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Turkic (Chuvash) / East Iranian (Ossetic, Pamir)
Phonological Correspondences

Note the high semantical stability of all lexical items

Links

http://www.geocities.com/indo_european_geography/turkic_east_iranian_correspondences.html?200819 - this posting is a mirror

 Introduction by the author enstnew at mail ru. External amedments in this posting are shown in blue

A short table. Maybe you guys (mates, fellas) think differently, but I think this short article is paramount. It attempts to demonstrate that Turkic are Indo-European languages. Note that all correspondences are rather regular, and most lexical items are semantically simple and historically stable. Conclusion: the Turkic languages could be a lost "satemized" branch of the Indo-European family, although highly modified and not looking like its western counterparts. [Incidentally, *satem (hundred) is *Ser or similar in Proto-Turkic.] The whole matter could have something to do with the spread of Scythians and Sarmatians Sredni Stog people. You might think there's contradiction with the Altaic theory, but even Starostin found in 1991 that only about 17-20% of the Turkic Swadesh list seems to be shared with other Altaic languages ( Tunguz, Mongolian, also implicated are Korean and Japanese), which is hardly enough (in spite of last centuries' postulates professed by then linguistic luminaries based on anecdotic evidence and personal sentiments, and currently propounded by several political machines) to postulate close genetic relationship (although Starostin believed that it was just enough), whereas Clauson (1969), who had been even more skeptical, had only found about 2% of Turkic-Mongolic correspondences. Slowly begin to think of Turkic as possibly Indo-European.

 Posting introduction

A little statistics. Presuming that all Swadesh 200 words were analyzed and came up negative, of the 120 total listed "Eastern Iranian" words 41 are members of Swadesh 200 list, or 20.5%. Of 41 "Eastern Iranian" Swadesh 200 list words, 40 are present in the Ossetic language, or 20.0%. The remaining 79 non-Swadesh words can't be used for Swadesh canonical analysis. The presumption affords a most conservative estimate, if it is incorrect, the % of common words would increase.

The 91% per millennium conservation rate, accepted for the Indo-European languages, does not seem to be applicable to the Trkic group. There are other coefficients floating around, ranging down to 83%. Being explained by higher plasticity of flexitive (IE) vs. agglutinative (Trkic and Ossetic), agglutinative languages are much more conservative than IE-an because of a fixed system of unchangeable roots. On the other hand, the societal mobility and fluidity of the nomadic states brought them in long symbiotic contacts with a multitude of other languages, which can tentatively be corrected for by typological and statistical analysis of the constituent admixtures. A tentative conservation rate change from 91% to 95% per millennium for nomadic societies would effectively double the estimated duration of geographical separation. The table illustrates 91% and 83% assumptions, both results contradict a known history. The Swadesh analysis reflects the admixture effect, not accounted for in the linguistic tree model

Languages Swadesh 200
Total words
Different words Common words % of common words Separation years ago
 9% / 17% per millennia
Eastern Iranian-Turkic 200 156 41 20.5 8,800/4,700
Ossetic-Turkic 200 159 40 20.0 8,900/4,700

V.I.Abaev eyeballed the presence of patently Turkic words in Ossetic (presumably connected with consequences of the Mongolo-Tatar conquest, in conformance with the official doctrine) at approximately 10%. The Swadesh analysis demonstrates an additional layer of approximately 20%, in the primeval lexicon of the Swadesh 200 vocabulary, for a total of 30% Trkic bases in the undifferentiated Ironian+Digorian Ossetic vocabulary. V.I.Abaev underestimated (or falsified) the Trkic component by a factor of 3. V.I.Abaev also eyeballed the undifferentiated Indo-European portion in the Ossetic as totaling 20%, and allowing for an even split between non-Iranian and Iranian fractions, the Ossetic Iranisms constitute approximately 10%. The ratio of Trkic to Iranian lexicons in the Ossetic vocabulary is 3:1. V.I.Abaev, a prominent Iranist, also noted that the agglutination,  morphology, semantics, syntaxis, and phonology of the Ossetic language are not compatible with the Iranian languages. A 40-50% of Ossetic vocabulary V.I.Abaev attributed to the languages of the Caucasian family (variously Adyg and Nakh groups or Adygo-Nakh group). In light of the properties of the Ossetic language, its attribution to the Iranian branch appears more than tenuous, and borders on blunt falsification.

The Russian/Slavic and Chinese lexemes, in the present very limited selection, are strikingly similar and parallel each other. The ubiquity of the 2-way and 3-way parallels points in a direction that not only the Slavic family is a result of a part of the Baltic people immingling with the western outreaches of the Trkic people, but that the modern Chinese family is a result of a part of the Sono-Tibetian people immingling with the eastern outreaches of the Trkic people. The results are strikingly similar with the analysis of the Mongolian, Tungus, Korean, and Japanese languages; the Trkic lexemes are not only absorbed as loanwords into the substrate languages, they constitute a superstrate embedded and comingled with the  substrate languages. A fine example of this linguistic symbiosis, that defies a Christmas-tree linguistic model, is the Trkic interrogative particle “ku(qoy/ğoy/quy/ku/ko/kam/kim/kem) from the verb “qoy-“ “put“, which became imbedded in the Slavic “k-to, glyadi-ko, skaji-ka“/who, look, tell me, with many derivatives and reflexes), and Chinese interrogative morpheme “hu“, also illustrated by precisely identical adaptations by other unrelated linguistic branches, whose only common denominator was an ancient symbiotic relationship with Trkic-lingual peoples.

 
Swadesh Nooo English Ossetic, Shugni (Rushani), Sarikoli,
Yazgulami, Ishkashimi, Munji,
Sanglechi, etc
Chuvash, Yakut (Sakha),
Tuvan, Old Turkic, etc
Familiar IE cognates
(English, Russian, Latin, German)
k-/c- > k- (no change)
11 who Oss. Nom. ci, Oss. Gen ki; Digor ka, Yz. ki, Sh. cai, Sar. coi Ch. kam, Yak. kim, Tuv. qim, Old Turkic kem R. k-to
  house Yz. kud, Sh. cid, Rsh. cheed. Sar. ced, Yd. kye;
Mj.
kei, Yaghnobi kat, Pashto kor
Ch. kil, kl; Yak. kl ("inner porch") Ukr. kutubiquity, R. za-kut-ok (?)
  lake Oss. cad Ch. kl, Yak. kl,
Old Turkic
kl
- -
122 come Oss. cu-n "walk", r-cu-n "come" Ch. kr, kil-, Yak. kel-, Tuv. kel- E. go
173 blue, green Oss. c"x (Ossetic, like Turkic, has confused color scheme: blue=green, lt. gray=yellow=pale, etc) Ch. kvak, Yak. kx,
Tuv.
kk, Old Turkic kk "blue, green"; hence "sky" *kwok
-
32 small Oss. chsl Ch. kz'n, Yak. kuchchuguy, Yughur kichig', Old Turkic kichig, Kirghiz kich -
  
    m- > p/b/m- (lenition or no change)
 4 we Oss. max, Sh. ma:sh, Sar. mash, Yz. mox, Pashto muzh Ch. e-br < *bes, Yak. bih-igi, Tuv. bis, Yughur ms, Kirghiz miz, Old Turkic biz R. my
 1 I, me Oss. mn (Gen) Ch. e-b, Yak. min, Tuv. men, Old Turkic ben R. menia
 16 not Oss. ma Ch. -ma, Tuv. -ma,
Old Turkic
-mV
-
 160 cloud Oss. mig" Ch. plt, Yak. blt,
Old Turkic
bulut
R. mgla (fog)
 
b- > m- > b- (lenition or no change)
 75 nose Oss. brn-k" Yak. murun, Tuv. murnu, Kirghiz murun, Old Turkic burun, Yughur purin L. perirh
 87 neck Oss. brzj Ch. my, Yak. moy, Tuvan moyun, OT boyun, Kirghiz moyun L. cervix
  b/v- > p/b- (desonorization or no change)
  wolf Oss. birg", Yz. warg Ch. pir, Yak. br,
Tuv.
br, Old Turkic bri; Yughur peri
E. wolf, R. volk
 18 many Oss. bir Ch. pdm, Yak. btn, Old Turkic btn -
  brother Oss. rvad <*vrad, Rsh. viro:d, Sar. vrod Ch. piche R. brat, E. brother
 
  f- > 0- (lenition)    
  father Oss. fad, Sh. ped, Ch. atte, Tuv. ada,
OT ata
L. pater, E. father
 80 foot Oss. fd, Sh. p, Rsh. po
Sar. pe, Sg. pudash
Ch. ora, Yak. ata-q,
Old Turkic
aDa-k
R. p'at-ka, E. foot
 63 meat Oss. fd Ch. t, Yak. et, Tuv. e't, Old Turkic et R. pit-at-s'a, E. to feed, food
  son Oss. frt < *futr, Sh. puc,
S.
pc, Yidga puser; Munji pur, Wakhi ptr, Avestan pu:ra
Ch. vl, ul, Yak. uol,
Tuv
. o:l
L. puer (boy)
 
sh- > s' (S)- > y- (lenition, palatalization > elision)
 159 earth Oss. shdJ-t, Sh. sit,
Yz
. shat
Ch. s'r, Yakut sir,
Tuv.
cher, OT yer
E. earth, G, Erde, from ertho
  hundred Oss. shd Ch. s'er, Yak. Su:s R. sto, sot-n'a
 149 star Oss. st"al, Sh. sxtardz,
Yz.
sxtarak, X()tarag,
Ish.
struk; Zb. sitara;
Sg.
usturak
Ch. s'ldr, s'ltr
Yak. sulus, Tuv. slds (herein: *sxtara(g) > *setar > *saldar with an epithentic -l- in Turkic)
E. star, L.stella
 169 burn Oss. shudz-n Ch. s'ondar, Yak sanda:r, Kirghiz zhan- R. zhe-ch'
  raven Oss. shnt Ch. s'xn  
 66 fat (n) Oss. shoy, shoy-ag Ch. s'u, s'v, Yak. sa zhir
 70 feather Oss. shish Ch. s'm, Yak sung, Tuvan chng, Kirghiz zhn -
 56 leaf Oss. shf Ch. s'ol-z -
  
zh- > ch- (unvoicing in Bulgaric) > y- (lenition, palatalization > elision)
 90 heart Oss. zhrd, Sar. zrd,
Yaz
. zaw, Ishk. zil
Ch. chre, Yak. sre-q,
Tuv.
chre-k,
Turkish
yre-k
R. serd-tse
 
  z- > ch- (unvoicing in Bulgaric) > t- (in main Turkic)
 78 tongue Oss. vzhag <*zvag,
Yz
. z()veg, Ish. zivuk,
Sg.
zuluk, Yz. z()veg
Ch. chlxe, Yakut tl,
Tuv.
dl, OT tl
R. jaz-yk < *jazov'
 156 stone Sh. zir, Sar. zer Ch. chol, Yakut tash,
Tuv. dash, OT tash
-
 
  z- > t-
 159 earth Oss. zmic < *zmic,
Sh.
zema, Yz. zma:
Ch.tpra, Yak. tobura-x, Tuv. dovura-q, Kirghiz topura-q,
Old Turkic
topra-q
R. zem-l'a < *zemie
  crane (bird) Oss. zrng Ch. trna, Yakut turyuya, Tuv. duruya, OT turunya  
 103 know Oss. zonn Tuv. tan-, Yughur tan-, Kirghiz tan-, Turkish tan- G. kenn-en, R. zna-t'
 82 knee Oss. zong Yak. thex, Tuva diskek, Khakas. tzek, OT tiz G. Knee, R. koleno
 
c- > t-    
  four Oss. cppar (Digor cuppar), Sh. cav:r,
S
ar. cavr
Ch. tvat, Yak trt,
Tuv. drt
R. chetyri
  narrow, short Oss. cbr (short) Ch. tvr, Yak. ta:r,
Tuv
. tar, OT tar
-
 62 skin Oss. carm, c"ar Ch. tir, tir, Yak. tiri:, Khakas te:r, OT teri  
 
d > sh/0 (lenition-spirantization, unvoicing)
150 water Oss. don Ch. shv, Yak. u:,
Tuv
. sug, Old Turkic suv
R. (vo)-DA (?)
cf. Welsh dwr,
Armenian Jowr
23 two Oss. duw, Sh.u (aw) Ch. ikk, Yughur shk (shk), Old Turkic iki dva
 
  d- > t- (unvoicing)    
  fall Oss. dard Yak. ts-, Yughur ts-,
Old Turkic tsh-
-
  sea Oss. dendzs (?) Ch. tins, Uyghur dengiz, Kirghiz deGiz,
Tatar
dingez
-
  wind Oss. dm-g Yak. tibi, Tuv dv, Turkish tipi R. du-t' (blow)
  fruit Oss. drg" Ch. tzh, Old Turkic tsh -
77 tooth Oss. dndag;
Sh.
indn; Yz. a:n
Ch. shal, Yak. tiis,
Old Turkic tsh
L. dens, E. tooth
  dust Oss. trk, tvd Old Turkic toz, Yughur toz, Khakas toz-n R. ter-et', tol-och' (?)
  
x- > x- > q/k- (no change)
73 ear Oss. x"ush, S. ghaul,
Yz.
ghevon,
Sg,
ghovar
Oss. x"cn "to hear"
Ch. xlGa, Yak kulga:q,
OT
qulgak
R. slux, slush-at' (hearing)
147 sun Oss. xur, Sh. xer
S. xer, Yz. xvor, xwur, Yaghnobi khur, Avestan Nom. hvar-z
Ch. xvel, Yak. kn R. soln-ce
  crow Oss. xalon Tuv. qa:rGan, Khakas xarGa, OT. qarGa -
  snow Oss. xalas (snowfrost),
Dig
. kirs
Yakut xar, Tuv. xar,
OT
qar
 
71 hair Oss. xil, x"is, x"iun Ch. xlx, Yak kl,
Tuv
xl, OT ql
-
177 night Oss. xshv < *xshv, Yd. kshowoh, Yaghnobi xishap, Avestan xshap Ch. kas', Yak. kiehe, Tuv. kezhe, Old Turkic kech -
195 dry Oss. xus Ch. xrk ("of bread"),
Yak.
qura-nak, Tuv. qurG-aG, Kirghiz qurg-aq, Old Turkic qur-
R. sux-oj, sush'
 
k" > x/q (lenition, spirantization)
  arm Oss. k"ux "hand" Ch. xol "shoulder", xor
Yak.
qol, Tuv. xol, OT qol
-
  leg Oss. k"ax Ch. xs' (back, behind), Turkish kch (shin, foot) -
 
  V- > V-    
27 big Oss. str Yak. uluu:, Tuvan ulu-G -
  wife Oss. us Ch. arm  
  owl Oss. ug Ch. ux, Tuv. g,
Kirghiz
k
 
  otter Oss. urd Ch. tr, Yakut t otter
  stallion Oss. urs Ch. yr  
7 this Oss. uy Ch. vw-l, Yak. o-l,
Tuv.
o-l, Old Turkic o-l
 
  heavy Oss. uzzau Ch. yvr, Yak yar,
Old Turkic aGr
-
  sister Sh. yakh, Sar. yx < *ax, Ish. ikha, ixwa; Zb. ikha
Sg.
ikhva, Oss. xo
Ch. aka, OT eka -
  other Oss. inn Tuv.ske, Old Turkic ngi, zge, Yughur zge
Kirghiz ng, zg
R. in-oj, G. ander
  sky Oss. arv < *aver Ch. oyar, Tuv. ayas, Yughur ayas,
Old Turkic
ayaz
-
83 hand Oss. ar-m Ch. ala, Yak. eli:, OT eli-g  
175 white Oss. ursh Khakas. ax; Tuv. aq
OT aq
R. rus-yj (?)
167 fire Oss. art < *ater, Avestan Nom. tar-sh, Sh. yc,
S. yuc, Yz. yec Yd. yur,
Mj.
yur, < *atr
Ch. vot, Yak. uot; Tuv. ot
Ch. virt "burn", Yak. rt "burn"
  three Oss. rt <* tr,
Sh.
ary, Sar. ary, Ish. rui, roi; Zb. rai, ra; Yd.shuroi, Mj.sherai, tsiroi, Yaghnobi tiray; saray
Ch. vis', Yak. s
(herein probably: *ray > *r > *r > *s)
R. tri
 
  -n- :-n- (no change)    
  word Oss. nom Yak. nomo-q (tale), Khakas. nma-x (tale), Shor nba-x (tale, story) E. name
16 not Oss. n Ch. an (imperative) R. ne
  mother Sar. an; Yz. na:n Ch. anne, Yughur ana,
Old Turkic
ana,
R. n'an'a, E. nanny
 
  sh/c/ch :x/q (??)    
172 red Oss. shrx Ch. xrl, Yak. khl,
Old Turkic
kzl
-
85 belly Oss. card Ch. xyrm, Yak. qaryn OT qaryn
  girl Oss. chzg Ch. xr, Yak ky:s
 

Notes on Evidence of Genetic Relatedness between East Iranian and Turkic peopless
The following citation from Wikipedia is a dubious statement from a source based on preconceived anecdotal (non-systematic) fact. People of Indo-Iranian languages genetically are as composite as people of any other major language family. Even within a small area in Iran, the sources demonstrate complete genetic incompatibility:
Tehran Y-Chromosom Isfahan Y-Chromosom

"Exceptionally high frequencies of M17 are found among the Ishkashimi (68%) (one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group in Ishkashimi district of Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan, the total number of speakers is ca. 2,500. Ishkashimi-speaking people definitely can't be selected, other than a joke, as adequate representatives of linguistically Indo-Iranian peoples that exceed 1 billion population), the Tajik population of Khojant (64%), the Kyrgyz (63%), [and Southern Altays (53%) -- my addition], but are likely "due to drift, as these populations are less diverse, and are characterized by relatively small numbers of individuals living in isolated mountain valleys."[3] [...]

Haplogroup R1a is also common among some Mongolic- and Turkic-speaking populations, such as the Bonan (26%, Mongolic), Dongxiang (28%, Mongolic), Uyghur (28%, Turkic), Kazan Tatar (24%, Turkic), Salar (17%, Turkic), Tuvan (14%, Turkic) peoples.

The gene has proven to be a "diagnostic Indo-Iranian marker," and "is likely to represent traces of an ancient population migration originating in southern Russia/Ukraine," where it may have been driven by the domestication of the horse around 3,000 B.C.; its distribution and age are "consistent with the inferred movements of these people, who left a clear pattern of archaeological remains known as the Kurgan culture, and are thought to have spoken an early Indo-European language".[3]"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R1a
http://www.springerlink.com/content/r60m403330h204l0/ [3]

This data is difficult to explain by secondary gene absorbtion, because any such hypothesis would require a mechanism explaining why this supposed absorbtion is not only present, but so exceptionally high precisely with these particular groups, which is not found in any other instances.

The M17 gene presence in Bonan and Dongxiang can be explained by assuming they passed from Turkic to Mongolic languages. Note that the population of Khojant (the main city in the Pamir mountains) must have necessarily been of Pamir stock (especially Shugni, Rushani, and Yazgulami), which obviously began speaking Tajik only during the recent historical past.

 Aside from the quasi-scientific spin, the results of the cited study indicate that there is a strong affinity between a handful of Ishkashimi population and Tajik population living in Khojant, and populations of Kyrgyz and Altai states. The graphical picture of Ossetic constituent divisions is shown below.

Figure 1 (Excerpts) Y-SNP haplogroup frequencies

Legend

S. Ossetia  Ironians N. Ossetia  Digorians N. Ossetia  Ardonians

 It is clearly visible how grossly dissimilar are paternal lineages of the Ossetian Ironians and Digorians. Of the predominant haplogroups, Haplogroup G (red) may have originated in India or Pakistan, and has dispersed into central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East; Haplogroup F (gray) , well preserved in Ironians, contains more than 90% of the world’s population, it was in the original migration out of Africa, or else it was founded soon afterward; Haplogroup I (green) is a European haplogroup, it is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe prior to the last Glacial Maximum; Haplogroup J2 (yellow) originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent and later spread throughout central Asia, Mediterranean, and south into India, this lineage is found within Jewish populations. Comparison of the Ossetic graphs with the Persian graphs shows a somewhat relative similarity only between Isfahan dwellers and Ironians.

Based on Mark Rosenfelder's outstanding database

Home
Back
In Russian
Contents Trkic languages
Sources
Roots
Tamgas
Alphabet
Writing
Language
Genetics
Geography
Archeology
Religion
Coins
Wikipedia
  Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
V.I.Abaev: girdle of Scytho-Iranian theory
Scythian Ethnic Affiliation
Ossetian Genetics
Alan Datelinene
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
12/19/2008
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