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Türkic Scripts - Codex of Inscriptions

Euro Asiatic Group

Introduction

I.L Kyzlasov in his book Writings Of Eurasian Steppes assembled a Codex of Inscriptions. The Euro Asiatic group, per I.L Kyzlasov, includes Don, Kuban, S. Enisei, Achiktash, and Isfar scripts.

The following collection is taken from the part of the book where is shown the distribution of the alphabets, and are given some published and new findings. I.L Kyzlasov provided some inscriptions with lexicon, transliteration, and translation.

Links

 
 

Euro Asiatic Group

Fig. 1. Distribution of the Türkic written monuments in Eastern Europe
 Don, Kuban, Don-Kuban scripts
1 - Mayak fortress, 2 - Khumarian and Karakent fortresses, katakomb burials, 3 - Salsk (conditionally, Salsk-Tsaritsyn),
4 - Novocherkassk (conditionally, village Krivyanskaya), 5 - Kermen-Tolga, 6 - Sedyar, 7 - Mayaks, 8 - Bilyar, 9 - Onoshat,
10-Afanasievo, 11 - Kirov burial ground, 12 - Jitkovsk burial ground

From the Eastern Europe comes one more rune-like inscription, a six-character note under the so-called "Kievan letter", the parchment manuscript, located in the library of the Cambridge University (code - S (Glass) 12, 122). Written with a brush and black ink, publishers dated this inscription the first half of the 10-th c., and the characters are believed by O.Pritsak to be the Orkhon type letters. The offered reading ( HW1R1W2M - I have read (it)) is made with the help of some stretching and is somewhat arbitrary. An acquaintance with the published photo of the text allows to offer the following sketch of the inscription (Fig. 2). It is clear that it may not be ascribed to the Orkhon script, as O.Pritsa believesk, but it is also impossible to confidently attribute it to any known alphabet. The attribution is hindered by the specific shape of the first, fourth and fifth characters from the right. The preservation state of the inscription does not help to ascertain its graphs.

Fig. 2. Rune-like inscription on parchment manuscript of "Kievan letter"
Drawing by the author from N.Golb and O.Pritsak photo

Fig. 4. Ujbat chaatas. Findings of S.A.Teplouhov in the tomb 19
 7 - bronze metal plate with gold leaf, 2 - silver vessel with inscription SY 6 on bottom.

Fig. 5. Monument Edegey 2 - general view of the side of the stone, 2 - inscription with earlier etchings, 3 - text.
 Drawings by the author

Fig. 6. Altai Mountain inscriptions Kalbak-Tash 5 (1) and 4 (2).
By V.M.Nadelyaev

Fig. 7. Location of Achiktash and Isfar script monuments
1 - Achiktash, 2 - Tozbulak, 3 - Kuva, 4 - Kalai-Kafir, 5 - Kalai-Bolo, 6 - Kizil-Pilyau, 7 - Osh-Hona, 8 - Aktepe, 9 - Altyn - asar
 b - canals

Asiatic Group

Fig. 9. Location of monuments with Upper Yenisey script
(Numbers correspond to the Upper Yenisey Script Index)

Spectrum of Inscriptions

Handwriting

Two inscriptions in black ink were found in 1888 by P.S.Proskurjakov on the east wall of the entrance in a large cave in Toguz As (Khakass Toshs Aas) mountain above the same named Ulus on the right bank of the river White Iyus (Khakass Ah Iyus) 2,5 km from the village Efremkino. The same year N.M.Martyanov informed I.R.Aspelin about the find, and his expedition examined and copied the monument, and in the 1889 published an interpretive reproduction of one inscription consisting of five lines. P.S.Proskuryakov in 1890 published an eyeball sketch of both inscriptions, multi-lined and two-lined. In this drawing were also reproduced two groups of the red paint tracings, located to the left of the first line of the main text.

Fig. 12. Epitaph Oznachenoe 2 ( 104)
Drawing by the author

Fig. 13. Cave Togus As inscriptions ( 38). Black drawing ink. Drawing by the author
7- 38/1;2- 38/2

Fig. 14. Inscription with red ink on cliff Kk Kaya, r. Es. Khakassia.
Drawing by the author

Epitaphs

Lexicon

First of all

ratïm,
rerdämim,
adïrïdïm,
bökmädim,
jïta,
elim,
qanïm,
qujda
qunčujïm,
qadašïm,
oγlïm,
oγlanïm,
esizimä

4

Transliteration

küč qïj(a)γ(a)n ičr(ä)ki

Translation

(His name-) Ichryaki Küch Kyiagan (literally, internal (rank)) Strong Kyiagan)

Fig. 15. Epitaph Saygyn (E 57)
 (For medieval monument was used a deer stone - stela of the the early Iron Age)

Transliteration

b(e)ηü čur

Translation

(His name-) Bengü Chur

64

Transliteration

jük(ü)nč t(i)rig

Translation

 (His name-) Ükünch Tirig (literally, Performance of Live Prayer)

Markers

Fig. 16. Kara Kurgan. Inscription Uybat 5 ( 34). Drawing by the author

Transliteration

(t2?) öη j(e)rdä q(a)š (e)r t(a)š b(o)l-j(e) (i)j

Translation

Be the boundary stone on the eastern side  (like a) hero - man! Observe (this) (you who read it)!

Fig. 17. Inscriptions on the mengirs of the kurgans - Uzun Oba 1 (Uybat 4, 33), 2 - Ust-Sos( 134)
Drawings by the author

33

Transliteration

1.okuz.

2.() kör

Translation

1 Okuz (proper name and personal tamga)

2. Hero-man, know (obey it)!

134

Transliteration

k(ö)r b(e)ηkü : t(a)š b(e)ηk(ü) j(e)r (a)j kü

Translation

Know: (this is) an eternal stone (and) the eternal land! Explain (this) (to others) (and) safeguard (it)!

Pointers

24/1

Transliteration

(e)š(i)l ög(ü)z

Translation

Running River (or river Esel/Isil)

24/6

Transliteration

q(a)n(ï)m el(i)m b(ö)gu (i)ši q(a)ra s(e)η(i)r

Translation

Mine lord and my subjects (you shall know?): Kara-Sengir (ferry?) - is a wise man's thought

24/16

Transliteration

q(a)ra s(e)η(i)r

Translation

Kara-Sengir (literally: Black Cliff of Mountain)

111

Transliteration

b(e)d(i)zl(i)g q(a)ja

Translation

Cliff with images (inscription)

112

Transliteration

t(e)ps(e)j k(e)č(i)g

Translation

Tepsey crossing

114

Transliteration

t(e)bs(e)j k(e)č(i)γ qutl(u)r k(e)č(i)g

Translation

Tepsey crossing - blessed crossing

115

Transliteration

t(ä)ηr(i)dä : qutluγ: t(e)bs(e)j : t(ä)ηri

Translation

From the Sky Tepsey possessed (emanating) blessings by Deity 

Fig. 18. Enisey inscriptions of Suley writing 1 - 39/1, 2 - 39/2
Drawings by the author

39/1

Transliteration

b(e)ηkü q(a)ja

Translation

Eternal cliff

39/2

Transliteration

m(e)ηkü q(a)ja

Translation

Eternal cliff

Fig. 19. Inscription Khay-Baja 2 ( 24/2). Drawing by the author

24/2

Transliteration

q(a)ra s(e)ηir k(e)čig

Translation

Kara-Sengir crossing (literally: Black Cliff of Mountain crossing)

Prayers

Lexicon

qut - blessing, live force
qut (beriη) - blessing (endow)

24/10

Transliteration

isiz qul bitmiš (e)s(ä)n

Translation

Undeserving (God's) slave wrote (this) (and) (bacame) healthy

36/2

Transliteration

t(a)ηr(i)m čök bizkä

Translation

God, come down to us

116

Transliteration

t(e)bs(e)j k(e)č(i)g s2(??)q(?n2?)š1(s1, š2, s2)č (e)r(i)l ä t(ä)ηr(i)m ä čök ä j(e)rk(?)(ä?)

Translation

Tepsey crossing... (q(i)s (a)č? - "need and hunger"?)... disappear. My God, come down to earth

Fig. 20. Inscription Kres Khaya (Fyrkaly, 137). Drawing by the author

137

Transliteration

b(a)rm (i)č ur(u)η

Translation

Inject a perfect soul (literally: insides)

(Inscription is followed by a personal tamga in lieu of  written signature)

Fig. 21. Inscription Foxed 2 (Khakasia), engraved between images of the Early Iron Age
Drawing by the author

??

Transliteration

q(o)p čoq b(i)t(i)m(i)š : sök(ü)š(ü)η (a)r(ï)m(ï)š

Translation

Despicablest (literally: absolutely contemptible) (God's slave?) wrote (this) (and) your scourge (literally: abuse, curse) was cleared

Drawing by the author

E 138

Transliteration

k(e)z (i)š q(a)ja : uč(u)m : q(a)ja: qa b(i)t(i)d(i)m : j(a)lt : q(a)ja b(i)t(i)gi : t(ï)

Translation

On very benighted cliff, on (in highness) soaring cliff I wrote. (And) inscription on vertical cliff (is) eternal

Fig. 23. Text Uzun Oba 2
Drawing by the author

E ??

Transliteration

1. t(a)t(a)r:iγ (e)li.

2. ig(ä) (ü)č(ü)n : berür.

3. (e)kimiz.

4. külür

Translation

1. Possession (literally: El) of Tatar (proper name)

2. As (to the Spirit-) Owner (here) are brought gifts,

3. Our crops

4. Are guarded

Repentance

24/8

Transliteration

jul (a)pa : tulu (a)q (a)t

Translation

Widow of Yul Aly, detestable, ascend

Fig. 24. Inscription Khaya-Baja 11 ( 24/11). Drawing by the author

24/11

Transliteration

(a)nï b(i)t(i)gli (i)n(a)η ((a)n(i)η?) in

Translation

Writing this (inscription) Ynang (Anyng? proper name) - is sinful (literally: low)

Reverence

24/5

Transliteration

jig (ï)š jig(i)n s(a)ηun b(i)t(i)d(i)m... [q(a)d(ï)r?] [b(i)l]gä : tutuq : b(e)g : ar(i)qï j(e)ri

Translation

Benevolent deed - I, Yigin Sangun (proper name and title), written: Aryk and the land [Kadyr?] [Bil]ge Tutuk Baga

24/7

Transliteration

ïn(a)nču kül(ü)g : čigši: b(e)g : ()r (e)rd(ä)m(i)m üčün (i)li : ()lti b(a)γ- k(e)šd(i)mdä : b(e)n : j(e)g (e)rdük(ü)m ol (e)r(i)nč q(a)ra s(e)η(i)r(i)g : j(e)rl(e)d(i)m : udur : č(i)gši

Translation

(I-) Ynanchu Külüg Chigshi Beg (proper name and a title). For my heroic valour I descended (from mountains) (subject is a campaign through Sayan mountains). The best that I did in six-district Keshdim (probably, the ancient name of Tuva) was, perhaps, (that) I, Udur Chigshi, developed (location) Kara-Sengir

24/14

Transliteration

alp (a)γ(i)š(i) n(i)z...

Translation

Your rise of hero...

?? Inscription . ( 2)

Transliteration

tu*(o)p(e)k : (a)lp sol b(i)t(i)d(i)m (e)s(a)n ol(u)rt(I)m

Translation

(I-) Tüpek (Tëpek?) Alp Sol (proper name and title) written: uninjured (literally: safe) I (here) settled

Fig. 25. Inscription ( 144)
Drawing by the author

24/11

Transliteration

1. (a)lp sol in (a)bγ(i)p ab(a)dγa t(ä)ηri (a)na kem q(a)tun q(a)b(ï)šip jeg šï (esi?) (a)γ(i) qïlur biz (a)t j(i)r b(i)z.

2. b(a)j b(a)r (e)t(t)(i)m

Translation

1. (I-) Alp Sol (proper name). When (I) destroyed sinful (literally: low) (both) Sky and Mother Kem-river (Yenisei) (or: Divine Mother and river Yenisei) join in comfort, we (all), multiplying good, gain riches (literally: create valuables) (and) use ranks (titles)

 2. (So) I (also) became rich

Fig. 26. Inscription Khaya-Baji 9 ( 24/9)
Drawing by the author

24/9

Transliteration

ji oηoq j(ü)tü t(a)j(a)gu

Translation

Use this share, bearing efforts as a support to governor (tayangu)

 Fig. 27. Inscription Mugur-Sargol 1 (E 136). Drawing by the author

24/9

Transliteration

1. b(i)η. bük(ä)dä (a)n(ï)da kü ud(ï)m(ï)z kem ög(ü)z

2. k2ul(u)n b(i)t(i)di

Translation

1. From thousand heroes on (river) Ana we succeded (taking? destroying?) glory. (This / here) is river Kem (Yenisei)

2. (It) wrote Kulun (proper name)

Fig. 28. Inscriptions  Drawing by the author

1. () (? ?). (/) ()

2. () (proper name)

Visitation

Fig. 28. Inscriptions on the back (E 37/1) and nape (E 37/2) of sculpture Bogatyr from r. Erba (Khakassia)
Drawing by the author

37/1

Transliteration

1. q(a)raq : örgi b(e)n

2. bö[gä] t(?)(a)št(ï)η2q(?)ï b(e)n

3. tirg(i-e)s (?türg(i-e)s?) b(e)n č(a)ηšï b(e)n

Translation

I - Karak Ërgi (literally: High-ranking Karak)

2. I - Brge Tashtynky [literally: the Internal Hero (rank)

3. I - Tirgesh (? Türgesh?) (and) I - Changshi

37/2

Transliteration

bičig

Translation

Inscription missing

Fig. 29. Yar Khoto (Eastern Turkestan). Yenisei inscription on  a cave wall plaster.
Drawing by the author per impression D.A. Klements

??

Transliteration

(e)s(a)n b(i)tid(i)m

Translation

I, Esen (literally: Uninjured/Healthy), wrote (this)

Exorcise

Fig. 30. Inscriptions on objects
 1,2 - bronze mirrors, 3 - iron dagger
 (1 - Minusinsky museum (E 127), 2 - village Old Knyshi, 3 - village  Beyskoe)
Drawings by the author

127

Transliteration

(a)sur q(a)c

Translation

Asury, go! (Evil spirit, disappear!)

?? 2 - bronze mirror

Transliteration

(e)n (a)r (i)k...

Translation

Lowly dissociate, illness... (expel?)

??

Transliteration

ku

Translation

Protect (guard)!

Fig. 31. Inscription Kunya mountain (Khakassia)
Drawing by the author

??

Transliteration

(a)z(ï)p (a)q(i)t

Translation

Lose way! Be averted!

Explanationary

?? inscription from Hovd-Somon (Mongolia)

Transliteration

tuγčï borγ(i)čï j(a)γ(ï)z čur tuγr()γi

Translation

(This) tamga of flag-bearier and trumpeter Yagyz Chur

Fig. 32. Inscriptions on bronze coins
 1 - Minusinsk museum (E 78), 2 - village Kaptyrev (E 79)
Drawings by the author (1 - without scale)

78

Transliteration

b(i)η i ur(u)m (a)qča

Translation

Ping and (?). Minted (cast?) money

79

Transliteration

b(a)qïr : b2či(ä?) kič(i)g : ur(u)q a

Translation

Money - bakyr... (?).-Small mint

Fig. 33. Inscriptions on bronze coins (7,3) and tip of a belt (2).
 Drawings by the author
1 - village Kamenka, 2-village  Bellyk (E 80), 3 - Krasnoyarsk

?? village Kamenka

Transliteration

(e)d

Translation

Riches, property

80 village  Bellyk

Transliteration

čur2

Translation

Chur (proper name or title)

?? Krasnoyarsk

Transliteration

idi

Translation

Owner, possessor

Ownership

76 Messershmidt mirror

Transliteration

küd (a)ruq b(e)k : küzküsi

Translation

Küd Aruk Beg's Mirror

77 Martin mirror

Transliteration

() (a)ηq(a)s töš(e)k : küzk(ü)m : öz(ü)k(i)

Translation

Person Ankas Tyoshek, a piece of my mirror

?? Silver vessel found by V.V.Radlov in Katandin kurgan on Altai

Transliteration

() Hi) g c(a)ij

Translation

Governor-chang (or: Governor in "chang" rank)

Blessing

Fig. 34. Signs and inscriptions on bottom of silver vessel from Hakass-Minusinsk depression (State Hemitage, cat. SK-590)
7 - general view, 2 - wish inscription
Drawings by the author

?? State Hemitages, inv. SK-590

Transliteration

(a)tl(ï)γ bol : (i)nl(i)g bol(u)η

Translation

Be (those) with name, be (with) tamga

Fig. 35. Tamgas on stella, accompanied memorial fencing with inscription Edegey 1.
Drawing by the author

Fig. 36. Composition types of epitaph monuments
 1,2-first type (orhon script: 1 - Second Eastern-Türkic Kaganate, 2 Uigur Kaganate),
3 - second type (Yenisei script: Ancient Khakass state)

         

Fig. 37. Epitaph monuments of Tuva's Chiks
 E 2 - third composition type, E 51 - transit variation from third to second type, E 109 - second type

             

Fig. 38. Fourth composition type of epitaph monuments (Talas script)

ηγčšöïäü

 
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