In Russian (needs translation)
Khazar Synopsis
Codex of Inscriptions Index
Endrey A. Sons of Nimrod
Türkic and Sumer
  Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline


Hungarians, Magyars, Mojars, Vengers

Subdivisions and ethnic affiliates

Arbat (Arpad) Bulgars, Kubars, Gyarmat, Jenö, Ker, Keszi, Kürt, Megyer, Nyek, Sekler (Sekely)

Posting Introduction

The Hungarian Dateline is based on the timeline compiled by Dr. Gábor Hosszú in his book Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems, 2013, with few additions to address points outside the author's thematic. The author's dateline provides a wide background for the history of the Hungarian runiform script, with many excurses related to the Hungarian history. The Türkic history is intrinsically connected with the Hungarian history, since the modern Hungary was born in the bosom of the Türkic nations, it migrated to the Contrail Europe led by the Bulgarian Prince Arbat (Arpad), and was formed in the Contrail Europe in the mold of the Türkic states. For centuries, Hungary served as a shelter for Türkic refugees fleeing tumults of their times. According to exploratory assessment of the Hungarian language, about 53% of the Hungarian lexis hails from the demographic impact of the Türkic origin. The Türkic lexis superimposed on the Ugric linguistic backbone. Hungarian language serves as an icebox, preserving old Türkic linguistic elements long supplanted in other Türkic languages, affording linguists a chance to engage in paleolinguistics. The sequence of the Hungarian scripts affords paleographers a chance to study peculiarities of the old alphabets, which in turn allows reading of the long-gone alphabets and languages, like the Issyk Inscription. The relevance of the Church history is apparently connected with its role in first wiping out competing religions and literacy, and then creating its own line of the Hungarian religion and literacy.

There is an abundance of timelines. There are topic timelines in most of the history books, timeline encyclopedias and timeline dictionaries. The Türkic history, however, is there only incidentally, as a secondary-tertiary subject shown only at the time of the greatest impact on the central theme of the story, or the center theme of a particular monograph. The Türkic history timeline lists the development of the Türkic societies, and includes the peoples and countries mutually impacted by the Türkic peoples. The mesh of two aspects allows to add volume to the linear view.

Small font note numbers show notes at the Dr. Gábor Hosszú source (931 etc), the source page numbers are on the bottom of the page, they are shown in slanted brackets (\280\). Not everything is accurate, and Dateline is heavily marred by earnest recitals of creative inventions of situations and events, many of them complemented by posting notes.

100BC Scythia Atail's Scythian coins ca. 100-700AD
Bulgar Anabasis
124AD Huns
Dionysius Map
5th c. AD
W Huns
6th c. AD
6th c. AD
7th c. AD
W. Goktürk Kaganate
ca 650AD
Kurbat Bulgaria

659AD Kangar Union ca AD 650-850
750AD Oguz Yabgu state
796AD Border Avaria-Bavaria ca AD 800
per Gumilev
800AD Caucasus Huns 814AD Krum Bulgaria Bulgaria in Khazaria
ca 850 AD
893AD Boris I
of Bulgaria
Chuvash Y-DNA ca  800AD
Itil Bulgaria
ca 850AD Khazaria and
Bosnyak state
Itil Bulgaria
900AD SE Europe 900AD
Khazaria Domain
Itil Bulgaria
1000AD Hungary
Ethnic Map
Itil Bulgaria
ca 1200AD
Kipchak Khanate
ca 1367
Itil Bulgaria
1515AD Constantinople Inscription          
Time Events
15th c. BC Relics of Ugaritic alphabet in city-state Ugarit (Northwest Syria) with Mesopotamian cuneiform shapes. Writing order was from left to right.
14th c. BC Earliest relics of Proto-Canaanite (Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet between ancient Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) and Egypt.931
11th c. BC Estimated beginning of Phoenician alphabet derived from Proto-Canaanite
10th c. BC Mannaeans lived in current territory of Iran
934 BC Beginning of Neo-Assyrian Empire that first used Akkadian language with Neo-Assyrian cuneiform
9th c. BC Beginning of Musnad (ancient South Arabian) alphabet in Yemen, derived from Proto-Canaanite script
9th c. BC Moabite script is attested on stele of King Mesha of Moab (present-day Jordan)
800 BC Beginning of Greek alphabet derived from Phoenician script
800 BC Neo-Assyrian Empire started to use Aramaic language and Early Aramaic script alongside Neo-Assyrian cuneiform.932
7th c. BC Formation of first Scythian tribe confederation north of Black Sea
7th c. BC BC Etruscans in Italy took up Western Greek alphabet.933
7th c. BC First Lydian and Carian inscriptions in West Asia Minor. This is estimated beginning of Lydian and Carian scripts
676 BC Allied Scythians and Mannaeans attacked Assyria. Scythians adopted Aramaic script.934 (Györffy & Harmatta 1997, p. 148) (??)
625 BC Cyaxares united Iranian-speaking Median tribes in territory of present-day Iran
616 BC Fall of Mannaean Kingdom
612 BC Medians defeated Scythians
612 BC Beginning of Neo-Babylonian Empire (Mesopotamia). Aramaic language and Aramaic script remained in everyday use. Version of Aramaic language called Chaldean Aramaic was used in Neo-Babylonian Empire, as at that time Chaldean dynasty ruled Neo-Babylonian Empire
600 BC First Old Italian inscriptions
549 BC Cyrus the Great established Achaemenid (Ancient Persian, Medo-Persian) Empire by defeating Media (Persian is a reverse projection, or falsification, since Parthians came 3 centuries later. Achaemenid Empire was a Semitic monarchy, Indo-Iranian was one of its many languages)
539 BC Achaemenid Empire conquered Neo-Babylonian Empire
512 BC Persian King Darius was defeated by Scythian army
500 BC Estimated beginning of Lycian script in Asia Minor (Anatolia) \278\
5th c. BC Aramaic language and script were adopted as official language and script in Achaemenid Empire. They were further developed and called Imperial Aramaic language and script, since they were used in written communication between different regions of Achaemenid Empire.935 Imperial Aramaic script was de facto standardized in Achaemenid Empire because of its regular and official use
4th c. BC Last Carian and Lydian inscriptions in West Asia Minor
4th–3rd c. BC ca. 4th–3rd c. BC Aramaic script and its derivations replaced Phoenician, becoming main scripts of Fertile Crescent.936
350 BC King of Scythians began expansion in region north to Black Sea (Scythians had no kings. Scythia was a confederation)
339 BC Philip II of Macedon defeated Scythian King Ateas (Atail) (ca. 429 BC–339 BC)
(Title-name on the model of Ata-Türk, ATAILΣ, agglutination of Ata + Il + Σ = Tr. “Father” + “Land, Country, Nation” + Greek affix “Σ”. Atey, Ateas are Greek versions of the name. Atail was not a king. Scythia was a confederation)

330 BC Conquest of Alexander Great, fall of Semitic Achaemenid Empire. Greek became official medium of communication among nations. Aramaic remained in wide use, but local variants developed separately and became distinct languages in 3rd century.937 (Probably Achaemenid Aramaic was one of local vernaculars developed long before Achaemenid time. Idea that variations came with the fall of monarchy is nuts)
330 BC Estimated end date of Lycian script in Asia Minor (Anatolia)
312 BC Beginning of Seleucid Empire, with Greek official language and script
3rd c. BC Sarmatians (Iranian-speaking Indo-European nomads) arrived in Europe and lived north of Black Sea (Idea on Türkic Sarmatians speaking Iranian and Indo-European peasantry becoming nomads is nuts)
3rd c. BC Existence of Alan and As people between Aral Sea (in Middle Asia) and Don River (in Eastern Europe).938 (Alan is a generic “field, plain” in Türkic, in Chinese rendering “Vast Steppe”, applied by “mountaineer” peoples, Ases were a royal dynastic tribe of As-Tokhar confederation, the old Scythian ethnonym seen in Ash-guzai Scythians, Ch. As-Tokhars (Yuezhi)es ~ Yue Tribe, probably Uigurs. “As” is Türkic “mountaineer”, hence“Pamirian”, applied by steppe “field, plain” peoples)
3rd c. BC Edessan script as a derivative of Aramaic alphabet arose around Edessa (present-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey).939 It was used up to 3rd century AD
3rd c. BC Evolvement of Hebrew script version of Early Aramaic
3rd c. BC Foundation of Petra, capital of Nabataean Kingdom
3rd c. BC Nabataeans centered around Petra used Nabataean script (as a local development of Aramaic script) is attested to in territories between Syria and Arabia.940
3rd c. BC A local derivative of Imperial Aramaic, Palmyrene script arose around Palmyra (present-day Tadmor, Syria).941
3rd c. BC Scythians settled in Crimean foothills.942
3rd c. BC As-Tokhars (Yuezhi) (Yüeh-chih, Rouzhi) people lived in Middle Asia (Image D-1). As-Tokhars (Yuezhi) Empire adopted Aramaic-based scripting.943 (As-Tokhar confederation, the old Scythian ethnonym seen in Ash-guzai Scythians, Ch. As-Tokhars (Yuezhi)es ~ Yue Tribe, probably Uigurs, Hebrew Ashkenaz sing., Ashkenazim pl.) \279\
250 BC ca. 250 BC First appearance of Kharoṣṭhī script at Shazbazgarhi and Mansehra (present day North Pakistan).944 Kharoṣṭhī script was used primarily in region of Gandhara (present-day North Pakistan and East Afghanistan). Kharoṣṭhī script is well-documented in relics from Gandhara as well as Central Asia.945 (As Huns expanded into Punjab, Gandhara, North Pakistan, and East Afghanistan, they were exposed to Kharosthi and reportedly absorbed some Kharosthi alphabet into their script. The evidence of Kharosthi-Türkic script similarities is very flimsy)
250 BC ca. 250 BC Foundation of Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, where Kharoṣṭhī script was used along with Greek alphabet.946 (Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Chinese Da-Yuan “Great Ionia”, was a chain of principalities extending from Bactria to Fergana Chinese Da-Wan/Da-Van, which is likely the same Da-Yuan “Great Ionia”. Demographically, Greeks were utterly insignificant, Greek rulers were energetically replaced by local rulers, Greek autonomous traditions were in sync with the local traditions of confederation and autonomy. No late Greek traces in Hunnic-Türkic alphabets, the early Greek scripts and Hunnic-Türkic scripts have some common ancestral features)
247 BC Beginning of Parthian (Arsacid) Empire, in which Middle Iranian languages (including Parthian) were used (Image D-1). However, Imperial Aramaic language remained in use in western part of Parthian Empire. A variant of Imperial Aramaic script, namely Inscriptional Parthian, started to be developed and later used in Parthian Empire.947 (There is no trace of Parthian languages left, Parthian as Iranian language is nuts falsification. If that was true, there would be no need to say that and repeating saying that. To rule Aramaic, Iranian, and many other peoples, like Dravidians, Lurs, and Greeks, Parthian had to use numerous local languages, including Iranian among others. What, if not a primitive racism, induces scholars to lie?)
209 BC Maotun — whose dignitary name was shanyü — established Hun (Huns (Hiungnu), Xiongnu, Hsiung-nu) confederation of nomadic tribes and created an empire north of China. His was first nomadic empire of Eurasian Steppe.948 (No records exist about nomadic states prior to the Chinese dynastic chronicles. Guties ruled the Akkadian empire for a century, ca. 2200 BC, but that was not their empire. Scythians ruled Media for 27 years, but that was not their empire. Zhou Scythians ruled China for 1400 years, but that was not an empire, only a bunch of minor principalities. Masguts were a ruling tribe in the Caspian-Aral area, their Queen Tamir won a war against Achaemenids and killed their king, which attests to a strong confederation, but nothing is known about it as a state. Masguts aka Alans aka As-Tokhars aka As-Tokhars (Yuezhi) ruled steppe tribes before Huns. Hun “Empire” was not a first nomadic empire, a true statement is “We do not know”)
2nd c. BC Iranian words gradually began to appear in Aramaic inscriptions, which were used for only Aramaic language before. This means that Aramaic script was used to record in Iranian languages.949 (Again racistic attention to Iranian. What about all other languages, why single out one of them? It is annoying)
174 BC Huns (Hiungnu) defeated As-Tokhars (Yuezhi). Majority of As-Tokhars people fled to East Tarim Basin (present-day West China). They were identified as Tocharians by J.Harmatta.950 (Tokhars fled to Jeti-su, displaced by Usuns, not Huns. Tokhars displaced a fraction of Saka tribes, and remained in  Jeti-su for a decade, till they were again displaced by Usuns, and via Fergana fled to Aral basin, their ancestor area. After a period in the Aral basin, Tokhars conquered Bactria. J.Harmatta's 1998 “discovery” belongs to Yu.Zuev, 1960, “Ethnic History of Usuns”)
129 BC East of Aral Sea existed country Kangar (Kangju), which extended its control over Sogdiana. Iranian-speaking As people also lived in Kangar (Kangju). Influence of Kharoṣṭhī script was probably strong on As orthography. (Again racistic attention to Iranian. Iranians have no relation to Ashkenazim Ash-guzai Scythians)
128 BC As-Tokhars (Yuezhi) (Tocharians) defeated Bactria, and then that area was called Tocharia.951
107 BC First historical appearance of Rhoxolani, between Dnieper and Don: Tasius, leader of Rhoxolani, ally of Palacus, King of Crimean Scythians, against Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus
70 BC End of Scythian Kingdom north to Black Sea. (Scythian horse nomads remained in the N.Pontic for another 2000 years)
64 BC 64/47 B.C. First historical appearance of Aorsi, between Don and North-West of Caspian Sea: Spadines, King of Aorsi at time of Pharnaces, King of Bosporus
16 BC Consul Lucius Rufus repulsed first attack of Iazyges on Moesia
6 AD Iazyges and Dacians again attacked Moesia
10 AD Beginning of Kushan Empire in Central Asia.952 Kushans may have been one of tribes of As-Tokhars (Yuezhi) speaking Tocharians. Near Kangar (Kangju), in north-western part of Kushan Empire Kharoṣṭhī script was in use.953 Kushans used dignitary name jabgu,954 which was applied later by several Steppe nations, including Turks, Khazars, and Magyars. (Or they could have been Eskimo. But Kushans were neither Tokhars nor Eskimo, they were one of the Hunnic tribes dispersed by the Chinese (i.e. Southern Huns, Uigurs, fighting for Chinese) forces after “Battle of Ikh Bayan” on June 89 AD)
30 AD Alans (Masguts) secured a dominant position over Sarmatians between Don River and Caspian Sea (Image D-1).955 Alans and Sarmatians lived between lower reaches of Itil (Volga) and Don rivers, Northern and East Azov regions, and middle reaches of Kuban River (Map 3.1-1 and 3.5.1-1).956 \280\ (This is nonsense. Ref. Iazyges 16 BC, 6 AD, Alans 35 AD, and so on)
35 AD 35-36 AD Alan participation in Ibero-Parthian (Artabanus II) war on side of Iberia.
1st c. AD mid-1st c. AD Beginning of Huns (Hiungnu) groups’ movements west of Huns (Hiungnu) Empire.957
1st c. AD mid-1st c. AD Part of Kangar (Kangju) (As people) moved West from Central Asia and reached Eastern Europe.958 There, they defeated Alans and mixed with them. (Pure fantasy from all aspects. Ases is a tribal name, and Alans is a generic name for nomads that included Ases as one of ethnic names. Alans is typologically no different than Oguzes “tribes”, or Yirk Hyrcanians “nomads”. The Scythian Ases “As-guzai/Ashkenazim” reached Mediterranean and N.Pontic in 7th c. BC.  Plenty of material attest on Kangar (Kangly) movement, As/Yas/Yazyg/Iazyg movement.)
62 AD Vologeses inscription: Parthian king Vologeses (51–80AD) in his 11th year battled Kuluk (Külük ), king of Alani.
67 AD 67-68 Roxolans devastated Moesia
69 AD Rhoxolan raid against Moesia checked by Third Legion of Mark Antonius
69 AD Roxolans in alliance with Dacians again attacked Moesia. Farzoy resumes minting of gold coins
72 AD Alans invade S.Caucasus. Külük defeated Medians and Armenians in a raid south
72 AD Alan raid against Parthian vassal kingdoms of Media and Armenia.
75 AD In area between Dniester and Prut appeared Roxolans and Aorses-Amakeobies
89 AD 89-92 Iazyges together with German tribe Suebi attacked Domitian, who suffered a crushing defeat. This is first successful attack of barbarians against empire
93 93/123Possible alliance between local Barbarian chieftains and Alans at time of Sauromates I, King of Bosporus
93 AD between 93 AD and 155 AD End of Hun (Xiongnu) Empire.959
(Not exactly an end. Relocation of the center to more remote provinces. Relocation to Dzungaria, Aral basin, upper Itil, S.Caucasus, Ukraine, Pannonia, N.India. Relocation in parallel and sequential)
93 AD 93 AD Syanbi Tungus-future Mongols replaced old Hunnic leadership at a eastern Hunnic fraction. 100,000 Hun families numbering 500,000+ people submitted to Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), with Syanbi a ruling minority. 155 AD Syanbiys displace Northern Eastern (Asian) Huns beyond Tarbagatai. 155-160 End of Eastern Huns as a major power in Inner Asia. Between 155 and 166 Syanbi confederated under Tian-Shih-huai (in Ch. rendition), conduct a series of campaigns against Western (Northern) Eastern (Asian) Hun dominance, leading Huns to major defeat. 93-c.380 start of Hunnic westward migration
2nd c. Inscriptional Parthian script attained its final form.960
102 Roxolan cavalry participates in Decibal's raid to Lower Moesia
117 117-118 Roxolans from E., Yazygs from W., attack Roman Dacia
117 117/38 Sarmatian and Rhoxolan raids in Moesia under Hadrian. Peace with king of Rhoxolani, probably P. Aelius Rasparaganus.
124 Dionysius Periegetes (the Guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii
128 Tacitus: Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) pays Rhoxolani annual tribute and allows their transit by the Roman roads through Dacia with Iazyges, who lived along Tissa. Beginning of Roman annual tribute to Türkic horse nomadic states
135 Masgut (Alan) campaign in Transcaucasus and Media. Masgut (Alan) raid against Albania, Media, Armenia and Cappadocia, repelled by Flavius Arrianus of Nicomedia
138 138/61 Masgut (Alan) raids under Antoninus Pius
139 Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Tr. agach ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani live Huns
150 ca. 150 AD Ostrogoths (eastern branch of Germanic nation Goth) reached Black Sea (Before reaching Ukraine, Gothic language is carrying a heavy doze of Turkisms, not enough for communication, but enough for recognizable commonality)
155 155 AD Syanbiys displace Northern Eastern (Asian) Huns beyond Tarbagatai. 155-160 End of Eastern Huns as a major power in Inner Asia. Between 155 and 166 Syanbi confederated under Tian-Shih-huai (in Ch. rendition), conduct a series of campaigns against Western (Northern) Eastern (Asian) Hun dominance, leading Huns to major defeat. 93-c.380 start of Hunnic westward migration
2nd–3rd c. Influence of Iranian-speaking As–Alans on Hungarians near Don River.961 (The subject must be elements of Rumanian language in Hungarian. The elements reflect the Latin-Türkic-Slavic-Germanic-Iranian composition of Rumanian lingua franca that absorbed Roman, Scythian, Slavic, Ostrogoth-Visigoth-Lombard, and Iranic elements, the last possibly a combination of remnants of Balkan Old Europe language of 3rd millennium BC before Indo-Aryan outmigration, and its later Slavic version in Pannonia. That population engaged in agriculture and local sheep herding, with no familiarity with horses or horse nomadism. Iranisms are few in Rumanian, and still fewer in Hungarian; if not for the enthusiasm of some Hungarian scholars, their presence in Hungarian would not be noticed)

From that time on As–Alan groups always lived together with Hungarians. (The basin of Don River was a domain of Suvars, a Hunnic-circle tribe identified with Huns in Late Antic period. Suvars also had a significant presence in N.Pannonia and in Caucasus, in all these locations at least since 5th c. AD. Supposedly, some ancestors of Hungarians that were later denominated as Magyars stayed in Lebedia in the 7th c. AD as kyshtyms “lesser ally, subordinate, marital partner” of a local Bulgar tribe. Remnants of Alans may figure under an undifferentiated Slavic calque Polyan “steppe, field people” in Slavic chronicles. In 5th-7th cc. AD the area of Atel-kuzu was a center of Black Bulgars, the westward flight of Bulgars and their kyshtyms from Lebedia to Atel-kuzu, after devastation inflicted in ca. 750 AD by Kangars-Badjinaks, was quite natural. The coexistence of future Magyars with As–Alan groups in 2nd–3rd cc. AD  is a figment of rabid patriotic imagination)

3rd–4th c. Connecting graphemes became popular in Greater Arabian Peninsula and Persia (Iran). Cursive writing necessitated radical changes in grapheme shapes. Graphemes were mirrored, rotated, extended, or replaced in order to adhere to cursive rules.962 (The Arabic script came to Persia after Arab conquest of Persia in 660s AD. In 3rd–4th cc. till the Arab conquest in 660s Persian common script was Aramaic. This primitive lying (Abulhab 2009 ?) is annoying)
3rd c. Germanic people settled at lower reaches of Chorna River (Crimean Peninsula, near Kherson; see Map 3.5.1-1) and southern coast of Crimean Peninsula.963
3rd c. Partition of Huns (Hiungnu) Empire into five local tribes.
200 around 200 AD Syriac script is descended from Edessan script. Syriac Christians used Syriac script. Oldest version of Syriac script is called Estrangela.964
224 28th April 224 Local Iranian ruler Ardashir I defeated Artabanus IV and established Sassanid Empire ruled by Sassanid Dynasty. Dynasty used Middle Iranian language and Middle Persian (Inscriptional Pahlavi, Sassanid Pahlavi) script, which gradually replaced Parthian script. Middle Persian remained in official use up to Islamic conquest in 651. (Inscriptional Pahlavi, Sassanid Pahlavi was a version of Parthian Aramaic)
242 after 242 Both Alans and Sarmatians participated in Gothic raids on Danubian border provinces of Roman Empire.965
3rd c. first half of 3rd c. Germanic tribes invaded northern coast of Black Sea. A group of Alans from Azov region joined Germanic tribes, while rest moved to Crimea.966
273 Palmyrene Kingdom (present-day Tadmor, Syria) was destroyed by Aurelian
292 Latest known Parthian inscription at Paikuli (in present-day Iraq).967
4th c. early 4th c. Earliest relic of Sogdian script,968 in use up to 13th century. Sogdians were Iranian-speaking people widely known as traveling merchants. Their most significant city was Marakanda (present-day Samarkand in Uzbekistan). \281\ (Actually, an early Pashto, which at the beginning of 1st millennium BC, at the time of repopulation of Central Asian interfluvial by Pashto-type farmers, probably was not Iranian at all. “Iranian” is a reverse projection one and a half millenniums back, a figment of scholarly imagination)
4th c. Existence of Syanbi (Hsien-pei, Hsien-pi, Xianbei, ) tribes, nomadic people residing in East Asia.969 (93 AD Syanbi Tungus-future Mongols replaced old Hunnic leadership at a eastern Hunnic fraction. 100,000 Hun families numbering 500,000+ people submitted to Syanbi (Xianbei 鮮卑), with Syanbi a ruling minority. 155 AD Syanbiys displace Northern Eastern (Asian) Huns beyond Tarbagatai. 155-160 End of Eastern Huns as a major power in Inner Asia. Between 155 and 166 Syanbi confederated under Tian-Shih-huai (in Ch. rendition), conduct a series of campaigns against Western (Nothern) Eastern (Asian) Hun dominance, leading Huns to major defeat. 93-c.380 start of Hunnic westward migration. 330 Jujans (Juan-Juan, Rouran, Ruru, Tan Tan) replace Syanbi rulers' dominance on northern borders of China, heading the first Hunnic Empire known as Kaganate. Ethic origin of Jujans is unknown)
4th c. Nabataean language gradually shifted to Arabic
311 ca. 311 –385 Bishop Ulfilas (Ulphilas, Wulfila), Christian missionary to Goths, translated Bible to Gothic using Gothic (concoction of Greek, Runic, and Latin) alphabet. Due to this, concocted Gothic alphabet gradually replaced Runic script among Goths
316 ca. 316 Birth of Saint Martin of Tours (ca. 316 – ca. 397) in Sabaria (present-day Szombathely in Hungary), who became Bishop of Tours in 370.970 Later, his birth city played an important role in history
328 First known Jazm relic. According to Abulhab, Jazm script was developed from Musnad alphabet of South Arabia with strong influence of Nabataean script.971
330 Jujans (Juan-Juan, Rouran, Ruru, Tan Tan) replace Syanbi rulers' dominance on northern borders of China, Jujans head the first Hunnic Empire known as Kaganate. Ethic origin of Jujans is unknown
360 ca. 360 Ostrogoths led by Ermanarich established an empire between Dniester and Don rivers
370 370–375 Huns (late descendants of Huns (Hiungnu) groups who migrated West) defeated As–Alans in regions northwest of Caspian Sea and north of Caucasus.972 After their defeat, As–Alans were torn into three parts. One group moved to Carpathian Basin. Huns adopted an Aramaic-origin script.973 (That is nonsense. Which Huns in Györffy & Harmatta 1997, p. 148 adopted an Aramaic-origin script? Indian Huns? European Huns? Jujan Huns? Caucasian Huns? Itil Huns? Hunno-Bulgars? The sad part is that much of this is known, no falsification is needed)
370 after 370 Ostrogoths were overthrown by Huns allied with As–Alans. From that time on, Ostrogoths started to migrate to Pannonia and Italy
375 Fall of Kushan Hunnic Empire
381 Ecclesiastical diocese of Kherson (Cherson, see Map 3.5.1-1) existed and evangelized population of highland Crimea.974
5th c. Beginning of Hungarian–Turkic interactions
5th c. Beginning of western migration of Onogurs (‘Ten Ogurs’), Ogurs (Ugors), and Saragurs (‘White Ogurs’).975 Linguistically, Onogurs belonged to Ogur branch of Turkic languages. They were first surely Turkic-speaking groups who appeared in East Europe. Ogurs probably originated from Tele (Tielö, Dingling, Tingling, Tili, Tiele, Kaokü) confederation.976 Currently, there is only one living Ogur language, Chuvash.977 (Much of that assertion is pure nonsense. The Ogur Bulgars, an Onogur tribe, started and won a war with Ogur Suvars for a dominance in the European Hunnic state right after death of Attila in 453. The Türkic presence in Europe is attested from first historical records, no propaganda can erase the Tr ethnonyms of the Classical writers or their reference to the mare milk and the art of cheese making, burial traditions, dated maps, etc. Besides Chuvash, numerous living Türkic languages display Ogur linguistic features like prosthetic joking, yoking, hoking, goking, and doking)
400 ca. 400 End of Proto-Turkic (Ancient Turkic) linguistic period.978 (Pure nonsense: there is no definition of what is “Proto-Turkic” and what is not. From the earliest records Türkic milieu consisted of numerous and far-flung tribes, the same kurgan burials are spread across Eurasia, which ones are “Proto-Turkic” and which ones are post-“Proto-Turkic has never been defined or addressed. These kinds of re-writing history are transparent attempts to advance personal racial preferences by diminishing disliked and aggrandizing darlings. That kind of classification (Rona-Tas 1991a, p. 30) serves no scientific purpose, replacing science with odious personal attitudes)
402 First Jujan (Juan-Juan, Rouran) ruler started to use title Kagan. This dignitary name was later used by Turks and Mongols as well. Its shortened form, khan, has been used up to present day in several places in Asia.979 \282\ (The ignorance of the sources is embarrassing (Vasary 2003), gan 汗 is a Chinese rendition of the Khan found in the Chinese titles from the Oracle bone period on, Ka- 可 in Kagan (Qaγan) 可汗 is Chinese for “Great”, synonymous alternate form 大汗 “Da han”, so the khan is not a shortened form, but instead the kagan is extend form with appended adjective “great”. The title was first used in Syanbi state and time, between 283 and 289, in connection with Tuyuhun stepbrother Murong Hui, where Hui stands for Uigur, attesting that Tuyuhun's male dynastic family was not of the Uigur descent. Jujans stepped into the existing Kagan position, they did not invent it)
408 Huns attacked Eastern Roman province of Moesia
429 Jujans (Juan-Juans) who lived by Chinese border were defeated by coalition of the Chinese and Tele (Tielö) nations, and then they escaped westward.980 (European historiography accepted that Jujans were Avars, based on approximate timing of their disappearance from the sources and 550s appearance of Avars in Europe. That correlation is highly doubtful)
440 29th Sept. 440 - 10thNov. 461 Papacy of Saint Leo Great
445 Death of Hunnic ruler Bleda; Attila became sole Great King of Hunnic Empire.
(Bleda was a Hunnic Kagan, while Attila was a commander of the Western Wing from the maternal dynastic line Dulo, ineligible for succession. If Attila became a Kagan, of which we do not have any evidence, then he was a beneficiary of a palace coup that replaced the Hunnic dynastic line with a Tele dynastic line. That is more than possible, considering the ensuing internecine struggles between his sons, with pretenders descending both from the Dulo line and the legitimate Hunnic line of the elder brother Bleda/Bulut and the sons of Attila's royal uncles Karaten and Rua (Urus Ruja Burgas), and the unnamed pretenders from the Suvar and Bulgar tribes. In that fight, the power was on the side of the Western Wing, which mobilized forces of the whole state for its European adventures. Another corroborating attestation is that Attila's body was taken on a local memorial tour, instead of the normal tour across the entire state, which would take him to the Ukraine, Caucasus, and Kama river, a round trip lasting incompatibly much longer than the one actually performed. The Kurultai to elect the succeeding Kagan was also held locally, instead of the main center of the country. The western witnesses could not have known the intricacies of the Türkic traditions of funerals and elections, and hence could not report on any deviations)
445 445–453 Reign of Great King Attila; his capital was in Carpathian Basin. According to Iranist J. Harmatta, Great King Attila aimed to unify whole of Europe, including Western and Eastern Roman Empires.
451 20th June 451 Inconclusive Battle of Catalaunian Plains (Campus Mauriacus, Battle of Châlons, currently in Southeast France) between Huns and Western Romans, including allied armies on both sides. (Version on inconclusiveness was a saving face story invented later. Analysis of the results and post-battle events leads to a different conclusion)
452 Campaign of Great King Attila in Upper (North) Italy ended after meeting of Pope Saint Leo Great and Attila at Mincio, near Mantua (Italy), near south shore of Lake Garda.981
453 Death of Great King Attila
460 460s Onogurs inhabited region east of Sea of Azov bordered by Savirs (Sabirs) and As–Alans up to mid-8th c.982 (The part on As–Alans, other than the news of the Darial Pass, is a figment of unscolarly imagination)
460 Jujan (Juan-Juan) Kaganate overthrew remains of Hun (Hiungnu) Empire
466 Saragurs, encouraged by Byzantines raided Persia through Caucasus.983
469 End of Western Hunnic Empire
480 Appearance of Turkic Bulgars (Kutrigurs “Western Wing”) on border of Eastern Roman Empire at Lower Danube (East of Carpathian Basin) (Kuturgurs, Kotrags means Western Wing - from köturi (behind) meaning “to the west”, -gurs “tribes”; the Western Wing was on borders of Eastern Roman Empire from day one, 480 is the first acknowledgment in the sources)
489 A schism occurred in Syriac Christian Church between followers of Jacob of Edessa and Nestorius of Persia. Later, scripts used by two branches of Syriac Christian Church also separated: western version of Syriac script used by Jacobite (Western) branch was called Serto, and eastern version was called Nestorian.984
500 up to 500 Jujan (Juan-Juan) adopted use of written Chinese for official records by 500 AD.985
500 around 500 Ogurs dominated territories north of Caucasus and Steppe.986
6th–8th c. Influx of Ogur loanwords into Hungarian language.987 \283\ (How one can discriminate between the influx in Lebedia, influx prior to Lebedia that may have lasted to many centuries, influx early in Pannonia from a variety of local Türkic tribes in Pannonia, and later influxes of 9th – 14th centuries is anybody's guess. Rather, this Róna-Tas 1999c, p. 271 assertion is a stepping stone in the remanufactured history, take it or leave it)
6th–7th c. Estimated period of a fragment created by Nestorian Christians. Script of this fragment is named Psalter.988 It was discovered at Bulayiq near Turpan (Turfan) in East Turkistan (present-day Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China). The Psalter script is more archaic and contains a greater number of distinct (non-joined) graphemes than Book Pahlavi script.989
6th–7th c. Existence of Penkovka archaeological culture in region bordered by Dniester, Don rivers in wooded Steppe.990 According to Rashev, Penkovka culture can be attributed to Antes people.991 Historian Fedorova claimed that Antes were Finno-Ugric.992 Antes lived between Dnieper and Dniester rivers.993 According to Vámbéry, Avars could have pushed them partially into Carpathian Basin.
(Name Antes appears in Pliny the Elder’s Natural History 6.35, and designates people between Azov Sea and Caspian, i.e. Sarmatian group far to the east, Dolukhanov, 1996, p. 137. Sometime between the first and fifth century AD they merged with local Slavs in northern Ukraine. The military record of Antes attests to their being neither Slavs nor Finno-Ugric.)
6th c. Khazars are subordinates of Western Türkic Kaganate (Khazars did not appear on the scene till 150 years later)
ca. 506 Westward migration of Savirs.994 (From where? To where?)
506 506–557 Savirs ruled territory of North and South Caucasus.995 (Savirs/Suvars ruled that territory for 150 years during Arab-Suvar wars 651 – 721)
540 ca. 540 First mention of Khazars in Karnamag.996
550s Western migration of Avars provoked by western raids of Ashina Turks.997
552 End of Jujan (Juan-Juan) Kaganate caused by Turks (Göktürks). That is begining of First Türkic Kaganate. Leaders of Turks were Bumin and his younger brother, Istemi.998 Turks were a member group of Jujan (Juan-Juan) confederation, with their ancestral origins in Altai Mountains.999 (Türks were a Saka tribe, the Saka (Ch. Se/Sai/Sək ) were located in Jeti-su)
552 Kagan Bumin founded First Turkic (Göktürk) Kaganate that was de facto divided into an eastern and a western part (East and West Wings). Ruler of western part was Kagan Istemi. Western Turks were composed of ten tribes; and their kagan had dignitary name jabgu.1000 First Türkic Kaganate used Sogdian script
552 552–553 Khazars occupied important merchant city of Derbent (Term “Khazars” is apparent backward projection, a misnomer for Hunno-Savirs)
555 Syrian geographical description of Zakharias Rhetor listed Khazar people among nations living north of Caucasus.1001 \284\
557 In North Caucasus appeared Eurasian Avars. Avars first conquered the Onogurs, then Barsels, and finally Savirs.1002 Avars were probably identical to a group of Jujan (Juan-Juan) called Uar in Chinese sources.1003 Theophylactus Simocatta recorded that Avars were named Varchunni.1004 Turks considered Avars their fugitive slaves, so Avars were forced to search for new living areas,1005 rapidly migrating westwards on northern coastal region of Black Sea.1006 Name Varchunni of Avars survived in Hungarian as frequent family and geographical name Várkony.
(Since Ashina Türks claimed all possessions of Jujan Kaganate, they claimed Varhuns too)
558 Avar delegates in Byzantium
562 562–602 Reign of Kagan Bayan, ruler of Avars. Title kagan means sovereign ruler in culture of Turkic-speaking nomads
562 Eurasian Avars reached Lower Danube. Byzantine fleet prevented them from crossing Danube
567 Avars and allied Ogurs moved into Carpathian Basin (Map 3.1-1) when theywith allied Langobards—attacked and defeated Kingdom of Gepids. Probably Kuturgurs (a kind of Ogur) came with Avars into Carpathian Basin.1007
567 End of Türkic Kaganate struggle with White Huns (Abdaly, Ephtalites, Kushans)
567 567-571 Conquest by Türkic Kaganate of Khazars and Eastern Bulgars. Western (Kara) Bulgars remain in Avar Kaganate. Türkic-Avar border runs along Don
568 568 – first half of 7th c. Avars united areas of Carpathian Basin and Steppe north of Black Sea
568 Last known Jazm inscription.1008
568 Langobards moved from Horvatia (Croatia) to Italy, and Avars ruled whole Carpathian Basin from this time. Avar Kaganate became one of most important political and military factors in early medieval Europe.1009 Seat of Avar Kagan was probably south of Lake Pelso (Pelissa, present-day Balaton, Hungary) near present-day Zamárdi Village.1010 One of most important influences of Avars was introduction of iron stirrup, resulting in revolutionary development of cavalry in Europe.1011
(Noin-Ula graves contain Hunnic stirruped saddles dated by 1st c. BC)
568 Citizens of Scrabantia (present-day Sopron, Hungary) left city with Langobards. City was deserted up to 900; however, its 3.5 meter high walls remained. City was called in Avar age Bleak Castle, and in Carolingian age (9th c.) Öden Burg
569 569–570 Western Türkic Kaganate occupied territory of former Haphtalita Kingdom from Sassanid Persian Empire.1012 (According to military treaty against Ephthalites, Persian were to get a part of Ephthalite Empire, but Persians betrayed allies, capturing land without participating in the campaign)
570s As–Alans and Onogurs submitted to Turks that conquered territories up to Crimean Peninsula.1013
572 572–591 Persian–Byzantine war \285\
576 Western Turkic Army occupied Crimean Bosporos (present-day Kerch, Ukraine on Crimean Peninsula from Byzantium. Their goal was gaining control over Silk Road on Steppe.1014
576 Byzantine diplomat Valentinos visited court of Western Turkic Kagan, Turxanthos, who boasted of his triumph over As–Alans and Onogurs.1015
582–586 Eurasian Avars destroyed Lower Danube limes of Romaic (Byzantine) Empire.1016
582 ca. 582 First Türkic Kaganate officially split into Western and Eastern Turkic Kaganate. In Eastern Türkic Kaganate, Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions.
582 Avars led by Kagan Bayan captured Sirmium (in Hungarian Szávaszentdemeter, present-day Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia. See Map 3.4.1-1) from Romaic (Byzantine) Empire.1017
586 Avars captured Singidunum (in Hungarian Nándorfehérvár, present-day Belgrade, Serbia.
589 W. Kaganate campaign against Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars. Both Khazars and Bulgars are confederated (jointed voluntarily, not as conquered) into W. Kaganate.
590 Duke of Cherson restored authority of Romaic (Byzantine) Empire in Crimean Bosporos.1018
592 Byzantine counterattack on Avars
599 599–600 Raid of Priscus. Byzantine troops crossed Danube (border of Avar Kaganate)
7th c. Last relics of Kharoṣṭhī script near North Silk Road.1020
7th c. First appearance of name onogundur or unogundur as name of Bulgars near Kuban River (North Caucasus. See Map 3.5.1-1).1021
7th c. Byzantine craft and trading settlement Sudak (Sogdaia. See Map 3.5.1-1) was founded on coast of Southeast Crimea.1022
7th c. Beginning of Byzantine Christian evangelization in Patria Onogoria.1023
7th c. Archaeologist Gy. Laszlo claimed that in 7th century, majority of people in Carpathian Basin spoke Hungarian.1024
600 around 600 First evidence of existence of Bajanaks (Pechenegs) (a Kypchak-type Turkic nation) in a Chinese source. According to this source, Pits’ien people (its reconstructed form: /*biʃen/) were one of Tele (Tiehe-le) tribes north of Samarkand (in Central Asia).1019
600 Split of On-Ok (10 tribes) confederation into Tokuz-Oguz (9 tribes) confederation and Saka 塞 tribes of Red Huns that includes Khazars (Kosa可萨 pin. Kesa) and Bersils (Barsils)
600 ca 600 due to internal wars with Siker dynastic tribe of the Red Huns “Hermihions” (Esgil/Ezgel/Esegil/Eseg/Izgil/Ishkil/Ichgil/Äsägel/ /Askel/Askil/Sekler/Szek (ler)/Ch. Asitsze/Pin. Asijie, Sijie/Hermihions), the Sirs ( = Saka =  Türks) left the On-Ok union, yielding control of the Tokuz-Oguz “Nine tribes” union to Jalair (Yaglakar) family of Uigurs. The Khazars (Kosa可萨  pin. Kesa) and the Bersils (Barsils) belonged to the Seres/Sir sesessionists. A part of the Khazar tribe remained in the Yaglakar's Tokuz-Oguz “Nine tribes” confederation, and these Khazars, Yaglakars, Tokuz-Oguzes, and Uigurs after 600 AD have their own history (Uigur history). \286\
7th c. end of 6th – beginning of 7th c. First written record of Hungarian language, on Bow of Környe (Hungary) written in Carpathian Basin Rovash. This is earliest known Carpathian Basin Rovash inscription “Shoot [the] arrow with [the] bow against [him]!’”
602 Avar army commanded by Chief Apsich1025 launched an attack against Antes, who inhabited areas of middle Dnieper and Dniester, as Antes were allied with Byzantium and Turks. Avars managed to restore their former sphere of influence north of Black Sea.1026
604 604–628 Persian–Byzantine war
611 Persian–Western Turkic war with Turkic victory
612 Last time title Anticus (Antes) appears in Byzantine imperial titulature.1027
ca. 623–658 First Slavic state of Frankish merchant Samo in territory of present-day Lower Austria and South Moravia (Map 3.6.1-1 and Image D-3)1028
(623 - Shambat starts war against Avars, with Ulchis (Slavs of Moldova) and Ugrs. Shambat captures Pannonia and calls his ulus Duloba (623-658). Baltavar Kurbat (Kubrat) calls him Kyi (Separated). Shambat drove masses of Slavs from his western wing to Balkans, they settled in Transylvania, leaving there place names and vojvoda administrative system that later continued under Hungarian rule. Slavic chronicles call Duloba people Duleby, and describes Avars' cruelty toward Slavs)
626 Avar Army allied with Persian Army besieged Constantinople, Byzantine Capital. Siege was unsuccessful and harmed prestige of Avar Kagan (Siege is usually dated bay 627)
626 Avar Kaganate looses control of its eastern half to Western Türkic Kaganate. Caspian Huns, Bulgars, Barsils, Sabirs, Khazars fall under control of Western Türkic Kaganate under Tung Yabgu of Ashina dynasty
627 627 or 630 Eastern Türkic Kaganate was brought under Chinese supremacy. It is dated to 630 by Györffy et al. and to 627 by Rogers.1029
628 Heraclius, Byzantine Emperor, made an alliance with Western Turks and then their subjects, Khazars, to cross Caucasus and attack Persians.1030
630 ca. 630 Khazars secured their independence from Western Türkic Kaganate after Eastern Turks were defeated by Chinese.1031 Khazars unified Ogur, Savir, and As–Alan tribes
631 631–632 Hostilities between Avars and Kutrigurs (Western Wing) (
Ogur people) in Carpathian Basin.1032 Finally, Avars consolidated their power. Defeated Kutrigurs (Western Wing) had to escape to Dagobert, Frankish King, then to Walluc (Baluk, Balach, hence Wallachia, Vlahs), Prince of Vends.1033
 (Vends is etymologized as a version of the Germanic name for horse nomads Wendeln - “Wanderers” - Vandals, hence Slavic subjects of the Vandals. Vandal, in turn, is not an ethnic appellation, the Burgund, Turings, and numerous others were generic “Vandals”)
631 after 631 A new center of Avar Kaganate is situated between Danube and Tisa (present day Tisza) rivers, called Hring or Regia Avarorum in Frankish sources.1034
632 Christian Kurbat (Kuvrat, Kurt) of Bulgar Khanate (Great Bulgaria) united Bulgars between Dniester and Seversky Donets rivers. Its presumed capital was Phanagoria. Three ethnic groups dominated Kuvrat’s empire: Onogundurs, Bulgars, and Kutrigurs (Western Wing).1035
(Seversky is a Slavic name for Suvars (Severyane). Bulgar name for Phanagoria was Banja, after Bajanak desolation Banja was moved to Samara Bend, its ruins are known as Murom Gorodok. Onogundurs is not a name, it is a mispronunciation of Ohogurs, Kutrigurs is not an ethnic name, it is a mispronunciation of  köturgur “Western Wing”)
632 Establishment of Rashidun Caliphate that started to use Arabic script. The Arabic script was developed from Jazm script.1036
633 First Islamic invasion of Sassanid Persian Empire \287\
634 ca. 634 Bulgar Khan Kurbat (Kuvrat) with his allies defeated Avars, who lost their eastern territories.1037
(Independence of Bulgaria was not a result of a war, but of a coup and the following internecine conflicts in Avar Kaganate connected with the disastrous siege of Constantinople in 627, and internecine conflict in Western Türkic Kaganate in 630. During internecine conflict, Avar and Western Türkic Kaganates were powerless. Bulgarian independence is usually dated by 630)
642 Rashidun Caliphate started to conquer whole territory of Sassanid Empire
650 650 or 652 First Arab–Khazar war. (Abd Al Rahman, 650 – 654)
651 Fall of Sassanid Empire, in which Pahlavi script was official
651 after 651 Development of Book Pahlavi script that joined graphemes to each other and frequently applied ligatures. This script was generally used up to 900 AD
651 Defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euphrates battle
652 652/653 Khazar ruler started to use title kagan.1038
(The Western Wing viceroy Irbis from Ashina dynasty of the Western Türkic Kaganate assumes a title of Kagan (650?-657?) after a revolt and an internecine conflict in Western Türkic Kaganate that ended with defeat and exile of the ruling elite)
652 Khazars defeated Arab army of Abd Al Rahman near Khazar capital Balanjar (Varachan/“Old” Balanjar, capital of Kayis and later of Suvars, aka future Khamzin). (“Old” Balanjar never belonged to Khazars, it is a reverse projection by Arab writers. Armenian sources continued to call the Hun lands the “Land of Huns”, and not the “Land of Khazars”. Till the capture of Semender (Makhachkala) in 737 by the Arab commander Marwan, the resistance to the Arab invasions was mounted by the Caspian Huns, retroactively called “Khazars” by the Arab sources)
659 Fall of Western Türkic Kaganate; it was brought under Chinese supremacy
659 Formation of Kangar Union in the Aral Basin on the western borders of Khazaria
661 Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (descendant of Rashidun Caliphate)
665 ca. 665 Death of Khan Kurbat (Kuvrat); start of disintegration of Bulgar Khanate.1039 The Kutrigurs (“Western Wing”)–Bulgars led by Khan Kotrag (son of Khan Kurbat (Kuvrat)) moved from Sea of Azov toward Middle Itil (Volga), where Itil (Volga) Bulgaria was established.
665 ca. 665––668 Reign of Bulgar Khan Bayan (Batbayan, Bezmer), eldest son of Khan Kurbat (Kuvrat). Ogurs began to migrate to eastern and central parts of Crimea.1040 (From where? This is nonsense)
668 between 668 and 679 Khazars defeated Bulgar Khanate and extended their supremacy over Onogur-Bulgars.1041
670 between 670 and 700 Carpathian Basin Rovash inscription “10 [pieces] fit [inside]” on Silver Vessel of Ozora-Tótipuszta (Sec. 7.2.2) in Ogur.1042
670 Kuber (Kuver), fourth son of Kurbat (Kuvrat), moved with his people to Avar Kaganate.1043 This event has not yet been clarified; Onogurs probably occupied Avar Kaganate.1044 However, Balint refused this theory.1045
679 679–680 Turkic-Bulgars under Chieftain Esperükh (Asparukh, Isperich, son of Kurbat (Kuvrat), reign 668–700) moved to Lower Danube and conquered their homeland (present-day Bulgaria).1046 According to some researchers, majority of people of Esperükh (Proto-Bulgars, Danube Bulgars, frequently called Onogundurs) were Alan-speaking.1047 Name ‘Esperükh’ is a Middle Iranian proper name.1048 However, name of ruler can be independent from ethnicity of population. (Here we go again: Alan-speaking, Middle Iranian...)
680 ca. 680 A geographer from Ravenna recorded Patria Onogoria ‘Onogur Country’ near Black Sea: “Item iuxta mare Ponticum ponitur patria quae dicitur Onogoria...1049 It was between Lower Don and Kuban rivers. \288\
681 Kagan Elterish (Ilteris, Kutlig) Shad with his governor, Tonyukuk restored independence of Eastern Turks and founded Second Türkic Kaganate. Unlike First Türkic Kaganate, it had no European territories. In Second Turkic Kaganate, Old Turkic (Orkhon) script was officially used.
691 Death of Kagan Elterish in Second Türkic Kaganate.1050
691 691–716 Reign of Kagan Qapagan Bögü (Mo-cho) in Second Türkic Kaganate.1051
695 Khazars seized whole territory of Crimea.1052
699 Kagan Qapagan Bögü (Mo-cho) defeated Western Turkic tribes.
7th c. end of 7th c. Ecclesiastical diocese of Kherson (Map 3.5.1-1) existed in Crimea.1053
8th–10th c. About 60 occurrences of personal names Ungarus, Hungaer, Hunger, Hungarius, Onger, and Wanger in Western European sources.1054
8th c. Evolvement of Old Uigur script. It was used in Uigur Kaganate between 8thand 9th centuries and continued to be used by some Uigur groups in Gansu (in China) until 17th century.1055 Its direction is vertical and ordered from left to right.
8th c. Border between Avar Kaganate and Duchy of Bavaria was Ensa River (present-day Enns River). Series of Bavarian fortifications along Enns River was called ‘terminus Huni’. According to Deer, Avar–Bavarian relations were usually peaceful in this century.1056 Moreover, an Avar–Bavarian alliance existed against Carolingians.1057
8th c. Byzantine list of bishoprics near Sea of Azov (probably in Banja/Phanagoria) lists Onogur Bishopric.1058
700 after 700 Appearance of griffin-and-tendril motifs in Avar art of Carpathian Basin. This is beginning of Late Avar Age in Hungarian archaeology
8th c. first decades of 8th c. Earliest inscriptions in Old Turkic (Orkhon) script.1059
700 700–721 Reign of Khan Tervel of Dulo clan in Bulgarian Khanate (Danube Bulgaria)

710–737 Second Arab–Khazar war, Arab commander Maslama, capture of Derbent, invasion into depth of Khazaria
(Maslama 710 – 713, Jarrah 721 – 722, Maslama 727 – 728, Marwan 737 – 738, the object of the war was Hunno-Savir state, present Dagestan, to secure capture of Derbent and Agvania. Khazaria did not participate in the war)

711 Byzantine Emperor Justinian II reoccupied Cherson and captured Khazar tudun there.1060
713 713–714 Arabs occupied Derbent again. Later, Khazars lost Transcaucasia too. \289\
(Khazars never controlled S.Caucasus. Arabs were stopped with capture of Derbent, they only retained collection of djizya in Transcaucasia, but Arab cultural inheritance still dominates Caucasus)
716 716–734 Reign of Kagan Bilge (Bilgee, 683/684–734) in Second Türkic Kaganate. He was supported by his younger brother, Kül Tegin.1061
720 720-735 Old Turkic (Orkhon) script was used in Second Türkic Kaganate.1062 According to Róna-Tas, launching Old Turkic (Orkhon) (Orkhon) script was related to establishment of Second Türkic Kaganate.1063
(Rona-Tas assertion is nonsense, that is attested by widespread use of Türkic script before and after Second Türkic Kaganate, evidenced by a mass of surviving inscriptions carved by folks at all levels of society across area larger than Europe. In Europe, literacy remained a privilege of few for another 1000 years. Rona-Tas must have been dazzled by past political inscriptions and present politics)
722 722–723 Arabs broke through Khazar defensive lines in Caucasus and occupied Khazar capital Balanjar. Khazars moved their capital near Etil River (present day Itil (Volga) River).1064
(Rona-Tas is thoroughly confused. Balanjar of 722 is “New” Balanjar, the “Old” capital of Kayis Varachan/Belenjer relocated to the area of modern “Budenovsk” (Soviet name) after Arabs destructed the “Old” Varachan/Balanjar located immediately north of Derbent. “New” Balanjar was not a “Khazar capital”, the Khazar army camp was at the Hunnic capital Semender that the Arabs destroyed in the 720s campaign)
723 723-944 Start of massive Jewish emigration to Khazaria
723 ca. 723 Occurrence of name Ungaria as a country-name in a source: “a tyrannide et decimis regis Ungariae liberare1065
726 Tonyukuk’s memorial erected on riverside of River Tola, a tributary of River Orkhon.1066 Memorial is written in Old Turkic (Orkhon) script
730 ca. 730 Khazar Kagan Bulan was first Khazar ruler who converted to Judaism.1067
(Conversion of Kagan Bulan was the cultural influence of Arabs, who forced the culture of religious intolerance and the idea of state religion on the Kagan. While the idea of state religion did not take root, introduction of Moslem clerics preaching religious intolerance left deep scars on all converted Türkic peoples, all converts abandoned the culture of tolerance and accepted the spirit of religious intolerance)
732 Death of Kül Tegin (Tigin) in Second Türkic Kaganate. After this, his 2,5 m height memorial was erected near River Orkhon. Memorial is written in  Old Turkic (Orkhon) and Chinese scripts.1068
731 731 or 736 Personal name Ungar (us) in sources of Saint Gallen (Switzerland).1069
734 734 or 735 Death of Kagan Bilge in Second Türkic Kaganate. After this, his 2,5 m height memorial was erected near River Orkhon. Memorial is written in Old Turkic (Orkhon) and Chinese scripts, like Kül Tegin’s memorial.1070
735 735-840 In this period, Old Turkic (Orkhon) script was used in Uygur Kaganate.1071
737 Muslim troops of Marwan reached Khazar capital on Itil (Volga), at which time Khazar ruler was forced to convert to Islam. Kagan’s conversion was for a short period, since later he adopted Judaism.1072
744 Last Second Turkic Kaganate's Kagan Ozmish was killed by Basmils
745 Uigur–Basmil–Karluk coalition subverted Second Türkic Kaganate.1073
745 745–747 Reign of Kutlug Bilge Kül, first Uigur Kagan. (Kutlug Bilge Kül are all adjectives, lit. “Blessed Wise Sea[-like immense]”, the full throne title includes a noun: Kutlug Bilge Kül Kagan, otherwise the compound does not make sense)
747 747–759 Reign of Uigur Kagan Bayan-Chor
750 Formation of Oguz Yabgu state in eastern Kazakhstan on the western borders of Khazaria, westward dosplacement of Kangar tribes
750 Foundation of Abbasid Caliphate after overthrowing Umayyad Caliphate (which remained in Iberian peninsula, where it was called Córdoba Caliphate)
751 Enthronement of Pepin (Pippin) Short as King of all Franks.1074
751 Talas Battle, where Arabs, Tibetans and Karluks defeated Chinese. \290\
754 Name of Khazars in a contemporary record with Old Turkic (Orkhon) script is Qasar in Terh Inscription, discovered by C. Dorjsüren and published by S. Klyashtorny.1075 Same word was written as name of Khazars in Achik-Tash Inscription (8th c., Sec. 8.2.3) as well
758 Arab–Khazar war.
761 Occurrence of name hungarus
762 Arab–Khazar war. Khazars defeated Arab occupational army of Musa ibn Ka'b, and liberated Varachan (“Khamzin”), Lakz and Alan
(Alan - connected with the Daryal Pass)
766 766 or 767 Irishman Saint Virgil (Vergilius, Virgilius, Fergal, Ferghil, Feirgil Aghaboe, born between 700 and 710, Ireland—784, Salzburg), Benedictine Abbot, Bishop of Salzburg, evangelized neighboring pagan nations, especially in Carinthia. So-called Aethicus’ Alphabet was probably recorded by Bishop Saint Virgil, according to Löwe and other authors.1076 Vékony proved that this alphabet contains Carpathian Basin Rovash graphemes from 8th c.1077
767 767–777 Reign of Bulgar Khan Telerig, who converted to Christianity; however, conversion of Bulgars took much longer
768 Coronation of Charlemagne, son of Pepin the Short
768 after 768 Occurrence of country-name Ungaria in “Pipinus dux Francorum ... venit ab Ungaria”.1078
773 773–774 Franks overthrew Langobard Kingdom that was in alliance with Avar Kaganate.
777 777–803 Reign of Khan Kardam of (Danubian) Bulgarian Khanate.
780s 780s – 790s Alcuin of York (Alkuin, ca. 735–804) was invited by Charlemagne and his task was creation of Carolingian minuscule in Court of Charlemagne. Minuscule became basis of lower-case Latin graphemes.
785 785–821 Arn (Arno, Aquila, ca. 750–821) was Bishop (after 798, Archbishop) of Salzburg
786 786–809 Reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid of Abbasid Caliphate.1079
786 786–787 Confrontation between local Crimean Christian church authority and Khazar administration. Khazars quartered a garrison in Gothic capital Doros (Dori, present-day Mangup Kale, Ukraine) near Kherson (present-day Sevastopol, Ukraine). Population of Gothia rose up and expelled them. However, Khazars defeated Goths. Thereafter, Khazars allowed loyal Onogurs to settle near Southern Bug River (Map 3.1-1).1080 It is noteworthy that Southern Bug River is not far from Carpathian Basin.
787 Charlemagne issued “De litteris colendis”, a directive on study of graphemes.
787 Bavaria ruled by Tassilo III became a province of Frankish Empire.
788 First attack of Charlemagne (742–814) on Avar Kaganate.1081
8th c. late 8th c. Upper and middle leaders and a part of Khazar population converted to Judaism. \291\
790s ca. 790s Wessobrunn Prayer (Wessobrunn Creation Poem) was written, one of earliest poetic works in Old High German language.1082
791 Arab–Khazar war. Khazars repulsed attack by al-Fadl Ibn Yahya al-Barmaki on Varachan (“Khamzin”) and forced him to flee
791 August 791 A smaller Frankish Army led by Pepin Hunchback (son of Charlemagne, ca. 769–811) attacked Avar Kaganate from Friaul
791 20 September 791 Concentrated campaign of Charlemagne and invasion of Avar Kaganate: they crossed Avar–Frankish border (Map 3.6.1-1). Avars successfully applied scorched earth tactic in defense and avoided open battle with Charlemagne’s army. Charlemagne reached Rába River, but then had to withdraw behind border (Enns River) due to food shortage.1083
795 795–796 Civil war in Avar Kaganate between kagan and yugurrus (ruler and a leading officer in Avar Kaganate) resulting in both being killed. From that time, yugurrus office was not used any more. (Tr. ügür - select, choose, EDT adir, second form ügür)
795 Second Frankish campaign against Avar Kaganate, led by Pepin Hunchback Erich Dux of Friaul, with assistance of Slavic Wonomir, participated in it as well.1084 They looted and destroyed seat Hring of Avar Kagan.1085
795 Tudun—an Avar leading officer—went to Charlemagne and declared himself ready for converting to Christianity.1086
795 after 795 Western part of Carpathian Basin became part of Frankish Empire, where evangelization began
796 between May and August 796 Bishops’ Meeting near Danube (‘ad ripam Danubii’), in which Saint Paulinus II (ca. 730/740–802), Patriarch of Aquileia, and Arn Bishop of Salzburg participated, among others.1087 Meeting was led by Pepin Hunchback. There is a record about this meeting named Dictatus Paulini patriarchae. (Codex containing this record is currently in Österreichische Nationalbibliothek [Austrian National Library] in Vienna registered under number 548). Participants in Bishops’ Meeting determined prayers that must be learned by catechumens in their native language. Thereafter, conversion of population of western part of late Avar Kaganate started.
797 797–809 Occurrence of name Hungarius.1088
797 Erich, dux of Friuli, attacked Avars, and Pepin Hunchback attacked Slavs
798 Arn, Bishop of Salzburg (Arno Salisburgensis, 798–821), gained title archbishop.
798 798–866 Salzburg Archbishopric was active in region of Charlemagne’s conquest from Avars.1089
798 Archbishop Arn made Instructio Pastoralis, containing fundamentals of missionary in Pannonia
798 798 or 799 Arab–Khazar war. Last Khazar campaign against Arab S.Caucasia.1090 \292\
799 Charlemagne organized his eastern territories called Oriens (Marcha Orientalis, Bavarian Eastern March). Term Marcha Orientalis meant Pannonia and Carantania together (‘limes Pannonicus and Carantanus’). It was supervised by the Prefect of Oriens; his main task was to defend border.1091 Western border of Oriens was former Avar–Bavarian border, Enns River. Frankish Province Pannonia included present-day Lower Austria, Burgenland, and areas of present-day Hungarian counties Györ–Moson–Sopron, Vas, and Zala (western part of Hungarian Transdanubia).1092
799 Synod in Treismauer appointed Theoderich Chorepiscopus (itinerant bishop) to evangelize fields of Carantans and their neighboring fields up to Drava and Danube rivers. Salzburg Archbishopric ordained 27 churches in Pannonia up to 867.1093
799 In Frankish sources, Avars were frequently called Huns.1094
800 ca. 800 Kagan Obadiah strengthened Judaism in Khazar Kaganate.1095
9th c. Occurrence of a derivation of ethnic name Onogur in personal name of Bishop of Poznań (present-day Poland): Uuunnigerus.1096 It is noteworthy that in early medieval Latin orthography, use of letters u and v were not consequently differentiated.
9th c. first half of 9th c. Oguz defeated Bajanaks (Pechenegs), who moved to area of Emba, Ural, and Itil (Volga) rivers.
(This note is 150 years off, Oguzes migrated to Aral basin in 750 AD, Bajanaks decimated Azov Bulgars, and those fled to Samara Bend and established there a new capital under the old name Banja)
9th c. early 9th c. A group of Turkic-Bulgars moved from Kuban River to Middle Itil (Volga) and Kama rivers, where they founded a new country (Itil (Volga) Bulgaria) with capital called Bulgar. In Itil (Volga) Bulgaria there was a tribe called Suvar related to Savirs.1097 A part of Itil (Volga)-Bulgars survived to present as Chuvash people. (Move from Ukraine to Itil was very partial, and connected with the creation of the Rus principality that supplanted the Bulgar domination of the Bashtu/Kyiv province of Khazaria. The origin of Chuvashes is disputed. Chuvash attribution to Bulgars was done speculatively, without any evidence, and probably for political purposes to minimize the role of Bulgars and Tatars. In Tatar, Chuvashes are called Suasla Mari, i.e. River Mari, and held as a subgroup of Mari that switched to Türkic language. The Y-DNA supports both versions, Chuvashes are unique among Türkic ethnic groups in exceedingly high proportion of Fennic haplogroup N, at the same time they have a high proportion of haplogroup R1a, pointing to Hunnic- and Bashkir-type demographic admixture. That does not exclude Bulgar or Suvar/Savir admixture. Yet. Majority of Türkic Bulgar, Hunnic, Suvar, etc population remained in situ, now speaks Russian, and constitutes the R1a and R1b portion of the Russian people.)
802 Avar rebellion
802 In battle at ‘castellum Guntionis,’ Frankish margraves Cadaloc and Goteram were killed along with several others.1098 According to historian J. Dénes, the castellum Guntionis was near mouth of present-day Gyöngyös Brook as it enters Rába River near present-day Sárvár City (Hungary). Dénes claimed that name Guntionis originated from German version Güns of Hungarian name of Gyöngyös Brook.1099 It would follow from this theory that, at that time, local population spoke Hungarian. It is noteworthy that archaeologist E. Tóth refused this localization of ‘castellum Guntionis’.1100 \293\
803 Avar (probably Onogur) tudun visited Charlemagne in Regensburg and declared his faith.1101 In sources, his name was ‘Zotan’ and he was identified as Princeps of Pannonia
803 On death of Danube Bulgaria Khan Kardam (c.777-c.803) leader of Pannonian Bulgars Krum, victor of Avar wars, either by show of arms or persuasion, was raised to Danube Bulgaria throne (803-814). Bulgars under Kagan Krum unite with Franks to crush Avar Kaganate. Krum united two Bulgar kingdoms into one great empire, from Theiss (Tisza or Tisa) and Save to Black Sea. (It is beyond doubts that Krum, the ruler of western Bulgars and all affiliates, was proclaimed a Kagan, following in steps of Asparukh and his successors)
804 Joint forces of Bulgars and Franks crush and annihilate Avar Kaganate
805 Christian Theodorus Capcan visited Charlemagne as delegate of “Huns” and asked for a field “inter Sabariam et Carnuntum”,1102 since they were not able to stay in their former territories due to Slavs. Theodorus Capcan was called in some sources Prince of Huns. According to archaeologist-historian Vékony, nation of Theodorus was (at least partly) Christian Onogurs1103 who formerly settled near Southern Bug River (located east of Carpathian Basin) in 786–787.
805 Baptism of “Hun” ruler Abraham at Fischa River (Map 3.6.1-5). Abraham was son of Theodorus Capcan. He asked permission from Charlemagne for using title Kagan.1104 (Franks created a pretender “Kagan”, betraying their ally)
810 around 810 Civil war in Khazar Kaganate. Khazar Kagan defeated rebels; however, three Khazar tribes escaped and joined neighboring Magyars.1105 Magyars called them Kubars (Khavars).1106
(Kubar - Tr. “noble, nobility”, probably a Khazar maternal dynastic tribe, since only dynastic tribes were “noble” tribes. The male head of the maternal dynastic tribe, which belonged to the Western Wing (Köturgur “Western Wing” mispronounced Kutrigur), was statutorily a Prime Minister and a Superior Judge of the state, without a right of succession to the Kagan's throne. The Kubar revolt apparently included other tribes of the Western Wing, it was an internecine conflict caused by the Kagan's pronouncing his Jewish wife a Katun queen, thus making her tribe a  maternal dynastic tribe, her father a Bek Prime Minister of the state, and the Bek's younger brother or elder son a head of the Western Wing. Since the Jewish refugees were not a tribal society, such personal promotion made all Jews of Khazaria members of the Noble Tribe, with vast consequences. The greatest consequence was installation of at least some Jewish representatives as members of the Boyar Council, the state Parliament, which upset the balance of power in the state theretofore steadily run by the Bulgar-Suvar tribal alliance. Such coup initiated a chain of fractionations that determined the following history of the E.Europe. Traditionally, the ensuing divisions are explained by religious motives, which essentially is a myopic analysis. The same discord would have been caused by any other cause that destroyed the social fabrics of the state. It is doubtful that the Türkic culture of religious tolerance was wiped out, and with a normal ethics of religious tolerance the main driving force of the ensuing splits was a social affront to the dignity of the societal backbone)
811 Charlemagne made peace in Aachen between Caniauci princeps Avarorum [Prince of Avars] and leaders of Slavs living near Danube.1107
811 Franks defeated Bulgar Khan Krum. However, Khan Krum kept areas in Carpathian Basin.1108
(Essentially, using Krum's war on the southern front against Byzantine, Franks betrayed their ally and extended their domain into Pannonia. Krum has died during Byzantine war, leaving his successor Omurtag unable to claim Pannonia to Danube Bulgaria)
812 First occurrence of name wangar in western part of Frankish province Pannonia (present-day West Hungary)
814 814–831 Reign of Omurtag, Khan of Danube Bulgaria
817 Louis (Ludwig) II German (806 – 876) became King of Bavaria
821 821–836 Adalram (Adalrammus) was Archbishop of Salzburg
821 after 821–after 836 Otto was Chorepiscopus of Carantania
822 Last occasion when delegate of Avars (probably Onogurs) visited Reichstag in Frankfurt.1109
(Reference to Reichstag attests that Franks had the Parliamentary system similar to that of the Türkic model)
827 827–831 Bulgar Khan Omurtagh launched a broad offensive in Central Danubian region.1110
(All Danube Bulgaria's wars with Byzantine, however characterized by Greek sources, were essentially defensive wars, Bulgaria did not eye the Byzantine lands or subjects, while Byzantine maintained claims on Bulgar lands and subjects)
828 Border was stabilized between Frankish Empire and Danube Bulgaria. From that time, eastern border of Carolingian Empire was near Rába and Marcal rivers and Rinya Brook.1111 Eastern part of territory of former Roman Province Pannonia became an area without state control. (The state control on a local level, called autonomy, is normal in Türkic states)  
830 830-856 Ratbod was Prefect of Oriens. \294\
831 Death of Omurtag, last Bulgar khan whose name was Turkic. Presumably, after his death, Slavic language became dominant in Danube Bulgaria.1112
831 831–836 Reign of Malamir, Khan of Danube Bulgaria
832 Peace treaty between Khan Malamir and East Francia (eastern part of).
(Reference to Peace treaty and East Francia attests that Franks had the tri-partite division of the state similar to that of the Türkic model. Peace treaty with East Francia means Peace treaty with the Eastern Wing of the  Frankish Empire)
836 836–859 Liupram (Liuprammus, Liutpram) was Archbishop of Salzburg.1113
836 836–852 Reign of Presian, Khan of Danube Bulgaria.
836 after 836–ca. 863 Osbald was Chorepiscopus of Carantania, its seat was probably Mosaburg.1114
837 837–838 Magyars reached lower section of Danube, according to I. Bóna.1115 This territory up to mouth of Don River was called /al-mad͡ʒgarijja/ or /almad͡ʒd͡ʒarīja/ (Madjgaria ~ Magyar) in an Arab source.1116
838 838–861 Priwina was a vassal of East Francia in Duchy of Mosaburg.1117 His wife could have been a member of Wilhelm family. Priwina was faithful to Frankish Emperor and he had very good relations with Archbishopric of Salzburg. Due to invitation of Priwina, Danube Bulgar; South, West, and North Slavic; and especially German settlers arrived in Mosaburg, mixing with local population.1118
838 Khazars built Sarkel Fortress at right bank of Don River with Byzantine contribution.
840 Latest known Old Turkic (Orkhon) (Orkhon) inscriptions.1119
840 Kirghiz destroyed Uigur capital.1120
843 Louis German became King of East Francia based on Treaty of Verdun in 843
850 from 850 Dominicus presbyter acted in Mosaburg (southwest of Upper Pannonia, currently near Zalavár, Hungary).1121
850 In Mosaburg, Saint Mary Church was ordained by Liupram Archbishop of Salzburg
852 852–889 Reign of Boris I, Khan (Tsar) of Bulgaria.
(Boris (Βωγωρις, Βογαρις, Βωρισης) is a Türkic animalistic name Barys “Lion”, lit. “panther, leopard”. Boris staged a coup, he traitorously seized the 52 tribal heads and boyar councilmen, decapitating influential dynastic clans Uokil, Esgil, Seber, Ugain, and probably contending princes of the Dulo clan. To do that, he sent commanders with the bulk of the army away to the north, leaving behind only the troops of the Center Wing, his own Urta Kanat. Possibly, he then sent away a bulk of the Center Wing to the southern border, to repulse the fake Byzantine invasion. And with the regiment of his personal bodyguards, probably reinforced by Slavic militias, he seized all 52 tribal heads and boyar councilmen. By the time the Eastern and Western Wings returned from the northern campaign, Boris was already in command of the Center Wing, and could withstand an encounter with them. The whole enterprise smells Byzantine orchestration, it was in Byzantine's interests to decapitate Bulgaria, install a puppet Prince, and create a puppet state. Except for the Slavic nobility, no stratum of the Bulgarian state could gain from the coup. By destroying traditional parliamentary system, Boris became a Bulgarian autocratic ruler, and predicated the historical impotence of the Danube Bulgaria. For his mass murders, the Church has deified him)
859 In Mosaburg, Saint Adrian Church was built by Liupram Archbishop, where Saint Adrian was buried.
859 859–873 Adalwin was Archbishop of Salzburg
860 Saint Cyril met with Magyars in Crimean Peninsula
861 861– ca. 876 Chezil, son of Priwina was vassal of East Francia in Mosaburg.1122 \295\
862 Occurrence of ethnic name Ungri in Annales Bertiniani was written by Hinkmar Archbishop of Reims between 862 and 882.1123 According to F. Makk, name Ungri denoted Magyars in this case.1124
862 Saint Rastislaw (846–870), ruler of Moravia, requested missionaries from Byzantine Empire.1125
862 Appearance of land-acquiring Magyars in Carpathian Basin.1126 They were reported by Hinkmar in Annales Bertiniani. Magyar Army helped rebel Carloman, Governor of Ostmark (eastern border part of Frankish Empire), against his father, Louis German, King of East Francia. Magyars were allied with Saint Rastislaw as well.1127
863 (Rather, between September 1 and 19, 865, on the verge of a disaster, as a condition of a treaty with Byzantine) Boris I, Khan (Tsar) of Bulgaria, converted to Christianity with Byzantine Emperor standing sponsor, and rechristened by his godfather’s name of Michael, furthering his distance from the Bulgarian people and the army and debilitating the country. Personally, Boris gained double halo, being elected a Kağan ΚΑΝ already meant that Boris was blessed by Almighty Tengri, conversion would also make him a viceroy of the Christian God in the eyes of his Christian subjects. After ensuing revolt, Boris executed 52 tribal heads and boyar councilmen, and with them their children.
863 863–873 Office of Chorepiscopus of Carantania was not held
863 Fall of 863–885 Brothers Saint Methodius (ca. 815–885) and Saint Cyril (Constantine, ca. 826/7–869), Byzantine missionaries, evangelized in Moravia. Presumably, they were who invented Glagolic (Glagolitsa) script in order to translate Bible into Slavic. Accurate date of creation of Glagolic script is undetermined. (Names Methodius and Cyril are Greek Orthodox church names, Cyril is post-mortem name)
864 From 864 Adalwin Archbishop acted as Chorepiscopus of Carantania
864 Adalwin, Archbishop of Salzburg, ordained Church of Saint Stephen Protomartyr in Valcum (present-day Fenékpuszta, Hungary).1128
864 Boris, Tsar (Khan) of Bulgaria, converted to Christianity
865 Adalwin, Archbishop of Salzburg, ordained Church of Saint Michael Archangel in present-day Veszprém (Hungary).1129
867 867–875 Saints Cyril and Methodius evangelized in Duchy of Mosaburg during reign of Chezil.1130
867 867–875 Saint Methodius established Church of Saint Clement; its place is currently in Balatonlelle City, Hungary.1131
869 Pope Adrian II ordained Saint Methodius to Archbishop of Sirmium (Pannonia)
870 Priests of Salzburg Archbishopric escaped from Duchy of Mosaburg thanks to successful mission of Saint Methodius
870 An unknown friar wrote Conversio bagoariorum et carantanorum (Conversion of Bavarians and Carantans) on orders of Aldwin, Archbishop of Salzburg (859–873).1132
873 Saint Methodius became Archbishop of Moravia
874 Forchheim peace treaty between Louis German and Swentopluk (around 830–894), Moravian ruler. Thereafter, Pannonia became again evangelization area of Salzburg Archbishopric up to Magyars’ Land Acquisition;1133 and missionary of Saint Methodius was restricted to Moravia. \296\
876 Carloman (830 – 880), Louis Younger (835–882), and Charles the Fat each became King of East Francia. From 876 to 882, Louis the Younger ruled East Francia.
881 Magyars, joined by Kubars (Khavars) and Swentopluk, Moravian ruler, fought together against East Francia Army near Vindobona (present-day Vienna, Austria) and Culmite (possibly present-day Kulmberg or Kollmitz, Austria). In a contemporary source: “Primum bellum cum Ungaris ad Weniam Secundum bellum cum Cowaris ad Culmite.”1134
882 Charles the Fat (839–888) became King of East Francia
883 after 883 Territory “Avarorum Solitudo” was called “Pannoniorum Solitudo” (Plains of Pannons) in Frankish sources.1135
884 Moravians crossed Danube and destroyed territory east of Raba River  (Rapa, Hraba, present-day Rába in Hungary). In Annales Fuldenses: “Pannonia de Hraba flumine ad orientem tota deleta est.”1136
885 Exile of disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius from Moravia after Saint Methodius’s death. Some of them fled to Bulgaria, where they established theological schools. One of them, Saint Clement of Ohrid, devised Cyrillic alphabet based on Greek and Glagolic alphabets.
886 886–912 Reign of Leo the Wise, Byzantine Emperor
886 Wiching, Bishop of Nitra, banned Glagolic script. Seat of bishop in 9th century differs from present-day Nitra (currently in Slovakia).1137
886 after 886 Some disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius went to Croatia, where they continued use of Glagolic script and developed its squared variant
887 887–924 Berengar I King of Italy
887 Nov. 887 Arnulf of Carinthia (887–899) became King of East Francia
889 889–893 Reign of Vladimir-Rasate, ruler of Bulgaria
890 890 or 892 Arnulf of Carinthia invited Magyars /mɒɟɒrs/ to defeat Swentopluk, Moravian Prince.1138
893 893–927 Reign of Bulgar Tsar Simeon I the Great
893 Winter of 892-893 froze Itil and Don, enabling Besenyos/Bosnyaks attacked by Oguzes to flee across frozen rivers into Atelkuzu, some Besenyos/Bosnyaks were stuck east of Yaik river. Besenyos/Bosnyaks stop their pursuit of Magyars at Dnieper
894 894–896 Bulgar–Byzantine war. Magyar–Byzantine alliance against Bulgars.
894 ca. 894 Beginning of Magyars’ Land Acquisition ( Honfoglalás) led by Grand Prince Árpád (ca. 845–ca. 907) (Arbat, son of Almysh/Almas, ruler of Eastern European Bulgaria, descendent of Attila in 21st generation and of Kurbat in 14th generation). Accurate date of beginning of Land Acquisition is undetermined. (The 894 dating conflicts with the events of the Bulgar–Byzantine war, appearing to be a patriotic improvisation)
895 After Magyars attacked Danube Bulgaria and reached, pillaging and destroying, gates of Preslav where they met Byzantine's Nicephorus Phocas and sold him thousands of Bulgarian captive, Danube Bulgaria Symeon led army deep into Magyar territory, cornered Magyar cavalry army against river Buh, and crushed them in Battle of Southern Buh. Bosnyaks were left to occupy the now defenseless Atilkuzu, but Danube Bulgaria did not cede suzerainty over Atilkuzu territory. Symeon signed treaty with Bosnyaks, of which terms we are only told that “Symeon bribed Bosnyaks”, which distorts significance of pact.
895 895–900 Magyars of occupied eastern part of Carpathian Basin taken from Bulgars. Migrants included tribes:
ZOLD Magyar tribes PIROS Kubar and other non-Magyar tribes ZÖLD = "magyar" törzsok PIROS a "kabar" és egyeb "nem magyar" törzsek
Tarjan (Tarkhan, title)
Avar (Varchonitos,Warhuns, Uarhuns)
Bereny (Suvar dynastic tribe)
Eslar Oslar (Ases, Yases)
Kaliz Kalaz
Örsh (Örsheg Uralic)
Sabar (Suvar)
Sekely (Sekler)
Tarkany (Tarkhan, title)
Varsany (Avar, Uar, Var, War)
Avar (Várkony-Várkun-Uarchunni)
Eszlár Oszlár
Káliz Kaláz
895 Most likely date of Árpád Magyars alliance with Seklers of Transylvania, during Árpád's migration to Pannonia. Seklers, as their name with pl. affix -ler implies, were the ethnically Saka tribe or tribes, probably a remnant of the Scythian kingdom that survived in the Transylvania forests for centuries as a cohesive ethnic body. Seklers may be connected with Izgil maternal dynastic tribe of the Ashina Türks also known as Red Huns “Hermihions” (Esgil/Ezgel/Esegil/Eseg/Izgil/Ishkil/Ichgil/Äsägel/Askel/Askil/Sekler/Szek(ler)/Ch. Asitsze/Pin. Asijie, Sijie/Hermihions). Various laconic references scattered in diverse sources of diverse times may reflect the Sekler history with some vague notion of probability. The Red Huns “Hermihions” were headed by dynastic tribe Siker believed to be aka Sirs and Saka Türks of the Western Türkic Kaganate. Seklers retained their runiform script of Central Asian interfluvial used in Hungary, that was numerously modified to become Hungarian rovash script.
This scenario does not exclude an older alliance of the Ugrian tribes with the Saka tribes, Red Huns “Hermihions”, or Bulgars, provided that alliance is relatively short to allow Ugrian tribes to retain their linguistic cohesion.
896 When Magyars, defeated by Danube Bulgaria, returned to their homes, they found their Atelkuzu lands across Dniester were occupied by Petchenegs/Bosnyaks
900 Magyars and Kabars evacuate Atelkuzu, moving northwest toward Pannonia. Kangars and Bechens/Bosnyaks occupy Danube Bulgaria's Atelkuzu, and proceed to occupy Danube Bulgaria's Wallakhia. No reports on significant population transfers allow to conclude that Atelkuzu and Wallakhia Türkic (Kara-Bulgarian) and Slavic populations remained in situ under Kangar/Bosnyak rule
899 Campaign of Magyars against King Berengar I in alliance with Roman Emperor Arnulf. \297\
899 8th December 899 Death of Roman Emperor Arnulf, ally of Magyars. Probably thereafter, Magyars occupied whole of Frankish Pannonia. However, T. Hölbling, K. Szabó  (1824–1890) and F. Salamon (1825–1892) claimed that western border of Magyar Empire was Enns River even before 899.1139 Magyars finally annihilated Frankish rule in Pannonia (original source in Fulda Chronicle: “Avari, qui dicuntur Ungari ... totam Pannoniam usque ad internetionem deleverunt”).1140 From that time, Magyar (Hungarian) – Frankish border was Enns River.
10th c. beg. 10th c. In legend of Saint Ivan Hermit, Saint said, “Certe de terra Ungaria huc veni, quia sum natione Ungarus” (I came from Hungary, my nationality is Hungarian).1141
10th–12th c. 10th–12th c. Hungarians lived in current territory of Szekelyland (part of Transylvania that was at that time East Hungary, currently in Romania).1142
10th c. Sogdian script generally went out of use; however, it remained in use to a certain extent until 13th century
10th c. There is data in sources that Szekely archers lived in Moson County (medieval Hungary), east of Leitha River.1143 Note that name Moson survived as a family name among Szekelys from end of 12th century.
10th c. Bajanaks (Pechenegs) settled down in different places in Hungary, most of them on border
900 around 900 Date of earliest known Szekely-Hungarian Rovash relic in Bodrog (Pannonia, present-day Transdanubia, Hungary; Map 3.6.1-5).
900 900–904 Magyar–Bavarian wars for control over Moravia.1144
900 900–902 Magyars sent delegates to Louis IV Child, King of East Francia, in order to elaborate a peace agreement, but offer was rejected.
900 Theotmar, Archbishop of Salzburg, wrote to Pope in his letter that Moravians joined Magyars
900 Magyars took possession of deserted castle of Scrabantia. Later (from 10th to beg. 11th centuries) Comes Supron built a new fortress based on old city walls. His name became current name of city as Sopron (Hungary).1145
900 4 Feb. 900 Louis IV Child became King of East Francia
904 Summer 904 Delegate Kurszán (Khussal, Chussol), Magyar leader, and his entourage received an invitation from Louis Child for negotiating, but all of Magyar delegates were murdered near Fischa River.1146 Some scholars claim that Kurszán’s title was probably Gyula1147 (its contemporary name: /d͡ʒla/) and Gyula was leader of Kubars (Khavars).1148 Name Gyula probably originated from Kypchak /d͡ʒla/1149 or Khazar /dla/ or /ʝla/.1150 \298\ (Gulya is a dialectal Ogur version of the Türkic and Hunnic title Ulug “Great”, denoting a Prime minister in the Türkic traditional hierarchy. As many other titles, Gulya/Ulug deflated to a range of other positions, and became a proper name. In Chinese dynastic chronicles, Eastern and Western Luli-Prince is Türkic ulu/ulug/uluγ “great” is undoubtedly recognizable phonetically and semantically, Luli-Prince = Ulu(g) Bek; in the administrative structure are two Ulu(g) Beks, one from the paternal dynastic line, next in line to the throne after the Eastern (left) Jükü, Türkic ükü/Jükü “wise” Bek, and one  from the maternal dynastic line, not eligible to the throne, Western (right) Ulu(g) Bek. Nearly every recorded hierarchy of the Türkic state has the post called Ulu(g) Bek, Hungary is no exception)
907 907–937 Reign of Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria
907 In a Latin source made in court of East Francia, Hungarians were named as Ugros. Moreover — according to a Byzantine record — in Byzantium it was known that Latin Christians referred to ‘Pannons’ as ‘Ugros’.1151
907 4th–5th July 907 Battle of Brezalauspurc with victory of Magyars over army of East Francia. Szöke proved that Brezalauspurc was identical to Mosaburg, seat of Frankish Pannonia.1152 There, Magyars defeated army of Dietmar, Archbishop of Salzburg, and Liutpold, Prince of Bavaria (Prefect of Oriens).1153
907 August 907 Border between East Francia and Magyars became Enns River, and it was again called terminus Huni.1154
910 First Battle of Augsburg, wherein Magyars defeated Louis Child’s army
913 913–959 Reign of Constantine Porphyrogenitus ‘Born in Purple’ (905 – 959), Byzantine Emperor
914 Peace negotiation between Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, and Magyars, in which Arnulf accepted Enns River as border between Hungary and Bavaria.1155
922 Chronicle of Popes referred to Magyars under name Ungri (13th century copy) in relation with Italian campaign of Magyars.1156
922 after 922 Itil (Volga) Bulgaria converted to Islam
943 943– ca. 957 Romaic (Byzantine) Empire paid annual taxes to Magyars.1157
950 950/951 Henry I (Henrik), Duke of Bavaria (919/921–955), attacked West Hungary.1158
955 ca. 955–ca. 972 Reign of Taksony, Grand Prince of Hungary
955 10th Aug. 955 Second Battle of Augsburg (Battle of Lechfeld). West Transdanubian Army of Hungary with an Army of Kubars (Khavars) led by Lél (Lehel) lost battle against joint army of Bavarian, Frankish, Saxon, and Bohemian troops and troops of Conrad Red (922–955), Duke of Lorraine. Magyar commander-in-chief was Bulchu (Bulcsú).
(Bulchu, with Türkic instrumental affix -chu, certainly is a military title.  Kubar is generic for “nobility”, i.e. ruling dynastic tribe of Arbat/Arpad)
965 Kievan Rus’ Prince Sviatoslav I defeated Khazar Kaganate and destroyed its most important cities.
972 972–997 Reign of Géza, Grand Prince of Hungary (born in 949)
973 Henry II the Wrangler (Quarrelsome, Heinrich der Zänker, 951–995) attacked West Hungary
973 Twelve Magyar nobles representing Grand Prince Géza participated in Imperial Convention in Quedlinburg (present-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) during time of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great (912–973). Grand Prince Géza had to cede territory between Enns and Traisen rivers, later to Vienna Woods in a negotiation with Emperor Otto I.1159 \299\
973 About 500 people in court of Grand Prince Géza were baptized by Friar Bruno from Saint Gallen (Switzerland).1160 This started a large-scale Christian evangelization in Hungary (Evangelization is an euphemism for forced conversion to politically dominat religion)
976 Holy Roman Emperor Otto II created Marcha Orientalis as a part of Bavaria between Enns River and Wienerwald. It later became March of Austria.
991 Since Henry II’s time, Leitha River became new border between Hungary and Bavaria. Border was stable for one thousand years.1161
992 ca. 992 Leon Diakonus referred to Magyars by name of Huns and Scythians (12th century copy).1162
997 Grand Prince Géza founded first Hungarian Benedictine monastery, Abbey of Pannonhalma (Southeast of city Györ).1163
997 Saint Stephen (former name: Vajk) I became Grand Prince of Hungary (born in ca. 970)
1000 ca. 1000 Chieftain Ajtony (in sources Ahtum, Achtum), clan leader (lived: 955 – ca. 1008 or later) created a tribal state near Maros River (Moresis) with seat in Marosvár (later named Csanád, present-day Cenad, Romania)
1000 Christmas Day 1000 Coronation of Grand Prince Saint Stephen I as King of Hungary (alternative date: 1st January 1001)
1000 1000/1007 – 2nd Sept. 1031 Life of Prince Saint Emeric of Hungary (Imre, also known as Americus, Amerigo, Aimeric, Hemericius, Henricus), son of King Saint Stephen I.
1002 Chieftain Ajtony was baptized in Vidin (city near Danube in Northwest Bulgaria) according to Byzantine rite. Byzantium continuously supported his power. Later Ajtony accepted supremacy of Byzantine Emperor Vasilios (Basil) II (reign 976–1025) and Greek-Orthodox missionaries
1008 Royal Army of Saint Stephen I, King of Hungary, led by Chief Chanad (Csanád) defeated Ajtony in Battle of Nagyösz (present-day Tomnatic, Romania) and then restored sovereignty of Hungarian central power in former area of Ajtony. From this time on, name of Marosvár (seat of Ajtony) changed to Chanadvar (Csanádvár). Saint Stephen I established Bishopric of Chanad (Csanád). Note that date of Battle of Nagyösz is undetermined; there are different theories that it took place in 1014, 1015 or 1028.
1018 ca. 1018 Creation of founding charter of Veszprémvölgy (Hungary) Nunnery in Greek; it survived in its renewal document from 1109
1018 Byzantine Emperor Basileios II Boulgarokronos (‘Killer of Bulgars’) crushed Bulgaria and incorporated it into Romaic (Byzantine) Empire.1164
1030 Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II (ca. 990–1039) attacked Hungary, but King Saint Stephen I defeated him.
1031 Saint Stephen I and Conrad II made peace and, based on it, territories between rivers Fischa and Leitha (in Hungarian Sár or Lajta) became part of Hungary.
1031 Death of Saint Stephen I, first King of Hungary. \300\
1071 1071/1072 Hungary captured Sirmium (Szávaszentdemeter, present-day Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia; see Map 3.4.1-1) from Romaic (Byzantine) Empire.1165
1077 1077–1095 Reign of King Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary (László, in medieval English: Saint Lancelot1166).
1092 20th May 1092 Synod of Hungarian prelates in Fortress of Szabolcs (Hungary).1167
1095 1095–1116 Reign of King Coloman I Book-lover (Könyves Kálmán) of Hungary
11th 11th–12th c. Date of Pottery of Bilyar (Sec. 5.2.7). Bilyar (present-day Bilyarsk in Tatarstan, Russia) was intermittently capital of Itil (Volga) Bulgaria near Bulgar and Nur-Suvar cities between 8th century and 1238.
12th c. Border-guard Szekelys from West Hungary migrated to Transylvania.1168
1109 Renewal of founding charter of Veszprémvölgy (Hungary) Nunnery in Greek and its Latin translation.
1116 1116–1131 Reign of King Stephen II (István) of Hungary.1169
12th c. second half of 12th century Date of earliest known Szekely-Hungarian Rovash relics in Szekelyland.
1176 1176/1177–1235 Reign of King Andrew II (András) of Hungary.
1223 Mongol attacks on Itil (Volga) Bulgaria.
1235 1235–1270 Reign of King Béla IV of Hungary.
1235 May 1235–27th December 1236 Hungarian Dominican Friar Julian made an expedition on behalf of Hungarian king to find Hungarians remaining in their eastern homeland. He reached them at Kama River (east of Itil (Volga) River).1170. He called their territory Magna Hungaria (Great Hungary).
(The links between the courts of Hungary and their Bulgarian cousins did not stop till Mongolian time, visits were regular and mutual. The knowledge of the tribal relatives was perpetuated by tradition and could have been extinguished only by annihilating sectors of population)
1236 Mongol Khan Batu defeated Itil (Volga) Bulgaria.1171
1237 In second journey of Friar Julian, he was not able to reach Great Hungary, since Mongol Tartars had devastated it.
1240s 1240s Establishment of Kipchak Khanate, aka Golden Horde, Itil (Volga) Bulgars mixed with Tatars (And who did not mix? Accent on Bulgar  mixture is political, continuation of the racist policy of diminishing their ancestors to create a new exclusive and chauvinistic pedigree in the Russian lave-holder society and its chauvinistic Soviet successor. As it happened, the demographic mixing in nomadic societies is much lesser than in peasant societies, due to the restrictions of the
1443 23rd February 1443 – 6th April 1490 Reign of Matthias I, King of Hungary (Map 9.2.5-1). During his renaissance period of reign, Szekely-Hungarian Rovash aroused Hungarian intellectuals’ interest.
1248 Pope Innocent IV gave Croats of South Dalmatia privilege of using their own language and Glagolic script in liturgy. Glagolic script remains in use to present.
15th c. second half of 15th c. Date of Alphabet of Nikolsburg (Fig. 9.2.5-2), first Szekely-Hungarian Rovash alphabet. \301\
1490 1490–1516 Reign of King Vladislas II of Hungary
1512 1512–1520 Reign of Sultan Selim I of Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
1515 Date of Constantinople Rovash Inscription
1516 1516–1526 Reign of King Louis II of Hungary
1598 First rovash textbook, called Rudimenta written by Ioannis Thelegdi.
1718 Book of Mátyás Bél, first printed book about Szekely-Hungarian Rovash script. \302\

of Dr. Gábor Hosszú Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems, 2013

931 Abulhab 2009
932 Hitch 2010, p. 3
933 Bonfante 1983, pp. 297–311
934 Györffy & Harmatta 1997, p. 148
935 O’Connor 1996, p. 96
936 Abulhab 2009
937 Goerwitz 1996, p. 489
938 Vásáry 2003
939 Hitch 2010, p. 5
940 O’Connor 1996, p. 98; Daniels 1996, p. 499
941 Hitch 2010, p. 10
942 Aibabin 2008, p. 2
943 Györffy & Harmatta 1997, p. 148; Harmatta 1997b, p. 173
944 Hultzsch 1925, XXXV
945 Salomon 1998, p. 47
946 Harmatta 1999, p. 433
947 Skjærvø 1996, p. 517
948 Zimonyi 2007, p. 1
949 Rogers 1999, p. 257
950 Harmatta 1998, p. 130
951 Vásáry 2004, p. 42
952 Vásáry 2004, p. 42
953 Harmatta 1999, p. 433
954 Puri 1999, p. 247
955 Zadneprovskiy 1999, p. 467
956 Aibabin 2008, p. 2957 Vásáry 2004, pp. 10–13
958 Vásáry 2003
959 Rogers 2012, p. 222
960 Skjærvø 1996, p. 517
961 Vékony 2002, p. 165
962 Abulhab 2009
963 Aibabin 2008, p. 2
964 O’Connor 1996, p. 89, Fig. 4
965 Aibabin 2008, p. 2
966 Aibabin 2008, p. 2
967 Skjærvø 1996, p. 517
968 Hitch 2010, p. 11
969 Harmatta 1998, p. 129
970 Tóth 1999, p. 176
971 Abulhab 2009
972 Aibabin 2008, p. 2
973 Györffy & Harmatta 1997, p. 148
974 Aibabin 2008, p. 3
975 Zimonyi 2007, p. 1
976 Vásáry 2003
977 Róna-Tas 1999a
978 Róna-Tas 1991a, p. 30
979 Vásáry 2003
980 Vékony 1992c, p. 438
981 Bury 1923, pp. 295-296
982 Zimonyi 2007, p. 6
983 Zimonyi 2007, p. 5
984 Daniels 1996, pp. 499–500; Aydin 1997
985 Rogers 2012, p. 224
986 Erdélyi 1982, p. 25
987 Róna-Tas 1999c, p. 271
988 Skjærvø 1996, p. 517
989 Schmitt 1989
990 Barford 2009, p. 24
991 Rashev 1992
992 Ôåäîðîâà 1976, p. 85
993 Vámbéry 1895, p. 62
994 Zimonyi 2007, p. 1
995 Vásáry 2003
996 Grignaschi 1966
997 Zimonyi 2007, p. 1
998 Györffy et al. 1996, p. 23
999 Rogers 2012, p. 225
1000 Vásáry 2003
1001 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 229
1002 Zimonyi 2007, p. 6
1003 Vásáry 2003
1004 Zimonyi 2007, p. 7
1005 Zimonyi 2007, p. 6
1006 Róna-Tas 1991a, p. 37
1007 Vékony 1992c, p. 440
1008 Abulhad 2009
1009 Vida 2007, p. 13
1010 Szentpéteri 1987, pp. 722–726
1011 Zimonyi 2007, p. 8
1012 Harmatta 1994, p. 150
1013 Zimonyi 2007, p. 6
1014 Harmatta 1994, p. 150; Aibabib 2008, p. 4
1015 Zimonyi 2007, p. 6
1016 Zimonyi 2007, p. 7
1017 Vásáry 2003
1018 Aibabib 2008, p. 4
1019 Harmatta 1998, pp. 129–151
1020 Glass et al. 2002, p. 4
1021 Vékony 1981a, p. 71
1022 Aibabin 2008, p. 5
1023 Vásáry 2003
1024 László 1993, pp. 6–7
1025 Curta 2001, p. 105
1026 Zimonyi 2007, p. 6
1027 Curta 2001, p. 105; Zhukovsky 2001
1028 Wallace-Hadrill 1960 (Chronicle of Fredegar)
1029 Györffy et al. 1996, p. 23; Rogers 2012, p. 226
1030 Zimonyi 2007, p. 11
1031 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 230
1032 Vékony 2002, p. 212
1033 Kursch 1888, Fred. IV, 72. MGH SS rer. Mer. II, p. 157
1034 Szentpéteri 2002, Map 6
1035 Zimonyi 2007, p. 9
1036 Abulhab 2009
1037 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 219; Erdélyi 2004c, p. 169
1038 Erdélyi 2004a, p. 174
1039 Erdélyi 2004a, p. 174; Vásáry 2003
1040 Aibabin 2008, p. 5
1041 Róna-Tas 1991a, pp. 36–37; Glatz 1989, p. 15
1042 Vékony 2004a, pp. 195–196
1043 Vásáry 2003
1044 Erdélyi 1982, pp. 25–26
1045 Bálint 2003, pp. 35-65
1046 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 219; Vásáry 2005, p. xi
1047 Rashev 1992, pp. 23–33
1048 Schmitt 1958, pp. 20–30
1049 Pinder & Parthey 1860, pp. 170–171
1050 Györffy et al. 1996, p. 23
1051 Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 15
1052 Aibabin 2008: 5
1053 Aibabin 2008, p. 3
1054 Király 2006, p. 146; Zoltán 2008, pp 355–358; Kohkheim & Kohkheim 2000 p. 677, Unger a.
1055 Kara 1996, p. 539
1056 Deer 1965–1967, pp. 719–791
1057 Bowlus 1978, pp. 3–26
1058 Moravcsik 1967b, pp 94–95
1059 Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 12
1060 Aibabin 2008, p. 5
1061 Györffy et al. 1996, p. 23; Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 13
1062 Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 13
1063 Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 13, 16
1064 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 220
1065 Király 2006, p. 151; Zelliger 2008, p. 370
1066 Györffy et al. 1996, p. 23
1067 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 232
1068 Györffy et al. 1996, p. 23; Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 13
1069 Róna-Tas 1996a; Erdélyi 2004a, p. 174; Király 2006
1070 Györffy et al. 1996, p. 23; Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 13; Rogers 2012, p. 226
1071 Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 13
1072 Zimonyi 2007, p. 11
1073 Vásáry 2003
1074 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 56
1075 Kyashtorny 1983, passim.
1076 Löwe 1952
1077 Vékony 2004a, p. 232
1078 Király 2006, p. 152; Zelliger 2008, p. 370
1079 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 232
1080 Aibabin 2008, p. 6
1081 Stubbs & Hassall 2009, p. 32.
1082 Steinhoff 1999, pp. 961–965
1083 Szöke 1999b, p. 75
1084 Szöke 1999b, p. 76
1085 Makkay 2005, pp. 107–108
1086 Vásáry 2003; Szöke 1999b, p. 76
1087 Veszprémy 2004, p. 53
1088 Erdélyi 2004a, p. 174
1089 Wattenbach 1854; Nótári 2000, 93–111
1090 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 231
1091 Vékony 1986b, pp. 43–44
1092 Szöke 2000, pp. 336–337
1093 H. Tóth 2007, p. 26
1094 Szöke 1999b, p. 78
1095 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 232
1096 Király 2006, p. 156; Zelliger 2008, p. 371
1097 Vásáry 2003
1098 Annales Emmerami Ratisponsis maiores, MGH SS vol. 1, a. 802, p. 93
1099 Dénes 1992–1995, pp. 173–177
1100 Tóth, Endre 2013: Personal communication
1101 Szöke 1999b, p. 78
1102 Annales regni Francorum, ad. a. 805. MGH SRG, p. 119
1103 Vékony 1992c, pp. 448–449
1104 Szöke 1999b, p. 79
1105 Bóna 2000; p. 13; Harmatta 2001, pp. 1–14; Takács 2002, p. 532; Erdélyi 2004a; Erdélyi 2008a
1106 Róna-Tas 1996a, p. 248
1107 Szöke 1999b, p. 80
1108 Vékony 1981a, p. 79
1109 Szöke 1999b, p. 80
1110 Bóna 2001–2002
1111 Tóth 1999, p. 177
1112 Köpeczi 2001–2002
1113 Olajos 2001, p. 52
1114 Szöke 2012, p. 5
1115 Bóna 1984a
1116 Bóna 2000, pp. 11–12
1117 Szöke 1999a, p. 10; H. Tóth 2007, p. 24
1118 Szöke 1999b, p. 89
1119 Róna-Tas 1996c, p. 13
1120 Rogers 2012, p. 226
1121 H. Tóth 2007, p. 25; Szöke 2012, p. 202
1122 H. Tóth 2007, p. 32
1123 Annales Bertiniani
1124 Makk 1998
1125 McDaniel 2004, p. 31
1126 Györffy 1987, p. 566
1127 Róna-Tas 1998a
1128 H. Tóth 2007, pp. 25–26
1129 H. Tóth 2007, pp. 25–26
1130 Goldberg 2006, p. 319
1131 H. Tóth 2007, p. 27
1132 Nótáry 2000, pp. 93–111
1133 Szöke, Béla Miklós 1999, pp. 10–12; Goldberg 2006, p. 325
1134 Ann. Iuv. Max. ad a. 881 MGH SS XXX/2. p. 742.
1135 Szentpéteri 1995
1136 Annales Fuldenses, MGH SRG, p. 113
1137 Szöke 2012, p. 255
1138 Stubbs & Hassall 2009, p. 69.
1139 Hölbling 2009, p. 123
1140 Annales Fuldenses, MGH SRG: 125
1141 Király 2006, pp. 196–197; Zelliger 2008, p. 371
1142 Botár 2008, p. 77
1143 Györffy 1998, p. 138
1144 Hölbling 2009, p. 125
1145 Gömöri 2002, passim.
1146 Györffy 1998, p. 135
1147 Pauler 1900, p. 31; Kristó 1980, pp. 220–226
1148 MacArtney 1930, p. 116
1149 Czeglédy 1960, pp. 124–125
1150 Vékony 2004a, pp. 229–230
1151 Györffy 1975, pp. 1788–1792.
1152 Szöke 2012: 6
1153 Szabados 2007
1154 Bowlus 1978, pp. 3–26
1155 Györffy 1998, p. 135
1156 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 53
1157 Glatz 1989, p. 20; Hölbling 2009, p. 77
1158 Györffy 1998, p. 135
1159 Györffy 1998, p. 136
1160 Glatz 1989, p. 26
1161 Györffy 1998, p. 136
1162 Róna-Tas 1999a, p. 53
1163 Györffy 1987, p. 568
1164 Vásáry 2005, p. xi
1165 H. Tóth 1999, pp. 821–826
1166 Religion Word, website, article Saint Ladislaus
1167 Péterffy 1741–42, Vol. I, p. 14
1168 Rácz 2003, p. 2
1169 Kristó 1994
1170 Erdélyi 1998, pp. 45–49.
1171 Vásáry 2005, p. 64

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