In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans


Huns Dateline 1766 BC-336 AD
Aliyev K. Kumyk Huns

Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
Kisamov N. Hunnic Oracle Phrase
Ogur and Oguz
Ephthalite Dateline
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Synopsis of the Kumyk history
Dionysius Periegetes Huns (Unni) ca. 124 AD Ptolemy Huns (Unni) ca. 139 AD W Huns
5th c. AD
W. Goktürk Kaganate
7th c. AD
ca AD 650-850
ca AD 800
per Gumilev
AD 850
Kagan Domain
10th c. AD
Djilan (Gilan)
ca. 1000 AD
Itil Bulgaria
ca AD 800
AD 900
AD 950.gif (92K)
AD 1050.gif (92K)
ca 1200 AD
Russian acquisition of 1723    

Posting Foreword

In the North Caucasus, Kumyks are a most numerous Türkic ethnic group, numbering about 500,000 people. After Azeris, Kumyks are a second-largest Türkic ethnos in the Caucasus. Kumyk could be spelled Kumık (ı as in sit), it was for centuries a politonym for ethnically distinct Türkic-speaking peoples of the area. The name Kumyk may ascend to the tribe Kom/Kamak mentioned by Pliny the Elder (d. 79 AD), supposedly of the Hunnic origin. Kumyk ethnogenesis includes Türkic tribes: Huns (3rd-4th cent.), Bulgars - Barsils and Savirs, Khazars (6th c.), and Kipchaks (9th c.). Of the founder nations, after the ample ethnic engineering of the last 150 years, only Kayi (Kaitags) and Masguts (Massagets, Alans) have retained traces of their ethnic distinction. The mountainous terrain lends itself to specialized economy, readily supporting settled agriculture, and nomadic and transhumant pastoralism. The Tengrian etiology of the areal nomadic populations is attested by the kurgan burials, known for their uniformity and monotony across Eurasia. Both the N. Caucasus and the S. Caucasus extending to the Iranian Plateau and Mesopotamia attest to nomadic pastoralism ascending to 3rd mill. BC. For millenniums, the horse nomadic pastoralists played a major role in the history of the area, preceding by millenniums the arrival there of the Indo-Aryan migrant farmers sometime around 1,500 BC. In the Arabic sources, Kumyk territory was called by the vernacular Djindan, a northern extension of the nomadic-populated Gilan, the Herodotus' Gelon.

The Eastern Huns appeared in the S. Caucasus at about 2nd c. AD as companions of Masguts, undoubtedly passing by the Aral Basin, where they joined Masguts (Massagets). In the merry-go-around of the nomadic coalitions, the Kayi Huns supplanted Masguts (Massagets, Alans), or  Masguts supplanted the Kayi Huns at the head of the Eastern Caucasian Türkic tribes. A search for an origin of the designation Kumyk uncovered a reference to a Hunnic tribe Kom/Kamak of the Pliny the Elder. Between 2nd c. AD and 1030 the common designation of the tribal union was Huns, also named Savirs (Suvars), with the name Kayi in the form Kaitag Mountain Kayi surviving as a third appellation. Initially Kayi was an appellation for the main tribe and state of the union, but after the disastrous events of 721 AD in the Arab campaign of the 713-737 war, Kayi dispersed and politically waned. Between 558 and 723 the city Semender (Targu), a Hunnic/Suvar capital, the appellation Hun/Suvar supplanted that of the Hun/Kayi, and after 723 both waned under an umbrella appellation Khazar. After Khazaria disintegrated under a series of strikes inflicted by the migrations of the Kangar Union (750), Oguz Yabgu state (9th c.) and Kipchaks (10th c.), the union reconstituted as a Kumyk Shauhalate, or Shauhalate of Targu, that was an alliance of willing headed by an elected chairman, an accurate reincarnation of the traditional Türkic idea of the state. The traditional vernacular term Shauhal lost its connection with the archaic term Sulifa both in articulation and in substance, advancing from designating an autonomous viceroy of a province to a status of an independent ruler of a country. Shauhalate lasted for 800 years, from incorporation in 1030 to dismantlement at the hands of the Russian colonial administration in 1867. An Avar articulation of the Sulifa/Shauhal developed into Shamhal, and that form was adopted in Russian literature.

On today's scale, demographic numbers are minor, and they were minor throughout the history. Tracing back the the 3-component founder nations of the present Kumyk population of 500,000 to its origin in the 2nd c. AD would bring it down to about 30,000 people (about 15-fold increase over 1800 years) with the combined military strength of about 6,000 cavalry. Still, the number of 6,000 cavalry far exceeds the cavalries of the great powers of the time, the Roman and Byzantine empires. Ethnically, there was nothing linear in the E. Caucasus. The three-dimensional turbulence mixed distinct elements, amalgamating and stratifying distinct nuclei. The initially distinct Türkic languages had to level out into numerous Sprachbunds, and areal Sprachbunds melted into a blended Kumyk Sprachbund. After cessation of the Arab conquests, with the leading Türkic tribes reduced and dispersed, a theretofore insignificant tribe Kom or Kamak came out ahead as a leading tribe of the reconstituted Hunnic principality. Like the politonym Huns, the umbrella term Kumyks applied to the area and population of the revived union of the Türkic tribes. The union survived for over a millennium, largely due to its democratic nature, succumbing only to the merciless hands of the Czarist and Stalinist regimes. The autonomous nature of its constituents helped to preserve individuality of each tribe till the Stalinist time, with a fairly common Sprachbund encompassing distinct Buinak, Khasavryut, Targu, and Piedmont dialects, and a distinct vernacular of the Kayi Huns (Kaitags). The genetic distinction had retained much less individuality: centuries of admixtures and amalgamations wrecked havoc with the statistics of the population genetics.

. The posted dateline is illustrative of the reigning confusion, same events are repeated with different dates, dating not only varies between sources, but at times also gets inverted, with effects preceding causes. Terminological havoc, with the terms Khazars, Bulgars, Huns, Savirs, Masguts, Kayi, Kök Türks and Western Türks used indiscriminately. Errors in esteemed but inaccurate sources get rebroadcasted and recited. The timeline is almost all about political events, leaving out the subjects of people, demography, ethnology, and culture. At the same time, timeline prudently skips some major modern political events directly connected with the Kumyk history, like the stellar progress on the ethnic dilution within the Kumyk area, or the abolition of the senatorial Council of Nationalities in the Russian parliament.

Time Events
1. 4th-15th cc.
93AD Huns essentially divided into four groups with separate political centers:
1. European Huns went to the West
2. Central Asian Huns - Yueban
3. Huns who submitted to Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), 100,000 families numbering 500,000+ people, with Syanbi a ruling minority.
4. Southern Huns that submitted to China and later took an active part in 16 states and Wu-hu epoch (five barbarian tribes Huns (Xiongnu 匈奴), Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), Tele (Di 氐), Kiyan Huns (Qiang 羌), and Kiyan Huns (Jie 羯); at that time Uigurs Hui/Sui/Yui were a part of Tele/Di.
From that point on, the histories of European Huns branch and Central Asian Huns branch are independent from the Eastern Huns, but are linked
93AD Western (Northern) Huns move their center to Dzungaria
124AD Dionysius Periegetes (the Guide), during emperor Hadrian (117-138), Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii
139 Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Türkic agach eri Forest People) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. Alans-farmers) live Huns
155 155-160 Syanbiys displace northern Huns beyond Tarbagatai (Syanbi are predominantly Huns)
160 First mention of Huns in European literature (Dionysius Periegetes) (but see 124AD)
175 175 - 182 Mention of Huns in Ptolemy (but see 139AD) 
200 First mentioning of Khazars in annals, by Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi (ca 410 - 480) in History of Armenia writes about reign of King Valarsh, at the turn of 2nd and 3rd cc., united hordes of mountaineers, namely Khazars and Basils (Barsil) came out of Chor gate (Derbent) and crossed Kura. Valarsh drove them beyond Chor gate. They battled there, and Valarsh perished at the hands of skilled archers. Khazars and Bersilia are noted second time in Byzantine annals (582). M.Khorenatsi's 470s record could not be an anachronism
227 Agafangel: Huns participated in joint military campaign of Armenians and Caucasian peoples against Persians
300 Bulgars and Khazars are blood relatives, with a common or similar language.
307 Agafangel: Second mention of the Huns dated by time of reign of Tiridat III (287-330.)
330 330's  King Sanesan of Maskuts/Masguts/Massagets ~ Sanatruk (Truk ~ Türkic) ruler of Paitakaran (~Bai Tarhanlyk)
330/38 Alans allied with Sanesan, king of Massagetae (Mazk'owtk'), against Armenian king Xosrov II Kotak
350 War (350-359) between Chionite Huns and Sasanids (Harmatta)
350 Moisei Khorensky: Armenian heretic refugees expelled by Christians find refuge with Huns (Heretic refugees are probably pre-Christian Tengrians)
354 Bulgars mentioned in Chronograph
356 356/7 Shapur II repulses Chionite Huns on border of Persia
359 Chionite King Grumbat participates in Persian Shah Shapur II campaign to city Amida
360 Favstos Buzand: Huns, together with Alans, participated in fight of Armenians headed by king Arshak II (350-368) against armies of Persian king Shapur II (309-379)
370 Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais and N. Caspian steppes. Living there Alans join Huns. Start of Byzantine annual tribute to Huns
371 Huns invade Goths' possessions in N.Pontic
372 Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns to Europe
4th c. Formation of Caucasian Hunnia, kingdom of Huns, first state of Kumyk ancestors with center in Varachan/Belendjer (on site of present-Ulla Boynak in DR (Dagestan Republic) Karabudakhkent district)
544 6th c. Translation of Christian holy scriptures into Hun (Türkic) language in Varachan
558 Formation of Khazar state including Caucasian Hunnia (kingdom of Huns) with center in Semender (Targu) city
642 Century of Arab aggression into N. Causacus under a guise of Islam religion. Colonization starts from Persian dependencies, Azerbaijan and Agvania. Colonization starts with tribute and acceptance of Islam as prerequisite for drafting into Moslem army. First Khazar - Arab (i.e. Hun/Savir - Arab) war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman. Reference to Khazars in Arabic sources is apparent backward projection, prior to emergence of Khazaria.
The first Khazar-Arab war is Hun/Savir-Arab war.
Century-long series of Arab campaigns: Abd Al Rahman (642-652), Jarrah (721/722), Maslama (727/728), Marwan (737/738)
647 Pursuant to Ili River treaty (alt. date 638) Western Turkic Kaganate split into two independent Nushibi and Tele states. Bedi Bersil and Kadyr Kasar revolted, split from Nushibi confederation, and conquered Ak-Bulgars (Eastern Bulgars) and Caspian Huns to form their own Khazar Kaganate in 660.
650 Son of Irbis Shegui Khan, name unknown, becomes first Kagan of Khazar Kaganate (650?-.). Pletneva: 650 (provisional date) Formation of Khazar Kaganate ?
651 Son of Buri Shad, Khallyg (62) leading Bishbalyk Türkut horde captured control of W. Türkic Kaganate, and personally killed its last Kagan Irbis Sheguy Khan from Ashina dynasty ( -651), and proclaimed himself Kagan Yshbara Khan
651 With Ashina dynasty loss of rule in W.Türkic Kaganate, former confederate Khazaria with attached Bulgar Kutugurs (West Wing), Alans, Slavs (i.e. Antes) and Itil Bulgars gain independence.
Khazars keep Kagan from Ashina dynasty, likely younger son XXX of Irbis Sheguy Khan (46) (610 618 AD), who was a former governor of Chach and grandson of Tardū Kagan (Kara Churīn), he was a brother of Tun Yabgu Kagan and El-Tigin Buyuruq (Nili Khan, Parmuda). XXX brothers were....
651 Khazaria with center in Semender (Semender - Hunnic/Suvar capital till 723) bordered in the east with W.Türkic Kaganate of  Kagan Yshbara Khan with center in Bin-Bulak (Thousand Springs) S of r. Talas. In 651, Khazaria is still a minor splinter of W.Türkic Kaganate (Instead of unrelated Semender, Khazar domain wedged between southern and northern Savirs, creating separate Karajar/Chernihiv and Caucasian Savirs' domains - S.Pletneva)
651 Defeat of Hunno-Alan (Masgut) (erroneously called Khazar army) army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euphrates battle
651 Fall of the Sassanid Empire, in which the Pahlavi script was official (Aramaic remained medium of everyday writing and provided scripts for writing Middle Persian/Sassanid)..
652 Conquest of and recognition by S. Caucasian countries of Arab Caliphate dominance. Agvania suffers double tribute duty (652-664), to Huns and Arabs, appeal to Huns for liberation
652 End of first Khazar-Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman. Reference to Khazars in Arabic sources is apparent backward projection. The first Khazar-Arab war is Savir-Arab war
652 Khazars (i.e. Hunno-Savirs) smash Arab army at Balanjar
653 653-654 Arab first campaign against Hunno-Savir state, defeat of Arab army
654 Albania (Aguania) reverted back to Huns
655 Gumilev: Khazars cooperate with Iranian speaking (sic!) Alans. Khazars is apparent backward projection, a misnomer for Hunno-Savirs. Alan is a member of Türkic Tele confederation, Türkic speaking, see Sui shu (581 to 618) chapter 84 Description Of Tele
656 Campaign of  Chinese Tang Empire (Toba/Tabgach Empire) against W Türkic Kaganate. Sogdiana (Chinese Kang-chu) occupied by Chinese (657-700). Resistance of Baiyrku, Sige, Bugu and Tonra tribes against Chinese occupation (Bugu is speculated to be a distortion of Bulgar)
660 Post-Kurbat 8 year period (643-650) after which Khazars overrun Bulgar homelands.
660 Kurbat's 1st son Bayan (Batbayan) remains in Great Bulgaria confederated with Khazars
660 661? Agvanian Djevanshir/Djuansher/Javanshir, 636-669, defeats Khazars, Djevanshir coup resolved with Agvania concluding confirmation of treaty with Huns, remains Huns' dependent as protection against Arabs (see 664, 669)
660 - 1016 (618?1048?)
N.Pontic, N.Caspian, tributaries in Eastern Europe (Total Area - 1,000,000 Km2)
Founder - Kagan Kaban (boar) (Ashina dynasty), maternal dynastic tribe - Barsil
662 Arab campaign against Khazars (i.e. Huns) for Derbent
664 Another Huns' military campaign in Caucasus Albania (Agvania), Arabs kicked out of Albania (occupied 652-664), Alp Ilitver sent to Djevanshir/Djuansher/Javanshir his brothers with request for restoration of alliance
669 Palace coup and fratricide in Aguania, Savirs interfere but are satisfied with confirmation of anti-Arab alliance by Djuansher's brother Varaz-Trdat (669-699).
682 Mission of Albania bishop Israil to Hunno-Savirs
682 Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes Kingdom of Huns (Belendjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars, subordinated to Khazars.
683 Khazar raid to Armenia
683 683-685 Khazars invaded S.Caucasia, inflicted much damage and took much booty. Khazar invaders killed rulers of Armenia and Georgia
684 Khazar (i.e. Hunnic-Masgut) raid to  to S.Caucasia occupied by Arabs; Arran, Armenia, and Georgia looted 
692 692-693 Arab ruler of Armenia Mahmet II invaded Albania (Agvania), occupied Derbent, but could not hold it
682 Adoption of Christianity by Alp Ilitver's Huns (Caucasian Hunnia)
7th c. Hunnic Targu city is mentioned in History of Caliphs by Vardapet Ghevond (10th c.)
8th Khazar city Targu is mentioned in medieval Arabic historical sources
700 Khazars are frequently allied with Huns of North Caucasus.
Alp Elteber (Viceroy Alp Ilitver) of Huns of North Caucasus, is a vassal of Khazars (El land, country, teber halberd, double-bitted ax fr. teb-/tep- kick, stamp).
Huns' (Kayi Huns) capital city is Varachan (late 10 c).
713 Second ArabKhazar war (710737) (713-737?). Capture of Derbent by Arab commander Maslama and intrusion of his armies into depth of Khazaria
713 713-737 Arab military campaigns against Khazaria and her federate - Caucasian Hunnia
713 713-714 Siege by Arab commander Maslama of Anji city. Heroic defense by Anji inhabitants of their fortress, described in Anji-name
714 Khazars (i.e. Huns-Suvars) lose Derbent to Arabs
715 Khazar (i.e. Huns-Suvars) army of 80K liberates Albania/Agvania (under codename Arran) from Arabs
718 Khazars (Huns-Masguts) invade (raid Arab vassal) Azerbaijan.
721 Arab commander Jerrah campaign to Khazaria, capture of Belendjer/Balanjar/Varachan (Karatay O. reads Balanjar as Groznyi: beliŋ panic, terror (Clauson, ED, p. 343) + jer place, earth). Khazars moved their capital near to Itil. Campaigns of Arab generals Abd Al Rahman (642-652), Jarrah (721/722), Maslama (727/728), Marwan (737/738),
721 Khazar arms take Alan/Central Caucasus , i.e. Khazar army comes to help Masguts against Jerrah army.
721 Khazars smash Arabs In Armenia/defunct Persia
721 721-722 Semender (Targu) mentioned in connection with campaign of Arab commander Djerrah against Khazaria
722 Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737), still a Savir - Arab war
First campaign of Arabian troops led by J. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars
722 722/723 battle of Arab forces led by Jarrah with Khazars on river Ar-Rana, Arabs defeated Khazars, took Balanjar and Vabandar, and ransacked Haidak (Kayi country)
722 722-723 The Khazar capital moved to Itil to Itil-Kala
723 Khazars (Huns-Masguts) lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar (modern Mahachkala)
723 723-724 Arab commander Jerrah campaigns against Alans (Masguts)
723 Khazars move capital to Itil from Samandar . Semender was a Hunnic capital, not Khazar's; Khazars used Semender as field command center during war time.  Semandar (Semender),  Derbent, and Balanjar were abandoned in course of 727/728 campaign of Arab commander Maslama.
723 723-944 Start of massive Jewish emigration to Khazaria
723 ca 723 First reference to name Ungaria as a country-name in a source: a tyrannide et decimis regis Ungariae liberare (to set free from tyranny and tithes of king of Hungary (Onogurs in Europe?)
724 Jarrah raids Khazaria N. of Balanjar . Jarrah was killed at Balanjar, his body was mummified, and kept as relict
725 Abdallah al-Hakami (Jarrah) defeats Khazars at Balanjar . Jarrah was killed at Balanjar, his body was mummified, and kept as relict
725 Abdallah al-Hakami (Jarrah) takes Dariel pass / Alan (Masgurs)
725 725 - 729 Maslamah campaign raids Khazaria/loot and slaves
727 Khazars invade Azerbaijan. Muslama's raid against Khazars
727 In 727/728 Arab commander Maslama entered into abandoned by their residents cities Derbent, Balanjar, and Semandar (Semender).
727 727-728 Semender (Targu) is mentioned in connection to Arab commander Maslama campaign against Khazaria
729 729 - 730 Jarrah reaches Volga delta / loot and slaves . Jarrah was long dead, it was Maslama who reaches Itil delta
730 Khazar commander Barjik led Khazar troops (300K army) through Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At Battle of Ardabil, Khazars defeated entire Arab army. Battle of Ardabil lasted for three days, and resulted in death of major Arab general Jarrah. Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time
730 Acceptance of Judaism by Khazar Kagan Bulan of Ashina dynasty
730 730-731 Khazar campaigns against Albania, capture of its capital Ardebil, defeat of Jerrah Arab army, Khazars kill Governor Jarrah /Ardabil city
730 Khazars loot and pillage Tabriz / Armenia,  smash Arab army at Ardabil city / Armenia
732 Caliph pays Khazars for service annually 100k dirhams
732 Arab commander Mervan campaign to Derbent and Belendjer (Muddy Campaign). Khazars defeat Arabs again / loot and slaves
732 Marwan raids Khazaria / loot and slaves . Marwan.
737 737-738 Joint attack of Arab commander Marwan and Armenian prince Ashot on Hunnic city Targu (Semender)
737 Arabs defeat Khazars with aid from Armenian allies . (Marwan (737/738)? Christian Armenians in cahoots with Moslem Arabs against their traditional patron and defender Huns?)
737 Arabs (Marwan (737/738)?) occupy Dagestan littorals / on Caspian
737 Arabs force conversion to Islam. ... Kagan Kuk-Kuyan (Blue Rabbit) becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam for political reasons (703?-.).
737 Acceptance by Khazar Kagan Bardjil of Islam as a condition of staying in power
737 Marwan, an Arab general, captured the Khazar Kagan and forced him to pledge support to the Caliphate and convert to Islam
737 Initially converted to Islam, Khazar princes adopted Judaism towards 740 and were eventually converted to Christianity by St Cyril (non-existent post-mortem title  of Constantine, ca. 826/7869) in the ninth century (Don't bet your house on this kind of scholarship)
737 Khazars (i.e. Huns) loose Samandar to Arabs, move capital to Itil.
737 Kumyks rulers submit to Muslim religion
740 Local kingdoms pay wheat tribute to Arabs / Caucasus
740 Khazars adopt Judaism / state religion  (Khazar Kagan just agreed to personally adopt Islam as a condition of being left a Kagan and evacuation of Marwan army; no concept of state religion in Khazaria, in a free society the Khazarian tradition is religious tolerance and freedom of religion; both timing and event are incredible, timing is a whole century off)
749 Abbasid Caliph comes to power, Abu al-Abbas . Khazars (i.e. Moslem Khazars) do not recognize the Abbasid coup or their version of Islam. For next century, Khazars remain true to Umayyad version of Islam
754 Name of Khazars in Türkic script contemporary record Qasar in the Terh Inscription. Same name of Khazars in Achik-Tash Inscription (8th c.). That inspires a doomed speculation that Khazar is an allophone of Caesar
758 ArabKhazar war
762 Khazars, led by As Tarkhan, re-conquer S.Caucasia
762 Khazar invasion into Sis-Caucasia.
764 Khazars take Tbilisi
763 Al-Bakri dates Khazar Polemic by 763 under Kagan Sabriel-Obadiah (post-conversion title-name) (see 861), consistent with Karaite version
798 798 or 799 Last Khazar campaign against Arab-ruled S. Caucasia
799 799-809 Reforms of Khazar Kagan Obadia, official acceptance of Judaism as a state religion with continued policy of religious tolerance. Spread of Jewish religion in Kaganate. Khazar ruling house called with Hebrow Togarmah (or just Türkic people)???
799 Upper and middle leaders and a part of Khazar population converted to Judaism (recalculated to 1000 AD population, 100,000 Türkic Judaic Ashkenazim people marked by R1b and R1a migrated to Europe after 1000 AD, or 1.5. mln modern Ashkenazim of 2000 AD)
817 Inhabitants of Samandar revolt against attempts by Khazar Kagan Karak to introduce Judaism
850 second half of 9th c..,. Semender (Targu) is mentioned as a Khazar southern border fortress
861 Religious debate in Khazar court (Khazar Polemic) between Cyril (Constantine of Thesalonica (826-869 A.D.), reportedly seventh child of Leo the Drungar) and Methodius, Rabbi Yitzhak Ha Sangari, and Muslem cleric Farabi Ibn Kora, plus Ateh, Khazar Princess, or Ateh could actually be a Jewish Princess (suggested daughter Thalia of exiled Exliarch, maybe a short for Nataliah, Heb. gift from God/Karaite) with silver colored eyes (Christian version). Ibn Rustah: in Khazaria, Kagan and his followers becoming Muslim, and Bek and his followers becoming Jewish. (see 763)
861 Khazar kings converted to Judaism. Jewish dynasty of kings presided over the Khazar kingdom until the 960s. Khazar Bulan Bek, nobility and some common people convert to Judaism.
895 Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power
900 10th c. Semender (Targu) mentioned at al-Balkhi
901 Khazar campaign against Derbent led by K_sa son of B_l_dj_an (Bulčan, Bulchan)
909 Capture by Ruses with Varyag allies of fort Abesgun on island in Caspian Sea and destruction of local merchant fleet
913 Raid of Rus state pirates on Caspian Sea coastal population headed by Salahbi Yolyg (Slav. Oleg, aka Veschiy Oleg, i.e Oleg the Seer, 882-916). Khazars demolish Rus marauding expedition fleet
930 Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage
932 Khazar-Alan war ends with victory of Khazars. Alans remain in  Khazar sphere as autonomous state and multiple Alanian colonies along Don-Sever Donets area
943 Semender (Targu) mentioned by Al-Masudi as capital of Djindan
943 943-944 Raid of Rus state pirates on Caspian Sea coastal population including a winter in captured city Berda
944 723-944 End of massive Jewish emigration to Khazaria
954 954-961 Correspondence of Hasdai Ibn-Shafrut with Khazar Kagan Joseph
969 Khazaria, broken by Svyatoslav (called Barys by Bulgars), is divided between Itil Bulgaria and N. Caucasus Saklans.
969 Ruses plunder Semender (Targu)
977 977-985 Khazars turn to Horesm for help, Horesm help comes conditioned by conversion of Khazars to Islam and with occupation of Khazaria's Itil and some other cities by Horesmians
977 Semender (Targu) revived from ashes
980 980th Semender (Targu) is mentioned by Al-Mukkadasi as seaside city
1000 10th c. Khazar king Joseph in his letter to Caliph of Cordoba mentioned Semender as a city in northern part of coastal plane
913 913-916 Rise of Semender (Targu). Formation of Djindan (Gelon, Gilan) Kingdom, Kumyk ethno-political state with center in Semender (Targu)
916 Al-Istahri reports that in 916 Semender king professed Judaism and was a relative of  Khazar Kagan (king/malik, which could be Bek)
943 Adoption of Djindan king Salnfan (Sulifa, title) Islam
11th c. 11th-12th cc. Shevkal-i Malik (Shevkal king) is mentioned in Oguz epos Kitab-Dedem Gorgud (Book of my grand-daddy Korkut)
1030 Destruction of Semender (Targu) by troops of Ganja Emir ibn Fadlun. Kumyks, Khazars, and Seljuks from south joint campaign against Ibn Fadlun
1030 1030-1064 Emergence and rise of first dynasty of Kumyk Shauhals (from Seljuk Emir Chopan Shepperd).
1064 Revival of Semender (Targu) under first Shauhals (Shauhal, Shavhal, Caliph is an allophone of Sulifa)
1131 Abu Hamid al-Andalus mentions Kumyks among peoples of Caucasus wno adopted Islam under Maslama ibn Abdul-Malik (8th c.)
12th cc. Mahmud Kashgari mentions city Suar (River People) in North-East Caucasus and Kumyks among Türkic tribes
1242 End of Dagestani Khazar kingdom.
1253 1253-1255 Tarki (Targu) and Kumyks are mentioned in list of Mongol-conquered peoples and lands
1258 Accession of Shauhals, Targu ancestors on Kumyk throne. Formation of Targu Shauhal Targu, a frontier Wilayat (district) with center in Targu within Kipchak Khanate (Golden Horde)
1274 Koisu (river) is mentioned by Ibn Said in form of Nahr al-ganam, as scientists believe a qalque of Kumyk's name
1318 1318-1319 Epigraphic monuments from Dakhadayevsky district mention Ahsuvar Shauhal (Ak-Suvar Shauhal, likely Ruling-Suvar Sulifa)
1376 Tarki (Targu) is mentioned on Catalan map, along with Derbent
1386 Kaytag manuscript mentions Sultan (principality or ?) Shauhal
1394 1394-1396 Tarki in Timur sources (Iezdi-i Shami)
1396 Tamerlane stopped in Tarki (Targu). Killing of Shauhal, ruler of Wilayat Ghazi Kumukluk, by his chief commander. Kumykia is included into possessions of Miran Shah, son of Tamerlane
1401 Tarki (Targu) mentioned in bull of Head of Roman Catholic Church. Catholic missionaries resided in Tarki (Targu)
1420 Kumuk Hakimi (Kumyk ruler) is mentioned in letter of Turkish Sultan Mehmet (1413-1431)
1441 1441-1442 Kumyks free from Timurid (Miran Shah) power, election of new Shauhal from Chengisid line. Formation of independent Shevkal kingdom with center in Targu
1466 Tarki (Targu) is mentioned in Journey Beyond Three Seas Athanasius Nikitin
1485 Tarki is mentioned in Testament of Andunik
1488 Tarki (Targu) is mentioned in Iranian sources associated with campaigns of Sheikh Haydar against Dagestan and Kakaz (Caucas) Tyumen (Taman)
1494 494-1495 Shauhal (Wali of Dagestan) is mentioned in Arab writings from Aht
15th c. End of 15th-16th cc. Russian and Kabardin charters often mention Kumyk Shevkal  King, Shevkal suzerain
2. 16th century
16th c. 16th-17th cc. Fight for (Kipchak Khanate) Golden Horde heritage between Moscow, Astrakhan, Kazan and Crimea. Participation in struggles of Kumyk Shauhals
16th c 16th-17th cc. Growth of Targu Shauhals' political power in North-Eastern Caucasus
1555 Targu Shauhal sent its ambassador to Ivan IV with proposal to come into Russian allegiance
1552 Conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible
1555 Conquest of Astrakhan by Ivan the Terrible. Start of expansion of Muscovite state onto Caucasus
1557 Appeal of Prince Temryuk to Czar Ivan IV with request to take Kabarda into Russian allegiance and assist in repelling attacks of Shevkal king (Targu Shauhal). Kabarda accession to Russia. Arrival to Moscow of Ambassador of Crim-Shauhal (Restless Shauhal, Yarim-Shauhal Semi-Shauhal, title of Crown Prince) (Possession of Buinaksk)
1559 Arrival to Moscow of yet another embassy of Targu Shauhal
1560 Joint Moscow-Kabardinian campaign against Targu Shauhal. Siege of Tarki (Targu) by troops of Astrakhan voivode (commander) I.S.Cheremisinov. Fight with Shevkal Czar lasted for a day, Shauhal Budai fled from Tarki. Cheremisinov did not hold to Targu, he burned city and returned to Astrakhan, with plenty of Shavkal captives
1566 Shauhal Budai and his army fight against Russians in Kabarda. There he is killed in one of battles
1566 Ivan IV, intending to build fortress in lower course of Sulak (Koisu), demanded from Shauhal Biybolat land for fortress. Shauhal Biybolat asked for help and support from Crimean Khan
1570 Ottoman Sultan's government protested Russia's actions in region, holding Terek banks to be not only Cherkassan, but also Shevkal side. It ultimately demanded not to attack any more ...Circassians, Crim-Shevkals and Kumuks...
1578 Kumykia joined Ottoman Empire. Acceptance of Shauhal Chopan of Targu and his brother Tunch Álav into Ottoman allegiance
1578 Osman Pasha Ozdemir oglu, Caucasian viceroy of Ottoman court married Rabia-Mihridil, niece of Chopan-Shauhal
1588 1588-1589 Death of Chopan-Targu Shauhal and partitioning of his kingdom into allodial principalities between his sons (Buinaksk to Eldar, Kazan to Magomed, Kafir-Kumuk to Andiy, Gelin to Giray, Targu to Surkhai)
1589 1589-1605 Reign of Shauhal Surkhai on Kumyk throne in Targu.
1590 Persian Shah Abbas I peace with Turkish Sultan. In Derbent was stationed Turkish garrison
1591 1591-1952 20,000-strong army of voivode (commander) G.O. Zasekin attacked Targu. Shauhal counters with 12,000 army. After fierce fighting Russian troops seize and burn Targu. Sources tell: Shauhal was wounded and many people were killed
1592 Ottoman government sent protest note to Russian ambassador Naschokin in Istanbul, condemning Russia's actions in Kumykia
1594 New Russian campaign aganst Shauhaldom under command of Prince Hvoristinin. Objective - capture of Targu, installation as  Shauhal his relative, Crown Prince Crim-Shauhal (in-law of Czar Alexander, friendly towards Georgia), opening a road from Georgia to Terek. Russian troops captured Targu, Torkali, Tyumen, Endirey. Shauhal blocked Russian troops in Targu. Russian troops fled, pursued by Shauhal to Sulak (to river Koisu). Three thousand. Russian soldiers were killed at Targu
1595 Russian diplomats at European courts were quick to report - Shauhal kingdom and Shauhal Prince kicked out and caught his people...
16th c. End of 16th c. Was born Mohammed Avabi Aktashly, future Kumyk chronicler, author of Derbent-name
 3. 17th cc.
1603 1602-1603 Arrival in Moscow of embassy of Shauhal Surkhai of Targu, Kafir-Kumuk possessor Andia and Soltan-Mut of Endirey, with proposal for Russian allegiance
1603 Arrival in Moscow of ambassadors of Shauhal Surkhai of Targu, Soltan Mahmud, Kabardin Princes Sholokh and Kaziy, and Prince Suyunchal of Tyumen.
1603 Russian campaign under command of Buturlin and Pleshcheev against Targu. Endirey, Erpeli are captured. Kumyk state capital Targu taken after fierce battle
1604 Russian archers (or shooters) dominate Targu and plains
1604 Shauhal Surkhai dies in the mountains
1605 Russian troops continue occupation of Targu, behaving as occupants, capturing people, plunder bread, herds and flocks
1605 Fight against troops of Buturlin and Pleshcheev. Fight is headed by(Adil)-Gerey, son of deceased Shauhal Surkhai and son Soltan-Mut of old Shauhal Chopan. Together, they mobilized thousands of troops, attracted to the cause military forces of Terekeme (Türkic nomads, predominantly from Azerbaijan) of Shamakhi (district in Azerbaijan), Akushans (district in Dagestan), Avara, Karachais
1605 Kumyk army blocks Buturlin and Pleshcheev in Targu. (Adil)-Gerey of Targu negotiated with Buturlin, who accepts (Adil)-Gerey's terms and retreats from Targu without a fight
1605 Battle of Karaman. (Adil)-Gerey of Targu and Soltan-Mut of Endirey army crushed army of Buturlin and Pleshcheyev. 7 thousand Russian archers (or shooters) and both Buturlin and Pleshcheyev were killed
1605 (Adil)-Gerey, son of deceased Shauhal Surkhai, is elected a Shauhal
1610 Kumyk Princes Gerey and Eldar Surkhais swore oath of loyalty to Russian state
1612 Istanbul peace treaty between Persia and Ottoman Empite, Kumyk Shauhal Khan is declared to be subject of Ottoman Sultan
1614 Dynastic marriage of Gerey of Targu's sister with Persian Shah Abbas I
1614 Shah Abbas I proclaimed (Adil)-Gerey of Targu a Dagestan Khan
1614 Charter of Russian Czar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov to Shauhal (Adil)-Gerey of Targu about accepting him into Russian allegiance
1614 Arrival in Moscow of ambassador Tomulduk of Shauhal (Adil)-Gerey of Targu
1615 1615-1619 Feudal strife between Crim-Shauhal Eldar (Crown Prince) and Endirey possessor Soltan-Mut
1615 Tersk (Terek) commander P. Golovin aids Shauhal Gerey of Targu to fight pro-Turkish and pro-Crimea inclined Soltan-Mut of Endirey
1615 1st Kumyk Kurultai (congress) (Kumyk princes, murzas, and black people) to stop internal feuds and unite country
1616 Missive of Czar Mikhail Fedorovich to Gerey of Targu
1616 Crimean Khan is preparing to war against Shauhal Gerey of Targu because of his pro-Iranian and pro-Russian orientation, and to eliminate Tersk (Terek) village, allied with Soltan-Mut of Endirey and his brother Mutsal
1617 2nd Kumyk Kurultai of princes, murzas, and black people
1618 3rd Kumyk Kurultai of princes, murzas, and black people on issue of peace and reconciliation
1618 Missive of Crim-Shauhal (Crown Prince) Eldar to Czar Mikhail Fedorovich with expression of readiness for Russian allegiance
1619 Tersk (Terek) commander N. Velyaminov wrote to Ambassador Service that he does everything to obstruct reconciliation between Eldar of Targu and Soltan-Mut of Endirey, for Soltan-Mut is reliable on Tersk (Terek) and on Crimean Czar, and he would detract Eldar-Murza from your Czar's benevolence...
1619 Reconciliation between Eldar of Targu and Soltan-Mut, exchange of hostages
1621 4th KumykKurultay
1622 Crim-Shauhal Eldar taken in Russian allegiance
1623 5th Kumyk Kurultai
1623 Shauhal Eldar of Targu is elected as Kumyk Shauhal after death of his brother Gerey of Targu
1623 1623-1635 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Eldar of Targu, son of Shauhal Surkhai
1631 Oath of loyalty to Russian state by son of Soltan-Mut Aydemir
1632 Shauhal Eldar of Targu and his army participate in Persian Shah Safi I campaign to Georgia
1633 6th Kumyk Kurultai in Endirey. Confirmation of Aydemir, son of Soltan-Mut of Endirey, as crown heir to the post of Shauhal
1633 Son Eldar of Shauhal Alyp-Kach (progenitor of Princes Alypkachevs) sent as hostage to Tersk (Terek) city (i.e. hostage to Russian dominance)
1634 Tersk (Terek) commander Pronsky aids Shauhal Eldar in struggle against Soltan-Mut of Endirey
1634 Stay in Kumykia of secretary Adam Oleary of Holstein embassy
1635 Shauhal Eldar dies in Targu, is inherited by son Aydemir of Soltan-Mut
1635 1635-1641 Reign of Aydemir on Kumyk Shauhal throne
1635 Kumyk troops siege Azov on Crimean and Ottoman side
1641 Joint campaign of Kumyk and Russian troops against Kabarda. During campaign in battle on river Malka dies Shauhal Aydemir
1641 1641-1660 Reign on Kumyk Shauhal of Targu throne of Surkhai, son of Gereyy, brought up at royal court of Persian Shah Safi I
1641 1641-1642 Quarrel and discord between Shauhal Surkhai and Kazan-Alp of Endirey. Each one in their fight tries to use backing of great powers
1641 Alkhas (Safi Quli Khan), son of late Shauhal Eldar, given as hostage and brought up at Shah Safi I royal court, is appointed a beglerbek (ruler) of Shirvan and Erivan
1641 Essentially, a tri-partite division of the Targu Shaukhaldom. For a time, Kumyk history trifurcates into three branches
1643 Missive of Czar Mikhail Fedorovich to Shauhal Surkhai of Targu
1645 Grand Prince Soltan-Mut died in Endirey  of natural death
1645 At Congress of princes and murzas is elected as ullubiy (Great Prince, Ullu/Ulluɣ/Gulu + Bey/Bi/Bek) of Endirey, i.e. possessor of N. Sulak (Zasulak) Kumykia, second son Kazan-Alp of Soltan-Mut
1645 1645-1650 On initiative of Shauhal Surkhai, Nogai uluses coach from Astrakhan steppes to inside Kumykia. They are known as Targu Nogais or Kumyk Nogais. Thus strengthened already considerable military force of Targu Shauhal
In the next 250 years, the Nogai Kazakh language must have somewhat influenced the Kumyk language
1645 Shauhal Surkhai, seeking to crush and eliminate political independence of Kazan-Alp's Endirey possession, without engaging him went westward through his land on campaign against Kabarda, and crushed possessions of Kabarda Prince Kazi Mudar
1647 Visit of Turkish historian and geographer Evliya Çelebi in Kumykia and Targu
1647 Shauhal Surkhai married his son to Nogai Princess, daughter of Choban-Murza
According to tradition, this makes Choban-Murza a father-in-law of Surkhai's son, giving Choban-Murza a pre-eminence in Kumykia
1650 Germenchik battle. To return by force Nogais who coached away to Shauhal of Targu, Terek's (Tersky) voivode (commander) with 12 thousand troops initiated campaign, jointly with Kazan-Alp of Endirey. Under Targu on Germenchik field meets they faced combined army of Shauhal Surkhai and Nogay prince Choban-Murza. The forces of Terek voivode (commander) were completely crushed. Surkhai Shauhal also captured Czar's flag, which was sent as a trophy to Persian Shah Abbas II
1651 Shauhal Surkhai, Kazan-Alp of Endirey, and Kaytag Amirhan jointly campaign against town of Sunja and at Braguny
1652 Shauhal Surkhai and Kazan-Alp stage with their troops on Aktash, preparing to campaign against Terek town and Astrakhan. They sent their ambassadors to Crimean Khan, asking for his fighters in support
1653 Shauhal Surkhai preparing an army to campaign against Astrakhan (mobilized 12 thousand cavalry and foot soldiers)
1658 Shah Abbas II announced his intention to build in Kumykia two fortresses, one opposite of Targu. Shauhal Surkhai strongly objects. Anti-Persian uprising in Kumykia, involving 30 thousand people. Shah Abbas II send 20-thousand. army to suppression uprising
1659 Shauhal Surkhai of Targu, Ahmed Khan of  Djengutai (Mekhtuli), Kazan-Alp of Endirey, Buynak possessor Budai-Bek Bagomat enter into Russian allegiance
1660 Austrian envoy in Moscow Baron Meyrberg reports that Kumyks are independent of neighboring great powers, they enjoy full freedom under control of many of their lords from noble families under supreme supervision of Shauhal (Journey to Muscovy by Augustine Meyerberg. Moscow, 1874. p. 163)
1660 Shauhal Surkhai of dies in Targu
1660 1660-1682 Reign on Kumyk throne Shauhal Budai of Targu
1667 Persian Shah Sulayman (1667-1694), taking advantage of turmoil and strife in Kumykia, sends his army against Shauhal Budai, intending to build a fortress on river Koisu (Sulak)
1667 Stepan Razin's attack on Tarki (Targu)
1669 Repeat appearance in Targu of Stepan Razin's vagabonds and their attempt to seize prime capital of Shauhals
1675 Shauhal Budai of Targu receives Crimean Khan's invitation letter to participate in campaign against Moscow
1676 Kafir-Kumuk possessor Asan-Bek Murza sent his emissary Yarash to Moscow via Astrakhan
1677 Shauhal Budai sends a letter of loyalty to Russia and 9 Kumyk argamaks as gift to Moscow Czar
1677 Kumyks under command of Kafir-Kumuk possessor Asan-Bek Murza fight for Russia at Chyhyryn (Ukraine, Cherkass Province) in Russian-Turkish war of 1677-1678
1682 Shauhal Budai dies in Targu
1682 1682-1700 reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Murtuzali of Targu
1689 50,000-strong army of Kumyks, Nogais, and Circassians aidis fight of Crimean Khan Salim-Gerey in defense of Crimea and repulsion of V.D. Golitsyn troops
1694 Shah Hussein on Safavid throne in Persia. His Chief Persian Vizier (Prime Minister) is Fath Ali Khan Dagestani, son of Sefi Quli Khan, son of Shauhal Eldar of Targu
1700 Shauhal Murtuzali dies in Targu
4. 18th c.
1700 1700-1725 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1712 Born Ali Kuli Khan (Valeh) Dagestani, prominent writer and poet
1715 Astrakhan commander A.P.Volynsky and Chief Vizier of Shah Husein Fath Ali Khan Dagestani sign Russian-Iranian treaty of friendship and cooperation
1718 Paper of Peter I to Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu about accepting him with all his subject uluses into Russian allegiance.
1719 Arrival in Moscow to Peter I with special diplomatic mission of Mamed-Bek (Magomed-Bek) Alypkach, ambassador of Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1720 Foreign affairs Collegium decided to provide military assistance to Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1722 Proclaimed Manifesto of Peter I to peoples of Caucasus in Tatar (actually, in Turkish language) language
1722 Caspian (Persian) campaign of Peter I
1722 Kumyk ruler Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu and Prince Soltan-Mut of Aksay visit for negotiations military camp of Peter I on Sulak river near Kaziyurt
1722 Shauhal Adil-Gerey receives Peter I at his residence in Targu, later provides military help
1722 Peter I decree appointing Adil Gerey of Targu a Russian Dagestani regent and transfer to him possession of rebellious Soltan-Mut of Otemish
1722 Construction of Holy Cross (Stavropol) fortress on r. Sulak
1723 Russia and Persia signed an agreement Petersburg treatyt, under which Persia gives Russia for an everlasting possession: Dagestan, Shirvan, Mazandaran and Astrabad (Essentially, this Russian acquisition encompassed all Caspian littoral traditionally populated by Türkic nomads, Scythians, Huns, Masgut/Alans/Ases, Gilyans, Yirks, etc.)
1725 Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu, Viceroy of Dagestan, dissatisfied with construction at behest of Peter I of Russian fortress Holy Cross (Stavropol) in his dominions, besieges it with 30-thousand. army
1725 Commandant of fortress of St. Cross general Kropotov plunders Tarki (Targu). Peter I abolishes Shauhaldom of Targu. Shauhal Adil Gerey is exiled to town Kole near Arkhangelsk
1733 Crimean campaign under command of Fatih-Gerey against Kumykia
1734 Nadir Shah commits campaign to Dagestan, restores dignity to title Shauhal Wali Dagestan itself Shauhaldom of Targu
1734 1734-1765 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Hasbulat Shauhal, of Targu, Dagestan Wali, son of exiled Shauhal Adil Gerey of Targu
1742 Russia extends to Shauhal Khasbulat of Targu and his son status of its protectorate
1743 Crushing defeat of invincible legions of Persian Nadir Shah by joint forces including Djengutai army (Mekhtuli, Mekhtuli principality, Mehtula) under command of Ahmed Khan in battle of Andalal harras Nadir Shah into retreat. Turkish Sultan Ahmet Khan awarded Ahmed Khan of Djengutai (Mekhtuli) a highest general's military rank Mir-i mirana
1765 Dies Shauhal Hasbulat of Targu, Dagestan Wali
1765 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Mehti Shirdanchy
1765 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Tishsiz (Toothless) Bammat, son of Gerey Bammat (or Bammatu) (indirect heir). Ignites strife for Kumyk throne initiated by sons of Shauhal Shirdanchi direct heirs Mehti, Murtuzali and Bammat and widow of Shauhal Hasbulat
1765 Murtuzali led his supporters and militia to storm Targu. Tishsiz (Toothless) Bammat flees to Erpeli
1765 7th Kurultai in Great Kazanish of Kumyk princes, murzas, and many influential people from neighboring lands to stop strife in Surkhal clan. Kurultai decided that direct successor Mehti of Shauhal Shirdanchi should be a Shauhal, but Mehti refused in favor of his eldest son Murtuzali. Murtuzali was proclaimed a Shauhal of Targu
1765 1765-1782 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Murtuzali of Targu
1776 Shauhal Murtuzali took Russian allegiance
1780 Was born Kadir Murza Amirhankentli, future chronicler, author of Anji-name
1782 Shauhal Murtuzali died
1782 1782-1794 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Bammat (Shauhal of Targu, possessor of Buinak and Dagestan) (The title implies that in 1782, 1600 years later, the Kayi Huns (Kaitag, Mountain Kayi) was still an independent ethnic principality)
1784 Ahmet Khan Mehtuli with his men switched to service of Sultan of Turkey and moved to Turkey
1786 Shauhal Bammat of Targu is accepted into Russian allegiance
1794 Bammat-Shauhal of Targu died
1794 1794-1830 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Mehti of Targu
1796 Persian Shah Aga Muhammed Khan demanded that Dagestani rulers switch to Persian allegiance
1796 Shauhal Mahdi-Bek of Targu, Kaytag Utsmiy, Tabasaran kadi, and Khan of Mehtuli confer against Aga Mohammad-Shah, and decide to turn to Russia for help
1796 Shauhal Mahdi-Bek of Targu campaign against Persia. Cavalry regiment of general V.A. Zubov comes to Kizlyar to help Shauhal of Targu
1798 1798-1799 Shauhal Mehti-bek of Targu builds village Shauhal-Yangiyurt (Young Yurt) and Shauhal-Girmen. He relocates there some residents of Garki, Kyahulai, Alburikent, and other villages
1799 Decree of Emperor Paul bestowing Shauhal Mehti-Bek of Targu rank of Lieutenant General
5. 19th c.
1801 Kumyk Prince Soltan-Ahmat Khan of Mehtuli ascends to post of  Khan of Avaria, ruling Avaria until 1823
1801 Russian-Persian treaty
1802 On Russian nitiative between rulers of Eastern Caucasus is signed Treaty of Georgievsk that stipulated creation of federal union in Eastern Caucasus under patronage of Russia. One of main signatories was Shauhal Mehti of Targu, Possessor of Buinaksk and Dagestan Wali
1804 1804-1813 Russian-Persian war
1806 1806-1812 Russian-Turkish war
1806 fficial date of Kumykia (Shauhaldom of Targu) entry into Russian Empire
1806 For services rendered at capture by Czar army of Derbent Khan possession Mehti-Shauhal of Targu, Dagestan Wali is bestowed rank of Derbent Khan with rights to all income from Derbent Possession (Mahalya Ulus, lit. Neighborhood District)
1806 For merits and loyalty to Russian throne Mehti-Shauhal of Targu, Dagestan Wali is bestowed (Russian) flag with state coat of arms
1813 Concluded Gulistan trreaty, judicially confirming annexation of Kumykia and all of Dagestan by Russian state
1819 Uprising in Kumykia headed by Umalat-Bek of Buinak, crushed by troops of General Yermolov and Shauhal militia
1821 Construction on Tarki (Targu)-Tau (Mountain) of Tarkovskaya (Targu) fortress, later renamed Stormy (Rus. Burnaya)
1827 1827-1828 Russian-Persian war
1828 1828-1829 Russian-Turkish War
1830 Earthquake in Targu
1830 Shauhal Mehti of Targu, Dagestan Wali, with his son Shahwali and with his large entourage arrives in St. Petersburg for coronation of Czar Nicholas I and receives approval of his eldest son Suleiman Pasha as Shauhal. On return trip home Shauhal Mehti died
1830 In village Muselem-aul in Shauhaldom of Targu was born poet Iyrchy Kazak (Eng. Cossack)
1830 1830-1836 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Suleiman Pasha of Targu, Possessor of Buinak, Dagestan and Wali of Dagestan
1831 Abu Muslim Khan, second son of late Shauhal Mehti for connection with Kazi-Mulla exiled from Dagestan to exile in city of Saratov
1831 Mureeds of Kazi-Mulla attack Kum Torkaly and Targu. Siege of fortress Stormy. Czar troops burn and plunder villages Tarki (Targu) and Amirhan-kent
1832 On site of Kumyk aul (village) Temir-Khan-Shura, under same name grew fortification Temir-Khan-Shura. Residents of aul were relocated to nearby Khalimbek-aul, Muselem-aul, and Kafir-Kumuk
1836 Suleiman Pasha, Shauhal of Targu, died suddenly
1836 1836-1860 reign on throne in Kumyk Tarka and Kapiri-Kumuk Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Shauhal Abu Muslim Khan, Shauhal of Targu, Possessor of Buinak, and Wali of Dagestan
1839 Shauhal Abu Muslim Khan of Targu bestowed title of Russian prince, entitlement and title are hereditary, passed to eldest male descendant of direct line according to primogeniture
1842 On ruins of ancient Kumyk city Anji (Semender) is built fortification (Petrovskoe) in honor of Emperor Peter I
1843 Siege by Shamil of Temir-Khan-Shura
1843 Abdurahman Kakashuraly (Atlyboyunlu), famous for Kumyk Sufi poetry, has died
1844 Appointment of Adjutant General Count Vorontsov as Caucasus viceroy and chief commander of separate Caucasus Corps
1845 Proclamation of Count Vorontsov to mountain peoples on guarantees of integrity of their religion, lands, and property
1851 Raid of Shamil's naib Hadji-Murad at Ullu-Boynak (Buinak). Death of Shahvali Bek of Targu fighting mureeds
1851 Shauhal Abu Muslim Khan of Targu sold to Czar's administration land around Petrine fortification for economic development, a setting up of vineyards
1852 Raid of Shamil's naib Hadji-Murad on Djengutai (Mekhtuli)
1853 1853-1856 Crimean War, first wave of Kumyk immigrants to Ottoman Empire
1856 To Petrine fortification arrived steamer from Astrakhan with Emperor Alexander II
1856 Decree of Emperor Alexander II on establishing in Caspian Sea of port city Petrovsk
1858 1858-1859 Exile on political grounds of poet Yyrchi Kazack to Siberia
1859 End of Caucasian War, voluntary surrender of Imam Shamil to Prince Baryatinsky
1860 Administrative reform of Dagestan into province of Russian Empire with inclusion in its jurisdiction of all conquered territories of Mountain (Nagornyi) Dagestan
1860 Death of Prince Abu Muslim Khan, Shauhal of Targu, Dagestan Wali. In Kapir-Kumuk was organized sumptuous funeral. Iyrchy Kazak mourning death of Dagestan ruler with soulful poem (On death of Abu Muslim-Khan).
1860 1860-1867 Reign on Kumyk throne in Targu of Prince, Major General Shamsutdin Khan, Shauhal of Targu
1866 Fortification Temir-Khan-Shura received status of city
1866 Shamil gave oath of allegiance and loyalty to Russia
1867 Renunciation (Abdication) by Prince Shamsutdin Khan, elected Shauhal of Targu, of centuries-old rights of House of Shauhal
1867 Abolition of Shauhaldom of Targu, it is included into newly formed (1860) Dagestan Province of Russian Empire, creation of Temir-Khan-Shura County
1867 Abdication by Rashid Khan of Mehtuli of rights and obligations as elected ruler of Mehtuli Khanate. Abolition of Mehtuli Khanate, it is included into Temir-Khan-Shura County of Dagestan province
1870 Was born Abusupiyan Akayev, outstanding Kumyk educator, public figure, Arabist scientist, in village Lower Kazanysh in Temir-Khan-Shura district of Dagestan province
1877 Was born Djalalutdin Korkmasov, politician and statesman of Dagestan and Russia (1877-1937), in village Kum-Torkala of Temir-Khan-Shura County in Dagestan province. Arrested in 1937 in Stalinist repression campaign, murder date unknown, posthumously rehabilitated August 4, 1956
1878 Was born Prince Nuh Beg of Targu, colonel, military ruler of Dagestan in 1919 (1878-1951)
1879 In village Bota-Yurt of Khasavyurt District in Terek province was assassinated famous Kumyk poet Iyrchy Kazak. (1830-1879)
1883 Ismail Gasprinsky began publication in Crimea and distribution to Türkic peoples in Russia, including Kumyks, first Türkic newspaper Terdjiman (Translator). Sub-title of Terdzhiman listed nations, including Kumyks, for whom newspaper was published. Thus started history of Kumyk printed word
1890 Was born Ullubiy of Buinak, an outstanding revolutionary, public figure and statesman (1890-1919), in village Ulla-Boynak of Temir-Khan-Shura County in Dagestan province
6. 20th c.
1900 1900-1917 Emergence in 19th c. in Russia of all-Türkic modernist movement and its further development in early 20th c.,. organization and operation of network of new method schools (usul-i jadid) in most of Kumyk localities in Dagestan
1900 1900-1914 Publication and distribution (since 1883) among Kumyks of first all-Türkic newspaper Terdjiman (Translator)
1903 Opened first new method schools (usul-i jadid) with instruction in Türkic (Kumyk) language in villages Karabudahkent, Tarki (Targu), Kazanish (Kazanishche), Khalimbek-aul,  Djengutai (Mekhtuli), Drgeli, Kaka-Shura, Soltan-Yangiyurt, Geli, Paraul, Aksay, later in cities Temir-Khan-Shura, Port-Petrovsk
1903 Russian-Japanese war
1905 1905-1907 First Russian revolution, beginning of revolutionary movement in Dagestan
1905 Creation of party Ittifak al-Muslimin (Union of Muslims), active participation of Kumyk general Mahmut Sheikh-Ali
1906 Protest of atlyboyuns led by Cheriv Murza Supyan in defense of their land rights, quashed by regular troops
1908 In Istanbul, progressive-minded young intellectuals formed Kulturträger Türkicist society Türk Dernegi, headed by famous Türkic-Tatar intellectual Yusuf Akchura (raised in Turkey in a family of his Kumyk stepfather). One of society founders was Djalalutdin Korkmasov, who came from Paris when started Young Turks' bourgeois-democratic revolution
1908 In Cairo starts organization created by Young Turks lead by Kumyk Ahmed Saip Kaplan. He published newspapers Al-Sanjak, Türk, Shura-i-Ummet
1910 In St. Petersburg was organized party Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm (The Right Way), headed by general Ali Sheikh-Ali
1910 Djalalutdin Korkmasov publishing newspaper Istanbul News in Russian, illegally distributed in Russia
1910 In Turkey is founded Ottoman Socialist Party, whose founders among others are Kumyks Dj. Korkmasov and Ahmet Saip Kaplan
1910 In St. Petersburg fruitfully operates Muslim charitable society, with active participation of general Sheikh-Ali, prince Nuhbek of Targu, and his wife Gyulruh
1910 Group of Kumyk intellectuals made first attempt publishing newspaper in Kumyk language called Kumuk gazeti, not supported byhigh officials
1912 Publishing of newspaper Millet in Türkic language, publisher-editor - State Duma deputy Salim-Gerey Djanturin and his wife, daughter of general Sheikh-Ali Emine-Hanim
1913 1913-1914 Protests and unrest of Targu Kumyks in defense of official script with Arabic alphabet (Arabic version of Aramaic alphabet)
1914 1914-1915 First World War. Kumyks participate.
1914 Was born Bariyat Muradov, USSR People's Artist, actress of Kumyk theater
1915 In Istanbul Russian Türks formed Committee for rights of oppressed Türkic peoplesin Russia, headed by Yusuf Akchura, Ahmet Saip Kaplan is active Kumyk participant
1916 Ahmet Saip Kaplan with delegation of Committee for rights participates in Conference of Nations in Geneva (Switzerland), distributes Memorandum on situation of Kumyk people in Russia, demanding right to national self-determination, sends it to heads of great powers, including USA President Wilson
1916 First Kumyk Political and Literary Association (KPLA) Tang-Cholpon, headed by Z.-A. Batyrmurza
1917 Formation of first Port-Petrovsky Muslim committee with participation of influential people from Targu and Kyahulay
1917 February bourgeois-democratic revolution in Russia. In Vladikavkaz held 1st Congress of North Caucasus people, formed Central Committee of United Mountain Peoples of North Caucasus:
- Signed Union Treaty of Southeast Union of Cossack Troops, Caucasian Mountaineers, and Free Peoples of Steppes. From Kumyks agreement signed prince R. Kaplanov. Article 4 of Treaty affirmed right of every member of Union to maintain its complete independence in its inner life. Union stated objective (Article 5) earliest establishment of Russian Democratic Federative Republic with recognition as separate states of members of Union: assistance to members of Union in preparation and reorganization of inner life, and as states of future Russian Federation. Was formed Terek-Dagestan government. Chairman and Minister of foreign Affairs was elected deputy Chairman of Central Committee of Union of united Mountain Peoples prince R. Kaplanov.
- On basis of Jamiat-ul-Islam party, was formed Dagestan Provincial National Committee, or Milli Committee, headed by D. Apashev
1917 Started publication of first Kumyk national newspapers Mussavat (Equality, editor M.-M. Mavraev), Zaman (N. Dahadaev), magazine Tangcholpan (T. Beybulatov, Z. Batyrmurzaev)
1917 First Dagestan institution of higher education - Pedagogical Institute with Türkic language of instruction open in Temir-Khan-Shura
1917 In Port-Petrovsk formed Military Revolutionary Committee under chairmanship of U. Buinaksky
1918 Created Mountain Government
1918 May 2 In Temir-Khan-Shura formed Dagestan Military Revolutionary Committee, Chairman D.Korkmasov
1918 Liberation of Tarki (Targu) and Anji (Port-Petrovsk) from bicherahovses by Turkish volunteer corps, sent to Dagestan at invitation of Mountain Government (Bicherahovses freelance army of general L.F. Bicherahov who fought for numerous participants of Russian Civil War, mostly on the White and English side)
1918 Formed North-Caucasus Democratic Republic, among leaders of which are G. Bammatov, prince R. Kaplanov, Adjiev, and others
1919 Ullubiy Buinaksky proclamed Soviet regime in Port-Petrovsk
1919 Formation of Communist Party of Dagestan, headed by Ullubiy Buinaksky
1920 Extraordinary Congress of Peoples of Dagestan declared autonomy of Dagestan
1920 Creation of Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Russian Federation of Dagestan province and Kumyk (Khasavyurt) district
1920 Creation of DASSR. Dj. Korkmasov - first chairman of SNK (Counsil of People's Comissars) DASSR
1920 1920-1950 Activity abroad of North Caucasian political exiles. In Paris G. Bammat created political association Caucasus, is published newspaper of national-political thought of same name in seven European and Türkic languages. Organization upholds idea of revival of North Caucasus national-democratic state. At same time in Warsaw emerges organization Promeus, with several Kumyks, including Professor Urkhan Tarkovsky, which also published newspapers and magazines
1921 First congress of Dagestan and North Caucasus in Vladikavkaz. Formation of Central Committee of Union of Mountaineers of Dagestan and North Caucasus
1921 Decree of Dagestan Military Revolutionary Committee on renaming Port Petrovsk (Czarist name) to Makhachkala (revolutionary name) after revolutionary Makhach Dahadaev (1820-1918) and transfer of DASSR capital from Temir-Khan-Shura to Makhachkala (Targu)
1921 Act on joining DASSR into RSFSR as an autonomous republic
1921 1921-1932 Korkmasov Dj.A. - chairman of SNK (Counsil of People's Comissars) DASSR
1921s In early 1920s, Arabic alphabet was adapted to needs of Kumyk phonetics, were introduced additional letters to represent specific sounds, especially for vowels, which made it possible to abandon vocalizations. Also were excluded letters ذ ث ح ص ض ط ظ ع, necessary for transmission of specific sounds of Arabic language, but not in Kumyk. Modified Kumyk alphabet:
ا ب پ ت ج چ خ د ر ز ژ س تس ش غ بگ ف ق ک ل م ن ه و ۊ ۏ و̃ ۋ ى
1923 Kumyk (Türkic) language is declared official language DASSR
1925 Opening of Buinak pedagogical colledge, preparation of first troupe for future Kumyk theater
1928 Transition to new Latin alphabet. NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs) campaign on confiscation materials written in Arabic alphabet, persecution of criminals who did not surrender forbidden writings or hid forbidden writings, like Quran, birth and marriage certificates, or documents related with history, culture, genealogy, or property. Efforts to decimate ancient culture and people.
1929 1929-1939 Political repression against Kumyk prominent political figures and intellectuals under pretext of fighting Pan-Turkism
1929 1929-1930 creation of collective farms First of May, January 9 and named after MOPR (International Red Aid) in villages Tarki, Kyakhulay, and Alburikent. Orders of Soviet rulers about perpetual transfer of land to them
1930 Birth of Kumyk State Music and Drama Theatre
1937 Meeting of North Caucasian émigré leaders in Warsaw adopted resolution on recognition of Kumyk language as state language of revived some day North-Caucasian Democratic Republic
1938 Created Kumyk script based on Cyrillic alphabet. Second stage in efforts to decimate ancient culture and people. Modern Kumyk alphabet:
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , , (38 characters, compare with Arabic and Latin versions)
1939 1939-1950 A. Takhtarov - Chairman of DASSR Supreme Council
1941 1941-1945 Great Patriotic War. Participation of Kumyksin in war

April 12 1944. Provincial committee of CPSU (Communist Party of Soviet Union) and CPC (Counsil of People's Comissars) DASSR adopted voluntarist decision or resettlement into Khasavyurt District of Targu Kumyks (Tarki (Targu), Kyakhulay, Alburikent), into residential places of repressed Chechens. Forced resettlement (deportation) of Targu Kumyks onto lands of repressed Chechens-Akins (Vainah, supposedly originally a group of Akathyrsi Scythians), with physical liquidation of a number of Kumyk settlements in Makhachkala, Khasavyurt, and Babayurt Districts

1945 Guardian sergeant Abdulhakim Ismailov, Kumyk from village Chagari-Otar in Khasavyurt district of Dagestan, hoisted flag over Reichstag. He is a Hero of Russia
1950 1950-1960 As a result of Stalinist unbalanced (by design) resettlement policy of the Republic's authorities, Kumyks are turned into numerical minority in their own ethnic territories (historical Kumykia), they lose status, lose many of their lands. Started process of de-ethnicization, blurring of ancient ethnocultural Kumyk nation
1957 1957-1960 Unauthorized return of displaced Targu Kumyks to their homes in suburban auls (villages) Tarki (Targu), Kyakhulay, Alburikent. Local and national authorities are combating their return
1960 1960-1965 G. K. Aliyev - Chairman of DASSR Supreme Council
1966 1966-1981 Umalatov A.-P. Dj. -. chairman of DASSR Council of Ministers
1968 Eldar Kalsynbekovich Tsokolaev (Musayev), is first Kumyk who received rank of Major-General of Aviation, later Colonel-General. He ended his service as commander of Air Forces of Far Eastern Military District
1974 Nasrullah Nasrullaev of Targu was first Kumyk to became world champion in freestyle wrestling
1980 At Moscow Olympic Games two Kumyks, Sapiyulla Absaidov of Targu and Mohammed Hasan Abushev of Karabudahkent became champions in freestyle wrestling
1980 1980s Created an underground organization Brorhood of Kumyks (BK), aimed on defence of national rights and interests of Kumyk people. KGB suppressed activity of society, its leaders were discredited and neutralized
1987 -1997 Mirzabeckov Abdurazak Marpdanovich - Chairman of Government of Republic of Dagestan
1989 1st Kumyk Kurultai (congress) in Endirey. In defense of national rights established Kumyk National Movement (KNM/) Tenglik (Equality). Chairman of KNM elected famous scientist and Kumyk public figure Salav Aliyev
1989 1989-99 Activities of Kumyk National Movement Tenglik (Equality)
1989 Congress called in Kazan established Assembly of Türkic Peoples (/ATH), one of its founders was KNM Tenglik

 II-nd Congress of KNM Tenglik adopted Declaration of self-determination of Kumyk people, which announced establishment of Kumyk republic within Russia and Dagestan. Provincial Bureau of CPSU condemned activities of KNM Tenglik as extremist-nationalist. In protest, dozens of CPSU members have quit CPSU. KNM. Leadership of KNM Tenglik filed a lawsuit against Provincial Bureau of CPSU, and won the case

1991 Collapse of Soviet Union
1991 National elections of President of Russia. At urging of All-Kumyk assembly in aul (village) Endirey on May 19, 1991, more than 70% of Kumyk voters voted for candidacy of Boris Yeltsin
1991 1991-1992 Two Congresses of Kumyk people, resolving: 1) to establish Kumyk National Parliament - Milli Majlis (1991) 2) to conduct national survey of Kumyk people, asking Do you support proclamation of national sovereignty of Kumyk people and creation of Kumyk Autonimy as part of Dagestan and Russia?
1991 Kumyk women declared multi-day hunger strike to support demands for resignation of Dagestani government (Rubberstamp leftover of old unelected Communist regime)
1992 14 deputies-Kumyks signed statement on premature renunciation of their deputy status and resignation from on political and moral grounds
1992 Polling (mini-referendum) of Kumyk population on Kumyk autonomy, positive response exceeded 80 %
1992 DSSR SS (Supreme Soviet) Presidium issued decree Unlawful actions of KNM Tenglik leadership
1992 Supreme Court of Dagestan Republic heard case of actions of II Congress of Kumyk People and of banning KNM Tenglik (lawsuit of Justice Ministry of Dagestan Republic)
1992 Extraordinary Congress of Dagestan Peoples. Adopted resolutions: Creative forces of Dagestan for service of progress, democracy, and national peace, Draft of Constitution of Republic of Dagestan
1992 1992-2001 Blossoming of Dagestani democracy, secretly countered by Russian security apparatus
1993 1993-1997 Terrorist attacks on Minister B. Gajiyev, head of Dagestan construction industry T. Toturbiev, chairman of KNC (Kumyk National Council) B. Aljanbekov, repeated attacks against Dagestan Republic Prime Minister A.M. Mirzabekov and his family
1993 Terror supplemented with split Kumyk national movement, created alternative Kumyk National Council (new societal organization)
1993 Protest of Targu Kumyks in defense of their land rights. Protest camping in Karaman field
1993 3rd Congress of Dagestan People's Deputies decides to restore  Kumyk Kumtorkalin District centered in aul (village) Korkmaskala
1993 Dagestan Government decision on socio-economic development of settlements Tarki (Targu), Kyakhulay, and Alburikent, population, deported to Khasavyurt district in 1944, is allocated parcels from their previously owned land to build houses within Makhachkala city. Makhachkala map gained new subdivision, named with proud name Semender in memory of their Hun-Khazar ancestors and their ancient throne capital
1993 1st All-Türkic Congress (Kurultai) in Antalya (Turkey), attended by Kumyk delegation. Since 1993 Congress is held annually, with traditional participation of Kumyks
1994 Adopted a new Constitution of Dagestan Republic, which enshrined ethnic subjecthood of peoples, proclaimed their equality (subjecthood by definition can not be equal, the subject is a slave, enslaved, serf)
1997 The Hague - KNM (Kumyk National Movement) Tenglik (Equality) accepted as a full member of Organization of Unrepresented Nations and Peoples (UNPO)
1997 80 years of publication of newspaper in Kumyk language (Mussavat 1917 - Yoldash - Lenin lu - Yoldash 1997)
1997 1997-2004 Shihsaidov Khizri Isaevich - chairman of Government RD (Dagestan Republic)
1999 Group of Kumyk intellectuals founded at conference in Makhachkala Kumyk Scientific and Cultural Society (KSCS/)
2000 1300-years anniversary of Targu
2000 First issue of Russian-language journal KSCS/KNKO: News published by Kumyk Scientific and Cultural Society (KSCS/)
2001 Died Bariyat Muradov, People's Artist of USSR, outstanding actress of Kumyk  theater
2002 Kumyk  theater for first time (in 70-odd years of its existence) received a new stately building
2004 Atay Aliyev Bashirovich - chairman of  RD (Dagestan Republic) Government
2005 Actress of Russian Theatre Inessa Kurumov (daughter of USSR People's Artist Bariyat Muradov) was awarded title People's Artist of Russia by decree of President of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin
Synopsis of the Kumyk history

Kumyks - the most numerous Türkic ethnic group of the North Caucasus. Kumyk language belongs to the Kipchak group of the Altaic linguistic family. Kumyk ethnogenesis includes Türkic tribes: Huns (3rd-4th cent.), Bulgars - Barsils and Savirs, and Khazars (10th c.), and Kipchaks (9th c. cent.).

One of the most powerful Kumyk states on the north-eastern Caucasus was Shauhalate of Tarki (Targu Şavhallıgı). The term Shauhal, Shavhal is a local distortion of the term Sulifa recorded in the Chinese chronicles with the same semantics of viceroy. The variety of phonetic forms for the term Shauhal confirms that, it illustrates a chain of further distortions, like the Russian articulation Shamkhal(ate). As a salient independent state Shauhalate came to the fore in the period of the collapse of the (Kipchak Khanate) Golden Horde, namely in 1443, almost simultaneously with the formation of the Crimean Khanate, and lasted until 1867. And from this point of view it can be considered as post-Kipchak Khanate Türkic-Tatar state. As a unified entity, it existed till a death of Chopan-Shauhal of Targu in the 1780s. Later, due to internal and external factors in the late 16th - early 17th cc., it broke up into so-called biyliks (Mehtuli Khanate, Endirey, Kosty, and Aksai principalities).

The Shauhal state united not only Kumyks, but also Nogais, upper Dargins Laks, some Avar groups, Nakhs, and other ethnic groups. Initially, as attested by reliable sources, the Shauhalate capital was the Shevkal's leading city Tarki (S.Belokurov), the former capital of the once powerful Khazars, and then of the redoubtable Shauhals in the Caspian littoral. Shauhals had also a summer residence in the mountains   (Kazi-) Kumuk. The family cemetery of the Shauhals survived to our days. The influence of the Shauhals was so great that it also spread over to the neighboring fiefs, associations, and unions of rural communities (jamaats). Shauhals practically taxed all possessions in the region. According to the contemporary sources, Shauhals were called Wali (Arabic, magistrate or governor), and the Nutsal of Avaria called Shauhal Padishah. The Turkish traveler Evliya Chelebi, who in the 17th century visited Shauhal for long periods, in his book Seyahat-name calls Shauhal Dagestan padishah (Shahin-shah).

15th-16th centuries were the high period of the Shauhals. In diplomatic correspondence they were called Shevkali kings. After Shauhals' wars with Kabarda and Kartli-Kakheti, their possessions reached Pyatigorsk and r. Kuma. Shauhals were attracting mountain ethnoses to Islam and Türkic culture. According to Muslim historians, in the 16th-17th cc. Shauhals were a main obstacle for the Russian southward aggression. At the time, Kumyk Shauhalate was the only country opposing the Russian expansion in the region.

After the Rus' conquest of the Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan Khanates (1556), Kumyks successfully repelled 10 invasions of the Rus troops. In 1578 the Kumyk Shauhal state (ruled by Chopan-Shauhal), actively interacting and collaborating with the Ottoman Sultans, turned into an integral part of the Ottoman Empire (Dagestani Wilayat).

In 1605, all Dagestani rulers, having united under an umbrella of Kumyk Shauhals, supported the Ottoman troops and defeated the Rus troops in the Karaman Battle. After 1550s, broke a Shauhalate fragmentation process. After death of Shauhal Cholpan flaired an internecine struggle. One of his sons, Mohammed Sultan (from a Kabardin wife from the Uzda clan of Anzors) with a help of his mother's relatives entrenched on the Kumykia's N. Sulak bank centered at Enderi. Thus formed the Enderi possession, which later split into Enderi, Aksai and Kosti possessions. In the first half of the 17th century were convened congresses (kurultais, lit. cure ties (familial)) to reconcile with a Shauhal candidacy. So, the Kafyr-Kumyk ruler Andiy son of Surkhai (d. 1621), Ildar of Targu (d. 1634/35), Aydemir of Enderi (killed in 1641), Surkhai of Targu, Butai Bamat, and Adil-Giray were in turn elected Shauhals.

In the early 1640s, during a reign of Shauhal Aydemir, an uprising of the proud Lak uzdenate (lit. tribal chiefdom, fr. Türkic uz tribe, den abstract denoun suffix) against Shauhals marked a beginning of the process of the Laks (Lakia) falling away from the Shauhalate. From Shauhalate At the same time from the Shauhalate seceded the  Djengutai (Mekhtuli) possession, which later became known, after the name Mehta of the founder of the possession, as Mehtuli Khanate. In addition, after the collapse of the Shauhalate, formed several alliances of rural communities, called jamaat (E.g., Akusha-Dargo).

In addition to Kumyks, Shauhalate united other ethnic groups, that was reflected in the diverse multiethnic army of the Shauhals. They were called upon in the Ottoman-Russian-Iranian confrontation, and participated practically in all military events of the region that unfolded during the Ottoman-Russian-Iranian warfare for the Caucasus. Notably, Shauhals mostly gravitated toward the Ottoman Empire.

To the Kaytag utsmisate (apparently synonymous with uzdenate above, with suffix -mish) besides the southern Kumyks also belonged Dargins, Kaitags (Mountain Kayi), Kubans, Terekeme (Azerbaijanis), Tats, Mountain Jews, and others. From 1586 subjugation oft Kumyks was a part of the Russian aggressive policy in the Southern and the North-Eastern Caucasus. Moscow concluded an agreement with the Iberian king Alexander against Shauhal of Targu. In the spring of 1594, Russian troops moved from the r. Terek to the r. Koisu (now Sulak), where they joined with the Iberians and attacked the Shauhalate army of Kumyks and Nogais. Shamhal failed to defend the crossing, and was forced to retreat to the city of Tarki, the Shauhalate capital. However, with the support of the Avar Khan, Shauhal dislodged enemy from the city and pursued it to Koisu. Thus, the joint actions of the Targu Shauhal and the Avar Khan repelled the Russian onslaught and defended independence of Targu Shauhalate, preventing extension of the Russian domination and accession of the Iberian Czar Alexander to the North-East Caucasus.

But as soon as 1604 Russia again launched an offensive on the Terek; the Kumyk population of Enderi, Isti-Su, and other places suffered from the Russian troops, who were plundering their bread, food, cattle, fodder and horses. The suffering Kumyk population fled to Tarki to the Shauhal. When the Russian voivodes (commander) took the town, Shauhal took refuge at the Avar Khan. Soon a new Shauhal, Sultan-Mut (son in law of the Avar Khan) inspired Kumyks, Avars and other peoples of Dagestan, and completely displaced the Russian troops from the Targu and Sulak with a help from Derbent troops and aid from Shemakha.

Analysis of historical sources shows that the Kumyk magnates at different times sided with the Ottomans, or the Shah. By the Safavid-Ottoman Qasr-Shira Treaty of May 17, 1639, the two sides divvied the spheres of influence in the North Caucasus: the Shah's side extended to Derbent and its surroundings, Tabasaran and Shauhalate of Targu, and the rest of the region went to the Ottoman Empire. Despite that, Shauhal and other local magnates participated in the actions of the Crimean Khan and continued to sympathize with the Ottoman Empire. The Safavid shahs did not stop attempting to win the Kumyk rulers over.

After the February 16, 1801, proclamation in Tiflis of the Czar's manifesto on the Georgia's recognition of a supreme patronage of the Russian crown, emissaries carrying the Sultan firmans went to the Caucasus, calling for Muslims to rise up in defense of the common faith. Kumyks of the Targu Shauhalate participated in numerous riots, clashes, and campaigns of the indigenous peoples with the Russian troops. In the first half of the 19th c. one of the most prominent political figures in favor of the formation of a single state in the Central and North-Eastern Caucasus, under the aegis of the Targu Shauhal was Baibulat Taimi. He was leading the struggle. With the consent of the Mehti-Shauhal Targu in the Kazanish mosques was proclaimed a gazavat (Holy war).

After the conquest of the North Caucasus by the Russian troops and the conjuring of the Dagestan province in 1860, the Shauhal government was abolished. Notably, Kumyks were excruciated during the Caucasian war and resettlement policy of Czarist Russia.

The principalities of the Shauhalate were reshuffled into the newly formed districts of the Dagestan province (the Kaytag utsmisate and Tabasaran formed a Kaitag-Tabasaran district and the Targu Shauhalate, Mehtuli Khanate and the Sulak naibate formed a Temir-Khan-Shura district), and Terek province (Endirey, Aksai and Kosty possessions formed Kumyk district, later renamed to Khasavyurt). In 1920 the Khasavyurt district was included into the Dagestan SSR (Soviet Socialist Republic).

During the collapse period of the Soviet Union, Kumyks, like the other peoples of the once multi-ethnic country, woke up to rise in their national consciousness. That is reflected in the creation of Kumyk national organizations: Kumyk National Movement (KNM) Tenglik (Equality), Vatan, and Kumyk National Council (KNC). In 1990s, aggravated and rose problems created by the land policies during the Soviet era. On November 2, 1990, a Kumyk Congress adopted the Declaration of Kumyk Republic, proclaimed on the historical Kumyk territory.

Currently (2014), Kumyks are trying to defend the salience of their native language, history, and culture. That is driven by the rise of the Kumyk national consciousness within the multiethnic Dagestan.

The long period of unjust land reforms has changed demographic situation of the Kumyks.

Kumyks are one of the largest Türkic peoples not only of the Dagestan, but of the whole North Caucasus. They live in Ossetia, Ichkeria, Stavropol Territory, and in the Kuban foothils. Kumyks feel to be a part of the entire Türkic world, they maintain ethnic and cultural links with the other Türkic peoples of the Caucasus, and around the world. Connections grew especially close after the collapse of the Former USSR and the fall of the Iron Curtain. Now, despite ethnic problems, Kumyks accentuate the revival and preservation of their distinct primeval language and culture.


In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans


Huns Dateline 1766 BC-336 AD
Aliyev K. Kumyk Huns

Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
Kisamov N. Hunnic Oracle Phrase
Ogur and Oguz
Ephthalite Dateline
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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