In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans


Huns Dateline 1766 BC-336 AD
Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
Kisamov N. Hunnic Oracle Phrase
Ogur and Oguz
Ephthalite Dateline
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Kemal Aliyev
Origin of Kumyks in Soviet ideology and historiography
Who are Kumuks?
Kumyk Scientific and Cultural Society, Proceedings,
No 5, 2001, pp. 4-19, Makhachkala
Yoldash (¨ëäàø), October 17, 2014, Makhachkala, http://yoldash.ru/ e-mail posta[at]yoldash.ru
Kumyk Timeline See Kumyk Dateline for historical background included
Dionysius Periegetes Huns (Unni) ca. 124 AD Ptolemy Huns (Unni) ca. 139 AD W Huns
5th c. AD
W. Goktürk Kaganate
7th c. AD
ca AD 650-850
ca AD 800
per Gumilev
AD 850
Kagan Domain
10th c. AD
Djilan (Gilan)
ca. 1000 AD
Itil Bulgaria
ca AD 800
AD 900
AD 950.gif (92K)
AD 1050.gif (92K)
ca 1200 AD
Russian acquisition of 1723    


Shamkhalate of Tarki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamkhalate_of_Tarki
ÊÒÎ ÂÛ ÁÓÄÅÒÅ, ÊÓÌÛÊÈ?  http://kumukia.ru/?id=1842 (Dateline)

Posting Foreword

In the S. Caucasus, Huns appeared as companions of Masguts, about 2nd c. AD, undoubtedly passing by the Aral Basin, where they joined Masguts (Massagets). In the merry-go-around of the nomadic coalitions, the Kayi Huns supplanted Massagets (Masguts, Alans), or Massagets (Masguts, Alans) supplanted Kayi Huns at the head of the Northeast Caucasian Türkic tribes. Then Savirs supplanted  Kayi or Masguts, and became an umbrella term in the Byzantine-Persian confrontation, then Huns supplanted Savirs and became a dominating force in the Caucasus till in the 8th c. the Arabs decimated them, forcing them to ally with Khazars. From then on, the North Caucasian Türkic tribes appear under the umbrella term of Khazars, with Bulgar and Suvar magnates continuing running the Khazar Empire. Ca. 1030 the NE Caucasus principalities discovered that they are on their own, and established a Kumyk Shauhalate that survived till 1867. From then on, under a gentle touch of the Russian domination, Kumyk fate tapered down into utter insignificance, with aspirations raised and quashed. On today's scale, demographic numbers are minor, and they were minor throughout the history, making the sizes, small and large, true only in relation to each other. Tracing back the present Kumyk population of 500,000 to its origin in the 2nd c. AD would bring it down to about 30,000 people (about 15-fold increase); breaking that into 3 components eyeballs each component at 5,000-strong of both sexes, makes the male portion about 2,500, and makes the combined military strength of about 6,000 cavalry. Still, the number of 3,000 cavalry far exceeds the cavalries of the great powers of the time, the Roman and Byzantine empires. On the background of the relatively prominent numbers of the Caucasus Huns, the statement of the Khazar Kagan that Khazar tribe was small is telling, the initial Khazar tribe of the 7th c. might have numbered not more than a couple thousands, constituting some 1-2% of the population of the Khazar Kaganate.

Ethnically, there was nothing linear in the E. Caucasus. The three-dimensional turbulence mixed distinct elements, amalgamating and stratifying distinct nuclei. Inevitably, initially different Türkic languages had to level out into numerous Sprachbunds, and areal Sprachbunds had to melt down into an alloyed Sprachbund. By the time the Arab conquests waned, with the leading Türkic tribes reduced and dispersed, it becomes viable that theretofore insignificant North Caucasus tribe Kom or Kamak came out ahead as a leading tribe of the reformulated Hunnic principality. Like the politonym Huns that covered diverse Türkic tribes, the de facto umbrella term Kumyk is likely also a politonym, applied to the area and population of the newly formed alliance of the Türkic tribes. The alliance survived for over a millennium, largely due to its democratic nature, succumbing only to the merciless hands of the Stalinist regime. The autonomous nature of its constituents helped to preserve individuality of each tribe till the Stalinist time, with a fairly common Sprachbund encompassing distinct Buinak, Khasavryut, Targu, and Piedmount dialects, and a distinct vernacular of the Kayi Huns (Kaitags). Much less individuality had survived the winds of time the genetic distinction: centuries of admixtures and amalgamations wreck havoc with the statistics of the population genetics

The brief but spectacular work of Kemal Aliyev fills the gap left over by Kumyk neighbors and masters, each one creating their own version of history addressing Kumyks “from outside”, and rather from the side that has a vested interest in distorted information about Kumyk history. It appears that the paper was started during the Stalinist time, when the social organization of the economic life, like the accent on the “feudal nation”, was deemed to be the fundamental, and the use of categorical labeling, however unjustified, was a prime display of deep penetration into the thicket of the life past. Many pages in the history of the Caucasus peoples are jammed and smeared. Wild guesses of alien scientists are taken seriously, instead of studying aboriginal folklore and genealogies. Whatever its shortcomings or staple lingo, the factual part undoubtedly deserves high accolades.

. The posted dateline is illustrative of the reigning confusion, same events are repeated with different dates, dating not only varies between sources, but at times also gets inverted, with effects preceding causes. Historical synopses on the background of specific events are notable for their omnivorousness, with the Khazars, Bulgars, Huns, Savirs, Masguts, Kayi, Kök Türks and Western Türks indiscriminately thrown in, all in in a single pile, and further tainted with notoriously inaccurate dates that roam wildly and often conflict with individual histories of neighboring states and nations. Errors in esteemed but inaccurate sources get rebroadcasted and recited. Usual for the timelines, it is almost all about political events, leaving out the subjects of people, demography, ethnology, and culture. In spite of being mostly political, the timeline prudently skips some major modern political events directly connected with the Kumyk history, like the abolition of the senatorial Council of Nationalities in the Russian parliament, or the stellar progress on the ethnic dilution within the Kumyk area.

Three points from the Kumyk history, related to Kazan and Shauhal, attract attention. First, according to the Kumyk folklore, Kazan was a Hunnic tribe. In the N. Caucasus the name Kazan is ubiquitous, connected with the toponym Endirey. The other term Kazan is in the Itil-Kama basin. The presence of the name Kazan in two localities separated by great distance corroborates the thesis established archeologically, that the Eastern Huns at some point split into two prongs, one in the Itil-Kama basin, and the other in the Aral basin. It also makes the etymology of Kazan “cauldron” a figment of folk etymology. The second point is the etymology of the term Shauhal. Shauhal is a local distortion of the term Sulifa recorded in the Chinese chronicles with the same semantics of “viceroy”. The variety of phonetical forms for the term Shauhal confirms that, it illustrates a chain of further distortions, like the form Shamkhal(ate). The third point is, the presence of the term Sulifa among the Caucasus Bulgars and Bu-ku (Bul-gu) tribe of the Chinese chronicles allows to corroborate the thesis that Bulgars and Bu-ku are one and the same tribe. The nearly simultaneous dates of the first references to the Bulgar Sulifa and the Bu-ku Sulifa lets credence to the thesis that Bulgars were extracts from the Balkh valley who were forced to migrate, and fled both east and west.

Posting notes and explanations, added to the text of the author, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes, or highlighted by blue headers. The unusual spelling forms are translated to pronounceable English and shown in parentheses in (blue italics): Khwarazm (Horezm) etc.

Kemal Aliyev
Origin of Kumyks in Soviet ideology and historiography
Who are Kumuks?
The problem of the Kumyks' ethnogenesis and ethnic history has largely been examined. The author examined in detail the problem of their origin and related theory and hypothesis, in his article “Origin of Kumyks in Soviet ideology and historiography” (Kumyk Scientific and Cultural Society, KSCS: Proceedings, No 5, 2001, pp. 4-19, Makhachkala).

Obviously, it must be addressed considering all tribes and ethnic groups that could participate in the formation of the Kumyk nation, and with a comprehensive study of issues related to the ethnogenetic processes in the Caucasus and Eastern Europe for more than three thousand years.

Combination of available ethnographic materials with anthropologic, linguistic, and historical materials allows to conceptually formulate our the following provisions about direction and nature of the ethnic processes that influenced formation of the early feudal Kumyk nation.

First. The origin and development of the Old Kumyk ethnos rightfully lie in the vast region of the north-western Caspian steppes from the Lower Itil in the north to the Alan gate (Darial) in the south-west and the Hunnic (Caspian) gates (Targu, Derbent) in the south-east, that from the ancient times was a special historic and ethnographic region comprising a settled agricultural and a nomadic zone. The region was characterized by a specific economic-cultural type - settled irrigated agricultural economy, especially in the interfluvials of the Terek and Sulak, Sulak and Ulluchai.

The reassertion is based on the Turko-Mongolian hypothesis of the Hungarian Turkologist J. Nemeth. He advanced this hypothesis in 1912-1914 after a detailed study of languages and history since ancient times of the Hungarians, Balkars, Karachais, Kumyks, Bashkirs, Tatars and other peoples of the Eastern Europe. To substantiate his hypothesis, the scientist pointed out that “according to linguistic traces, the earliest putative Türkic territory lays in the western Asia. The Türkic tribes apparently should not be separated from the Uralic tribes, and there are no reasons to attribute the original territory of the Uralic tribes to the Central Asia or the East Asia.

Subsequently, the concept was supported by other respected scientists (Turkologist A. Zaionchkovskii, historian and linguist 3. M. Yampolsky, anthropologist V.P. Alekseev, linguists Sh. Shiraliyev, M. Zakiev, scholar and writer O. Suleimenov, Karachai-Balkarian historians K . Laipanov, I. Miziev and others).

K. Menges, examining separately the Altai and the Indo-European groups - on the one hand, and the Indo-European-Altaic - on the other hand, also comes to a conclusion that these linguistic groups come from the same origin, and are extracts from the Caspian and Pontic steppes (from the southern Russia) before the second half of the fourth millennium BC.

K. Menges was not too far off, if his conclusion is pinned to a particular time, the Corded Ware assembly of the 3,500 BC period. The IE languages of the Old European refugees and the areal Türkic languages of the Eurasia contributed to the emergence of the incipient Corded Ware IE languages with a heavy doze of Türkic substrates, adstrates, and admixtures.

Thus, it can be asserted that the formation of tribes of the Kumyk feudal nation mainly occurred in the North-East and Central Caucasus, and in the north-west of the Caspian littoral, known in the Armenian and Syrian sources from the 4th c. as a Caucasian Hunniya (“the kingdom of the Huns,” “Hunnug-Undria”, “Honistan”). Accordingly, from that time (5th c.) a large area of the northern-western Caspian steppes from the Lower Itril (Volga) in the north to the Alanian gate (Darial) in the south-west, and the Hunnic gate (Targu) in the south-east became known as a “country of Huns” (“Hunnug-Undria”) - the Caucasus Hunniya.

Second. . The base of the early feudal Kumyk nation forming during 2nd-9th centuries, forged:

A - the local, old population (from the 3rd century BC) that lived in that etnic-areal zone called “Caspian-Scythian-Kumyk tribes”, and first of all mentioned in 79 AD by Plinius (Pliny the Elder, Gaius Plinius Secundus, (23 AD –  79 AD)) the North Caucasus tribes Kom or Kamak and Oran, connected with the Türkic-speaking groups of the Cimmerian-Scythian-Sarmatian world and identified by scientists with the Kumyks (S. Bronevsky, A. Bakikhanov, Z.V. Togan, F. Kyrzyoglu, S . Tokarev, L. Lavrov, G. Geibullaev, P.M. Magomedov, S. Sh. Gadjiyev, S.M. Aliyev, A. Kandaurov, and others).

In that connection is important to note that the Chinese sources in the 3rd-4th centuries mentioned among the Hunnic tribes of the west wing the ancient Kumyks under their own ethnonym.

B - Hunnug-Undurs, who formed the core of the Bulgars, and the groups close to them (Savirs, Barsils, etc.) in the 4th-5th cc. tribal alliance of the “Hunnic circle” (13 Türkic tribes), listed beyond “The Caspian Gates” in the 6th c. by Zacharias Rhetor, i.e. in the Caucasian Hunnia.

This layer, along with the first, is the main binding element in their complex ethnogenesis. That was reflected not only in ethnonymy, but in the endonym of the Kumyk nationality - K'umuk.

According to K. Kadyradjieva's opinion, Genetically, the name ascends to the endonym of the Huns. For the first time the ethnonym Kumyk appeared in the Caucasus in a distorted transcription by the 5th c. Armenian historian Yegishe (Yeghishe Vardapet) in the form “Hunnug-Undur” (M.I. Artamonov) meaning “Hunnug tribe”.

Formation of the Hunnic (Hunnug-undur) tribal alliance, its separation from the nomadic belt of the North-Western Caspian littoral stiffened the division of the European Huns (“Huns of Attila”) into two branches: sedentary Caucasian-Pontic (ancestors of Kumyks, Balkars, Karachais, Karaites, Crimean and some of the Itil Tatars) and the nomadic Caspian from which subsequently crystallized the Kipchak tribes (Nogais, Kazakhs, Kirgizes).

This supposition has some sound kernel, but oversimplification is a form of distortion. Bringing into the picture basic facts would clarify the situation. First, the Huns were on the run for generations, they were consecutively exiled from Ordos, from Gansu, from Mongolia, from Dzungaria; after Dzungaria Huns established two homelands, in the Kama-Itil interfluvial, and in the Aral basin. Each migration caused fractionation and absorption of new allies/subjects, thus the Huns that reached Kama-Itil and Aral basins demographically were a pale reflection of the Eastern Huns. The Caucasian Huns (Kayi) were a fraction of the Aral Huns, they came via Hircania (Yircania) and Gelon (Persian Gilan) littorals from the south, not north, and instead of connections with the Oguz phylum, were leading the Ogur phylum, Masguts/Alans, at first joining the Agvans.

C - the Iranian-Türkic-speaking ethnic groups ascending to the Scythian-Sarmatian world of the Eurasian steppes, who played an important role in the history of the peoples of Eurasia, the Caucasus. These, apparently, are Gels, Uties, Aorses.

Gels (Aguls) are mountain tribe, akin to Legs (Lezgins). Uties (Udins) are another mountain tribe. Strabo calls Gels Scythians, hence nomadic pastoralists, likely Türkic-speaking. Agily echoes the name of an ethnically distinct Vainakh tribe Auk/Auh of the Nakh linguistic family. The name Uties (Udins) is an allophone of the Türkic Uz, a Türkic generic for “tribe”, also likely Türkic-speaking group. Aorses are Sarmatian pastoral nomads, also likely Türkic-speaking. Lezgins belong to Nakh linguistic family. All these languages are agglutinative, no relation to flexive languages. The reference to Iranians must be a typo, unless it is a lip service of a PC nature. Other than sporadic use as lingua franca, there are no indications on the presence in the Caucasus at any time of the non-agglutinative Iranian languages.

D - Caucasian-speaking ethnic groups (their early medieval ethnonyms are not known to science), whose history is rooted in hoary antiquity of the Caucasus.

From the foregoing follows our main conclusion: Kumyks are a poly-substrate Türkic people, formed by amalgamation of several ethnic components with the leading binding role of the ancient Türkic component. Notably, our scientists solidly refuted a hypothesis circulating among Dagestanists on the “Ibero-Caucasian substrate” of the Kumyk language (see N.Kh. Olmesov Question of “Ibero-Caucasian substrate” in the Kumyk language//KNKO: Proceedings, 2001, No 1 (5), pp. 21-26).

Third. It is known that formation of any ethnic entity require a presence of an aggregate of ethno-forming ethno-constituting factors (conditions for the emergence, existence, and development). Let us dwell on their concrete historical significance in relation to the ethnogenesis of the Kumyks.

Relatively stable ethnic territory. The tribes that formed the Kumyk nation in the early Middle Ages (4th-9th centuries) already had a common area - different sources called it the “kingdom of the Huns” (“Hunistan”), or “Hunnug-Undria”.

Within the Caucasian Hunnia in the first half of the first millennium AD had started the processes of ethnic condensing and a consolidation of the Kumyk ancestors toward formation of an early feudal nation. This process continued within the framework of the Khazar Kaganate (558-1064), and the kingdom of Semender (9th-11th cc.) that formed in the period of weakening and disintegration of the Kaganate. The ethnic names of the ancient Kumyks surface with the emergence of these states, usually in two meanings:

a) a specific ethnonym, ascending to the endonym of the leading tribe (i.e. “Hunnug-Undur” (Kumuks);
b) a collective appellation, used for the same leading tribe and for the other tribes of that state (Caucasian Hunniya) with their own endonyms (Zacharias Rhetor).

The Turkisms, preserved in “History of Agvans”, a written monument of the 6th - beginning of the 7th century, and those recorded in other S. Caucasian written sources of the 5th-11th centuries, allowed scientists to demonstrate that the languages ​​of the Savir-Khazar alliance in the north-eastern Caucasus and in the northern Azerbaijan, were of the Kipchak type.

Albeit it is quite possible that the languages of which we know next to nothing, spoken by the very diverse peoples of whom we know next to nothing, were in fact of the Kipchak type. The antithesis of the Kipchak (Oguz) is Ogur, of which we know next to nothing. In addition, the origin of the singular Türkic lexemes recited by the sources may be a later distorted rendition or a distortion innate to the alien language like Armenian. With these qualifications, and without a specific antithetic language, no positive identification of a dialectal attribution appears conceptually possible. Therefore, the assertion of the Kipchak type appears to be an unjustifiable reverse projection. Likelier, the languages of the Kayi Huns, Bulgars, and the Masgut Alans were of the Ogur type; the Savir language could be leaning toward Oguz type, but if that is so, it is a breakthrough novel discovery that needs substantial corroboration.

It was found that the Huns – Kangars, Savirs, Khazars, Akatsir and Hunnug-Undur, i.e. the main ethnic members of the Caucasian Hunnia, were Kipchak-lingual (see.: V. Gukasyan, N.Z. Gadjiev, A.I. Aliyev, D. Sheikh -Ali, K. Kadyradjiev, M. Zakiev, T. Akhmedov, J. Nemeth, A. Zaionchkovsky, T. Kowalski, D. Hangishiev, N. Olmesov). The American Turkologist P. Golden, on the base of direct analysis of all available factual and theoretical material, in his two-volume work about Khazars (1980) also irrefutably proves the common Türkic language of the Khazars.

Thus, it may be deemed established that the dominant language for all tribes of the Kumyk ethnic base was an “Old Kumyk”, the “Hunnic” language (with tribal dialects) of a mixed Kipchak-Oguz type, which underlay creation and development of the runic writing (“Hunnic Türkic script”) and into which, as is known, still in the early 6th c. was translated the Christian Scripture.

Creation of an alphabet and script in the 6th century tells that still in that period existed a shared Common Türkic language.

In that language from tribal epics formed a common Turk heroic epos that came down to us in various versions (Adjiev A.M., Kumyk folklore in the context of ethnogenesis and Kumyk ontogenesis//KNKO: Proceedings, 2001. No 1 (5) p. 27-32;. Aliyev K.M., Great Prince Alp Ilitver. Epic biography of the ruler of the Caucasian Huns (Hunnug-Undur)//Newspaper “Yoldash/Times”, July 22, 2011).

The state-political factor

Obviously, various states existed in a space where were formed the ethnic components, the socio-cultural, and other traditions of the Kumyk people. For example, the Hun state, the Western Türkic Kaganate that emerged in the 6th c. and absorbed a part of the present Dagestan, evidenced by the sources and numerous archaeological finds. The Türkic Kaganate doubtlessly influenced formation of the Kumyk people. At the same time, to a degree she was an ancestral home of other Türkic peoples (Balkars, Karachaies, Crimean Tatars).

Individual components of the people formed in the Hun Empire (3rd c. BC - 98 BC), and in the 4th c. AD “the first known to us Türkic state of the Attila's Huns in the south of Russia”, and in the Türkic Kaganate (6th c.) that emerged after her collapse, and in the Great Bulgaria (7th c.), Khazar Kaganate (6th-11th cc.). These states contributed to the traditions, cultural and ethnic components of the Caucasian Hunnia.

Demographics helps to bring this very wide stroke claim to scale. At 2000 AD, Kumyks numbered about 500,000 population. The Huns appeared in the Caucasus at about 150 AD, numbering 25,000:
Kumyk population growth, period 850 years from 150 to 1000 AD, factor 0.041%/annum, 25,000 to 38,000
Kumyk population growth, period 650 years from 1000 to 1650 AD, factor 0.041%/annum, 38,000 to 50,000 (1.3 times)
Kumyk population growth, period 350 years from 1650 to 2000 AD, factor 0.68%/annum, 50,000 to 500,000 (10 times)

The ethnic composition of the “Huns” is irrelevant, they were all Huns independent of their origin.

Thus, the subject is a demographically very small community, definitely impacted by the local events, but practically immune to the influences emanating from the far-away places like Pannonia (European Huns), Mongolia (Türkic Kaganate), and even the Great Bulgaria and Khazar Kaganate.

A more careful analysis of the period up to the 4th c. would certaily detect the states that influenced formation of the Kumyk ancestors, but it seems the best to hold the Caucasian Hunnia as a first known Kumyk (Hunno-Bulgarian) state in their ethnic North-Eastern Caucasus territory. This state, known in different historical periods under different names - Hunnug-Undria, Honistan, Semender Kingdom - Jindan and Khazaria, played an important ethnos-forming role.

The period of its existence (over 500 years) was the most effective in terms of the Kumyk ethnogenesis. There, within the Caucasian Hunnia, befell ethnic concentration, stabilization and integration of the Kumyk ancestors.

There, “the Huns, a Türkic-speakers, as correctly observed A.V. Gadlo, were a catalyst of consolidation. They are a dominant group, albeit not uniform. Its formation, judging from the sources, took a long time and besides Türkic included also an Iranian ethnic component and, apparently, the local highland aristocracy”.

The unnamed mysterious Iranian component in the citation must be a figment of the state propaganda, if not a lip service to its censure.

Essentially, the the ethnogenetic process there went by two paths:

1. Consolidation of the linguistically and culturally kindred Türkic (Hunno-Bulgar) tribes around the Hun (Kumyk) tribal community and formation of the Türkic nation with its own language.

2. The natural assimilation of the Iranian- and Caucasian-speaking tribes by the Türkic-speaking tribes due to a relatively long historical period of their dominant position, from the first centuries of our era to the 7th-9th cc.

After collapse of the Khazar Kaganate, in her territory formed three states: Crimean, Itil, and Caucasian Khazarias (Djindan).

Formation of Djindan (Semender Kingdom) as an independent Kumyk state, a heir to the “Hun Kingdom”, happened only after 940. The ethnic process there was especially intense and specific - it was a formative process of the early feudal Kumyk nation with its own common language, culture, and territory.

The emphasis on feudal, and early feudal economy is a tribute to the Communist-era political economy, which parroted the European historical specifics across the whole of humanity (F. Engels), as if the whole of humanity consisted of the land-bound subsistent peasantry. In fact, the system of beneficial patronage introduced to Europe by the fragments of the European Hunnic Empire, in Europe degenerated into the feudal system, while in Asia it survived till the present as a beneficial patronage system, especially in Afganistan, India, and the Central Asian Khanates before the Russian colonization and longer in the areas little affected by the colonization.

Particularly intense the ethnic integration of the Old Kumyk tribes into the early feudal nation was centered around the Türkic (Hunnic) towns (Varachan, Semender, Anji, Targu, Belenjer), where the old tribal differences lost their importance in new conditions. They become the bearers of the urban culture, urban civilization, characteristic of the Hunnic tribes.

Since we know nothing of the situation among the nomadic tribes of the Aral basin, from where the Huns came, and also of the situation in the Caucasus before and after their arrival, any discussion on the relative intensity of the “ethnic integration” is pure nonsense. It is an example of how the historical myths are created, false at every turn. The best that a local historian can do is to seed the alien canvas with some realistic outcrops.

Of particular note here is the role of the Djindan kings' capital Anji-Targu-Semender as a single administrative, commercial, and cultural center, which has become a civilizing focus of the Kumyk Muslim radiancy. There, the kings built the first Muslim mosques, as correctly noted Acad. W.W. Bartold.

In that period, the ethnopolitical self-identification of the Kumyks included such elements as belonging to the Muslim Ummah, allegiance to the ruler of their state - Selifans (Shauhal, Sulifa), knowledge of the origin of its people and language. Is no coincidence that with that period, 10th-11th cc., is related the emergence of the lasting Kumyk ethnonym in the form “Kumuk” (“Komuk”, “Gumik”), genetically related to the “Hun”/“Kun” (an allophone of English kin “kindred”) and “Hunnug”. Andto this period apparently belongs the birth of the sagas about Anji (“Anji-name”).

The title Sulifa, Mandarin Pyn. Xielifa/Sylifa 苏李发?/葛李发?, Khazar Khalifa, and the title K.nd.r, Mandarin Pyn. 汗 “khan”, 可汗 ke-han “kagan”, corroborate the attribution of the Bulgars with the tribe Pu-ku (Bugu, Bu(l)gu, 布谷/布库/布苏) of the Chinese annals, the head of Pu-ku was titled with the identical “Sulifa Kenan Bain”, and the attestation of the Khazar sources points to the Khazars being a fraction of Bulgars

The backbone of the emerging Kumyk (“Djindan”) consciousness , apparently was a sense of common affiliation with a single centralized territorial-political body, the kingdom of theSemender kings - Selifans (Shauhals), and with the Khazar Empire, where Djindan was a confederate. It is also no coincidence that at the turn of the 9th and 10th cc. were formalized the ethnogenetic traditions (genealogies), ascending Kumyks to the biblical Kamar, Kamak, the son of Japheth.

The religious factor (Tengriizm, Christianity, Judaism, Islam).

All four religions impacted the ethnos-forming process in the Caucasus Hunnia, and shaped the Kumyk culture. The monotheistic Tengriizm that defined the face of the Eurasia for many centuries (i.e. millennia) until the Islamic “revolution” of the (Kipchak Khanate) Golden Horde Uzbek Khan, remained a halfway between reverence and a world religion, having failed to establish an independent sphere of influence during the Middle Ages. And the Tengriizm of the Kumyk ancestors and of other Türkic peoples has been supplanted by the world's religions: in the beginning by Christianity at Alp Ilitver (7th c.), by Judaism at the Khazar king Bulan (7th c.), and finally by Islam at the Semender Selifa king (Sary-Kan (Khan, Kaan, Kagan), 9th c.), apparently under the influence of the Seljuks.

However, it should be noted that Kumyks encountered Islam still in 734. Not incidentally many sources name that year as the date of Kumyks' initial adoption of Islam. Indeed, Islam became the Kumyks' “constitutive element” and “a nursery of civilizing”. Adoption of Islam, of course, accelerated and completed consolidation of the Kumyk ethnos.

Another deceptive figment of propaganda. Kumyks did not “adopti” Islam in 734, they were beaten into it as a result of Muslama campaign of 733/734: “Muslama... captured Kaitak, converted to Islam most of the population, and assigned them an annual kharaj (land and produce tax on conquered non-Muslims). Abu Muslim appointed a (Kaitak) ruler a man named Hamza (hence, the name Hamzin) from among his (Arab) people” (Derbend-name. Ø p 33).

The initially “non-convert” tax became a regular tax on Muslims when “non-converts” became “converts” to avoid taxing.

Due to the adoption of Islam, the Kumyks ancestors got involved into the Islamic world, which determined the future of the nation and the traits of its civilization. Moreover, through the Kumyks, the Islamic religion decisively entrenched in the North Caucasus.

All these factors led to the formation among Kumyks by the 9th c. of a common national consciousness, i.e., a cognizance of belonging to a new, higher socio-political organism - a nation.

The above-mentioned factors (conditions), each to a different extent, resulted in the formation of the early medieval Kumyk nationality.

Fourth. The process of forming of the Kumyk people and its language covers a period that lasted from the 2nd c. BC. to 9th-11th cc. Undoubtedly, that long ethnogenetic process passed through several stages.

On the issue of the starting point of the Kumyk ethnogenesis, scientists express a variety of views, at times conflicting. A developed periodization of the Kumyk ethnogenesis does not yet exist in the today science.

An ethnographer S.A. Tokarev, allowing a presence at the Kumyks of “an ancient Pre-Türkic layer (apparently, Scytho-Sarmatian), connected their ethnogenesis with the first half of the first millennium AD, particularly with the people Kam or Kamak, mentioned by Plinius in the 1st c. AD. Acad. W.W. Bartold and his colleague A. Kermani believed that the initial stage of Kumyk ethnogenesis falls on the second half of the first millennium AD, and regarded Kumyks as poly-substrate people (Bulgars, Khazars, Cumans), settled in the North Caucasus and the Dagestan steppes between 5th and 12th cc. The authors of the fundamental work “Peoples of the Caucasus” also concur: “Formation of the Kumyk people began in the second half of the first millennium AD”. The contemporary researchers count Kumyks, along with Balkars, Karachaies and Ossetians, as the descendants of the Türkic-speaking Cimmerian-Scythian-Alanian tribes and the creators of the Nart epic.

The quasi-learned speculations are recited over again, handled as a true gospel. The learning ventures from an absence of a clue, piling one unknown over another unknown, treating the first unknown as defined entity that can justify speculations on the second unknown. Thus, Cimmerians, Scythians, Alans (Ases, Masguts), Kumyks, Balkars, Karachaies, and Ossetians are all piled into a single uncouth heap of “them”, and time is treated as a single compressed point.

Let's try to elucidate periodization of the Kumyk ethnogenesis.

First step. It falls to the beginning of the Kumyk ethnogenesis and it can be called a period of embryonic development, or the “Hun” era. It covers the 3rd-1st cc. BC. During that period, the primary differentiation of the ancient Türkic tribes linguistically falls into two broad groups. The dominant tribe in that period is the royal clan Hyuen (Ãþåí), which produced the entire ruling dynasty of the (Caucasian) Huns and to which ascend the rulers of the European Huns (“Attila's Huns”).

Hyuen (Russian Ãþåí) appears to be an allophone of the generic name Hun (meaning “kins, kindred”, another allophonic form). The sanity of having the same name for the dynastic line as a generic appellation for a collection of related individual tribes is questionable: French dynastic line would be Frank, the English dynastic line would be Angle, the Russian - Rus, etc. The only source on the Attila's dynastic line names it as Dulo: “Atilla... clan is Dulo... reigned on the other side of the Danube (for) 515 years with shaven heads”.

Huns first appear in the Caucasus in the army of the Aguan king Sanesan, as mercenaries of allies: “Favstos Buzand informs that in the 330es the Huns, together with Maskuts, Alans and various other nomadic tribes led by king Sanesan (Sanesarakan, i.e. Sanesar-Khan, Arsakuni dynasty) raided Armenia (Favstos Buzand, p. 19-16). Favstos Buzand... names Sanesan a head of the campaign, “king of Maskuts and ruler of the Huns army”... King Sanesan is also recorded in a Parthian fragment coming from Dura (2nd-3rd c. Benveniste 1966, 106)”. That is about 150-350 AD, generations (14-22 generations) away from the 3rd-1st cc. BC.

The “First step” is completely wiped out as bogus.

Second phase. It covers the period of 1st. c. BC. - 3rd c. AD. In the North Caucasus and Dagestan in the 1st c. becomes visible an ethnogenetic process of forming, from the initial tribal nucleus, the Kumyk ethnos named in Plinius Kam or Kamak. Kumyk (Kamak) is a Hunnic tribe, which, according to the “Oguz-name”, was to be a guardian of the Caspian Gates still during the reign of the Oguz Khan, rightly identified with Mode Kagan of the Chinese sources. This is indirectly confirmed by the Plinius' information that already in his time the Caspian Gates were called “Kuman Gates”, i.e., Kamaks (Kumyks). Apparently, the significance and role of Kamaks among other southern tribes was due to the presence in the Caucasus of the Kumyk toponym named by Plinius.

Third stage. It covers the period of 4th-7th centuries AD. During that period many Türkic southern tribes unite into a first known to us Türkic state of the Attila Huns, a concretion of 13 Hunnic (Türkic) tribes in the lands north of Derbent. There appears the first in the Caucasus Türkic state of the ancestors of Kumyks, Balkars, and Karachaies, known in the Armenian sources as Honistan (“Kingdom of the Huns”), which for simplicity is called Caucasian Hunnia. Is taking place an ethnic stabilization of the Kumyk ancestors with the leading binding role of the Hunnug-Undur tribe, begins the formation of the early feudal Kumyk nation, which came into close contact with the Iranian- and Caucasian-speaking tribes.

Omitted in the outline are more than few substantial facts critical for perceiving the story:

1. The Arabic form Djidan, probably inherited from Persian, probably inherited from Parthian, is a distortion of the name Gilan (Gilyan, Türkic “Snake”, in the Ogur articulation, corresponds to the Oguzic Ilan/Ilyan “Snake”), which was the south-western Caspian Sea littoral populated by the Türkic nomadic tribe Gilyan, the Herodotus' Geloni Scythians.

Modern Iran Gilan Province, severely shrank from its ancient extent
A geographical littoral Gilan extended far to the north, and housed numerous principalities

2. The littoral east from Gilyan was called Iurcae, the Herodotus Hyrcania, populated by the Türkic tribes called by generic Yirk “Nomad”. Roughly corresponds to the modern Iran Mazandaran and Golestan provinces, and a part of Turkmenistan. Caspian Sea was called Hyrcanian Sea.

Historical Hyrcania
Modern Iran Mazandaran and Golestan Provinces, and a part of Turkmenistan, severely shrank from the ancient extent

3. A part of historical Gilan north of Shirvan was populated from ca. 150-350 by Kayi Huns, a Türkic tribe, under the Arabic name Djilan and native name Kaidag (Türkic “Mountain Kayi”)

Al Masoudi Djidan ca 1000 AD (Djilan ~ Kaidag ~ Kayi)

4. In the K. Aliyev's outline, Kaidak is called Djilan, and is populated by Huns ~ Hunnug-Undur ~ Kam ~ Kamak ~ Kumyk. Somehow, Kayi did not find a place in the outline. But logically, Kayi and Kam ~ Kamak ~ Kumyk are one and the same. Kayi is one of the most ancient (3rd c. BC) and prominent Türkic tribes. The tribe Kayi was an “old” maternal dynastic tribe Huyan 呼衍 of the Eastern Huns, and a leading tribe in the Seljuk and Ottoman states. In this outline, the royal clan Hyuen (Ãþåí) probably stands for the Kayi tribe.

Fourth stage. It covers the 7th-10th centuries, associated with Khazar domination in the Caucasus and Eastern Europe and initial penetration and spread among the Kumyks of the world religions - Christianity, Judaism and Islam. This is an initial stage of geopolitical separation, of forging a primary (political) core, of forging the early medieval Kumyk nationality. By the end of that period, instead of the Khazars, become frequent expressions of the stable Kumyk ethnonym in the form “Kumuk”. The disappearance of the Khazars' name and the “appearance instead of the name “Kumyk” was connected with the adoption of Islam” and the formation of the “Khazar-Kumyk ethnos”.

Fifth. Ethnogenesis, as is known, involves settling of a question of the linguistic continuity, i.e., the continuity of the ethno-glottogenetic process, a formation of the language.

Currently, most Turkologists are unanimous that “all the languages of the Türkic peoples who lived in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus contain to varying degrees the elements of the Hunnic language (i.e. of the Khazar, Bulgarian), Oguz and Kipchak languages (Hangishiev J. M. Ethnogenesis of Kumyks in the light of linguistic data//KNKO: Proceedings, 1 (5), pp. 19-20), and that the Kipchak group of the Türkic languages belongs to the West Hun branch of that language family”. Now also has been proved that the “language in the kingdom of the Huns” was “one of the Türkic languages of the Savir-Khazar alliance” and, as was shown above, the language was of the Kipchak type. The “Hunnic” and Kumyk languages are traceable in ascendance and continuity. N.A. Baskakov, for example, justly indicates that the core of the Kumyk language rests on the “common historically laid Bulgarian and Khazar... features.” Another Turkologist, M.A. Habichev, comes to quite definite conclusion of the comparative study of languages: “There are no reasons to depict the history and language of these people (Kumyks, Balkars, etc. - K.A.) as a continuation of the solely Kuman history and language, because many linguistic facts of the Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk, and Crimean Tatar languages are older than the ancient language of the Kuman dictionary.” Prof. J.. Hangishiev asserted on this subject more specifically. According to his chronology, the core of the Kumyk language formed within the Khazar state in the 7th-10th centuries, it formed on the Khazar-Bulgar substrate, with further subsequent layering on the core of the Oguz-Kipchak superstratum”.

Unfortunately, our store of hard linguistic data on the subject is thoroughly limited and in many cases totally non-existent. Yet. The only advantage is the extreme conservatism of the Türkic languages, which allows to project the known elements further into the past by an order of magnitude in comparison with the flexive languages. On the other hand, the amalgamation of numerous, at best vaguely known, components, at equally vaguely known times, into the lingual core make that a function of loosely known and unknown arguments. Under such circumstance, the problem has numerous solutions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Postulations and assumptions lead to some solutions, only proving that with circular logics any postulate can be proved by its conclusions. A better line of logics would demonstrate that linguistic “reconstruction” of the parental language, say Kuman, from the assumptive daughter language, say Kumyk, is impossible, because it leads not to the presumptive parental language, but to a third language, say Hunnic, Bulgar, etc.

With the foregoing on the history of the Kumyk glottogenesis, i.e. the formation of the language, in our opinion can be discerned the following four periods:

First centuries AD - 4th century. The existence of separate tribal languages (dialects) of the Huns (Kamaks, Hunnug-Undur, Khazars, Bulgars, etc.) in the territory of the North Caucasus.

Before the 5th c. AD, the only known players are Huns, Masguts/Alans, and Kayi/Kaitaks. Huns and Kayi may be one and the same, a Kayi tribe under a Hun generic name. All three might have originated from the same Aral basin, but went through their own migrations, amalgamations, and perils, coming to the Caucasus Agvania as distinct entities, which was recorded as such in the Caucasus chronicles. The presence of the Bulgars is only implied, from a moniker Hunno-Bulgars, as a reverse projection. The inclusion of the Khazars is manifestly out of place.

5th - 6th cc. Formation and functioning of a supra-dialectal “ancient Türkic language” and the ancient Türkic literature.

If the supra-dialectal even had developed in the far-away places, it had no baring on the local languages in the Caucasus. Other than toreutical traces, we have no traces of the ancient Türkic literature before the Orkhon inscriptions.

6th-9th cc. Based on the ancient Türkic language, formation of a regional Old Kumyk (“Hun”) language within the Caucasian Hunnia (“kingdom of the Huns”, “Djindan”). Creation runic-based script (“Hunnic Türkic writing”), translation of the Christian Scriptures (the Bible) into that language.

A mission of an Armenian cleric Kardost resulted in issuance of Scripture in Hunnic language in about 544 AD, i.e. in 6th c. It is likely that both the Hun and the Turkic, called the Scythian, script was in the Sogd-Manichean or Sogdian script (Pigulevskaya N.V. Syrian sources on the history of the USSR peoples. Editor Struve M., Academy of Sciences, 1941). Unless Pigulevskaya is wrong, how come that it was a runic-based script?

9th-13th cc. Functioning of common language of the Kumyk early feudal people. Adoption of the Arabic alphabet, along with Islam, development of literature.

13th-15th cc. Formation of the Old Kumyk literary language (“Turki” of the North Caucasus) of the feudal Kumyk people.

* * *

As demonstrated our analysis, by the time the late Kipchak (11th c) penetrated to the North Caucasus, and the Tataro-Mongols arrived in the 13th-14th cc., the result of the ethnic process there had been nearly unambiguous: the process of the Kumyk ethnogenesis was completed, has formed the feudal Kumyk people, with a single common language and script, with a common territory (a state), ethnic identity, and a permanent self-appellation Kumuk. Therefore, Kumyks succeeded in preserving their ethnic identity (ethno-immanence) for all subsequent time, during the birth and existence of the great power of that time, the Kipchak Khanate (aka Golden Horde), and during the era of its collapse in the 1443/1444 Kumyks succeeded in reviving and fortifying their independent statehood as the “Shevkal kingdom” (Targu Şavhallıgı, 1443 - 1867)- “Devlet Al-Şawhaliyan”. But that is a topic for another special study.

Since there was no significant Kipchak migration to the Dagestan (Nogais were deported from Moldova and Crimea in the 19th c. to the area north of Dagestan), there was no significant amalgamation with the Kazakh language of the Nogais), and that was the only significant demographic change in the NE Caucasus before mass relocations of the Stalinist time.

In conclusion are cited the words of Professor Ahmed Djaferoglu:

“Kumyks are innately native Türkic people, which formation began in the 7th century as a result of amalgamation of two mighty branches of the Oguz-Kipchak Türkic ethnos in the Khazar territory. So, they fused into a Kipchak-Oguz nation long before the Mongol conquest of the Caucasus. The Kumyk life, their cultural-economic types, their language and the dialects they use today, carry all the traits and traces of such their origin and development. The existing in the Soviet science hypothesis about their foreign origin is not substantiated scientifically and historically.”

Kamil Aliyev.
Yoldash /17.10.2014 9:33

Kumyk Timeline
See Kumyk Dateline for historical background included
Time Events
 1. 4th-15th cc.
4th c. Formation of Caucasian Hunnia, “kingdom of Huns”, first state of Kumyk ancestors with center in Varachan (on site of present-Ulla Boynak in DR (Dagestan Republic) Karabudakhkent district)
544 6th c. Translation of Christian holy “scriptures” into Hun (Türkic) language in Varachan
558 Formation of Khazar state including Caucasian Hunnia (“kingdom of Huns”) with center in Semender (Targu) city
7th c. “Hunnic Targu city” is mentioned in History of Caliphs by Vardapet Ghevond (10th c.)
682 Adoption of Christianity by Alp Ilitver's Huns (Caucasian Hunnia)
8th “Khazar city Targu” is mentioned in medieval Arabic historical sources
713 713-737 Arab military campaigns against Khazaria and her federate - Caucasian Hunnia
713 713-714 Siege by Arab commander Maslama of Anji city. Heroic defense by Anji inhabitants of their fortress, described in “Anji-name”
721 721-722 Semender (Targu) mentioned in connection with campaign of Arab commander Djerrah against Khazaria
722 722-723 The Khazar capital moved to Itil to Itil-Kala
727 727-728 Semender (Targu) is mentioned in connection to Arab commander Maslama campaign against Khazaria
737 737-738 Joint attack of Arab commander Marwan and Armenian prince Ashot on Hunnic city Targu (Semender)
737 Kumyks rulers submit to Muslim religion
850 Second half of 9th c..,. Semender (Targu) is mentioned as a Khazar southern border fortress
900 10th c. Semender (Targu) mentioned at al-Balkhi
943 Semender (Targu) mentioned by Al-Masudi as capital of Djindan
969 Ruses plunder Semender (Targu)
977 Semender (Targu) revived from ashes
980 980th Semender (Targu) is mentioned by Al-Mukkadasi as seaside city
1000 10th c. Khazar king Joseph in his letter to Caliph of Cordoba mentioned Semender as a city in northern part of coastal plane
913 913-916 Rise of Semender (Targu). Formation of Djindan (Gelon, Gilan) Kingdom, Kumyk ethno-political state with center in Semender (Targu)
943 Adoption of Djindan king Salnfan (Sulifa, title) Islam
11th c. 11th-12th cc. “Shevkal-i Malik” (“Shevkal king”) is mentioned in Oguz epos “Kitab-Dedem Gorgud” (Book of my grand-daddy Korkut)
1030 Destruction of Semender (Targu) by troops of Ganja Emir ibn Fadlun. Kumyks, Khazars, and Seljuks from south joint campaign against Ibn Fadlun
1030 1030-1064 Emergence and rise of first dynasty of Kumyk Shauhals (from Seljuk Emir Chopan “Shepperd”).
1064 Revival of Semender (Targu) under first Shauhals (Shauhal, Shavhal, Caliph is an allophone of Sulifa)
1131 Abu Hamid al-Andalus mentions Kumyks among peoples of Caucasus wno adopted Islam under Maslama ibn Abdul-Malik (8th c.)
12th cc. Mahmud Kashgari mentions city Suar (“River People”) in North-East Caucasus and Kumyks among Türkic tribes
1253 1253-1255 Tarki (Targu) and Kumyks are mentioned in list of Mongol-conquered peoples and lands
1258 “Accession of Shauhals”, Targu ancestors on Kumyk throne. Formation of Targu Shauhal Targu, a frontier Wilayat (district) with center in Targu within Kipchak Khanate (Golden Horde)
1274 Koisu (river) is mentioned by Ibn Said in form of “Nahr al-ganam”, as scientists believe a qalque of Kumyk's name
1318 1318-1319 Epigraphic monuments from Dakhadayevsky district mention Ahsuvar Shauhal (Ak-Suvar Shauhal, likely “Ruling-Suvar Sulifa”)
1376 Tarki (Targu) is mentioned on Catalan map, along with Derbent
1386 Kaytag manuscript mentions Sultan (principality or ?) Shauhal
1394 1394-1396 Tarki in Timur sources (Iezdi-i Shami)
1396 Tamerlane stopped in Tarki (Targu). Killing of Shauhal, ruler of “Wilayat Ghazi Kumukluk”, by his chief commander. Kumykia is included into possessions of Miran Shah, son of Tamerlane
1401 Tarki (Targu) mentioned in bull of Head of Roman Catholic Church. Catholic missionaries resided in Tarki (Targu)
1420 “Kumuk Hakimi” (Kumyk ruler) is mentioned in letter of Turkish Sultan Mehmet (1413-1431)
1441 1441-1442 Kumyks free from Timurid (Miran Shah) power, election of new Shauhal from Chengisid line. Formation of independent “Shevkal kingdom” with center in Targu
1466 Tarki (Targu) is mentioned in “Journey Beyond Three Seas” Athanasius Nikitin
1485 Tarki is mentioned in “Testament of Andunik”
1488 Tarki (Targu) is mentioned in Iranian sources associated with campaigns of Sheikh Haydar against Dagestan and Kakaz (Caucas) Tyumen (Taman)
1494 494-1495 Shauhal (Wali of Dagestan) is mentioned in Arab writings from Aht
15th c. End of 15th-16th cc. Russian and Kabardin charters often mention Kumyk “Shevkal  King”, “Shevkal suzerain”
2. 16th century
16th c. 16th-17th cc. Fight for (Kipchak Khanate) Golden Horde heritage between Moscow, Astrakhan, Kazan and Crimea. Participation in struggles of Kumyk Shauhals
16th c 16th-17th cc. Growth of Targu Shauhals' political power in North-Eastern Caucasus
1555 Targu Shauhal sent its ambassador to Ivan IV with proposal to come into Russian allegiance
1552 Conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible
1555 Conquest of Astrakhan by Ivan the Terrible. Start of expansion of Muscovite state onto Caucasus
1557 Appeal of Prince Temryuk to Czar Ivan IV with request to take Kabarda into Russian allegiance and assist in repelling attacks of Shevkal king (Targu Shauhal). Kabarda accession to Russia. Arrival to Moscow of Ambassador of Crim-Shauhal (“Restless Shauhal”, Yarim-Shauhal “Semi-Shauhal”, title of Crown Prince) (Possession of Buinaksk)
1559 Arrival to Moscow of yet another embassy of Targu Shauhal
1560 Joint Moscow-Kabardinian campaign against Targu Shauhal. Siege of Tarki (Targu) by troops of Astrakhan voivode (commander) I.S.Cheremisinov. Fight with “Shevkal Czar” lasted for a day, Shauhal Budai fled from Tarki. Cheremisinov did not hold to Targu, he burned city and returned to Astrakhan, with “plenty of Shavkal captives”
1566 Shauhal Budai and his army fight against Russians in Kabarda. There he is killed in one of battles
1566 Ivan IV, intending to build fortress in lower course of Sulak (Koisu), demanded from Shauhal Biybolat land for fortress. Shauhal Biybolat asked for help and support from Crimean Khan
1570 Ottoman Sultan's government protested Russia's actions in region, holding Terek banks to be not only “Cherkassan”, but also “Shevkal side”. It ultimately demanded “not to attack any more ...Circassians, Crim-Shevkals and Kumuks...”
1578 Kumykia joined Ottoman Empire. Acceptance of Shauhal Chopan of Targu and his brother Tunch Álav into Ottoman allegiance
1578 Osman Pasha Ozdemir oglu, Caucasian viceroy of Ottoman court married Rabia-Mihridil, niece of Chopan-Shauhal
1588 1588-1589 Death of Chopan-Targu Shauhal and partitioning of his kingdom into allodial principalities between his sons (Buinaksk to Eldar, Kazan to Magomed, Kafir-Kumuk to Andiy, Gelin to Giray, Targu to Surkhai)
1589 1589-1605 Reign of Shauhal Surkhai on Kumyk throne in Targu.
1590 Persian Shah Abbas I peace with Turkish Sultan. In Derbent was stationed Turkish garrison
1591 1591-1952 20,000-strong army of voivode (commander) G.O. Zasekin attacked Targu. Shauhal counters with 12,000 army. After fierce fighting Russian troops seize and burn Targu. Sources tell: “Shauhal was wounded and many people were killed”
1592 Ottoman government sent protest note to Russian ambassador Naschokin in Istanbul, condemning Russia's actions in Kumykia
1594 New Russian campaign aganst Shauhaldom under command of Prince Hvoristinin. Objective - capture of Targu, installation as  Shauhal his relative, Crown Prince Crim-Shauhal (in-law of Czar Alexander, friendly towards Georgia), opening a road from Georgia to Terek. Russian troops captured Targu, Torkali, Tyumen, Endirey. Shauhal blocked Russian troops in Targu. Russian troops fled, pursued by Shauhal to Sulak (“to river Koisu”). Three thousand. Russian soldiers were killed at Targu
1595 Russian diplomats at European courts were quick to report - “Shauhal kingdom and Shauhal Prince kicked out and caught his people...”
16th c. End of 16th c. Was born Mohammed Avabi Aktashly, future Kumyk chronicler, author of “Derbent-name”
 3. 17th cc.
1603 1602-1603 Arrival in Moscow of embassy of Shauhal Surkhai of Targu, Kafir-Kumuk possessor Andia and Soltan-Mut of Endirey, with proposal for Russian allegiance
1603 Arrival in Moscow of ambassadors of Shauhal Surkhai of Targu, Soltan Mahmud, Kabardin Princes Sholokh and Kaziy, and Prince Suyunchal of Tyumen.
1603 Russian campaign under command of Buturlin and Pleshcheev against Targu. Endirey, Erpeli are captured. Kumyk state capital Targu taken after fierce battle
1604 Russian archers (or shooters) dominate Targu and plains
1604 Shauhal Surkhai dies in the mountains
1605 Russian troops continue occupation of Targu, behaving as occupants, capturing people, plunder bread, herds and flocks
1605 Fight against troops of Buturlin and Pleshcheev. Fight is headed by(Adil)-Gerey, son of deceased Shauhal Surkhai and son Soltan-Mut of old Shauhal Chopan. Together, they mobilized thousands of troops, attracted to the cause military forces of Terekeme (Türkic nomads, predominantly from Azerbaijan) of Shamakhi (district in Azerbaijan), Akushans (district in Dagestan), Avara, Karachais
1605 Kumyk army blocks Buturlin and Pleshcheev in Targu. (Adil)-Gerey of Targu negotiated with Buturlin, who accepts (Adil)-Gerey's terms and retreats from Targu without a fight
1605 Battle of Karaman. (Adil)-Gerey of Targu and Soltan-Mut of Endirey army crushed army of Buturlin and Pleshcheyev. 7 thousand Russian archers (or shooters) and both Buturlin and Pleshcheyev were killed
1605 (Adil)-Gerey, son of deceased Shauhal Surkhai, is elected a Shauhal
1610 Kumyk Princes Gerey and Eldar Surkhais swore oath of loyalty to Russian state
1612 Istanbul peace treaty between Persia and Ottoman Empite, Kumyk “Shauhal Khan” is declared to be subject of Ottoman Sultan
1614 Dynastic marriage of Gerey of Targu's sister with Persian Shah Abbas I
1614 Shah Abbas I proclaimed (Adil)-Gerey of Targu a “Dagestan Khan”
1614 Charter of Russian Czar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov to Shauhal (Adil)-Gerey of Targu about accepting him into Russian allegiance
1614 Arrival in Moscow of ambassador Tomulduk of Shauhal (Adil)-Gerey of Targu
1615 1615-1619 Feudal strife between Crim-Shauhal Eldar (Crown Prince) and Endirey possessor Soltan-Mut
1615 Tersk (Terek) commander P. Golovin aids Shauhal Gerey of Targu to fight pro-Turkish and pro-Crimea inclined Soltan-Mut of Endirey
1615 1st Kumyk Kurultai (congress) (Kumyk princes, murzas, and “black people”) to stop internal feuds and unite country
1616 Missive of Czar Mikhail Fedorovich to Gerey of Targu
1616 Crimean Khan is preparing to war against Shauhal Gerey of Targu because of his pro-Iranian and pro-Russian orientation, and to eliminate Tersk (Terek) village, allied with Soltan-Mut of Endirey and his brother Mutsal
1617 2nd Kumyk Kurultai of princes, murzas, and “black people”
1618 3rd Kumyk Kurultai of princes, murzas, and “black people” on issue of peace and reconciliation
1618 Missive of Crim-Shauhal (Crown Prince) Eldar to Czar Mikhail Fedorovich with expression of readiness for Russian allegiance
1619 Tersk (Terek) commander N. Velyaminov wrote to Ambassador Service that he does everything to obstruct reconciliation between Eldar of Targu and Soltan-Mut of Endirey, “for Soltan-Mut is reliable on Tersk (Terek) and on Crimean Czar, and he would detract Eldar-Murza from your Czar's benevolence... “
1619 Reconciliation between Eldar of Targu and Soltan-Mut, exchange of hostages
1621 4th KumykKurultay
1622 Crim-Shauhal Eldar taken in Russian allegiance
1623 5th Kumyk Kurultai
1623 Shauhal Eldar of Targu is elected as Kumyk Shauhal after death of his brother Gerey of Targu
1623 1623-1635 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Eldar of Targu, son of Shauhal Surkhai
1631 Oath of loyalty to Russian state by son of Soltan-Mut Aydemir
1632 Shauhal Eldar of Targu and his army participate in Persian Shah Safi I campaign to Georgia
1633 6th Kumyk Kurultai in Endirey. Confirmation of Aydemir, son of Soltan-Mut of Endirey, as crown heir to the post of Shauhal
1633 Son Eldar of Shauhal Alyp-Kach (progenitor of Princes Alypkachevs) sent as hostage to Tersk (Terek) city (i.e. hostage to Russian dominance)
1634 Tersk (Terek) commander Pronsky aids Shauhal Eldar in struggle against Soltan-Mut of Endirey
1634 Stay in Kumykia of secretary Adam Oleary of Holstein embassy
1635 Shauhal Eldar dies in Targu, is inherited by son Aydemir of Soltan-Mut
1635 1635-1641 Reign of Aydemir on Kumyk Shauhal throne
1635 Kumyk troops siege Azov on Crimean and Ottoman side
1641 Joint campaign of Kumyk and Russian troops against Kabarda. During campaign in battle on river Malka dies Shauhal Aydemir
1641 1641-1660 Reign on Kumyk Shauhal of Targu throne of Surkhai, son of Gereyy, brought up at royal court of Persian Shah Safi I
1641 1641-1642 “Quarrel and discord” between Shauhal Surkhai and Kazan-Alp of Endirey. Each one in their fight tries to use backing of great powers
1641 Alkhas (Safi Quli Khan), son of late Shauhal Eldar, given as hostage and brought up at Shah Safi I royal court, is appointed a beglerbek (ruler) of Shirvan and Erivan
1641 Essentially, a tri-partite division of the Targu Shaukhaldom. For a time, Kumyk history trifurcates into three branches
1643 Missive of Czar Mikhail Fedorovich to Shauhal Surkhai of Targu
1645 “Grand Prince” Soltan-Mut died in Endirey  of natural death
1645 At Congress of princes and murzas is elected as “ullubiy” (“Great Prince”, Ullu/Ulluɣ/Gulu + Bey/Bi/Bek) of Endirey, i.e. possessor of N. Sulak (Zasulak) Kumykia, second son Kazan-Alp of Soltan-Mut
1645 1645-1650 On initiative of Shauhal Surkhai, Nogai uluses coach from Astrakhan steppes to inside Kumykia. They are known as “Targu Nogais” or “Kumyk Nogais”. Thus strengthened already considerable military force of Targu Shauhal
In the next 250 years, the Nogai Kazakh language must have somewhat influenced the Kumyk language
1645 Shauhal Surkhai, seeking to crush and eliminate political independence of Kazan-Alp's Endirey possession, without engaging him went westward through his land on campaign against Kabarda, and crushed possessions of Kabarda Prince Kazi Mudar
1647 Visit of Turkish historian and geographer Evliya Çelebi in Kumykia and Targu
1647 Shauhal Surkhai married his son to Nogai Princess, daughter of Choban-Murza
According to tradition, this makes Choban-Murza a father-in-law of Surkhai's son, giving Choban-Murza a pre-eminence in Kumykia
1650 Germenchik battle. To return by force Nogais who coached away to Shauhal of Targu, Terek's (Tersky) voivode (commander) with 12 thousand troops initiated campaign, jointly with Kazan-Alp of Endirey. Under Targu on Germenchik field meets they faced combined army of Shauhal Surkhai and Nogay prince Choban-Murza. The forces of Terek voivode (commander) were completely crushed. Surkhai Shauhal also captured Czar's flag, which was sent as a trophy to Persian Shah Abbas II
1651 Shauhal Surkhai, Kazan-Alp of Endirey, and Kaytag Amirhan jointly campaign against town of Sunja and at Braguny
1652 Shauhal Surkhai and Kazan-Alp stage with their troops on Aktash, preparing to campaign against Terek town and Astrakhan. They sent their ambassadors to Crimean Khan, asking for his fighters in support
1653 Shauhal Surkhai preparing an army to campaign against Astrakhan (mobilized 12 thousand cavalry and foot soldiers)
1658 Shah Abbas II announced his intention to build in Kumykia two fortresses, one opposite of Targu. Shauhal Surkhai strongly objects. Anti-Persian uprising in Kumykia, involving 30 thousand people. Shah Abbas II send 20-thousand. army to suppression uprising
1659 Shauhal Surkhai of Targu, Ahmed Khan of  Djengutai (Mekhtuli), Kazan-Alp of Endirey, Buynak possessor Budai-Bek Bagomat enter into Russian allegiance
1660 Austrian envoy in Moscow Baron Meyrberg reports that Kumyks are independent of neighboring great powers, “they enjoy full freedom under control of many of their lords from noble families under supreme supervision of Shauhal” (Journey to Muscovy by Augustine Meyerberg. Moscow, 1874. p. 163)
1660 Shauhal Surkhai of dies in Targu
1660 1660-1682 Reign on Kumyk throne Shauhal Budai of Targu
1667 Persian Shah Sulayman (1667-1694), taking advantage of turmoil and strife in Kumykia, sends his army against Shauhal Budai, intending to build a fortress “on river Koisu” (Sulak)
1667 Stepan Razin's attack on Tarki (Targu)
1669 Repeat appearance in Targu of Stepan Razin's vagabonds and their attempt to seize prime capital of Shauhals
1675 Shauhal Budai of Targu receives Crimean Khan's invitation letter to participate in campaign against Moscow
1676 Kafir-Kumuk possessor Asan-Bek Murza sent his emissary Yarash to Moscow via Astrakhan
1677 Shauhal Budai sends a letter of loyalty to Russia and 9 Kumyk argamaks as gift to Moscow Czar
1677 Kumyks under command of Kafir-Kumuk possessor Asan-Bek Murza fight for Russia at Chyhyryn (Ukraine, Cherkass Province) in Russian-Turkish war of 1677-1678
1682 Shauhal Budai dies in Targu
1682 1682-1700 reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Murtuzali of Targu
1689 50,000-strong army of Kumyks, Nogais, and Circassians aidis fight of Crimean Khan Salim-Gerey in defense of Crimea and repulsion of V.D. Golitsyn troops
1694 Shah Hussein on Safavid throne in Persia. His Chief Persian Vizier (Prime Minister) is Fath Ali Khan Dagestani, son of Sefi Quli Khan, son of Shauhal Eldar of Targu
1700 Shauhal Murtuzali dies in Targu
4. 18th c.
1700 1700-1725 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1712 Born Ali Kuli Khan (Valeh) Dagestani, prominent writer and poet
1715 Astrakhan commander A.P.Volynsky and Chief Vizier of Shah Husein Fath Ali Khan Dagestani sign Russian-Iranian treaty of friendship and cooperation
1718 Paper of Peter I to Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu about accepting him with all his subject uluses into Russian allegiance.
1719 Arrival in Moscow to Peter I with special diplomatic mission of Mamed-Bek (Magomed-Bek) Alypkach, ambassador of Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1720 Foreign affairs Collegium decided to provide military assistance to Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1722 Proclaimed Manifesto of Peter I to peoples of Caucasus in “Tatar” (actually, “íà òóðåöêîì ÿçûêå” in Turkish language) language
1722 Caspian (Persian) campaign of Peter I
1722 Kumyk ruler Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu and Prince Soltan-Mut of Aksay visit for negotiations military camp of Peter I on Sulak river near Kaziyurt
1722 Shauhal Adil-Gerey receives Peter I at his residence in Targu, later provides military help
1722 Peter I decree appointing Adil Gerey of Targu a Russian Dagestani regent and transfer to him possession of rebellious Soltan-Mut of Otemish
1722 Construction of Holy Cross (Stavropol) fortress on r. Sulak
1723 Russia and Persia signed an agreement Petersburg treatyt, under which Persia gives Russia for an everlasting possession: Dagestan, Shirvan, Mazandaran and Astrabad (Essentially, this Russian acquisition encompassed all Caspian littoral traditionally populated by Türkic nomads, Scythians, Huns, Masgut/Alans/Ases, Gilyans, Yirks, etc.)
1725 Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu, Viceroy of Dagestan, dissatisfied with construction at behest of Peter I of Russian fortress Holy Cross (Stavropol) in his dominions, besieges it with 30-thousand. army
1725 Commandant of fortress of St. Cross general Kropotov plunders Tarki (Targu). Peter I abolishes Shauhaldom of Targu. Shauhal Adil Gerey is exiled to town Kole near Arkhangelsk
1733 Crimean campaign under command of Fatih-Gerey against Kumykia
1734 Nadir Shah commits campaign to Dagestan, restores dignity to title Shauhal Wali Dagestan itself Shauhaldom of Targu
1734 1734-1765 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Hasbulat Shauhal, of Targu, “Dagestan Wali”, son of exiled Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1742 Russia extends to Shauhal Khasbulat of Targu and his son status of its protectorate
1743 Crushing defeat of “invincible” legions of Persian Nadir Shah by joint forces including Djengutai army (Mekhtuli, Mekhtuli principality, Mehtula) under command of Ahmed Khan in battle of Andalal harras Nadir Shah into retreat. Turkish Sultan Ahmet Khan awarded Ahmed Khan of Djengutai (Mekhtuli) a highest general's military rank “Mir-i mirana”
1765 Dies Shauhal Hasbulat of Targu, Dagestan Wali
1765 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Mehti Shirdanchy
1765 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Tishsiz (“Toothless”) Bammat, son of Gerey Bammat (or Bammatu) (indirect heir). Ignites strife for Kumyk throne initiated by sons of Shauhal Shirdanchi direct heirs Mehti, Murtuzali and Bammat and widow of Shauhal Hasbulat
1765 Murtuzali led his supporters and militia to storm Targu. Tishsiz (Toothless) Bammat flees to Erpeli
1765 7th Kurultai in Great Kazanish of Kumyk princes, murzas, and many influential people from neighboring lands to stop strife in Surkhal clan. Kurultai decided that direct successor Mehti of Shauhal Shirdanchi should be a Shauhal, but Mehti refused in favor of his eldest son Murtuzali. Murtuzali was proclaimed a Shauhal of Targu
1765 1765-1782 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Murtuzali of Targu
1776 Shauhal Murtuzali took Russian allegiance
1780 Was born Kadir Murza Amirhankentli, future chronicler, author of “Anji-name”
1782 Shauhal Murtuzali died
1782 1782-1794 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Bammat (Shauhal of Targu, possessor of Buinak and Dagestan) (The title implies that in 1782, 1600 years later, the Kayi Huns (Kaitag, “Mountain Kayi”) was still an independent ethnic principality)
1784 Ahmet Khan Mehtuli with his men switched to service of Sultan of Turkey and moved to Turkey
1786 Shauhal Bammat of Targu is accepted into Russian allegiance
1794 Bammat-Shauhal of Targu died
1794 1794-1830 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Mehti of Targu
1796 Persian Shah Aga Muhammed Khan demanded that Dagestani rulers switch to Persian allegiance
1796 Shauhal Mahdi-Bek of Targu, Kaytag Utsmiy, Tabasaran kadi, and Khan of Mehtuli confer against Aga Mohammad-Shah, and decide to turn to Russia for help
1796 Shauhal Mahdi-Bek of Targu campaign against Persia. Cavalry regiment of general V.A. Zubov comes to Kizlyar to help Shauhal of Targu
1798 1798-1799 Shauhal Mehti-bek of Targu builds village Shauhal-Yangiyurt (“Young Yurt”) and Shauhal-Girmen. He relocates there some residents of Garki, Kyahulai, Alburikent, and other villages
1799 Decree of Emperor Paul bestowing Shauhal Mehti-Bek of Targu rank of Lieutenant General
5. 19th c.
1801 Kumyk Prince Soltan-Ahmat Khan of Mehtuli ascends to post of  Khan of Avaria, ruling Avaria until 1823
1801 Russian-Persian treaty
1802 On Russian nitiative between rulers of Eastern Caucasus is signed Treaty of Georgievsk that stipulated creation of federal union in Eastern Caucasus under patronage of Russia. One of main signatories was Shauhal Mehti of Targu, Possessor of Buinaksk and Dagestan Wali
1804 1804-1813 Russian-Persian war
1806 1806-1812 Russian-Turkish war
1806 Îfficial date of Kumykia (Shauhaldom of Targu) entry into Russian Empire
1806 For services rendered at capture by Czar army of Derbent Khan possession Mehti-Shauhal of Targu, Dagestan Wali is bestowed rank of Derbent Khan with rights to all income from Derbent Possession (Mahalya Ulus, lit. “Neighborhood District”)
1806 For merits and loyalty to Russian throne Mehti-Shauhal of Targu, Dagestan Wali is bestowed (Russian) flag with state coat of arms
1813 Concluded Gulistan trreaty, judicially confirming annexation of Kumykia and all of Dagestan by Russian state
1819 Uprising in Kumykia headed by Umalat-Bek of Buinak, crushed by troops of General Yermolov and Shauhal militia
1821 Construction on Tarki (Targu)-Tau (Mountain) of Tarkovskaya (Targu) fortress, later renamed “Stormy” (Rus. Burnaya)
1827 1827-1828 Russian-Persian war
1828 1828-1829 Russian-Turkish War
1830 Earthquake in Targu
1830 Shauhal Mehti of Targu, Dagestan Wali, with his son Shahwali and with his large entourage arrives in St. Petersburg for coronation of Czar Nicholas I and receives approval of his eldest son Suleiman Pasha as Shauhal. On return trip home Shauhal Mehti died
1830 In village Muselem-aul in Shauhaldom of Targu was born poet Iyrchy Kazak (Eng. Cossack)
1830 1830-1836 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Suleiman Pasha of Targu, Possessor of Buinak, Dagestan and Wali of Dagestan
1831 Abu Muslim Khan, second son of late Shauhal Mehti for connection with Kazi-Mulla exiled from Dagestan to exile in city of Saratov
1831 Mureeds of Kazi-Mulla attack Kum Torkaly and Targu. Siege of fortress “Stormy”. Czar troops burn and plunder villages Tarki (Targu) and Amirhan-kent
1832 On site of Kumyk aul (village) Temir-Khan-Shura, under same name grew fortification Temir-Khan-Shura. Residents of aul were relocated to nearby Khalimbek-aul, Muselem-aul, and Kafir-Kumuk
1836 Suleiman Pasha, Shauhal of Targu, died suddenly
1836 1836-1860 reign on throne in Kumyk Tarka and Kapiri-Kumuk Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Abu Muslim Khan, Shauhal of Targu, Possessor of Buinak, and Wali of Dagestan
1839 Shauhal Abu Muslim Khan of Targu bestowed title of Russian prince, entitlement and title are hereditary, passed to eldest male descendant of direct line according to primogeniture
1842 On ruins of ancient Kumyk city Anji (Semender) is built fortification (Petrovskoe) in honor of Emperor Peter I
1843 Siege by Shamil of Temir-Khan-Shura
1843 Abdurahman Kakashuraly (Atlyboyunlu), famous for Kumyk Sufi poetry, has died
1844 Appointment of Adjutant General Count Vorontsov as Caucasus viceroy and chief commander of separate Caucasus Corps
1845 Proclamation of Count Vorontsov to mountain peoples on guarantees of integrity of their religion, lands, and property
1851 Raid of Shamil's naib Hadji-Murad at Ullu-Boynak (Buinak). Death of Shahvali Bek of Targu fighting mureeds
1851 Shauhal Abu Muslim Khan of Targu sold to Czar's administration land around Petrine fortification for economic development, a setting up of vineyards
1852 Raid of Shamil's naib Hadji-Murad on Djengutai (Mekhtuli)
1853 1853-1856 Crimean War, first wave of Kumyk immigrants to Ottoman Empire
1856 To Petrine fortification arrived steamer from Astrakhan with Emperor Alexander II
1856 Decree of Emperor Alexander II on establishing in Caspian Sea of port city Petrovsk
1858 1858-1859 Exile on political grounds of poet Yyrchi Kazack “to Siberia”
1859 End of Caucasian War, voluntary surrender of Imam Shamil to Prince Baryatinsky
1860 Administrative reform of Dagestan into province of Russian Empire with inclusion in its jurisdiction of all conquered territories of Mountain (Nagornyi) Dagestan
1860 Death of Prince Abu Muslim Khan, Shauhal of Targu, Dagestan Wali. In Kapir-Kumuk was organized sumptuous funeral. Iyrchy Kazak mourning death of Dagestan ruler with soulful poem (“On death of Abu Muslim-Khan”).
1860 1860-1867 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Prince, Major General Shamsutdin Khan, Shauhal of Targu
1866 Fortification Temir-Khan-Shura received status of city
1866 Shamil gave oath of allegiance and loyalty to Russia
1867 Renunciation (Abdication) by Prince Shamsutdin Khan, elected Shauhal of Targu, of centuries-old rights of House of Shauhal
1867 Abolition of Shauhaldom of Targu, it is included into newly formed (1860) Dagestan Province of Russian Empire, creation of Temir-Khan-Shura County
1867 Abdication by Rashid Khan of Mehtuli of rights and obligations as elected ruler of Mehtuli Khanate. Abolition of Mehtuli Khanate, it is included into Temir-Khan-Shura County of Dagestan province
1870 Was born Abusupiyan Akayev, outstanding Kumyk educator, public figure, Arabist scientist, in village Lower Kazanysh in Temir-Khan-Shura district of Dagestan province
1877 Was born Djalalutdin Korkmasov, politician and statesman of Dagestan and Russia (1877-1937), in village Kum-Torkala of Temir-Khan-Shura County in Dagestan province. Arrested in 1937 in Stalinist repression campaign, murder date unknown, posthumously rehabilitated August 4, 1956
1878 Was born Prince Nuh Beg of Targu, colonel, military ruler of Dagestan in 1919 (1878-1951)
1879 In village Bota-Yurt of Khasavyurt District in Terek province was assassinated famous Kumyk poet Iyrchy Kazak. (1830-1879)
1883 Ismail Gasprinsky began publication in Crimea and distribution to Türkic peoples in Russia, including Kumyks, first Türkic newspaper “Terdjiman” (“Translator”). Sub-title of “Terdzhiman” listed nations, including Kumyks, for whom newspaper was published. Thus started history of Kumyk printed word
1890 Was born Ullubiy of Buinak, an outstanding revolutionary, public figure and statesman (1890-1919), in village Ulla-Boynak of Temir-Khan-Shura County in Dagestan province
6. 20th c.
1900 1900-1917 Emergence in 19th c. in Russia of all-Türkic modernist movement and its further development in early 20th c.,. organization and operation of network of new method schools (usul-i jadid) in most of Kumyk localities in Dagestan
1900 1900-1914 Publication and distribution (since 1883) among Kumyks of first all-Türkic newspaper “Terdjiman” (“Translator”)
1903 Opened first new method schools (usul-i jadid) with instruction in Türkic (Kumyk) language in villages Karabudahkent, Tarki (Targu), Kazanish (Kazanishche), Khalimbek-aul,  Djengutai (Mekhtuli), D¸rgeli, Kaka-Shura, Soltan-Yangiyurt, Geli, Paraul, Aksay, later in cities Temir-Khan-Shura, Port-Petrovsk
1903 Russian-Japanese war
1905 1905-1907 First Russian revolution, beginning of revolutionary movement in Dagestan
1905 Creation of party “Ittifak al-Muslimin” (Union of Muslims), active participation of Kumyk general Mahmut Sheikh-Ali
1906 Protest of atlyboyuns led by Cheriv Murza Supyan in defense of their land rights, quashed by regular troops
1908 In Istanbul, progressive-minded young intellectuals formed Kulturträger Türkicist society “Türk Dernegi”, headed by famous Türkic-Tatar intellectual Yusuf Akchura (raised in Turkey in a family of his Kumyk stepfather). One of society founders was Djalalutdin Korkmasov, who came from Paris when started Young Turks' bourgeois-democratic revolution
1908 In Cairo starts organization created by Young Turks lead by Kumyk Ahmed Saip Kaplan. He published newspapers “Al-Sanjak”, “Türk”, “Shura-i-Ummet”
1910 In St. Petersburg was organized party “Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm” (“The Right Way”), headed by general Ali Sheikh-Ali
1910 Djalalutdin Korkmasov publishing newspaper “Istanbul News” in Russian, illegally distributed in Russia
1910 In Turkey is founded Ottoman Socialist Party, whose founders among others are Kumyks Dj. Korkmasov and Ahmet Saip Kaplan
1910 In St. Petersburg fruitfully operates Muslim charitable society, with active participation of general Sheikh-Ali, prince Nuhbek of Targu, and his wife Gyulruh
1910 Group of Kumyk intellectuals made first attempt publishing newspaper in Kumyk language called “Kumuk gazeti”, not supported byhigh officials
1912 Publishing of newspaper “Millet” in Türkic language, publisher-editor - State Duma deputy Salim-Gerey Djanturin and his wife, daughter of general Sheikh-Ali Emine-Hanim
1913 1913-1914 Protests and unrest of Targu Kumyks in defense of official script with Arabic alphabet (Arabic version of Aramaic alphabet)
1914 1914-1915 First World War. Kumyks participate.
1914 Was born Bariyat Muradov, USSR People's Artist, actress of Kumyk theater
1915 In Istanbul Russian Türks formed Committee for rights of oppressed Türkic peoplesin Russia, headed by Yusuf Akchura, Ahmet Saip Kaplan is active Kumyk participant
1916 Ahmet Saip Kaplan with delegation of Committee for rights participates in Conference of Nations in Geneva (Switzerland), distributes Memorandum on situation of Kumyk people in Russia, demanding right to national self-determination, sends it to heads of great powers, including USA President Wilson
1916 First Kumyk Political and Literary Association (KPLA) “Tang-Cholpon”, headed by Z.-A. Batyrmurza
1917 Formation of first Port-Petrovsky Muslim committee with participation of influential people from Targu and Kyahulay
1917 February bourgeois-democratic revolution in Russia. In Vladikavkaz held 1st Congress of North Caucasus people, formed Central Committee of United Mountain Peoples of North Caucasus:
- Signed Union Treaty of Southeast Union of Cossack Troops, Caucasian Mountaineers, and Free Peoples of Steppes. From Kumyks agreement signed prince R. Kaplanov. Article 4 of Treaty affirmed “right of every member of Union to maintain its complete independence in its inner life”. Union stated objective (Article 5) – earliest establishment of Russian Democratic Federative Republic with recognition as separate states of members of Union: assistance to members of Union in preparation and reorganization “of inner life, and as states of future Russian Federation”. Was formed Terek-Dagestan government. Chairman and Minister of foreign Affairs was elected deputy Chairman of Central Committee of Union of united Mountain Peoples prince R. Kaplanov.
- On basis of “Jamiat-ul-Islam” party, was formed Dagestan Provincial National Committee, or Milli Committee, headed by D. Apashev
1917 Started publication of first Kumyk national newspapers “Mussavat” (“Equality”, editor M.-M. Mavraev), “Zaman” (N. Dahadaev), magazine “Tangcholpan” (T. Beybulatov, Z. Batyrmurzaev)
1917 First Dagestan institution of higher education - Pedagogical Institute with Türkic language of instruction open in Temir-Khan-Shura
1917 In Port-Petrovsk formed Military Revolutionary Committee under chairmanship of U. Buinaksky
1918 Created Mountain Government
1918 May 2 In Temir-Khan-Shura formed Dagestan Military Revolutionary Committee, Chairman D.Korkmasov
1918 Liberation of Tarki (Targu) and Anji (Port-Petrovsk) from bicherahovses by Turkish volunteer corps, sent to Dagestan at invitation of Mountain Government (Bicherahovses – freelance army of general L.F. Bicherahov who fought for numerous participants of Russian Civil War, mostly on the White and English side)
1918 Formed North-Caucasus Democratic Republic, among leaders of which are G. Bammatov, prince R. Kaplanov, Adjiev, and others
1919 Ullubiy Buinaksky proclamed Soviet regime in Port-Petrovsk
1919 Formation of Communist Party of Dagestan, headed by Ullubiy Buinaksky
1920 Extraordinary Congress of Peoples of Dagestan declared autonomy of Dagestan
1920 Creation of Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Russian Federation of Dagestan province and Kumyk (Khasavyurt) district
1920 Creation of DASSR. Dj. Korkmasov - first chairman of SNK (Counsil of People's Comissars) DASSR
1920 1920-1950 Activity abroad of North Caucasian political exiles. In Paris G. Bammat created political association “Caucasus”, is published newspaper of national-political thought of same name in seven European and Türkic languages. Organization upholds idea of revival of North Caucasus national-democratic state. At same time in Warsaw emerges organization “Promeus”, with several Kumyks, including Professor Urkhan Tarkovsky, which also published newspapers and magazines
1921 First congress of Dagestan and North Caucasus in Vladikavkaz. Formation of Central Committee of Union of Mountaineers of Dagestan and North Caucasus
1921 Decree of Dagestan Military Revolutionary Committee on renaming Port Petrovsk (Czarist name) to Makhachkala (revolutionary name) after revolutionary Makhach Dahadaev (1820-1918) and transfer of DASSR capital from Temir-Khan-Shura to Makhachkala (Targu)
1921 Act on joining DASSR into RSFSR as an autonomous republic
1921 1921-1932 Korkmasov Dj.A. - chairman of SNK (Counsil of People's Comissars) DASSR
1921s In early 1920s, Arabic alphabet was adapted to needs of Kumyk phonetics, were introduced additional letters to represent specific sounds, especially for vowels, which made it possible to abandon vocalizations. Also were excluded letters ذ ث ح ص ض ط ظ ع, necessary for transmission of specific sounds of Arabic language, but not in Kumyk. Modified Kumyk alphabet:
ا ب پ ت ج چ خ د ر ز ژ س تس ش غ بگ ف ق ک ل م ن ه و ۊ ۏ و̃ ۋ ى
1923 Kumyk (Türkic) language is declared official language DASSR
1925 Opening of Buinak pedagogical colledge, preparation of first troupe for future Kumyk theater
1928 Transition to new Latin alphabet. NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs) campaign on confiscation materials written in Arabic alphabet, persecution of criminals who did not surrender forbidden writings or hid forbidden writings, like Quran, birth and marriage certificates, or documents related with history, culture, genealogy, or property. Efforts to decimate ancient culture and people.
1929 1929-1939 Political repression against Kumyk prominent political figures and intellectuals under pretext of fighting “Pan-Turkism”
1929 1929-1930 creation of collective farms “First of May”, “January 9” and named after MOPR (International Red Aid) in villages Tarki, Kyakhulay, and Alburikent. Orders of Soviet rulers about perpetual transfer of land to them
1930 Birth of Kumyk State Music and Drama Theatre
1937 Meeting of North Caucasian émigré leaders in Warsaw adopted resolution on recognition of Kumyk language as state language of revived some day North-Caucasian Democratic Republic
1938 Created Kumyk script based on Cyrillic alphabet. Second stage in efforts to decimate ancient culture and people. Modern Kumyk alphabet:
À à, Á á, Â â, Ã ã, Ãú ãú, Ãü ãü, Ä ä, Å å, ¨ ¸, Æ æ, Ç ç, È è, É é, Ê ê, Êú êú, Ë ë, Ì ì, Í í, Íã íã, Î î, Îü îü, Ï ï, Ð ð, Ñ ñ, Ò ò,
Ó ó, Óü óü, Ô ô, Õ õ, Ö ö, × ÷, Ø ø, Ù ù, Ú ú, Û û, Ü ü, Ý ý, Þ þ, ß ÿ (38 characters, compare with Arabic and Latin versions)
1939 1939-1950 A. Takhtarov - Chairman of DASSR Supreme Council
1941 1941-1945 “Great Patriotic War”. Participation of Kumyksin in war

April 12 1944. Provincial committee of CPSU (Communist Party of Soviet Union) and CPC (Counsil of People's Comissars) DASSR adopted voluntarist decision or resettlement into Khasavyurt District of Targu Kumyks (Tarki (Targu), Kyakhulay, Alburikent), into residential places of repressed Chechens. Forced resettlement (deportation) of Targu Kumyks onto lands of repressed Chechens-Akins (Vainah, supposedly originally a group of Akathyrsi Scythians), with physical liquidation of a number of Kumyk settlements in Makhachkala, Khasavyurt, and Babayurt Districts

1945 Guardian sergeant Abdulhakim Ismailov, Kumyk from village Chagari-Otar in Khasavyurt district of Dagestan, hoisted flag over Reichstag. He is a Hero of Russia
1950 1950-1960 As a result of Stalinist “unbalanced” (by design) resettlement policy of the Republic's authorities, Kumyks are turned into numerical minority in their own ethnic territories (historical Kumykia), they lose status, lose many of their lands. Started process of de-ethnicization, blurring of ancient ethnocultural Kumyk nation
1957 1957-1960 Unauthorized return of displaced Targu Kumyks to their homes in suburban auls (villages) Tarki (Targu), Kyakhulay, Alburikent. Local and national authorities are combating their return
1960 1960-1965 G. K. Aliyev - Chairman of DASSR Supreme Council
1966 1966-1981 Umalatov A.-P. Dj. -. chairman of DASSR Council of Ministers
1968 Eldar Kalsynbekovich Tsokolaev (Musayev), is first Kumyk who received rank of Major-General of Aviation, later Colonel-General. He ended his service as commander of Air Forces of Far Eastern Military District
1974 Nasrullah Nasrullaev of Targu was first Kumyk to became world champion in freestyle wrestling
1980 At Moscow Olympic Games two Kumyks, Sapiyulla Absaidov of Targu and Mohammed Hasan Abushev of Karabudahkent became champions in freestyle wrestling
1980 1980s Created an underground organization “Brorhood of Kumyks” (BK), aimed on defence of national rights and interests of Kumyk people. KGB suppressed activity of society, its leaders were discredited and neutralized
1987 -1997 Mirzabeckov Abdurazak Marpdanovich - Chairman of Government of Republic of Dagestan
1989 1st Kumyk Kurultai (congress) in Endirey. In defense of national rights established Kumyk National Movement (KNM/ÊÍÄ) “Tenglik” (“Equality”). Chairman of KNM elected famous scientist and Kumyk public figure Salav Aliyev
1989 1989-99 Activities of Kumyk National Movement “Tenglik” (“Equality”)
1989 Congress called in Kazan established Assembly of Türkic Peoples (ÀÒÏ/ATH), one of its founders was KNM “Tenglik”

 II-nd Congress of KNM “Tenglik” adopted “Declaration of self-determination of Kumyk people”, which announced establishment of “Kumyk republic within Russia and Dagestan”. Provincial Bureau of CPSU condemned activities of KNM “Tenglik” as “extremist-nationalist”. In protest, dozens of CPSU members have quit CPSU. KNM. Leadership of KNM “Tenglik” filed a lawsuit against Provincial Bureau of CPSU, and won the case

1991 Collapse of Soviet Union
1991 National elections of President of Russia. At urging of All-Kumyk assembly in aul (village) Endirey on May 19, 1991, more than 70% of Kumyk voters voted for candidacy of Boris Yeltsin
1991 1991-1992 Two Congresses of Kumyk people, resolving: 1) to establish Kumyk National Parliament - Milli Majlis (1991) 2) to conduct national survey of Kumyk people, asking “Do you support proclamation of national sovereignty of Kumyk people and creation of Kumyk Autonimy as part of Dagestan and Russia?”
1991 Kumyk women declared multi-day hunger strike to support demands for resignation of Dagestani government (Rubberstamp leftover of old unelected Communist regime)
1992 14 deputies-Kumyks signed statement on premature renunciation of their deputy status and resignation from “on political and moral grounds”
1992 Polling (mini-referendum) of Kumyk population on Kumyk autonomy, positive response exceeded 80 %
1992 DSSR SS (Supreme Soviet) Presidium issued decree “Unlawful actions of KNM “Tenglik” leadership”
1992 Supreme Court of Dagestan Republic heard case of actions of II Congress of Kumyk People and of banning KNM “Tenglik” (lawsuit of Justice Ministry of Dagestan Republic)
1992 Extraordinary Congress of Dagestan Peoples. Adopted resolutions: “Creative forces of Dagestan for service of progress, democracy, and national peace”, “Draft of Constitution of Republic of Dagestan”
1992 1992-2001 Blossoming of Dagestani democracy, secretly countered by Russian security apparatus
1993 1993-1997 Terrorist attacks on Minister B. Gajiyev, head of Dagestan construction industry T. Toturbiev, chairman of KNC (Kumyk National Council) B. Aljanbekov, repeated attacks against Dagestan Republic Prime Minister A.M. Mirzabekov and his family
1993 Terror supplemented with splitòèíã Kumyk national movement, created alternative Kumyk National Council (new societal organization)
1993 Protest of Targu Kumyks in defense of their land rights. Protest camping in Karaman field
1993 3rd Congress of Dagestan People's Deputies decides to restore  Kumyk Kumtorkalin District centered in aul (village) Korkmaskala
1993 Dagestan Government decision on socio-economic development of settlements Tarki (Targu), Kyakhulay, and Alburikent, population, deported to Khasavyurt district in 1944, is allocated parcels from their previously owned land to build houses within Makhachkala city. Makhachkala map gained new subdivision, named with proud name Semender in memory of their Hun-Khazar ancestors and their ancient throne capital
1993 1st All-Türkic Congress (Kurultai) in Antalya (Turkey), attended by Kumyk delegation. Since 1993 Congress is held annually, with traditional participation of Kumyks
1994 Adopted a new Constitution of Dagestan Republic, which enshrined ethnic subjecthood of peoples, proclaimed their equality (subjecthood by definition can not be equal, the subject is a slave, enslaved, serf)
1997 The Hague - KNM (Kumyk National Movement) “Tenglik” (“Equality”) accepted as a full member of Organization of Unrepresented Nations and Peoples (UNPO)
1997 80 years of publication of newspaper in Kumyk language (“Mussavat” 1917 - “Yoldash” - “Lenin ¸lu” - “Yoldash” 1997)
1997 1997-2004 Shihsaidov Khizri Isaevich - chairman of Government RD (Dagestan Republic)
1999 Group of Kumyk intellectuals founded at conference in Makhachkala Kumyk Scientific and Cultural Society (KSCS/ÊÍÊÎ)
2000 1300-years anniversary of Targu
2000 First issue of Russian-language journal “KSCS/KNKO: News” published by Kumyk Scientific and Cultural Society (KSCS/ÊÍÊÎ)
2001 Died Bariyat Muradov, People's Artist of USSR, outstanding actress of Kumyk  theater
2002 Kumyk  theater for first time (in 70-odd years of its existence) received a new stately building
2004 Atay Aliyev Bashirovich - chairman of  RD (Dagestan Republic) Government
2005 Actress of Russian Theatre Inessa Kurumov (daughter of USSR People's Artist Bariyat Muradov) was awarded title “People's Artist of Russia” by decree of President of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin

In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans


Huns Dateline 1766 BC-336 AD
Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
Kisamov N. Hunnic Oracle Phrase
Kurgan Culture
Ogur and Oguz
Ephthalite Dateline
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Ðåéòèíã@Mail.ru “”θδğŋɣşāáäēəð ï öōüūû“” Türkic –






ìåí êúóìóêúëàíû ãüàêúûíäà ðóñ òèëäå ÿçûëãúàí èëìó-àõòàðûâ ñòàòüÿíû òàïäûì.Àòû:

The True Kumyk Story

Kumyks - the most numerous Türkic ethnic group of the North Caucasus. Kumyk language belongs to the Kipchak group of the Altai language family. The Kumyk ethnogenesis attended Türkic tribes: the Huns (3rd-4th cent.), The Bulgars - Barsils and Savirs and Khazars (10th c.) And Kipchak (9th c. cent.).

One of the most powerful Kumyk states on the north-eastern Caucasus was shamkhalate of tarki (Targu Şavhallıgı). It arose as an independent state in the period of the collapse of the (Kipchak Khanate) Golden Horde, namely in 1443, almost simultaneously with the formation of the Crimean Khanate and lasted until 1867. And from this point of view it can be considered as postzolodordyn Türkic-Tatar state. As a single entity, it prosuschestovalo to death Chopan-Shamkhal Targu in the 80-ies. Of the 16th century. It was only later due to the impact of internal and external factors in the late 16th - early 17th cc. It broke up into so-called biyliki (Mehtulin Khanate of Endirey, Kostekov and Aksaevskooe ownership).

Under Shamkhalov authorities were not only the Kumyks but also Nogai, upper Dargin, Laks, some Avar groups, Chechens and other ethnic groups. The capital Shamkhalate initially, as evidenced by reliable sources, was “the city Shevkal initial Tarki” (S.Belokurov), “the former capital of the once powerful Khazars, and then threatening Shamkhalov” on Caspian. In addition, Shamkhalov had his summer residence in the mountains - (Casimir) Kumuk. Family Cemetery Shamkhalov came to our days. Influence Shamkhalov was so great that it spread and beyond to the neighboring fiefs, associations and unions of rural communities (Jamaat). Shamkhalov charged to submit almost all holdings in the region. According to sources at the time, called Shamkhalov valiyami and Nutsa Accidents she Shamkhal called «Padishah». “Dagestan padishah” (“Shahin-shah”) calls it in his book “Seyahat-name” in the 17th century. and Turkish traveler, long visit at Shamkhalov Evliya Çelebi.

15th-16th centuries were the period of the rise of the power Shamkhalov. In diplomatic correspondence they were called “Shevkali kings.” As a result of the hostilities with Shamkhalov Kabarda Kartli and Kakheti their possession prostrated to Pyatigorsk and p. Kuma. Shamkhalov mountain ethnic groups are attached to Islam and Türkic culture. According to Muslim historians, in the 16th-17th centuries Shamkhalov were the main obstacle to the Russian aggressive policy towards the south. While Kumyk Shamkhalate was the only country opposing Russian expansion in the region.

As a result of the conquest of Kazan Khanate Rus' (1552) and Astrakhan Khanate (1556) Kumyks successfully repelled 10 performances of Russian troops. In 1578 Kumyk shamhal state (under the rule of Chopan-Shamkhalov), actively interacting and collaborating with the Ottoman Sultans, it has become an integral part of the Ottoman Empire (Dagestan Governorate).

In 1605, all Dagestani rulers, united under the umbrella of Kumyk Shamkhalov, supported by Ottoman troops and defeated the Russian troops in the Battle Karaman. In the second half of the 16th century, a process of fragmentation Shamkhalate. The internecine struggle broke Shamkhal Cholpan after death. One of his sons, Mohammed Sultan (from Kabardinka Uzda kind Anzorovyh) using the mother's relatives confirmed in Zasulak Kumyks centered at Enderi. Thus formed Enderi possession, which later split into Enderi, Aksaev and Kostekov possession. In the first half of the 17th century, convened congresses for approval Shamkhal candidacy. So, Shamkhalov became alternately kafyrKumyksky ruler Andilly son Surkhai (d. 1621), Ildar Targu (d. In 1634/35), Aydemir Enderi (died in 1641), Targu Surkhai, Bhutan Bamat, Adil Giray.

In the early 1640s during the reign of Shamkhal Aydemir uprising “proud Lak uzdenstva” against Shamkhalov marked the beginning of the process of falling away Laks (Lakia) from Shamkhalate. From Shamkhalate at the same time separated  Djengutai (Mekhtuli) possession, which later became known by the name of the founder of ownership Mehta - Mehtulin Khanate. In addition, after the collapse of Shamkhalate formed several alliances of rural communities, called “Jamaat” (eg, Akusha-Dargo).

Languages Shamkhal addition Kumyks inhabited by other ethnic groups, which is reflected in the diversity and multiethnic military contingent Shamkhalov. They have been involved in the Ottoman-Russian-Iranian confrontation, and participated in almost all the military events that have unfolded in the region during the Ottoman-Russian-Iranian confrontation for the Caucasus. But it should be noted that Shamkhalov mostly gravitated toward the Ottoman Empire.

In Kaytag utsmiystvo par with southern Kumyks also included Dargin, Kaitag, kubanchintsy, terekeme people (Azerbaijanis), Tats, Mountain Jews, and others. Since 1586 the conquest Kumyks become an integral part of the aggressive Russian policy in the South and the North-East Caucasus. Moscow signed an agreement with representatives of the Iberian king Alexander against Shamkhal Targu. In the spring of 1594, Russian troops moved from Terek on Koisu (current Sulak), which united with the Iberians came into the fight with an army of Shamkhal, consisting of Kumyk and Nogai. I shamhal not kept crossing and was forced to take his people to the city of Tarki - Shamkhalate capital. However, with the support of the Avar Khan Shamkhalov managed to dislodge the enemy from the city and pursue it to Koisu. Thus, the joint actions and Shamkhal Targu Avar Khan managed to repel the onslaught of Russian troops to defend the independence of Shamkhalate Targu, to prevent the spread of Russian power and the execution plan for the Iberian accession of Czar Alexander in the North-East Caucasus. But already in 1604 once again launched an offensive of Russian troops on the Terek; Kumyk population Enderi, Isti-Su, et al. places suffered from the actions of the Russian troops, to take away their bread, food, animals, food and horses. Dissatisfied Kumyk population waste in Tarki to Shamkhalov. When Russian voivode (commander) took the town, he took refuge in Shamkhal Avar Khan. Soon new Shamkhal - Sultan-Mut (son in law of the Avar Khan) raised Kumyks, Avars and other representatives of Dagestan, relying on help from Derbent detachment and aid, came to the rescue of Shamakhi, completely replaced the Russian troops from the Grater and Sulak.

Analysis of historical sources shows that Kumyk owners at different times were on the side of the Ottomans, on the side of the Shah. By the Safavid-Ottoman Qasr-Shira Treaty of May 17, 1639, the two sides divided spheres of influence in the North Caucasus: the Shah's authority extended to Derbent and its surroundings, and Tabasaran Shamkhalate Targu, and the scope of the Ottoman Empire passed the rest of the region. Despite this Shamkhal and other local owners participated in the events of the Crimean Khan and continued to sympathize with the Ottoman Empire. Safavid shahs did not leave attempts to win over the Kumyk rulers.

After the proclamation of February 16, 1801 in Tiflis the Czar's manifesto on the recognition of Georgia's supreme patronage of a Russian crown, emissaries from the Sultan Firmans went to the Caucasus, calling for Muslims to rise up in defense of the common faith. Kumyks Shamkhalate Targu participated in numerous riots, clashes, fighting the indigenous peoples with the Russian troops. In the first half of the 19th c. century one of the most prominent political figures in favor of the formation of a single state in the Central and North-Eastern Caucasus, under the aegis of Shamkhal Targu was Baibulatov half. He led the fight. With the consent of the Mehti-Shamkhal Targu in mosques Kazanishche was proclaimed jihad.

After the conquest of the North Caucasus by Russian troops and the formation of the Dagestan region in 1860, Shamkhal power was abolished. It should be noted that Kumyks suffered during the Caucasian war and resettlement policy of Czarist Russia.

The previous ownership Shamkhalate joined the newly formed districts in Dagestan region (Kaytag utsmiystvo and Tabasaran formed Kaitag-Tabasaranskiy District and Targu Shamkhalate, Mehtulin Khanate and Prisulak naibstvo - Temir-Khan-Shuri County) and Terek region (of Endirey, Aksaev and Kostekov possession formed Kumyk district Khasavyurt later). In 1920 the Khasavyurt district became part of Dagestan SSR.

During the period of the Soviet Union Kumyks, like other nations, once multi-ethnic country, experienced a rise of national consciousness. All this is reflected in the formation of national organizations Kumyk: Kumyk national movement (KNM) “Tenglik” (Equality), “Vatan” and Kumyk National Council (ANC). In 1990, the aggravated and actualized problems related to land policies in the Soviet era. November 2, 1990 at Kumyks Congress adopted the Declaration Kumyk Republic, proclaimed on the historical territory of residence Kumyks.

Currently Kumyks are trying to defend the value of their native language, history and culture. All this is connected with the development of national consciousness Kumyks living in multiethnic Dagestan.

In addition, due to the long time spent unjust land reform has changed the demographic situation Kumyks.

Kumyks - one of the largest of the Türkic peoples, not only in Dagestan, but the whole of the North Caucasus. They live in Ossetia, Chechnya and the Stavropol Territory and Kuban. Kumyks feel part of the Türkic world, supporting national and cultural links with other Türkic peoples of the Caucasus, and around the world. Especially close these connections become, after collapse of the USSR and the “fall of the Iron Curtain.” Now, despite the ethnic problems, Kumyks pay close attention to the revival and preservation of its distinctive language and culture.