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Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Ogur and Oguz
Huns and Turks
Ephthalite Dateline Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
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Türkic Genetic
Charts
· Тюркские Генетические
Графики
Genetics and Physical Anthropology Генетика и Антропология
Graph color coding follows J. D. McDonald 2005 “World Haplogroup Maps“
Цветовое кодирование графиков следует J. D. McDonald 2005 “World Haplogroup Maps“

Foreword

Введение

A first glance at the graphs gives an impression of amazing biological diversity within the Türkic group. The biological diversity is commensurate with the modern geographical diversity and the diversity of the Scythian times, when the Türkic nomadic Scythians filled chronicles from the Mediterranean As-guzai to the Huanhe Zhou. That diversity is contrasting with the gentle and sluggish clines of the sedentary agriculturists.

All graphs must be taken with a grain of salt, as the Tuvinian graphs demonstrate, but within reason they help in understanding demographical history. So, the Bashkirs, Chuvashes, Tatars and Turks have a substantial admixture with Finno-Ugric women, as can be readily be seen from the graphs. Khakassians, Sakha (Yakuts), Todjins, Tofalars, Tuvinians have a substantial admixture with Tungus women, including Mongol women. Others will also gain their counterparts, as the old preconceptions keep falling, and new studies, especially those distinguished by the scientists' sincere and innocent expressions of surprise, come around.

A significant factor that distinguishes Türkic people is a strict rule of exogamy, when a particular tribe had a permanent marital partner in another tribe. These marital relations were not symmetrical: while the women from the “khatun“ tribe were available to the dominating male tribe, the males of the “khatun“ tribe were disadvantaged, and had to have their separate “khatun“ tribe. This directional flow of genes, which lasted for dozens of generations, can't be overlooked in proficient genetical analyses.

Another factor that distinguishes Türkic people was caused by the nature of nomadic conquests. The female-transferred mtDNA carried by mostly male armies already in the second generation get replaced on mass scale by the mtDNA of the local women, creating very diverse mtDNA maps within reconstituted populations. A second generation inherits only half of the maternal genes, the third generation - one quarter, etc. In the West, this creates an mtDNA picture with a predominance of the Western Asian or Western clades, and correspondingly in the East this creates an mtDNA picture with a predominance of the East Asian haplogroups. In either case, a genetical assessment made without a complimentary picture of the male Y-chromosomes, or without accounting for the effect of mtDNA replacement, can't be relied upon. The phenomenon of mtDNA replacement equally applies to any predominantly male mass migrations.

Eventually, each compound Türkic ethnic group will gain its own genetic map showing genetics for each seok and separate ethnic subgroup.

Первый же взгляд на графики производит впечатление невероятного биологического разнообразия Тюркской группы. Биологическое разнообразие соизмеримо с современным географическим разнообразием и разнообразием Скифских времен, когда Тюркские кочевые Скифы заполняли хроники от Средиземноморских Ас-гузай до Чжоу на Хуанхе. Это разнообразие контрастирует с нежными и вялыми переходами оседлых земледельцев.

Все графики должны рассматриваться со щепоткой соли, как показывают Тувинские графики, но в рамках резонного они помогают пониманию демографической истории. Так, Башкиры, Чуваши, Татары и Турки имеют значительную примесь Угро-Финских народов, как явно видно из графиков. Хакассы, Саха (Яакуты), Тоджины, Тофалары, Тувины имеют значительную примесь Тунгуских женщин, включая Монгольских женщин. Другие тоже получат своих партнеров, по мере развеивания старых предубеждений, и прихода новых исследований, оссобенно тех что отмечены чистосердечными и невинными выражениями удивления ученых.

Существенный фактор отличающий Тюркские народы - это жесткое правило экзогамии, когда племя имеет постоянного брачного партнера в другом племени. Эти брачные отношения не были симметричными: в то время как женщины из “хатунского“ племени были доступны доминирующему племени мужчин, мужчины “хатунского“ племени были дискриминированы, и должны были иметь свое отдельное “хатунское“ племя. Этот направленный поток генов, продолжающийся множество поколений, не может быть упущен квалифицированными генетическими исследованиями.

Другой фактор, отличающий Тюркские народы вызван характером кочевнических завоеваний. Передаваемый женщинами мтДНК несомый в основном мужскими армиями уже во втором поколении заменяется в массовом масштабе на мтДНК местных женщин, создавая очень разнообразные мтДНК карты в воссозданном населении. Ко второму поколению переходит только половина материнских ген, к третьему - одна четверть, и т.д. На Западе, это создает мтДНК картину с подавляющей долей Западназиатских или Западных групп, и соответственно на Востоке это создает мтДНК картину с подавляющей долей Восточноазиатских хаплогрупп. В обоих случаях генетическая оценка, сделанная без сопутствующей картины мужских Y-хромосом, или без учета эффекта замены мтДНК, не может быть правильной. Явление замены мтДНК одинаково относится к любым  в основном мужским массовым миграциям.

В какой-то момент, каждое национальльное объединение Тюркских этнических групп получит свою генетическую карту показывающую генетику для каждого сеока и отдельной этнической подгруппы.

Overview
L. Gumilev outlined this advance sketch on the back of a napkin, it was reproduced in his book Ancient Huns, 1969, to place Huns in a demographical context, and remained static ever since. It was intended to depict contents of his book, and since the Huns were but a branch of the Türkic trunk, it left out a bulk of the crown on the Türkic Genealogical Tree. The Zhous, who ruled China for much longer than the Chinese ruled themselves, for example, are not named, they are indicated by the terminal points of the Sya (Xsia) and Huns. The western Scythians were left out, they were indicated by the terminal point of Sakas. Kushans, Tokhars were left out, they were indicated by the terminal point of Uechji (Yueji). Abdaly (Ephthalites) were indicated by the terminal point of the branched Huns, etc. As a graphic manifesto, the sketch however remains a roadmap for Turkology and a memorial to L. Gumilev.

On a higher level a 3D version of the same map would show the English branch. Together with Germanic peoples, Hungarians, Rajputs, Jats, Ukrainians, Southern and Eastern Russians, Durranies, Northern and Northwestern Chinese, and uncounted other groups, it carries a heavy Türkic streak in its language, its traditions, and in its veins. Many old discoveries of the old Germanic linguists related to the “Indo-European” phylum are the traces left in the local languages by the Türkic people, the prime of these traces are the mama and father, the Türkic mamü and ata respectively. In a more detailed depiction, the Tree would also show the Cimmerian (Kimri), Scythian (Juts, Frisians), Alanic (Amorican Norse), and other links from the Türkic Tree to English. These links are visible on the genetic graphs, they are rigidly impressed in the genetic composition of the populations, and they correlate with demographic ratios in the population pools.

Л. Гумилев набросал этот быстрый эскиз на салфетке, и так он и был воспроизведен в книге Древние Хунны, 1969, поместив Хуннов в демографический контекст, и до сих пор он остается неизменимым. Эскиз графически показывал содержание его книги, и так как Хунны были лишь ветвью Тюркского ствола, он не показал большую часть кроны Тюркского Генеалогического Древа. Например, Чжоу, которые правили Китаем гораздо дольше чем Китайцы правили сами собой, не названы, они обозначены конечными точками Ся (Xsia) и Хуннов. Западные Скифы опущены, они указаны конечной точкой Саков. Кушаны, Тохары опущены, они указаны конечной точкой Уэчжи (Yueji). Абдалы (Эфталиты) указаны конечной точкой отпочкования Хуннов, и т.д. Как графический манифест этот эскиз, однако, остается дорожной картой Тюркологии и вечным памятником Л. Гумилеву.
 

На более высоком уровне трехмерная версия той же карты показала бы Английскую ветвь. Вместе с Германскими народами, Венграми, Раджпутами, Джатами, Украинцами, Южными и Восточными Русскими, Дьюранами, Северными и Северо-Западными Китайцами, и бесчисленными другими группами, она несет весомый Тюркский след в ее языке, ее традициях, и в ее жилах. Многие старые находки старых германских лингвистов, относящиеся к "Индо-Европейской" семье, являются следами оставленными Тюрками в местных языках, важнейшими такими следами являются слова мама (мама) и отец (father), соответственно mamü (мамю) и ata (ата) у Тюрксков. В более детальном изображении, Древо также покажет Киммерийскую (Kimri), Скифскую (Джуты, Фризы), Аланскую (Амориканские Норманы), и другие связи Тюркского Древа с его Английской ветвью. Эти связи видны на генетических графиках, они нестираемы в генетическом составе населений, и они коррелируют с демографическими пропорциями населений.

mtDNA = mamas
Graphs show what would happened after waves after waves of migrations would keep replacing their maternal mtDNA with the local mtDNA over and over again. Depending on particular circumstances would change the appearance of the migrants and the locals, their language even if not completely replaced, their traditions, and their culture. The male-driven economy, military aptitude, class structure, and social organization would be propagated.
Графики показывают, что бы произошло кагда волна за волной миграции опять и опять заменяют материнскую мтДНК местной мтДНК. В зависимости от конкретных обстоятельств будет меняться внешний облик мигрантов и местных, их язык даже если не полностью замещенный, их традиции, и их культура. Принесенные мужчинами тип хозяйства, военные традиции, кастовые структуры и социальная организация выживут и возьмут верх.
Fedorova et al., 2003
Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Yakuts
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Fedorova2003.pdf
Follow up on Table 3. mtDNA Haplogroup frequency distribution in the gene pools of Türkic ethnic groups
and North-East Asian indigenous populations

Fedorova et al., 2003

Population mtDNA Haplogroup graph Population mtDNA Haplogroup graph
Türkic ethnic groups
Abdaly (Abzeli of Bashkortstan)/Ephtalites
(added)
Information inaccessible,
sorry
Alats (Alayundu, Ch. Boma) from Konya, Turkey

Konya area is also populated by Afshars, Bayundurs, Begdili, Bugduz (Büğdüz) - Alkaevli, Döğers/Dügers/Digors/Tuhsi/Tokhars/ Tochars, Kayı, Salurs, Varsak/Uar Saka/War Saka/Avars, Yörük/Yiva/Iyrk/Iurcae/ Hyrcae/Yancai

Information inaccessible,
sorry
Altaians (N = 110)
60,000 population

The generic Altaian Y-DNA makes as much sense as the generic Belgian DNA: Belgium is a geographical-political, not biological category. The Altaian Türks consist of two different biological phylums, each consisting of numerous biologically different tribes. See details.

Altaians (Northern)

Nenetses (Dubo, Tuva),
Ugrians (Finno-Ugrians, Magyars)
Syanbi Turco-Turco-Mongolic
Türkic Toba (Tabgach, Ch. Pin. Tuoba)
Tele and Old Türks
See details, p. 193

 

Information inaccessible,
sorry
Altaians (Altai kiji, Southern)

Tele 29.6%
Türks 22.2%
Enisei Kyrgyzes 12%
Naimans (10.4%), Keraits, and others See details.

Azeri (added)
Quite a motley soup that reflects a long road of Azeri Scythians from the Altai highlands to the Near East, to Sakacene state, to hosting a long sequence of guests, invaders and intruders, and still coming ahead as the longest-surviving descendents of the Scythian Ash-guzai. Azeri are remote relatives of other As tribes across Eurasia: Yazygs, Balkars, Karachais, and many more.
Note the Hg X (4%), restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)
Balkars (added) Information inaccessible,
sorry
Bashkirs
Note the Hg X (4%), restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)
Bulgar (Türkic) Information inaccessible,
sorry
   
Chuvash
Note the Hg X (1%), restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)
Digors (N.Ossetia)

Also spelled under local versions:
Dügers (Turkmenistan),
Tukhsi/Tuhsi (Altai-Sayan),
Döğer (Turkey),
Tochar/Tokhar/Dahae (fr. Gr.)

Information inaccessible,
sorry
Dolgans Information inaccessible,
sorry
   
Gagauzes Information inaccessible,
sorry

Gilan (Tr. Snake) is one of most ancient and prominent Türkic tribes, in the western Eurasia they are known as Djilan, Yilan, Gilaki (Iran), Gilan (Afganiatan, Pakistan), Kayi (Turkey) and Hailandur (Caucasus), Kumyk (Caucasus), Zmiev and Cheshuev (Russian), Gelon (Herodotus), and in the east as Kayi, Qiang (China), Xi/Si/Kumosi 奚 (China), Kian, Uran and Uryan, Uryanhayi/Uryankhai; Kai (Mongolian, Russian). “Old” Hunnic maternal dynastic tribe Huyan (Ch. 呼衍、呼延). Kayi is Mongolian translation of Djilan.

Gujarati (Abdaly//Ephtalite tribe) Karakalpaks Information inaccessible,
sorry
Kazakhs Khakassians

Khakassian - modern name for descendents of Enisei Kyrgyz

Kumyks

Kumyks are a blend of Kayi Huns (Hailandurs) = an “old” maternal dynastic tribe of Luyanti Huns, plus Aghvans (Aluans/Albans, Western and South Kumyks) supplanted by Savir “Huns” (Bulgars, Khazars, Savirs, and Barsils), plus Masguts/Alans (See description).

Information inaccessible,
sorry
Kyrgyz

Descendents of Enisei Kyrgyz

Rajput (Abdaly/Ephtalite tribe) Information inaccessible,
sorry
   
Nogais

Nogais must be among the world record holders on diversity of their female partners. Their biography is definitely most exciting, they traveled much, saw a lot, and must be among the healthiest people on Earth.
Note the Hg X (4%), restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)

Pazyryks (added, per I.V.Kulikov et al.)
Sakha (Yakuts) Soyots
Shorians    
Turkmens

Turkmens include distinct components that blur, or just show the complexity, of the genetic picture

Information inaccessible,
sorry
Tuvinians (n=36)
100,000 population
Tatars Todjins (N = 48)
Tofalars (N = 58)
700 (seven hundred) population
Turks (added)
Note the Hg X (3%), restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)
Turkmens

Turkmens include distinct components that blur, or just show the complexity, of the genetic picture
Note the Hg X (2.4%), from unknown seok, restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)

Tuvinians (n=458)
100,000 population
Uigurs
Note the Hg X (1%), restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)
Uzbeks (added)
Caucasus populations (Adygs, Nakhs, Kartvels, Armenians)
Adyg    
North-West Asian populations (Uralic/Ugro-Finn ethnic groups)
Komi-Permyaks
Note the Hg X (4%), restricted to northern Amerindians, including Ojibwa, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Sioux, and Yakima, and Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)
Udmurts
Komi-Zyryans Mordvins
Mari    
       
North-West Asian populations (Uralic/Nenets ethnic groups)
Nenets      
North-East Asian populations
Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family Chukcha, Eskimo ethnic groups
Chukcha Eskimo
Koryaks Itelmen
       
Tungus (Ch. Dunhu), Manchu, Koreans, Japanese
Evenks Evens
       
Mongolia (Mongols)
Buryats
200,000 population in Russia
Mongols
       
 

Demographic Notes

The Altaians, the native people of Altai Republic (south Siberia) number up to 60,000 persons. “Altaians“ is the common denomination for seven formerly distinct Turkic-speaking groups: the Altai-Kiji, Teleuts, and Telengits, who are southern Altaians, and the Chelkans, Kumandins, Tubalars, and Maimalars, who are northern Altaians. The differences between southern and northern Altaians are well established, on the basis of anthropological, linguistic, and classical genetic-marker studies (Potapov 1969; Alexeev and Gohman 1984; Luzina 1987). Anthropologically, southern Altaians Altai-Kiji, Teleuts, and Telengits are typical central Asian Mongoloids (like Mongolians, Yakuts, and Buryats), whereas northern Altaians Chelkans, Kumandins, Tubalars, and Maimalars exhibit Caucasoid anthropological features, similar to those of other Türkic, Ugric and Samoyedic groups.

X-haplogroup represents a minor founding lineage that is restricted in distribution to northern Amerindian groups, including the Ojibwa, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth, the Sioux, and the Yakima, as well as the Na Dene-speaking Navajo (Brown et al. 1998)

Y-DNA = papas
Fedorova et al., 2003
Follow up on Table 3. mtDNA Haplogroup frequency distribution in the gene pools of Türkic ethnic groups
and North-East Asian indigenous populations
Color Codes
(double check for accuracy)
Population Y-DNA Haplogroup graph Population Y-DNA Haplogroup graph
Türkic ethnic groups
Abdaly (Abzeli of Bashkortstan)/Ephtalites
http://ftp.anrb.ru/molgen/Lobov_AS.PDF
Alats (Alayundu, Ch. Boma) from Konya, Turkey

Konya area is also populated by Afshars, Bayundurs, Begdili, Bugduz (Büğdüz) - Alkaevli, Döğers/Dügers/Digors/Tuhsi/Tokhars/ Tochars, Kayı, Salurs, Varsak/Uar Saka/War Saka/Avars, Yörük/Yiva/Iyrk/Iurcae/ Hyrcae/Yancai
Alats also go as Khalages, Nuristani Kalasha, and the like

Altaians

Altaian Y-DNA makes as much sense as Belgian DNA: Belgium is a geographical-political, not biological category. The Altaian Türks consist of two different biological phylums, each consisting of numerous biologically different tribes. See details.

Altaians (Northern)

Nenetses (Dubo, Tuva),
Ugrians (Finno-Ugrians, Magyars)
Syanbi Turco-Turco-Mongolic
Türkic Toba (Tabgach, Ch. Pin. Tuoba)
Tele and Old Türks
See details, p. 193

Altaians (Altai kiji, Southern)

Tele 29.6%
Türks 22.2%
Enisei Kyrgyzes 12%
Naimans (10.4%), Keraits, and others

   
Azeri - free (11% - others not shown; partial test is suspicious) Azeri - Iran
Balkars Bashkirs
Bulgar (Türkic) Information inaccessible,
sorry
Chuvash
Digors (N.Ossetia)

Also spelled under local versions:
Dügers (Turkmenistan),
Tukhsi/Tuhsi (Altai-Sayan),
Döğer (Turkey),
Tochar/Tokhar/Dahae (fr. Gr.)

Dolgans
Gagauzes Komrat Gagauzes Kongaz
Gagauzes Etulia    

Gilan (Tr. Snake) is one of most ancient and prominent Türkic tribes, in the western Eurasia they are known as Djilan, Yilan, Gilaki (Iran), Gilan (Afganiatan, Pakistan), Kayi (Turkey) and Hailandur (Caucasus), Kumyk (Caucasus), Zmiev and Cheshuev (Russian), Gelon (Herodotus), and in the east as Kayi, Qiang (China), Xi/Si/Kumosi 奚 (China), Kian, Uran and Uryan, Uryanhayi/Uryankhai; Kai (Mongolian, Russian). “Old” Hunnic maternal dynastic tribe Huyan (Ch. 呼衍、呼延). Kayi is Mongolian translation of Djilan.

Gujarati (Abdaly/Ephtalite tribe) Information inaccessible,
sorry
Karachai Karakalpaks
Kazakhs Khakassians

Khakassian - modern name for descendents of Enisei Kyrgyz

Information inaccessible,
sorry
Kumyks

Kumyks are a blend of Kayi Huns (Hailandurs) = an “old” maternal dynastic tribe of Luyanti Huns, plus Aghvans (Aluans/Albans, Western and South Kumyks) supplanted by Savir “Huns” (Bulgars, Khazars, Savirs, and Barsils), plus Masguts/Alans (See description).

Kumyks No 2
Kyrgyz

Descendents of Enisei Kyrgyz

   
Lurs (Iran)
Lurs are Dravidians, Hg Q links Lurs with Turkmens and South Asia, Hg L  links Lurs with South Asia
Rajput (Ephtalite tribe)

1500 years and a continent apart, the Y haplogroups of Rajputs and Abdaly (Abzeli of Bashkortstan)/Ephtalites still share Hg R1a and L

 

Sakha (Yakuts) Shorians Information inaccessible,
sorry
    Soyotes Information inaccessible,
sorry
Tatars Todjins (N = 48) Information inaccessible,
sorry
Tofalars (N = 58) Information inaccessible,
sorry
   
Turkmens (Iran) Turks (Turkey)

Because of extreme heterogeneity, Y-DNA of Turkish Türks is not an ethnic, but a geographical-political category that in a hit-and-run mode encompasses anybody from Italy to Korea and therefore genetically, the whole Y-DNA is an alphabetical soup.

Tuvinians (n=458) Information inaccessible,
sorry
Tuvinians (n=36) Information inaccessible,
sorry
Uigurs Uigurs (EastTurkestan)
Uigurs (Urumchi) Uigurs (Yili river nomads)
Uzbeks Yiyrks (Iran)
North-West Asian populations (Ugro-Finn ethnic groups)

Hungarians

In 10th c. Magyars moved to Pannonia 50/50 with Bulgarian Kubars, and found land full with Türkic Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Seklers, plus Slavs, plus Germanics, plus plus plus. Plus later additions of Kumans, Kipchaks, Germans, Jews, etc. HP N shows how little is Finnic blood

   
Komi Udmurts
Mari Mordvins (Burtases)
       
       
North-West Asian populations (Uralic/Nenets ethnic group)
Nenets Selkups
Nganasans Kets (lang. Isolate)
North-East Asian populations
Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family Chukcha, Eskimo ethnic groups
Chukcha Information inaccessible,
sorry
Eskimo Information inaccessible,
sorry
Koryaks Information inaccessible,
sorry
Itelmen Information inaccessible,
sorry
  Information inaccessible,
sorry
  Information inaccessible,
sorry
Tungus (Ch. Dunhu), Manchu, Koreans, Japanese
Evenks Evens Information inaccessible,
sorry
       
Mongolia (Mongols)
Buryats Mongols
European populations
Croats (Hrvati)
formerly Besenyo tribe Charaboi
   
       
       
 
 
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Datelines
Sources
Roots
Tamgas
Alphabet
Writing
Language
Genetics
Geography
Archeology
Religion
Coins
Wikipedia
Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Ogur and Oguz
Huns and Turks
Ephthalite Dateline Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
08/22/2005
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