Home
Back
In English
Datelines
Sources
Roots
Tamgas
Alphabet
Writing
Language
Genetics
Geography
Archeology
Religion
Coins
Wikipedia
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Ogur and Oguz
Scythians
Alans
Kipchaks
Russian Version needs a translation
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
 
Florin Curta
The making of the Slavs:
history and archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, r. 500—700

Ed. D.E. Luscombe, Research Professor of Medieval History, University of Sheffield
Cambridge University Press, 2001, Copyright © Florin Curta 2001
CONTENTS • ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
INDEX

Links

Google search for Florin Curta "The making of the Slavs"
http://www.academia.edu/422133/The_making_of_the_Slavs_Slavic_ethnogenesis_revisited

Editorial Introduction

The written history of Slavs starts with the Türkic people. The revisionist histories of the 19th-20th centuries minimized, bypassed, and ignored that fact, but a first turn to the sources underneath those peculiar historical studies brings about numerous Türkic people, Türkic names, and Türkic-driven events. Even the first descriptions of the Slavs, before they were discerned from their Türkic overlords, describe these farming tribes as nomads; the later sources link them with the forests and swamps. The offered mirror of the Dr. Florin Curta work, freely and widely available on the Web, is the most cool-headed, purely academic work without nationalistic biases, political inclinations, and quasi-scientific machinations. In an ideal world, it would rest on a pile of ash from the most made-to-order production of the post-WWI period, and from a good portion of the preceding century. Albeit after the fall of the Soviet dominance many restrictions fell aside, the scientific machinery still largely holds on to the entrenched myths started during the reign of the Peter I of Russia. That is the more reason for anyone interested in the Slavic history to be acquainted with an objective study.

The bottom line of the study: Neither the sources, nor archeology allow to equate “Sclavenes” and “Antes” with the origin of the Slavs. The work and the heart of the its Conclusion are confirming the fact that before 12th c., “no “Slavs” called themselves by this name, no group took on the label imposed by outsiders”, and “the first clear statement that “we are Slavs” comes from the twelfth-century Russian Primary Chronicle”. Behind the supra-ethnical names “Sclavenes” and “Antes” of the 6th-12th cc. stand numerous ethnically-assorted local horse pastoralist nomadic tribes, generically named Wends and Winidi (Wendeln “Wanderers” Vandals)  by the contemporaries, and in the case of the Sclavenes identified with Severeis, Cutrigurs, and Suvars, relatively small Türkic tribes of the Western Hunnic circle. The numerous multi-ethnic local sedentary agrarian tribes called Slavs were made in a Türkic cauldron, and are known from the distinctly Greek and Roman mirrors, with terminology largely formed from their perspective.

Aside from numerous origin theories advanced in the last centuries, one quite unpopular theory stands out. It grew from the fact that in Türkic, süläü is “word, speak”, and applied  to some strangers it would denote those you can communicate with: süläü = “word, speak” > Sl. “slovo” > Slav, Slovak, Slovene, etc. According to this theory, a part of the Balts (Balto-Slavs speaking Baltic, not Slavic) fell into a Türkic orbit, became bilingual, and was accordingly labeled by their Türkic counterparts as “speaking, speakers” or something close. A corroborating testimony comes from one of the early recorded designations for the Slavs, Σκλαβόι, which is a combination of Skla-, like in Sclavenes, and Türkic boi = “tribe, people”; without the Greek prosthetic “κ” in  “Σκ-”, the Σλαβόι is a fair approximation of some dialectal version of Süläüboi > Slaboi > Slav. There are few more corroborating indicators: the load of Türkic lexus in all Slavic languages, the load of Türkic lexus in the Latvian Baltic language, the clearly pidgin nature of the early Slavic with marginal syntax and grammar (termed “analytic morphology”), the exonymous nature of the ethnonym “Slav”, and a few more. Without any references to the Slavs prior to the Atilla's time, it is natural that the timing of the initial Türkic influence is ascribed to the Western Hunnic period; but no less logical is the murky period when Sarmats expanded to the northern Central Europe, and the Vandal Burgunds interspersed with the Baltic Lujites; the Huns may have only inherited the future Slavs along with the other Türkic tribes, and have flushed the Slavs to the western attention. That hypothesis takes the initial period to the 2nd c. BC, and allows more generations to grow in a melting pot. The numerous facts and events studied by Dr. Florin Curta contain indicators that support this origin theory. According to F. Curta, Slavic appeared as a lingua franca for numerous linguistic groups between the lower Danube and the Baltic sea, and that explains the impressive uniformity of the Old Chirch Slavonic across a vast area and numerous linguistic families. The feasibility of  the F. Curta's model is solidly supported by the later example of the Russian amalgam of disparate people and the Russian language, which in a course of few centuries became a lingua franca across a vast area and numerous linguistic families from the Baltic to the Sea of Japan. In respect to the Slavic origins, the work of Dr. Florin Curta contravenes not only the orthodox Slavistics of the past two centuries, but also the M. Alinei's “Paleolithic Continuity Theory”, and agrees with it by recognizing the autochthonous origin of  the Slav's numerous components.

From their inception, the budding Slavic people have included multiple Türkic tribes of the Central Europe; the first Slavic polity “Samo state” Duloba ca 620-653 was headed by Shambat, a “Wendish king” and a junior brother of Kurbat (aka Gr. Kubrat),  it was a Türkic Bulgar splinter state of the Great Bulgaria, and as early as ca 620 it was known as a Slavic and Wendish  (Germanic wendeln “Wanderers” ~ Vandal)  state, pointing that by 620, the Slavs were already viewed as a distinct conglomerate; that also tends to move the Slavic origin deeper, to the Sarmatian times. At least a part of the Slavs were Celts/Gauls, descendents of the Asian migrants marked by R1b Y-DNA chromosome who crossed to Iberia ~4800 bp (~2800 BC) from Africa and looped back toward the Eastern Europe (Galicia).

Page numbers are shown at the end of the page in blue. Highlighted  entries in the Index are related to Turkology.

PDF Files • PDF Ôàéëû
| Pages 1-35 | Pages 36-69 | Pages 70-100 | Pages 100-118 | Pages 120-155 | Pages 156-190 |
| Pages 191-218 | Pages 156-190 | Pages 191-218 | Lacuna | Pages 334-371 | Pages 372-413 | Pages 414-449 |
DOC Files • DOC Ôàéëû
| Pages 1-97 | Pages 1-118 | Pages 120-227 | Pages 228-334 | Pages 334-371 |
Florin Curta
The making of the Slavs:
history and archaeology of the Lower Danube Region,
r. 500—700
CONTENTS • ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
List of figures page ix
List of tables xiii
Acknowledgments xiv
List of abbreviations xv
Introduction 1
1 Slavic ethnicity and the ethnie of the Slavs: concepts and approaches 6
2 Sources for the history of the early Slavs (c. 500—700) 36
3 The Slavs in early medieval sources (c. 500—700) 74
4 The Balkans and the Danube limes during the sixth and seventh centuries 120
5 Barbarians on the sixth-century Danube frontier: an archaeological survey 190
6 Elites and group identity north of the Danube frontier: the archaeological evidence 227
7 "Kings" and "democracy": power in early Slavic society 311
Conclusion: the making of the Slavs 335
Appendix A List of settlement features used in the seriation by correspondence analysis 351
Appendix  Handmade and wheelmade pots used for shape analysis 366
References 372
Index 451
TABLES  
1 Sources of sources: origin of accounts page 71
2 Time-spans covered by sixth- and seventh-century sources 72
3 Chronology of sources 73
4 Raiding activity in the Balkans 116
5 Sixth- to seventh-century sources and Balkan settlements 122
6 The fortification of the Balkans according to Procopius' Buildings iv 156
7 Sixth-century Balkan forts: area and estimated number of soldiers 183
8 Chronology of "Slavic" bow fibulae 270
9 Sunken buildings in sixth- and seventh-century settlements 281
10 Size of sunken buildings from sixth- and seventh-century settlements by floor area 282
INDEX • ÀËÀÔÀÂÈÒÍÛÉ ÓÊÀÇÀÒÅËÜ
351

'Abd al-Rahman, Muslim general 111
Aberg, N. 195
Abritus/Razgrad 122, 128
Achaia 107, 116-17, 140, 182, 183
— see also Greece
Acrae/Cape Kaliakra 155, 183, 186, 187
Adina 88
Adrianople 87, 95, 97, 329
Agathias 45-7, 71-3, 82, 89, 116, 208
— see also Dabragezas
Agilulf, Lombard king 99
agriculture 132, 142, 149, 159, 161, 168, 188, 308, 309, 317, 337
Ajdovski graclec 168—9
Akra Sophia 146
Aladzha 149
al-Ahtal 111 n. 105
Alattyan 204
Albania 88, 150, 167, 207, 214, 239, 245, 254, 308
— see also Ballshi, Butrint, Bylis, Dyrrachitim, Epirus Nova, Koman, Kruja, Sarda, and Shkoder
Alboin, Lombard king 87, 204, 327
Alexander, Roman brigadier 56, 101—2
Alfred the Great, king of Wessex 66
Amandus, bishop 69
amber see beads
Ambroz, A. K. 209—10
Amphipolis 13$, 136
amphoras 139, 144, 146, 160, 165, 186-8, 242-3, 246, 298, 300
analysis, statistical cluster 5, 250, 254, 255, 266, 269
correspondence 5, 213, 218, 238
— see also seriation
Anastasius, Roman emperor 121, 126, 127, 134, 139, 147, 151, 155, 158, 160, Γ72, 188, 240, 337
Anchialos 49, 95, 96
Anevo 149 Angelova, S. 232
annona 137, 147, 156, 185, 188—9
Antes 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 38—9, 41, 43, 45, 47, 50-1, 71, 75, 77, 78, 79-81, 82, 83, 84,90,97, 105, 115, 116, 118— 19, 172, 212, 221, 311, 312, 322-3, 326, 331-2, 336, 337, 339, 343, 344, 346, 347, 349, 350
— see also Boz, Chilbudius, Dabragezas, Mezamer, and Penkovka
Apameia in apparel 200, 343
Appiaria 97
Apsich, Avar general 81, 105
Aquis/Prahovo 77, 97, 124, 243, 244 archon 326
Ardagastus, Sclavene great-man 58, 64, 95-6, 97, 100—1, 102, 11 5, 321, 329, 330, 340, 342
Ardaric, king of the Gepids 190
Arethas of Caesarea 68—9
Arges 101, 105
Argos 142, 143, 186, 187, 233, 234, 308
Arnefrit, Lombard rebel 70, 110
arrow heads 132, 133, 165, 192, 298, 334
Artamonov, Μ. I. 27
Asbadus, Roman officer 85
Asemus 104
Asparuch, Bulgar chief 111, 347
Athens 140, 145, 153, 172, 234
Attila 190
Auduin, Lombard king 82, 191
Aupert, P. 233
Auximum 84
Avars 4, 47, 49-50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 90-2, 93, 94“9, too, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109, in, 117, 118, 119, 120, 127, 134, 148, 169, 170, 171, 178, 181, 189, 190, 204-8, 209, 211, 225, 311, 315, 317, 318, 321, 322, 327, 332, 338, 340, 342, 344, 345, 347, 348
— see also Alattyan, Antes, Apsich, Bayan, Bocsa, Sclavenes, Slavs, and Totipuszta-Dunapentele-Igar

axes 239
351

Baiunetes 108
bakery 125, 131
Balajnac 163
Ballshi 139, 150, 152, 155
Baltic, Sea 10, 176, 195, 196, 236, 254, 271
Baran, V. 227, 235, 236, 283-4
Bargala 135
Baringo 29, 224,
Barth, F. 18, 19, 20, 29
Basil II, Byzantine emperor 67
bath 123, 126, 127, 129, 133, 136, 140, 141, 142, 145, 146, 151, 160, 234
Bavaria 66, 99
— see also Garibald and Tassilo III
Bayan, qagan of the Avars 91—2, 96
beads 298, 300
— amber 192, 193, 196, 271, 274
— chalk 196
— eye-shaped inlays 241, 263, 296
— glass 192, 196
— niillefiori 193
— spindle-shaped 234
— bejulci 60
Belegezites 108, 112, 118, 138, 346
Berbers 79
Berkovica 161
Bernashivka 272
Beroe/Stara Zagora 129, 154, 175
Berzetes 108
big-men 312, 325, 328-9, 330, 333, 342, 343
Biograci 169
bishops 46, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 62, 69, 72, 77, 93, 94, 97, 98, 114, 121, 124, 129, 130, 135, 136, 145, i68, 191 Bocsa 211
Bohemia 192, 193, 228, 230, 242
— see also Borkovsky, Brezno, Niederle Bona, I. 193
Borkovsky, I. 9, 227, 228, 230, 289, 9 n. 18
Boruth, Carantanian dux 70, no, 70 n. 79
Bosmani6i, 183
Bosnia 146, 168, 169
— see also Biograci and Musici
Botevo 161
Botoshana 232, 240, 281, 282, 296
Boz, king of the Antes 39, 41, 118

bracelets 300
bracteates 193, 194
Bratei 236, 254, 262, 270, 277, 281, 282
bread 228, 295, 297, 302, 309, 342
Bregovina 143, 163
Brezno 282, 284, 286, 289
— see also experiment brigadier 101, 102, 103, 104, 330
Bromley, I. 16, 17
brooches 133, 158, 1 59, 165, 193, 194, 195, 201-3, 227, 228, 236-7, 238, 243, 244, 245, 247-75, 291, 299, 300, 308, 309-10, 343
— see also fibulae
brotherhoods, see Sclavenes (“wolves”)
Bucharest 4, 239, 243, 244, 246, 260, 270, 271, 277, 281, 282, 291, 299, 303
buckles 132, 164, 195, 207, 209, 211, 236
— Boly-Zelovce class 250
— Corinth class 254
— eagle-headed 194, 195, 258, 266
— embossed decoration 237
— shield-shaped end 132
— Sucidava class 211, 245, 254
— Syracuse class 258
— with three lobes 291
Budureasca 260, 270
Bulgaria 65, 67, 112, 127, 129, 133, 146, 149, 154, 160, 161-2, 164, 182, 211, 228, 232, 234, 249, 285, 295, 345
— see also Abritus, Acrae, Aladzha, Anchialos, Anevo, Angelova, Appiaria, Asemus, Berkovica, Beroe, Botevo, Castra Martis, Diocletianopolis, Dolno Kabda, Durostorum, Dyadovo, Dzhanavar Tepe, Dzhedzhovi Lozia, Garvan, Gradat, Hebrus, Iatrus, Iskar, Isperikhovo, Karasura, Krumovo kale, Madara, Marcianopolis, Mesembria, Milchev, Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Nova Cherna, Novae, Novgrad, Odessos, Ogost, Pautalia, Pernik, Philipp op olis, Pirdop, Ratiaria, Rhodope, Sadovec, Sandanski, Securisca, Serdica, Sivri Tepe, Stara Planina, Strymon, Thrace, Vavovo kale, Vazharova, Zaldapa, Zikideva, and Zmei kale

Bulgars 41, 63, 75, 79, in, 114, 116, 118, 181, 207, 208-9, 211, 227, 347
— see also Asparuch, Koubratos, and Kuver

burgus 156, 160
burials
— chamber 164, 258, 262, 265, 272
— children 164, 283
— cremation 55, 192, 201, 230, 234, 248, 307, 308
— female 164, 192, 194, 210, 213, 225, 245, 254, 272
— intramural 127, 131, 142, 143
— male 164, 200, 204, 209, 221, 223, 272
— mass 142
— rich 194, 204, 205, 20ό, 209, 211, 212, 213, 219, 221, 223, 225, 226
— see also Avars, Bulgaria, Caucasus, horse, Hungary, Italy, Malo Pereshchepino, Moravia, status, Transylvania, Ukraine, and urns
452

Burnaz plain 104
Butrint 138-9, 145, 168
Bylis 139, 151

cabochons194
Cacco, duke of Friuli no Calixtus, patriarch of Aquileia 70
Callatis/Mangalia 124, 126, 152
cannibalism 315
canoes 55, 63, 102, 107, 109, 138
Capidava 155, 289
Carantani 70, 110
— see also Boruth
Carpathian
— basin 2, 190, 191, 192, 195, 204, 205, 206, 208, 221, 223, 224, 225, 228, 236, 273, 291
— mountains 236, 242, 246, 274, 277, 291, 297, 308
Castra Martis/Kula 123, 183
Caucasus 45, 83, 208, 209, 220
Cedrenus 66
Chezava 162, 163
chattels 317
Chatzon, Sclavene exarch 115, 327
Chernyakhov 9, 10, n, 230, 232, 284, 336
— see also Khvoika Chersonesus 143 n. 41
chief and chiefdoms 3, 47, 64, 91, 114, 115, 312, 315, 316, 318, 319, 325, 326, 327, 328, 331, 332, 333, 340, 342, 343, 348, 349
Chilbudius, Roman general 76, 77, 79, 80, 84, 99, 76 n. 7
— phoney, Antian POW 36, 79, 80, 81, 83, 115, 331, 332, 78 n. 15
Childe, V. G. 26, 28
Chinialon, Cutrigur chief 115
chisel 300
Chronicle of Monemvasia 50, 66—8, 155
Chronicon Paschale 55, 56, 63, 72, 73, 117
church 122, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145, 148, 149, 151, 153, [59, 160, 162, 163, 165, 167, 168, 184, 318

— box 160
— cemetery 130, 163, 164
— cruciform 131, ιόι, 143 11. 41
— domed 136
— episcopal 126, 127, 130, 134, 135, 137
— extramural 136, 138, 139, 163, 168
— fortified 162
— hexagonal 136
— octagonal 137
— single-naved 127, 128, 129, 135, 148, 149, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 167, 169
— Syrian plan 126
— three-aisled 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 135, 138, 141, 155, 161, 163, 167, 168
— transept 131, 132, 135, 138, 139
— triconch 132, 138
— two-aisled 132
— two-storied 161
— ciborium 49, 53, 54, 113, 137, 318
— cistern 127, 132, 138, 141, 163, 166, 168
clans, conical 332
Clastres, P. 322
climates, theory of 43, 44, 48, 51, 348
Cohen, A. 20
coins
— Byzantine 181, 341
— copper (bronze) 242, 245, 263
— Gepid 191
— gold 130, 159, 160, 164, 172, 176, 177, 178, 181, 194, 205, 210, 211, 213, 264
— hexagram 181
— Ostrogothic 191
— see also Anastasius, Constans II, Constantine IV, Heraclius, hoards, Justin I, Justin II, Justinian, Maurice, Phocas, Tiberius II
Columbanus, St. 60
— see also Eustasius
combs 242, 244, 299, 301
Comentiolus, Roman general 56, 57, 64, 95—6, 97, 106, 329
Constans II, Byzantine emperor 110, 141, 181, 206, 210, 211, 219
Constantine the Great 151
Constantine IV, Byzantine emperor 112, 181, 206, 207, 211, 213, 219, 254
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, Byzantine emperor 46, 326
Constantinople 37, 38, 39, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 54, 55, 57, 62, 63, 67, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 87, 89, 92, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 110, 112, 114, 131, 136, 138, 143, 146, 148, 155, 175, 176, 177, 181, 187, 240, 249, 331
— siege of 54—5, 72, 109, 119
453

Constantinopolitan chronicle 45, 46, 55, 57, 63, 46 n. 22, 57 n. 49
Corinth 49, 67, 95, 113, 141-2, 146, 153, 172, 234, 318
Coshoveni 249, 271
courtyard, peristyled 123, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 134, 140, 141, 14$, 148
craftsmen 61, 112, 124, 131, 139, 195, 271,
275, 310
cremation see burials
Crete 142, 107 n. 96
Crimea 132, 187, 194, 201, 208, 210, 249, 258, 260, 262, 265, 266, 269, 270, 271, 274, 294, 307, 309, 333, 342
Crish/Körös 196
Croatia 65
— see also Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, Istria, Kastelina, Korintija, Majsan, Polace, Salona, and Split
Croats 65
— see also Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus cross 294, 299
— pectoral 160, 245, 294, 317
Csallany, D. 192
culture, archaeological 11, 13, 24—7, 28, 191—2, 204, 336
— see also Avars, Chernyakhov, Dytynych-Tnshin, Ipoteshti-Candeshti, Koman, Penkovka, Wielbark, and Zarubinec
Cunimund, king of the Gepids 191, 203, 186 n. 109
Cutrigurs 4, 75, 82, 90, 116, 170-1, 172, 176, 190, 208-9, 337, 339, 349
— see also Zabergan

Dabragezas, Antian officer 83 11. 35
Dacia 77, 126, 129, 153
— Mediterranea 116-17, 124, 154, 156, 183
— Ripensis 44, 77, 116-17, 124, 154, 156, 160, 182, 183, 184, 348
Dagobert I, Frankish king 59-60, 61, 109
Dalmatia 65, 86, 89, 110, 116—17, 146, 167, 182, 183, 313, 318, 340, 345
Danube 2, 3, 14, 42, 44, 52, 56, 66, 69, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 81, 82, 84, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 96, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 111, 112, 113, 114, 118, 120, 132, 133, 144, 150, 153, 154, 160, 161, 162, 176, 181, 182, 184, 185, I90, 191, 192, 193, 197, 198, 200, 201, 203, 208, 209, 211, 224, 233, 234, 244, 245, 271, 274, 290, 294, 297, 308, 309, 317, 320, 32I, 323, 324, 326, 329, 330, 333, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 343, 350
— fleet 184-5
— frontier 2, 3, 39, 44, 52, 75, 76, 77, 78, 82, 88, 91, 96, 97, 99, 102, 103, 104, 113, 114, 120, 132, 150, 170, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 182, 185, 189, 190, 191, 227, 273, 285, 332, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 347, 348, 349
— Lower 3, 78, 91, 150, 233, 243, 248, 249, 269, 275, 308, 335, 337, 342, 346, 349
— Middle 190, 192, 228, 239
— see also limes
Dardania 130, 156
Daurentius (Dauritas), Sclavene chief 47, 91, 96, 101, 118, 315, 327, 330, 342, 343
Davideni 242, 245, 262, 281, 282, 296, 300, 301, 302, 303
Debreste 167, 183
Demetrias 112, 249
dendrochronology 231
Denmark 194
Dervanus, duke of the Sorbs 109, 115
Dinogetia/Garvan 155
Diocletianopolis/Hissar 121, 129, 145, 154, 175
Dnieper 3, 14, 209, 221, 254, 258, 262, 270, 343
Dniester 11, 235—6
Dobmdja 88, 126, 144, 147, 149, 156, 172, 175, 176
— see also Scythia Minor
Dolinescu-Ferche, S. 276, 285
Dolno Kabda 158
Don 209, 239
Donat, P. 285
Drobeta/Turnu Severin 133, 245, 339
Drugubites 107, 112, 118, 317, 327, 327, 346
Dubrovnik 167—8
Dulceanca 276, 277, 281, 284, 285, 290, 294, 296, 300, 308
Durostorum/Silistra 90, 101, 104, 144, 232
Dyadovo 164, 183
Dyrrachium/Durres 84, 139, 168, 143
Dytynych-Trishin 231
Dzhanavar Tepe 162
Dzhedzhovi Lozia 232

earrings
— basket-shaped pendant 132, 265
— polyhedral cube 200
— star-shaped pendant 212, 219, 249, 254
Edessa 234, 258, 271
egalitarianism 325
Egypt 55, 77, 107, 138, 175, 186, 189
elders, council of 313, 315
elites 227, 228, 274, 309, 342, 343, 344
encroachment 132, 133, 134, 143
Engels, F. 313, 315, 316
Epirus 107, 117, 121
— Nova 84, 116, 156, 172
— Vetus 121, 138, 156, 172
454

Ermenaric, king of the Ostrogoths 40, 41, 43
ethnicity 12, 14—22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 34, 60, 193, 221, 228, 295, 309, 338, 343, 346, 347, 348, 349
— anthropology, of 21
— everday life 22, 295
— habitus 21
— instrumentalist approach 18
— “kernels of tradition” 19, 20
— medieval 18
— situational 19
— Slavic 2, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 119, 207, 226, 227, 228, 285, 343, 344, 347, 348, 349
— subjective 18-19
— transactional 18
— Volk 12, 25—6
— see also ethnie and ethnogenesis
ethnic 6, 22-3, 34, 35, 60, 75, 118, 190, 227, 335, 336, 344, 338, 346, 347, 348
ethnogenesis 10, 11, 17, 19, 27, 349
Europe 7, 26, 46, 105, 116-17, I29, x46, 156, 189, 198, 200, 205, 218, 239, 247, 326
— Central 65, 194, 242, 261
— Eastern 1, 6, n, 15, 17, 43, 75, 204, 206, 236, 237, 242, 247, 248, 249, 283, 287, 311, 319, 336, 345
— Western 194, 261
— see also Heraclea and Tzurullum Eustasius, abbot of Luxeuil 61
Evagrius 50, 67,, 68, 72, 73, 95, 96, 117
exagia 130
— see also coins (gold)
exarch 327
— see also Chatzon
exogamy 274
experiment, archaeological 282-3, 284, 286, 290
— faunal remains 158, 302
— see also meat

feasts 53, 303, 326, 328, 330, 333, 342
— competitive feasting 115, 326, 328, 330, 331, 333
— see also big-men
fibulae
— Aquileia class 194, 249, 254, 260, 273
— bent stem 132, 133, 165, 172, 214, 219, 237, 243, 244, 245, 265, 273, 291, 296, 299
— bow 2, 3, 133., 158, 159, 201-4, 212, 214, 219, 227, 247-75, 296, 298, 299, 301, 303, 309, 310, 333, 342, 344
— crossbow 236, 237, 238, 254, 308
— disc 202, 203
— equal-armed 195, 291
— S-shaped 202, 203
— square-headed 195

— trapezoidal head-plate 258
— Vogelfibelu 164
— Vyskov class 237
— Zangenfibeln 203
Filiash 277, 281, 282
Finland 254
fire destruction 53, 54, 92, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 169, 189, 334, 338
— see also forts
foedus 81, 82, 83, 331-2, 339
food 62, 70, 118, 138, 147, 185, 186, 188, 222, 228, 290, 295, 296, 299, 302, 303, 309, 316, 342, 347
forts
— abandoned 80, 158, 160, 163, 167, 169, 189, 193, 338
— Balkan 78, 88, 150, 154, 169, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 211, 236, 243, 245, 273, 284, 294, 308, 341, 350 restored 37, 154, 153, 156, 157, 159, 167, 184
— size 121, 143, 155, 156, 158, 161, 168, 175, 176, 340
— see also Acrae, Adina, Ajdovski gradec, amphoras, annona, Aquis, Asemus, Balajnac, Berkovica, Biograci, Bosnian, Botevo, Bregovma, bnrgus, Capidava, Castra Martis, Cezava, church, cistern, coins, Danube (fleet), Debreste, Dinogetia, Dolno Kabda, Dubrovnik, Dyadovo, fire destruction, Gradat Hadjucka Vodemca, latrus, Iron Gates, Jelica, Justin II, Justinian, Karasura, Kastelina, Korinjski hrib, Korintija, Kruja, Krumovo kale, Markovi Kuli, meat, Mokranjska stem, Momcilov Grad, Nicopolis ad I strum, Nova Clierna, Noviodunum, Ovidiu, Pautalia, peribolos, Pirdop, proteichisma, quadriburgium, Ratiaria, refugium, Rifnik, Sacidava, Sadovec, Salduin, Sapaja, Sarda, Securisca, seeds, Shumen, Sivn Tepe, Smorna, spatheion, Sucidava, Svetmja, Taliata, tents, Tinje, Topeiros, Troesmis, Tiirris, Tzurullum, Ulmetum, Vavovo kale, Viminacium, walls, wells, windows, workshop, Zaldapa, and Zmei kale
fountains see wells
France 192, 201
Frankish Cosmography 69
Fredegar 59-61, 70, 71, 72, 73, 109, 118, 346, 350
— see also Samo and Wends
Friuli, duchy of 70, 345
front region, communal 303, 307, 309, 333, 342
455

Gaihani 66
Gambash 254, 271
Gaponovo 214, 219
Garibald, Bavarian duke 99 n. 80
Garvan 232-3, 308
Gava-Domolospuszta 249, 260, 343
gender 20, 21, 30, 224, 272, 274
Gening, V. 287, 289
Gentzon, Roman general 100, 102
George of Pisidia 55, 56, 63, 71, 72, 73, 107, 109, 117
— see also Constantinople (siege of)
Gepids 4, 37, 75, 77, 82, 87, 90, 101, 102, 116, 133, 190-204, 211, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 236, 244, 271, 274, 277, 289, 290, 310, 328, 332, 343, 344, 345, 348, 349
— see also Ardaric, Cunimund, Thrapstila, Thrasaric, Transylvania, Turisind, and Turismod
Germanus, Roman general 75, 76, 86, 87, 114
Germany 2, 26, 192, 201, 277
gifts 83, 102, 115, 181, 195, 205, 218, 271, 274, 316, 324, 342
glassware 139, 149, 158, 192
Glodosy 207, 209, 211, 213, 215
Godelier, M. 329
Godlowski, K. 235
Godwin, Roman general 56, 105, 106
Gök Türk 90, 209
Goths 37, 38, 40, 43
—
see also Ostrogoths
Gracanica 194
Gradat 157, 159
great-men 312, 325, 328-30, 333, 340, 341
Greece 49, 54-5, 67, 68-9, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 99, 107, 117, 140, 142, 143, 153, 167, 172, 174, 175, 176, 181, 186, 187, 233, 234, 248, 250, 258, 271, 308, 318, 345
— see also Achaia, Akra Sophia, Amphipolis, Argos, Athens, Corinth, Crete, Demetrias, Edessa, Iberon, Isthmia, Malingoudis, Nea Anchialos, Nicopolis, Olympia, Patras, Pelopennesus, Philippi, Porto Cheli, Sparta, Strymon, Thessalonica, Thessaly, and Topeiros
Gregory, bishop of Antioch 48, 49, 92
Gregory Barhebraeus 48
Gregory I, pope 53, 54, 71, 73, 97, 100, 148
Grubenhauser see houses (sunken-floored)

Haemimons 116, 129, 147, 154, 156
Hajducka Vodenica 161
Hansca 245, 260, 270, 281, 291, 297
Hebrus/Maritsa 84
Hegel, G. W. E 1

Helibacia/Ialomita 101, 102, 104, 105, 101 n. 86
Heraclea/Yeshilkoy 52, 58, 100, 245
Heraclea Lyncestis/Bitola 134—5
Heraclius, Byzantine emperor 52, 54, 55, 56, 63, 65, 66, 72, 73, 106, 107, 108, 113, 114, 118, 128, 170, 189, 207, 209, 210, 264, 308, 338
Herder, J. G. 6, 7, 11, 12, 16, 25
Herminafred, Thuringian king 191
Herules 77, 82, 116, 191
Hildigis, Lombard rebel 82, 83, 193
hippodrome 133, 136
Histria 124, 126, 131, 145, 155, 187
Hodder, I. 29—30, 224
hoards 4, 14, 133, 149, 161, 169-81, 190, 211-23, 224-6, 240, 244, 245, 246, 254, 263, 266, 267, 291, 309, 317, 337, 338, 341-2, 343
Horedt, K. 192
horreum 128, 158, 166
horse burial 205, 209, 223
houses
— cut in rock 168
— ground-level 276, 300
— sunken-floored 194, 228, 231, 232, 236, 237, 238, 244, 272, 277, 281-5, 296, 297, 298, 300, 301
— villa urbana 126, 130, 131, 133, 135, 137, 140, 142, 145
— see also walls (of stone and clay)
Hrodbert, St. 69 n. 76, 118 n.113
Hungary 2, 65, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 200, 206, 207, 241, 250, 261, 263, 267, 270
— see also Alattyan, Bocsa, Bona, Crish, Csallany, Gava-Domolospuszta, Kiskore, Kiss, Kiszombor, Kolked, Kovrig, Kunbabony, Muresh, and Tisza

Iatrus/Krivina 122, 127, 142, 147, 158, 182, 186, 187, 188, 243, 263
Iberon, monastery at Mount Athos 67, 68
Ibida/Slava Rusa 126
Ibn-Rusta 66
Illyricum 44, 47, 49, 78, 84, 87, 88, 92, 96, 107, 108, 116-17, 129» 148, 151, 154, 156, 176
inflation 169, 170, 173, 175, 317, 338, 341
— see also coins and hoards inscriptions 124, 129, 131, 134, 135, 136, 137, 146, 150-1, 152, 155, 157, 164
Ipoteshti 231
Iron Gates 84, 161, 162, 172, 182, 340
Isidore of Seville 54—5, 71, 72, 73, 107
Iskar 154
Isperikhovo 148
456

Isthmia 167, 182, 183
Istranca Daglar 89, 154, 182
Istria 107, 117
Italy 37, 38, 45, 68, 71, 78, 81, 82, 86, 89, 114, 138, 154, 167, 175, 191, 192-3, 195, 202, 203, 207, 220, 332, 337, 339, 349
— see also Auximum, Friuli, and Reggio Calabria

javelins 314
Jelica 164, 182
Jerusalem 237
jeweller see craftsmen
John, archbishop of Thessalonica 52—4, 55, 62, 72, 92, 93, 94, 97, 98, 107, 114, 136, 340
— see also Miracles of St Demetrius
John, Roman general 92
John Lydus 116
John Malalas 45, 71, 72, 73, 79, 89, 116
John Moschus 148
John of Biclar 49-50, 54, 68, 73, 91, 94, 95, 96,117
John of Ephesus 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 68, 71, 72, 73, 85, 92, 94, 95, 96, 113, 116, 314, 315, 318, 342
John of Nikiu 116
Jonas of Bobbio 60, 73
— see also Columbanus Jordanes 7, 9, 11, 12—13, 36, 39—43, 44, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 79, n6, 118, 198, 212, 336, 347
— see also Safarik, Venedi/Venethi, and Vistula
Justin I 160, 171, 337
Justin II 46, 48, 71, 73, 132, 141, 147, 148, 148, 160, 164, 172, 173, 176, 188, 204, 215, 241, 245, 265, 267, 270
Justinian I 36, 39, 45, 48, 59, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 97, 99, 121, 124, 126, 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, 138, 139, 110, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172, 175, 176, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 191, 194, 204, 208, 211, 240, 244, 245, 246, 296, 331, 332, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 349
— Anticus 77, 105
— see also Viktorinos
Justiniana Prima/Caricin Grad 121, 130—3, 144, 145, 152, 172

Karasura 164—5
Kastelina 168, 183
Kavetchina 232, 281, 282
Kelegeia 209, 210
Khacki 2i9
Kharyvki 213, 219
Khusro II, Sassaman king 55, 210
Khvoika, V. V. 9, 10
Kiclary 250, 254, 255
Kiev 11, 281, 282
kilns 158, 238, 285, 300
— see also pottery
Kiskore 206
Kiss, A. 200
Kiszombor 196, 202
Kolked 207
Koloskovo 214, 219,
Koman 245
Korchak 1 i, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 287, 288, 308
— see also pottery
Korinjski hrib 169
Korintija 168, 183
Korzukhma, G. F. 212
Kosovo 194
Kossinna, G. 24—6
Koubratos, Bulgar chief 209
Kovrig, I. 204
Kozievka 214, 219
Kruja 167, 239, 254, 271
Krumovo kale 157
Kukharenko, I. I. 228, 230
Kunbabony 211
Kurt Baiar 147
Kuver, Bulgar chief 317

language 6, 7, 8, 1 r, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 23, 38, 60, 69, 70, iro, 119, 336, 344, 345, 346, 347
Lehr-Splawinski, T. 336
Leo VI, Byzantine emperor 31, 317, 320
Leontios, buccllarius 83 11. 35
Leontius, bishop of Serdica 129
limes 2, 3, 120, 150, 151, 155, 156, 162, 169, 188, 189, 350
Lombards 4, 37, 44, 51, 60, 69, 70, 82, 87, 90, 99, 114, 190—3, 198—203, 204, 224, 225, 227, 228, 290, 310, 327, 332, 343, 349
— see also Agilulf, Alboin, Arnefrit, Auduin, Cacco, Friuli, Gepids, Hildigis, Pemmo, Raduald, Taso, Wacho, and Wechtan
Long Walls 45, 87, 89, 95, 96, 151, 184 11. 106
loom weights 134, 162
Luchistoe 258, 262, 266, 267, 271, 272
Ludanice 242
Lychnidos/Ohrid 135
457

Macedonia 86, 112, Γ17, 134, 135, 137, 149, 156, 166, 167, 171, 176, 182, 183
Macedonia (cont.)
— see also Bargala, Debreste, Heraclea Lyncestis, Lychnidos, Markovi Kuli, Palikura, and Stobi
Madara 211
Majsan 148
Malii Rzhavec 219
Malingoudis, P. 325
Malo Pereshchepino 207, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 219, 220
Marcianopolis 97, 103
Marinus, St. 69 n. 76
Markovi Kuli 167, 245
Marr, N. Ia. 16-17, 26, 27
— see also studies
Martin of Braga 46
Martynovka 210, 211, 214, 215, 218, 219, 220
material culture 3, 4, 6, n, 22, 24, 28—34, 190, 195, 200, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 246, 275, 276, 295, 333, 341, 343, 344, 346
Maurice, Roman emperor 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 63, 64, 66, 68, 71, 72, 73, 95» 96, 97, 98, 99, too, 102, 103, 105, 106 114, 118, 127, 148, 160, 189, 266, 270, 338, 347
Mazuria 236, 248, 254, 255, 258, 260, 261, 263, 267, 269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 275, 307, 309, 333, 342
— meat, consumption of 30, 158, 186, 188, 302
— see also faunal remains
Menander the Guardsman 46—7, 48, 67, 71, 72, 73, 90, 91, 113, I 14, 117, 122, 208, 315, 322, 323, 326, 327, 328, 330, 333, 340, 342
Mesembria 129, 143, 152
Mezamer, Antian ambassador 47, 90, 91, 323, 332
Michael the Syrian 48, 49, 95, 96, 113, 318, 48 n. 26
Mietkie 260, 270
Milchev, A. 232
military democracy 312-19, 322
Miracles of St Demetrius 52-4, 61-2, 63, 71, 72, 73, 107, 108, in, 117, 118, 136, 136, 137, 149, 189,
317, 326, 327, 328, 347,
350
Book I 52, 62, 93, 107, 137
Book II 61-2, 63,72, 107, 108, in, ii2, 114, 118, 316, 326, 327, 328, 346, 347, 350
— see also John, archbishop of Thessalonica
mobility, population 274, 276, 308, 337
models 254, 260, 263, 270, 271-2, 274, 286
— Moesia
— Inferior 76, 97, 103, 116-17, 124, 127, 147, 154, 156, 159, 183, 185, 188
— Superior 156, 159, 162, 182, 183, 184
Mokranjska stena 161
Moldavia 92, 100, 101, 237
Moldova 232, 237, 276, 287, 288, 295, 308, 309, 334, 342
— see also Dniester, Hansca, and Molesti
molds 126, 272, 294, 300
Moleshti 237
Momcilov Grad 164, 183
monasteries 128, 142, 148-9
Moravia 192, 193, 345
Moreshti 192, 277, 281, 282
Morgan, L. 312-13, 315
mosaic floors 126, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 144, 146
Mragowo 260
Muresh/Maros river 196
Musici 308
Musocius, Sclavene chief 58, 101-2, 115, 321, 322, 327, 328, 331, 344, 348
Naissus/Nis 86, 124, 156
Narses, Roman general 80, 81, 83, 86, 175
Nea Anchialos 250
Nerva, Roman emperor 232
Nestor, I. 234, 285
Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople 63, 64, 65, 68, 111, 117
Nicephorus I, Byzantine emperor 67, 68, 69
Nicopolis, city in Epirus Vetus 138
Nicopolis ad Istrum/Nikiup 121, 122, 127, 158, 182, 188
Niederle, L. 8-9, 337, 8 n. 12
niello 194, 254
Nova Cherna 157, 159, 183, 232
Nova Odessa 214, 219, 265
Novae/Svishtov 121, 122, 127, 187
Novgrad 148
Noviodunum/Isaccea 42, 122, 126

Odessos/Varna 76, 111, 149, 161
Ogost river 154
Olt 104
Olympia 234, 308
Ostrogoths 40, 77, 78, 81, 86, 116, 133, 175, 182, 191, 202, 340
— see also coins, Ermenaric, Goths, Pitzas, Theoderic the Great, Totila, Vinitharius, and Vitigis
oven 126, 130, 131, 142, 145, 149, 161, 168, 228, 232, 238, 243, 283-5, 290, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 309
— brick 130, 161, 284
— clay 228, 284, 299, 300, 301, 309
— stone 228, 283-4, 285, 299, 301, 309
Ovidiu 155, 183
458

Palikura 149
Pancratius, St. 68
pans, clay 228, 232, 244, 276, 295—7, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 309
papyri 186, 211
Parczewski, M. 289
Paspirius 102, 102 n. 87
Patras 67—9
Paul the Deacon 69—70, 99, 10ό, Γ ΙΟ, 116—17, 345
Pautalia/Kyustendil 124, 130, 143, 164
peasants 147, 184
Peiragastus, Sclavene chief 58, 104, 105, 115, 323, 324, 327, 330, 324 n. 24
Peisker, J. 8
Peloponnesus 67-9
Pemmo, Lombard duke 70
pendants
— bronze repousse 263, 265, 266
— hat-shaped 265
Penkovka 11
— see also Antes
Perbundos, king of the Rynchmes 61, 112, 115, 321, 327, 331, 344
peribolos 161
Pernik 130
Persians 46, 47, 55, 56, 72, 107, 108
Peter, Roman general 50, 56, 58, 59, 103, 104, 105, 106, 323, 324, 330, 56 n. 48
Phocaean Red Slip wares 143—4
Phocas 52, 56, 63, 73, 103, 106, 189, 338
— coins of 135, 242
Philippi 135-6
Philippopolis/Plovdiv 86, 122, 128—9, 145, 154, 175
Pietroasele 260
Pirdop 162
pits, storage 297—8
Pitzas, Ostrogothic general 191
plague 37, 53, 137. 141, 142, 143, 175
plowshares 128, 277 n. 57
Podolia 232, 236, 308
Polace 146
Poland 276, 287
— see also Godiowski, Kielary, Lehr-Splawinski, Mazuria, Mietkie, Mragowo, Parczewski, Prussia, Rostafmski, Tunnany, Tylkowo, and Wielbark
Polesie 8, 228, 229, 232, 236, 308
Porto Cheli 234, 147 n. 48
potlatch 222, 224

pottery
— analysis, shape 229, 230, 232, 286—60
— finger impressions 232, 238, 244, 291, 294, 309
— handmade 168, 193, 230, 231, 233, 235, 238, 242, 244, 285-6, 287, 289, 291, 294, 295, 299, 300, 301
— incised decoration 234, 242, 294, 299, 303, 309
— Korchak type n, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 287, 308
— notches 231, 232, 244, 291, 294, 309
— Prague type 9, 10, n, 14, 193, 228, 231, 232, 236, 285, 287, 289, 307, 308
— production technique 285—6
— rim attributes 229, 230, 233
— stamped 192, 199-200, 242, 290, 291, 300
— temper 285
— volume 286
— wheel-made 231, 233, 236, 285, 288, 289
power 4, 9, 20, 33, 34, 35, T12, 124, 144, 154, 190, 194, 209, 225, 274, 303, 309, 311, 312, 315, 317, 318, 319, 325, 328, 329, 331, 341:, 342, 343, 347
— symbolic 312, 318
Prikhodmuk, Ο. M. 232
Pripet 8, 9, 228, 336, 337, 350
Priscus, Roman general 50, 56, 58, 59, 64, 96, 99, 100-3, 105, 329, 33L 344, 348
Priseaca 332, 370
Procopius 7, 9, 36-8, 39, 4f, 42, 43, 44, 67, 71-3, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 113, 115, 116, 118, 121, 122, 123, 127, 131, 133, 136, 144, 146, 150, 151-5, 156, 164, 175, 176, 181, 182, 193, 208, 212, 311—12, 313, 314, 315, 317, 320, 324, 331—2, 333, 337, 339, 347, 349
— Slavic excursus 38, 349
— see also Danube (frontier), Gepids, Jordanes, Justinian, limes, Lombards
proteichisma 158, τ61, 166
Pruneni 260, 263, 270
Prussia, East 249
Prut 235, 236
Pseudo-Caesanus 43-4, 45, 48, 71, 73, 85, 115, 315, 325, 326, 328, 330, 333, 342, 343, 348

qagan, Avar ruler 47, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 81, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109, 119, 189, 205, 207, 208, 209, 318, 327, 342
quadriburgium 155, 159
quaestura exercitus 77, 155, 185, 186, 188, 339
querns 135, 142, 145, 160, 164, 165, 299, 295 11. 74

Raduald, duke of Benevento 69, 110, 345
Radulf, duke of Thuringia 6r
Ratiaria/Archar 123, 134, 144, 161, 186
459

Ravna 162, 163, 183
reciprocity, negative 30, 224
refugium 121, 160, 166
Reggio Calabria 69
Reihengrdber 192, 193, 291
reliquaries 164, 201
rex see kings
Rhodope 85, 116, 156, 108 n. 98
Rifnik 168
Romania 2, 3, 13, 124, 155, 156, 195, 228, 231, 232, 234, 237, 245, 249, 250, 254, 258, 260, 270, 271, 276, 285, 287, 288, 295, 308, 309
— see also Botosana, Bratei, Bucharest,
Budureasca, Burnaz, Callatis, Capidava, Carpathian (mountains), Cosoveni, Cris, Davideni, Dinogetia, Dobrudja, Dolmescu-Ferche, Drobeta, Dulceanca, Filiash, Gambash, Helibacia, Histria, Horedt, Ibida, Ipoteshti, Kurt Baiar, Moldavia, Moresti, Mures, Nestor, Noviodunum, Olt, Ovidiu, Paspirius, Pietroasele, Priseaca, Pruneni, Prut, Sacidava, Sanpetru German, Sarata Monteoru, Scythia Minor, Siret, Stahl, Sucidava, Teodor, Tomis, Topraichioi, Transylvania, Troesmis, Tropaeum Traiani, Ulmetum, Vedea, and Walachia
Rostafmski, J. 8
Rusanova, I. P. 228, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236, 287, 289, 308
Russian Primary Chronicle 66, 350, 60 n. 57
Rynchines 112, 118, 331, 344

sabres 207
Sacidava/Musait 144, 156
Sackett, J. 32
Sadovec 157, 183
Saracen 37, 62, 79, 327,
— Alamundar chief of Saracens 327
— Ambrus chief of Saracens 327
— siege of Thessalonica July 25, 677, 62
— Medes and Saracens in 540, 79

Golemanovo kale 160, 161
Sadovsko kale 157, 159
Shafarik, P.J. 7, 8, 11, 12, 74, 312, 319
Sagudates 108, 112, 118, 346
Sahlins, M. 320, 328
Saldum 162, 163, 183
Salona no, 139-40, 143, 172, 237
— see also Thomas the Archdeacon
Samo, Wendish king 59, 60, 61, 109, 115, 330-1, 343
Sandanski 135
Sanpetru German 307
Sapaja 162, 163, 183
Sarata Monteoru 237, 254
Sarda/Shurdhah 139, 167
Scholasticos, imperial eunuch 87
Sclavenes 3, 4, 7, n, 14, 37-47, 50, 52-4, 55, $8-62, 64, 66, 71, 75-6, 78-89, 91-109, 110-15, 116-17, 118-19, 148, 170, 171, 172, 175, 178, 181, 188, 193, 207, 208, 311, 314-33, 336-40, 341-4, 346-50
— battle cry 93, 325
— “wolves” 55, 107, 325
— see also Antes, Ardagastus, Avars, Chatzon, Daurentius, Musocius, Peiragastus, Perbundos, Sklapinia, Slavs, and Souarounas

scrollwork decoration 236, 249, 260, 264, 267, 270, 271, 309, 343
Scythia Minor 76, 88, 90, 92, 116—17, 124, 148, 150, 152, 155, 156, 175, 182, 183, 185, 186, 188
seals, lead 144, 185-6
Sebeos, Armenian chronicler 106, 338
Secunsca 185
Sedov, V. V. 11, 13
seeds
— grain 163, 164
— grape 186
segmentary lineage, theory of 319—25
Seliste 263, 281, 282, 297-9, 302, 303
Serbia 164, 171, 176
— see also Aquis, Balajnac, Bosman, Bregovina, Cezava, Dacia (Mediterranea), Dacia (Ripensis), Dardania, Gracanica,
Hajducka Vodenica, Iron Gates, Jelica, Kosovo, Moesia (Superior), Mokranjska stena, Momcilov Grad, Naissus, Ravna, Saldum, Sapaja, Singidunum, Sirmium, Smorna, Svetinja, Taliata, Timok, and Viminacium
Serbs 64, 65, 66
Serdica/Sofia 62, 86, 114, 123, 124, 129, 130, 156
Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople 55
— see also Constantinople (siege of) seriation 218, 230, 238
— see also toposeriation
Service, E. 326,
sets, age 325
settlement
— intrasite distribution 228, 275, 298-307, 309, 330, 333, 342
— pattern 276, 277, 297
— rural 139, 142, 145, 147, 148, 149, 161, 184
— sociopetal 303
— urban 121—45
Seven Tribes 111, 112, 118
Severeis 111, 112, 118, 347
shields 62, 112, 165, 192, 198
Shkoder 167
Shumen 157
Siberia 238
sickles 128, 159
460

silverware 213, 215, 218
Singidunum/Belgrade 49, 77, 96, 98
Siret 102
Sirmium 46, 67, 77, 82, 90, 94, 97, 98, 123, 133, 178, 191, 195, 203
— see also Avars and Gepids
Sivri Tepe 157
Sklavinia 110, 111, 112, 114, 118
skulls, artificial deformation of 201
Slavs 1-4, 6-14, 16, 27, 36-52, 54-64, 66-72, 74-5, 85, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, no, in, 112, 113, 114, 118, 119, 120, 121, 126, 132, 134, 137, 140, 145, 148, 150, 165, 169, 170, 178, 189, 190, 207, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235, 248, 275, 287, 295, 307, 310, 311, 312, 316, 319, 324, 332, 333, 335, 336, 337, 338, 345, 346, 347, 349, 350
— homeland 7-8, 10, 12, 13, 74, 236, 308, 336
— infiltration 74, 99, 120, 133
— prehistory n, 12, 13, 27, 336
— raids 3, 49, 75, 90, 96, 103, 107, no, 114, 118, 120, 170, 175, 233, 238, 246, 314, 332, 336, 337, 340, 345
— society 4, 35, 115, 118, 311, 312, 314, 315, 318, 319, 321, 322, 324, 332, 333
— see also Chernyakhov, Kiev, kings, Korchak, migration, Penkovka, Zarubinec, and Zhitomir
Slovakia 192, 242, 276, 287
— see also Ludanice and Zemiansky Vrbovok
Slovenia 168, 187
— see also Ajdovski gradec, Korinjski hrib, Korintija, Rifnik, and Tinje
Smith, A. 19, 23
smithy 125, 145, 159, 162, 168, 167 n. 74
Smorna/Boljetin 123, 163
Souarounas, Sclavene soldier 83
Soviet Union 15, 18
Spain 202
Sparta 142, 250
spatheion 169, 187
spears 193, 334
Spicyn, A.A. 9, 10, 24, 26, 212, 221
spindle whorls 134, 145, 161, 294, 300, 301
Split 110, 143
spolia 133, 139
spurs 272
Stahl, Η.H. 324
Stara Planina 89, 157, 16$, 182, 340
statues 128, 139, 140, 141
status 32, 34, 118, 132, 145, 189, 193, 194, 199, 218, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 239, 248, 272, 274, 303, 307, 309, 317, 323, 325, 327, 328, 331, 342, 344

steels, flint 238
steppe 14, 90, 91, 176, 190, 208-12, 224, 225, 339
stirrups 165, 206, 225
Stobi/Pustogradsko 134, 149, 172
Strategikon 50—2, 59, 66, 71, 72, 73, 83, 101, 103, 106, 115, 118, 152, 188, 313, 314, 315, 316, 320, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 333. 334, 337, 338, 346, 347, 348, 349
stratigraphy 230
street grid 127, 128, 135, 136, 145, 158, 143 11. 41
Strymon/Struma 112
studies, Slavic 6, 8, 12, 335
style 3, 22, 29, 30, 31-4, 131, 203, 228, 250, 309
— animal, I 193, 195
— animal, II 207, 249
— assertive 3 3
— emblenuc 33, 34, 197, 203, 204, 224, 228, 274, 283, 290, 309, 341, 342, 343, 344, 346
— ethnicity 3 1
— see also chiefs and chietdoms and Gava- Domolospuszta
Sucidava/Celei 123, 161
Sudzha 219, 265
Sutton Hoo 218
Suuk Su 265, 266
Svetinja 162, 163, 282
Sweden 195
swords 192, 193, 198, 206, 213, 225, 236, 272
Symeon, king of Bulgaria 65

Taliata/Veliki Gradac 123, 163
Tarasius, patriarch of Constantinople 67
Taso, duke of Friuli 110
Tassilo III, Bavarian duke 99
Tatimer, Roman officer 102,103
taxes 147, 188
taxiarch see brigadier
template, mental 228, 271, 287, 288, 289, 290
tents 161, 163
Teodor, D.Gh. 232
theater 134, 136, 139, 141, 143 11. 41
Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths 127, 3 11
Theodore Syncellus 55, 56, 71, 72, 73, 117
— see also Constantinople (siege of)
Theodoric II, Burgundian king 100
Theophanes Confessor 45, 63, 64, 65, 67, 89, 110, in, 112, 116-17, 118, 326
— see also Seven Tribes and Severeis
461

Theophylact Simocatta 50, 54, 55-9, 63-4, 67, 71, 72, 73, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 114, 117, 118, 122, 127, 146, 158, 184, 203, 314, 315, 323, 327, 329, 330, 333, 337, 338, 348
Thessalonica 52, 53, 54, 55, 61, 62, 72, 77, 86, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 107, 108, 112, 113, 114, 118, 130, 131, 135, 136-8, 143, 144, 145, 148, 150, 189, 316, 321, 325, 327, 331, 340, 347
— see also Miracles of St Demetrius
Thessaly 92, 107, 108, 116—17, 121, 138, 156, 171, 172, 220
Theudebald, Frankish king 191
Theudebert, Frankish king 82, 191
Thomas die Archdeacon 110
— see also Salona
Thrace 44, 49, 79, 84, 88, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 103, 112, 116-17, 128, 129, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 154, 156, 164, 165, 170, 171, 175, 183, I 88, 189, 348, 79 n. 21
Thrapstila, king of the Gepids 191
Thrasaric, king of the Gepids 191
Thuringians 191
— see also Herminafred and Radulf
Tiberius II 46, 47, 48, 72, 73, 92, 96, 126, 148, 159, 173, 176, 177, 204, 321
Timok river 154
Tinje 168
Tisza 191, 193, 194, 196, 197, 198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 224, 236, 290, 343
Tiv 320, 324
Tomis/Constanta 124, 126, 144
Tomislav, prmce of Croatia 65
tools 32, 128, 145, 149, 168
— scraping 238—9
Topeiros/Paradeisos 37, 85, 154
toposeriation 206
Topraichioi 155
Totila, king of the Ostrogoths 38, 82, 86
Totipuszta-Dunapentele-Igar, archaeological group 206, 211
tournette 233
trade 139, 143, 144, 187, 195, 196, 248, 271, 318, 331, 249 n. 36
Trajan 80, 151
Transylvania 192, 194, 196, 236, 239, 254
— see also Gepids
tribute 91, 95, 99, 106, 314, 316
triclinium 126, 128, 129, 131, 139, 140, 142, 146
Troesmis/Iglica 122, 126
Tropaeum Traiani/Adamclisi 122, 126, 145, 152, 172, 243
Tumiany 254, 255
Tunsind, king of the Gepids 87
Turismod, king of the Gepids 87

Turris 80, 80 n. 23
Tuva 206, 238
Tylkowo 195, 254
types, meanings of 229, 287
Tzurullum/Chorlu 84, 85

Ukraine 3, 9, 10, 11, 207, 231, 232, 235, 248, 266, 270, 272, 276, 288, 291, 295, 308, 309, 334, 342
— see also Bernashivka, Chernyakhov, Chersonesus, Crimea, Dnieper, Dniester, Gaponovo, Glodosy, Kavetchina, Kelegeia, Khacki, Kharyvki, Khvoika, Kiev, Koloskovo, Korchak, Kozievka, Kukharenko, Luchistoe, Malii Rzhavec, Malo Pereshchepino, Martynovka, Nova Odessa, Podolia, Prikhodniuk, Suuk Su, Volhynia, Voznesenka, Zachepilovki, and Zhitomir
Ulmetum/Pantelimonu de Sus 88, 122, 156
Utigurs 208

Vavovo kale 158, 183
Vazharova, Zh. 232, 234
Vedea 105
Venedi/Venethi 7, 11, 13, 14, 39-43, 60, 71, 336, 337, 348
— see also Jordanes
Victor of Tunnunna 89
Viktormos, architect 88, 139, 151, 152, 155, 181
Vinunacium/Stare Kostolac 96, 162, 282
Vinitharius, king of the Ostrogoths 41, 43
Vistula 11, 39, 40, 41, 42, 196, 336
— see also Jordanes
Vitigis, king of the Ostrogoths 191
Volhynia 8, 230, 231
Voznesenka 207, 209, 215
Vryoms, S. 234

Wacho, Lombard king 193
Walachia 92, 100, 276, 277, 284, 286 walls
— barrier 184
— of stone and clay 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 139, 145, 147, 155, 158, 159, 160, 164, 165, 168, 185
Walluc, duke of the Wends 118
Wechtari, Lombard duke 70
wells 142, 166
Wends 54, 59, 60, 61, 70, 109, 118, 330-1, 347
Wenskus, R. 18-19, 20, 25
Werner, J. 133, 192, 195, 227, 247-50, 254-5, 258, 260-71, 275
whetstones 168, 300
462

Wielbark 231
Willey, G. R. 297
windows 126, 129, 161, 164, 168
women 30, 51, 61, 164, 192, 194, 200, 201, 204, 222, 223, 224, 245, 272, 274, 309
workshop 123, 126, 127, 130, 131, 132, 134, 136, 158, 159, 160, 168

Yassi Ada, shipwreck 186, 187
yurts 277

Zabergan, Cutrigur chief 45, 46, 79, 89, 90
Zachepilovki 207, 210, 2Ti, 213, 219
zadruga 8, 312
Zaldapa 104
Zarubinec 11, 295
Zemiansky Vrbovok 213, 219, 225
Zhitomir 14, 228, 229, 230, 233, 307
Zikideva/Carevec 127, 131
Zmei kale 158
Zotticos, St. 66
463

Home
Back
In English
Datelines
Sources
Roots
Tamgas
Alphabet
Writing
Language
Genetics
Geography
Archeology
Religion
Coins
Wikipedia
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Ogur and Oguz
Scythians
Alans
Kipchaks
  Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
©TurkicWorld 2013
1/10/2013
Ðåéòèíã@Mail.ru “”“”θδğŋγşāáäēə ï öōüūû“” Türkic Türkic