Galway. 61 The male skull from Ringabella, County Cork, 62 which is perhaps also Neolithic, is likewise of Megalithic race, while the disputed Kilgreany specimen, whatever its age, is, although low vaulted, also basically of a Galley Hill Mediterranean type. 63 However, the large mandible of the latter, and its low vault, make it atypical, so that it, like two skulls from Phoenix Park, Dublin, 64 which may be Neolithic or Early Bronze Age, is not wholly characteristic of the Long Barrow race, and may derive its peculiarities from either a Mesolithic or an Early Bronze Age source. We must repeat, in view of these aberrances, that the only surely Neolithic skull in Ireland is of Long Barrow race.
61 Martin, G. P., JSAI, vol. 64, June, 1934, pp. 87-89., Movius, H.
L., Jr., op. cit. 9 vol. 65, Dec., 1935, p. 282. For dating by
palaeobotany, see Shea, S., JGAS, vol. 15, 1931, pp. 73 ff., White,
Miss J. M., INF, vol. 3, 1934, pp. 270-274.
The Megalithic Long Barrow people must have come by sea, and they probably came from somewhere in the Mediterranean. They did not find the British Isles uninhabited, and their homogeneity, in a few restricted localities, cannot mean that they caused the extinction of earlier peoples. Nor did they, when still later invasions of another physical complex reached the British Isles, become extinct. 65 The mountains of Wales, the hills of Cornwall and Devon, and almost the whole of Ireland, remain a blank in our early skeletal map of the British Isles.
65 As suggested by Hooke, Beatrix, G. E., and Morant, G. M., in their article: Biometrika, vol. 18, 1926, pp. 99-104.
(11) WESTERN EUROPE AND THE ALPINE RACE
By this time we have studied all of the approaches by which Neolithic food producers invaded Europe, and have seen that in all known cases these immigrants belonged to some branch of the Galley Hill stock or wider Mediterranean race. We now come to the portions of Europe in which the Mesolithic cultural tradition had a strong survival as a blend into the Neolithic economy, or as an absolute continuation. These portions may be divided into three general groupings:
(1) Western Europe that is, Switzerland, France, and Belgium;
It is with the first of these that we are immediately concerned.
Commencing with Switzerland, we find, in the so-called Lake Dwelling culture of the Neolithic, a blending of the old with the new. The early Lake Dwelling culture of western Switzerland, centered about Lake Neufchatel, consists of the grafting of North African Neolithic agriculture upon a local Mesolithic base, while that of eastern Switzerland represents the same phenomenon to which a Danubian element may later have been added. Toward the end of the Neolithic period, just before the introduction of metal, the Corded people invaded Switzerland from the north, and at this time local, sectional differences were to some extent ironed out. 66
66 Childe, The Danube in Prehistory, p. 186.
(In southcentral France were at least two types present, a long and a round one) ...The longheaded type or types belong clearly to the Mediterranean category. Although most series include brachycephalic crania, a few are purely long headed. Some of them, such as the series from L'Homme Mort and Lozre 74 (see Appendix I, col. 15), are low dolichocephals, with means of 72; these approach but do not quite approximate the British Long Barrow (Kurgan) standards of size. The skulls from the corridor tomb of Vaudancourt, Oise, are of full Long Barrow (Kurgan) size, and the stature of the skeletons is tall. Thus there was, apparently, here and there, a tall, large, and very long headed element in the French Neolithic, related to that which predominated in the British Isles. It was rarely, however, pure.
...In certain definite ways, the longheaded crania of the French Neolithic, as a whole, show a western affiliation: the vaults are wider than they are high, and the noses are leptorrhine or low mesorrhine (moderate nose - Translator's Note). In these respects they differ from the Danubians, as well as in size; and in the vault form, they differ from the Corded group. These peculiarities further strengthen the similarity between the longer and larger examples, and the British Long Barrow (Kurgan) type. We may conclude from this that most of the Mediterranean racial element in France came from North Africa and the Mediterranean, and little from central and eastern Europe.
74 Unpublished measurements by Mrs. Ruth Sawtelle Wallis.
(The Neolithic Belgians were high variability. 79) ...
79 Range = 72-88, or Long Barrow (Kurgan), in Menorca, are said to have represented a homogeneous group of people with short stature, longheads (all cranial indices being under 75), low faces, prominent, aquiline noses, and projecting chins. The form of the scapulae and humeri of the males showed that they had developed great shoulder and arm muscles from slinging, the activity from which the islands derived their name. Three other skulls from an ossuary at Biniatap are brachycephalic.
(Belgian) ...Many of the dolichocephalic Copper Age skulls are of Megalithic or Long Barrow (Kurgan) type, while others are of a smaller, less rugged, Mesolithic or Neolithic Mediterranean variety. Among the mesocephalic crania, some may again be small Mediterraneans, while others, with larger vault dimensions, may in many instances be mixtures between Megalithic and brachycephalic types. The statures of the large dolichocephalic group average about 167 or 168 cm.; taller than most living Spaniards and as tall as the Neolithic Long Barrow (Kurgan) population in Britain. Other dolichocephalic crania go with short stature, with a mean of about 160 cm. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine the approximate proportions of Megalithic and Mediterranean types, but the former seem to be at least one-half of the total.
CHAPTER V. THE BRONZE AGE
(In Spain) In other parts of Spain no such change of population as that of Almeria is manifest. Mediterraneans, both large and small, are carried over from the Neolithic and Copper Ages, while the larger variety of brachycephal also continues, 49 Out in Mallorca and Menorca, the dolichocephalic element seems to remain as the exclusive or predominant one, for the most part tall and of Long Barrow (Kurgan) vault form.
49 Aranzadi, T. de, Excavacio de Sepulcres Megalitics, pp. 3139. , Barras de Aragon, F. de las, various articles in AMSE, 1921, 1926, 1930.
(In Spain) The physical type of the Phoenicians is well known from the skeletal remains found in tombs at Carthage. 52 A series of 117 skulls, of which 68 are male, belong for the most part to one characteristic type; dolicho- to mesocephalic, with the cranial index at 75; fairly long vaulted, and hence moderately broad; with a very low vault, a moderately broad forehead, a short face, high orbits, and a narrow, projecting nose which often springs directly from the frontal bone with little or no nasion depression. These skulls are in many ways similar to the Megalithic or Long Barrow (Kurgan) type of the preceding millennium; but, as is to be expected in view of their late eastern Mediterranean origin, show modifications toward a shortening and widening of the vault, and a beaking of the nose.
52 Bertholon and Chantre, Rtcherches Anthropologiques dans La
Berberie Orientale, pp. 251-266. Also: Gollignon, R., Anth, vol. 3,
1892, pp. 163-172. Mantegazza, P., APA, vol. 6, 1876, pp. 17-29.
(7) THE COPPER AGE IN EUROPE NORTH OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDS: DANUBIAN MOVEMENTS AND BELL BEAKERS
Corded in Hungary
...A series of crania from Bodrogkeresztur in Hungary country 56 are uniformly dolichocephalic, with the highest individual cranial index, out of more than fifty examples, only 76. This is too low for Danubians of the usual Neolithic type, and one suspects a movement from the northeast of peoples of Corded origin. The common presence of copper battleaxes, red ochre, tumulus (kurgan) burials, and other south Russian (i.e. Ukraine) cultural traits in Copper Age sites in Hungary 57 would tend to confirm this deduction. In the west Corded people brought the first metal to Switzerland, and in this case crania of definitely Corded type are involved. 58
The inhabitants of Yugoslavia during the Copper Age were, like those of Hungary, also uniformly dolichocephalic. 59 Unfortunately, here also we have no further information of racial significance. As one approaches the mouth of the Danube, however, this dolichocephalic uniformity disappears. Four skulls from Russe, in Bulgaria, include one male of Corded type, a mesocephalic male, and two brachycephalic females.60
From this evidence, such as it is, we may deduce that the people who brought copper into the Danube Valley at the close of the Neolithic period came from two centers, southern Russia (i.e. Ukraine) and the Caucasus, and Anatolia, by way of Troy. The chief carriers were the Corded people or some others equally dolichocephalic, while brachycephals from Asia Minor were of little importance from the racial standpoint.
56 M Bartucz, L., MAGW, vol. 57, 1927, pp. 126130.
Corded and Bell Beaker
While Copper Age civilization was thus spreading westward along the Danube and the lands to the north, a countermovement in the form of the Bell Beaker invasion traveled eastward from the Rhine to the Danube, and as far as Poland and Hungary. The remains of these Bell Beaker people occupy single graves or groups of graves, rather than whole cemeteries; they were apparently wandering traders, trafficking in metals, for their gold spirals have been found in Danish graves of the corridor tomb period. They were thus in all likelihood rivals of the Battle Axe (Corded) people in their search for amber.
It is not known how Bell Beaker people went from Spain to central Europe. Sporadic finds in France and northern Italy suggest the Rhone-Rhine and the Brenner Pass routes as alternatives. 61 In neither case is the evidence very satisfactory, and neither excludes the other. From the Rhine Valley as a center, Bell Beaker expeditions moved eastward into Bohemia, Austria, Poland, and Hungary; those who took part in these movements were even actually absorbed into the local populations. The Bell Beaker people who remained in the Rhinelands, however, came into intimate contact with the Corded people, who had invaded from the east and northeast, and with the Corridor Tomb Megalithic population to the north, whose domain extended down into the Netherlands. These three, of which the Bell Beaker element formed perhaps the dominant one, amalgamated to form an Early Bronze Age cultural unit, the so-called Zoned Beaker people, who invaded England and Scotland as the first important carriers of metal.
The Bell Beaker physical type is known to us from sixty or more skulls from scattered burials in Germany, Austria, Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, and Hungary. 62 Of these, about one third are truly brachycephalic, while the others are, almost without exception, mesocephals. In the Rhine country around Worms, three fourths or more of the Bell Beaker crania are brachycephalic; in Austria, one finds an equally high ratio; but in Bohemia and Poland the high brachycephaly becomes less frequent, and at Tokol in Hungary, in a series of ten crania, four are mesocephalic and six are dolichocephalic. 63
So high is the mesocephalic ratio, and except for Hungary, so infrequent the truly longheaded crania associated with this type, that the mesocephals are clearly one branch of the main type, and not the product of local mixture with long heads. Morphologically, the mesocephals are essentially Bell Beaker.
61 Childe, The Danube in Prehistory, p. 196.
...In their Rhineland center, the more numerous Bell Beaker people had constant relationships with the inhabitants of Denmark, who were still burying in Corridor Tombs. Furthermore, the Corded people, one branch of whom invaded Jutland and introduced the single grave type of burial, also migrated to the Rhine Valley, and here amalgamated themselves with the Bell Beaker people, who were already in process of mixing with their Borreby type neighbors. The result of this triple fusion was a great expansion, and a population overflow down the Rhine, in the direction of Britain.
(8) THE BRONZE AGE IN BRITAIN
The consideration of the Bell Beaker problem leads naturally to that of the Bronze Age in the British Isles, where the Beaker people found their most important and most lasting home. Coming down the Rhine and out into the North Sea, they invaded the whole eastern coast of England and of Scotland, and also the shore of the Channel.
The Beaker invasion of Britain was not a simple affair. Not only did the newcomers land in many places, but they brought with them somewhat different traditions. Although most of them brought zoned beakers and battle axes, in consequence of their blending with the Corded people in the Rhinelands, others, with the older type of bell beakers and with stone wrist guards of Spanish inspiration, seem to have entered unaffected by Corded influence.
Like their predecessors the Long Barrow (Kurgan) people, the new invaders who went to England chose open lands for settlement, and eschewed the forest of the Midlands, and the Weald of Surrey, Sussex, and Kent. Yorkshire with its moors was a favorite spot, while other centers were Wiltshire and Gloucestershire in the south, and Derbyshire and Staffordshire in between. 64 On the whole, the Beaker people chose the same regions which had attracted the builders of the Long Barrows (Kurgan), except that the concentration in Yorkshire was an innovation. The Beaker people did not exterminate the Long Barrow people, who continued for a while to build their characteristic earth-covered vaults, in some of which Beaker pots have actually been found. The remains of the newcomers, however, are always buried singly under round barrows (kurgan), of a type which the Corded people contributed to the Zoned Beaker complex.
In comparison with the Continent, Great Britain contains a great plenty of Beaker skeletal material. The invasions which reached this island brought the wholesale migration of a large population. Over two hundred and sixty crania from England alone have been preserved and studied. Out of a series of one hundred and fifty exhaustively analyzed by Morant, the brachycephals exceed the pure longheads in the ratio of three to one, while the intermediate forms are about equal in number to the longheads. This segregation would indicate that the blending between the Corded racial element and its roundheaded companions was incomplete at the time of invasion, as well as afterward. In all the regions from which a considerable number of skulls have been taken, the proportion between round heads and long heads is constant, and this would indicate that the survivors of the Long Barrow (Kurgan) people were not buried in the tombs of the invaders.
The Bronze Age people of England, as represented by this Beaker series, were clearly heterogeneous. The three ancestral elements which met in the Rhinelands may be distinguished easily. All three were tall, and the mean stature of the whole group was about 174 cm. 65 The Corded element, however, was the tallest, and the Borreby element, about 170 cm., the shortest. On the whole, the heavyboned, rugged quality of the Borreby type seems to have influenced the bodily build of the total group.
64 Morant, G. M. Biometrika, vol. 18, 1926, pp. 56-98.
The Beaker skulls as a whole are large, long, and high vaulted, whatever their shape. They form one of the rare groups in the world with a cranial length of 184 mm. and an index of over 80. This peculiarity they share with the few known brachycephalic crania of the Upper Paleolithic. Again reminiscent of Upper Paleolithic skulls is the ruggedness of muscular markings, the prominence of browridges and occipital lines, and the depth and breadth of the mandible.
In the Crania Britannica are engravings of seventy three male crania of this group; by observing them morphologically it is possible to segregate them into their component elements. Twenty four, or one third of the whole, are planoccipital (flat occpital, or back of head - Translator's Note). This ratio is probably about the correct proportion of the original Bell Beaker element in the blend, with the Corded group one fourth, and the rest Borreby. The planoccipital skulls are, as one would expect, the most brachycephalic; for over sixty per cent of all crania over the index point 83 possess some posterior flattening.
...The British planoccipitals are larger vaulted, in all three dimensions, than their continental and Near Eastern prototypes; they are also wider faced; but in total and upper face heights and in nasal dimensions, they are much the same. The curvoccipital brachycephalic crania (see Appendix I, col. 23) are much larger; and it is this element which contributes the combination of a truly long vault with a high index. They likewise have large faces, of great width, and of great mandibular size. One of the most striking differences between the two brachycephalic British subgroups lies in the disproportion of face heights. Both have the same upper face height; but the total face height, from nasion to menton (midpoint of the lower edge of the chin - Translator's Note), is five mm greater in the curvoccipital group. The lower jaw of the planoccipital skulls is more nearly of a normal Dinaric form, while that of the Borreby element is nearly equal to Upper Paleolithic standards.
The dolichocephalic crania (see Appendix I, col. 24), forming the least numerous of the three elements, are of pure Corded type, and furnish an opportunity to study this form in greater numbers than elsewhere. The vault is very long, and extremely high, with a breadth height ratio of 105, and extremely long faces, with deep, narrow mandibles. There can be no question that these most extreme variants from the fundamental Mediterranean stock came to England as part of the Zoned Beaker racial complex, and do not represent accretions of megalithic Long Barrow survivors, although both elements, in England as in Scandinavia, entered into the ultimate composition of the living population.
The Irish Bronze Age people who were buried in association with Food Vessels were, therefore, members of the racial type which was originally linked with the Beaker complex, without the associated Borreby and Corded elements. Childe finds possible prototypes of the Food Vessels both in Germany and in Spain. 71 Without doubt, in any case, there were movements from northern Spain and the western end of the Pyrenees during the Bronze Age, which brought halberds to Ireland, and thence to Scotland, along with other cultural innovations. These movements were quite late, but so, in all probability, was the spread of the Food Vessel people, who often incinerated.
(9) THE BRONZE AGE IN CENTRAL EUROPE
In the Early Bronze Age there were, aside from the Aegean, three important cultural centers in Europe: southeastern Spain, Britain, and central Europe. We have already dealt with the first two and studied the racial derivations of their peoples. In central Europe, the center of civilization was again on the Danube; in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Lower Austria, and Saxo-Thuringia. The Bronze Age culture of this Danubian region is called Aunjetitz (Unetice) after an important site in Bohemia.
The origins of this Aunjetitz culture were multiple. The elements of which it was composed include: the basic local Neolithic and Copper Age; northern influences which were mostly Corded; the Bell Beaker invasion; and metallurgy from Anatolia and the Aegean, coming directly over land. 72
The evidence as to the racial composition of this culturally heterogeneous population is fortunately abundant and clear. A number of large and well analyzed series makes it possible to determine its nature without much doubt. On the whole, the group is moderately varied. Three major elements are involved: the short, moderately dolichocephalic, high vaulted, small faced Danubian Neolithic type; the familiar (extremely longheaded, vault of great height exceeding breadth; face very long, and of slight breadth; chin marked but narrow - Translator's Note) Corded form, and some brachycephals, in moderate numbers, which are probably for the most part of Bell Beaker origin, although the same racial type may have come up the Danube from the Black Sea and the Aegean.
Dinaric influence is most evident in the earliest Aunjetitz sites of Lower Austria...One of the most fruitful groups for examination is Lower Austrian cemetery of Gemeinlebarn....The mean stature of the males is 165 cm., a moderate figure, lying between that of the earlier Neolithic Danubians and the Corded people, as represented in the larger series in which the latter appear, in Scandinavia and England. ... The Lower Austrian Aunjetitz people resembled their Neolithic ancestors in this respect. The bones, however, are quite heavy and powerful, and show that they must have had wide and heavy shoulders.
The crania (see Appendix I, col. 27) belong metrically about halfway
between the Corded and Danubian Neolithic means in almost every
character; the only exception being a slight addition in the head
breadth dimension which might be attributed to the inclusion of a few
brachycephals. ... dolichocephaly is the prevailing form. The profile
of the skull as seen from above usually takes one of two forms a long
oval with almost parallel sides, which is the Corded type, and a
pentagonoid, or "shield shape," which is the Neolithic Danubian. The
vaults are high, in most cases higher than the breadth, a feature
which is derived from both of the principal ancestral types. The face
is quite long in both segments, and narrow. Although, the mean nasal
index is mesorrhine, a little less than half of the series is
leptorrhine. The orbits, like those of both earlier strains, are of
...Nearly a hundred crania from Bohemia, collected from a number of sites 76 (see Appendix I, col. 28), are on the whole extremely dolichocephalic, with a mean index of 71. A series of thirty two males 77 (see Appendix I, col. 29), like the Austrian group, is again intermediate in most if not all measurements between the Corded and Danubian Neolithic means. As with the Gemeinlebarn series, the longest crania are the highest, and possess the longest faces. A Corded-Danubian cross, with a very little Dinaric (since the highest indices go up to 83) is indicated. This hybrid form, as will be seen later, may be given the name "Nordic" in the skeletal sense, since it seems identical with that of historic Nordic peoples living in the same area.
The stature of Bohemian and Moravian Aunjetitz males, as with those from Lower Austria, is about 167 cm. 78 This is considerably less than the Corded stature for Scandinavia, and that of the British Bell Beaker longheads, but more than that recorded in the central European Corded series of Neolithic date. Either our groups are too small for accuracy, which is quite probable, or else the Corded people of central Europe were not as tall as those who invaded the far northwest. At any rate, the Aunjetitz people of central Europe are less exaggerated in head and face dimensions than those whom we have previously studied, and anticipate the " Nordic" peoples of the Iron Age.
Around the peripheries of the Upper Danubian center, modifications of the standard Aunjetitz racial amalgam occurred. In Saxony and Thuringia, where there was an especially strong Corded cultural element, the coincident type was of course equally strong. 79 But on the Rhine, the Bell Beaker cultural influence continued, and brachycephals also persisted. 80
79 Hoberer, G., VGPA, vol. 8, 1937, pp. 59-68,
About forty skulls are known from the Bronze Age sites of Switzerland. 82 The most important fact to be deduced from them is that the old Neolithic elements persisted with little change. An infiltration of Aunjetitz culture was accompanied by the addition of some Corded types to the group, and in the meanwhile a few planoccipital brachycephals of Bell Beaker type appeared. On the whole, the Swiss seem to have become slightly longer headed during this period, probably due in large part to Aunjetitz influence.
82 Pittard, E., Anth, vol. 10, 1899, pp. 281-289; vol. 17, 1906, pp. 547-557; ASAG, vol. 7, #1, 1934, pp. 17; RA, vol. 45, 1935, pp. 512.
(In Esthonia) ... has been found in cists under tumuli (kurgan), probably dating from about 1200 B.C., near the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, although they may possibly have been as much as seven hundred years later. 90 ... one homogeneous racial type, extremely dolichocephalic, with a mean cranial length of 195 mm. The faces are very long, and also wide; the nose is of great height... These skulls are similar in many respects to the Corded racial type, especially as exemplified by the dolichocephalic element in the British Bronze Age population. Like the latter, they are associated with long bones which indicate tall stature. The males, in fact, averaged 172 cm.; the females 165.
Unlike the Corded group, however, these Esthonian skulls are as large in vault and face size as the Upper Paleolithic group from central Europe, and equal the latter in a number of telltale dimensions, including cranial length, orbital width, and bizygomatic diameter. In the height dimensions of the vault and face, the Esthonian crania exceed all known European groups of any age.
90 Coutil, L., BSPF, vol. 27, 1930, pp. 187-189.
This is a clear case of the blending of Upper Paleolithic survivors, who had preserved a hunting life in their northern forest, with Corded horsemen and cultivators who had penetrated their fastness, bringing them their first direct contact with food producing civilization. If the Upper Paleolithic group survived in Esthonia, it could have done so in Norway as well. It is worth noting the exaggeration of the Corded facial and cranial heights in the Esthonian mixture, along with the Upper Paleolithic retention of gross vault size and of face breadth. This will later be encountered in several living North European populations.
(11) THE BRONZE AGE ON THE EASTERN PLAINS
The remaining portions of Europe, for which there is skeletal documentation of Bronze Age date, may be studied as a single unit. This consists of the grassy plain which extends from northern Germany and the Baltic states, south of the forests, across Poland and southern Russia into Siberia. It must be remembered that during the Bronze Age this plain was drier than at present, and that the agriculture of the Neolithic farmers had been discouraged to a large extent both by drought and by the incursion of BattleAxe (Corded) people who had first appeared in the Late Neolithic in central and western Europe.
The evidence from Poland, although meager 91 shows that the Corded concentration which had taken place some centuries earlier on Polish soil had yielded to the smaller dolichocephalic blend already observed in Austria and Bohemia. During the earlier Bronze Age, there had been a number of Bell Beaker settlers in Poland as well, who may also have left descendants. 92
The Bronze Age Ukrainians, again, belonged to the same "Nordic" type, with a mean cranial index of 74, 93 without the excessive vault height of the Austrian and Bohemian groups. In Russia (Ukraine) the height is less than the breadth in most instances.
In the parts of southern Russia (Ukraine) immediately north of the Black Sea, from the Kiev government eastward, Bronze Age remains have not been studied in a manner sufficient to permit the formation of adequate conclusions.
91 Nine Bronze Age crania have been published by: Czortkower, S.,
AiUhPr, 1932, pp. 212-218. Stoyanowski, K., PAr, vol. 3, 1927, pp.
52-53. Tur, Jan, Swiatowit, vol. 3, 1901, pp. 85-93.
What information is available shows that the population was presumably long headed and of tall stature. 94 The same is true of the population of the northern slopes of the Caucasus, where the crania are for the most part characterized by exceptionally long faces, narrow noses, and vaults of considerable height, like the Corded crania farther west, 95 although some Megalithic forms may also have been present. Some of the Caucasian crania, however, are those of small dolichocephals, and a few, for the most part females, are brachycephalic. In the latter part of the Bronze Age, the people on the northern slopes of the Caucasus practiced cranial deformation of the Hittite (Huns, Kushans, Alans, Bulgars of the antique times - Translator's Note) variety, which reached, in its southward diffusion, to Egypt.
To the east of European Russia (Ukraine), in western Turkestan and southern Siberia, there was a nucleus of Bronze Age civilization, which had cultural connections with the Danube, the Caucasus, Iran, and China. 96 That the participants in this Bronze Age were men of European racial type is very apparent from the remarkable series of one hundred and fifteen adult crania from kurgans in the Minussinsk district of southern Siberia 97 (see Appendix I, col. 31), near the headwaters of the Yenisei.
This country, which is now the home of nomadic tribes of Kirgiz and Kalmucks, was, as early as the second millennium before Christ, occupied by a population of purely European character. The series, coming mostly from the first millennium B.C., while reasonably homogeneous, shows as much variability as do most modern groups. The range of the cranial index includes all head forms, among which are a few planoccipital brachycephals, but the mean is dolichocephalic; similarly the faces are prevailingly long, the noses narrow. In general, although individual crania are as large and as long as the most extreme Corded form, the vaults are of moderate size, and the height is considerably less than the breadth.
In lowness of vault and breadth of face, the Minussinsk skulls resemble the Ukrainian Bronze Age group. On the whole, they form a far eastward wing of the typical Bronze Age population which reached from Austria and Bohemia to central Asia and the term "Nordic," in the skeletal sense, is as applicable in the east as in the west. One must expect regional differences in a racial type covering such an extensive area. In this case
94 Gochkevitch, quoted by Tallgren, A. M., ESA, vol. 2, 1926.
(13) SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Brachycephals of this type (Dinaric, i.e. Middle Eastern) followed the old Megalithic sea route to Italy, the Italian islands, and Spain. In Spain some of them seem to have associated themselves with cultural phenomena known as the Bell Beaker complex. As the Bell Beaker people, these newcomers traveled from Spain to the Rhinelands and to central Europe, where they were the first disseminators of metal. Having appeared in the Rhineland in considerable numbers, they mixed with the older Borreby substratum which had remained there since the Mesolithic, and with Corded people coming from the east. This triple combination moved bodily down the Rhine and across the North Sea to Britain. Thus, during the Early Bronze Age, England and Scotland were invaded by people of entirely new types, who came in numbers sufficient to change the population of these countries in a radical manner. At the same time, other movements of these brachycephals from the eastern Mediterranean passed by sea from Spain to Ireland and from Ireland across to Scotland.
The appearance of these early Binaries on the Asiatic and European scene marks the advent of the third important brachycephalic racial type which we have encountered in our survey of the postglacial prehistory of the white race. Unlike the Borreby and Alpine types, it cannot be easily or plausibly explained as a simple Paleolithic survivor. Facially it is basically Mediterranean; it seems to be a Mediterranean type brachycephalized by some non-Mediterranean agency. 104
These Binaries did not come from central Asia, nor from Mesopotamia or Egypt. Facially, they resemble the dolichocephalic residents of Asia Minor and the eastern Mediterranean coast lands of the period during which they first appeared, in that both have in common a highbridged, highrooted nose, high orbits, and a sloping forehead. Until further evidence is found, it is safer to hold that the culture-bearing Binaries of the Bronze Age developed in the Syrian highlands, where a similar type of brachycephaly is now present, than to try to bring them from a distance.
Another Bronze Age event of racial moment was the gradual disappearance (in Western and Central Europe, but not in Eastern Europe or in Asia, where proceeded completely different processes - Translator's Note) through amalgamation of the Corded people and of the Banubians, and the emergence of an intermediate longheaded form. This latter, which inhabited the immense stretch of territory from Germany and Austria to the Altai Mountains, occupied an intermediate position in the total roster of greater Mediterranean racial variations.
In Austria and Bohemia the high vault and narrow face of both Corded and Banubian strains persisted, but from southern Russia (Ukraine) over to the Altai, the vaults were lower and the faces broader. Two variants thus appeared, a western and an eastern. There is evidence that the eastern group, at least, was partly if not prevailingly blond. Both eastern and western divisions may with some confidence be compared to the "Nordic" peoples who appeared historically during the Iron Age.
At the end of the Bronze Age, for a period of two or three centuries, the pall of cremation falls over the racial history of (Western and Central Europe) Europe. When the smoke has lifted during the Early Iron Age, we shall see what changes have taken place during this period of darkness.
104 The principle of Dinaricization will be explained in Chapter VIII, section 6, and Chapter XII, sections 11, 12, and 17. See also legend, Plate 35.
End of CHAPTER V. THE BRONZE AGE
CHAPTER VI. THE IRON AGE pp. 174-240
(1) RACE, LANGUAGES, AND EUROPEAN PEOPLES
We do not know the languages of the Early Neolithic swineherds who introduced a food producing economy to Spain and western Europe, including the lake shores of Switzerland, and we are not likely to find out. We do not, furthermore, know what medium the Danubians who performed the same pioneering function in another quarter used. The speech of the Corded people is equally unknown, and the old idioms of the Paleolithic survivors in the far north, of the midden dwellers of Denmark, and of the Azilian survivors in Switzerland, are far past reconstruction. In Europe we must start as late as the Iron Age in our attempt to allocate languages to cultural or racial groups.
Today the members of the white race speak languages of the following linguistic stocks: Semitic, Hamitic, Indo-European, Ural-Altaic, 4 Euskarian (Basque), and various languages of the Caucasus and Himalayas, which it would be futile to attempt to classify here. At present the two most important are Indo-European and Ural-Altaic. Yet in antiquity, while civilization of the first water was in the hands of Hamites, Semites, and Sumerians, all Indo-European and probably most Ural-Altaic speakers, if they existed as such, were illiterate barbarians.
...Linguistically, Indo-European is probably a relatively recent phenomenon, which arose after animals had been tamed and plants cultivated. The latest researches find it to be a derivative of an initially mixed language, whose principal elements were Uralic, called element A, and some undesignated element B which was probably one of the eastern Mediterranean or Caucasic languages. 5 The plants and animals on which the economy of the early Indo-European speakers was based were referred to in words derived mainly from element B. Copper and gold were known, and the words for these commodities come from Mesopotamia (i.e. Semitic?).
4 Concerning the question of Ural-Altaic unity,
see Chapter VII, p. 223.
Somewhere in the plains of southern Russia or central Asia, the blending of languages took place which resulted in Indo-European speech. This product in turn spread and split, and was further differentiated by mixture with the languages of peoples upon whom it, in one form or other, was imposed. Some of the present Indo-European languages, in addition to these later accretions from non-Indo-European tongues, contain more of the A element than others, which contain more of the B. The unity of the original "Indo Europeans" could not have been of long duration, if it was ever complete.
They split, perhaps very early, into two groups, designated by the treatment of the palatal explosives of the K group. Among one branch, the so-called Satem, this was changed to spirants (5); the other, called Centum, preserved the original form of this sound, which also prevailed in the A or Finno-Ugric element. Centum speech became divided into a number of branches, of which surviving members are Keltic, Germanic, Italic, and Hellenic; Satem includes Slavic and Baltic, Armenian, Indie and Iranian, and probably Thracian, 6 in the sense of a contributing factor in modern Albanian. Others, such as Ligurian, Illyrian, 7 and Tokharian B (all Centum), have long been extinct.
On the whole, the Indo-European languages have been spoken by people who combined agriculture with animal husbandry, who were organized into a patrilineal society with at least the germs of a differential class system, and who worshipped an Olympian pantheon of Gods. The initial formation of the Indo-European linguistic stock by blending does not antedate the age of metal; the common culture of the earliest Indo European speakers, insofar as it existed as a unit, had much in common with those of both the peoples of the Aegean and Asia Minor on the one hand, and of central Asia on the other. The mythology of the Altaian Turks, for example, is so nearly identical with that of the early Scandinavians that some close association in the not far distant past is necessary. 8 Furthermore, the ritual of the horse sacrifice 9 is so integral a part of the religion of both Indo-European and Altaic-speaking peoples that recent diffusion alone cannot explain the identity.
6 Lowman, G. S., Language, vol. 8, 1932, p. 271.
Indo-European languages as we know them must have come from easternmost Europe or western central Asia at no very remote time. Their spread over most of Europe, and subsequently over the western hemi sphere, Australia, and large segments of Asia in which they were origi nally not at home, is part of a general movement of expansion in which both race and culture have played their roles. Yet we cannot with complete assurance associate any one culture earlier than the Iron Age with any specific form of Indo-European speech. Although Homer's heroes fought with bronze weapons, we are not sure exactly when and by what agency the preDorian Greek dialects arrived in the racially and culturally composite Hellenic world; nor do we know exactly who brought Nasili (Hittite) speech to Asia Minor.
One whole school of European archaeologists and linguists associates the Corded people with the diffusion of Indo-European speech. 10 Nehring, in a recent work of great detail and authority, would make the Danubians the original Indo Europeans. 11 He would explain the Altaic cultural similarities by dividing the Indo-European culture and vocabulary into two elements:
(1) an early horizon in which the
ox was the most important domestic animal economically, and
agriculture of primary importance;
...It was after these disturbances (when northerners caused restless nights to the Babylonian kings, and the Hyksos invaded Egypt) that the chariot first appeared in Libya; hence, the first southward burst of horse nomads may have affected both shores of the Mediterranean, whatever languages they brought with them.
...The foregoing digression into the field of comparative linguistics has a direct bearing upon the problem of the racial complexion of present day Europe. While it is not our primary purpose to discover the physical type or types of the undivided Indo-European ancestors, if they were ever actually undivided, it will be possible to find the common racial denominator, homogeneous or mixed, of the Iron Age spreaders of Indo European speech and the accompanying cultures over Europe and parts of Asia. Once we have isolated the common factor, we may hope to locate its position in the roster of racial types previously known to us for it must have been some type or types with which we have already become familiar in the earlier part of our study, and not a deus exmachina (miracle) conjured up by linguists and politicians.
The Hallstatt crania from Austria, including those from the type site itself, form a reasonably homogeneous, entirely longheaded group. 16 (See Appendix I, col. 32.) This group is the legitimate, local successor to the Aunjetitz, and like the latter it resembles the Danubian Neolithic series in many respects. In certain characters, however, it leans in a Corded direction, and these include a heightening of the orbits and a narrowing and lengthening of the nose. Certain of the individual crania are of definitely Corded type. Morphologically, as well as metrically, most of these skulls may without difficulty be designated as "Nordic" ; the browridges are moderate, the foreheads moderately sloping, the occiputs protruding, the parietals flattened, the malars compressed, the mandibles deep. The stature was apparently moderately tall. 17
... The Bronze Age population which was thus the ancestral Nordic one was in turn derived from a mixture between the local Danubian Neolithic people, who came from the east, and the later Corded invaders.
16 Through combining several series, 24 adult male crania may be
In Bosnia, we come to the famous site of Glasinac, 21 where a comparatively large series of relatively late Illyrian remains contains again a mixture of types. The majority of the skulls are long headed and these show the same mixture of Danubian and Corded elements which we have already seen at Hallstatt itself. A few of the individual crania are very large, and reproduce the Corded prototype quite accurately. The brachycephalic skulls, although in the minority, are numerous enough to permit one to determine their racial affiliation with some accuracy. Almost all belong to what might be called a modern Dinaric racial type.
21 Weisbach, A., WMBH, vol. 5, 1897, pp. 562-576.
(The Illyrian "Nordic" type is no special or separate race, but merely a variant of the larger Mediterranean family, of an intermediate metrical position.) It finds a ready prototype in the Bronze Age population which stretched from Austria to Siberia, and which was in turn the product of mixture between Danubian peasants and Corded invaders. It seems most likely that the Illyrians were largely the descendants, more specifically, of the Aunjetitz people, through an Urnfields medium, or of some similar physical blend composed of identical racial ingredients.
In addition to the Hallstatt Iron Age base and classical accretions, we must further acknowledge the influences of some eastern European grassland culture, for the Kelts rode astride as well as in chariots, and the PKelts introduced trousers to western Europe. This garment was central Asiatic in origin, and was typical of the Scyths, whose period of cultural efflorescence in the east was contemporary with and parallel to that of the Kelts in the west. Philologically, there are a number of close linguistic connections between the Kelts and the Indo-Iranians, which may reflect this or an earlier cultural contact. It is most likely, however, that the principal contact between the Keltics-peaking peoples and the Iranian horsemen of the eastern European plain took place during the early years of the great Keltic expansion.
Several morphological features distinguish these (Kelts) skulls, of the typical, or mesocephalic, group which in the British Isles seems largely to lack the brachycephalic minority which accompanies the main type in central and eastern Europe. The forehead is quite sloping; the vault, when seen from behind, gives a cylindrical impression, rather than that of a rhomboid or rectangle, as with other Nordic crania....
(5) THE SCYTHIANS
What the Kelts were to western Europe, the Scythians and their relatives became, at about the same time, to the treeless plains to the east. Riding astride, wearing trousers, and sleeping in covered wagons, they spread rapidly over the grasslands of eastern Europe and western central Asia, shifting so adroitly that Darius with his army could not catch them, and disappearing almost as rapidly from the face of eastern Europe as they had appeared. Like the Kelts, they were both dazzling and ephemeral. But unlike the Kelts, their way of living, perfectly adapted to the grasslands on which they roamed, was destined long to survive their identity as a people.
About 700 B.C. the Scyths were first noticed in the lands to the north of the Black Sea. 66 Their domain reached from north of the Danube and east of the Carpathians across the fertile plains of eastern central Europe and southern Russia to the River Don. From this country they were supposed to have ousted the somewhat mysterious Cimmerians. Although the Don formed their eastern boundary, beyond it lived other groups of nomadic peoples culturally similar to the Scythians. These included the Sarmatians, their immediate neighbors to the east, who were, according to Herodotus, the result of a mass marriage of Scythian youths and Amazon maidens. The speech of the Sarmatians was said to be somewhat different from that of the Scythians, owing to the inclusion of Amazon words and an Amazonian manner of pronunciation. Beyond the Sarmatians lived the Massagetae, and beyond them the Saka. The word Saka, however, was used by the Persians as a general term, to include all of the nomadic peoples to the north of the Iranian plateau, in the two Turkestans.
In costume, in weapons, in methods of transportation, in living quarters, and in the totality of material culture, these people formed a continuous cultural zone from the Carpathians to China. It has been the custom to consider the Scythians a people of Asiatic origin who developed this high and specialized form of pastoral nomadism in central Asia and brought it with them to eastern Europe. Proponents of this school have suggested that the Scythians were a Mongoloid people, and that they employed some Altaic form of speech. Another school holds that they were European in physical type, and spoke Iranian, while their cultural breeding ground lay somewhere to the east of the Caspian.
We do not know what language the Scythians spoke, nor is it likely that its exact affiliation will ever be definitely established. Their geographical position, however, and their association with the ancient Persians (Scythian association with the ancient Persians? what association? where is a sourse for this smoke? - Translator's Note), makes the Iranian hypothesis very likely. This theory is further strengthened by the study of the language of the Ossetes, a living people of the Caucasus, who are supposed, on historical grounds, to be descendants of the Alans, a branch of the Sarmatians. Their language is definitely Iranian (Too bad that C.S.Coon, so thorough in providing references everywhere, does not provide a reference for "definitely Iranian" Ossetian language. None of the experts listed in the footnote 66 is an expert on Ossetian. For anatomy of Ossetian, produced by V.Abaev, refer here - Translator's Note).
66 The sources for the historical and cultural portions of this section include Herodotus, book IV, ch, 59-75; Hippocrates, de Aere; Minns, E. H., Scythians and Greeks; Junge, J, ZFRK, vol. 3, 1936, pp. 6877; and Wm. M. McGovern's work, The Early Empires of Central Asia, which was consulted in advance of publication.
Although the general manner of living enjoyed by the Scythians does resemble in a remarkable degree that of the later Huns, Turks, and Mongols, one looks in vain for some of the cultural traits of these later Altaic speakers which may be ascribed to a relatively recent Siberian origin. These include the yurt or collapsible felt domed house, and the Turko-Mongol type of shamanism. The Turks and the Mongols, without question, took over almost completely the whole Scythian style of culture, but they added to it elements of their own which reflected their former habitat and manner of life. A few traits connect the Scythians with their neighbors to the north, the Finns; among these might be cited the sweat bath.
The Scythians proper possessed a type of feudal organization headed by a king, who ruled over four provinces each of which had local governors. These Scythian kings were all buried in a royal burial ground in the region called by the Greeks the Land of the Gerrhi, which was situated in the bend of the Dnieper River near Nicopol. No matter where the Scythian monarch died, his remains would be deposited, in a funeral chamber, with great ceremony and with an extravagant quantity of human sacrifice, underneath a huge mound (kurgan) erected for that purpose. The richness of the burials, and the wholesale suttee, are reminiscent of the ancient Sumerians, and of the early Egyptians. The eventual Sumerian origin of this Scythian custom is not unlikely (And C.S.Coon provides enough converging references to Sumerians in respect to Corded and Altaic to illustrate this conjecture - Translator's Note).
This region of the Royal Scythian burying ground has been a source of great activity for both treasure hunters and archaeologists. The Scythians had a definite idea that this was the place in which their kings were naturally at home, and while it may not be wise to stress this point too much, it would seem that this location may have reflected their notions as to their original dwelling place, or at least that of their royal clan. Similarly, the Mongols in later times buried their dead in a restricted area in the Altai Mountains, which they considered holy ground (and so did Huns in Otuken, see Noin Ula, and so did Türks in the Türkic Kaganates , see Orkhon, and Türkuts, and Bulgars, and Onogurs, and Kutrigurs, and Uigurs, etc, until their conversion to other religions - Translator's Note).
During the first century B.C., the Sarmatians penetrated westward, crossing the Don, and driving the Scythians from their former homes. About 200 A.D., the Goths took the Scythian country from the Sarmatians, and in turn adopted much of the Scytho-Sarmatian culture, becoming great horsemen and learning to live in wagons. The Alans were the only branch of the Sarmatians to retain their integrity in face of this Germanic onslaught. They built up a great kingdom between the Don and the Volga, reaching as far as the Caucasus, including in it most of northwestern Turkestan. Between 350 and 374 A.D., the Huns destroyed the Alan kingdom. Some of the Alans went westward with the Huns, others accompanied the Vandals to North Africa, and a few, as previously mentioned, survive in the Caucasus as Ossetes (But to confuse the issue, these Ossetian left-over Alans call their Turkic neighbors, and not themselves, by ethnonym "Alan" - Translator's Note).
Although these Iranians (if the Scythians and Sarmatians really were Iranians) were replaced by Altaic speakers in southern Russia, and throughout the breadth of their Asiatic domain, this process took some time, and Iranian languages clung on for a long while in Kashgaria and in the oases of Russian Turkestan. Undoubtedly, the Scythians and their relatives were not destroyed, but were absorbed and reincorporated.
In studying the racial type of the Scythians, one must remember that they were not considered a homogeneous group by Herodotus, who is our chief historical source. They consisted of an inner clan called the Royal Scyths or True Scyths, who were the nobles and leaders, and, as a second element, the whole group of nomadic tribes of which the Royal Scyths were the integrating force. Herodotus also makes it clear that the Scythians kept many slaves. Only the Royal Scyths refused to own slaves, but employed youths of pure Scythian blood as bodyguards, and sacrificed these in their tombs. Thus, the Royal Scythian burial mounds must contain a relatively pure Scythian group.
One must not imagine that the Scyths and their slaves were the only inhabitants of southeastern Europe during the last seven centuries before Christ and the first two of our era. Herodotus mentions the agricultural Scythians, who were probably some earlier sedentary people or peoples who remained as underlings of the Scythians and their providers of cereal food. We must remember that much of the Scythian territory had been farmed as early as Neolithic times.
There can be little doubt, even before examining the skeletal evidence, that the Scythians and Sarmatians were basically, if not entirely, white men and in no sense Mongoloid. The only definite description of them which we have from classical literature is that of Hippocrates, who called them white-skinned and obese, but this designation was employed by the father of medicine to prove one of his environmental theories. In later times, the Alans are described as having golden hair (and squinted eyes - Translator's Note).
Fortunately, we are not limited to literary references. The Scythians themselves, under the influence of powerful Greek colonies on the north shore of the Black Sea, and particularly in the Crimea, produced a distinctive style of realistic art in gold repousse'e. These representations include a number of portraits of Scythians in very realistic and lifelike poses. They show a well defined type of heavily bearded, longhaired men with prominent, often convex, noses. The browridges are moderately heavy, the eyes deep set. These faces are strikingly reminiscent of types common among northwest Europeans today, in strong contrast to those shown in the art of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Hittites, which are definitely Near Eastern. The face, therefore, is definitely Nordic, while the body build looks often thickset and very muscular, but this may be due to the clothing, which includes baggy trousers and jackets with full sleeves. The pointed caps which they wear and the long hair make it impossible to form a useful opinion of their head form, but this is unnecessary, since we may soon discover it from reference to the cranial material. Persian representations of Saka show exactly the same type, depicted by the followers of an entirely different school of art, and hence this type cannot have been an unfounded convention.
There is, in the anthropometric literature, sufficient data to permit the reconstruction of the Scytho-Sarmatian cranial type or types (considering that Scythians came from Altai, and Sarmatians were local tribes, most likely they were anthropologically as different as today's Altaians and Turkmens, which likewise speak mutually comprehensive languages, but have different anthropological histories. And as a social group, even within a single clan, strongly displayed differences should be expected - Translator's Note). The most extensive group, and that which may be used as a basic series, is Donichi's collection of seventy seven Scythian crania from kurgans of Bessarabia (called in Türkic Atil-kiji, with a profound meaning "Father's land people" - Translator's Note) which was one of the favored Scythian pasture lands during the height of their domination. 57 (See Appendix I, col. 37.) The fifty seven male crania of this series are not homogeneous, but fall into two types, a longheaded and a round-headed, with the former greatly in the majority.
The means of these Scythian skulls show them to be low mesocephals of moderate cranial dimensions, but with a low vault height. The cranial means are, in fact, almost identical with those of the Keltic series from France and the British Isles. They resemble the Aunjetitz and Hallstatt skulls only as much as the Keltic series mentioned resemble these latter. They are, furthermore, metrically identical with the previously studied skulls from the Minussinsk region of southern Siberia, which may have been contemporaneous with them (for the C14 dating of Scythian kurgans, refer here - Translator's Note).
One of the peculiarities of the Scythian skulls is a low mesene (low upper face - Translator's Note) upper facial index, lower than that of the Kelts or of the Minussinsk people. Donichi has shown, however, that this low upper facial index is mostly associated with the brachycephalic element in the group, and the same is true of many of the chamaeconch (low eye orbits) and mesorrhine (moderate nose) skulls. When the brachycephalic element is eliminated, therefore, one finds these skulls to be narrower faced, and narrower nosed, and to fit more nearly into a central European Nordic category.
57 Donifchi, A., Crania Scythica, MSSR, ser. 3, Tomul X, Mem. 9, Bucharest, 1935
Other series of Scythian crania from southern Russia and from the Caucasus show the same general characteristics as that of Donichi's type series, but are in most cases purely dolichocephalic, which leads one to suppose that the brachycephalic element in the Rumanian skulls may have been at least partly of local origin. 58 (which would lead to a ground-breaking conclusion that the local folks had Uralic-type appearance, with a low upper face and low eye orbits, and undistinguished Mongoloid nose. On the other hand, Uralic-type appearance should be natural for Scythians from Urals, also called Sarmatians in the literature - Translator's Note).
Other collections of Scythian crania vary in their mean cranial indices from 72 to 77. Those from the Kiev government, a Scythian center, have a mean of 73. 59 A series of eighteen Sarmatian crania from the Volga, although otherwise the same as the others, has a cranial index of 80.3. 60 However, one hesitates to consider this typical of the Sarmatians as a whole, since both the Alans 61 and the early Ossetes 62 were long headed. The Alans preserved the original Scythian Nordic type until the ninth century A.D. (Too bad that C.S.Coon, so thorough in providing references everywhere, does not provide a reference for Alans in the ninth century A.D. The nomadic ancient Alans, surrounded by Siyavush Khoresmians from the south, Kangars from the east, Uralics from the north, and a multitude of various nomadic and agricultural peoples in the west, with expected conjugal relationship with their Türkic Kangar overlords for maybe a millennia, would hardly present a homogeneous anthropological type, especially if they smoothly blended with the nomadic neighbors surrounding them on all sides - Translator's Note).
Of especial interest is a rich kurgan in the Royal Scythian burial district, 63 near Alexandropol; this was one of the most imposing kurgans of Russia, not only for its size but for the quantities of gold placed with the dead king, and of animals sacrificed for his convenience. The kurgan contained five skulls in the primary interment; one of these was a large male of Corded type. 64 Another is a brachycephal with a vault especially wide behind, with a broad face and a narrow nose, resembling a Turkish or perhaps a Bell Beaker type; two are narrow skulls of the normal Scythian Nordic variety (i.e. "normal" veriety - Translator's Note), while the fifth, that which occupied the king's chamber, is of moderate size, long headed, with a low vault, sloping forehead, a high, prominent nose, and wide flaring zygomatic arches. The malars are large, and there is, in this respect, a slight Mongoloid suggestion, One may not, however, on this evidence alone, identify the Royal Clan with Turks or Mongols (in other words, like in Kazan and Bulgar necropolises, a Mongoloid-looking prince was overlording differently- and variously-looking subordinates - Translator's Note).
We know very little of the stature of the Scythians. Nine male skeletons from the Polish Ukraine, associated with crania of standard (i.e. "Nordic"?, not Uralian? - Translator's Note) Scythian type, have a mean of over 170 cm. 65
58 Donichi is of this opinion. He finds the same brachycephaiic type
in a collection of skulls from an early Moldavian monastery.
It is tempting to find the origin of the Scythians in the previous population of the southern Russian (Ukraine) plain. A series of Bronze Age crania from the lower Volga region is identical, at least in indices, with the later Scythian group (which type of them? - Translator's Note), and so is that from the Ukrainian Urnfields. Three skulls of so-called "Cimmerians" likewise show no important deviation. 66 Furthermore, an important series of Early Iron Age crania from the Sevan district of Armenia, probably dated from the earlier half of the first millennium B.C., and probably therefore earlier than the Scyths in Europe, or at least as early as their first appearance, is exactly like the more dolichocephalic element in the Scythian group, and manifestly Nordic. The vault, like that of the Scyths, is low, the nose leptorrhine, the face leptene (narrow face), with more compressed zygomata. 67 (See Appendix I, col. 38.) Morphologically, these Armenian skulls are characterized by a medium forehead slope, moderate browridges and muscular development; a moderately deep nasion depression, and straight or lightly convex nasal profile; a projection of the occiput which is most marked in the lower segment, and accompanied by some lambdoid flattening (occipital, or back of the head - Translator's Note); a typical compression in the malar region. This series serves a double purpose: to show that a Nordic type entered into the modern Armenian blend, and to define the Iranian variety of Nordic which may have been likewise involved in the settlement of Persia and of India. 68 Furthermore, it is very similar, both metrically and morphologically, to the early Germanic cranial group, and this virtual identity draws together the two geographical extremes of an originally united family. (And the whole thing is a pure speculation: what the poor Scythians have to do with all these Armenian blends, and the Iranian varieties, and expected Nordic, settlement of Persia and of India etc. All they wanted to do is to induce you to give them your gold, and do it regularly - Translator's Note).
We have seen that the Scythians and Sarmatians, although they undoubtedly included in their ranks many individuals of different political affiliations, formed nevertheless a quite constant principal racial type, which was essentially Iranian and a form of Nordic. In its characteristic low vault, as in other dimensions, it specifically resembled the earlier eastern European and central Asiatic Nordic form. It was essentially a member of the racial cluster associated with the spread of Satem Indo European speech in both eastern Europe and Asia (this pitiful punch line fumes fanciful words clearly in conflict with the material descriptions - Translator's Note).
66 Stolyhwo, K., Swiatowit, vol. 6, 1905, pp. 73-80.
(6) THE GERMANIC PEOPLES
We have already dealt with the expansions of two great Indo-European peoples, the Kelts and the Scythians ([sic] - on page 196, C.S.Coon stated "We do not know what language the Scythians spoke..." - Translator's Note), who, during the second half of the first millennium before Christ, nearly divided the European continent, north of the Alpine mountain barrier, between them. Other groups, such as the Thracians, who occupied large expanses of territory in the Balkans, have been neglected because of lack of information.
The first millennium of the Christian era witnessed two more such spreadings of Indo Europeans; those of the Germans and of the Slavs, the former to have lasting results in the west, the latter in the east. Unlike the Kelts and the Scyths, these two later groups, tardy to receive the civilization of the classical world, were destined to people many countries permanently with their descendants, and to implant their tongues in many regions.
Of these two, the Germanic expansion was the earlier. The period of Teutonic migration was that of the famous Volkerwanderung, which began with the precocious but futile invasion of Italy by the Cimbri and Teutons, who fought the Romans between 114 and 102 B.C., and which did not end until the adoption of Christianity by the Norwegians in the eleventh century put an end to the piratical practices of the Vikings. Its period of greatest vitality fell between the second and fifth centuries of the present era. (In the same line should be mentioned Alans, who expanded from Aral Sea area to the Roman north-western borders, and involved in their movement both Germanic and Sarmatian tribes. In 69 AD, and again in 92-117 AD the Rhoxolans and Yazygs/Ases fought the Romans in Moesia and Dacia - Translator's Note).
... there is strong archaeological evidence that a new people entered Scandinavia at the beginning of the retarded Iron Age of this region. 69 The Hallstatt artefacts are entirely different in character from those of the Late Bronze Age, and the burial rite changed completely, while the old nature worship which the Megalithic sea people had brought to Scandinavia now disappeared abruptly, being replaced by religious phenomena which we can associate definitely with the classical Norse style of worship. The Norse pantheon, with its family of gods and its Valhalla, is closely related to the systems of Greece and Rome, of India, and of the other Indo-European divisions. (And Altaic cultural traditions stated in page 179 of this work - Translator's Note).
...Furthermore, certain strong cultural elements in the time of Germanic efflorescence bore strong marks of an eastern inspiration; such as the ship burials, which resembled the Royal Scythian interments in every detail except for the substitution of ships for wagons; and the art, as expressed in wood carving, which carried over the richness of the eastern animal style, and which reached its highest development in Norway. The Germans, like the Kelts, had been subjected to a very strong influence from the plains to the east (i.e. Corded people - Translator's Note).
69 Shetelig, H., Falk, H., and Gordon, E. V., Scandinavian Archaeology, pp. 174-175.
Linguistically, the early Germanic tongues were much in the debt of the Kelts. Many of the words needed to express new things were of Keltic origin. Hubert, the Keltic authority, believed that the Germanic languages were the garbled borrowings of some Indo-European speech by a people to whom the Indo-European phonemes were difficult. 70 It is true that (in Germanic tongues) consonantal shifts from K to H, and the like, are more extreme than those in other Indo-European languages. It is very likely that the ancestral Germanic speech was introduced into Scandinavia by the invaders who brought the Hallstatt culture to that backward region (and "the Hallstatt people almost certainly spoke Illyrian", see p. 181. However, this does not converge, for how could Illyrians bring so many primary Altaic borrowings, "man", "earth", "dawn", to German? - Translator's Note).
It is the task of the physical anthropologist to help the archaeologist and linguist discover the identity of these Iron Age invaders, whose arrival in Scandinavia cannot be put back earlier than the sixth or seventh centuries B.C. This should be relatively easy, for the newcomers buried while the older population presumably continued cremating their dead....The Danish Iron Age crania ... closely resemble the Keltic crania of Gaul and of the British Isles, and those of the Scythians, while they are virtually identical with the Armenian Iron Age skulls discussed in the last section. The Danish Iron Age crania, then, are probably the same as those of the ancestral proto-Kelts before their arrival in south western Germany, and of the ancestors of the Scythians and eastern Iranians. These Danes were a tall people, however, for the stature of 25 males was 171.5 cm. This agrees with that of the earlier peoples of the same region, and with that of the Scythians. In this Danish series there was, without doubt, a selection on the basis of differential methods of disposal of the dead; the numerous Bronze Age population, compounded of Megalithic, Borreby, and Corded elements, could not have disappeared completely...
70 Hubert, H., The Rise of the Celts, pp. 50-52.
...Iron Age series from Norway ...They are purely dolichocephalic, with a cranial index of 71.7. On the whole, they are just what one would expect from a Danish Iron Age-Upper Paleolithic cross, with the latter in the majority, and this explanation agrees well with the archaeological data. The stature, 169.5 cm., fits both types. There is another possibility, however, that they had a strong Corded element. That some Corded blend entered into this mixture was indeed likely, but it is impossible to substitute the Corded for the Paleolithic element, since the high vault of the former is not in sufficient evidence, and the faces of the Norwegians are wider than either Corded or Nordic.
...Linguistically, the Germanic peoples who invaded other parts of Europe from Scandinavia and North Germany have been divided into two groups: East Germans and West Germans. The speakers of East Germanic included the Goths, Vandals, Gepidae, and Burgundians. The Goths claimed to have crossed the Baltic from Sweden (not from the island of Gotland) to the mouth of the Vistula. The Vandals and the Gepidae presumably had the same origin. From the Vistula, the East Germans expanded southward and eastward into the Scythian country, where the Gepidae seized control of Hungary, and the Goths finally established an important kingdom on the north shore of the Black Sea.
A later group of Gepidae dated from the fifth or sixth centuries in Hungary shows the persistence of this same type; despite historical blending with the Huns, of eight skulls at our disposal, all but three fail to show definite traces of Mongoloid mixture, and in these three the non-Nordic traits are not manifested metrically. One is forced to the conclusion from this series, as from that of the Goths in the Chersonese, that the East Germanic peoples who took part in these wanderings preserved their original racial characteristics so long as they retained their political and linguistic identity.
The skulls of the Anglo-Saxons who invaded England in the fourth and fifth centuries of the present era 79 (see Appendix I, col. 43)... lack the low vault and sloping forehead common to the earlier Nordics of Denmark, the Gauls, and the Scyths....The type represented by these three groups and by the Visigoths seems to be a variant of the Nordic type to which the early Indo-European speakers belonged. Its difference is one of size, and it appears to have attained this distinction through a mixture, in southern Scandinavia and Germany, between the older local population, consisting of a combination of Megalithic, Corded, and Borreby elements, and the purely Nordic Danish Iron Age group...This physical type is accompanied by tall stature, of about 170 cm., and by a considerable heaviness and robusticity of the long bones. The bodily build was clearly heavier and thicker set than that of the previously studied Nordics. That it was characteristically blond is attested by the pigmentation of living examples as well as by numerous early descriptions. This type, being a mixed variety of central European Nordic combined with old northwestern European elements, is not a true Nordic in the sense in which the word has been used in this work, and its common and exclusive designation as Nordic in popular parlance as in scientific works is responsible for much of the confusion prevalent in the identification of that racial type today. Since it is found among both West and East Germans of the period of dispersal, it is essentially the Germanic or Teutonic racial type. The eccentric linguistic position of the Germanic peoples in the total Indo-European family has its racial connotations.
79 Morant, G. M., Biometrika, vol. 18, 1926, pp. 56-98.
...Anglo-Saxon invasion of the British Isles... Since the Saxons were not townsmen, they did not occupy the cities which they plundered...The Saxons occupied, for the most part, empty country.
The Anglo-Saxon skeletons which have been described earlier are derived from the graves of the heathen period, from the fifth to the end of the ninth centuries. The skulls from these graves 82 make a striking contrast to the Keltic Iron Age type which preceded them. While the Iron Age forehead is extremely sloping, that of the Anglo-Saxon skulls is rather steep and high, and the skulls which possess mandibles show that the Anglo-Saxon type was deep jawed, with a great distance from lower tooth line to chin and with a long, sloping ascending ramus (branch). The cranium as a whole is steep sided with a well-rounded occiput, and frequently lambdoidally flattened. 83 The browridges are moderate to heavy. The nasal bones are highly arched, with often a considerable nasion de pression. Muscularity of a pronounced character is indicated by deep pits and ridges on the long bones, which are thick and heavy. Compared with the Iron Age people, the Saxons were large bodied, and their more considerable body weight is correlated with a larger braincase. The mean stature of various series of Anglo-Saxons ranges from 167-172 cm. 84 and the total mean equals 170 or 171 cm.
82 Morant, Biometrika, vol. 18, 1926, pp. 56-98.
Brash, J. C., Layard, D., and Young, M., Biometrika, vol. 27, 1935,
...some of them (Saxon females) were planoccipital... The excavation of a round barrow (kurgan) at Dunstable in Bedfordshire throws further light on the survival of the Bronze Age physical type into the Saxon period. 87 The primary burial of the barrow (kurgan) was a woman of the Early Bronze Age...
87 Peake, H., and Hton, E. A., JRAI, vol. 45, 1915, pp. 92-130. Dingwall, D., and Young, M., Biometrika, vol. 25, 1933, pp. 147-157.
...The Thuringians, who are known to us through a series from the Sle Valley in Germany, and through others from several sites in Bohemia, 93 practiced the unusual custom, for Germans, of deforming the head by annular constriction. Enough undeformed crania are left, however, for one to determine their racial type. The Thuringians were purely dolichocephalic. In none of these groups has a single round-headed skull been found. The skulls are, in fact, longer headed than the normal Anglo Saxon and Hanoverian basic type and bear certain resemblances to the original Iron Age Danish group, and, at the same time, to the Hallstatt crania of the same region in which they are found. One may state definitely they are not of Keltic type, and these people had apparently not mixed to any extent with the Boii who had preceded them and from whom Bohemia derived its name.
93 Holter, F., JVST, vol. 12, 1925, pp. 11-14. Hellich, B., Praehistorickl Lebky v Cechach & Sbirky Musea Krdlovstvi Ceskeho. Maly, J., AnthPr, vol. 13, 1935, pp. 37-53. Niederle, L., MAGW, vol. 22, 1892, pp. 118.
(In the Germanic settlement of Austria, including the Tyrol,) the Huns contributed a Mongoloid element, diluted through mixture with the Gepidae...(In the) Lombard crania from two sites: from Nikitsch in the Oberpullendoft district of Burgenland, and Vinzen, near Regensburg, in Lower Austria; both dating from the fifty year interval which the Lombards spent north of the mountains before their final burst into Italy in 568 A.D. 96 Eight skulls are those of the usual Germanic variety of Nordics, with some exceptionally tall and large-skulled individuals, while five others ranging in cranial index from 77 to 93, show in their flat faces and broad nasal bones clear traces of Mongoloid mixture.
96 M Geyer, E., MAGW, vol. 61, 1931, pp. 162-194. Hell, M., WPZ, vol. 19, 1932, pp. 175-193. Merlin, H., MAGW, vol. 16, 1886, pp. 17. Miiller, G., MAGW, vol. 66, 1936, pp. 345-355. Seraczin, A., MAGW, vol. 54, 1929, pp. 323-332. Vram, U., RDAR, vol. 9, 1903, pp. 151-159.
...The summary of our information concerning the racial origins and dispersion of the early Germanic peoples may be stated briefly and simply. At the beginning of the local Iron Age, a new people, bearing a Hallstatt type of culture, entered northwestern Germany and Scandinavia. These invaders were of the usual central European Nordic type associated in earlier centuries with the Illyrians. Through mixture with the local blend of Megalithic, Corded, and Borreby elements, these newcomers gave rise to a special sub-type of Nordic which was characterized by a larger vault and face, a heavier body build, and a skull form on the borderline between dolicho- and mesocephaly. The Germanic tribes that wandered over Europe during the period of migrations belonged essentially to this new type.
(7) THE SLAVS
The Slavs, together with their close neighbors and linguistic relatives the Balts, stepped relatively late into the theater of European history. Speaking an archaic form of the Satem branch of Indo-European, they almost miraculously succeeded in maintaining their linguistic integrity through the period of obscurity which preceded their time of dispersion, despite the widespread activities of the Kelts, the Scythians, and the Germans. Slavic is close in many respects to the original form of Indo-Iranian, a fact which cannot fail to have cultural and geographical significance.
It is not yet possible to associate the early, united Slavs with any specific archaeological horizon more remote in time than the comparatively recent Burgwall moated villages of the early centuries of the present era. Although all Slavic scholars are not in agreement as to the location of their original home, the opinion of Niederle, the dean of Slavic prehistorians, bears the greatest weight. 100 He would place it in the densely forested basin of the Pripiet River, in northwestern Ukraine and southeastern Poland. This region is bounded on the west by the Vistula, on the south by the upper course of the Dniester, and on the east by the great forests of the former Tchernigov (Karadjar="Black Head" of the Hunnic times - Translator's Note) and Poltava (Baltavar="Prince" of the Hunnic times - Translator's Note) Governments. In other words, the Slavic ancestors escaped loss of ethnic identity at the hands of the Scythians and the Goths through their occupancy of a relatively wooded and swampy country.
Their neighbors to the west were Germans and Kelts, who lived on the other side of the Vistula; the Balts occupied the side facing the sea after which they have been collectively named, while the undivided Finns dwelt along the forested stream banks near the sources of the Volga, Oka, and Don. The early Iranians ([sic] - i.e. Scythian nomads, see page 222 for "Altaic words" and "Corded influence" - Translator's Note), near linguistic relatives of the Slavs ( i.e. future Altaic linguistic relatives - Translator's Note), had occupied the plains to the south and east, while the Thracians bordered the Slavs on the far side of the Carpathian mountain chain.
100 Niederle, L., ACIA, 2me Session, Prague, 1924, pp. 241-247. For source material see his exhaustive series of volumes on the history of the Slavs, Slovanska Starozitnosti. For a recent review of Slavic problems, Sonnabend, H., L'Espansione degli Slavi.
Like the earliest Iranians and unlike the Scythians, the Slavs were simple farmers and herdsmen. Living in swamps and forests, they had adapted themselves to difficult climatic conditions. For some reason still imperfectly understood by the students of population dynamics, they grew increasingly numerous in the period between the second and fifth centuries A.D., and began spilling outward in all possible directions (That time magically coincided with the third wave of Altaic influx to Central Europe. Slavs, called Budun="masses" by Scythians, Herodotus "Budini", were led by their new hyperactive overlords, first the Alano-Sarmatians of the third wave, and then Huns of the fourth wave, and from 560 AD by Avars of the fifth wave - Translator's Note),
The westward Slavic expansion over much of what is now Germany was temporary, for the Germanic peoples themselves soon went through a period of eastward expansion during which they Germanized many of the new Slavic groups, either by force or by peaceful assimilation. A few islands of Slavic speech and culture survived this movement, notably that of the Wends in the Saxon Spreewald. The movement of the South Slavs took them to the Dinaric mountain chain behind Lower Austria, which certain bands crossed to the peninsula of Istria at the head of the Adriatic, and into northern Italy itself. The main body moved southeastward along the Adriatic coast, following the Dinaric mountain chain to Montenegro, and to the Gore region of northeastern Albania. A southern Slavic nucleus was formed in the kingdom of Old Serbia, centered around Prizren and Skoplje. From this nucleus they expanded into the plain of Kossovo which, however, they were soon to lose in great part to Turks and Albanians. The Serbs, the most important single people involved in this southern expansion, still speak a language closely allied to that of the Wends in Germany.
The movements of the Slavs to the eastward constituted an intensive reoccupation of the rich, black earth belt by peasants, for, since Late Neolithic times, this fertile strip of treeless lowland had been the favorite pasture and campaigning ground of tribes and nations of warlike nomads, inimical to the full utilization of the ground for tillage. From this black earth region the eastern Slavs followed the watercourses of central Russia northward into the forest country then inhabited by Finns. This upstream movement dislodged some of the Finnish tribes, and brought about their historic migration to the Baltic. Many of the Finns, however, stayed behind and became Slavicized, mixing with their conquerors. Still others remained aloof in small ethnic islands, which even today retain their Finnic speech.
The eastward expansion of the Slavs did not stop with the Urals, but gradually continued, after interruptions by Turks and Mongols, into Siberia, until finally, in the seventeenth century, its outposts reached the Pacific. The Slavs are still growing more numerous and still moving eastward. Their period of efflorescence, the latest of the Indo-European expansions, has not yet come to an end.
Since the Slavs continued the practice of cremation well into the early centuries of the present millennium, skeletons from the period of unity are nonexistent, and those from the early centuries of expansion are not abundant. However, in this instance, literary evidence antedates the osteological, for numerous descriptions of the early Slavs, assiduously collected by Niederle, occur in the writings of Byzantines, Arabs, and Persians. 101 With only one exception, these make the Slavs tall, spare, and blond or ruddy. They were often confused with Germans, and this fact strengthens the likelihood that they were predominantly of light pigmentation. Only one voice was raised to the contrary, that of a Jew named Ibrahim ben Yakub, who, having crossed Bohemia in 965 A.D., remarked that the Bohemians were surprisingly dark-haired. Niederle interprets this solitary dissention as evidence that Ibrahim, accustomed to or expecting blond Slavs, was struck by a local enclave which differed from the Slavs as a whole. In view of the preponderance of contemporary opinion to the contrary, ben Yakub's dissention must not be given too much weight. 102
If the evidence of literary sources makes the early Slavs Nordic in stature and pigmentation, that of osteology makes them the same in the metrical and morphological sense. In brief, all of the earliest Slavic skeletal material, dating mostly from the eighth to the eleventh centuries, falls, by groups if not as individuals, into one or more of the Nordic categories already found to be characteristic of Iron Age Indo-European speaking peoples.
That from Poland, the eastern half of which was included in the home of the Slavic peoples before their period of dispersion, is not very abundant. Altogether less than 40 male crania may be assembled, and few of these have complete measurements. 103 (See Appendix I, col. 46.) These skulls are all predominantly dolichocephalic; the mean cranial index is 73, and not a single round-headed example is included. Among these Polish skulls are some notably long and large specimens with long, narrow faces. The noses of the group, as a whole, are fully leptorrhine. On the whole, the ancestral Slavs of Poland were Nordics, within the range of the Indo European group; these skulls lean to the longer and larger-headed Corded extreme, and resemble in many respects, the Hannover series, and by extension, the Anglo-Saxons.
101 Niederle, L., AnthPr, vol. 7, 1929, pp. 6264; also Slovanske Starolitnosti, vol. 1, 1925, pp. 98
Numerous remains of the Slavic expansion into Germany show clearly the physical types of the particular invaders concerned in this quarter. The most important series is that studied by Asmus, who collected the skulls of the ancient Wends of Mecklenburg. 104 (See Appendix I, col, 47.) These form a reasonably homogeneous group of high dolichocephals and low mesocephals, with a moderate vault height, a low sloping forehead, long narrow faces, leptorrhine or mesorrhine noses, high orbits, and a strongly built jaw. These Old Wends, rounder headed than the Poles, fall very close metrically to the Kelts and to the Scythians. In intermediate parts of Germany, particularly in western Prussia and Pomerania, the Old Slavic skulls are higher vaulted, and closer in this respect to the Polish sub-type. 105
Those in Bohemia are for the most part the same as the Wend crania in Germany, except for one series of Matiegka (see Appendix I, col. 48); in this, the vaults are extremely high, nearly reaching early Corded dimensions. This is true to a minor extent of a small group from Slovakia and of individual skulls. 106 Thus, in Bohemia, the Slavs included three subtypes, with Hallstatt, Polish, and Keltic analogies.
The Slavs who invaded Styria between the seventh to ninth centuries are basically the same as those in Germany, and fall very close to an older Keltic mean. 107 They formed, without question, a mixed group and included in their number a minority of round-headed forms. Some of the Slavic crania from Styria, recalling the Polish prototype, are extremely large and powerful. We have, unfortunately, no data with which to trace the further progress of the southern Slavs into the Dinaric mountain stronghold, and thence into Old Serbia and the Kossovo plain. We may, however, study a third Slavic movement, that which penetrated Russia. l08
The skulls of these invaders belong to a generalized Nordic form, with a cranial index of 75 to 76, and an intermediate vault height. The Ukrainian skulls from the eighth to the ninth centuries A.D. do not greatly diverge from this general standard, but the early Slavic crania from the Moscow region in Russia, dated from the eleventh to twelfth centuries A.D., are, in fact, almost purely dolichocephalic, with a mean cranial index of 73.5.
104 Asmus, R., AFA, vol. 27, 1902, pp. 1-36.
On the whole, the Slavic racial type, as exemplified by skeletal series from Poland, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, and Russia, was reasonably uniform. In view of its geographical location, the Polish group probably represents most nearly the original form, while those who expanded southward and westward absorbed local Keltic and other Indo-European-speaking populations. The Slavs, like all the other Indo-European-speaking peoples whom we have been able to trace, were originally Nordic, and there is no suggestion in their early remains, in the regions studied, of the numerically predominant brachycephalic racial increments which today are considered typically Slavic. However, the Slavs who migrated to southern Hungary, like the Germanic Gepidae before them, mixed with a local short-statured, broad-faced, and broad-nosed brachycephalic people, who, antedating the historic arrival of the Magyars, were descended from the central Asiatic Avars. 109
Most of the Slavs retained their original dolichocephalic cranial form until at the earliest the thirteenth, and the latest the fifteenth, century. At that time, those who inhabited Russia and central Europe grew progressively brachycephalic, at a rapid but consistent rate. Well documented series from Bohemia and the Moscow government show how this change progressed from century to century, so that normal means of 73 to 75 rose as high as 83 by the nineteenth. Few Slavs were spared this change, which was parallel to that which affected the southern Germans and other peoples of central and eastern Europe. Although it took place in the full light of late mediaeval and modern history, no one fully satisfactory explanation has yet been offered (By now the mystery must be solved. A blood group B cline would both show the direction, and numerical valuation of the admixture needed to effect the cline. Refer here - Translator's Note).
It is unnecessary to dwell long upon the conclusions reached in this chapter. They may be stated very simply and briefly.
The predominant peoples of the Iron Age in Europe as well as in central Asia, the West Asiatic highlands, and India were Indo-European speakers. For some mysterious reason as yet incompletely understood, various branches of this linguistic stock underwent periods of rapid expansion during which the human beings who spread these languages migrated in many directions and disseminated their physical type as well as their speech among other peoples. There had, however, been comparable expansions before this. The conquest of the cold brought human beings into parts of the world where only Neanderthal men and lower animals had lived, under equivalent climatic conditions, before them. In the absence of competition and in the abundance of game, they were able to multiply until they were sufficiently numerous to satisfy the requirements of their environment.
109 Szirky, S., and Huszar, G., MAGW, vol. 63, 1933, pp. 229-232.
The retreat of the ice and the shifting of belts of climate had precipitated other movements which may have taken the form of expansions, and the discovery of agriculture and animal husbandry, of course, gave rise to that expansion which Childe calls the Neolithic Revolution.
The Danubian invasion of central Europe from the east may be considered as an isolated wing of this movement, that of the swineherds who entered Europe from the southeast. In the same way, we may consider the migration of the megalith builders by sea; the wanderings of the Bronze Age brachycephals, by land and water; and the rapid movements of the Corded people across the plains of eastern and central Europe, as successive and at the same time parallel expansions. Thus, this business of expansions was not initiated by the Indo-European speakers. If we knew the languages of the peoples who preceded them, we might in each case find parallel linguistic as well as racial circumstances.
The principal point to this chapter is that the Indo-European languages were, at one time, associated with a single, if composite, racial type, and that that racial type was an ancestral Nordic. We have determined this through a study of the skeletal remains of peoples known to have spoken these languages at or near the time of their initial dispersion from their several centers. The sub-variety of Nordic concerned in each case varied, and the variations usually depended upon mixture with other peoples, amalgamated during the process of differentiation and expansion. Nevertheless, the various brands of Nordic so produced were still very much alike.
Another result of the investigation pursued in this chapter is the discovery that the mysterious Urnfields people, who began, toward the end of the Bronze Age, to destroy their skeletal evidence and did not cease this practice until well into the Iron Age, were probably Nordics. Hence the smoke veil has been lifted and we may be reasonably sure of what happened. Under this screen, the Nordic-like Early and Middle Bronze Age peoples of central and eastern Europe became Iron Age Indo-Europeans; no important change of race, then, took place in the focus of Urnfields development, that is, in eastern Germany, Poland, and the Ukraine. It is likely that no important change of language occurred there either.
Since, as we have seen, the Early Bronze Age central Europeans were racially a Corded-Danubian blend, a concordance of racial facts with the most recent linguistic deductions would make the following proposition likely:
The Danubians who settled the fertile plains and valleys of eastern and central Europe already spoke basic Indo-European; the Finno-Ugrian-Caucasic blend which produced this linguistic entity took place before their migration westward. The introduction of Altaic words, particularly those concerned with the care of the horse, were infused into the previous Indo European linguistic blend at the time of strongest Corded influence in central Europe, which produced the Aunjetitz culture.
This reconstruction helps to support Nehring's conclusion that the Danubians were the first speakers of Indo-European languages on European soil, and that Indo-European may be divided into two chronological levels without reference to the Centum-Satem division. If the original agricultural and cattle-raising complex was connected with the Danubians, the horse element with its Altaic linguistic connections would belong to the Corded. By this argument, we may construct a reasonably complete concurrence between the three disciplines: physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics.
At this point, a word of caution is needed. We must not carry the associations suggested in this chapter too far, and above all we must not form the opinion that the terms Nordic and Indo-European are inseparable. Indo-European speakers, from the moment of their initial dispersion, began mixing with other peoples, and the specific association between language and race found in this instance has by now been largely dissipated. Furthermore, the Nordic race as we have studied it in Europe was formed from the union of two or more widely distributed and essentially related racial types. It is quite possible and even likely that similar combinations of the same elements took place elsewhere, and that other Nordics may have arisen without reference to Indo-European speech. Further more, we must remember that, although most Iron Age Nordic groups of which we have literary descriptions were wholly or partially blond, we cannot be sure that all prehistoric skeletal material which seems Nordic in an osteological sense was associated with blond soft parts; we must also remember that the "Nordics" in the living sense have no monopoly on blondism.
Chapter VII THE IRON AGE, PART II
In the preceding chapter it has been shown that the Indo-European languages were probably formed somewhere on the plain of southern Russia or western Turkestan, by a blending of languages spoken by peoples in a Neolithic or early Copper Age stage of culture. One of the two linguistic elements in this blend has been positively identified with Finno-Ugrian, which at the same time forms one of the two lateral divisions of the Ural Altaic stock, the fundamental unity of which is under question. 1
The blending of Finno-Ugrian with the B element which produced Indo-European languages took place at some time no earlier than the last few centuries of the fourth millennium B.C., well after the acquisition of agriculture and animal husbandry by western Asiatic peoples, and before the adoption of a complete Bronze Age technology by the inhabitants of the plains north of the Caucasus and the Iranian plateau. The Finnish speakers, who contributed so largely to Indo-European speech at that time, must have been residents of the plains at the time of their meeting with the bringers of Caucasic speech with which their own language was united. At the same time, they must inevitably have contributed to the formation of the racial blend with which the resulting Indo-European languages were early identified.
1 Professor G. J. Ramstedt of Helsingfors University, an eminent student of Altaic languages, has come to the conclusion that the Uralic and Altaic groups of languages are not, as was previously thought, demonstrably related, but form two entirely separate linguistic stocks. He is supported in this view by Professor Szinnyei of Budapest. Private Communication.
The Finns were centered about the middle course of the Volga, and west to the country occupied by the Balts and the Slavs; the Ugri between the Volga and the Urals. In the sense that they occupied one unified territory from which they later spread, they emulated the behavior of their Indo-European-speaking neighbors. Movement to the south was inhibited, in historic times, by the presence of the Scythians and Sarmatians; before the rise of these horse nomads, however, they must at some time have been in contact with Caucasics-peaking peoples, who may have included the mysterious pre-Scyths, the Cimmerians, the remnants of whose speech have been likened to modern Cherkess. 3 (Cherkess belong to Adyg linguistic family. Likening Cherkess mountaineers to nomadic Cimmerians is as fanciful as likening the modern Ossetian mountaineers to nomadic Alans. Culturally, the Cimmerians are indistinguishable from Scythians, who were Altaians. Refer to Ivanchik A.I. "Cimmerians and Scythians", 2001, and C14 studies - Translator's Note).
...Before the time of known Finnish expansion, the Scythian barrier inhibited the use of agriculture as a primary means of subsistence among the Finnish tribes located to the north of the nomads. Many of the Finns, in fact, lived principally by hunting and fishing along the forested streams which formed the headwaters of the Volga, Don, and Dniester. But it is unlikely that the Finns in pre-Scythian times had been ignorant of agriculture; those who lived in arable country farmed at least by the time of Herodotus.
The evidence for the racial composition of the early Finns is scanty, but incapable of misinterpretation. One small series of ten skulls dating from about the sixth century B.C., contemporaneous with the Early Scythian period, has been identified with the ancestors of the Volga Finns at the time of their unity. 4 (See Appendix I, col. 49.) These come from the cemeteries of Polianki and Maklacheievka, from the former Viatka government in Permian Finn country just south of the present Komi or Zyryenian Republic. The graves belonged to the so-called Anan'ino cultural horizon. This Anan'ino culture 5 was formed from a combination of influences from Siberia, the Caucasus, Scythia, and Scandinavia. It did not end suddenly, but passed by a gradual process of evolution into the civilization of the historic Volga Finns.
3 Baschmakoff, A., ZFRK, vol. 4, 1936, pp. 194-199.
...All of the (presumably Finnish) skulls are European in racial type. The faces are a little broader than in most Mediterranean groups, but not to an exceptional degree. The noses, with the exception of one extremely leptorrhine (long narrow nose - Translator's Note) male, are mesorrhine or chamaerrhine; but so are those of many early Danubians. The cranial form is mesocephalic or dolichocephalic, with one male reaching the figure of 83; the vault is moderately high; the forehead usually straight, the browridges moderate.
There is nothing new about these crania, and nothing specifically Mongoloid 6 .... A group from the Lower Volga, representing the Mordvins of the fourteenth century, is similar to the Anan'ino and Permian crania, except that it is extremely long headed, with low indices, centered about the range from 71 to 73. (The 14th c. Mordvins thus craniologically appear to be incompatibly different from the ancient northern Finns - Translator's Note)
When we make a metrical comparison between the first two groups of Finnish skulls and all European series previously studied, we find that they fit into the ranks of Iron Age Indo-European speakers without difficulty. On the whole, they resemble most nearly the larger-sized members of the intermediate group; they also resemble the Scythian crania to a considerable extent, and even more the Minussinsk skulls. They are slightly smaller than the Germanic type, but equal to it in vault height and face breadth. In nose form and cranial height, they resemble the Neolithic Danubians.
(The Finns) ... were essentially... wholly European..., despite the paucity of Debetz's material.... (These Finns can't be derived) ... from forest-dwellers of Mesolithic tradition, except perhaps as a minor influence. Furthermore, in the early Anan'ino series, recognizable (Altaic) Corded peculiarities are to be found in but one male skull out of seven. The Finno-Ugrians, therefore, may be tentatively considered to have been, in the period before they expanded into their historic seats, Europeans of mixed origin, basically Danubian in type, with some brachycephalic element and an extremely longheaded variation as well; the latter is already familiar to us in the form of the (Altaic) Corded type; the former is not clearly definable, but is European. Its only discernible difference from the others in the same series is in a greater breadth of the skull. This broad-headed element is completely lacking in the late lower Volga group, of which we have only the cranial indices.
6 Debetz, loc. cit.
Debetz's discovery that the Finno-Ugrian speakers were originally purely European in race, and furthermore, not local Paleolithic or Mesolithic survivors, is in perfect accord with the present state of linguistic knowledge, which makes their form of speech one of two equally weighted elements in the basic Indo-European. They not only were, but on logical grounds must have been, in the larger sense, Mediterraneans.
Mesolithic hunters ... material ... comes almost entirely from Latvia, Estonia, and the Ladoga Lake country, all north and west of the historic Finnic center. 7 It includes skulls of Corded type, both with and without mixture, and a number of ill-defined crania which do not fit into the usual European picture. Many of these latter are brachycephalic, some are perhaps, but not certainly, incipiently or partially Mongoloid... Similar ones appeared sporadically in Late Neolithic and Bronze Age series in Poland and on the plains of southern Russia (Ukraine), apparently as intrusions from the north, but not in sufficient numbers to alter the prevailing character of the population south of the forest from which they, as the osseous headpieces of stray woodsmen, had wandered.
Until almost three centuries after the birth of Christ, therefore, Europe, except possibly along the very Arctic rim, had not witnessed the invasion of any Mongoloid people. Western Asia, from the Bosporus to the Indus, and the plains immediately east of the Caspian as well, were equally ignorant of them. But with the arrival of the Huns this gap was soon filled.
(2) THE TURKS AND MONGOLS
In order to discuss the movements of Asiatic peoples into Europe from the first inroad of the Huns to the conquests of the Osmanli Turks in the sixteenth century, it will be necessary to review briefly the events in central and eastern Asia which preceded and precipitated these incursions.
7 See pages 125-126.
From the time that the Irano-Aryan ancestors had arrived in Russian Turkestan in anticipation of their descent into the hills of northwestern India, much of this grassy plain had been the home of those Iranians who remained behind while their kinsmen climbed the mountains which would take them into India and the Irano-Afghan plateau. These Iranians apparently developed, or borrowed, a high degree of adaptation to their steppe environment, and especially through the perfection of pastoral nomadism with the horse as chief instrument of mobility. They expanded through the passes to the eastward, which took them to Kashgaria, and there came in contact with the Chinese Empire. On the other side, they expanded westward into Europe, where we have already studied them in the form of Scythians and Sarmatians.
To the northwest of the vast Iranian domain, in Mongolia, a number of semi-agricultural, semi-pastoral tribes, possessing the sheep, probably also cattle, and perhaps wagons, but apparently not the horse, came in early times to the attention of the Chinese historians. By 800 B.C. we hear of a people called the Hiung-Nu, who gradually grew in importance until they came to dominate all of Mongolia. 8 At a fairly late date, set by McGovern between 541 and 300 B.C., the Hiung-Nu presumably obtained horses, and learned to ride them. They seem to have acquired these animals from the Iranians or from Turkish-speaking peoples, along with the whole complex of horse nomadism. Chinese accounts of the Hiung-Nu later than the third century B.C. refer to them as typical plainsmen, strikingly similar in many cultural respects to the Scythians.
The six centuries, more or less, from 400 B.C. to 200 A.D., formed the period of greatness of the Hiung-Nu in Mongolia, during which they constantly harried China, and took possession of Chinese Turkestan. Despite their conquest, however, Iranian languages, and the mysterious Tokharian B, persisted in the towns until 800 A.D. or later. At length the Chinese took measures to rid themselves of this nuisance, and succeeded in defeating the Hiung-Nu so completely that they abandoned their territory and disappeared to the westward.
The last mention of the Hiung-Nu in Chinese sources is about 170 A.D. and, exactly two hundred years later, the Huns appeared on the banks of the Don in Russia. McGovern has presented a convincing argument to prove that the two were the same people; that their passage across Asia took them across a space sterile of historians, between the spheres of Chinese and of Byzantine chroniclers. Only one glow of light appears in this interim; in 290 A.D. Tigranes the Great of Armenia hired some such people as mercenaries.
8 McGovern, W. M., Early Empires of Central Asia. I am indebted to Dr. McGovern for permission to make use of his bk before publication.
The history of the Huns in Europe does not require elaborate treatment. Having defeated the Ostrogoths and sent them and their kinsmen scurrying westward, the Huns moved to the present Hungary, which they made their headquarters. From here they sent expeditions to Rome, to Ger many, and to France, where Attila was defeated in the battle of the Catalonian fields in 451 A.D. After his death two years later, the Huns retired to eastern Europe, and many of them united with their relatives the Bolgars, who had settled between the Ugrian and Finnic tribes of the middle Volga and Kama rivers, where, under Bolgar leadership, a great state arose, which flowered between the eighth and fourteenth centuries.
In the meantime, the Huns in central Asia raided Mesopotamia, Persia, Afghanistan, and India; presumably the Turkish penetration of central Siberia dates likewise from the period between 200 and 400 A.D. This span of two centuries marks the beginning of the great expansion of Turkish-speaking peoples, for the Huns, and their allies and relatives, must have spoken various forms of speech related to Turkish, many of which are now extinct.
When we view the Hunnish inroad into Europe in the light of the total context of Old World history, it ceases to be a strange inruption of hideous and invincible barbarians darting out of nowhere, as it at first appeared to the Byzantines and Romans. The Huns were a people who had been exposed to a high civilization, that of China; they were cultured if illiterate, and in every sense the match of the frightened adversaries whom they met in Europe. When we examine the details of these invasions, we see that it was not one simple inroad, but a series of them in which a perplexing confusion of names is involved. Chief of the newcomers, after the Huns, were the Avars, who arrived in the sixth century. The Huns considered these their kinsmen and equals, and later amalgamated with them after the Avars had, in the eighth century, been defeated by Charlemagne and had retreated, some to Hungary and others to the Don country.
From the fall of the Huns until the rise of the Mongols some thousand years later, the history of central Asia is simply a repetition of the same theme; some obscure sub-tribe would become important, win leadership over the others, and head new invasions of increasing complexity. The history of southern Russia became extremely complicated, for the steppes of the Don country served as a terminal point for all but the most serious of these movements.
After the Avars came the Turks, called Tü-Kue, hereditary ironworkers, who had been an old clan of the Hiung-Nu. They defeated the Avars in 546 A.D., and settled about the Caspian Sea; from here they conducted their raids and expanded, and gave their name to the whole linguistic sub-stock of Altaic which all of them, Huns included, seem to have spoken. It is probable that their speech superseded many older allied forms.
In the guise of Petchenegs and Kumans, in the tenth and eleventh centuries new waves of Turks moved across the southern Russian steppes as far as the Danube. As Seljuks, the Turks took charge of Asia Minor and fought the Crusaders; as Osmanlis, they conquered the Seljuks, withstood the Mongol advance, captured Constantinople, and swarmed over the Balkans and up to Vienna. But meanwhile, in the thirteenth century, other Turks under Mongol leaders, now for the first time called Tatars, had covered southeastern Europe ahead of the Osmanlis; and, in the four teenth, hordes of true Mongols had followed, leaving permanent settlements in the Caucasus, the Kalmuck Steppe, and the Crimea.
In the fifteen hundreds, the tide commenced to turn in eastern Europe; the Muscovites grew powerful, and the Asiatic invaders began to draw eastward as the steppes were peopled with Slavs. Under the rule of the Turks and Mongols, the older population had not entirely disappeared; colonies of Alans persisted until the thirteenth century, and Russian colonies lived under the protection of the Turkish Khazars. In the same fashion, the Turks and Mongols did not disappear with the Slavic advance, and their colonies in the midst of Slavic territory are still numerous.
There is an abundance of documents dealing with the invasion of Europe by the Huns and by their relatives the Avars. These inroads took place shortly after the expansion of the Germanic peoples to the east, and formed a primary reason for the failure of the Goths and Vandals to found a permanent home in the former Scythian country. They took place, also, before the major expansion of the Slavs, who moved eastward in the interim between the invasion of central Europe by the Huns and the whole sale westward migration of the Magyar ancestors under Arpad.
That the Huns came in great numbers cannot be questioned, and that they introduced a completely alien racial type onto European soil is vividly attested by the accounts of numerous contemporary historians, among whom may be mentioned Jordanes, Sidonus, Appolinaris, and Priscus. These authors unanimously describe the Huns as being short, broad shouldered, thickset, swarthy, flat-nosed, slit-eyed, nearly beardless, and bandy-legged. The Avars are described by some authors as being identical with the Huns, but by others as being less horrible of aspect. According to that Byzantine wit, Jordanes, the Avars defeated the Iranian-speaking Alans, who were the descendants of the Sarmatians, by frightening them with their faces and not by valor.
The careful studies of Bartucz, on whose work this following part is almost entirely based, has disclosed, in unquestioned manner, the exact racial composition of these invaders. 9 (See Appendix I, col. 51.) Many of the Hunnish and Avar cemeteries are very extensive, containing, in all, thousands of skulls. In many of these cemeteries, particularly in that of Mosonszentjanos, purely Mongoloid skeletons have been found, unaccompanied by European followers or European mixture. (The ethnical affiliation of the remains must always be questioned. In this case, the Agathyrs, Seklers, Kybars, Bajanaks etc. settled the area, and they all could be anthropologically distinct, invalidating the logics of the analysis - Translator's Note)
Bartucz finds two clearly differentiated Mongoloid types in these cemeteries. The first, which he designates as type A (Tungus-type), is dolicho- to mesocephalic with a mean index of 75.5 for the males and 77.0 for the females. These skulls are of great length and considerable size. The forehead is very narrow, the temples sharply curved, and the zygomatic (cheek - Translator's Note) arches laterally bowed. The occiput is narrow and conical at the end. From the side pro file, the forehead appears exceptionally low and slanting. The vertex falls well back of bregma (top of the cranium - Translator's Note), and the profile is curved through the extent of its length. In the occipital region the line of neck muscle attachment forms a powerful torus.
The vault of this type is lower than that found in any European group. It is, in fact, near the low point for mankind, with a range in height from 120 to 130 mm. The browridges, accentuated by the extreme slope of the forehead, are heavy, but the glabella (forehead between eyebrows - Translator's Note) region is flat, the orbits are rounded, and with the lower border often projecting farther forward than the upper. The nasal bones are long, narrow, and flat; so that the nasal skeleton some times fails to project in front of the malars. The lower borders of the nasal opening are smoothly rounded. The malars are extremely large and prominent, the canine fossa (cavity - Translator's Note) completely lacking, and the maxillary (upper jaw - Translator's Note) sinus, which overlies it, is so blown out that the surface of the bone is at this point often raised. The dental arch of the palate is U-shaped. The mandible (lower jaw - Translator's Note) is heavy, but the chin, however, but slightly developed. The whole sub-nasal portion of the face is enormous. The stature of this type, calculated from the long bones, is 164.4 cm. for the males, 153.1 cm. for the females.
Type B (Buryat-type) is also purely Mongoloid, but it is brachycephalic, with a mean index of 83 for both sexes. The forehead is also low, but much broader and more sharply curved, the occiput is rounded and broad, and the skull as a whole is globular, although the vault is still low. The face is broad and low, the orbits are lower, the nose less leptorrhine, the malars and zygomata less pronouncedly Mongoloid, than in the case of type A. The nasal bones are shorter, the palate broader and rounder, the chin more prominent. This type is characterized by shorter stature; 160.9 cm. for the males, and 152.8 cm. for the females.
9 Bartucz, L., ZFRK, vol. 1, 1935, pp. 225-240; Skythika, vol. 2, 1929, pp. 83-96; vol. 4, 1931, pp. 75-90; ESA, vol. 5, 1930, pp. 66-73. Krecsmarik, E., Dolgozatok, vol. 3, 1927, pp. 160-166. Lcbzeltcr, V., MAGW, vol. 65, 1935, pp. 44-46.
Thanks to the industrious researches of the modern Russian school of physical anthropology, it is not difficult to discover the Asiatic relationships of these two types. Type A (Tungus-type) is found today among the living Tungus, 10 and it has likewise a long history in Siberia, for it is found among many Siberian peoples, including Paleoasiatics, and it is characteristic of many of the Neolithic skulls excavated in the neighborhood of Lake Baikal. 11 Type B belongs to the Mongol-speaking peoples, and is found in especial purity among the Buryats, who represent, culturally and probably racially, the Mongols before the time of their expansion. Modern Buryat skulls are among the largest in capacity known.
In most Hunnish and Avar cemeteries, type B (Buryat-type) is more in evidence than type A (Tungus-type). Type A (Tungus-type), however, predominates in the cemeteries which are known to have been used by the Huns, type B (Buryat-type) in those which belong to Avars. The Avar cemeteries contain also, in many cases, intermediate types which show that these people had begun to mix with members of the white stock, either in central Asia, in Europe, or both, and other cemeteries in which the white element is in the majority. The leading classes of the Huns and Avars, however, appear to have kept themselves apart, and to have preserved their Mongoloid racial types pure throughout the centuries of their political domination. In the graves which are most richly furnished, and which show that the occupants were men of power and consequence, the Mongoloid types are unaltered. The two graves of known Avar heroes contain skeletons belonging purely to type B (Buryat-type).
Bartucz's identification of type A (Tungus-type) predominantly with the Huns, and B (Buryat-type) with the Avars, seems valid. That the two intermarried freely is shown by the fact that in single graves containing a man and wife, the two are often of opposite types. In such cases of differential mating, there is no linkage between sex and type, indicating that A (Tungus-type) and B (Buryat-type) were socially equal. It is very likely that the initial amalgamation of these two types took place in Mongolia, and not in Europe. Also, the presence of numerous intermediate forms attests this freedom of intercourse. Individual Hunnish skulls found as far afield as Lower Austria and France may be easily identified with the crania from Hungary, and belong in known cases to type B (Buryat-type). 12
A further light upon the physical characteristics of the Huns is shown by a study of Hunnish head hair, from graves of this period. A sample of it is very fine, straight, and jet black. 13 In color and in form, this hair was classically Mongoloid, but this fineness casts some doubt upon the generalization that all Mongoloid hair must be coarse, especially since it has been shown that American Indian hair is very variable in this respect.
10 Roguinski, A., RAJ, vol. 23, 1934, pp. 105-126.
The incontrovertible evidence of the Hungarian graves completely dispels the theory that the Huns may have been largely European in racial type. If the Hiung-Nu were ancestors of the Huns, then the early inhabitants of Mongolia were definitely Mongoloid, and belonged to the two important racial elements present there today, the Tungus and the Mongol proper. This throws the prehistory of central Asia into a clear and logical light. It is exactly what one would expect.
But it is necessary to discover what was the nature of the European racial element amalgamated by the Avars. This may be accomplished by studying some of the least Mongoloid cemeteries. In that of Jutas 14 (see Appendix I, col. 52), only five out of twenty four skulls show any trace of recognizable Mongoloid features. The Jutas sample, then, may be used for testing. Fourteen male skulls are all below 78 in cranial index, and are very similar to one of the Minussinsk regional sub-series; less pronounced relationships are present between it and Scythian and Armenian Iron Age skulls. The resemblance to Slavic and Germanic skulls, which are larger, is less pronounced. It is therefore certain that these non-Mongoloid Avars belonged to the general Mediterranean racial family, and that some, at least, were members of the Nordic Iron Age group; it is more than likely that they were for the most part incorporated into the Avar ranks in central Asia before corning to Europe. The study of the crania from another cemetery, that of Tiszadersz 15 (see Appendix I, col. 53), makes this virtually certain.
McGovern has discovered a number of Chinese references to the Hiung-Nu and other Turkish speaking "barbarians" which describe them as hairy, big-nosed, and partially blond. In later times, Genghis Khan was supposed to be red-haired and green-eyed. It is therefore likely that some of the Asiatic Nordic element found in the Jutas and Tiszadersz cemeteries was incorporated by the Avars before they left Mongolia, but, on the basis of the evidence from purely Mongoloid cemeteries like Mosonszentjanos, it is unlikely that this influence could have penetrated the entire Hunnish and Avar nations.
At any rate, it is evident from the size and number of the Avar cemeteries that, as Bartucz says, 16 these invaders played an important role in the peopling not only of Hungary but also of adjacent countries of central Europe, for the people whom the Avars brought into the Danube basin did not depart with the cessation of Avar rule.
14 Bartucz, L., Skythika, vol. 4, 1931, pp. 75-91.
At the same time the Avars did not uproot the former population, which included Slavs and Germans, among older elements, but made them tax paying vassals. Furthermore, in the days of Attila, the richness of the Huns had attracted many craftsmen and adventurers to the royal court, among whom were many Italians. Priscus's account makes it very evident 17 that Attila's capital contained a very heterogeneous population.
The great migration to Hungary, that which brought the ancestors of the present day Magyars, took place at the end of the ninth and beginning of the tenth century, when the Hungarian national hero Arpad led the Magyars into Hungary, where many Slavs had settled in the interim after the collapse of Hunnish power. We have already seen (p. 220) that these Slavs had partially taken over Hunnish physical traits. By 906 A.D., the Magyars were at home in Hungary; in the two centuries which followed, they adopted Christianity, and invited settlers of many nationalities, including Moslems and Jews, to help them occupy the land. These newcomers, along with the pre-Magyar Slavs, formed a taxpaying peasantry.
The Magyars were Ugrians from the region between the Volga and the Urals, who had been partially Turkicized by the Petchenegs and others, but had retained their Finno-Ugrian language, albeit strongly shot with Turkish. In this respect, they resembled the ancestral Bulgarians, semi-Turkicized Finns [sic], who had, a few decades earlier, crossed the lower Danube and settled Bulgaria, implanting themselves on a population of Slavs who had themselves been but a short while in occupancy. In Bulgaria, the Slavic language seeped through and replaced the Finnish; in Hungary, the Ugrian became dominant and the Slavic speech to a large extent disappeared. Nevertheless, Slavic culture blended with the Ugrian and Turkish, to produce modern Hungarian forms.
We have no physical remains of the early Finnic invaders of Bulgaria, but those of the Ugri of the land-taking period, as the Hungarians call it, are adequate. As is to be expected, these ancestral Magyars, led into Hungary by Arpad, were only Mongoloid to a minor degree. 18 Some of the crania which are found in wealthy graves do show definite Mongoloid characteristics, but the others for the most part lack them. The majority of the Magyars were of the same Finnish types expected from our previous study of Finns in Russia, while smaller minorities included Binaries or Armenoids. 19
At any rate, it was a very mixed population that lived in Hungary during the early Magyar period. On the whole, throwing all elements together, the stature was short and the mean head form rnesocephalic.
17 Brion, M., Attila, the Scourge of God.
Since then, the Hungarians have grown rounder headed, as have Russians and southern Germans.
During all the turmoil of the Magyar and Bolgar migrations, the Ugrians who remained in eastern Russia passed relatively unnoticed, but in the thirteenth century or thereabouts they, for some reason, probably new Turkish .pressure, crossed the Urals en masse, and established themselves in the western drainage of the Obi. Here they were divided into two tribes, the Voguls, on the immediate slopes of the Urals, and the Ostiaks, in the lower courses of the tributaries and along the Obi itself. In their new home their culture was modified to suit a more rigorous environment, and only those in the southern Obi drainage, at the time of the Russian conquest, still practiced agriculture.
An adequate series of skulls from the time between this eastward migration and the arrival of the Russians about three centuries later shows a mixture between the original Finnish type, with which we have already acquainted ourselves, and Siberian and central Asiatic Mongoloids, of the two types already found in the early Hunnish and Avar cemeteries. 20 How much of the Mongoloid blood was acquired in Europe, and how much later in Siberia, cannot be determined.
In the Hungarian period of settlement we already become aware of the presence of a new physical type associated with the Turks, who formed a minority in the ranks of the Magyars. When we examine the crania of the Petchenegs (Badjanaks) and Kumans, in both Hungary and Russia 21 we see that this new type has become the dominant one among these later Turks to arrive in eastern Europe. In it Mongoloid features are sometimes present, but in abeyance. The skulls are very large, of moderate height, extremely brachycephalic, and planoccipital. The foreheads are sloping, browridges some times heavy, the faces are very broad, and also very long. The orbits are of moderate height. The noses are narrow, and although often low at the root, frequently project at the bridge, giving indication of a convex profile in the living.
These Kuman skulls, as best represented by Debetz's series which includes fourteen adult males, are much longer and broader than historic Armenian skulls, 22 and both longer and broader faced. In height, nose and orbit dimensions, and the tendency to occipital flattening, these two groups are the same. They are also larger than Alpine skulls from central Europe, and far greater in facial dimensions; larger too, than the type B Mongoloid crania as represented by a large series of central Asiatic Telengets; much higher vaulted and broader of forehead than the latter, and even a little larger faced.
20 Zaborowski, M., BSAP, ser. 4, vol. 9, 1898, pp. 73-111. Ssilinitsch, J. P., AFA, vol. 34, 1903, p.
Thus, the type under consideration, which has become in many regions the characteristic Turkish form, is one which cannot be disposed of by the simple expedient of placing it in an Armenoid or Dinaric category. In size and proportions of the vault, the closest parallel to these skulls is with the British Bronze Age crania; but the resemblance here is far from an identify, for the British faces, although equally broad, are much shorter. In the same sense, the Turkish skulls are reminiscent of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic brachycephalic types from Europe and North Africa.
Since we know almost nothing of the early skeletal history of central Asia, east of Anau and south of the Minussinsk district, it would be worth less to spend too much time at this point speculating on the immediate origin of this type. As with so many other problems, we must defer its serious consideration to the section on the living, except to point out that in a small series of ten skulls from eastern Russian Turkestan, dated between 600 and 900 A.D., similar but somewhat smaller vault forms are in evidence. 23 At the same time, a few isolated Turkish skulls, from central Siberia, attributed to from the seventh or eighth centuries A.D., 24 are not unlike the Kuman crania.
After the Huns and Turks came the Mongols, who had been later to adopt the horse culture of the Asiatic plains. Their homeland was around the southern end of Lake Baikal, and they were hunters and fishermen before they became plainsmen. The earliest mention of them in Chinese history occurs in the seventh century A.D., at which time they camped in the country from Urga northward to the forest edge. They are supposed to have sprung from a blue wolf, and from this animal to Genghis Khan was a span of but eight generations.
Their conquest of most of the known world began in the first half of the thirteenth century, and ended two generations later with the death of Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan. The Mongols were not numerous enough to do all of their conquering alone, and incorporated most of the central Asiatic Turks into their armies. Hence there arose a perplexing welter of Mongolized Turks and Turkicized Mongols, and no doubt of Mongolized as well as Turkicized Iranians. We have no skeletal material adequate to untangle this snarl, but must rely on Mongol and Buryat crania from Mongolia itself to determine their racial type. This was simply the type B of the Huns, in a relatively pure form, as found today particularly among Buryats. Hence the settlement of the Mongols on the Kalmuck steppe brought the pure, brachycephalic Mongol type to the country around the northern shore of the Black Sea, and into the lower Volga plains, where whole encampments of normal Mongols may still be seen today.
23 Vishncvsky, B. N., KMV, 1921, #12.
On the whole, the Mongols proper did not influence the racial composition of Europe in the sense that the Turks did. Their influence was sporadic in most of the regions which they crossed, and strong only in southeastern Russia, and in the isolated colonies still living in the Caucasus. Elsewhere it merely served to freshen elements already brought by the Huns and Avars.
Lest this survey of Uralic and Altaic-speaking peoples be incomplete, we must mention still another group, the Samoyeds, who live east of the Ostiaks in the Obi country, and wander along the Arctic shore of Russia as far as the Kola Peninsula, where they meet the Lapps.
The modern Samoyeds, despite their proximity to the Siberian Ugrians, belong for the most part to the central, brachycephalic, Mongoloid type; Bartucz's B group, the classical Buryat-Mongoloid. 25 Except in modern times, they have had no influence upon the racial composition of northern Europe.
25 Sommier, S., APA, vol. 17, 1887, pp. 71-222. Klimek, S., APA, vol. 59, 1929, pp. 13-31.
CHAPTER XII. THE CENTRAL ZONE, A STUDY IN
Classification of Türkic languages
IE, Arians, Dravidian, and Rigveda
Scythian Ethnic Affiliation
Foundation of the Scythian-Iranian theory
Türkic borrowings in English
Türkic in Romance
Alans in Pyrenees
Türkic in Greek